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Sample records for basement membrane deposition

  1. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other...... basement membrane components, such as type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. Using immunohistochemical techniques, the present experiments have demonstrated that in addition to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, there are other basement membrane components present in splenic AA amyloid deposits...... and these are present as soon as AA amyloid deposits are detectable. The results indicate that within the time constraints imposed by the experiments, the basement membrane components, fibronectin, laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan are co-deposited 36 to 48 hours after the AgNO3 and amyloid...

  2. Deposition of nucleosomal antigens (histones and DNA) in the epidermal basement membrane in human lupus nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, C.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Pijl, J.W. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Ligtenberg, G.; Derksen, R.H.W.M.; Berden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulfate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane. This binding is due to the binding of the positively charged histones to the strongly anionic HS. Nucleosomes and histones have been identified in glomerular deposits

  3. Ultrastructural study of electron dense deposits in renal tubular basement membrane: prevalence and relationship to epithelial atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jim L C; Killingsworth, Murray C

    2014-08-01

    This study reports the prevalence of immune deposits associated with the proximal and distal tubules in a series of routine renal biopsies received in our department during a single calendar year. From 87 cases, 65 (74%) were found to have glomerular immune deposits by immunofluorescence. Tubular immune deposits were found in 12 cases (18%), 3 of which had no glomerular deposits. By transmission electron microscopy (EM), 58 cases (66%) were found to have deposits of granular or vesicular material associated with the tubular basement membranes (TBM). Finely granular electron dense deposits appeared to correspond to the immune deposits seen by immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and may be a sensitive marker of immune deposition.

  4. Aluminum-containing dense deposits of the glomerular basement membrane: identification by energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M. Jr.; Pitcock, J.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals, including gold, mercury, lead, bismuth, and cadmium, have the potential to cause renal disease. With the development of X-ray microanalysis, these heavy metals can now be identified in tissue deposits. This report describes a case of renal failure, probably related to dysproteinemia, in which granular, electron-opaque dense deposits were present in the glomerular basement membranes. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that these dense deposits contained aluminum. An analysis of this patient's history in relation to the current knowledge of aluminum metabolism suggests that the aluminum deposition occurred secondary to previous glomerular injury. This case emphasizes the need to utilize heavy metal identification technology whenever granular, electron-opaque dense deposits are identified and represents, to our knowledge, the first study to document aluminum deposits within the glomerular basement membrane of humans

  5. De novo deposition of laminin-positive basement membrane in vitro by normal hepatocytes and during hepatocarcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1988-01-01

    De novo formation of laminin-positive basement membranes was found to be a distinct morphologic feature of diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocellular carcinomas of the rat. The first appearance of extracellularly located laminin occurred in the preneoplastic liver lesions...... (corresponding to neoplastic nodules), and this feature became successively more prominent during the course of hepatocellular carcinoma development. Most groups of tumor cells were surrounded by laminin-positive basement membrane material. The laminin-positive material was also deposited along the sinusoids......, a location where no laminin was seen in normal rat liver. The amount of extractable laminin from hepatocellular carcinomas was significantly higher (approximately 100 ng per mg tissue) than that of normal liver tissue (less than 20 ng per mg). In vitro experiments demonstrated that normal and preneoplastic...

  6. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  7. Ten cases of severe oral lichen planus showing granular C3 deposition in oral mucosal basement membrane zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Fukuda, Aoi; Himejima, Akio; Morita, Shosuke; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Koga, Hiroshi; Krol, Rafal P; Ishii, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) may show depositions of immunoglobulins and complement components in oral mucosal basement membrane zone (BMZ) in direct immunofluorescence, although these finding are not frequently seen. We collected and examined ten cases of severe OLP showing granular C3 deposition in BMZ. In addition to clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence assessments, we performed various immune-serological tests, including indirect immunofluorescence of normal human skin and 1M NaCl-split skin, immunoblotting of normal human epidermal and dermal extracts, recombinant proteins of BP180 NC16a and C-terminal domains, concentrated culture supernatant of HaCaT cells and purified human laminin-332, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for BP230 and BP180. Direct immunofluorescence showed C3 deposition in BMZ exclusively of granular pattern in 7 cases and of both granular and linear patterns in 3 cases. The 10 cases showed no positive reactivity for either IgG or IgA antibodies in any immuno-serological tests. Detailed analyses of clinical, histopathological and immunological findings revealed striking female prevalence, although other parameters were in general characteristic of OLP. Granular C3 deposition in oral BMZ may be one of the characteristic features of severe OLP, although mechanisms for C3 deposition and its pathogenic role in OLP are currently unknown.

  8. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S

    1993-01-01

    ventricular hypertrophy was maximal within 5 days. In immunohistochemical studies, fibronectin and laminin were increased and the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in both the subendothelial space and smooth muscle cell basement membranes of the aorta above the clip compared...... membrane components in the heart and vasculature peaked before maximal cardiac hypertrophy (5 days). These studies indicate that alterations in basement membrane component deposition in the hypertrophied vasculature occur at both transcriptional and translational levels and suggest that the cell attachment...

  9. Smad4-dependent pathways control basement membrane deposition and endodermal cell migration at early stages of mouse development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Jennifer M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smad4 mutant embryos arrest shortly after implantation and display a characteristic shortened proximodistal axis, a significantly reduced epiblast, as well as a thickened visceral endoderm layer. Conditional rescue experiments demonstrate that bypassing the primary requirement for Smad4 in the extra-embryonic endoderm allows the epiblast to gastrulate. Smad4-independent TGF-β signals are thus sufficient to promote mesoderm formation and patterning. To further analyse essential Smad4 activities contributed by the extra-embryonic tissues, and characterise Smad4 dependent pathways in the early embryo, here we performed transcriptional profiling of Smad4 null embryonic stem (ES cells and day 4 embryoid bodies (EBs. Results Transcripts from wild-type versus Smad4 null ES cells and day 4 EBs were analysed using Illumina arrays. In addition to several known TGF-β/BMP target genes, we identified numerous Smad4-dependent transcripts that are mis-expressed in the mutants. As expected, mesodermal cell markers were dramatically down-regulated. We also observed an increase in non-canonical potency markers (Pramel7, Tbx3, Zscan4, germ cell markers (Aire, Tuba3a, Dnmt3l as well as early endoderm markers (Dpp4, H19, Dcn. Additionally, expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM remodelling enzymes Mmp14 and Mmp9 was decreased in Smad4 mutant ES and EB populations. These changes, in combination with increased levels of laminin alpha1, cause excessive basement membrane deposition. Similarly, in the context of the Smad4 null E6.5 embryos we observed an expanded basement membrane (BM associated with the thickened endoderm layer. Conclusion Smad4 functional loss results in a dramatic shift in gene expression patterns and in the endodermal cell lineage causes an excess deposition of, or an inability to breakdown and remodel, the underlying BM layer. These structural abnormalities probably disrupt reciprocal signalling between the epiblast and

  10. Basement membrane proteoglycans and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Abrahamson, D R; McCarthy, K J

    1993-01-01

    -CSPG was only strongly expressed in the vasculature invading late comma stage glomeruli, and later in presumptive and mature Bowman's capsule. Over the first six to eight weeks, the capillary basement membranes contained BM-CSPG, but in gradually decreasing amounts until it became completely undetectable...

  11. Intercellular deposits of basement membrane material in active human pituitary adenomas detected by immunostaining for laminin and electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1986-01-01

    and one patient with Cushing's syndrome). Concurrently, at the ultrastructural level, bunches of basement membrane-like material intermingled between the adenoma cells were demonstrated in seven of these ten active adenomas. Furthermore, secretory granules were entrapped occasionally in this intercellular...

  12. Effect of antibody charge and concentration on deposition of antibody to glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madaio, M.P.; Salant, D.J.; Adler, S.; Darby, C.; Couser, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Fixed anionic sites within the glomerular capillary wall influence the permeation of serum proteins, the localization of various antigens, and the deposition of antibody in the subepithelial space. In anti-GBM nephritis antibody deposition occurs very rapidly to antigenic sites located relatively proximal in the glomerular capillary wall. The authors examined the influence of the glomerular charge barrier on anti-GBM antibody deposition by comparing the rate of deposition of antibodies with cationic and anionic isoelectric points. Purified sheep anti-rat GBM IgG was isolated from acid eluates of kidneys obtained 24 hr after rats were injected with sheep antiserum to rat GBM. Anti-GBM IgG was separated into cationic (pI 6.4-8.5) and anionic (pI 4.2-6.8) fractions, which were radiolabelled with 131 I and 125 I, respectively, shown to have equal antibody contents measured by in vitro binding to normal glomeruli, mixed in equal amounts, and injected in incremental doses to ten rats. At 1 hr the glomerular antibody binding of each fraction was directly related to the blood level (r . 0.95, r . 0.97) and delivery of antibody (r . 0.98, r . 0.98). Glomerular binding of cationic antibody was four times greater than anionic antibody over the entire range of deliveries studied (P less than 0.001). The authors conclude that glomerular deposition of anti-GBM antibody is directly related to blood concentration and delivery of antibody. Furthermore, the deposition of cationic antibodies to GBM antigens was significantly greater than the deposition of anionic antibodies

  13. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

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    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  14. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... chondrocytes express these four cardinal components of basement membranes and demonstrated by immunohistochemistry that the proteins are present in bovine and mouse cartilage tissues and are deposited in a thin pericellular structure. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed high laminin concentration...... becomes less distinct, especially in areas of obvious mechanical attrition. Interestingly, individual laminin subunits were located in different zones of the cartilage, with laminin alpha1 showing preferential localization around a select population of superficial layer chondrocytes. We propose...

  15. Expression and deposition of basement membrane proteins by brain capillary endothelial cells in a primary murine model of the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, Annette Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents the interface between the blood and the brain parenchyma and consists of endothelial cells which are tightly sealed together by tight junction proteins. The endothelial cells are in addition supported by pericytes, which are embedded in the vascular basement...... of the present study was to create four different in vitro constructs of the murine BBB to characterise if the expression and secretion of basement membrane proteins by the murine brain capillary endothelial cells (mBCECs) was affected by co-culturing with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both. Primary m......BCECs and pericytes were isolated from brains of adult mice. Mixed glial cells were prepared from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. The mBCECs were grown as mono-culture, or co-cultured with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both. To study the expression of basement membrane proteins RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry...

  16. Synthesis and deposition of basement membrane proteins by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in a murine model of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Burkhart, Annette; Stensballe, Allan; Moos, Torben

    2017-03-01

    The brain vascular basement membrane is important for both blood-brain barrier (BBB) development, stability, and barrier integrity and the contribution hereto from brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), pericytes, and astrocytes of the BBB is probably significant. The aim of this study was to analyse four different in vitro models of the murine BBB for expression and possible secretion of major basement membrane proteins from murine BCECs (mBCECs). mBCECs, pericytes and glial cells (mainly astrocytes and microglia) were prepared from brains of C57BL/6 mice. The mBCECs were grown as monoculture, in co-culture with pericytes or mixed glial cells, or as a triple-culture with both pericytes and mixed glial cells. The integrity of the BBB models was validated by measures of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and passive permeability to mannitol. The expression of basement membrane proteins was analysed using RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry and immunocytochemistry. Co-culturing mBCECs with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both significantly increased the TEER compared to the monoculture, and a low passive permeability was correlated with high TEER. The mBCECs expressed all major basement membrane proteins such as laminin-411, laminin-511, collagen [α1(IV)] 2 α2(IV), agrin, perlecan, and nidogen 1 and 2 in vitro. Increased expression of the laminin α5 subunit correlated with the addition of BBB-inducing factors (hydrocortisone, Ro 20-1724, and pCPT-cAMP), whereas increased expression of collagen IV α1 primarily correlated with increased levels of cAMP. In conclusion, BCECs cultured in vitro coherently form a BBB and express basement membrane proteins as a feature of maturation. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13789. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. The vascular basement membrane in the healthy and pathological brain.

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    Thomsen, Maj S; Routhe, Lisa J; Moos, Torben

    2017-10-01

    The vascular basement membrane contributes to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). The BCECs receive support from pericytes embedded in the vascular basement membrane and from astrocyte endfeet. The vascular basement membrane forms a three-dimensional protein network predominantly composed of laminin, collagen IV, nidogen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans that mutually support interactions between BCECs, pericytes, and astrocytes. Major changes in the molecular composition of the vascular basement membrane are observed in acute and chronic neuropathological settings. In the present review, we cover the significance of the vascular basement membrane in the healthy and pathological brain. In stroke, loss of BBB integrity is accompanied by upregulation of proteolytic enzymes and degradation of vascular basement membrane proteins. There is yet no causal relationship between expression or activity of matrix proteases and the degradation of vascular matrix proteins in vivo. In Alzheimer's disease, changes in the vascular basement membrane include accumulation of Aβ, composite changes, and thickening. The physical properties of the vascular basement membrane carry the potential of obstructing drug delivery to the brain, e.g. thickening of the basement membrane can affect drug delivery to the brain, especially the delivery of nanoparticles.

  18. Cdc42 expression in keratinocytes is required for the maintenance of the basement membrane in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Brakebusch, Cord

    2006-01-01

    , structure and number of hemidesomosomes were not significantly changed in the Cdc42 mutant skin compared with the control mice and no blister formation was observed in mutant skin. These data indicate that Cdc42 in keratinocytes is important for maintenance of the basement membrane of skin....... process, which requires directed secretion, deposition and organization of basement membrane components at the basal side of epithelial cells. In the current study, we analyzed the maintenance of skin basement membrane in mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the Cdc42 gene. In the absence...

  19. Basement Membrane Defects in Genetic Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Chew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular basement membrane (GBM is a specialized structure with a significant role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. This GBM is formed from the fusion of two basement membranes during development and its function in the filtration barrier is achieved by key extracellular matrix components including type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The characteristics of specific matrix isoforms such as laminin-521 (α5β2γ1 and the α3α4α5 chain of type IV collagen are essential for the formation of a mature GBM and the restricted tissue distribution of these isoforms makes the GBM a unique structure. Detailed investigation of the GBM has been driven by the identification of inherited abnormalities in matrix proteins and the need to understand pathogenic mechanisms causing severe glomerular disease. A well-described hereditary GBM disease is Alport syndrome, associated with a progressive glomerular disease, hearing loss, and lens defects due to mutations in the genes COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5. Other proteins associated with inherited diseases of the GBM include laminin β2 in Pierson syndrome and LMX1B in nail patella syndrome. The knowledge of these genetic mutations associated with GBM defects has enhanced our understanding of cell–matrix signaling pathways affected in glomerular disease. This review will address current knowledge of GBM-associated abnormalities and related signaling pathways, as well as discussing the advances toward disease-targeted therapies for patients with glomerular disease.

  20. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production...... and characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution...... of epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  1. ULTRASTRUCTURAL-CHANGES OF THE BASEMENT-MEMBRANE ZONE IN BENIGN LESIONS OF THE VOCAL FOLDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIKKERS, FG; HULSTAERT, CE; OOSTERBAAN, JA; CERVERAPAZ, FJ

    The basement membrane zone (BMZ) of the epithelium of the vocal folds was investigated electron microscopically in 10 patients suffering from various benign lesions and in 3 controls. Various defects were observed: a thickening by deposition of electron dense material, a loss of normal architecture,

  2. Force-dependent breaching of the basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy T; Thakar, Dhruv; Weaver, Valerie M

    2017-01-01

    Clinically, non-invasive carcinomas are confined to the epithelial side of the basement membrane and are classified as benign, whereas invasive cancers invade through the basement membrane and thereby acquire the potential to metastasize. Recent findings suggest that, in addition to protease-mediated degradation and chemotaxis-stimulated migration, basement membrane invasion by malignant cells is significantly influenced by the stiffness of the associated interstitial extracellular matrix and the contractility of the tumor cells that is dictated in part by their oncogenic genotype. In this review, we highlight recent findings that illustrate unifying molecular mechanisms whereby these physical cues contribute to tissue fibrosis and malignancy in three epithelial organs: breast, pancreas, and liver. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings and the biological properties and clinical challenges linked to the unique biology of each of these organs. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    . For in vivo experiments, pieces of newborn rat epidermis obtained by dispase treatment were grafted onto athymic nude mice. Three and six weeks after grafting, immunofluorescence analysis of the grafted skin was carried out, using monoclonal antibodies specific for rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate...

  4. Basement Membrane Type IV Collagen and Laminin: An Overview of Their Biology and Value as Fibrosis Biomarkers of Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Ki M; Mei, Rena

    2017-08-01

    Basement membranes provide structural support to epithelium, endothelium, muscles, fat cells, Schwann cells, and axons. Basement membranes are multifunctional: they modulate cellular behavior, regulate organogenesis, promote tissue repair, form a barrier to filtration and tumor metastasis, bind growth factors, and mediate angiogenesis. All basement membranes contain type IV collagen (Col IV), laminin, nidogen, and perlecan. Col IV and laminin self-assemble into two independent supramolecular networks that are linked to nidogen and perlecan to form a morphological discernable basement membrane/basal lamina. The triple helical region, 7S domain and NCI domain of Col IV, laminin and laminin fragment P1 have been evaluated as noninvasive fibrosis biomarkers of alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Elevated serum Col IV and laminin are related to degrees of fibrosis and severity of hepatitis, and may reflect hepatic basement membrane metabolism. But the serum assays have not been linked to disclosing the anatomical sites and lobular distribution of perisinusoidal basement membrane formation in the liver. Hepatic sinusoids normally lack a basement membrane, although Col IV is a normal matrix component of the space of Disse. In liver disease, laminin deposits in the space of Disse and codistributes with Col IV, forming a perisinusoidal basement membrane. Concomitantly, the sinusoidal endothelium loses its fenestrae and is transformed into vascular type endothelium. These changes lead to capillarization of hepatic sinusoids, a significant pathology that impairs hepatic function. Accordingly, codistribution of Col IV and laminin serves as histochemical marker of perisinusoidal basement membrane formation in liver disease. Anat Rec, 300:1371-1390, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Regulation of the basement membrane by epithelia generated forces

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    Tanner, Kandice

    2012-12-01

    Tumor metastasis involves a progressive loss of tissue architecture and dissolution of structural boundaries between the epithelium and connective tissue. The basement membrane (BM), a specialized network of extracellular matrix proteins forms a barrier that physically restricts pre-invasive lesions such that they remain as local insults. The BM is not a static structure, but one that is constantly regenerated and remodeled in the adult organism. Matrix organization also regulates cell function. Thus alterations in the balance of synthesis, remodeling and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to a loss of structural integrity. However, the de novo assembly and maintenance of the complex structural properties of in vivo basement membranes remain elusive. Here, this paper highlights the current understanding on the structural properties and the establishment of the BM, and discusses the potential role of self-generated forces in adult tissue remodeling and the maintenance of the BM as a malignancy suppressor.

  6. Regulation of the basement membrane by epithelia generated forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2012-01-01

    Tumor metastasis involves a progressive loss of tissue architecture and dissolution of structural boundaries between the epithelium and connective tissue. The basement membrane (BM), a specialized network of extracellular matrix proteins forms a barrier that physically restricts pre-invasive lesions such that they remain as local insults. The BM is not a static structure, but one that is constantly regenerated and remodeled in the adult organism. Matrix organization also regulates cell function. Thus alterations in the balance of synthesis, remodeling and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to a loss of structural integrity. However, the de novo assembly and maintenance of the complex structural properties of in vivo basement membranes remain elusive. Here, this paper highlights the current understanding on the structural properties and the establishment of the BM, and discusses the potential role of self-generated forces in adult tissue remodeling and the maintenance of the BM as a malignancy suppressor. (paper)

  7. Perlecan and basement membrane-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (bamacan) are two basement membrane chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Kapoor, R; Sthanam, M

    1996-01-01

    heparan sulfate proteoglycan, widespread in many basement membranes and connective tissues. We now identify two distinct proteoglycan species from this tumor source, which are substituted with galactosaminoglycans and which show basement membrane localization by immunohistochemistry. One species......The presence of proteoglycans bearing galactosaminoglycan chains has been reported, but none has been identified previously in the matrix of the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor, which is a source of several basement membrane components. This tumor matrix contains perlecan, a large, low buoyant density......-CSPG are distinct in core protein structure. Both are, however, basement membrane components, although there are tissue-specific differences in their distribution....

  8. Collective cell behavior on basement membranes floating in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Sarah; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Morley, Cameron; Sawyer, W.; Angelini, Thomas

    The basement membrane is an essential part of the polarity of endothelial and epithelial tissues. In tissue culture and organ-on-chip devices, monolayer polarity can be established by coating flat surfaces with extracellular matrix proteins and tuning the trans-substrate permeability. In epithelial 3D culture, spheroids spontaneously establish inside-out polarity, morphing into hollow shell-like structures called acini, generating their own basement membrane on the inner radius of the shell. However, 3D culture approaches generally lack the high degree of control provided by the 2D culture plate or organ-on-chip devices, making it difficult to create more faithful in vitro tissue models with complex surface curvature and morphology. Here we present a method for 3D printing complex basement membranes covered in cells. We 3D print collagen-I and Matrigel into a 3D growth medium made from jammed microgels. This soft, yielding material allows extracellular matrix to be formed as complex surfaces and shapes, floating in space. We then distribute MCF10A epithelial cells across the polymerized surface. We envision employing this strategy to study 3D collective cell behavior in numerous model tissue layers, beyond this simple epithelial model.

  9. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations. The dec......During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations....... Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...... to undergo pseudodecidualization. We thus showed that stromal cells from pregnant and nonpregnant mouse uteri synthesize significant amounts of basement-membrane components in vitro, and hence could serve as a good model for the study of normal basement-membrane components....

  10. Immunochemical and ultrastructural assessment of the nature of the pericellular basement membrane of human decidual cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Faber, M; Liotta, L A

    1985-01-01

    Human decidual cells of early and late pregnancy were studied immunochemically and ultrastructurally with respect to the presence and nature of pericellular basement membrane material. The most prominent cell type in decidual tissue of both early and late pregnancy were large, mature epithelioid......-linked immunosorbent assay. Biosynthesis of laminin was shown by [35S]methionine labeling of short term organ cultures of decidual tissue followed by immunoprecipation, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and fluorography. The laminin chains migrated with the apparent molecular weights of 300...... and 200 kilodaltons under reducing conditions. Two other separate populations of cells were apparent in the decidual tissue of early pregnancy. A smaller group of rounded intermediate sized (15 to 25 micron) decidual cells had focal deposits basement membrane immunoreactive material scattered at the cell...

  11. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S.; Karsdal, Morten A.; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens...

  12. Removal of the basement membrane enhances corneal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Stepp, Mary Ann

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent corneal erosions are painful and put patients' vision at risk. Treatment typically begins with debridement of the area around the erosion site followed by more aggressive treatments. An in vivo mouse model has been developed that reproducibly induces recurrent epithelial erosions in wild-type mice spontaneously within two weeks after a single 1.5 mm corneal debridement wound created using a dulled-blade. This study was conducted to determine whether 1) inhibiting MMP9 function during healing after dulled-blade wounding impacts erosion development and 2) wounds made with a rotating-burr heal without erosions. Oral or topical inhibition of MMPs after dulled-blade wounding does not improve healing. Wounds made by rotating-burr heal with significantly fewer erosions than dulled-blade wounds. The localization of MMP9, β4 integrin and basement membrane proteins (LN332 and type VII collagen), immune cell influx, and reinnervation of the corneal nerves were compared after both wound types. Rotating-burr wounds remove the anterior basement membrane centrally but not at the periphery near the wound margin, induce more apoptosis of corneal stromal cells, and damage more stromal nerve fibers. Despite the fact that rotating-burr wounds do more damage to the cornea, fewer immune cells are recruited and significantly more wounds resolve completely. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J

    1984-01-01

    Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA was not ......Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA...... of the elongating follicle. HSPG was associated with the basal cell layer prior to the appearance of hair follicle primordia and became BMZ-associated before birth but after follicle buds were first observed. HSPG was also found to be associated with the basal cell surfaces in the epidermis, but not in the hair...... follicle. Laminin and type IV collagen were continually present in epidermal and follicular BMZ both before and during development of hair follicles and were later present in the dermal papilla matrix. From these observations we conclude that (1) laminin and type IV collagen are functionally important...

  14. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained...... discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular...

  15. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  16. Basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is abnormally associated with the glomerular capillary basement membrane of diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Abrahamson, D R; Bynum, K R

    1994-01-01

    exception being the normal glomerular capillary basement membrane (GBM), where it is absent. In the present study of mature kidneys we examined the distribution of BM-CSPG in streptozocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. We found BM-CSPG atypically associated with the GBM of diabetic animals as early as 1...... month after induction of diabetes mellitus. Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) of affected capillary loops showed BM-CSPG present in the subendothelial matrix in areas of GBM thickening and absent in areas where the GBM appears to be of normal thickness. Moreover, the association of BM-CSPG with regions...... of the pericapillary GBM affects the morphology of the capillary endothelial cells within these areas, directly displacing the cell body from the GBM proper and causing loss of fenestrae. These new data on BM-CSPG distribution reflect abnormal glomerular extracellular matrix protein biosynthesis/turnover in diabetes...

  17. Effects of pressure and electrical charge on macromolecular transport across bovine lens basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Nicholas; Cameron, Kathleen O; Groszek, Joseph J; Hofmann, Christina L; Li, Lingyan; Smith, Ross A; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Zydney, Andrew L; Fissell, William H

    2013-04-02

    Molecular transport through the basement membrane is important for a number of physiological functions, and dysregulation of basement membrane architecture can have serious pathological consequences. The structure-function relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes are not fully understood. The basement membrane from the lens capsule of the eye is a collagen IV-rich matrix that can easily be extracted and manipulated in vitro. As such, it provides a convenient model for studying the functional relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes. Here we investigate the effects of increased transmembrane pressure and solute electrical charge on the transport properties of the lens basement membrane (LBM) from the bovine eye. Pressure-permeability relationships in LBM transport were governed primarily by changes in diffusive and convective contributions to solute flux and not by pressure-dependent changes in intrinsic membrane properties. The solute electrical charge had a minimal but statistically significant effect on solute transport through the LBM that was opposite of the expected electrokinetic behavior. The observed transport characteristics of the LBM are discussed in the context of established membrane transport modeling and previous work on the effects of pressure and electrical charge in other basement membrane systems. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The vascular basement membrane as "soil" in brain metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shawn Carbonell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Paget's "seed and soil" concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this "neurotropic" growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of metastatic cells to grow along the exterior of pre-existing vessels of the CNS, a process termed vascular cooption. These observations suggest the "soil" for malignant cells in the CNS may well be vascular, rather than neuronal. We used in vivo experimental models of brain metastasis and analysis of human clinical specimens to test this hypothesis. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth. This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain. Accordingly, VBM promoted adhesion and invasion of malignant cells and was sufficient for tumor growth prior to any evidence of angiogenesis. Blockade or loss of the beta1 integrin subunit in tumor cells prevented adhesion to VBM and attenuated metastasis establishment and growth in vivo. Our data establishes a new understanding of CNS metastasis formation and identifies the neurovasculature as the critical partner for such growth. Further, we have elucidated the mechanism of vascular cooption for the first time. These findings may help inform the design of effective molecular therapies for patients with fatal CNS malignancies.

  19. Nanoscale protein architecture of the kidney glomerular basement membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Hani; Zhang, Lei; Roth, Robyn; Heuser, John E; Miner, Jeffrey H; Shaw, Andrey S; Dani, Adish

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play structural and functional roles in essentially all organs, so understanding ECM protein organization in health and disease remains an important goal. Here, we used sub-diffraction resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to resolve the in situ molecular organization of proteins within the kidney glomerular basement membrane (GBM), an essential mediator of glomerular ultrafiltration. Using multichannel STORM and STORM-electron microscopy correlation, we constructed a molecular reference frame that revealed a laminar organization of ECM proteins within the GBM. Separate analyses of domains near the N- and C-termini of agrin, laminin, and collagen IV in mouse and human GBM revealed a highly oriented macromolecular organization. Our analysis also revealed disruptions in this GBM architecture in a mouse model of Alport syndrome. These results provide the first nanoscopic glimpse into the organization of a complex ECM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01149.001 PMID:24137544

  20. Fluid Mechanics of the Vascular Basement Membrane in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Mikhail; Hui, Jonathan; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter; Carare, Roxana; McLeod, Kenneth; Schaffer, David

    2013-11-01

    Beta-amyloid is a normal product of brain metabolic function and is found within the interstitial fluid of the brain. Failure of the clearance of beta-amyloid from the aging brain leads to its accumulation within the walls of arteries and to Alzheimer's disease. The vascular basement membrane (VBM) within the walls of cerebral arteries surrounds the spirally arranged smooth muscle cells and represents an essential pathway for removal of beta-amyloid from the brain. This process fails with the stiffening of arterial walls associated with aging. In this study we hypothesize that the deformation of the VBM associated with arterial pulsations drives the interstitial fluid to drain in the direction opposite of the arterial blood flow. This hypothesis is theoretically investigated by modeling the VBM as a thin, coaxial, fluid-filled porous medium surrounding a periodically deforming cylindrical tube. Flow and boundary conditions required to achieve such a backward clearance are derived through a control volume analysis of mass, momentum, and energy.

  1. Basement membrane proteoglycans in glomerular morphogenesis: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is temporally and spatially restricted during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Bynum, K; St John, P L

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG) in basement membranes of almost all adult tissues. However, an exception to this ubiquitous distribution was found in the kidney, where BM-CSPG was absent from the glomerular capillary......, the present study used light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of BM-CSPG and basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (BM-HSPG) during prenatal and postnatal renal development in the rat. Our results show that the temporal and spatial pattern of expression of BM...

  2. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  3. Coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and myeloperoxidase-ANCAs in crescentic glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Slot, Marjan; van Paassen, Pieter; van Breda Vriesman, Peter; Heeringa, Peter; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    BACKGROUND: In a substantial proportion of patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) with specificity for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) are detected. In the present study, we questioned

  4. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan alterations in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehara, T; Carone, F A; McCarthy, K J

    1994-01-01

    of distal tubules and collecting ducts was observed by 4 days with phenol II treatment, but the morphology returned to normal after 7 days of subsequent normal diet. Staining of tissue sections with two mouse monoclonal antibodies to a recently described basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan...... to chondroitin sulfate chains confirmed these changes in cystic tubule basement membranes. During the recovery stage, interstitial chondroitin sulfate (representing a CSPG other than BM-CSPG) was greatly increased around these tubules, along with the glycoprotein fibronectin. Staining with antibody to a basement...... membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein related to perlecan did not diminish but rather stained affected tubules intensely, whereas laminin, on the other hand, was apparently diminished in the basement membranes of the cystic tubules. Type IV collagen staining did not change through disease...

  5. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...

  6. Vascular basement membranes as pathways for the passage of fluid into and out of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan W J; Sharp, Matthew MacGregor; Albargothy, Nazira J; Fernandes, Rute; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Verma, Ajay; Weller, Roy O; Carare, Roxana O

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of conventional lymphatics, drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes is along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Perivascular pathways are also involved in the entry of CSF into the brain by the convective influx/glymphatic system. The objective of this study is to differentiate the cerebral vascular basement membrane pathways by which fluid passes out of the brain from the pathway by which CSF enters the brain. Experiment 1: 0.5 µl of soluble biotinylated or fluorescent Aβ, or 1 µl 15 nm gold nanoparticles was injected into the mouse hippocampus and their distributions determined at 5 min by transmission electron microscopy. Aβ was distributed within the extracellular spaces of the hippocampus and within basement membranes of capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Nanoparticles did not enter capillary basement membranes from the extracellular spaces. Experiment 2: 2 µl of 15 nm nanoparticles were injected into mouse CSF. Within 5 min, groups of nanoparticles were present in the pial-glial basement membrane on the outer aspect of cortical arteries between the investing layer of pia mater and the glia limitans. The results of this study and previous research suggest that cerebral vascular basement membranes form the pathways by which fluid passes into and out of the brain but that different basement membrane layers are involved. The significance of these findings for neuroimmunology, Alzheimer's disease, drug delivery to the brain and the concept of the Virchow-Robin space are discussed.

  7. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Koon-Ja; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab, we investigated the structure changes of stroma and basement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 N NaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumab was delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl) by subconjunctival injections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 days after injury, basement membrane regeneration was observed by transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelial basement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes, and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in the alkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membrane and hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundles resulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired by bevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumab can play an important role in wound healing in the cornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basement membrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4): 195-200] PMID:23615260

  8. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    , to be replaced by synthesis of other components including type I and III collagens. It seems likely therefore that the dermal papilla cells in vivo synthesize a basement membrane type of extracellular matrix, although a contribution from epithelial, and in some cases capillary endothelial, cells cannot be ruled......Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  9. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. II. Effects of injecting heterologous, homologous, or autologous glomerular basement membranes and complete Freund's adjuvant into sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Steblay, R. W.; Rudofsky, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of injecting human, rabbit, rat, or single-kidney homologous glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or autologous GBM, each in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into 15- to 18-month-old sheep are compared. All sheep receiving heterologous GBM and 3 of 6 sheep receiving homologous GBM had anti-GBM nephritis, but such sheep did not bind autoantibodies or have Goodpasturelike lesions in their lungs. Sheep given injections of human GBM had autoantibodies to antigenic determinants shared b...

  10. A Case of Alport Syndrome with Posttransplant Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease despite Negative Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies by EIA Treated with Plasmapheresis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko I. Armstead

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttransplant antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM disease occurs in approximately 5% of Alport patients and usually ends in irreversible graft failure. Recent research has focused on characterizing the structure of the anti-GBM alloepitope. Here we present a case of a 22-year-old male with end-stage renal disease secondary to Alport syndrome, with a previously failed renal allograft, who received a second deceased-donor kidney transplant. Six days after transplantation, he developed acute kidney injury. The serum anti-GBM IgG was negative by enzyme immunoassay (EIA. On biopsy, he had crescentic glomerulonephritis with linear GBM fixation of IgG. With further analysis by western blotting, we were able to detect antibodies to an unidentified protein from the basement membrane. This patient was treated with plasmapheresis twice per week and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG for a total of five months. At the end of treatment, these unknown antibodies were no longer detected. His renal function improved, and he has not required dialysis. We conclude that anti-GBM disease in patients with Alport Syndrome may be caused by circulating antibodies to other components of the basement membrane that are undetectable by routine anti-GBM EIA and may respond to treatment with plasmapheresis and IVIG.

  11. A Case of Alport Syndrome with Posttransplant Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease despite Negative Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies by EIA Treated with Plasmapheresis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Sumiko I; Hellmark, Thomas; Wieslander, Jorgen; Zhou, Xin J; Saxena, Ramesh; Rajora, Nilum

    2013-01-01

    Posttransplant antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease occurs in approximately 5% of Alport patients and usually ends in irreversible graft failure. Recent research has focused on characterizing the structure of the anti-GBM alloepitope. Here we present a case of a 22-year-old male with end-stage renal disease secondary to Alport syndrome, with a previously failed renal allograft, who received a second deceased-donor kidney transplant. Six days after transplantation, he developed acute kidney injury. The serum anti-GBM IgG was negative by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). On biopsy, he had crescentic glomerulonephritis with linear GBM fixation of IgG. With further analysis by western blotting, we were able to detect antibodies to an unidentified protein from the basement membrane. This patient was treated with plasmapheresis twice per week and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for a total of five months. At the end of treatment, these unknown antibodies were no longer detected. His renal function improved, and he has not required dialysis. We conclude that anti-GBM disease in patients with Alport Syndrome may be caused by circulating antibodies to other components of the basement membrane that are undetectable by routine anti-GBM EIA and may respond to treatment with plasmapheresis and IVIG.

  12. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda; Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  13. Evidence for the existence of multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the human glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J A; Hop, Frank W H; Tryggvason, Karl; Dijkman, Henri; Assmann, Karel J M; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Monnens, Leo A H; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P W J

    1997-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential components of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) carrying a strong anionic charge. A well- characterized extracellular HSPG is perlecan, ubiquitously expressed in basement membranes. A cDNA construct encoding domains I and II of human perlecan

  14. Agrin is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the human glomerular basement membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J.; Ruegg, Markus A.; Dijkman, Henri; Van De Velden, Thea J.; Buskens, Carin A.; Van Den Born, Jacob; Assmann, Karel J.; Monnens, Leo A.; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P.

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that is highly concentrated in the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Agrin-like immunoreactivity is also detected outside the NMJ. Here we show that agrin is a major HSPG component of the human glomerular basement membrane

  15. Rac1 is essential for basement membrane-dependent epiblast survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiaowen; Liu, Jie; Qi, Yanmei

    2010-01-01

    During murine peri-implantation development, the egg cylinder forms from a solid cell mass by the apoptotic removal of inner cells that do not contact the basement membrane (BM) and the selective survival of the epiblast epithelium, which does. The signaling pathways that mediate this fundamental...

  16. Basement membrane changes in breast cancer detected by immunohistochemical staining for laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Nielsen, M; Wewer, U

    1981-01-01

    The distribution of the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin was studied by the immunoperoxidase technique in benign and malignant human breast tissue and in axillary lymph nodes from patients with breast cancer. An antiserum prepared against rat laminin was used. The specificity...

  17. Antibody response against the glomerular basement membrane protein agrin in patients with transplant glomerulopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, S.A.; Sijpkens, Y.W.; Ham, V. van; Trouw, L.A.; Vlag, J. van der; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kooten, C. van; Paul, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) of renal allografts is still the most important cause of graft loss. A subset of these patients have transplant glomerulopathy (TGP), characterized by glomerular basement membrane (GBM) duplications, but of unknown etiology. Recently, a role for the immune system

  18. Basement to surface expressions and critical factors in the genesis of unconformity-related deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two subprojects: 1) Basement to surface expressions of deep mineralization and refinement of critical factors leading to the genesis of unconformity-related uranium deposits; and 2) Recognition of uranium ore system alteration signatures in complex terranes: IOCG vs albite-hosted uranium vs volcanic-hosted uranium.

  19. Deletion of PPAR-γ in immune cells enhances susceptibility to antiglomerular basement membrane disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristen Chafin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cristen Chafin2, Sarah Muse2, Raquel Hontecillas5, Josep Bassaganya-Riera5, David L Caudell2, Samuel K Shimp III4, M Nichole Rylander4, John Zhang6, Liwu Li3, Christopher M Reilly1,21Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 3Department of Biological Sciences, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 5Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 6Medical University of SC, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ has been shown to be immunoregulatory in autoimmune diseases by inhibiting production of a number of inflammatory mediators. We investigated whether PPAR-γ gene deletion in hematopoietic cells would alter disease pathogenesis in the antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM mouse model. PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice were immunized with rabbit antimouse GBM antibodies and lipopolysaccharide and evaluated for two weeks. Although both the PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice had IgG deposition in the glomerulus and showed proteinuria two weeks after injection, glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease in PPAR-γ-/- mice were significantly more severe compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. We observed that the PPAR-γ-/- mice had decreased CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and an increased CD8+:CD4+ ratio as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ mice, suggesting that PPAR-γ has a role in the regulation of T cells. Furthermore, plasma interleukin-6 levels were significantly increased in the PPAR-γ-/- mice at two weeks as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. Taken together, these studies show that

  20. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ja Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  1. Concerted regulation of retinal pigment epithelium basement membrane and barrier function by angiocrine factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedicto, Ignacio; Lehmann, Guillermo L; Ginsberg, Michael; Nolan, Daniel J; Bareja, Rohan; Elemento, Olivier; Salfati, Zelda; Alam, Nazia M; Prusky, Glen T; Llanos, Pierre; Rabbany, Sina Y; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Miller, Sheldon S; Rafii, Shahin; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2017-05-19

    The outer blood-retina barrier is established through the coordinated terminal maturation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), fenestrated choroid endothelial cells (ECs) and Bruch's membrane, a highly organized basement membrane that lies between both cell types. Here we study the contribution of choroid ECs to this process by comparing their gene expression profile before (P5) and after (P30) the critical postnatal period when mice acquire mature visual function. Transcriptome analyses show that expression of extracellular matrix-related genes changes dramatically over this period. Co-culture experiments support the existence of a novel regulatory pathway: ECs secrete factors that remodel RPE basement membrane, and integrin receptors sense these changes triggering Rho GTPase signals that modulate RPE tight junctions and enhance RPE barrier function. We anticipate our results will spawn a search for additional roles of choroid ECs in RPE physiology and disease.

  2. Characterizing nanoscale topography of the aortic heart valve basement membrane for tissue engineering heart valve scaffold design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Sarah; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu; Liliensiek, Sara; Last, Julie A; Murphy, Christopher J; Pandit, Abhay

    2006-02-01

    A fully effective prosthetic heart valve has not yet been developed. A successful tissue-engineered valve prosthetic must contain a scaffold that fully supports valve endothelial cell function. Recently, topographic features of scaffolds have been shown to influence the behavior of a variety of cell types and should be considered in rational scaffold design and fabrication. The basement membrane of the aortic valve endothelium provides important parameters for tissue engineering scaffold design. This study presents a quantitative characterization of the topographic features of the native aortic valve endothelial basement membrane; topographical features were measured, and quantitative data were generated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and light microscopy. Optimal conditions for basement membrane isolation were established. Histological, immunohistochemical, and TEM analyses following decellularization confirmed basement membrane integrity. SEM and AFM photomicrographs of isolated basement membrane were captured and quantitatively analyzed. The basement membrane of the aortic valve has a rich, felt-like, 3-D nanoscale topography, consisting of pores, fibers, and elevations. All features measured were in the sub-100 nm range. No statistical difference was found between the fibrosal and ventricular surfaces of the cusp. These data provide a rational starting point for the design of extracellular scaffolds with nanoscale topographic features that mimic those found in the native aortic heart valve basement membrane.

  3. Immunochemical and autoantigenic properties of the globular domain of basement membrane collagen (type IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Mark, H; Oberbäumer, I; Timpl, R; Kemler, R; Wick, G

    1985-02-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the globular domain NC1 of collagen IV from human placenta and a mouse tumor react with conformational antigenic determinants present on the NC1 hexamers and also with the three major subunits obtained after dissociation. The antibodies recognized unique structures within basement membranes and showed a broad tissue reactivity but only limited species cross-reactivity. Using these antibodies, it was possible to detect small amounts of collagen IV antigens from cell cultures and in serum. Monoclonal rat antibodies against mouse NC1 revealed a similar reaction potential. Autoantibodies could be produced in mice against mouse NC1 which react with kidney and lung basement membranes in a pathological manner, mimicking Goodpasture syndrome.

  4. The basement membrane constituents in the mouse embryo's tooth. An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Enamel organs isolated from the lower first teeth of 18-days old white mouse embryo by trypsin treatment were used in this study. The organs were cultured during periods of increasing time on a semi-solid medium containing cock serum. In another chase experiments, the organs were cultured on a liquid medium containing proline- 3 H, leucine- 3 H, and glucosamine- 3 H, were studied by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopes. It has been shown that the nature of the culture medium does not apparently interfere with the ability of the enamel to reconstitute the basement membrane. On the other hand, it have been found obvious differences concerning the kinetic of the used isotopes. The results indicate that the turn-over of the basement membrane constituents represents a continuous and homogenous process which continues to take place during, before and after reconstitution. 42 refs. (author)

  5. VEGF-A/Notch-Induced Podosomes Proteolyse Basement Membrane Collagen-IV during Retinal Sprouting Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Spuul

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During angiogenic sprouting, endothelial tip cells emerge from existing vessels in a process that requires vascular basement membrane degradation. Here, we show that F-actin/cortactin/P-Src-based matrix-degrading microdomains called podosomes contribute to this step. In vitro, VEGF-A/Notch signaling regulates the formation of functional podosomes in endothelial cells. Using a retinal neovascularization model, we demonstrate that tip cells assemble podosomes during physiological angiogenesis in vivo. In the retina, podosomes are also part of an interconnected network that surrounds large microvessels and impinges on the underlying basement membrane. Consistently, collagen-IV is scarce in podosome areas. Moreover, Notch inhibition exacerbates podosome formation and collagen-IV loss. We propose that the localized proteolytic action of podosomes on basement membrane collagen-IV facilitates endothelial cell sprouting and anastomosis within the developing vasculature. The identification of podosomes as key components of the sprouting machinery provides another opportunity to target angiogenesis therapeutically.

  6. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement [fr

  7. Modulation of interferon-induced genes by lipoxin analogue in anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohse, Takamoto; Ota, Tatsuru; Kieran, Niamh; Godson, Catherine; Yamada, Koei; Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Fujita, Toshiro; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2004-04-01

    Immune complex deposition is associated with the accumulation of neutrophils, which play an important role in the various immune-mediated diseases. A novel anti-inflammatory agent, the lipoxin A (LXA) analogue (15-epi-16-(FPhO)-LXA-Me)), a stable synthetic analogue of aspirin-triggered 15-epi-lipoxin A4 (ATLa), was used in experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody nephritis in mice. ATLa was administered before the induction of the disease, and 2 h later, the animals were killed. ATLa reduced the infiltrating neutrophils and nitrotyrosine staining in glomeruli. Subsequent changes of gene expression in the early phase were evaluated, and 5674 genes were present under the basal conditions in kidneys from normal mice; 54 upregulated genes and 25 downregulated genes were detected in anti-GBM nephritis. Eighteen of these upregulated genes were those induced by IFN-gamma. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis confirmed the results of the microarrays. To investigate a role of IFN-gamma in neutrophil infiltration, anti-GBM nephritis was induced in IFN-gamma knockout mice. The number of infiltrating neutrophils in these mice did not differ from those in wild-type mice. Also examined were CD11b expression on neutrophils from mice treated with ATLa by flow cytometry, but suppression of this adhesion molecule was not observed. Neutrophil infiltration was successfully inhibited by ATLa in the early phase of murine anti-GBM nephritis. Microarray analysis detected the change of mRNA expression in anti-GBM nephritis and demonstrated amelioration of various genes by ATLa, which may provide a clue to the development of novel therapeutic approaches in immune renal injury.

  8. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  9. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens.......Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...

  10. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, I.

    1979-01-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed

  11. Rituximab for the treatment of refractory simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) and membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandak, Ghassan; Jones, Bruce A; Li, Jian; Yee, Jerry; Umanath, Kausik

    2014-02-01

    Antibody-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease occurs rarely in the presence of another B-cell disorder, membranous nephropathy. The coexistence of these two autoimmune disorders would be anticipated to require differing, specific therapies targeted to each disease process. We describe a case of concomitant membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease in which conventional therapy, including steroids, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide, failed to attenuate the anti-GBM disease, yet responded to an alternative treatment of rituximab. This B-cell directed, monoclonal, chimeric antibody treatment substantially reduced anti-GBM antibody titers and led to discontinuation of plasmapheresis, while maintaining the remission of membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease.

  12. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  13. Anti-glomerular basement membrane: A rare cause of renal failure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease is a rare cause of acute renal failure and known to have bad prognosis regarding renal functions recovery and patient survival specially when diagnosed late and presents with severe renal failure that requires dialysis. We report a case of 11-year-old child with acute renal failure secondary to anti-GBM disease and associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. He was treated with plasmapheresis, steroids, and cyclophosphamide with recovery of his kidney functions.

  14. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently......-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane...

  15. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R

    1985-01-01

    in the native basement membrane of surrounding normal murine tissues. Blocking and ELISA assays demonstrated that the antibodies recognized both antigens. Using techniques involving the chemical and enzymatic degradation of 35S-sulfate-labeled glycosaminoglycans, the mouse EHS tumor cells were found to produce...... proteoglycans obtained from these two sources immunoprecipitated the same precursor protein with a molecular mass of 400,000 daltons from 35S-methionine pulse-labeled cells of both tumors. Immunohistochemistry showed the heparan sulfate proteoglycan to be distributed in the extracellular matrix and also...

  16. Perlecan (basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan and its role in oral malignancies: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithilesh Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perlecan means pearl-like structures. Perlecan is a large proteoglycan (400-500 kDa present in virtually all vascularized tissues with a distribution that is primarily confined to basement membranes including those of oral mucosa. It is a basement membrane-type heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Perlecan is synthesized by basal cells and fibroblasts adjacent to the basal lamina . Perlecan is also synthesized by vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells present in the extracellular matrix. It has been demonstrated in recent years that perlecan is distributed in the stromal space of various pathophysiological conditions. The complex pleiotropy of perlecan suggests that this gene product is involved in several developmental processes, at both early and late stages of embryogenesis, as well as in cancer and diabetes. In the oral cavity, perlecan expression is reported to basal cells in normal mucosa and its expression increases in precancer and cancerous conditions. It is also expressed in various odontogenic tumors such as ameloblastoma, keratocyst odontogenic tumor, and also salivary gland tumors such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, etc.

  17. Agrin is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan in the human glomerular basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffen, A J; Ruegg, M A; Dijkman, H; van de Velden, T J; Buskens, C A; van den Born, J; Assmann, K J; Monnens, L A; Veerkamp, J H; van den Heuvel, L P

    1998-01-01

    Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) that is highly concentrated in the synaptic basal lamina at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Agrin-like immunoreactivity is also detected outside the NMJ. Here we show that agrin is a major HSPG component of the human glomerular basement membrane (GBM). This is in addition to perlecan, a previously characterized HSPG of basement membranes. Antibodies against agrin and against an unidentified GBM HSPG produced a strong staining of the GBM and the NMJ, different from that observed with anti-perlecan antibodies. In addition, anti-agrin antisera recognized purified GBM HSPG and competed with an anti-GBM HSPG monoclonal antibody in ELISA. Furthermore, both antibodies recognized a molecule that migrated in SDS-PAGE as a smear and had a molecular mass of approximately 200-210 kD after deglycosylation. In immunoelectron microscopy, agrin showed a linear distribution along the GBM and was present throughout the width of the GBM. This was again different from perlecan, which was exclusively present on the endothelial side of the GBM and was distributed in a nonlinear manner. Quantitative ELISA showed that, compared with perlecan, the agrin-like GBM HSPG showed a sixfold higher molarity in crude glomerular extract. These results show that agrin is a major component of the GBM, indicating that it may play a role in renal ultrafiltration and cell matrix interaction. (J Histochem Cytochem 46:19-27, 1998)

  18. The chest X-ray in antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, N.B.; Steiner, R.E.; Chin, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 25 patients with proven antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome) were analysed. All except two of the patients had pulmonary haemorrhage at some stage of their disease. Altogether there were 39 episodes of pulmonary haemorrhage, 25 being relapses. During seven episodes the chest radiograph was normal. Relapses of pulmonary haemorrhage never occurred in isolation but were usually associated with infection (not necessarily a chest infection) or occasionally fluid overload. Conversely fluid overload or infection were always associated with pulmonary haemorrhage provided there were high or rising titres of circulating antibodies at the time. Therefore in a patient with antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease, the presence of shadowing in the lung fields on the chest radiograph almost invariably means the patient has pulmonary haemorrhage whether or not pulmonary oedema or a chest infection are present. Limitation of shadowing by a fissure, loss of major portions of the diaphragmatic or cardiac silhouette, involvement of the lung apex or costophrenic angles suggest an underlying chest infection. Septal lines suggest fluid overload. Pleural effusions are seen with chest infections and fluid overload. The carbon monoxide uptake (KCO) was invariably high in the presence of pulmonary haemorrhage even if the chest radiograph was normal. A combined use of KCO and chest radiographs is the best method of monitoring lung disease in these patients. (author)

  19. Pentoxifylline Ameliorates Glomerular Basement Membrane Ultrastructural Changes Caused by Gentamicin Administration in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Stojiljković

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is commonly used for the treatment of severe gram negative bacterial infections but inevi-tably cause renal failure during prolonged use. The aim of our study was to emphasize protective effects of pentoxifylline on glomerular basement membrane (GBM alterations induced by gentamicin in rats. Experiments were done on 40 male Wistar rats divided in three experimental groups. GM-group was treated daily with gentamicin in dose of 100 mg/kg during 8 days. PTX-group was treated daily with pentoxifylline in dose of 45 mg/kg and the same dose of gentamicin as in GM-group during 8 days. The control group received 1 ml/day saline intraperitoneally. Morphometric parameter measured during the analysis was glomerular basement membrane thickness. In GM-group of animals glomeruli were en-larged and GMB was diffusely and unequally thickened with neutrophil cells infiltration. In proximal tu-bules epithelial cells, vacuolization of cytoplasm with coagulation-type necrosis were observed. In PTX-group of animals glomeruli were somewhat enlarged and GBM was thickened only in some segments. Coagulation-type necrosis was not found. Blood urea and serum creatinine concentration in GM-group were significantly elevated in comparison with PTX-group while potassium level was decreased. Our results suggest that PTX has protective effects on GBM and proximal tubules in GM-treated rats.

  20. Effect of diabetes on in vivo metabolism of [35S]-labeled glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.P.; Surma, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of [ 35 S]-sulfate into normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the GBM was determined from the specific activity of [ 35 S] after pronase digestion of basement membranes purified from glomeruli isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radiolabeling of both normal and diabetic GBM occurred 24 h after injection and, when corrected for differences in serum sulfate specific activities, was less in diabetic than in normal samples. The specific activity of GBM sulfate, expressed as cpm/microgram uronic acid, progressively diminished over the ensuing period of study in both normal and diabetic samples. The rate of decrease in specific activity of [ 35 S]-labeled GBM was not significantly different in diabetic preparations compared with that in normal controls. The findings are compatible with diminished sulfation and/or production but normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans in the renal GBM in experimental diabetes

  1. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer...

  2. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-10-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous globular domain (NC1) of type IV collagen from normal human GBM, while FNS identified only the 26,000-mol wt monomer. FNS reacted with EBM of 12 controls and nine unaffected male kindred members but not EBM of eight affected males. Five affected females exhibited interrupted reactivity of FNS with EBM. GPS showed variable reactivity with EBM and was not discriminating with respect to Alport-type FN. FNS did not stain renal basement members of five affected males. However, the EBM, tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsules of affected males contained antigens reactive with GPS. These immunochemical studies suggest that the FNS antigen is distinct from Goodpasture antigen(s). The expression of FNS antigen located on the NC1 domain of type IV collagen is altered in basement membranes of patients with Alport-type FN, and the distribution of this antigenic anomaly within kindreds suggests X-linked dominant transmission of a defective gene.

  3. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-01-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  4. [Relationship between the changes in ischemia/reperfusion cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system in senile rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-sheng; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jing-xia; Wang, Ming-hang; Zhao, Yue-wu; Liu, Zheng-guo

    2008-11-01

    To study the relationship of cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in aged rats. Cerebral I/R injury model was reproduced by intraluminal silk ligature thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were divided randomly into sham control and I/R groups in young rats [ischemia 3 hours (I 3 h) and reperfusion 6 hours (I/R 6 h), 12 hours (I/R 12 h), 24 hours (I/R 24 h), 3 days (I/R 3 d), 6 days (I/R 6 d)], and sham control group and I/R group in aged rats (I 3 h and I/R 6 h, I/R 12 h, I/R 24 h , I/R 3 d, I/R 6 d). The change in cerebro-cortex microvessel basement membrane structure, basement membrane type IV collagen (Col IV) and laminin (LN) contents, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression in every group were determined with immunohistochemical method and zymogram analysis. With the increase in age, Col IV and LN contents of the microvessel basement membrane were increased, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions were stronger. With prolongation of I/R, the degradation of microvessel basement membrane components (Col IV and LN) was positively correlated with the duration of cerebral I/R. MMP-2 expression was increased gradually, and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression increased at the beginning and decreased subsequently. Col IV(I 3 h, I/R 6 h , I/R 12 h), LN (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h), MMP-2 (I 3 h, I/R 6 h-6 d) and MMP-9 (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h) expression level in aged rats with I/R injury were higher, and TIMP-1 (I/R 24 h) expression was lower than those in young rats (Pcerebro-microvessel basement membrane in rats is related with MMPs and TIMP. Cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury is more serious in aged rats than that of young rats. Changes in cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury in aged rats is related with gelatinase system change.

  5. Immunological characterization of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Accavitti, M A; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    with the proteoglycan preparation and four mAbs recognizing the core protein of a high-density, buoyant chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were raised. Confirmation of antibody specificity was carried out by the preparation of affinity columns made from each of the mAbs. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) were...... (Mr = 5-6 x 10(5)), with a core protein of Mr = approximately 1.5-1.6 x 10(5) and composed exclusively of chondroitin sulfate chains with an average Mr = 1.6-1.8 x 10(4). In addition, a CSPG was purified from adult rat kidney, whose core protein was also Mr = 1.6 x 10(5). The proteoglycan and its core...... sulfate proteoglycans, it therefore appears that at least one CSPG is a widespread basement membrane component....

  6. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane

  7. Imaging Quaternary glacial deposits and basement topography using the transient electromagnetic method for modeling aquifer environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Patrick Tremblay; Chesnaux, Romain; Rouleau, Alain; Daigneault, Réal; Cousineau, Pierre A.; Roy, Denis W.; Lambert, Mélanie; Poirier, Brigitte; Poignant-Molina, Léo

    2015-08-01

    Aquifer formations along the northern shore of the Saint-Lawrence River in Quebec (Canada) mainly consist of glacial and coastal deposits of variable thickness overlying Precambrian bedrock. These deposits are important because they provide the main water supply for many communities. As part of a continuing project aimed at developing an inventory of the groundwater resources in the Charlevoix and Haute-Côte-Nord (CHCN) regions of the province of Quebec in Canada, the central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) method was used to map the principal hydrogeological environments in these regions. One-dimensional smooth inversion models of the TEM soundings have been used to construct two-dimensional electrical resistivity sections, which provided images for hydrogeological validation. Electrical contour lines of aquifer environments were compared against available well logs and Quaternary surface maps in order to interpret TEM soundings. A calibration table was achieved to represent common deposits and basements. The calibration table was then exported throughout the CHCN region. This paper presents three case studies; one in the Forestville site, another in the Les Escoumins site and the other in the Saint-Urbain site. These sites were selected as targets for geophysical surveys because of the general lack of local direct hydrogeological data related to them.

  8. [Morphology of basement membrane and associated matrix proteins in normal and pathological tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, A

    1995-01-01

    Basement membranes (BM) are specialized structures of the extracellular matrix. Their composition is of particular importance for the maintenance of normal morphological and functional properties of a multitude of organs and tissue systems and it is thus required for regular homeostasis of body function. Generally, they possess three main functions, i.e. participation in the maintenance of tissue structure, control of fluid and substrate exchange, and regulation of cell growth and differentiation. BMs are made up by various components which are in part specifically localized within the BM zone, or which represent ubiquitous matrix constituents with specific quantitative and/or qualitative differences in their localization. On the basis of a thorough immunohistochemical analysis of normal and diseased tissues, we provide here a concept of "functional morphology/pathomorphology" of the different BM components analyzed: 1.) The ubiquitous BM-constituent collagen IV primarily stabilizes the BM-zone and thus represents the "backbone" of the BM providing mechanical strength. Its loss leads to cystic tissue transformation as it is evidenced from the analysis of polycystic nephropathies. Thus, in other cystic tissue transformations a similar formal pathogenesis may be present. 2.) The specific localization of collagen VII as the main structural component of anchoring fibrils underlines the mechanical anchoring function of this collagenous protein. Defects in this protein lead to hereditary epidermolysis. The rapid re-occurrence of epidermal collagen VII during normal human wound healing indicates a quick reconstitution of the mechanical tensile strength of healing wounds. 3.) The BM-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG, Perlecan) with its highly negative anionic charge can be assumed to exert filter control. This assumption is corroborated by the localizatory findings of a preferential deposition of HSPG in endothelial and particularly in glomerular BM. Similarly

  9. Expression of periglandular tenascin-C and basement membrane laminin in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y.; Li, J.; Latijnhouwers, M. A.; Smedts, F.; Umbas, R.; Aalders, T. W.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Schalken, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the structural relationship of the distribution between tenascin (tenascin-C, an extra-cellular matrix glycoprotein involved in stromal-epithelial interactions in both normal and pathological conditions) and laminin, an important component of the basement membrane, in normal and

  10. Rat mesangial cells in vitro synthesize a spectrum of proteoglycan species including those of the basement membrane and interstitium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G J; Shewring, L; McCarthy, K J

    1995-01-01

    is localized in the mesangium but is not found in the pericapillary glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Further characterization of the proteoglycans synthesized by RMC in vitro revealed: (i) a second large CSPG, identified as versican; (ii) two small dermatan sulphate proteoglycans identified as biglycan...

  11. Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBarrany, Wagih G.; Hamdy, Raid M.; AlHayani, Abdulmonem A.; Jalalah, Sawsan M.

    2009-01-01

    To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

  12. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, fibronec...

  13. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  14. Spumiform basement membrane aberrations in the microvasculature of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region in hamster : Rostro-caudal pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; de Weerd, Heleen; Luiten, P.G.M.; van der Want, J.J.L.; Veening, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Spumiform basement membrane degeneration (sbmd) is a specific kind of aberration present in the capillaries of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the senescent hamster. These capillaries, separated by the ependymal cell layer, are bordering the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. The aqueduct,

  15. Spumiform basement membrane aberrations in the microvasculature of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region in hamster: rostro-caudal pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; Weerd, H. de; Luiten, P.G.M.; Want, J.J. van der; Veening, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Spumiform basement membrane degeneration (sbmd) is a specific kind of aberration present in the capillaries of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the senescent hamster. These capillaries, separated by the ependymal cell layer, are bordering the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. The aqueduct,

  16. Basement membrane reconstruction in human skin equivalents is regulated by fibroblasts and/or exogenously activated keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Jonkman, Marcel F; Dijkman, Remco; Ponec, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the role fibroblasts play in the formation of the basement membrane (BM) in human skin equivalents. For this purpose, keratinocytes were seeded on top of fibroblast-free or fibroblast-populated collagen matrix or de-epidermized dermis and cultured in the absence of serum and exogenous growth factors. The expression of various BM components was analyzed on the protein and mRNA level. Irrespective of the presence or absence of fibroblasts, keratin 14, hemidesmosomal proteins plectin, BP230 and BP180, and integrins alpha1beta1, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, and alpha6beta4 were expressed but laminin 1 was absent. Only in the presence of fibroblasts or of various growth factors, laminin 5 and laminin 10/11, nidogen, uncein, type IV and type VII collagen were decorating the dermal/epidermal junction. These findings indicate that the attachment of basal keratinocytes to the dermal matrix is most likely mediated by integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1, and not by laminins that bind to integrin alpha6beta4 and that the epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk plays an important role in synthesis and deposition of various BM components.

  17. Synthesis and localization of two sulphated glycoproteins associated with basement membranes and the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, B L; Taylor, A; Kurkinen, M

    1982-01-01

    's membrane by mouse embryo parietal endoderm cells (Hogan, B. L.M., A. Taylor, and A.R. Cooper, 1982, Dev. Biol., 90:210-214). Both the Mr 180,000 and 150,000 sgps are deposited in the detergent-insoluble matrix of cultured cells, but they do not apparently undergo any disulphide-dependent intermolecular...... interactions and are not precursors or products of each other. They contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, but these are not the exclusive sites of sulphate labeling. Antiserum raised against the Mr 150,000 sgp C of Reichert's membranes has been used in an immunohistochemical analysis of rat skin...

  18. Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCELLOS-HOFF, M. H; AGGELER, J.; RAM, T. G; BISSELL, M. J

    1989-02-01

    An essential feature of mammary gland differentiation during pregnancy is the formation of alveoli composed of polarized epithelial cells, which, under the influence of lactogenic hormones, secrete vectorially and sequester milk proteins. Previous culture studies have described either organization of cells polarized towards lumina containing little or no demonstrable tissue-specific protein, or establishment of functional secretory cells exhibiting little or no glandular architecture. In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. The aggregates subsequently cavitated, so that by day 6 the cells were organized into hollow spheres in which apical cell surfaces faced lumina sealed by tight junctions and basal surfaces were surrounded by a distinct basal lamina. The profiles of proteins secreted into the apical (luminal) and basal (medium) compartments indicated that these alveoli-like structures were capable of an appreciable amount of vectorial secretion. Immunoprecipitation with a broad spectrum milk antiserum showed that more than 80% of caseins were secreted into the lumina, whereas iron-binding proteins (both lactoferrin and transferrin) were present in comparable amounts in each compartment. Thus, these mammary cells established protein targeting pathways directing milk-specific proteins to the luminal compartment. A time course monitoring secretory activity demonstrated that establishment of tissue-specific vectorial secretion and increased total and milk protein secretion coincided with functional alveolar

  19. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in an HIV positive patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Bellotto Monteiro

    Full Text Available We report on a case of a patient with HIV infection, diagnosed 18 months prior to the development of an anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; this is probably the first report of such an association. A 30-year-old white man presented with elevation of serum creatinine (1.3 - 13.5 mg/dL within one month. At admission, the urinalysis showed proteinuria of 7.2 g/L and 8,000,000 erythrocytes/mL. Renal biopsy corresponded to a crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis mediated by anti-GBM, and serum testing for anti-GBM antibodies was positive; antinuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA were also positive. The patient underwent hemodyalisis and was treated with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The association described here is not casual, as crescentic glomerulonephritis is not common in HIV-positive patients, anti-GBM glomerulonephritis is rare and anti-GBM antibodies are frequently observed in HIV-positive subjects when compared to the overall population. Based on the current case and on the elevated frequency of the positivity for such antibodies in this group of patients, it is advisable to be aware of the eventual association between these two conditions and to promote an active search for anti-GBM antibodies and early diagnosis of eventual urinary abnormalities in HIV-positive subjects, considering the severity of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis.

  20. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.; Ledinko, N.; Smith, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The biological activity of retinoids was assayed in an in vitro quantitative assay of human tumor cell invasion using human amnion basement membrane (BM). The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the BM and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 14 C-proline labeled collagenous and noncollagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested, the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.009 μg/mL, and of TC-106 cells at 0.07 μg/mL. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels over 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more potent than retinol palmitate. The model system will be useful for investigating antiinvasive activity of other retinoids as well as other compounds

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  2. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the basement membrane (BM) and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 3 H-proline labeled collagenous and non collagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.09 μg/ml, and TC-106 cells at 0.08 μg/ml. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels almost 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more than retinol palmitate. Furthermore, A549 cells treated with retinol acetate, under conditions whereby an anti-invasive state was induced,showed an increase in the number of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP), a decrease in the activity of type IV collagenase and ectosialyltransferase, and no change in the activity of transglutaminase

  3. Crosslinked basement membrane-based coatings enhance glucose sensor function and continuous glucose monitoring in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, Ulrike; Ludzinska, Izabela; Czajkowski, Caroline; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L

    2018-01-01

    Overcoming sensor-induced tissue reactions is an essential element of achieving successful continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the management of diabetes, particularly when used in closed loop technology. Recently, we demonstrated that basement membrane (BM)-based glucose sensor coatings significantly reduced tissue reactions at sites of device implantation. However, the biocompatible BM-based biohydrogel sensor coating rapidly degraded over a less than a 3-week period, which effectively eliminated the protective sensor coating. In an effort to increase the stability and effectiveness of the BM coating, we evaluated the impact of crosslinking BM utilizing glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent, designated as X-Cultrex. Sensor performance (nonrecalibrated) was evaluated for the impact of these X-Cultrex coatings in vitro and in vivo. Sensor performance was assessed over a 28-day time period in a murine CGM model and expressed as mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values. Tissue reactivity of Cultrex-coated, X-Cultrex-coated, and uncoated glucose sensors was evaluated over a 28-day time period in vivo using standard histological techniques. These studies demonstrated that X-Cultrex-based sensor coatings had no effect on glucose sensor function in vitro. In vivo, glucose sensor performance was significantly enhanced following X-Cultrex coating throughout the 28-day study. Histological evaluations of X-Cultrex-treated sensors demonstrated significantly less tissue reactivity when compared to uncoated sensors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 7-16, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Degradation of endothelial basement membrane by human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, C.; Shiu, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    During metastasis, it is believed that tumor cells destroy the basement membrane (BM) of blood vessels in order to disseminate through the circulatory system. By radioactively labeling the extracellular matrix produced by primary endothelial cells in vitro, the ability of human breast cancer cells to degrade BM components was studied. We found that T-47D, a human breast cancer line, was able to degrade significant amounts of [35S]methionine-labeled and [3H]proline-labeled BM, but not 35SO4-labeled BM. Six other tumor cell lines of human breast origin were assayed in the same manner and were found to degrade BM to varying degrees. Several non-tumor cell lines tested showed relatively little degrading activity. The use of serum-free medium greatly enhanced degradation of the BM by tumor cells, suggesting a role for naturally occurring enzyme inhibitors in the serum. Direct cell contact with the BM was required for BM degradation, suggesting that the active enzymes are cell associated. The addition of hormones implicated in the etiology of breast cancer did not significantly alter the ability of T-47D cells to degrade the BM. The use of this assay affords future studies on the mechanism of invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer

  5. Membranous nephropathy (bubbling appearance and spike formation) without immunoglobulin deposition in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoto; Mori, Yuki; Yoshino, Masabumi; Suga, Norihiro; Kitagawa, Wataru; Yamada, Harutaka; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Imai, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    A 53-year-old Japanese man with systemic lupus erythematosus developed proteinuria and hematuria after a urinary stone episode. A light microscopic study of a kidney biopsy specimen demonstrated a bubbling appearance and spike formation of the basement membrane. Immunofluorescent studies revealed that there were no significant depositions of immunoglobulins, such as IgG (-), IgA (-), IgM (+/-), kappa light chain (+/-), lambda light chain (+/-), or C3 (-) in the glomerular capillary wall, though C1q was present as one-plus positive staining in mesangial areas. Electron microscopic studies showed that the thickness of the basement membrane varied from thin to thick without electron dense deposits, and that the cellular components of the podocyte were irregularly present in the basement membrane. Urinary protein decreased after the usage of prednisolone and mizoribine; however, proteinuria aggravated after an episode of urinary stone during the same treatment.

  6. Plasma deposited fluorinated films on porous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gancarz, Irena [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Bryjak, Marek, E-mail: marek.bryjak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawski, Jan; Wolska, Joanna [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawa, Joanna; Kujawski, Wojciech [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, 7 Gagarina St., 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    75 KHz plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes and deposit on them flouropolymers. Two fluorine bearing monomers were used: perflourohexane and hexafluorobenzene. The modified surfaces were analyzed by means of attenuated total reflection infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability. It was detected that hexaflourobenxene deposited to the larger extent than perflourohaxane did. The roughness of surfaces decreased when more fluoropolymer was deposited. The hydrophobic character of surface slightly disappeared during 20-days storage of hexaflourobenzene modified membrane. Perfluorohexane modified membrane did not change its character within 120 days after modification. It was expected that this phenomenon resulted from post-reactions of oxygen with radicals in polymer deposits. The obtained membranes could be used for membrane distillation of juices. - Highlights: • Plasma deposited hydrophobic layer of flouropolymers. • Deposition degree affects the surface properties. • Hydrohilization of surface due to reaction of oxygen with entrapped radicals. • Possibility to use modified porous membrane for water distillation and apple juice concentration.

  7. Basement membrane and interstitial proteoglycans produced by MDCK cells correspond to those expressed in the kidney cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Multiple proteoglycans (PGs) are present in all basement membranes (BM) and may contribute to their structure and function, but their effects on cell behavior are not well understood. Their postulated functions include: a structural role in maintaining tissue histoarchitecture, or aid in selective...... filtration processes; sequestration of growth factors; and regulation of cellular differentiation. Furthermore, expression PGs has been found to vary in several disease states. In order to elucidate the role of PGs in the BM, a well-characterized model of polarized epithelium, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK...... core proteins or CS stubs generated by cABC treatment, revealed that both basement membrane and interstitial PGs are secreted by MDCK cells. HSPGs expressed by MDCK cells are perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII. Various CSPG core proteins are made by MDCK cells and have been identified as biglycan...

  8. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...

  9. Frequently relapsing anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease with changing clinical phenotype and antibody characteristics over time

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Bobby; Magil, Alex B.; Barbour, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease is a typically monophasic autoimmune disease with severe pulmonary and renal involvement. We report an atypical case of frequently relapsing anti-GBM antibody disease with both anti-GBM antibody?positive flares with pulmonary and renal involvement, and anti-GBM antibody?negative flares that were pulmonary limited with no histologic renal disease. This is the first report of alternating disease phenotype and anti-GBM antibody status over...

  10. Collagen metabolism and basement membrane formation in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: Induction of assembly on fibrillar type I collagen substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; van der Schueren, B.; van den Berghe, H.; Nusgens, B.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Lapiere, C.

    1987-01-01

    Collagen metabolism was compared in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells maintained on plastic or fibrillar type I collagen gel substrata. The accumulation of dialysable and non-dialysable [ 3 H]hydroxyproline and the identification of the collagens produced suggest no difference between substrata in the allover rates of collagen synthesis and degradation. The proportion of the [ 3 H]collagen which accumulates in the monolayers of cultures on collagen, however, markedly exceeds that of cultures on plastic. Cultures on collagen deposit a sheet-like layer of extracellular matrix materials on the surface of the collagen fibers. Transformed cells on collagen produce and accumulate more [ 3 H]collage, yet are less effective in basement membrane formation than normal cells, indicting that the accumulation of collagen alone and the effect of interstitial collagen thereupon do not suffice. Thus, exogenous fibrillar collagen appears to enhance, but is not sufficient for proper assembly of collagenous basement membrane components near the basal epithelial cell surface

  11. Uranium deposits in the Beaverlodge area, northern Saskatchewan: their relationship to the Martin Group (Proterozoic) and the underlying basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazimhaka, P.K.; Hendry, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    The rocks of the Martin Group crop out in an area 60 km by 50 km north of Lake Athabasca near Uranium City, northern Saskatchewan. This area has numerous uranium showings within a few kilometres of the unconformity below the Martin Group. Mineralization occurs in fault zones, in basement rocks and in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Martin Group. Martin Group sediments accumulated in alluvial fans, braided streams, and ephemeral lakes. The thickest sequence (8 km to 10 km) is preserved in the Beaverlodge area, near Uranium City. The style of sedimentation changed through time as the basin evolved from deposition of conglomeratic detritus along fault scarps to the accumulation of silt in ephemeral lakes. The uneven nature of the sub-Martin unconformity surface, the lithotype of the lowermost conglomerates and breccias (Beaverlodge Formation), and the shape of the basin fill indicate deposition in fault-controlled basins. The earliest economic uranium mineralization in the rocks of the Martin Group was epigenetic. The mineralization was coeval with that in basement rocks. Economic mineralization in basement rocks and in the lowermost formation of the Martin Group is close to the unconformity. Epigenetic uranium mineralization thus appears to have resulted from processes that were related, in time and space, to either the formation of the unconformity or the deposition of the Martin Group or both. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  12. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti-collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional roles of these 2 extracellular matrix proteins

  13. Permeation of macromolecules into the renal glomerular basement membrane and capture by the tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Marlon G.; Altenburg, Michael K.; Sanford, Ryan; Willett, Julian D.; Bleasdale, Benjamin; Ballou, Byron; Wilder, Jennifer; Li, Feng; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Berg, Ulla B.; Smithies, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    How the kidney prevents urinary excretion of plasma proteins continues to be debated. Here, using unfixed whole-mount mouse kidneys, we show that fluorescent-tagged proteins and neutral dextrans permeate into the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in general agreement with Ogston's 1958 equation describing how permeation into gels is related to molecular size. Electron-microscopic analyses of kidneys fixed seconds to hours after injecting gold-tagged albumin, negatively charged gold nanoparticles, and stable oligoclusters of gold nanoparticles show that permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM is size-sensitive. Nanoparticles comparable in size with IgG dimers do not permeate into it. IgG monomer-sized particles permeate to some extent. Albumin-sized particles permeate extensively into the lamina densa. Particles traversing the lamina densa tend to accumulate upstream of the podocyte glycocalyx that spans the slit, but none are observed upstream of the slit diaphragm. At low concentrations, ovalbumin-sized nanoparticles reach the primary filtrate, are captured by proximal tubule cells, and are endocytosed. At higher concentrations, tubular capture is saturated, and they reach the urine. In mouse models of Pierson’s or Alport’s proteinuric syndromes resulting from defects in GBM structural proteins (laminin β2 or collagen α3 IV), the GBM is irregularly swollen, the lamina densa is absent, and permeation is increased. Our observations indicate that size-dependent permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM and the podocyte glycocalyx, together with saturable tubular capture, determines which macromolecules reach the urine without the need to invoke direct size selection by the slit diaphragm. PMID:28246329

  14. WY14,643, a PPARα ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, D C; Frkanec, J T; Cromwell, J; Clopton, P; Cunard, R

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands are medications used to treat hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence suggests that these agents are immunosuppressive. In the following studies we demonstrate that WY14,643, a PPARα ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (AGBMD). C57BL/6 mice were fed 0·05% WY14,643 or control food and immunized with the non-collagenous domain of the α3 chain of Type IV collagen [α3(IV) NC1] in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). WY14,643 reduced proteinuria and greatly improved glomerular and tubulo-interstitial lesions. However, the PPARα ligand did not alter the extent of IgG-binding to the GBM. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the prominent tubulo-interstitial infiltrates in the control-fed mice consisted predominately of F4/80+ macrophages and WY14,643-feeding decreased significantly the number of renal macrophages. The synthetic PPARα ligand also reduced significantly expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2. Sera from mice immunized with AGBMD were also evaluated for antigen-specific IgGs. There was a significant increase in the IgG1 : IgG2c ratio and a decline in the intrarenal and splenocyte interferon (IFN)-γ mRNA expression in the WY14,643-fed mice, suggesting that the PPARα ligand could skew the immune response to a less inflammatory T helper 2-type of response. These studies suggest that PPARα ligands may be a novel treatment for inflammatory renal disease. PMID:17888025

  15. WY14,643, a PPARalpha ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, D C; Frkanec, J T; Cromwell, J; Clopton, P; Cunard, R

    2007-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) ligands are medications used to treat hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence suggests that these agents are immunosuppressive. In the following studies we demonstrate that WY14,643, a PPARalpha ligand, attenuates expression of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (AGBMD). C57BL/6 mice were fed 0.05% WY14,643 or control food and immunized with the non-collagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of Type IV collagen [alpha3(IV) NC1] in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). WY14,643 reduced proteinuria and greatly improved glomerular and tubulo-interstitial lesions. However, the PPARalpha ligand did not alter the extent of IgG-binding to the GBM. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the prominent tubulo-interstitial infiltrates in the control-fed mice consisted predominately of F4/80(+) macrophages and WY14,643-feeding decreased significantly the number of renal macrophages. The synthetic PPARalpha ligand also reduced significantly expression of the chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CCL2. Sera from mice immunized with AGBMD were also evaluated for antigen-specific IgGs. There was a significant increase in the IgG1 : IgG2c ratio and a decline in the intrarenal and splenocyte interferon (IFN)-gamma mRNA expression in the WY14,643-fed mice, suggesting that the PPARalpha ligand could skew the immune response to a less inflammatory T helper 2-type of response. These studies suggest that PPARalpha ligands may be a novel treatment for inflammatory renal disease.

  16. Regeneration of defective epithelial basement membrane and restoration of corneal transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Gustavo K.; Santhiago, Marcony R.; Santhanam, Abirami; Torricelli, Andre A. M.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE To study regeneration of the normal ultrastructure of the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) in rabbit corneas that had -9D photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and developed late haze (fibrosis) with restoration of transparency over one to four months after surgery and in corneas that had incisional wounds. METHODS Twenty-four rabbits had one of their eyes included into one of the two procedure groups (-9D PRK or nearly full-thickness incisional wounds), while the opposite eye serving as unwounded controls. All corneas were evaluated with slit lamp photos, transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for the myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen type III. RESULTS In the ‘-9D PRK group’, corneas at one month after surgery had dense corneal haze and no evidence of regenerated EBM ultrastructure. By two months after surgery, however, small areas of stromal clearing began to appear within the confluent opacity (lacunae), and these corresponded to small islands of normally-regenerated EBM detected within larger area of the excimer laser-ablated zone with no evidence of normal EBM. By four months after surgery, the EBM was fully-regenerated and the corneal transparency was completely restored to the ablated zone. In the ‘Incisional wound group’, the two dense, linear corneal opacities were observed at one month after surgery and progressively faded by two and three months after surgery. The EBM ultrastructure was fully regenerated at the site of the incisions, including around epithelial plugs that extended into the stroma, by one month after surgery in all eyes. CONCLUSIONS In the rabbit model, spontaneous resolution of corneal fibrosis (haze) after high correction PRK is triggered by regeneration of EBM with normal ultrastructure in the excimer laser- ablated zone. Conversely, incisional wounds heal in rabbit corneas without the development of myofibroblasts because the EBM regenerates normally by one month after surgery

  17. A Case of Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis Associated with Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akishi Momose

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first report of a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN associated with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM antibody. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for high fever and anuria. On the first hospital day, we initiated hemodialysis for renal dysfunction. Laboratory data revealed normocytic-normochromic anemia with schistocytes in the peripheral smear, thrombocytopenia, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, decreased serum haptoglobin, and negative results for both direct and indirect Coombs tests. Based on these results, we diagnosed TMA. Assays conducted several days later indicated a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin motif 13 (ADAMTS13 activity of 31.6%, and ADAMTS13 inhibitors were negative. We started plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma and steroid pulse therapy. Anti-GBM antibody was found to be positive. Renal biopsy showed FGN. Blood pressure rose on the 46th hospital day, and mild convulsions developed. Based on magnetic resonance imaging of the head, the patient was diagnosed with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension persisted despite administration of multiple antihypertensive agents, and the patient experienced a sudden generalized seizure. Computed tomography of the head showed multiple cerebral hemorrhages. However, his blood pressure subsequently decreased and the platelet count increased. TMA remitted following 36 plasma exchange sessions, but renal function was not restored, and maintenance hemodialysis was continued. The patient was discharged on the 119th day of hospitalization. In conclusion, it was shown that TMA, FGN and anti-GBM antibody were closely related.

  18. Distribution of Basement Membrane Molecules, Laminin and Collagen Type IV, in Normal and Degenerated Cartilage Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Seong; Gomoll, Andreas H.; Olsen, Bjørn Reino; Spector, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and distribution of 2 basement membrane (BM) molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in healthy and degenerative cartilage tissues. Design: Normal and degenerated tissues were obtained from goats and humans, including articular knee cartilage, the intervertebral disc, and meniscus. Normal tissue was also obtained from patella-tibial enthesis in goats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using anti-laminin and anti–collagen type IV antibodies. Human and goat skin were used as positive controls. The percentage of cells displaying the pericellular presence of the protein was graded semiquantitatively. Results: When present, laminin and collagen type IV were exclusively found in the pericellular matrix, and in a discrete layer on the articulating surface of normal articular cartilage. In normal articular (hyaline) cartilage in the human and goat, the proteins were found co-localized pericellularly. In contrast, in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage, collagen type IV but not laminin was found in the pericellular region. Nonpathological fibrocartilaginous tissues from the goat, including the menisci and the enthesis, were also positive for both laminin and collagen type IV pericellularly. In degenerated fibrocartilage, including intervertebral disc, as in degenerated hyaline cartilage only collagen type IV was found pericellularly around chondrocytes but with less intense staining than in non-degenerated tissue. In calcified cartilage, some cells were positive for laminin but not type IV collagen. Conclusions: We report differences in expression of the BM molecules, laminin and collagen type IV, in normal and degenerative cartilaginous tissues from adult humans and goats. In degenerative tissues laminin is depleted from the pericellular matrix before collagen type IV. The findings may inform future studies of the processes underlying cartilage degeneration and the functional

  19. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesenbach, Peter; Kain, Renate; Derfler, Kurt; Perkmann, Thomas; Soleiman, Afschin; Benharkou, Alexandra; Druml, Wilfred; Rees, Andrew; Säemann, Marcus D

    2014-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE) for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS) is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics. To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS. Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies. University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. 10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS. Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies. Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23) to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186). Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation. IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  20. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biesenbach

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics.To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS.Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies.University Hospital of Vienna, Austria.10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS.Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies.Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23 to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186. Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation.IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  1. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes during basement membrane degradation in the metamorphosis of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hideki; Manickam, Asaithambi; Shahin, Rima; Ote, Manabu; Iwanaga, Masashi

    2018-01-05

    The present study was conducted to clarify the involvement of the basement membrane (BM) in insect metamorphosis through analysis of the expression profile of two types of metalloproteinase (MMP and ADAMTS) genes in several organs, their ecdysone involvement, and the histological change of BM. BM was observed around wing sac and in the wing cavity and around fat bodies at the W0 stage but disappeared after the W3 stage, and wing discs evaginated and fat body cells scattered after the W3 stage. The disappearance of the BM of midgut and silk glands was not observed after the W3 stage, but degenerated epithelium cells in the midgut and shrunken cells in the silk gland were observed after the W3 stage. BmMMP1 showed a peak at P0 in the wing discs, fat bodies, midgut, and silk gland. BmMMP2 showed a broad peak around pupation in the wing discs, fat bodies, midgut, and silk gland. BmADAMTS-1 showed enhanced expression at W2 in the wing discs, fat bodies, midgut, and hemocyte, while BmADAMTS-L showed enhanced expression at W3 in the fat bodies, midgut, silk gland, and hemocyte. After pupation, they showed a different expression in different organs. All of four genes were induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in wing discs in vitro. The present results suggested the involvement of MMPs and ADAMTS in the BM digestion and the morphogenesis of organs during Bombyx metamorphosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A “Mini-Epidemic” of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: Clinical and epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Lingaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute glomerulonephritis due to anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibody disease is rare, estimated to occur in fewer than one case per million population and accounts for less than 20% of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The prevalence among patients evaluated for potential glomerular disease is lower. It accounts for fewer than 3% of all kidney biopsies done with crescentic glomerulonephritis. Cases of anti-GBM disease occurring in a cluster have rarely been reported. All biopsy proven anti-GBM disease cases were collected from January 2015 to March 2015 at our Institute. All cases were analyzed for demographic and clinical profile, pathological findings, treatment received and for any common environmental antigenic source. A total of 11 new biopsy proven anti-GBM cases were seen within a span of three months. Age group varied from 17–80 years. Seven were males and four were females. All were dialysis dependent at presentation. Seven had active cellular crescents, and four had fibrocellular. Only one patient was a smoker and none had a history of exposure to any forms of hydrocarbons. The peak seen from January 2015 to March 2015 does not correlate with any of seasonal occurrence of infections in southern India. Although there was clustering of cases to southern territories of Karnataka state, no common etiological agents could be identified. No patient had any previous urological surgeries. All patients received methylprednisolone with plasmapheresis 5–7 sessions and cyclophosphamide. All 11 patients were dialysis dependent at the end of three months. We conclude anti-GBM disease cannot be regarded as a rare cause of renal failure and lung hemorrhage. The occurrence of such epidemic within a short period suggests a possible unidentified environmental factor like infection or occupational agents as inciting agents. Identification of such inciting agents could help us in instituting appropriate preventing measures.

  3. A large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Norihiro; Miura, Naoto; Uemura, Yuko; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Morita, Hiroyuki; Banno, Shogo; Imai, Hirokazu

    2011-12-01

    We report an unusual pathological finding, a large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis. The first renal biopsy specimen from 10 years ago, when systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed, demonstrated mild mesangial proliferation and subepithelial deposits (WHO classification: III + V). Light microscopy of the current biopsy using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAMS) stain demonstrated a large-sized bubbling appearance of the GBM; however, very weak immunoglobulin and complement deposition was observed in immunofluorescence studies. Routine electron microscopy demonstrated partial subendothelial expansion with electron-lucent materials, but no electron-dense deposits or amyloid fibrils. Electron microscopy with PAMS stain revealed electron-lucent endothelial scalloping, including some cellular components and microspheres in the GBM; however, it is not clear if these materials are derived from endothelial cells. One possibility is that these unique findings represent a recovery phase of lupus membranous nephritis; another is that these findings correspond to a new disease entity.

  4. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  5. Overexpression of β1-chain-containing laminins in capillary basement membranes of human breast cancer and its metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Manabu; Khazenzon, Natalya M; Bose, Shikha; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Sasaki, Takako; Carter, William G; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Black, Keith L; Ljubimova, Julia Y

    2005-01-01

    Laminins are the major components of vascular and parenchymal basement membranes. We previously documented a switch in the expression of vascular laminins containing the α4 chain from predominantly laminin-9 (α4β2γ1) to predominantly laminin-8 (α4β1γ1) during progression of human brain gliomas to high-grade glioblastoma multiforme. Here, differential expression of laminins was studied in blood vessels and ductal epithelium of the breast. In the present study the expressions of laminin isoforms α1–α5, β1–β3, γ1, and γ2 were examined during progression of breast cancer. Forty-five clinical samples of breast tissues including normal breast, ductal carcinomas in situ, invasive ductal carcinomas, and their metastases to the brain were compared using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry for various chains of laminin, in particular laminin-8 and laminin-9. Laminin α4 chain was observed in vascular basement membranes of most studied tissues, with the highest expression in metastases. At the same time, the expression of laminin β2 chain (a constituent of laminin-9) was mostly seen in normal breast and carcinomas in situ but not in invasive carcinomas or metastases. In contrast, laminin β1 chain (a constituent of laminin-8) was typically found in vessel walls of carcinomas and their metastases but not in those of normal breast. The expression of laminin-8 increased in a progression-dependent manner. A similar change was observed from laminin-11 (α5β2γ1) to laminin-10 (α5β1γ1) during breast tumor progression. Additionally, laminin-2 (α2β1γ1) appeared in vascular basement membranes of invasive carcinomas and metastases. Chains of laminin-5 (α3β3γ2) were expressed in the ductal epithelium basement membranes of the breast and diminished with tumor progression. These results suggest that laminin-2, laminin-8, and laminin-10 are important components of tumor microvessels and may associate with breast tumor progression. Angiogenic switch

  6. Multiple recurrences of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with variable antibody detection: can the laboratory be trusted?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Patricia; Waheed, Sana; Boujelbane, Lamya; Maursetter, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is commonly a monophasic illness. We present the case of multiple recurrences of anti-GBM disease with varying serum anti-GBM antibody findings. A 33-year-old female tobacco user presenting with hematuria was diagnosed with anti-GBM disease by renal biopsy. Five years later, she presented with alveolar hemorrhage and positive anti-GBM antibody. She presented a third time with alveolar hemorrhage but undetectable anti-GBM antibody. With each occu...

  7. Overexpression of β1-chain-containing laminins in capillary basement membranes of human breast cancer and its metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Manabu; Khazenzon, Natalya M; Bose, Shikha; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Sasaki, Takako; Carter, William G; Ljubimov, Alexander V; Black, Keith L; Ljubimova, Julia Y

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Laminins are the major components of vascular and parenchymal basement membranes. We previously documented a switch in the expression of vascular laminins containing the α4 chain from predominantly laminin-9 (α4β2γ1) to predominantly laminin-8 (α4β1γ1) during progression of human brain gliomas to high-grade glioblastoma multiforme. Here, differential expression of laminins was studied in blood vessels and ductal epithelium of the breast. Method In the present study the expressions of laminin isoforms α1–α5, β1–β3, γ1, and γ2 were examined during progression of breast cancer. Forty-five clinical samples of breast tissues including normal breast, ductal carcinomas in situ, invasive ductal carcinomas, and their metastases to the brain were compared using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry for various chains of laminin, in particular laminin-8 and laminin-9. Results Laminin α4 chain was observed in vascular basement membranes of most studied tissues, with the highest expression in metastases. At the same time, the expression of laminin β2 chain (a constituent of laminin-9) was mostly seen in normal breast and carcinomas in situ but not in invasive carcinomas or metastases. In contrast, laminin β1 chain (a constituent of laminin-8) was typically found in vessel walls of carcinomas and their metastases but not in those of normal breast. The expression of laminin-8 increased in a progression-dependent manner. A similar change was observed from laminin-11 (α5β2γ1) to laminin-10 (α5β1γ1) during breast tumor progression. Additionally, laminin-2 (α2β1γ1) appeared in vascular basement membranes of invasive carcinomas and metastases. Chains of laminin-5 (α3β3γ2) were expressed in the ductal epithelium basement membranes of the breast and diminished with tumor progression. Conclusion These results suggest that laminin-2, laminin-8, and laminin-10 are important components of tumor microvessels and may associate with breast

  8. ER stress and basement membrane defects combine to cause glomerular and tubular renal disease resulting from Col4a1 mutations in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances E. Jones

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collagen IV is a major component of basement membranes, and mutations in COL4A1, which encodes collagen IV alpha chain 1, cause a multisystemic disease encompassing cerebrovascular, eye and kidney defects. However, COL4A1 renal disease remains poorly characterized and its pathomolecular mechanisms are unknown. We show that Col4a1 mutations in mice cause hypotension and renal disease, including proteinuria and defects in Bowman's capsule and the glomerular basement membrane, indicating a role for Col4a1 in glomerular filtration. Impaired sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle and distal nephron despite elevated aldosterone levels indicates that tubular defects contribute to the hypotension, highlighting a novel role for the basement membrane in vascular homeostasis by modulation of the tubular response to aldosterone. Col4a1 mutations also cause diabetes insipidus, whereby the tubular defects lead to polyuria associated with medullary atrophy and a subsequent reduction in the ability to upregulate aquaporin 2 and concentrate urine. Moreover, haematuria, haemorrhage and vascular basement membrane defects confirm an important vascular component. Interestingly, although structural and compositional basement membrane defects occurred in the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, no tubular basement membrane defects were detected. By contrast, medullary atrophy was associated with chronic ER stress, providing evidence for cell-type-dependent molecular mechanisms of Col4a1 mutations. These data show that both basement membrane defects and ER stress contribute to Col4a1 renal disease, which has important implications for the development of treatment strategies for collagenopathies.

  9. Embryoid body attachment to reconstituted basement membrane induces a genetic program of epithelial differentiation via jun N-terminal kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hoang-Yen; Moffat, Ryan C; Patel, Rupal V; Awah, Franklin N; Baloue, Kaitrin; Crowe, David L

    2010-09-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from early stage mammalian embryos and have broad developmental potential. These cells can be manipulated experimentally to generate cells of multiple tissue types which could be important in treating human diseases. The ability to produce relevant amounts of these differentiated cell populations creates the basis for clinical interventions in tissue regeneration and repair. Understanding how embryonic stem cells differentiate also can reveal important insights into cell biology. A previously reported mouse embryonic stem cell model demonstrated that differentiated epithelial cells migrated out of embryoid bodies attached to reconstituted basement membrane. We used genomic technology to profile ES cell populations in order to understand the molecular mechanisms leading to epithelial differentiation. Cells with characteristics of cultured epithelium migrated from embryoid bodies attached to reconstituted basement membrane. However, cells that comprised embryoid bodies also rapidly lost ES cell-specific gene expression and expressed proteins characteristic of stratified epithelia within hours of attachment to basement membrane. Gene expression profiling of sorted cell populations revealed upregulation of the BMP/TGFbeta signaling pathway, which was not sufficient for epithelial differentiation in the absence of basement membrane attachment. Activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and increased expression of Jun family transcription factors was observed during epithelial differentiation of ES cells. Inhibition of JNK signaling completely blocked epithelial differentiation in this model, revealing a key mechanism by which ES cells adopt epithelial characteristics via basement membrane attachment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism.We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia.This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  11. The Peri-islet Basement Membrane, a Barrier to Infiltrating Leukocytes in Type 1 Diabetes in Mouse and Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpos, Eva; Kadri, Nadir; Kappelhoff, Reinhild

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of peri-islet capsules, composed of the peri-islet basement membrane (BM) and subjacent interstitial matrix (IM), in development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and in human type 1 diabetes. Our data demonstr...... IM are reconstituted once inflammation subsides, indicating that the peri-islet BM-producing cells are not lost due to the inflammation, which has important ramifications to islet transplantation studies.......We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of peri-islet capsules, composed of the peri-islet basement membrane (BM) and subjacent interstitial matrix (IM), in development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and in human type 1 diabetes. Our data...... demonstrate global loss of peri-islet BM and IM components only at sites of leukocyte infiltration into the islet. Stereological analyses reveal a correlation between incidence of insulitis and the number of islets showing loss of peri-islet BM versus islets with intact BMs, suggesting that leukocyte...

  12. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to

  13. An in vitro model of the glomerular capillary wall using electrospun collagen nanofibres in a bioartificial composite basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie C Slater

    Full Text Available The filtering unit of the kidney, the glomerulus, contains capillaries whose walls function as a biological sieve, the glomerular filtration barrier. This comprises layers of two specialised cells, glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC and podocytes, separated by a basement membrane. Glomerular filtration barrier function, and dysfunction in disease, remains incompletely understood, partly due to difficulties in studying the relevant cell types in vitro. We have addressed this by generation of unique conditionally immortalised human GEnC and podocytes. However, because the glomerular filtration barrier functions as a whole, it is necessary to develop three dimensional co-culture models to maximise the benefit of the availability of these cells. Here we have developed the first two tri-layer models of the glomerular capillary wall. The first is based on tissue culture inserts and provides evidence of cell-cell interaction via soluble mediators. In the second model the synthetic support of the tissue culture insert is replaced with a novel composite bioartificial membrane. This consists of a nanofibre membrane containing collagen I, electrospun directly onto a micro-photoelectroformed fine nickel supporting mesh. GEnC and podocytes grew in monolayers on either side of the insert support or the novel membrane to form a tri-layer model recapitulating the human glomerular capillary in vitro. These models will advance the study of both the physiology of normal glomerular filtration and of its disruption in glomerular disease.

  14. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    Basement membranes contain several proteoglycans, and those bearing heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans such as perlecan and agrin usually predominate. Most mammalian basement membranes also contain chondroitin sulfate, and a core protein, bamacan, has been partially characterized. We have now....... The protein sequence has low overall homology, apart from very small NH2- and COOH-terminal motifs. At the junctions between the distal globular domains and the coiled-coil regions lie glycosylation sites, with up to three N-linked oligosaccharides and probably three chondroitin chains. Three other Ser...

  15. Defective muscle basement membrane and lack of M-laminin in the dystrophic dy/dy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Christmas, P; Wu, X R

    1994-01-01

    -linked Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. We have examined M-laminin expression in mice with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by the mutation dy. The heavy chain of M-laminin was undetectable in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and peripheral nerve by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting......M-laminin is a major member of the laminin family of basement membrane proteins. It is prominently expressed in striated muscle and peripheral nerve. M-laminin is deficient in patients with the autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy but is normal in patients with the sex...... tissue from dy/dy mice, suggesting that M-laminin heavy-chain mRNA may be produced at very low levels or is unstable. Information about the chromosomal localization of the M heavy-chain in human and mouse suggests that a mutation in the M-chain gene causes the muscular dystrophy in dy/dy mice. The dy...

  16. Anti-glomerular basement membrane autoantibodies in the Brown Norway rat: detection by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.; Peters, D.K.; Lockwood, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) is described for the detection of IgG autoantibodies to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) induced in the Brown Norway rat by mercuric chloride. The assay involves the adsorption of a collagenase digest of GBM to plastic microtitre plates and detection of bound antibody with affinity purified radiolabelled rabbit anti-rat IgG. Comparison with existing immunofluorescence methods for detection of anti-GBM antibody showed that the solid-phase RIA is highly sensitive, allowing detection of antibody in solutions with as low as 0.5 ng protein/ml. The assay is suitable for detection of anti-GBM antibody both in serum and in eluates from nephritic kidneys. The assay proved to be specific in competitive studies of inhibition brought about by GBM, keyhole limpet antigen and ovalbumin. This solid-phase RIA is reproducible, robust and easy to perform. (Auth.)

  17. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Johanna; Gouveia, Leonor; Gallini, Radiosa; He, Liqun; Fredriksson, Linda; Nilsson, Ingrid; Johansson, Bengt R.; Eriksson, Ulf; Betsholtz, Christer

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis of Pdgfc null mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants for Pdgfc−/− and PdgfraGFP/+. These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS), where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data on Pdgfa, Pdgfc and Pdgfra in the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges. PMID:26988758

  18. Fluorescent and radiolabelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane with a newly developed hydroxy-coumarin derivative (CASE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand-Weaver, M.; Abuknesha, R.A.; Price, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of pepsin-digested human glomerular basement membrane (pHGBM) with a newly developed fluorescent iodine acceptor 7-hydroxy-coumarin-3-acetic acid N-hydroxysucciniimydyl ester (CASE) is described. The binding of a monoclonal antibody to pHGBM was assessed by radiobinding assays, and when directly iodinated pHGBM was used there was no apparent binding. When CASE was conjugated to pHGBM prior to iodination 11% binding was achieved. CASE acting as an iodine acceptor may be useful for proteins containing few or inaccessible tyrosine residues or which are destroyed by introduction of 125 I. Since CASE is fluorescent, small amounts of material can be detected during isolation prior to iodination. (orig.)

  19. Expression and organization of basement membranes and focal adhesion proteins in pregnant myometrium is regulated by uterine stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynlova, Oksana; Chow, Michelle; Lye, Stephen J

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the preparation of the uterus for labor are not fully understood. We have previously found a significant increase in the expression of messenger RNA (mRNAs) encoding extracellular basement membrane (BM) proteins of the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in late pregnant rat myometrium. At term, the myometrium is stretched by growing fetuses and these mechanical signals are transmitted from extracellular matrix into SMCs through focal adhesions (FA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gravidity on the expression and spatiotemporal distribution of major BM proteins, laminin-gamma2 and collagen IV, as well as typical FA constituents, vinculin and paxillin, in the myometrium during gestation and parturition, using a unilaterally pregnant rat model. We found that the expression of laminin-gamma2 and collagen IV proteins increased significantly with gestational age (P proteins were not affected. Near term, BM proteins from gravid horn myometrium demonstrated increased extracellular immunostaining and major rearrangement from sporadic protein distribution to organized, continuous, and regular structures surrounding the plasma membrane of each myocyte. Examination of FA proteins revealed that paxillin was translocated from the cytoplasm to the cell periphery, while vinculin was sequestered specifically to FAs. At labor, BM and FA proteins, organized in similar bead-like structures, were localized on opposing sides of SMC plasma membrane into 2 different compartments. We suggest that these stretch-induced changes facilitate formation of stable cell-matrix adhesions and provide the molecular basis for optimal force transduction during labor contractions.

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  1. 19-DEJ-1, a hemidesmosome-anchoring filament complex-associated monoclonal antibody. Definition of a new skin basement membrane antigenic defect in junctional and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (19-DEJ-1) was recently produced that recognizes a unique antigenic epitope of human skin basement membrane localized to the midlamina lucida exclusively in those areas bordered by overlying hemidesmosomes. To determine whether the antigen defined by 19-DEJ-1 is norma...

  2. Study of the relationship between mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and Ki-67 and basement membrane and extracellular matrix protein expression in radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, R V C; Júnior, E C Pinheiro; Barros Silva, P G; Turatti, E; Mota, M R L; Alves, A P N N

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and the expression of a proliferative immunomarker (Ki-67) as well as to evaluate basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteins (laminin and collagen type IV) in radicular cysts and dentigerous cysts (DC). Immunohistochemical analyses were performed in heavily inflamed radicular cysts (HIRC), slightly inflamed radicular cysts (SIRC) and DC (n = 20) using Ki-67 (Dako(®) , 1 : 50), anticollagen type IV (DBS(®) , 1 : 40) and antilaminin (DBS(®) , 1 : 20). The data were analysed using anova/Tukey's test (Ki-67) and Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn's test (collagen type IV and laminin) (P collagen type IV in the basement membrane of the SIRC group was significantly more continuous (P = 0.0475) than in the HIRC group. DC had significantly less collagen type IV in extracellular matrix immunoexpression than HIRC and SIRC (P = 0.0246). Laminin was absent in the basement membrane in the SIRC and DC groups, and the extracellular matrix of the HIRC was weak and punctate. The presence of inflammatory factors in the radicular cyst wall modified the expression of proliferation factors in the epithelial lining and the expression of collagen type IV and laminin in the basement membrane, but did not modify extracellular matrix behaviour in radicular cysts. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A bioartificial environment for kidney epithelial cells based on a supramolecular polymer basement membrane mimic and an organotypical culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Björne B; Bogaerts, Iven L J; van Almen, Geert C; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2017-06-01

    Renal applications in healthcare, such as renal replacement therapies and nephrotoxicity tests, could potentially benefit from bioartificial kidney membranes with fully differentiated and functional human tubular epithelial cells. A replacement of the natural environment of these cells is required to maintain and study cell functionality cell differentiation in vitro. Our approach was based on synthetic supramolecular biomaterials to mimic the natural basement membrane (BM) on which these cells grow and a bioreactor to provide the desired organotypical culture parameters. The BM mimics were constructed from ureidopyrimidinone (UPy)-functionalized polymer and bioactive peptides by electrospinning. The resultant membranes were shown to have a hierarchical fibrous BM-like structure consisting of self-assembled nanofibres within the electrospun microfibres. Human kidney-2 (HK-2) epithelial cells were cultured on the BM mimics under organotypical conditions in a custom-built bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitated in situ monitoring and functionality testing of the cultures. Cell viability and the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier were demonstrated inside the bioreactor by microscopy and transmembrane leakage of fluorescently labelled inulin, respectively. Furthermore, HK-2 cells maintained a polarized cell layer and showed modulation of both gene expression of membrane transporter proteins and metabolic activity of brush border enzymes when subjected to a continuous flow of culture medium inside the new bioreactor for 21 days. These results demonstrated that both the culture and study of renal epithelial cells was facilitated by the bioartificial in vitro environment that is formed by synthetic supramolecular BM mimics in our custom-built bioreactor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  5. Convective influx/glymphatic system: tracers injected into the CSF enter and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albargothy, Nazira J; Johnston, David A; MacGregor-Sharp, Matthew; Weller, Roy O; Verma, Ajay; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Carare, Roxana O

    2018-05-12

    Tracers injected into CSF pass into the brain alongside arteries and out again. This has been recently termed the "glymphatic system" that proposes tracers enter the brain along periarterial "spaces" and leave the brain along the walls of veins. The object of the present study is to test the hypothesis that: (1) tracers from the CSF enter the cerebral cortex along pial-glial basement membranes as there are no perivascular "spaces" around cortical arteries, (2) tracers leave the brain along smooth muscle cell basement membranes that form the Intramural Peri-Arterial Drainage (IPAD) pathways for the elimination of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain. 2 μL of 100 μM soluble, fluorescent fixable amyloid β (Aβ) were injected into the CSF of the cisterna magna of 6-10 and 24-30 month-old male mice and their brains were examined 5 and 30 min later. At 5 min, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy revealed Aβ on the outer aspects of cortical arteries colocalized with α-2 laminin in the pial-glial basement membranes. At 30 min, Aβ was colocalised with collagen IV in smooth muscle cell basement membranes in the walls of cortical arteries corresponding to the IPAD pathways. No evidence for drainage along the walls of veins was found. Measurements of the depth of penetration of tracer were taken from 11 regions of the brain. Maximum depths of penetration of tracer into the brain were achieved in the pons and caudoputamen. Conclusions drawn from the present study are that tracers injected into the CSF enter and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways. The exit route is along IPAD pathways in which Aβ accumulates in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in Alzheimer's disease. Results from this study suggest that CSF may be a suitable route for delivery of therapies for neurological diseases, including CAA.

  6. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  7. Airway basement membrane perimeter in human airways is not a constant; potential implications for airway remodeling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, Brent E; Paré, Peter D; Johnson, Peter R A; Armour, Carol L; Black, Judith L

    2004-08-01

    Many studies that demonstrate an increase in airway smooth muscle in asthmatic patients rely on the assumption that bronchial internal perimeter (P(i)) or basement membrane perimeter (P(bm)) is a constant, i.e., not affected by fixation pressure or the degree of smooth muscle shortening. Because it is the basement membrane that has been purported to be the indistensible structure, this study examines the assumption that P(bm) is not affected by fixation pressure. P(bm) was determined for the same human airway segment (n = 12) fixed at distending pressures of 0 cmH(2)O and 21 cmH(2)O in the absence of smooth muscle tone. P(bm) for the segment fixed at 0 cmH(2)O was determined morphometrically, and the P(bm) for the same segment, had the segment been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, was predicted from knowing the luminal volume and length of the airway when distended to 21 cmH(2)O (organ bath-derived P(i)). To ensure an accurate transformation of the organ bath-derived P(i) value to a morphometry-derived P(bm) value, had the segment been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, the relationship between organ bath-derived P(i) and morphometry-derived P(bm) was determined for five different bronchial segments distended to 21 cmH(2)O and fixed at 21 cmH(2)O (r(2) = 0.99, P < 0.0001). Mean P(bm) for bronchial segments fixed at 0 cmH(2)O was 9.4 +/- 0.4 mm, whereas mean predicted P(bm), had the segments been fixed at 21 cmH(2)O, was 14.1 +/- 0.5 mm (P < 0.0001). This indicates that P(bm) is not a constant when isolated airway segments without smooth muscle tone are fixed distended to 21 cmH(2)O. The implication of these results is that the increase in smooth muscle mass in asthma may have been overestimated in some previous studies. Therefore, further studies are required to examine the potential artifact using whole lungs with and without abolition of airway smooth muscle tone and/or inflation.

  8. Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.L.; Aggeler, J.; Farson, D.A.; Hatier, C.; Hassell, J.; Bissell, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    When primary mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on plastic, they rapidly lose their ability to synthesize and secrete most milk proteins even in the presence of lactogenic hormones, whereas cells cultured on release type I collagen gels show greatly enhanced mRNA levels and secretion rates of β-casein and of some other milk proteins. The authors show here that culture on a reconstituted basement membrane from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS) allows > 90% of cells to produce high levels of β-casein. By comparison, 30-40% of cells on released type 1 gels and only 2-10% of cells on plastic express β-casein after 6 days in culture. Because only 40% of cells from late pregnant gland produced β-casein before culture, the EHS matrix can both induce and maintain an increased level of casein gene expression. Individual basal lamina components were also evaluated. Type IV collagen and fibronectin had little effect on morphology and β-casein mRNA levels. In contrast, both laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan increased β-casein mRNA levels. Profound morphological differences were evident between cells cultured on plastic and on EHS matrix, the latter cells forming ducts, ductules, and lumina and resembling secretory alveoli. These results emphasize the vital role of the extracellular matrix in receiving and integrating structural and functional signals that can direct specific gene expression in differentiated tissues

  9. Abnormalities in the basement membrane structure promote basal keratinocytes in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars to adopt a proliferative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaowei; Sun, Yexiao; Geng, Zhijun; Ma, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-05-01

    The majority of studies on scar formation have mainly focused on the dermis and little is known of the involvement of the epidermis. Previous research has demonstrated that the scar tissue-derived keratinocytes are different from normal cells at both the genetic and cell biological levels; however, the mechanisms responsible for the fundamental abnormalities in keratinocytes during scar development remain elusive. For this purpose, in this study, we used normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissue to examine the morphological changes which occur during epidermal regeneration as part of the wound healing process and found that the histological structure of hypertrophic scar tissues differed from that of normal skin, with a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Notably, staining of the basement membrane (BM) appeared to be absent in the scar tissues. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin (CK)10, CK14, CK5, CK19 and integrin-β1 indicated the differential expression of cell markers in the epidermal keratinocytes among the normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissues, which corresponded with the altered BM structures. By using a panel of proteins associated with BM components, we validated our hypothesis that the BM plays a significant role in regulating the cell fate decision of epidermal keratinocytes during skin wound healing. Alterations in the structure of the BM promote basal keratinocytes to adopt a proliferative phenotype both in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Skin Basement Membrane: The Foundation of Epidermal Integrity—BM Functions and Diverse Roles of Bridging Molecules Nidogen and Perlecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Breitkreutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis functions in skin as first defense line or barrier against environmental impacts, resting on extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis underneath. Both compartments are connected by the basement membrane (BM, composed of a set of distinct glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Herein we are reviewing molecular aspects of BM structure, composition, and function regarding not only (i the dermoepidermal interface but also (ii the resident microvasculature, primarily focusing on the per se nonscaffold forming components perlecan and nidogen-1 and nidogen-2. Depletion or functional deficiencies of any BM component are lethal at some stage of development or around birth, though BM defects vary between organs and tissues. Lethality problems were overcome by developmental stage- and skin-specific gene targeting or by cell grafting and organotypic (3D cocultures of normal or defective cells, which allows recapitulating BM formation de novo. Thus, evidence is accumulating that BM assembly and turnover rely on mechanical properties and composition of the adjacent ECM and the dynamics of molecular assembly, including further “minor” local components, nidogens largely functioning as catalysts or molecular adaptors and perlecan as bridging stabilizer. Collectively, orchestration of BM assembly, remodeling, and the role of individual players herein are determined by the developmental, tissue-specific, or functional context.

  11. PF-1355, a mechanism-based myeloperoxidase inhibitor, prevents immune complex vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Warner, Roscoe; Ruggeri, Roger; Su, Chunyan; Cortes, Christian; Skoura, Athanasia; Ward, Jessica; Ahn, Kay; Kalgutkar, Amit; Sun, Dexue; Maurer, Tristan S; Bonin, Paul D; Okerberg, Carlin; Bobrowski, Walter; Kawabe, Thomas; Zhang, Yanwei; Coskran, Timothy; Bell, Sammy; Kapoor, Bhupesh; Johnson, Kent; Buckbinder, Leonard

    2015-05-01

    Small vessel vasculitis is a life-threatening condition and patients typically present with renal and pulmonary injury. Disease pathogenesis is associated with neutrophil accumulation, activation, and oxidative damage, the latter being driven in large part by myeloperoxidase (MPO), which generates hypochlorous acid among other oxidants. MPO has been associated with vasculitis, disseminated vascular inflammation typically involving pulmonary and renal microvasculature and often resulting in critical consequences. MPO contributes to vascular injury by 1) catabolizing nitric oxide, impairing vasomotor function; 2) causing oxidative damage to lipoproteins and endothelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis; and 3) stimulating formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, resulting in vessel occlusion and thrombosis. Here we report a selective 2-thiouracil mechanism-based MPO inhibitor (PF-1355 [2-(6-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide) and demonstrate that MPO is a critical mediator of vasculitis in mouse disease models. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic response model of PF-1355 exposure in relation with MPO activity was derived from mouse peritonitis. The contribution of MPO activity to vasculitis was then examined in an immune complex model of pulmonary disease. Oral administration of PF-1355 reduced plasma MPO activity, vascular edema, neutrophil recruitment, and elevated circulating cytokines. In a model of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, formerly known as Goodpasture disease, albuminuria and chronic renal dysfunction were completely suppressed by PF-1355 treatment. This study shows that MPO activity is critical in driving immune complex vasculitis and provides confidence in testing the hypothesis that MPO inhibition will provide benefit in treating human vasculitic diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Fibrillar, fibril-associated and basement membrane collagens of the arterial wall: architecture, elasticity and remodeling under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osidak, M S; Osidak, E O; Akhmanova, M A; Domogatsky, S P; Domogatskaya, A S

    2015-01-01

    The ability of a human artery to pass through 150 million liters of blood sustaining 2 billion pulsations of blood pressure with minor deterioration depends on unique construction of the arterial wall. Viscoelastic properties of this construction enable to re-seal the occuring damages apparently without direct immediate participance of the constituent cells. Collagen structures are considered to be the elements that determine the mechanoelastic properties of the wall in parallel with elastin responsible for elasticity and resilience. Collagen scaffold architecture is the function-dependent dynamic arrangement of a dozen different collagen types composing three distinct interacting forms inside the extracellular matrix of the wall. Tightly packed molecules of collagen types I, III, V provide high tensile strength along collagen fibrils but toughness of the collagen scaffold as a whole depends on molecular bonds between distinct fibrils. Apart of other macromolecules in the extracellular matrix (ECM), collagen-specific interlinks involve microfilaments of collagen type VI, meshwork-organized collagen type VIII, and FACIT collagen type XIV. Basement membrane collagen types IV, XV, XVIII and cell-associated collagen XIII enable transmission of mechanical signals between cells and whole artery matrix. Collagen scaffold undergoes continuous remodeling by decomposition promoted with MMPs and reconstitution from newly produced collagen molecules. Pulsatile stress-strain load modulates both collagen synthesis and MMP-dependent collagen degradation. In this way the ECM structure becomes adoptive to mechanical challenges. The mechanoelastic properties of the arterial wall are changed in atherosclerosis concomitantly with collagen turnover both type-specific and dependent on the structure. Improving the feedback could be another approach to restore sufficient blood circulation.

  13. Relationship of Basal laminar deposit and membranous debris to the clinical presentation of early age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarks, Shirley; Cherepanoff, Svetlana; Killingsworth, Murray; Sarks, John

    2007-03-01

    To correlate basal laminar deposit (BLamD) and membranous debris, including basal linear deposit (BLinD), with the evolution of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A clinicopathologic collection of 132 eyes with a continuous layer of BLamD was reviewed. The thickness and type of BLamD and the sites of membranous debris deposition were correlated with the clinical progression of the disease. Two types of BLamD, termed early and late, were identified based on light microscopic appearance by using the picro-Mallory stain. The progressive accumulation of late type BLamD correlated well with increasing BLamD thickness, advancing RPE degeneration, poorer vision, increasing age, and clinically evident pigment changes. Membranous debris initially accumulated diffusely as BLinD, most eyes with BLinD and early BLamD remaining funduscopically normal. However, membranous debris also formed focal collections as basal mounds internal to the RPE basement membrane and as soft drusen external to the basement membrane. Eyes in which membranous debris remained confined to basal mounds belonged to older patients with poorer vision, whereas patients with soft drusen were younger and had better vision. The presence of BLinD and early BLamD define threshold AMD, which manifests clinically as a normal fundus. Although late BLamD correlates most closely with clinical pigment abnormalities, it is the quantity and sites of membranous debris accumulation that appear to determine whether the disease develops pigment changes only or follows the alternative pathway of soft drusen formation with its attendant greater risk of choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

  14. Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Increased Content of Basement Membrane Proteins in Arteries from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Levels among Metformin Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone; Kristensen, Lars P; Beck, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    hypothesized that metformin intake influences the protein composition. METHODS AND RESULTS: -We analyzed non-atherosclerotic repair arteries gathered at coronary by-pass operations from 30 patients with type 2 diabetes, as well as from 30 age- and gender-matched non-diabetic individuals. Quantitative proteome......BACKGROUND: -The increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in type 2 diabetes has been extensively documented, but the origins of the association remain largely unknown. We sought to determine changes in protein expressions in arterial tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes and moreover...... analysis was done by iTRAQ-labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis on individual arterial samples. The amounts of the basement membrane (BM) components, alpha-1- and alpha-2- type IV collagen, gamma-1- and beta-2-laminin were significantly increased in patients with diabetes. Moreover, the expressions of basement...

  15. Podocytes regulate the glomerular basement membrane protein nephronectin by means of miR-378a-3p in glomerular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Deile, Janina; Dannenberg, Jan; Schroder, Patricia; Lin, Meei-Hua; Miner, Jeffrey H; Chen, Rongjun; Bräsen, Jan-Hinrich; Thum, Thomas; Nyström, Jenny; Staggs, Lynne Beverly; Haller, Hermann; Fiedler, Jan; Lorenzen, Johan M; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-10-01

    The pathophysiology of many proteinuric kidney diseases is poorly understood, and microRNAs (miRs) regulation of these diseases has been largely unexplored. Here, we tested whether miR-378a-3p is a novel regulator of glomerular diseases. MiR-378a-3p has two predicted targets relevant to glomerular function, the glomerular basement membrane matrix component, nephronectin (NPNT), and vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF-A. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), miR-378a-3p mimic injection or npnt knockdown by a morpholino oligomer caused an identical phenotype consisting of edema, proteinuria, podocyte effacement, and widening of the glomerular basement membrane in the lamina rara interna. Zebrafish vegf-A protein could not rescue this phenotype. However, mouse Npnt constructs containing a mutated 3'UTR region prevented the phenotype caused by miR-378a-3p mimic injection. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p in mice confirmed glomerular dysfunction in a mammalian model. Biopsies from patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and membranous nephropathy had increased miR-378a-3p expression and reduced glomerular levels of NPNT. Thus, miR-378a-3p-mediated suppression of the glomerular matrix protein NPNT is a novel mechanism for proteinuria development in active glomerular diseases. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetoresistive multilayers deposited on the AAO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkinski, Leszek M.; Chalastaras, Athanasios; Vovk, Andriy; Jung, Jin-Seung; Kim, Eun-Mee; Jun, Jong-Ho; Ventrice, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    Silicon and GaAs wafers are the most commonly used substrates for deposition of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) multilayers. We explored a new type of a substrate, prepared electrochemically by anodization of aluminum sheets, for deposition of GMR multilayers. The surface of this AAO substrate consists of nanosized hemispheres organized in a regular hexagonal array. The current applied along the substrate surface intersects many magnetic layers in the multilayered structure, which results in enhancement of giant magnetoresistance effect. The GMR effect in uncoupled Co/Cu multilayers was significantly larger than the magnetoresistance of similar structures deposited on Si

  17. A Regional Multi-scale 3D Geological Model of the Eastern Sub-Athabasca Basement, Canada: Implications for Vectoring towards Unconformity-type Uranium Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, Irvine R.; Reilkoff, Brian; Takacs, Erno; Hajnal, Zoltan; Pandit, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Summary and Conclusions • The GOCAD common earth environment allows integration of multiple geological, geophysical, geochemical, and petrophysical data sets from surface to depth. • We are able to manipulate and visualize the regional to district scale architecture of the Wollaston fold-and-thrust belt, especially with the aid of high-resolution seismic profiles. • High-resolution seismic and diamond drilling constrain the 3rd dimension. • The GOCAD model can be used in other modelling applications. • Our research is bringing new insight(s) to the role of the basement in the genesis of unconformity-type U deposits.

  18. Proteolytic processing of lysyl oxidase-like-2 in the extracellular matrix is required for crosslinking of basement membrane collagen IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jiménez, Alberto J; Basak, Trayambak; Vanacore, Roberto M

    2017-10-13

    Lysyl oxidase-like-2 (LOXL2) is an enzyme secreted into the extracellular matrix that crosslinks collagens by mediating oxidative deamination of lysine residues. Our previous work demonstrated that this enzyme crosslinks the 7S domain, a structural domain that stabilizes collagen IV scaffolds in the basement membrane. Despite its relevant role in extracellular matrix biosynthesis, little is known about the structural requirements of LOXL2 that enable collagen IV crosslinking. In this study, we demonstrate that LOXL2 is processed extracellularly by serine proteases, generating a 65-kDa form lacking the first two scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains. Site-specific mutagenesis to prevent proteolytic processing generated a full-length enzyme that is active in vitro toward a soluble substrate, but fails to crosslink insoluble collagen IV within the extracellular matrix. In contrast, the processed form of LOXL2 binds to collagen IV and crosslinks the 7S domain. Together, our data demonstrate that proteolytic processing is an important event that allows LOXL2-mediated crosslinking of basement membrane collagen IV. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. The central role of vascular extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: the matrix preloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh C

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The vascular endothelial basement membrane and extra cellular matrix is a compilation of different macromolecules organized by physical entanglements, opposing ionic charges, chemical covalent bonding, and cross-linking into a biomechanically active polymer. These matrices provide a gel-like form and scaffolding structure with regional tensile strength provided by collagens, elasticity by elastins, adhesiveness by structural glycoproteins, compressibility by proteoglycans – hyaluronans, and communicability by a family of integrins, which exchanges information between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix of vascular tissues. Each component of the extracellular matrix and specifically the capillary basement membrane possesses unique structural properties and interactions with one another, which determine the separate and combined roles in the multiple diabetic complications or diabetic opathies. Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their parallel companion (atheroscleropathy are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities and chronic injurious stimuli. The adaptable quality of a matrix or form genetically preloaded with the necessary information to communicate and respond to an ever-changing environment, which supports the interstitium, capillary and arterial vessel wall is individually examined.

  20. Electrochemically Deposited Nickel Membranes; Process-Microstructure-Property Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the manufacturing, surface morphology, internal structure and mechanical properties of Ni-foils used as membranes in reference-microphones. Two types of foils, referred to as S-type and 0-type foils, were electrochemically deposited from a Watts-type electrolyte, with (S...

  1. Glucuronylated core 1 glycans are required for precise localization of neuromuscular junctions and normal formation of basement membranes on Drosophila muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kondo, Shu; Ichimiya, Tomomi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Tiemeyer, Michael; Nishihara, Shoko

    2018-04-15

    T antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) is an evolutionary-conserved mucin-type core 1 glycan structure in animals synthesized by core 1 β1,3-galactosyltransferase 1 (C1GalT1). Previous studies showed that T antigen produced by Drosophila C1GalT1 (dC1GalT1) was expressed in various tissues and dC1GalT1 loss in larvae led to various defects, including decreased number of circulating hemocytes, hyper-differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in lymph glands, malformation of the central nervous system, mislocalization of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) boutons, and ultrastructural abnormalities in NMJs and muscle cells. Although glucuronylated T antigen (GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) has been identified in Drosophila, the physiological function of this structure has not yet been clarified. In this study, for the first time, we unraveled biological roles of glucuronylated T antigen. Our data show that in Drosophila, glucuronylation of T antigen is predominantly carried out by Drosophila β1,3-glucuronyltransferase-P (dGlcAT-P). We created dGlcAT-P null mutants and found that mutant larvae showed lower expression of glucuronylated T antigen on the muscles and at NMJs. Furthermore, mislocalization of NMJ boutons and a partial loss of the basement membrane components collagen IV (Col IV) and nidogen (Ndg) at the muscle 6/7 boundary were observed. Those two phenotypes were correlated and identical to previously described phenotypes in dC1GalT1 mutant larvae. In addition, dGlcAT-P null mutants exhibited fewer NMJ branches on muscles 6/7. Moreover, ultrastructural analysis revealed that basement membranes that lacked Col IV and Ndg were significantly deformed. We also found that the loss of dGlcAT-P expression caused ultrastructural defects in NMJ boutons. Finally, we showed a genetic interaction between dGlcAT-P and dC1GalT1. Therefore, these results demonstrate that glucuronylated core 1 glycans synthesized by dGlcAT-P are key modulators of NMJ bouton localization

  2. A regional multi-scale 3-D geological model of the Eastern Sub-Athabasca Basement, Canada: Implications for vectoring towards unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, I.; Reilkoff, B.; Takacs, E.; Hajnal, Z.; Pandit, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan is one of the most important mining districts in Canada; hosting the world’s highest grade uranium deposits and prospects. In the basin, many of the near-surface deposits have been discovered; hence new ore deposits at greater depths need to be discovered. To help make new discoveries, 3D geological modelling is being carried out. Here, we present our multidisciplinary approach, whereby a 3D geological model of the eastern sub- Athabasca basement of northern Saskatchewan (i.e. the eastern and western Wollaston domains, the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ), and the Mudjatik Domain) was developed in the common earth environment. The project was directed towards building a robust 3D model(s) of the upper 3-5 km of the Earth’s crust in three different scales: deposit-, district-, and regional-scale, using the GOCAD software platform (Paradigm). Our eastern sub-Athabasca basement model is constrained by both geological studies and geophysical techniques, such as topographic, outcrop, drill hole, petrophysical, and petrological data, along with geophysical potential field, electrical, and highresolution regional seismic data, in order to better understand the regional- to district-scale tectonics and controls on the uranium mineral system(s) operating pre-, syn-, and post-Athabasca deposition. The resulting data were interpreted and visualized as 3D-surfaces and bodies in GOCAD. This model reveals a framework of key lithological contacts, major high-strain zones, and the setting of unconformity-type uranium deposits. As a result, this new knowledge is being used to identify key exploration vectoring criteria for unconformity-type, magmatic, and metamorphic/ metasomatic uranium deposits and to delineate new exploration targets in the basin. Hence, this regional-scale 3D GOCAD model can be utilized as a guide for exploration activities within the region (e.g. picking new drill targets). As well, this 3D

  3. Age-related collagen turnover of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane: Implications of age- and sex-dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Stephanie N.; Willumsen, Nicholas; Armbrecht, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in maintaining normal tissue function. Collagens are major components of the ECM and there is a tight equilibrium between degradation and formation of these proteins ensuring tissue health and homeostasis. As a consequence of tissue turnover, small...... collagen fragments are released into the circulation, which act as important biomarkers in the study of certain tissue-related remodeling factors in health and disease. The aim of this study was to establish an age-related collagen turnover profile of the main collagens of the interstitial matrix (type I...... an increased turnover. In summary, collagen turnover is affected by age and sex with the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane being differently regulated. The observed changes needs to be accounted for when measuring ECM related biomarkers in clinical studies....

  4. Age-related collagen turnover of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane: Implications of age- and sex-dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Stephanie N; Willumsen, Nicholas; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Dietzel, Roswitha; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in maintaining normal tissue function. Collagens are major components of the ECM and there is a tight equilibrium between degradation and formation of these proteins ensuring tissue health and homeostasis. As a consequence of tissue turnover, small collagen fragments are released into the circulation, which act as important biomarkers in the study of certain tissue-related remodeling factors in health and disease. The aim of this study was to establish an age-related collagen turnover profile of the main collagens of the interstitial matrix (type I and III collagen) and basement membrane (type IV collagen) in healthy men and women. By using well-characterized competitive ELISA-assays, we assessed specific fragments of degraded (C1M, C3M, C4M) and formed (PINP, Pro-C3, P4NP7S) type I, III and IV collagen in serum from 617 healthy men and women ranging in ages from 22 to 86. Subjects were divided into 5-year age groups according to their sex and age. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis adjusted for Dunn's multiple comparisons test and Mann-Whitney t-test. Age-specific changes in collagen turnover was most profound for type I collagen. PINP levels decreased in men with advancing age, whereas in women, the level decreased in early adulthood followed by an increase around the age of menopause (age 40-60). Sex-specific changes in type I, III and IV collagen turnover was present at the age around menopause (age 40-60) with women having an increased turnover. In summary, collagen turnover is affected by age and sex with the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane being differently regulated. The observed changes needs to be accounted for when measuring ECM related biomarkers in clinical studies.

  5. Superpermeable membrane for particle control in divertor: the effect of impurity deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Ohyabu, N.; Suzuki, H.; Busnyuk, A.; Alimov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of impurity (stainless steel (SS) components, carbon) deposition onto niobium membrane surface on the membrane permeability to hydrogen particles is investigated with a plasma device. The deposition of SS components onto the upstream surface of the membrane at the membrane temperature (T M ) M M ≥800 deg. C. It appears to be due to the dissolution of the impurities deposited onto the upstream surface into the membrane bulk within the measurements

  6. Deposition of Aerosol Particles in Electrically Charged Membrane Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L

    1972-05-15

    A theory for the influence of electric charge on particle deposition on the surface of charged filters has been developed. It has been tested experimentally on ordinary membrane filters and Nuclepore filters of 8 mum pore size, with a bipolar monodisperse test aerosol of 1 mum particle diameter, and at a filter charge up to 20 muC/m2. Agreement with theory was obtained for the Coulomb force between filter and particle for both kinds of filters. The image force between charged filter and neutral particles did not result in the predicted deposition in the ordinary membrane filter, probably due to lacking correspondence between the filter model employed for the theory, and the real filter. For the Nuclepore filter a satisfactory agreement with theory was obtained, also at image interaction

  7. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian

    2013-04-02

    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  8. Deposition and consolidation of porous ceramic films for membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Johannessen, Tue

    The deposition of porous ceramic films for membrane separation can be done by several processes such as thermophoresis [1], dip-coating [2] and spray pyrolysis [3]. Here we present a high-speed method, in which ceramic nano-particles form a porous film by filtration on top of a porous ceramic...... substrate [4]. Ceramic nano-particles are generated in a flame, using either a premixed (gas) flame, in which a metal-oxide precursor is evaporated in an N2 stream, which is combusted with methane and air, or using a flame spray pyrolysis, in which a liquid metal-oxide precursor is sprayed through a nozzle...

  9. Preparation of membranes using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA; Letts, Stephan A [San Ramon, CA; Spadaccini, Christopher M [Oakland, CA; Morse, Jeffrey C [Pleasant Hill, CA; Buckley, Steven R [Modesto, CA; Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Wilson, Keith B [San Ramon, CA

    2010-07-13

    A system of fabricating a composite membrane from a membrane substrate using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. A first monomer and a second monomer are directed into a mixing chamber in a deposition chamber. The first monomer and the second monomer are mixed in the mixing chamber providing a mixed first monomer and second monomer. The mixed first monomer and second monomer are solvent-less vapor deposited onto the membrane substrate in the deposition chamber. The membrane substrate and the mixed first monomer and second monomer are heated to produce in-situ polymerization and provide the composite membrane.

  10. Crucial Role of Mesangial Cell-derived Connective Tissue Growth Factor in a Mouse Model of Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Naohiro; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kasahara, Masato; Ishii, Akira; Koga, Kenichi; Ohno, Shoko; Mori, Keita P; Kato, Yukiko; Osaki, Keisuke; Kuwabara, Takashige; Kojima, Katsutoshi; Taura, Daisuke; Sone, Masakatsu; Matsusaka, Taiji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Mukoyama, Masashi; Yanagita, Motoko; Yokoi, Hideki

    2017-02-13

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) coordinates the signaling of growth factors and promotes fibrosis. Neonatal death of systemic CTGF knockout (KO) mice has hampered analysis of CTGF in adult renal diseases. We established 3 types of CTGF conditional KO (cKO) mice to investigate a role and source of CTGF in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis. Tamoxifen-inducible systemic CTGF (Rosa-CTGF) cKO mice exhibited reduced proteinuria with ameliorated crescent formation and mesangial expansion in anti-GBM nephritis after induction. Although CTGF is expressed by podocytes at basal levels, podocyte-specific CTGF (pod-CTGF) cKO mice showed no improvement in renal injury. In contrast, PDGFRα promoter-driven CTGF (Pdgfra-CTGF) cKO mice, which predominantly lack CTGF expression by mesangial cells, exhibited reduced proteinuria with ameliorated histological changes. Glomerular macrophage accumulation, expression of Adgre1 and Ccl2, and ratio of M1/M2 macrophages were all reduced both in Rosa-CTGF cKO and Pdgfra-CTGF cKO mice, but not in pod-CTGF cKO mice. TGF-β1-stimulated Ccl2 upregulation in mesangial cells and macrophage adhesion to activated mesangial cells were decreased by reduction of CTGF. These results reveal a novel mechanism of macrophage migration into glomeruli with nephritis mediated by CTGF derived from mesangial cells, implicating the therapeutic potential of CTGF inhibition in glomerulonephritis.

  11. H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable of degrading basement membrane collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, I.E.; Wilhelm, S.M.; Eisen, A.Z.

    1988-01-01

    H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. The substrates in their order of preference are: gelatin, type IV collagen, type V collagen, fibronectin, and type VII collagen; but the enzyme does not cleave the interstitial collagens or laminin. This protease is identical to gelatinase isolated from normal human skin explants, normal human skin fibroblasts, and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts. Based on this ability to initiate the degradation of type IV collagen in a pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule, it will be referred to as type IV collagenase. This enzyme is most likely the human analog of type IV collagenase detected in several rodent tumors. Type IV collagenase consists of three domains. Type IV collagenase represents the third member of a newly recognized gene family coding for secreted extracellular matrix metalloproteases, which includes interstitial fibroblast collagenase and stromelysin

  12. A two-dimensional model of the colonic crypt accounting for the role of the basement membrane and pericryptal fibroblast sheath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.

  13. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radu, A.I.; van Steen, M.S.H.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Picioreanu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic

  14. Comparing The Efficacy of Hematoxylin and Eosin, Periodic Acid Schiff and Fluorescent Periodic Acid Schiff-Acriflavine Techniques for Demonstration of Basement Membrane in Oral Lichen Planus: A Histochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, Ashwini; Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Basement membrane (BM) is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E) is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 - Normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 30 - oral lichen planus (OLP) were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain.

  15. Comparing the efficacy of hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid schiff and fluorescent periodic acid schiff-acriflavine techniques for demonstration of basement membrane in oral lichen planus: A histochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Pujar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basement membrane (BM is a thick sheet of extracellular matrix molecules, upon which epithelial cells attach. Various immunohistochemical studies in the past have been carried out but these advanced staining techniques are expensive and not feasible in routine laboratories. Although hematoxylin and eosin (H-E is very popular among pathologists for looking at biopsies, the method has some limitations. This is where special stains come handy. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate and compare the efficacy of H-E, periodic acid Schiff (PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine staining techniques for the basement membrane and to establish a histochemical stain which could be cost effective, less time consuming, and unambiguous for observation of the basement membrane zone. Materials and Methods: A total number of 40 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of known basement membrane containing tissues including 10 - Normal oral mucosa (NOM and 30 - oral lichen planus (OLP were considered in the study. Four-micron-thick sections of each block were cut and stained with H-E stain, PAS and fluorescent periodic acid-acriflavine stain. Sections were evaluated by three oral pathologists independently for continuity, contrast and pattern. Results: Though all the three stains showed favorable features at different levels, acriflavine stain was better than the other stains in demonstrating BM continuity, contrast and also the pattern followed by PAS stain. Acriflavine stain was the better in demonstrating a fibrillar pattern of a BM. Acriflavine stains a BM distinctly and is less time consuming and easy to carry out using readily available dyes as compared to other stains. Conclusion: The continuity and contrast along with the homogenous pattern and the afibrillar pattern of the BM was better demonstrated by acriflavine followed by the PAS stain.

  16. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.W.; Li, J.X.; Gao, C.Y.; Chang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  17. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.W., E-mail: lynnww@sohu.com [School of Electronic and Information Engieering, Tianjin university, Tianjin, 300072 (China); School of Electronics Information Engieering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China); Li, J.X. [Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Gao, C.Y. [Chinese Peoples Armed Police Forces Academy, Langfang 065000 (China); Chang, M. [School of Electronic and Information Engieering, Tianjin university, Tianjin, 300072 (China); School of Electronics Information Engieering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin, 300384 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  18. Poliomyelitis in MuLV-infected ICR-SCID mice after injection of basement membrane matrix contaminated with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Garg, Rohit; Compton, Susan R; Allore, Heather G; Zeiss, Caroline J; Uchio, Edward M

    2011-10-01

    The arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) causes life-long viremia in mice. Although LDV infection generally does not cause disease, infected mice that are homozygous for the Fv1(n) allele are prone to develop poliomyelitis when immunosuppressed, a condition known as age-dependent poliomyelitis. The development of age-dependent poliomyelitis requires coinfection with endogenous murine leukemia virus. Even though LDV is a common contaminant of transplantable tumors, clinical signs of poliomyelitis after inadvertent exposure to LDV have not been described in recent literature. In addition, LDV-induced poliomyelitis has not been reported in SCID or ICR mice. Here we describe the occurrence of poliomyelitis in ICR-SCID mice resulting from injection of LDV-contaminated basement membrane matrix. After exposure to LDV, a subset of mice presented with clinical signs including paresis, which was associated with atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, and tachypnea; in addition, some mice died suddenly with or without premonitory signs. Mice presenting within the first 6 mo after infection had regions of spongiosis, neuronal necrosis and astrocytosis of the ventral spinal cord, and less commonly, brainstem. Axonal degeneration of ventral roots prevailed in more chronically infected mice. LDV was identified by RT-PCR in 12 of 15 mice with typical neuropathology; positive antiLDV immunolabeling was identified in all PCR-positive animals (n = 7) tested. Three of 8 mice with neuropathology but no clinical signs were LDV negative by RT-PCR. RT-PCR yielded murine leukemia virus in spinal cords of all mice tested, regardless of clinical presentation or neuropathology.

  19. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that the major gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mammalian craniofacial development. Since these matrix metalloproteinases are secreted as proenzymes that require activation, their tissue distribution does not necessarily reflect the sites of enzymatic activity. Information regarding the spatial and temporal expression of gelatinolytic activity in the head of the mammalian embryo is sparse. Sensitive in situ zymography with dye-quenched gelatin (DQ-gelatin) has been introduced recently; gelatinolytic activity results in a local increase in fluorescence. Using frontal sections of wild-type mouse embryo heads from embryonic day 14.5-15.5, we optimized and validated a simple double-labeling in situ technique for combining DQ-gelatin zymography with immunofluorescence staining. MMP inhibitors were tested to confirm the specificity of the reaction in situ, and results were compared to standard SDS-gel zymography of tissue extracts. Double-labeling was used to show the spatial relationship in situ between gelatinolytic activity and immunostaining for gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, collagenase 3 (MMP-13) and MT1-MMP (MMP-14), a major activator of pro-gelatinases. Strong gelatinolytic activity, which partially overlapped with MMP proteins, was confirmed for Meckel's cartilage and developing mandibular bone. In addition, we combined in situ zymography with immunostaining for extracellular matrix proteins that are potential gelatinase substrates. Interestingly, gelatinolytic activity colocalized precisely with laminin-positive basement membranes at specific sites around growing epithelia in the developing mouse head, such as the ducts of salivary glands or the epithelial fold between tongue and lower jaw region. Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo.

  20. Anti-nucleosome antibodies complexed to nucleosomal antigens show anti-DNA reactivity and bind to rat glomerular basement membrane in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramers, C; Hylkema, M N; van Bruggen, M C; van de Lagemaat, R; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; Smeenk, R J; Berden, J H

    1994-01-01

    Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM, and if so, whether the ligand in the GBM is HS. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) complexed to nucleosomal antigens and noncomplexed mAbs were isolated from culture supernatants of four IgG anti-nuclear mAbs. All noncomplexed mAbs showed strong anti-nucleosome reactivity in ELISA. One of them showed in addition anti-DNA reactivity in noncomplexed form. The other three mAbs only showed anti-DNA reactivity when they were complexed to nucleosomal antigens. After renal perfusion a fine granular binding of complexed mAbs to the glomerular capillary wall and activation of complement was observed in immunofluorescence, whereas noncomplexed mAbs did not bind. Immuno-electron microscopy showed binding of complexes to the whole width of the GBM. When HS in the GBM was removed by renal heparinase perfusion the binding of complexed mAb decreased, but did not disappear completely. We conclude that anti-nucleosome mAbs, which do not bind DNA, become DNA reactive once complexed to nucleosomal antigens. These complexed mAbs can bind to the GBM. The binding ligand in the GBM is partly, but not solely, HS. Binding to the GBM of immune complexes containing nucleosomal material might be an important event in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Images PMID:8040312

  1. Production of selective membranes using plasma deposited nanochanneled thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Motta Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolization of thin films obtained by tetraethoxysilane plasma polymerization results in the formation of a nanochanneled silicone like structure that could be useful for the production of selective membranes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to test the permeation properties of hydrolyzed thin films. The films were tested for: 1 permeation of polar organic compounds and/or water in gaseous phase and 2 permeation of salt in liquid phase. The efficiency of permeation was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM technique in gas phase and conductimetric analysis (CA in liquid phase. The substrates used were: silicon for characterization of the deposited films, piezoelectric quartz crystals for tests of selective membranes and cellophane paper for tests of permeation. QCM analysis showed that the nanochannels allow the adsorption and/or permeation of polar organic compounds, such as acetone and 2-propanol, and water. CA showed that the films allow salt permeation after an inhibition time needed for hydrolysis of the organic radicals within the film. Due to their characteristics, the films can be used for grains protection against microorganism proliferation during storage without preventing germination.

  2. Surface modification of reverse osmosis desalination membranes by thin-film coatings deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeince@sabanciuniv.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Matin, Asif, E-mail: amatin@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zafarullah, E-mail: zukhan@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, S.M. Javaid, E-mail: zaidismj@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gleason, Karen K., E-mail: kkgleasn@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Thin-film polymeric reverse osmosis membranes, due to their high permeation rates and good salt rejection capabilities, are widely used for seawater desalination. However, these membranes are prone to biofouling, which affects their performance and efficiency. In this work, we report a method to modify the membrane surface without damaging the active layer or significantly affecting the performance of the membrane. Amphiphilic copolymer films of hydrophilic hydroxyethylmethacrylate and hydrophobic perfluorodecylacrylate (PFA) were synthesized and deposited on commercial RO membranes using an initiated chemical vapor deposition technique which is a polymer deposition technique that involves free-radical polymerization initiated by gas-phase radicals. Relevant surface characteristics such as hydrophilicity and roughness could be systematically controlled by varying the polymer chemistry. Increasing the hydrophobic PFA content in the films leads to an increase in the surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the surface morphology studies performed using the atomic force microscopy show that as the thickness of the coating increases average surface roughness increases. Using this knowledge, the coating thickness and chemistry were optimized to achieve high permeate flux and to reduce cell attachment. Results of the static bacterial adhesion tests show that the attachment of bacterial cells is significantly reduced on the coated membranes. - Highlights: • Thin films are deposited on reverse osmosis membranes. • Amphiphilic thin films are resistant to protein attachment. • The permeation performance of the membranes is not affected by the coating. • The thin film coatings delayed the biofouling.

  3. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  4. Divergent mechanisms underlie Smad4-mediated positive regulation of the three genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332 (laminin-5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zboralski, Dirk; Böckmann, Miriam; Zapatka, Marc; Hoppe, Sabine; Schöneck, Anna; Hahn, Stephan A; Schmiegel, Wolff; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard

    2008-01-01

    Functional inactivation of the tumor suppressor Smad4 in colorectal and pancreatic carcinogenesis occurs coincident with the transition to invasive growth. Breaking the basement membrane (BM) barrier, a prerequisite for invasive growth, can be due to tumor induced proteolytic tissue remodeling or to reduced synthesis of BM molecules by incipient tumor cells. Laminin-332 (laminin-5), a heterotrimeric BM component composed of α3-, β3- and γ2-chains, has recently been identified as a target structure of Smad4 and represents the first example for expression control of an essential BM component by a tumor and invasion suppressor. Biochemically Smad4 is a transmitter of signals of the TGFβ superfamily of cytokines. We have reported previously, that Smad4 functions as a positive transcriptional regulator of constitutive and of TGFβ-induced transcription of all three genes encoding Laminin-332, LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2. Promoter-reporter constructs harboring 4 kb upstream regions, each of the three genes encoding Laminin-322 as well as deletion and mutations constructs were established. Promoter activities and TGFβ induction were assayed through transient transfections in Smad4-negative human cancer cells and their stable Smad4-positive derivatives. Functionally relevant binding sites were subsequently confirmed through chromatin immunoprecipitation. Herein, we report that Smad4 mediates transcriptional regulation through three different mechanisms, namely through Smad4 binding to a functional SBE site exclusively in the LAMA3 promoter, Smad4 binding to AP1 (and Sp1) sites presumably via interaction with AP1 family components and lastly a Smad4 impact on transcription of AP1 factors. Whereas Smad4 is essential for positive regulation of all three genes, the molecular mechanisms are significantly divergent between the LAMA3 promoter as compared to the LAMB3 and LAMC2 promoters. We hypothesize that this divergence in modular regulation of the three promoters may lay the

  5. Circulating Vascular Basement Membrane Fragments are Associated with the Diameter of the Abdominal Aorta and Their Expression Pattern is Altered in AAA Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsti, Mari; Wanhainen, Anders; Lundin, Christina; Björck, Martin; Tegler, Gustaf; Svensson, Johan; Sund, Malin

    2018-04-12

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterised by enhanced proteolytic activity, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling in the vascular wall. Type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin are structural proteins in vascular basement membrane (VBM), a specialised ECM structure. Here the association between plasma levels of these collagens with the aortic diameter and expansion rate is studied, and their expression in aortic tissue characterised. This was a retrospective population based cohort study. Type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin were analysed in plasma by ELISA assay in 615 men, divided into three groups based on the aortic diameter: 1) normal aorta ≤ 25 mm, 2) sub-aneurysmal aorta (SAA) 26-29 mm, and 3) AAA ≥ 30 mm. Follow up data were available for 159 men. The association between collagen levels and aortic diameter at baseline, and with the expansion rate at follow up were analysed in ordinal logistic regression and linear regression models, controlling for common confounding factors. Tissue expression of the collagens was analysed in normal aorta (n = 6) and AAA (n = 6) by immunofluorescence. Plasma levels of type XVIII collagen/endostatin (136 ng/mL [SD 29] in individuals with a normal aorta diameter, 154 ng/ml [SD 45] in SAA, and 162 ng/ml [SD 46] in AAA; p = .001) and type IV collagen (105 ng/mL [SD 42] normal aorta, 124 ng/ml [SD 46] SAA, and 127 ng/ml [SD 47] AAA; p = .037) were associated with a larger aortic diameter. A significant association was found between the baseline levels of type XVIII/endostatin and the aortic expansion rate (p = .035), but in the multivariable model, only the initial aortic diameter remained significantly associated with expansion (p = .005). Altered expression patterns of both collagens were observed in AAA tissue. Plasma levels of circulating type IV and XVIII collagen/endostatin increase with AAA diameter. The expression pattern of VBM proteins is altered in the aneurysm wall. Copyright

  6. C-O-H-N fluids circulations and graphite precipitation in reactivated Hudsonian shear zones during basement uplift of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone: Example of the Cigar Lake U deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Pierre; Cathelineau, Michel; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Jaguin, Justine; Tarantola, Alexandre; Demacon, Mickael; Gerbeaud, Olivier; Quirt, David; Doney, Amber; Ledru, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Graphitic shear zones are spatially associated with unconformity-related uranium deposits that are located around the unconformity between the strata of the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) and its underlying Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement. The present study focuses on basement-hosted ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones near the Cigar Lake U deposit, one of the largest unconformity-related U deposits. The goal of the study is to decipher the pre-Athabasca Basin fluid migration history recorded within such structures and its potential role on the formation of such exceptional deposit. Dominantly C-O-H(-N) metamorphic fluids have been trapped in Fluid Inclusion Planes (FIPs) in magmatic quartz within ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones active during retrograde metamorphism associated with the formation of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ) between ca. 1805 and 1720 Ma. Such fluids show a compositional evolution along the retrograde path, from a dense and pure CO2 fluid during the earliest stages, through a lower density CO2 ± CH4-N2 (± H2O) fluid and, finally, to a very low density CH4-N2 fluid. Statistical study of the orientation, distribution, proportion, and chemical characterization of the FIPs shows that: i) CO2 (δ13CCO2 around - 9‰ PDB) from decarbonation reactions and/or partial water-metamorphic graphite equilibrium initially migrated regionally and pervasively under lithostatic conditions at about 500 to 800 °C and 150 to 300 MPa. Such P-T conditions attest to a high geothermal gradient of around 60 to 90 °C/km, probably related to rapid exhumation of the basement or a large-scale heat source. ii) Later brittle reactivation of the shear zone at around 450 °C and 25-50 MPa favored circulation of CO2-CH4-N2(± H2O) fluids in equilibrium with metamorphic graphite (δ13CCO2 around - 14‰) under hydrostatic conditions and only within the shear zones. Cooling of these fluids and the water uptake linked

  7. Glutathione S-transferase Mu 2-transduced mesenchymal stem cells ameliorated anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis by inhibiting oxidation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajuan; Yan, Mei; Yang, Jichen; Raman, Indu; Du, Yong; Min, Soyoun; Fang, Xiangdong; Mohan, Chandra; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2014-01-30

    Oxidative stress is implicated in tissue inflammation, and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated nephritis. Using the anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-induced glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM-GN) mouse model, we found that increased expression of glutathione S-transferase Mu 2 (GSTM2) was related to reduced renal damage caused by anti-GBM antibodies. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy has shed light on the treatment of immune-mediated kidney diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if MSCs could be utilized as vehicles to deliver the GSTM2 gene product into the kidney and to evaluate its potential therapeutic effect on anti-GBM-GN. The human GSTM2 gene (hGSTM2) was transduced into mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs via a lentivirus vector to create a stable cell line (hGSTM2-MSC). The cultured hGSTM2-MSCs were treated with 0.5 mM H2O2, and apoptotic cells were measured by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The 129/svj mice, which were challenged with anti-GBM antibodies, were injected with 10⁶ hGSTM2-MSCs via the tail vein. Expression of hGSTM2 and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney was assayed by quantitative PCR and western blotting. Renal function of mice was evaluated by monitoring proteinuria and levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and renal pathological changes were analyzed by histochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to measure inflammatory cell infiltration and renal cell apoptosis. MSCs transduced with hGSTM2 exhibited similar growth and differentiation properties to MSCs. hGSTM2-MSCs persistently expressed hGSTM2 and resisted H2O2-induced apoptosis. Upon injection into 129/svj mice, hGSTM2-MSCs migrated to the kidney and expressed hGSTM2. The anti-GBM-GN mice treated with hGSTM2-MSCs exhibited reduced proteinuria and BUN (58% and 59% reduction, respectively) and ameliorated renal pathological damage, compared with control mice. Mice injected with hGSTM2-MSCs showed

  8. Plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles on ultrafiltration membranes: antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Ruano, Gustavo; Wolf, Marcus; Hecker, Dominic; Vidaurre, Elza Castro; Schmittgens, Ralph; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    A novel and versatile plasma reactor was used to modify Polyethersulphone commercial membranes. The equipment was applied to: i) functionalize the membranes with low-temperature plasmas, ii) deposit a film of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and, iii) deposit silver nanoparticles (SNP) by Gas Flow Sputtering. Each modification process was performed in the same reactor consecutively, without exposure of the membranes to atmospheric air. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the particles and modified membranes. SNP are evenly distributed on the membrane surface. Particle fixation and transport inside membranes were assessed before- and after-washing assays by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. PMMA addition improved SNP fixation. Plasma-treated membranes showed higher hydrophilicity. Anti-biofouling activity was successfully achieved against Gram-positive ( Enterococcus faecalis ) and -negative ( Salmonella Typhimurium) bacteria. Therefore, disinfection by ultrafiltration showed substantial resistance to biofouling. The post-synthesis functionalization process developed provides a more efficient fabrication route for anti-biofouling and anti-bacterial membranes used in the water treatment field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gas phase condensation process combined with a PECVD procedure in order to deposit SNP on commercial membranes to inhibit biofouling formation.

  9. Surface Modification of Ceramic Membranes with Thin-film Deposition Methods for Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling, which is caused by deposition/adsorption of foulants on the surface or within membrane pores, still remains a bottleneck that hampers the widespread application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment. Recently membrane surface modification has proved to be a useful method in water/wastewater treatment to improve the surface hydrophilicity of membranes to obtain higher water fluxes and to reduce fouling. In this study, membrane modification was investigated by depositing a thin film of same thickness of TiO2 on the surface of an ultrafiltration alumina membrane. Various thin-film deposition (TFD) methods were employed, i.e. electron-beam evaporation, sputter and atomic layer deposition (ALD), and a comparative study of the methods was conducted to assess fouling inhibition performance in a lab-scale anaerobic MBR (AnMBR) fed with synthetic municipal wastewater. Thorough surface characterization of all modified membranes was carried out along with clean water permeability (CWP) tests and fouling behavior by bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption tests. The study showed better fouling inhibition performance of all modified membranes; however the effect varied due to different surface characteristics obtained by different deposition methods. As a result, ALD-modified membrane showed a superior status in terms of surface characteristics and fouling inhibition performance in AnMBR filtration tests. Hence ALD was determined to be the best TFD method for alumina membrane surface modification for this study. ALD-modified membranes were further characterized to determine an optimum thickness of TiO2-film by applying different ALD cycles. ALD treatment significantly improved the surface hydrophilicity of the unmodified membrane. Also ALD-TiO2 modification was observed to reduce the surface roughness of original alumina membrane, which in turn enhanced the anti-fouling properties of modified membranes. Finally, a same thickness of ALD

  10. On the enhancement of pervaporation properties of plasma-deposited hybrid silica membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamou, P.H.T.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Overbeek, J.P.; Kreiter, R.; Van Veen, H.M.; Vente, J.F. [ECN, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Cuperus, P.F. [SolSep BV, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-06-24

    The separation performance of a polymeric-supported hybrid silica membrane in the dehydration process of a butanol-water mixture at 95C has been enhanced by applying a bias to the substrate during the plasma deposition.

  11. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radu, A.I.

    2014-11-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic observations in membrane fouling simulators revealed formation of specific particle deposition patterns for different diamond and ladder feed spacer orientations. A three-dimensional numerical model combining fluid flow with a Lagrangian approach for particle trajectory calculations could describe very well the in-situ observations on particle deposition in flow cells. Feed spacer geometry, positioning and cross-flow velocity sensitively influenced the particle transport and deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were not influenced by permeate production. This combined experimental-modeling approach could be used for feed spacer geometry optimization studies for reduced (bio)fouling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Deposition of polymeric perfluored thin films in proton ionic membranes by plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, Peter Lubomir; Mousinho, Ana Paula; Ordonez, Nelson; Silva Zambom, Luis da; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues

    2007-01-01

    In this work the surfaces of polymeric membranes based on Nafion (proton conducting material), used in proton exchange membranes fuel cells (PEMFC) had been modified by plasma deposition of perfluored polymers, in order to improve its functioning in systems of energy generation (fuel cells). The deposition increases the chemical resistance of the proton ionic polymers without losing the electrical properties. The processing of the membranes also reduces the permeability of the membranes to the alcohols (methanol and ethanol), thus preventing poisoning of the fuel cell. The processing of the membranes of Nafion was carried through in a system of plasma deposition using a mixture of CF 4 and H 2 gases. The plasma processing was made mainly to increase the chemical resistance and result in hydrophobic surfaces. The Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) technique supplies a spectrum with information about the CF n bond formation. Through the Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique it was possible to verify the deposition rate of the polymeric layer. The plasma process with composition of 60% of CF 4 and 40% of H 2 presented the best deposition rate. By the spectrum analysis for the optimized configuration, it was possible to verify that the film deposition occurred with a thickness of 90 nm, and fluorine concentration was nearly 30%. Voltammetry made possible to verify that the fluorination increases the membranes chemical resistance, improving the stability of Nafion, becoming an attractive process for construction of fuel cells

  13. Deposition of toxic metal particles on rough nanofiltration membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agboola, Oluranti; Maree, Jannie; Mbaya, Richard; Zvinowanda, Caliphs Musa [Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Molelekwa, Gomotsegang Fred; Jullok, Nora; Bruggen, Bart Van der; Volodine, Alexander; Haesendonck, Chris Van [KU Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    Two nanofiltration (NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012) membranes were investigated for their capacity to remove metal ions. This study presents the effect of membrane roughness on the removal of toxic metal ions during dead end membrane filtration. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, WSXM software and ImageJ were used to characterize the roughness of the membranes. Gradual decrease in filtration permeate flux was observed as foulants accumulated at the interface of the membranes; filtration permeate flux varied from 20 L/m{sup 2}/h to 14 L/m{sup 2}/h and 11 L/ m{sup 2}/h to 6 L/m{sup 2}/h for NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012, respectively. NF90 membrane was more prone to fouling than the Nano-Pro-3012 membrane: the percentage flux reduction was higher for NF90 (3.6%) than Nano-Pro-3012 (0.98%). The bearing ratio of the fouled NF90 exhibited a high peak of 7.09 nm than the fouled Nano-Pro-3012 with the peak of 6.8 nm.

  14. Deposition of toxic metal particles on rough nanofiltration membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agboola, Oluranti; Maree, Jannie; Mbaya, Richard; Zvinowanda, Caliphs Musa; Molelekwa, Gomotsegang Fred; Jullok, Nora; Bruggen, Bart Van der; Volodine, Alexander; Haesendonck, Chris Van

    2014-01-01

    Two nanofiltration (NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012) membranes were investigated for their capacity to remove metal ions. This study presents the effect of membrane roughness on the removal of toxic metal ions during dead end membrane filtration. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, WSXM software and ImageJ were used to characterize the roughness of the membranes. Gradual decrease in filtration permeate flux was observed as foulants accumulated at the interface of the membranes; filtration permeate flux varied from 20 L/m 2 /h to 14 L/m 2 /h and 11 L/ m 2 /h to 6 L/m 2 /h for NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012, respectively. NF90 membrane was more prone to fouling than the Nano-Pro-3012 membrane: the percentage flux reduction was higher for NF90 (3.6%) than Nano-Pro-3012 (0.98%). The bearing ratio of the fouled NF90 exhibited a high peak of 7.09 nm than the fouled Nano-Pro-3012 with the peak of 6.8 nm

  15. Discussion on the basement topography and its relation with the uranium mineralization in Xiangshan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Qihua; Liu Qingcheng

    2002-01-01

    The depth of the basement and the relation between the basement relief shape and uranium mineralization are discussed by forward and inverse computation for large-scale gravity data in Xiangshan basin. The difference of basement topography result in the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium mineralization. The margin of the basement upheaval section and the variation place of basement topography are the favorable place for uranium mineralization. It's helpful to prospect deep and blind uranium deposit in Xiangshan basin

  16. Deposition of Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (LSCF) Using Suspension Plasma Spraying for Oxygen Transport Membrane Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, E. S. C.; Kesler, O.

    2015-08-01

    Suspension plasma spray deposition was utilized to fabricate dense lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxygen separation membranes (OSMs) on porous metal substrates for mechanical support. The as-sprayed membranes had negligible and/or reversible material decomposition. At the longer stand-off distance (80 mm), smooth and dense membranes could be manufactured using a plasma with power below approximately 81 kW. Moreover, a membrane of 55 μm was observed to have very low gas leakage rates desirable for OSM applications. This thickness could potentially be decreased further to improve oxygen diffusion by using metal substrates with finer surface pores.

  17. Aggressive media exposed differential pressure sensor with a deposited membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaidat, Salim; Eriksen, Gert Friis; Reus, Roger De

    2001-01-01

    protective coating using sputtered films, which usually have poor step coverage. The concept is demonstrated using both epipoly silicon and sputtered amorphous silicon as membrane materials and tantalum oxide as coating material. Using polysilicon piezoresistors, a sensitivity of 11.3 mV/V bar was obtained...

  18. Cellulose microfibril deposition: coordinated activity at the plant plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.J.; Mulder, B.; Vos, J.W.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cell wall production is a membrane-bound process. Cell walls are composed of cellulose microfibrils, embedded inside a matrix of other polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The cell wall matrix is extruded into the existing cell wall by exocytosis. This same process also inserts the cellulose

  19. Deposition of Pd–Ag thin film membranes on ceramic supports for hydrogen purification/separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.I. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus Azurém, 4800-058 (Portugal); Pérez, P.; Rodrigues, S.C.; Mendes, A.; Madeira, L.M. [LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Tavares, C.J., E-mail: ctavares@fisica.uminho.pt [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus Azurém, 4800-058 (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Thin film Pd–Ag membranes have been produced for hydrogen selectivity. • Magnetron sputtering yields Pd–Ag compact films for atomic H diffusion. • The thin film Pd–Ag membranes yielded a selectivity of α (H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) = 10. - Abstract: Pd–Ag based membranes supported on porous α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (doped with yttria-stabilized zirconia) were studied for hydrogen selective separation. Magnetron sputtering technique was employed for the synthesis of thin film membranes. The hydrogen permeation flux is affected by the membrane columnar structure, which is formed during deposition. From scanning electron microscopy analysis, it was observed that different sputtering deposition pressures lead to distinct columnar structure growth. X-ray diffraction patterns provided evidence of a Pd–Ag solid solution with an average crystallite domain size of 21 nm, whose preferential growth can be altered by the deposition pressure. The gas-permeation results have shown that the Pd–Ag membrane supported on porous α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is selective toward H{sub 2}. For optimized membrane synthesis conditions, the permeance toward N{sub 2} is 0.076 × 10{sup −6} mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} Pa{sup −1} at room temperature, whereas for a pressure difference of 300 kPa the H{sub 2}-flux is of the order of ca. 0.21 mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, which corresponds to a permeance of 0.71 × 10{sup −6} mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} Pa{sup −1}, yielding a selectivity of α (H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) = 10. These findings suggest that the membrane has a reasonable capacity to selectively permeate this gas.

  20. Plasma-deposited hybrid silica membranes with a controlled retention of organic bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamou, P.H.T.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Overbeek, J.P.; Kreiter, R.; Van Veen, H.M.; Vente, J.F. [ECN, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Wienk, I.M.; Cuperus, P.F. [SolSep BV, Apeldoorn (Netherlands)

    2013-03-05

    Hybrid organically bridged silica membranes are suitable for energy-efficient molecular separations under harsh industrial conditions. Such membranes can be useful in organic solvent nanofiltration if they can be deposited on flexible, porous and large area supports. Here, we report the proof of concept for applying an expanding thermal plasma to the synthesis of perm-selective hybrid silica films from an organically bridged monomer, 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane. This membrane is the first in its class to be produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. By tuning the plasma and process parameters, the organic bridging groups could be retained in the separating layer. This way, a defect free film could be made with pervaporation performances of an n-butanol-water mixture comparable with those of conventional ceramic supported membranes made by sol-gel technology (i.e. a water flux of [similar]1.8 kg m'-{sup 2} h{sup -1}, a water concentration in the permeate higher than 98% and a separation factor of >1100). The obtained results show the suitability of expanding thermal plasma as a technology for the deposition of hybrid silica membranes for molecular separations.

  1. Deposition of thin ultrafiltration membranes on commercial SiC microfiltration tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facciotti, Marco; Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Porous SiC based materials present high mechanical, chemical and thermal robustness, and thus have been largely applied to water-filtration technologies. In this study, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes with nominal pore size of 0.04 m were used as carrier for depositing thin aluminium oxide....... After 5 times coating, a 5.6 µm thick γ-Al2O3 layer was obtained. This membrane shows retention of ~75% for polyethylene glycol molecules with Mn of 8 and 35 kDa, indicating that, despite their intrinsic surface roughness, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes can be applied as carrier for thin...... ultrafiltration membranes. This work also indicates that an improvement of the commercial SiC support surface smoothness may greatly enhance permeance and selectivity of Υ-Al2O3 ultrafiltration membranes by allowing the deposition of thinner defect-free layers....

  2. Enhancing the platinum atomic layer deposition infiltration depth inside anodic alumina nanoporous membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaish, Amit, E-mail: anv@udel.edu; Krueger, Susan; Dimitriou, Michael; Majkrzak, Charles [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8313 (United States); Vanderah, David J. [Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, NIST, Rockville, Maryland 20850 (United States); Chen, Lei, E-mail: lei.chen@nist.gov [NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8313 (United States); Gawrisch, Klaus [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Nanoporous platinum membranes can be straightforwardly fabricated by forming a Pt coating inside the nanopores of anodic alumina membranes (AAO) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, the high-aspect-ratio of AAO makes Pt ALD very challenging. By tuning the process deposition temperature and precursor exposure time, enhanced infiltration depth along with conformal coating was achieved for Pt ALD inside the AAO templates. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and small angle neutron scattering were employed to analyze the Pt coverage and thickness inside the AAO nanopores. Additionally, one application of platinum-coated membrane was demonstrated by creating a high-density protein-functionalized interface.

  3. Monatomic chemical-vapor-deposited graphene membranes bridge a half-millimeter-scale gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Kwang; Hwangbo, Yun; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Seung-Mo; Kim, Seong-Su; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Lee, Hak-Joo; Choi, Byung-Ik; Song, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-03-25

    One of the main concerns in nanotechnology is the utilization of nanomaterials in macroscopic applications without losing their extreme properties. In an effort to bridge the gap between the nano- and macroscales, we propose a clever fabrication method, the inverted floating method (IFM), for preparing freestanding chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene membranes. These freestanding membranes were then successfully suspended over a gap a half-millimeter in diameter. To understand the working principle of IFM, high-speed photography and white light interferometry were used to characterize and analyze the deformation behaviors of the freestanding graphene membranes in contact with a liquid during fabrication. Some nanoscale configurations in the macroscopic graphene membranes were able to be characterized by simple optical microscopy. The proposed IFM is a powerful approach to investigating the macroscopic structures of CVD graphene and enables the exploitation of freestanding CVD graphene for device applications.

  4. Plasma membrane factor XIIIA transglutaminase activity regulates osteoblast matrix secretion and deposition by affecting microtubule dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadil F Al-Jallad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase activity, arising potentially from transglutaminase 2 (TG2 and Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA, has been linked to osteoblast differentiation where it is required for type I collagen and fibronectin matrix deposition. In this study we have used an irreversible TG-inhibitor to 'block -and-track' enzyme(s targeted during osteoblast differentiation. We show that the irreversible TG-inhibitor is highly potent in inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and reduces secretion of both fibronectin and type I collagen and their release from the cell surface. Tracking of the dansyl probe by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the inhibitor targets plasma membrane-associated FXIIIA. TG2 appears not to contribute to crosslinking activity on the osteoblast surface. Inhibition of FXIIIA with NC9 resulted in defective secretory vesicle delivery to the plasma membrane which was attributable to a disorganized microtubule network and decreased microtubule association with the plasma membrane. NC9 inhibition of FXIIIA resulted in destabilization of microtubules as assessed by cellular Glu-tubulin levels. Furthermore, NC9 blocked modification of Glu-tubulin into 150 kDa high-molecular weight Glu-tubulin form which was specifically localized to the plasma membrane. FXIIIA enzyme and its crosslinking activity were colocalized with plasma membrane-associated tubulin, and thus, it appears that FXIIIA crosslinking activity is directed towards stabilizing the interaction of microtubules with the plasma membrane. Our work provides the first mechanistic cues as to how transglutaminase activity could affect protein secretion and matrix deposition in osteoblasts and suggests a novel function for plasma membrane FXIIIA in microtubule dynamics.

  5. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Photocatalyst Nanoparticles on PVDF Membranes for Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Filpo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical binding of photocatalytic materials, such as TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, onto porous polymer membranes requires a series of chemical reactions and long purification processes, which often result in small amounts of trapped nanoparticles with reduced photocatalytic activity. In this work, a chemical vapor deposition technique was investigated in order to allow the nucleation and growth of ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF porous membranes for application in advanced oxidation processes. The thickness of obtained surface coatings by sputtered nanoparticles was found to depend on process conditions. The photocatalytic efficiency of sputtered membranes was tested against both a model drug and a model organic pollutant in a small continuous flow reactor.

  6. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma

    2014-11-01

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ~2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Where are uranium and thorium stored in the Archean basement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinner, R

    1949-01-01

    The author advances a theory which makes it possible to predict where prospecting for new deposits of uranium and thorium should prove successful. According to this theory, such deposits occur chiefly where the equatorial and the meridional branches of the oldest primitive rock systems cross one another. An outline of the earth's Archean basement is included.

  8. Insights into early extracellular matrix evolution: spongin short chain collagen-related proteins are homologous to basement membrane type IV collagens and form a novel family widely distributed in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouacheria, Abdel; Geourjon, Christophe; Aghajari, Nushin; Navratil, Vincent; Deléage, Gilbert; Lethias, Claire; Exposito, Jean-Yves

    2006-12-01

    Collagens are thought to represent one of the most important molecular innovations in the metazoan line. Basement membrane type IV collagen is present in all Eumetazoa and was found in Homoscleromorpha, a sponge group with a well-organized epithelium, which may represent the first stage of tissue differentiation during animal evolution. In contrast, spongin seems to be a demosponge-specific collagenous protein, which can totally substitute an inorganic skeleton, such as in the well-known bath sponge. In the freshwater sponge Ephydatia mülleri, we previously characterized a family of short-chain collagens that are likely to be main components of spongins. Using a combination of sequence- and structure-based methods, we present evidence of remote homology between the carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous NC1 domain of spongin short-chain collagens and type IV collagen. Unexpectedly, spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins were retrieved in nonsponge animals, suggesting that a family related to spongin constitutes an evolutionary sister to the type IV collagen family. Formation of the ancestral NC1 domain and divergence of the spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families may have occurred before the parazoan-eumetazoan split, the earliest divergence among extant animal phyla. Molecular phylogenetics based on NC1 domain sequences suggest distinct evolutionary histories for spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families that include spongin short-chain collagen-related gene loss in the ancestors of Ecdyzosoa and of vertebrates. The fact that a majority of invertebrates encodes spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins raises the important question to the possible function of its members. Considering the importance of collagens for animal structure and substratum attachment, both families may have played crucial roles in animal diversification.

  9. Cobalt oxide-based catalysts deposited by cold plasma for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierski, P.; Jozwiak, L.; Sielski, J.; Tyczkowski, J., E-mail: jacek.tyczkowski@p.lodz.pl

    2015-11-02

    In proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), both the anodic hydrogen oxidation reaction and the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) require appropriate catalysts. So far, platinum-based catalysts are still the best option for this purpose. However, because these catalysts are too expensive for making commercially viable fuel cells, extensive research over the past decade has focused on developing noble metal-free alternative catalysts. In this paper, an approach based on cobalt oxide films fabricated by plasma-enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is presented. Such a material can be used to prepare catalysts for ORR in PEMFC. The films containing CoO{sub X} were deposited on a carbon paper thereby forming the electrode. Morphology and atomic composition of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The possibility of their application as the electro-catalyst for ORR in PEMFC was investigated and the electro-catalytic activities were evaluated by the electrochemical measurements and single cell tests. It was found that the fuel cell with Pt as the anode catalyst and CoO{sub X} deposit as the cathode catalyst was characterized by the open circuit voltage of 635 mV, Tafel slope of approx. 130 mV/dec and the maximum power density of 5.3 W/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • Cobalt oxide catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells was plasma deposited. • The catalyst exhibits activity for the oxygen reduction reaction. • Morphology and atomic composition of the catalyst were determined.

  10. Still more complexity in mammalian basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2000-01-01

    laminins, entactin-1/nidogen-1, Type IV collagen, and proteoglycans. However, within the past few years this complexity has increased as new components are described. The entactin/nidogen (E/N) family has expanded with the recent description of a new isoform, E/N-2/osteonidogen. Agrin and Type XVIII...... to be regulated through multiple, mostly domain-specific mechanisms. Understanding the functions of individual BM components and their assembly into macromolecular complexes is a considerable challenge that may increase as further BM and cell surface ligands are discovered for these proteins....

  11. Effect of atomic layer deposition coatings on the surface structure of anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guang; Elam, Jeffrey W; Feng, Hao; Han, Catherine Y; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Iton, Lennox E; Curtiss, Larry A; Pellin, Michael J; Kung, Mayfair; Kung, Harold; Stair, Peter C

    2005-07-28

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes were characterized by UV Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies before and after coating the entire surface (including the interior pore walls) of the AAO membranes by atomic layer deposition (ALD). UV Raman reveals the presence of aluminum oxalate in bulk AAO, both before and after ALD coating with Al2O3, because of acid anion incorporation during the anodization process used to produce AAO membranes. The aluminum oxalate in AAO exhibits remarkable thermal stability, not totally decomposing in air until exposed to a temperature >900 degrees C. ALD was used to cover the surface of AAO with either Al2O3 or TiO2. Uncoated AAO have FT-IR spectra with two separate types of OH stretches that can be assigned to isolated OH groups and hydrogen-bonded surface OH groups, respectively. In contrast, AAO surfaces coated by ALD with Al2O3 display a single, broad band of hydrogen-bonded OH groups. AAO substrates coated with TiO2 show a more complicated behavior. UV Raman results show that very thin TiO2 coatings (1 nm) are not stable upon annealing to 500 degrees C. In contrast, thicker coatings can totally cover the contaminated alumina surface and are stable at temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C.

  12. Nucleosomes and histones are present in glomerular deposits in human lupus nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanBruggen, MCJ; Kramers, C; Walgreen, B; Elema, JD; Kallenberg, CGM; vandenBorn, J; Smeenk, RJT; Assmann, KJM; Muller, S; Monestier, M; Berden, JHM

    Background. Recently we showed that antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulphate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane (GEM) via the histone part of the nucleosome. Histones have been identified in glomerular deposits in human and murine lupus nephritis. In

  13. Investigation on the conditions mitigating membrane fouling caused by TiO2 deposition in a membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) used for dye wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damodar, Rahul-Ashok; You, Sheng-Jie; Chiou, Guan-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The charge differences between particle and membrane accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles. ► Severe fouling at pH 5 and low fouling at pH ≥ 7 at all flux conditions. ► The presence of a very thin TiO 2 cake layer can alter the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. ► The resistance offered by dense TiO 2 cake layer could dominate the hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of MPR's operating conditions such as permeate flux, solution pH, and membrane hydrophobicity on separation characteristics and membrane fouling caused by TiO 2 deposition were investigated. The extent of fouling was measured in terms of TMP and tank turbidity variation. The results showed that, at mildly acidic conditions (pH ∼ 5), the turbidity within the tank decreased and the extent of turbidity drop increased with increasing flux for all the membranes. On the other hand, at pH ≥ 7, the turbidity remained constant at all flux and for all membranes tested. The fouling variation at different pH was closely linked with the surface charge (zeta potential) and hydrophilicity of both membrane and particles. It was observed that the charge differences between the particles and membranes accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO 2 particles on the membrane surface under different pH conditions. The presence of a very thin layer of TiO 2 can alter the hydrophilicity of the membranes and can slightly decrease the TMP (filtration resistance) of the fouled membranes. Besides, the resistance offered by the dense TiO 2 cake layer would dominate this hydrophilic effect of TiO 2 particles, and it may not alter the filtration resistance of the fouled membranes.

  14. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  15. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  16. Hydrogen-permeable TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} membranes formed by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Heung Yong; Nam, Suk Woo; Yoon, Sung Pil [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Thin films of TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} were deposited on the inner surface of the porous support tubes by the decomposition of tetraisopropyl titanate (TIPT) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) at atmospheric pressure. Dense and hydrogen-permeable membranes were formed at 400-600{degrees}C. The permeation rate of H{sub 2} through the membrane at 600{degrees}C was about 0.3 cm{sup 3}(STP)/min-cm{sup 2}-atm and H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} permeation ratio was above 1000. The permeation properties of the membranes were investigated at various deposition temperatures and TIPT/TEOS concentrations. Decomposition of TIPT alone at temperatures above 400{degrees}C produced porous crystalline TiO{sub 2} films which were not H{sub 2}-selective. Decomposition of TEOS, however produced H{sub 2}-permeable SiO{sub 2} films at 400-600{degrees}C but film deposition rate was very low. Addition of TIPT to the TEOS stream significantly accelerated the deposition rate and produced highly H{sub 2}-selective films. Increasing the TEPT/TEOS ratios increased the deposition rate. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} membranes have the permeation properties comparable to those of SiO{sub 2} membranes. The TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} membranes were stable and did not show significant densification during the treatment at high temperature.

  17. Li ion transport in sputter deposited LiCoO{sub 2} thin films and glassy borate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockhoff, Tobias; Gallasch, Tobias; Schmitz, Guido [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Materialphysik, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    LiCoO{sub 2} membranes are key components of current battery technology. We investigate sputter-deposited thin films of these materials aiming at the application in all-solid-state thin film batteries. For this, LiCoO{sub 2} films (10-200 nm) were deposited onto ITO-coated glass substrates by ion beam sputtering. In addition, a part of these films are coated by an ion-conductive membrane of Li{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses in the thickness range of 50 to 300 nm. Structural, chemical and electrical properties of the layers are studied by means of TEM(EELS) and various electrical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chrono-amperometry/-potentiometry). Since the color of the LiCoO{sub 2} films changes from red-brown to grey during de-intercalation of Li and the substrate as well as the glassy membrane deposited on top are optical transparent, reversible Li de- and intercalation can be directly demonstrated and quantified by a measurement of light transmission through the layered system. Samples coated with an ion-conductive membrane reveal a characteristic delay in switching optical transparency which is due to the slower transport across the membrane. Varying the thickness of the glassy membrane, the d.c. ion-conductivity and permeation through the membrane is determined quantitatively. Using thin membranes in the range of a few tens of nanometers the critical current densities are way sufficient for battery applications.

  18. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  19. Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease accompanied by vasculitis that was not positive for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies to myeloperoxidase and proteinase 3: a report of two cases and the incidence of anti-GBM disease at one institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Kimimasa; Fujioka, Yasunori; Arimura, Yoshihiro; Fukuoka, Toshihito; Marumo, Tomohumi; Umino, Michiru; Kamiya, Yasushi; Okai, Takahiro; Tsurumaki, Shigeru; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Yamada, Akira

    2011-08-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is thought to be distinct from vasculitis. In contrast, there have been several papers suggesting the presence of angiitis in cases that were positive for anti-GBM antibody (Ab), as well as for either myeloperoxidase (MPO)- or proteinase 3 (PR3)-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) (Group I). We experienced four patients who had anti-GBM Abs, but not MPO- and PR3-ANCA (Group II), and two of these patients were found to have vasculitis. Therefore, we performed an in-depth study on these two patients. The patients with anti-GBM disease were isolated from 578 cases whose renal tissues were examined, and they were categorized into two groups. We have already published the data about Group I. We then proceeded to study two vasculitic patients in Group II clinically, pathologically, and serologically. The anti-GBM Ab and ANCA levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Renal specimens were studied by routine staining as well as immunohistochemical investigations of CD31 and type IV collagen. The total number of patients with anti-GBM disease was 7 (7/578 = 1.2%), with 3 patients belonging to Group I and 4 patients belonging to Group II. Two patients in Group II were diagnosed to have vasculitis, but the remaining 2 patients did not. One vasculitic patient was complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage, while the other vasculitic patient displayed peripheral neuropathy as well as a small cavity lesion in the lung. The latter patient was found to be positive for perinuclear (p)-ANCA, but not for any other ANCA subsets. The renal pathology in the two vasculitic patients showed crescentic glomerulonephritis (CSGN) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G linear deposits along the glomerular capillary loops. The former patient showed fibrinoid angiitis in an afferent arteriole as well as peritubular capillaritis. The latter patient demonstrated peritubular capillaritis. These peritubular capillaritides were diagnosed by

  20. Deposition of low stress, high transmittance SiC as an x-ray mask membrane using ECR plasma CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S Y; Lim, S T; Ahn, J H

    1998-01-01

    SiC for x-ray mask membrane is deposited by Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition from SiH sub 4 /CH sub 4 Ar mixtures. Stoichiometric SiC is deposited at SiH sub 4 /CH sub 4 ratio of 0.4, deposition temperature of 600.deg.C and microwave power of 500 W with +- 5% thickness uniformity, As-deposited film has compressive residual stress, very smooth surface (31 A rms) and high optical transmittance of 90% at 633 nm wavelength. The microstructure of this film consists of the nanocrystalline particle (100 A approx 200A) embedded in amorphous matrix. Residual stress can be turned to tensile stress via Rapid Thermal Annealing in N sub 2 atmosphere, while suppressing structural change during annealing, As a result, smooth (37 A rms) SiC film with moderate tensile stress and high optical transmittance (85% at 633 nm wavelength) is obtained.

  1. Nanoporous Aluminum Oxide Membranes Coated with Atomic Layer Deposition-Grown Titanium Dioxide for Biomedical Applications: An In Vitro Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrochenko, Peter E; Kumar, Girish; Fu, Wujun; Zhang, Qin; Zheng, Jiwen; Liang, Chengdu; Goering, Peter L; Narayan, Roger J

    2015-12-01

    The surface topographies of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) membranes have been shown to modulate cell response in orthopedic and skin wound repair applications. In this study, we: (1) demonstrate an improved atomic layer deposition (ALD) method for coating the porous structures of 20, 100, and 200 nm pore diameter AAO with nanometer-thick layers of TiO2 and (2) evaluate the effects of uncoated AAO and TiO2-coated AAO on cellular responses. The TiO2 coatings were deposited on the AAO membranes without compromising the openings of the nanoscale pores. The 20 nm TiO2-coated membranes showed the highest amount of initial protein adsorption via the micro bicinchoninic acid (micro-BCA) assay; all of the TiO2-coated membranes showed slightly higher protein adsorption than the uncoated control materials. Cell viability, proliferation, and inflammatory responses on the TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no adverse outcomes. For all of the tested surfaces, normal increases in proliferation (DNA content) of L929 fibroblasts were observed over from 4 hours to 72 hours. No increases in TNF-alpha production were seen in RAW 264.7 macrophages grown on TiO2-coated AAO membranes compared to uncoated AAO membranes and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) surfaces. Both uncoated AAO membranes and TiO2-coated AAO membranes showed no significant effects on cell growth and inflammatory responses. The results suggest that TiO2-coated AAO may serve as a reasonable prototype material for the development of nanostructured wound repair devices and orthopedic implants.

  2. Comparative Study of Deposit through a Membrane and Spin-Coated MWCNT as a Flexible Anode for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Aloui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study between multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates using (i spin-coating technique and (ii deposition through a membrane. We deduce from transparence, electrical properties, and AFM image that deposition through membrane presents better properties than spin-coating method. The concentration comparison shows that the optimum result was achieved at a concentration of 1.2 mg·mL−1 corresponding to a resistance (Rs of 180 Ω·cm−2 and an optical transparence of about 81% using a wavelength 550 nm. We will also demonstrate the use of the elaborated electrodes to fabricate the following flexible structure: PET-MWCNTs/MEH-PPV/Al. The series resistance Rs and the ideality factor n were calculated.

  3. [Could isolated mesangial deposits of C3 be responsible of glomerular hematuric nephropathies (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Andre, J P; Touzard, D; Houssin, A; Simard, C

    1982-01-01

    This communication presents three cases of prolonged macroscopic hematuria in young subjects. Complementary explorations eliminated urologic or vascular causes. Renal biopsies showed minimal glomerular lesions with light microscopy, normal basement membranes in electron microscopy and mesangial deposits of C3 and properdine in immunofluorescence. Although the mesangial deposits of C3 lack specificity and the number of observations is small, it appears useful to report such cases so as to indicate their frequency and perhaps their autonomy, in glomerular hematuric nephropathies.

  4. Investigation on the conditions mitigating membrane fouling caused by TiO{sub 2} deposition in a membrane photocatalytic reactor (MPR) used for dye wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damodar, Rahul-Ashok [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung li 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); You, Sheng-Jie, E-mail: sjyou@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering and R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung li 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiou, Guan-Wei [Department of Civil Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung li 320, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The charge differences between particle and membrane accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO{sub 2} particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Severe fouling at pH 5 and low fouling at pH {>=} 7 at all flux conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of a very thin TiO{sub 2} cake layer can alter the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resistance offered by dense TiO{sub 2} cake layer could dominate the hydrophilic effect of TiO{sub 2} particles. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of MPR's operating conditions such as permeate flux, solution pH, and membrane hydrophobicity on separation characteristics and membrane fouling caused by TiO{sub 2} deposition were investigated. The extent of fouling was measured in terms of TMP and tank turbidity variation. The results showed that, at mildly acidic conditions (pH {approx} 5), the turbidity within the tank decreased and the extent of turbidity drop increased with increasing flux for all the membranes. On the other hand, at pH {>=} 7, the turbidity remained constant at all flux and for all membranes tested. The fouling variation at different pH was closely linked with the surface charge (zeta potential) and hydrophilicity of both membrane and particles. It was observed that the charge differences between the particles and membranes accelerate the intensity of fouling and binding of TiO{sub 2} particles on the membrane surface under different pH conditions. The presence of a very thin layer of TiO{sub 2} can alter the hydrophilicity of the membranes and can slightly decrease the TMP (filtration resistance) of the fouled membranes. Besides, the resistance offered by the dense TiO{sub 2} cake layer would dominate this hydrophilic effect of TiO{sub 2} particles, and it may not alter the filtration resistance of the fouled membranes.

  5. development in a basement terrain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-05-17

    May 17, 2004 ... especially as a reconnaissance tool (de Jong et al., 1981; de. Rooy et al., 1986; ... ful naval radio transmitters in the very low frequency range. (15-25kHz). ... involved partial curve matching and computer iteration tech- niques. .... result predicted depth to fresh basement bedrock to be 46m whilst drilling ...

  6. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  7. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  8. EGFET pH Sensor Performance Dependence on Sputtered TiO2 Sensing Membrane Deposition Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Aimi Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were sputtered by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method and have been employed as the sensing membrane of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET for pH sensing detection application. The TiO2 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrates at room temperature and 200°C, respectively. The effect of deposition temperature on thin film properties and pH detection application was analyzed. The TiO2 samples used as the sensing membrane for EGFET pH-sensor and the current-voltage (I-V, hysteresis, and drift characteristics were examined. The sensitivity of TiO2 EGFET sensing membrane was obtained from the transfer characteristic (I-V curves for different substrate heating temperatures. TiO2 thin film sputtered at room temperature achieved higher sensitivity of 59.89 mV/pH compared to the one deposited at 200°C indicating lower sensitivity of 37.60 mV/pH. Moreover the hysteresis and the drift of TiO2 thin film deposited at room temperature showed lower values compared to the one at 200°C. We have also tested the effect of operating temperature on the performance of the EGFET pH-sensing and found that the temperature effect was very minimal.

  9. Tailored adhesion behavior of polyelectrolyte thin films deposited on plasma-treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) for functionalized membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassil, Joelle, E-mail: joelle.bassil@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour (IJL), UMR CNRS 7198, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt CS50840, 54011 Nancy (France); Alem, Halima, E-mail: halima.alem@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour (IJL), UMR CNRS 7198, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt CS50840, 54011 Nancy (France); Henrion, Gérard, E-mail: gerard.henrion@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour (IJL), UMR CNRS 7198, Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt CS50840, 54011 Nancy (France); Roizard, Denis, E-mail: denis.roizard@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP), UMR CNRS 7274, ENSIC, Université de Lorraine, 1 rue Grandville, 54011 Nancy (France)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface of PDMS membrane was first modified by Ar/O{sub 2} plasma to increase its surface energy. • Subsequently, a homogeneous multilayer of the well-known couple of polyelectrolyte PDADMAC/PSS was deposited on the plasma treated PDMS. • The relation between the parameters of the modification processes and the morphology, wettability, structure and adhesion of the polyelectrolytes layers based PDMS membranes is investigated and enlightened. - Abstract: Completely homogenous films formed via the layer-by-layer assembly of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and the poly(styrene sulfonate) were successfully obtained on plasma-treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates. To modify the hydrophobicity of the PDMS surface, a cold plasma treatment was previously applied to the membrane, which led to the creation of hydrophilic groups on the surface of the membrane. PDMS wettability and surface morphology were successfully correlated with the plasma parameters. A combination of contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis was used to demonstrate that homogeneous and hydrophilic surfaces could be achieved on PDMS cold-plasma-treated membranes. The stability of the assembled PEL layer on the PDMS was evaluated using a combination of pull-off testing and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which confirmed the relevance of a plasma pre-treatment as the adhesion of the polyelectrolyte multilayers was greatly enhanced when the deposition was completed on an activated PDMS surface at 80 W for 5 min.

  10. Plasma Deposited Thin Iron Oxide Films as Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz JOZWIAK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using plasma deposited thin films of iron oxides as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC was examined. Results of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis indicated that the plasma deposit consisted mainly of FeOX structures with the X parameter close to 1.5. For as deposited material iron atoms are almost exclusively in the Fe3+ oxidation state without annealing in oxygen containing atmosphere. However, the annealing procedure can be used to remove the remains of carbon deposit from surface. The single cell test (SCT was performed to determine the suitability of the produced material for ORR. Preliminary results showed that power density of 0.23 mW/cm2 could be reached in the tested cell.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14406

  11. Atomic layer deposition of AlN for thin membranes using trimethylaluminum and H2/N2 plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerke, Sebastian; Ziegler, Mario; Ihring, Andreas; Dellith, Jan; Undisz, Andreas; Diegel, Marco; Anders, Solveig; Huebner, Uwe; Rettenmayr, Markus; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AlN films grown at 150 °C by ALD using trimethylaluminum and H 2 /N 2 -plasma. • Nearly stoichiometric AlN films (ratio Al:N = 0.938), polycrystalline by XRD/TEM. • Refractive index of n = 1.908 and low thermal conductivity of κ = 1.66 W/(m K). • Free-standing AlN membranes mechanically stable and buckling free (tensile strain). • Membrane patterning by focused ion beam etching possible. - Abstract: Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films with thicknesses from 20 to 100 nm were deposited on silicon, amorphous silica, silicon nitride, and vitreous carbon by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). Trimethylaluminum (TMA) and a H 2 /N 2 plasma mixture were used as precursors. We investigated the influence of deposition temperature and plasma parameters on the growth characteristics and the film properties of AlN. Stable PE-ALD growth conditions were obtained from 150 °C to the highest tested temperature of 300 °C. The growth rate, refractive index, and thickness homogeneity on 4″ wafers were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) were carried out to analyze crystallinity and composition of the films. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity and the film stress were determined. The stress was sufficiently low to fabricate mechanically stable free-standing AlN membranes with lateral dimensions of up to 2.2 × 2.2 mm 2 . The membranes were patterned with focused ion beam etching. Thus, these AlN membranes qualify as dielectric support material for a variety of potential applications

  12. Fabrication of hierarchical porous N-doping carbon membrane by using ;confined nanospace deposition; method for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoxu; Liu, Meng; Du, Juan; Liu, Lei; Yu, Yifeng; Sha, Jitong; Chen, Aibing

    2018-03-01

    The membrane carbon materials with hierarchical porous architecture are attractive because they can provide more channels for ion transport and shorten the ions transport path. Herein, we develop a facile way based on "confined nanospace deposition" to fabricate N-dopi-ng three dimensional hierarchical porous membrane carbon material (N-THPMC) via coating the nickel nitrate, silicate oligomers and triblock copolymer P123 on the branches of commercial polyamide membrane (PAM). During high temperature treatment, the mesoporous silica layer and Ni species serve as a "confined nanospace" and catalyst respectively, which are indispensable elements for formation of carbon framework, and the gas-phase carbon precursors which derive from the decomposition of PAM are deposited into the "confined nanospace" forming carbon framework. The N-THPMC with hierarchical macro/meso/microporous structure, N-doping (2.9%) and large specific surface area (994m2 g-1) well inherits the membrane morphology and hierarchical porous structure of PAM. The N-THPMC as electrode without binder exhibits a specific capacitance of 252 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte and excellent cycling stability of 92.7% even after 5000 cycles.

  13. Electrochemically deposited and etched membranes with precisely sized micropores for biological fluids microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A A; Zainal Abidin, H E; Yeop Majlis, B; Mohd Nor, M; Ismardi, A; Sugandi, G; Tiong, T Y; Dee, C F; Yunas, J

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents simple and economical, yet reliable techniques to fabricate a micro-fluidic filter for MEMS lab-on-chip (LoC) applications. The microporous filter is a crucial component in a MEMS LoC system. Microsized components and contaminants in biological fluids are selectively filtered using copper and silicon membranes with precisely controlled microsized pores. Two techniques were explored in microporous membrane fabrication, namely copper electroplating and electrochemical etching (ECE) of silicon. In the first technique, a copper membrane with evenly distributed micropores was fabricated by electroplating the copper layer on the silicon nitride membrane, which was later removed to leave the freestanding microporous membrane structure. The second approach involves the thinning of bulk silicon down to a few micrometers thick using KOH and etching the resulting silicon membrane in 5% HF by ECE to create micropores. Upon testing with nanoparticles of various sizes, it was observed that electroplated copper membrane passes nanoparticles up to 200 nm wide, while porous silicon membrane passes nanoparticles up to 380 nm in size. Due to process compatibility, simplicity, and low-cost fabrication, electroplated copper and porous silicon membranes enable synchronized microfilter fabrication and integration into the MEMS LoC system. (paper)

  14. Potential of sub- and supercritical CO_2 reaction media for sol-gel deposition of silica-based molecular sieve membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Veronique; Duchateau, Maxime; Drobek, Martin; Julbe, Anne; Hertz, Audrey; Ruiz, Jean-Christophe; Sarrade, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    A new eco-friendly method recently developed in our group has been further investigated for the preparation of gas selective silica-based molecular sieve membranes on/in macroporous tubular ceramic supports without any intermediate layer. The synthesis protocol under sub- and supercritical conditions was based on an 'On-Stream Supercritical Fluid Deposition method' (OS-SFD) applying supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO_2) as an attractive 'green' solvent with easily adjustable properties enabling a controlled solubilisation/reaction of precursors and their transport to the ceramic support. Parameters influencing the final membrane characteristics such as permeates flow rate, calcination treatment and deposition steps have been examined for a selected reaction mixture, transmembrane pressure and defined deposition temperatures. On-line monitoring of the membrane formation process (deposition signature curve) was used in this process. Membrane characteristics are discussed in correlation with their gas permeation properties. The optimized crack-free silica membranes prepared at 50 C have a compact microstructure but a thermal stability limited to 400 C. A second deposition run allowed a recovery of the molecular sieving behaviour with a thermally activated transport for He up to 350 C. These promising results demonstrate the potential of this novel method for the preparation of uniform molecular sieve membranes deposited directly on macroporous supports with virtually zero waste. (authors)

  15. Catalytic, Conductive Bipolar Membrane Interfaces through Layer-by-Layer Deposition for the Design of Membrane-Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael B; Freund, Michael S; Hammond, Paula T

    2017-11-23

    In the presence of an electric field, bipolar membranes (BPMs) are capable of initiating water disassociation (WD) within the interfacial region, which can make water splitting for renewable energy in the presence of a pH gradient possible. In addition to WD catalytic efficiency, there is also the need for electronic conductivity in this region for membrane-integrated artificial photosynthesis (AP) systems. Graphene oxide (GO) was shown to catalyze WD and to be controllably reduced, which resulted in electronic conductivity. Layer-by-layer (LbL) film deposition was employed to improve GO film uniformity in the interfacial region to enhance WD catalysis and, through the addition of a conducting polymer in the process, add electronic conductivity in a hybrid film. Three different deposition methods were tested to optimize conducting polymer synthesis with the oxidant in a metastable solution and to yield the best film properties. It was found that an approach that included substrate dipping in a solution containing the expected final monomer/oxidant ratio provided the most predictable film growth and smoothest films (by UV/Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy/scanning electron microscopy, respectively), whereas dipping in excess oxidant or co-spraying the oxidant and monomer produced heterogeneous films. Optimized films were found to be electronically conductive and produced a membrane ohmic drop that was acceptable for AP applications. Films were integrated into the interfacial region of BPMs and revealed superior WD efficiency (≥1.4 V at 10 mA cm -2 ) for thinner films (<10 bilayers≈100 nm) than for either the pure GO catalyst or conducting polymer individually, which indicated that there was a synergistic effect between these materials in the structure configured by the LbL method. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The plasmodesmal protein PDLP1 localises to haustoria-associated membranes during downy mildew infection and regulates callose deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cécile Caillaud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa is a filamentous oomycete that invades plant cells via sophisticated but poorly understood structures called haustoria. Haustoria are separated from the host cell cytoplasm and surrounded by an extrahaustorial membrane (EHM of unknown origin. In some interactions, including Hpa-Arabidopsis, haustoria are progressively encased by host-derived, callose-rich materials but the molecular mechanisms by which callose accumulates around haustoria remain unclear. Here, we report that PLASMODESMATA-LOCATED PROTEIN 1 (PDLP1 is expressed at high levels in Hpa infected cells. Unlike other plasma membrane proteins, which are often excluded from the EHM, PDLP1 is located at the EHM in Hpa-infected cells prior to encasement. The transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of PDLP1 are sufficient to convey this localization. PDLP1 also associates with the developing encasement but this association is lost when encasements are fully mature. We found that the pdlp1,2,3 triple mutant is more susceptible to Hpa while overexpression of PDLP1 enhances plant resistance, suggesting that PDLPs enhance basal immunity against Hpa. Haustorial encasements are depleted in callose in pdlp1,2,3 mutant plants whereas PDLP1 over-expression elevates callose deposition around haustoria and across the cell surface. These data indicate that PDLPs contribute to callose encasement of Hpa haustoria and suggests that the deposition of callose at haustoria may involve similar mechanisms to callose deposition at plasmodesmata.

  17. Roles of the TRAPP-II Complex and the Exocyst in Membrane Deposition during Fission Yeast Cytokinesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cleavage-furrow tip adjacent to the actomyosin contractile ring is believed to be the predominant site for plasma-membrane insertion through exocyst-tethered vesicles during cytokinesis. Here we found that most secretory vesicles are delivered by myosin-V on linear actin cables in fission yeast cytokinesis. Surprisingly, by tracking individual exocytic and endocytic events, we found that vesicles with new membrane are deposited to the cleavage furrow relatively evenly during contractile-ring constriction, but the rim of the cleavage furrow is the main site for endocytosis. Fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane requires vesicle tethers. Our data suggest that the transport particle protein II (TRAPP-II complex and Rab11 GTPase Ypt3 help to tether secretory vesicles or tubulovesicular structures along the cleavage furrow while the exocyst tethers vesicles at the rim of the division plane. We conclude that the exocyst and TRAPP-II complex have distinct localizations at the division site, but both are important for membrane expansion and exocytosis during cytokinesis.

  18. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma; Dua, Rubal; Kurniasari, Novita; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Wang, Peng; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes

  19. Surface Modification of Ceramic Membranes with Thin-film Deposition Methods for Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2017-01-01

    water permeability (CWP) tests and fouling behavior by bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption tests. The study showed better fouling inhibition performance of all modified membranes; however the effect varied due to different surface characteristics

  20. Membranous glomerulopathy with spherules: an uncommon variant with obscure pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Jolanta; Smith, Kelly D; Hudkins, Kelly L; Chang, Anthony; Fogo, Agnes B; Houghton, Donald; Leslie, Deena; Aitchison, John; Nicosia, Roberto F; Alpers, Charles E

    2006-06-01

    Occasional case reports of membranous glomerulopathy described unique subepithelial accumulations of an unusual type of immune deposit composed of spherular structures. The identity of such structures as nuclear pores has been suggested, but not established. We identified a cohort of patients (n = 14, including 1 patient with disease recurrence in an allograft) who presented with nephrotic syndrome and had renal biopsy specimens with light and immunofluorescence microscopic findings characteristic of membranous glomerulopathy. These patients were distinguished by ultrastructural studies that showed glomerular capillary wall accumulations of subepithelial immune deposits composed of uniform spherular structures, while lacking the typical granular electron-dense deposits seen in membranous glomerulopathy. The molecular identity of these spherular structures as nuclear pores was tested by using immunofluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry with mouse monoclonal antinuclear pore antibodies (Covance, Princeton, NJ) and anti-Nuclear Pore-O-Linked Glycoprotein (Affinity BioReagents Inc, Golden, CO) antibodies. Measurement of spherular structures by using high-magnification electron microscopy showed an average diameter of 84.5 nm, which correlated well with accepted diameters of nuclear pores (80 to 120 nm). Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoperoxidase staining with both antibodies showed characteristic beaded staining of nuclear membranes of multiple cell types within normal control kidney, but no staining of immune-type deposits within glomerular basement membranes. These cases form a rare, but distinctive, morphological subclass of membranous glomerulopathy. The antigenic specificity of immune deposits in these cases remains elusive.

  1. Membranous Glomerulopathy With Light Chain–Restricted Deposits: A Clinicopathological Analysis of 28 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Best Rocha

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: The majority of MG cases with light chain isotype−restricted deposits lack a recognizable secondary etiology. However, the absence of PLA2R positivity, positive staining for a single IgG subclass, and presence of focal proliferation are worrisome histopathologic features that should prompt a thorough clinical workup to exclude the presence of an underlying LPD.

  2. Mapping magnetic lineaments and subsurface basement beneath ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    studied the basement structures beneath parts of the Lower Benue Trough (LBT). Anudu et .... order vertical derivatives can be calculated respectively using the relations below: 145. ( ) ... minerals as in the case of the FVD-RTP-TMI (Figure 6).

  3. Microstructure and strain distribution in freestanding Si membrane strained by Si{sub x}N{sub y} deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Hongye, E-mail: qgaohongye@msn.com [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Hata, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hideharu [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Wang Dong; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-09-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Strain is introduced by deposition of amorphous Si{sub x}N{sub y} to improve the carrier mobility for a relatively large-size freestanding semiconductor film, which can be used for the fabrication of relatively large devices such like a bipolar junction transistor. However, standard Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction cannot provide sufficient lateral resolution to the strain in a relatively long (x {mu}m in length) and thin (x nm in thickness) freestanding semiconductor film. {yields} In present research, strain in a bridge-shaped freestanding Si membrane (FSSM) was measured by convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) and finite element method (FEM). Compressive strain distribution was shown in three dimensions (3D) in FSSM, where no threading dislocation or stacking fault was found. Relaxation of the strain in FSSM in 3D was discussed based on a comparison of the strain magnitudes in FSSM as measured by CBED and FEM. - Abstract: Strain in a bridge-shaped freestanding Si membrane (FSSM) induced by depositing an amorphous Si{sub x}N{sub y} layer was measured by convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED). CBED results show that the strain magnitude depends negatively on the FSSM thickness. FEM is a supplement of the result of CBED due to the relaxation of TEM samples during fabricating. The FEM analysis results ascertain the strain property in three dimensions, and show that the strain magnitude depends negatively on the length of FSSM, and the magnitude of the compressive strain in FSSM increases as the position is closer to the upper Si/Si{sub x}N{sub y} interface.

  4. Sodium fire in the ILONA basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, H.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes the reasons, the course, the fire fighting measures and the consequences of the sodium fire, which damaged severely the 5 MW sodium test facility ILONA in Bergisch-Gladbach, Germany, in 1990. The accident occurred in the process of transferring Na from one tank containing 0.5 m''3 Na into another one with 6 m''3 Na, which were connected via sodium and gas exchange pipes. The 6 m''3 tank was also fitted with a dipping-pipe for the later purpose of filling or evacuation. The pipe was closed by a plug. The two tanks were flooded with argon. The leakage with consequent Na fire started during the preheating process of the 6 m''3 tank, and later investigations showed that Na had leaked from the dipping-pipe after a too high pressure built-up. Whether that happened because of the failure of a pressure compensation valve or because of a blockage of the pipe connecting the two tanks, could not be clarified after the accident because of the damages caused by the fire. The later analysis showed that about 4500 kg out of the originally 5820 kg had leaked from the tank during a time of about 5 hours. A total of 1344 kg Na were deposited as combustion product aerosols (carbonate and bi-carbonate) in the building and about 930 kg Na were released from the building to the atmosphere. On the basis of the temperature difference between 400 deg C in the basement and 20 deg C at the outlet and a height difference of 30 m, the gas stream was estimated to 4 m''3 per sec. The aerosol clouds left the building via the natural draught stack. They were quickly transformed into carbonate and bi-carbonate, which do not represent a risk for the people, the animals or the vegetation in the surroundings

  5. Optimization of the thickness of a conducting polymer, polyaniline, deposited on the surface of poly(vinyl chloride) membranes: a new way to improve their potentiometric response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkanova, T V; Matejka, P; Král, V; Sedenková, I; Trchová, M; Stejskal, J

    2008-08-29

    Repeated depositions of polyaniline (PANI) have been used to control the thickness of the polymeric film deposited on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane surface. The oxidation of aniline was carried out in a dispersion mode, i.e. in the presence of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Two kinds of PVC were used for this purpose: a non-plasticized PVC for the study of PANI deposition and PVC, plasticized with nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), as a prototype of a liquid membrane electrode. The results of UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopies and electron microscopy showed that (1) the film thickness increased by about equal increments of approximately 40 nm after each polymerization, and (2) the interface with PVC was constituted by PANI film and adhering PANI-PVP colloidal particles. The various thicknesses of the deposited PANI films affected the potentiometric response of the NPOE/PVC membrane with and without an anion-exchanger. The potentiometric anionic response was observed with a minimal thickness of PANI film on the blank NPOE/PVC membrane. Sensitivity of the PANI film to pH occurred only with a blank NPOE/PVC membrane coated with a thick polymeric film, while it was strongly suppressed by the presence of a lipophilic anion-exchanger, tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDDMACl), in the membrane, regardless of the thickness of the polymer film. The thickness of the PANI film did not affect the anionic selectivity pattern of TDDMACl-based membranes to any great extent, but its presence improved and stabilized their potentiometric characteristics (sensitivity, linear-response range).

  6. The Development and Validation of an In Vitro Airway Model to Assess Realistic Airway Deposition and Drug Permeation Behavior of Orally Inhaled Products Across Synthetic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao K; Traini, Daniela; Farkas, Dale R; Longest, P Worth; Hindle, Michael; Young, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Current in vitro approaches to assess lung deposition, dissolution, and cellular transport behavior of orally inhaled products (OIPs) have relied on compendial impactors to collect drug particles that are likely to deposit in the airway; however, the main drawback with this approach is that these impactors do not reflect the airway and may not necessarily represent drug deposition behavior in vivo. The aim of this article is to describe the development and method validation of a novel hybrid in vitro approach to assess drug deposition and permeation behavior in a more representative airway model. The medium-sized Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) mouth-throat (MT) and tracheal-bronchial (TB) realistic upper airway models were used in this study as representative models of the upper airway. The TB model was modified to accommodate two Snapwell ® inserts above the first TB airway bifurcation region to collect deposited nebulized ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride (CIP-HCL) droplets as a model drug aerosol system. Permeation characteristics of deposited nebulized CIP-HCL droplets were assessed across different synthetic membranes using the Snapwell test system. The Snapwell test system demonstrated reproducible and discriminatory drug permeation profiles for already dissolved and nebulized CIP-HCL droplets through a range of synthetic permeable membranes under different test conditions. The rate and extent of drug permeation depended on the permeable membrane material used, presence of a stirrer in the receptor compartment, and, most importantly, the drug collection method. This novel hybrid in vitro approach, which incorporates a modified version of a realistic upper airway model, coupled with the Snapwell test system holds great potential to evaluate postairway deposition characteristics, such as drug permeation and particle dissolution behavior of OIPs. Future studies will expand this approach using a cell culture-based setup instead of synthetic membranes, within a

  7. Obtention of selective membranes for water and hydrophobic liquids by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on porous substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankovic, P.; Demarquette, N.R.; Silva, M.L.P. da

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the possibility of obtaining selective membranes for water and hydrophobic liquids by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) or double layers of HMDS and n-hexane on porous substrates using a capacitive plasma reactor was investigated. The porous substrates used were paper filter, diatomite and polyester textiles. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle measurements. The membranes obtained were characterized by the Cobb test. Their efficiency to separate hydrocarbon compounds from water was evaluated through filtration experiments and Karl-Fischer titration tests. The reagents used in the filtration experiments were: chloroform, n-hexane, n-heptane, ethyl ether, benzene and diesel. XPS analysis showed that Si, N, C and O were present at the surface of the film. C peak was dominant in the double layer film spectra. C-H n , CH 2 , Si-H, Si-CH 3 , N-H, Si-CH 2 -Si, Si-N-Si and Si-C bonds were identified in both types of the films by ATR-FTIR. The relative intensities of the corresponding peaks in the two spectra were different. The XPS and FTIR results indicated that C was most likely present in a CH n form at the surface of double layer film. The average contact angles formed by drops of water on the film surface ranged from 135 deg. to 155 deg. . Water adsorption measured by Cobb test decreased from average values ranging from 300 to 9000 g m -2 (for nonmodified surfaces) to values ranging from 0 to 20 g m -2 (for treated surfaces). The Karl-Fischer titration indicated that between 90 and 1000 ppm (depending on the reagent used) of water remained in the hydrocarbon compound after filtration

  8. Tectonic inheritage from adjacent basement, north of the Campos Basin; Heranca tectonica no embasamento adjacente no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Felipe R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geologia Aplicada; Souza, Iata A. de; Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the Atlantic Brazilian basins is a target of researches since the firth discovery of oil deposits. With the advance of the geophysical methods the understanding of the structures in depth became possible. The objective of this paper is to determine if the adjacent basement in the north of Campos Basin has significant influence in the identification of areas that can contain hydrocarbons. Therefore, lineaments had been extracted with SRTM images of continental basement and the main alignment was correlated with gravimetric anomalies map and seismic data. Eight levels on seismic data had been interpreted (basement, top rift, shallow water Albian, Albian, mid-Oligocene and mid-Miocene). In all levels were identified a fault normal system, which cut sediments since basement until the Recent. The main direction of the basement is NE-SW, and the alignments formed for basin basement faults coincide with this direction, what indicates that the system is active and also genetically related. (author)

  9. Optically Highlighting Basement Membrane Components in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Elliott Hagedorn & David Sherwood ### Abstract Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and other genetically encoded fluorescent proteins provide a means to study gene expression pattern and protein localization in living tissues. Recently discovered GFP-like fluorophores and engineered variants have further expanded the fluorescent protein toolkit for in vivo imaging. Here we describe a technique using transgenic C. elegans that contain laminin or type IV collagen fused to the green...

  10. Mussel-inspired co-deposition to enhance bisphenol A removal in a bifacial enzymatic membrane reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xiaotong; Luo, Jianquan; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    were used as the matrix to further exploit the potential of the biocatalytic membranes. such prepared biocatalytic membranes were enzymatically active on both sides, making it possible to construct a bifacial enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) for highly efficient micro-pollutants removal (taking...

  11. Application of a Coated Film Catalyst Layer Model to a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Low Catalyst Loading Produced by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Myles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model is presented that correlates to previously obtained experimental overpotential data for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC. The goal is to reinforce the understanding of the performance of the cell from a modeling perspective. The HT-PEMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs were constructed utilizing an 85 wt. % phosphoric acid doped Advent TPS® membranes for the electrolyte and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs manufactured by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT. MEAs with varying ratios of PTFE binder to carbon support material (I/C ratio were manufactured and their performance at various operating temperatures was recorded. The semi-empirical model derivation was based on the coated film catalyst layer approach and was calibrated to the experimental data by a least squares method. The behavior of important physical parameters as a function of I/C ratio and operating temperature were explored.

  12. The effect of infection and lag screw fixation on revascularization and new bone deposition in membranous bone grafts in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; Phillips, J H; Walmsley, S L; Morava-Protzner, I

    1996-08-01

    We have suggested that rigid fixation of membranous bone grafts in the presence of infection may improve graft-recipient bone union by facilitating graft revascularzation. To test this hypothesis, we grafted autogenous membranous bone grafts to the mandibles of 94 New Zealand White rabbits. Lag screw fixation was applied in half the animals. The wounds were inoculated with a range of Staphylococcus aureus doses. Infected and noninfected rabbits were injected weekly over a 5-week course with fluorescein bone markers and with a marker of vascular endothelium (procion red) just prior to sacrifice. Revascularization and new bone deposition in the grafts were then quantified histologically for the 75 rabbits available for data collection. Infection decreased the amount of graft revascularized and the amount of new bone deposited for both rigidly fixated and nonfixated grafts. Grafts fixated with a lag screw showed a greater amount of revascularization and new bone deposition in the presence and absence of infection when compared with nonfixated grafts, supporting the hypothesis that rigid fixation of membranous bone grafts in the presence of infection may promote graft survival and union by improving revascularization and osteogenesis within the graft.

  13. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V.; Temples, T.J.; Fallaw, W.C.; Snipes, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America

  14. Erosion critical stress of a matter surface deposit on a micro filtration membrane; Contrainte critique d`erosion d`un depot superficiel de matiere sur membrane de microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, M C

    1995-05-11

    During the tangential micro filtration and ultrafiltration processes a membranes fouling in surface and inside the pores often appears. This fouling has the effect of a permeation flow decrease in terms of the filtration time. In order to keep this flow constant (to improve the rentability) the transfer pressure gradient is frequently increased and leads to solid matter surface deposit on the porous wall. The fouling can then be irreversible and requires the stopping of the facilities. The fouling and more particularly the fouling by solid deposit seems to be an abatement to the micro filtration technology development. It is then necessary to search the carrying away conditions of these solid deposits and thus to control the fouling process. An ultrafiltration or micro filtration appliance has been realized and allows to calculate experimentally the erosion critical stress on a porous wall : this is the minimum stress to apply in order to lead in the principal flow a solid particles deposit and the parietal stress to be imposed to lead by an erosion process a solid particles deposit. (O.L.). 122 refs., 73 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Structure and phase composition of the titanium dioxide thin films deposited on the surface of the metallized track membranes from polyethyleneterephthalate by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artoshina, O.V.; Semina, V.K.; Kochnev, Yu.K.; Nechaev, A.N.; Apel', P.Yu.; Milovich, F.O.; Iskhakova, L.D.; Ermakov, R.P.; Rossouw, A.; Gorberg, B.L.

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of TiO 2 , Ag, Ag-TiO 2 , Cu-TiO 2 deposited on the surface of polyethyleneterephthalate track membranes (TM) were investigated. Metals and oxide deposition was carried out by the method of vacuum reactive sputtering with application of a planar magnetron. The microstructure of samples was studied by the scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The elemental composition of coatings was investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For the identification of phase structure, X-ray diffraction phase analysis was used at various temperatures, and the XRD crystal structure patterns of the samples were obtained by the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) in TEM analysis. It was found that titanium dioxide on the TM surface can be present in three forms: nanocrystals of tetragonal anatase with impurity of rhombic brookite and the so-called X-ray amorphous TiO 2 . Cubical Cu 2 O was identified in TM metallized by copper. Optical properties of composite membranes and films were investigated by the method of absorption spectroscopy. Calculation of energies of the direct and indirect allowed optical transitions was carried out based on the analysis of absorption spectra of the studied composite membranes. [ru

  16. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  17. Surface characterisation and photocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes by sol–gel methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilli, R., E-mail: r.grilli@surrey.ac.uk [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Di Camillo, D.; Lozzi, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Horovitz, I.; Mamane, H.; Avisar, D. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Baker, M.A. [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-01

    Membrane filtration is employed for water treatment and wastewater reclamation purposes, but membranes alone are unable to remove pollutant molecules and certain pathogens. Photocatalytically active N-doped TiO{sub 2} coatings have been deposited by sol–gel onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes for water treatment applications using two different methods, via pipette droplets or spiral bar applicator. The uncoated and coated membranes were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Both coatings showed the presence of N-doped anatase, with a surface coverage between 84 and 92%, and nitrogen concentration (predominantly interstitial) of 0.9 at.%. The spiral bar applicator deposited coatings exhibit a thicker mud-cracked surface layer with limited penetration of the porous membrane, whilst the pipette deposited coatings have mostly penetrated into the bulk of the membrane and a thinner layer is present at the surface. The photocatalytic activity (PCA), measured through the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), under irradiation of a solar simulator was 58.6% for the pipette coating and 63.3% for the spiral bar coating. These photocatalytically active N-doped sol–gel coated membranes offer strong potential in forming the fundamental basis of a sunlight based water treatment system. - Highlights: • Sol gel N-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited on 200 nm pore size Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membranes. • Two sol–gel methods have been compared – pipette drop and spiral bar deposition. • The coatings showed a similar microstructure and composition but different morphology. • The PCA (degradation of carbamazepine) was ∼60% for both sol–gel coatings. • The coated membranes are promising for use in a membrane based water treatment system.

  18. Structural and Geophysical Characterization of Oklahoma Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C.; Johnston, C. S.; Carpenter, B. M.; Reches, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Oklahoma has experienced a large increase in seismicity since 2009 that has been attributed to wastewater injection. Most earthquakes, including four M5+ earthquakes, nucleated at depths > 4 km, well within the pre-Cambrian crystalline basement, even though wastewater injection occurred almost exclusively in the sedimentary sequence above. To better understand the structural characteristics of the rhyolite and granite that makeup the midcontinent basement, we analyzed a 150 m long core recovered from a basement borehole (Shads 4) in Rogers County, NE Oklahoma. The analysis of the fracture network in the rhyolite core included measurements of fracture inclination, aperture, and density, the examination fracture surface features and fill minerology, as well as x-ray diffraction analysis of secondary mineralization. We also analyzed the highly fractured and faulted segments of the core with a portable gamma-ray detector, magnetometer, and rebound hammer. The preliminary analysis of the fractures within the rhyolite core showed: (1) Fracture density increasing with depth by a factor of 10, from 4 fractures/10m in the upper core segment to 40 fracture/10m at 150 m deeper. (2) The fractures are primarily sub-vertical, inclined 10-20° from the axis of the vertical core. (3) The secondary mineralization is dominated by calcite and epidote. (4) Fracture aperture ranges from 0.35 to 2.35mm based on the thickness of secondary filling. (5) About 8% of the examined fractures display slickenside striations. (6) Increases of elasticity (by rebound hammer) and gamma-ray emissions are systematically correlated with a decrease in magnetic susceptibility in core segments of high fracture density and/or faulting; this observation suggests diagenetic fracture re-mineralization.

  19. Reliability of residential basements as blast shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinow, A.; Mohammadi, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method for predicting the probability of failure of a wood-framed basement when subjected to a static, uniformly distributed load. The analysis considers the primary failure modes of each framing member and determines the probability of failure for each mode acting alone. The failure probability of the system as a whole is then bounded. The upper bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are independent, while the lower bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are perfectly correlated. The analysis is described with reference to an example problem

  20. Magnetotelluric inversion for depth-to-basement estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively applied for depth-to-basement estimation, because there exists a strong contrast in resistivity between a conductive sedimentary basin and a resistive crystalline basement. Conventional inversions of MT data are usually aimed at determining...... the volumetric distribution of the conductivity within the inversion domain. By the nature of the MT method, the recovered distribution of the subsurface conductivity is typically diffusive, which makes it difficult to select the sediment-basement interface. This paper develops a novel approach to 3D MT...... inversion for the depth-to-basement estimate. The key to this approach is selection of the model parameterization with the depth to basement being the major unknown parameter. In order to estimate the depth to the basement, the inversion algorithm recovers both the thickness and the conductivities...

  1. A Novel Plasma Membrane-Anchored Protein Regulates Xylem Cell-Wall Deposition through Microtubule-Dependent Lateral Inhibition of Rho GTPase Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yuki; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Fukuda, Hiroo; Oda, Yoshihisa

    2017-08-21

    Spatial control of cell-wall deposition is essential for determining plant cell shape [1]. Rho-type GTPases, together with the cortical cytoskeleton, play central roles in regulating cell-wall patterning [2]. In metaxylem vessel cells, which are the major components of xylem tissues, active ROP11 Rho GTPases form oval plasma membrane domains that locally disrupt cortical microtubules, thereby directing the formation of oval pits in secondary cell walls [3-5]. However, the regulatory mechanism that determines the planar shape of active Rho of Plants (ROP) domains is still unknown. Here we show that IQD13 associates with cortical microtubules and the plasma membrane to laterally restrict the localization of ROP GTPase domains, thereby directing the formation of oval secondary cell-wall pits. Loss and overexpression of IQD13 led to the formation of abnormally round and narrow secondary cell-wall pits, respectively. Ectopically expressed IQD13 increased the presence of parallel cortical microtubules by promoting microtubule rescue. A reconstructive approach revealed that IQD13 confines the area of active ROP domains within the lattice of the cortical microtubules, causing narrow ROP domains to form. This activity required the interaction of IQD13 with the plasma membrane. These findings suggest that IQD13 positively regulates microtubule dynamics as well as their linkage to the plasma membrane, which synergistically confines the area of active ROP domains, leading to the formation of oval secondary cell-wall pits. This finding sheds light on the role of microtubule-plasma membrane linkage as a lateral fence that determines the planar shape of Rho GTPase domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned CNT Composite for Membrane Applications Using Chemical Vapor Deposition through In Situ Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT composite using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A forest of vertically aligned CNTs was grown using catalytic CVD. Fluorocarbon polymer, films were deposited in the spaces between vertically aligned MWCNTs using thermal CVD apparatus developed in-house. The excessive polymer top layer was etched by exposing the sample to water plasma. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the attachment of functional groups to CNTs. Alignment of CNTs, deposition of polymer and postetched specimens were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. Uniform distribution of monomodel vertically aligned CNTs embedded in the deposited polymer matrix was observed in the micrograph. Observed uniform distribution otherwise is not possible using conventional techniques such as spin coating.

  3. Geochemistry of the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchio, Raul; Lucassen, Friedrich; Franz, Gerhard; Kasemann, Simone

    1998-01-01

    Major and trace elements, rare earths, and 143 Nd/ 147 Nd and, 147 Sm/ 144 Nd isotope ratios have been determined in the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement. The basement is formed by high temperature amphibolite facies rocks ranulites (750-550 degrees C) and green schists. They are represented by schists, paragneiss, orthogneiss, migmatites, few metabasites, marbles and chalcosilicatic banks. Hypotheses on the formation and evolution of the basement are presented

  4. A case of regression of atypical dense deposit disease without C3 deposition in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Kang, Mung Jae; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2010-07-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD) is a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of abnormal electron-dense material within the glomerular basement membrane of the kidneys. The diagnosis is made in most patients between 5 and 15 years of age, and within 10 years, approximately half of the affected patients progress to end-stage renal disease. We report a rare case of regressive DDD without C3 deposition after steroid therapy in an 11-year-old boy. The patient presented with edema, gross hematuria, and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Laboratory testing revealed a serum creatinine level of 1.17 mg/dL, albumin level of 2.3 g/dL, and serum C3 level of 125 mg/dL (range 90-180 mg/dL). The results of the renal biopsy were consistent with DDD without C3 deposition. After 6 weeks of steroid therapy, the nephrotic syndrome completely resolved. The follow-up renal biopsy showed a significant reduction in mesangial proliferation and disappearance of electron-dense deposits in the GBM.

  5. Clinical and pathological features of dense deposit disease in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinquan; Tang, Zheng; Luo, Chunlei; Hu, Yanglin; Zeng, Caihong; Chen, Huiping; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-09-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD) is a rare disease that has no universally effective treatment. Herein we explore the clinical and pathological features of DDD in Chinese patients and the therapeutic effect of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW). Clinical and pathological data of 10 Chinese patients with biopsy-proved DDD were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The patients consisted of 6 males and 4 females. All of them had heavy proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. Gross hematuria, renal insufficiency, anemia, hypertension and low serum complement 3 (C3) occurred in 3, 3, 5, 6 and 8 cases, respectively. Under light microscopy (LM), 8 cases exhibited membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain disclosed intense PAS-positive bright ribbon-like thickening of glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Immunofluorescence mainly showed diffuse fine granular and short linear deposition of C3 along the glomerular capillary wall. Under electron microscopy, ribbon-like electrondense intramembranous deposits were identified in the lamina densa of the GBM, along the tubule basement membranes (TBM) and wall of Bowman's capsule. Before admission, 6 cases were treated with prednisone, cyclophosphamide and/or cyclosporin A with no response. Proteinuria in 8 cases who received TW during the course decreased at different degrees. The clinical and pathological features in DDD patients were various. The effect of TW in patients with DDD merits further investigation.

  6. Depth-To-Basement Mapping Using Fractal Technique: Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and can thus be obtained at source level. Application to aeromagnetic data from the Chad basin north eastern Nigeria produced a basement relief which range from depths of 2.47 km to 5.40 km with an average of 3.92 +- 0.66 km. Keywords: Fractal, depth, basement, spectra, aeromagnetic. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol ...

  7. NATURAL BASEMENT VENTILATION AS A RADON MITIGATION TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a study of natural basement ventilation in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. NOTE: Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a way to reduce radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy...

  8. Investigation of the subsurface features of the basement complex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3D seismic reflection survey was recently carried out within the Zaria area of the basement complex of northern Nigeria, in order to investigate the complexity of the subsurface features within the basement. The geology of the survey area was characterized by gneisses and low grade meta-sedimentary rocks that form the ...

  9. Potential Development of Hydrocarbon in Basement Reservoirs In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sunarjanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.165Basement rocks, in particular igneous and metamorphic rocks are known to have porosity and permeability which should not be ignored. Primary porosity of basement rocks occurs as the result of rock formation. The porosity increases by the presence of cracks occurring as the result of tectonic processes (secondary porosity. Various efforts have been carried out to explore hydrocarbon in basement rocks. Some oil and gas fields proved that the basement rocks are as reservoirs which so far have provided oil and gas in significant amount. A review using previous research data, new data, and observation of igneous rocks in some fields has been done to see the development of exploration and basement reservoirs in Indonesia. A review on terminology of basement rock up till the identification of oil and gas exploration in basement rocks need to be based on the latest technology. An environmental approach is suggested to be applied as an alternative in analyzing the policy on oil and gas exploration development, especially in basement reservoirs.

  10. Membranous glomerulonephritis in a child asymptomatic for hepatitis B virus. Concomitant seropositivity for HBsAG and anti-HBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, H Z; Ainsworth, S K; DeBeukelaer, M; Brissie, R M; Hennigar, G R

    1981-04-01

    The presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in association with immunoglobulins and complement components within the glomerular basement membranes of adults having chronic active hepatitis has been well documented. In addition, investigators in Poland have demonstrated HBsAg immune complexes in glomeruli of children who did not have clinical evidence of hepatitis. More recently, a single case of childhood membranous glomerulonephritis in an asymptomatic carrier of hepatitis B virus was cited by observers in Canada. Reported here is the deposition of HBsAg immune complexes in the glomerular basement membranes of a 13-year-old black boy who had membranous glomerulopathy but not clinical evidence of hepatitis. This may be the first reported case in the United States of HbsAg-associated membranous glomerulonephritis in a child asymptomatic for hepatitis B virus, and only the second such case in North America. However, unlike previous studies of childhood glomerulopathy in association with hepatitis B virus, this patient is seropositive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs (antibody for hepatitis B surface antigen). Similar "rare" serologic findings were found for the patient's eldest male sib.

  11. Fabrication and optical properties of TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays made by sol-gel electrophoresis deposition into anodic alumina membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Y; Yuan, X Y; Xie, T; Zhang, L D

    2003-01-01

    Ordered TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays have been successfully fabricated into the nanochannels of a porous anodic alumina membrane by sol-gel electrophoretic deposition. After annealing at 500 deg. C, the TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays and the individual nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and TEM images show that these nanowires are dense and continuous with a uniform diameter throughout their entire length. XRD and SAED analysis together indicate that these TiO sub 2 nanowires crystallize in the anatase polycrystalline structure. The optical absorption band edge of TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays exhibits a blue shift with respect of that of the bulk TiO sub 2 owing to the quantum size effect.

  12. A Scalable Route to Nanoporous Large-Area Atomically Thin Graphene Membranes by Roll-to-Roll Chemical Vapor Deposition and Polymer Support Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidambi, Piran R; Mariappan, Dhanushkodi D; Dee, Nicholas T; Vyatskikh, Andrey; Zhang, Sui; Karnik, Rohit; Hart, A John

    2018-03-28

    Scalable, cost-effective synthesis and integration of graphene is imperative to realize large-area applications such as nanoporous atomically thin membranes (NATMs). Here, we report a scalable route to the production of NATMs via high-speed, continuous synthesis of large-area graphene by roll-to-roll chemical vapor deposition (CVD), combined with casting of a hierarchically porous polymer support. To begin, we designed and built a two zone roll-to-roll graphene CVD reactor, which sequentially exposes the moving foil substrate to annealing and growth atmospheres, with a sharp, isothermal transition between the zones. The configurational flexibility of the reactor design allows for a detailed evaluation of key parameters affecting graphene quality and trade-offs to be considered for high-rate roll-to-roll graphene manufacturing. With this system, we achieve synthesis of uniform high-quality monolayer graphene ( I D / I G casting and postprocessing, show size-selective molecular transport with performance comparable to that of membranes made from conventionally synthesized graphene. Therefore, this work establishes the feasibility of a scalable manufacturing process of NATMs, for applications including protein desalting and small-molecule separations.

  13. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2014-01-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Franceville basin, Gabon, is mainly known for its high-grade uranium deposits, which are the only ones known to act as natural nuclear fission reactors. Previous work in the Kiéné region investigated the nature of the fluids responsible for these natural nuclear reactors. The present work focuses on the top of the Archaean granitic basement, specifically, to identify and date the successive alteration events that affected this basement just below the unconformity separating it from the Palaeoproterozoic basin. Core from four drill holes crosscutting the basin-basement unconformity have been studied. Dating is based on U-Pb isotopic analyses performed on monazite. The origin of fluids is discussed from the study of fluid inclusion planes (FIP) in quartz from basement granitoids. From the deepest part of the drill holes to the unconformable boundary with the basin, propylitic alteration assemblages are progressively replaced by illite and locally by a phengite + Fe chlorite ± Fe oxide assemblage. Illitic alteration is particularly strong along the sediment-granitoid contact and is associated with quartz dissolution. It was followed by calcite and anhydrite precipitation as fracture fillings. U-Pb isotopic dating outlines three successive events: a 3.0-2.9-Ga primary magmatic event, a 2.6-Ga propylitic alteration and a late 1.9-Ga diagenetic event. Fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests the circulation of three types of fluids: (1) a Na-Ca-rich diagenetic brine, (2) a moderately saline (diagenetic + meteoric) fluid, and (3) a low-salinity fluid of probable meteoric origin. These fluids are similar to those previously identified within the overlying sedimentary rocks of the Franceville basin. Overall, the data collected in this study show that the Proterozoic-Archaean unconformity has operated as a major flow corridor for fluids circulation, around 1.9 Ga. highly saline diagenetic brines; hydrocarbon-rich fluids derived from organic matter

  14. Basement tectonics and flexural subsidence along western continental margin of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-recent post-rift subsidence history recorded in the Mumbai Offshore Basin off western continental margin of India is examined. Results obtained through 2-D flexural backstripping modelling of new seismic data reveal considerable thermo-tectonic subsidence over last ca. 56 Myr. Reverse post-rift subsidence modelling with variable β stretching factor predicts residual topography of ca. 2000 m to the west of Shelf Margin Basin and fails to restore late Paleocene horizon and the underlying igneous basement to the sea level. This potentially implies that: (1 either the igneous basement formed during the late Cretaceous was emplaced under open marine environs; or (2 a laterally varying cumulative subsidence occurred within Mumbai Offshore Basin (MOB during ca. 68 to ca. 56 Ma. Pre-depositional topographic variations at ca. 56 Ma across the basin could be attributed to the extensional processes such as varied lower crustal underplating along Western Continental Margin of India (WCMI. Investigations about basement tectonics after unroofing of sediments since late Paleocene from this region support a transitional and heavily stretched nature of crust with high to very high β factors. Computations of past sediment accumulation rates show that the basin sedimentation peaked during late Miocene concurrently with uplift of Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau and intensification of Indian monsoon system. Results from basin subsidence modelling presented here may have significant implications for further studies attempting to explore tectono–climatic interactions in Asia.

  15. Metasomatic tourmalinite formation along basement-cover decollements, Orobic Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Passchier, C.W.; Zhang, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Cryptocrystalline tourmalinites that occur discontinuously for ???30 km along basement-cover de??collements of the Orohic Alps (Italy) formed by the metasomatism of aluminous cataclasites derived from Permian conglomerates and/or feldspathic sandstones. Using Al as an immobile element monitor, calculations show that the majority of tourmalinites in the region formed through the addition of moderate to significant amounts of B, Mg, Na, Sr, and Be, and the loss of moderate to significant Mn, Ca, K, P, Rb, Ba, and Cr; minor Si, Ti, V, light REE, and Eu also were lost. Data tor relatively immobile Al, Zr, Th, Sc, Nb, and heavy REE indicate that, on average, these tourmalinites formed through ???12% net mass loss assuming an original conglomerate protolith, or through ???7% net mass loss assuming a sandstone protolith. The B and other introduced constituents in the tourmalinites were deposited by hydrothermal fluids focused along and near basement-cover de??collements. These fluids, believed to be associated with late Hercynian felsic magmatism, probably are related to fluids that formed the tourmaline-rich U-Mo-Zn deposits at the nearby Novazza mine and the U-Zn deposits at the nearby Val Vedello mine.

  16. Micro-fabricated membrane gas valves with a non-stiction coating deposited by C4F8/Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeahyeong; Flachsbart, Bruce; Shannon, Mark A; Masel, Rich I

    2008-01-01

    Micro-fabricated gas valves with C 4 F 8 /Ar treatment at the sealing interface are designed, fabricated and characterized to passively control gases in a micro gas analysis system. The check valves form a seal between a polished Si/SiO 2 substrate and a smooth polyimide (PI) membrane. The smooth PI membrane touches the SiO 2 surface, giving rise to relatively strong van der Waals adhesion, and under humid conditions hydrogen-bonded stiction can occur at the interface between PI and SiO 2 . To prevent stiction from dominating adhesion, the valve-seat surface was treated with a hydrophobic CF n thin film, which was formed by exposing the surface to C 4 F 8 /Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) at low power. The valves without a non-stiction coating did not open with inlet pressures up to 210 kPa. With a non-stiction coating, the valves showed an average initial opening pressure of 59.25 kPa. In order to further reduce the opening pressure, 40% of the valve-seat area is reduced. After modification, the average opening pressure is reduced to 32.5 kPa. After the initial opening, the average in-use opening pressure was 16.9 kPa before area modification, and 13.1 kPa after the modification. The valve has been tested up to 10 000 open/close cycles under dry N 2 gas flow, and an additional 3000 open/close cycles under humid N 2 gas flow. The average forward flow conductance of the valves before modification was 1.1 sccm kPa −1 , and the conductance after modification was 1.41 sccm kPa −1 . The measured leakage is between 0.0003 and 0.004 sccm up to 35 kPa reverse pressure

  17. Deforming Etna's Basement: Implications for Edifice stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    At over 3 kilometers in height, Mt. Etna (Italy) is the largest volcano of continental Europe. The volcano formed on top of the alpine fold and thrust belt, with basaltic outflows lying unconformably on top of an alternation between sandstones, limestones and clays. Presently Etna's eastern flank is moving with speeds up to 2cm/yr to the east [Tibaldi and Groppelli, 2002]. It is the sequence of layers below the volcano that is thought to provide a complex, structurally controlled, mechanism to the volcano deformation as a whole. This is due to the interplay of gravitational forces, volcanic pressurization, and regional tectonics, which combine to play a complex role that remains poorly understood, especially when the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks are considered. In this study, we concentrate on the rock mechanical component, and in particular the formation known as Comiso Limestone. This limestone forms of one of the key lithologies of Etna's basement. The formation has been suggested to be affected by thermal weakening [Heap et al., 2013]. Previous work on Comiso Limestone suggests brittle behavior for the range of temperatures (up to 760 ˚C) and a significant reduction in strength with higher temperatures. [Mollo et al., 2011]. Chiodini et al [2011], speculate carbonate assimilation. This implies that the Carbondioxide created by decarbonatization, is able to escape. Using an internally heated "Paterson" type pressure vessel, we recreated conditions at 2-4 km depth (50-100 MPa) and using an anomalously high geotherm, as expected in volcanic settings (ranging from room to 600 ˚C). With the addition of confining pressure, we show a brittle to ductile transition occurs at a relatively low temperature of 300 ˚C. A significant decrease in strength occurs when the rock is exposed to temperatures exceeding 400 ˚C. In addition, we observe a significant difference in mechanical behavior between vented and unvented situations when decarbonatization is

  18. Effect of basement structure and salt tectonics on deformation styles along strike: An example from the Kuqa fold-thrust belt, West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, Yuan; Xie, Huiwen; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB) has a complex thrust-system geometry and comprises basement-involved thrusts, décollement thrusts, triangle zones, strike-slip faults, transpressional faults, and pop-up structures. These structures, combined with the effects of Paleogene salt tectonics and Paleozoic basement uplift form a complex structural zone trending E-W. Interpretation and comprehensive analysis of recent high-quality seismic data, field observations, boreholes, and gravity data covering the KFTB has been performed to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of the deformation styles along strike. Regional sections, fold-thrust system maps of the surface and the sub-salt layer, salt and basement structure distribution maps have been created, and a comprehensive analysis of thrust systems performed. The results indicate that the thrust-fold system in Paleogene salt range can be divided into five segments from east to west: the Kela-3, Keshen, Dabei, Bozi, and Awate segments. In the easternmost and westernmost parts of the Paleogene salt range, strike-slip faulting and basement-involved thrusting are the dominant deformation styles, as basement uplift and the limits of the Cenozoic evaporite deposit are the main controls on deformation. Salt-core detachment fold-thrust systems coincide with areas of salt tectonics, and pop-up, imbricate, and duplex structures are associated with the main thrust faults in the sub-salt layer. Distribution maps of thrust systems, basement structures, and salt tectonics show that Paleozoic basement uplift controlled the Paleozoic foreland basin morphology and the distribution of Cenozoic salt in the KFTB, and thus had a strong influence on the segmented structural deformation and evolution of the fold-thrust belt. Three types of transfer zone are identified, based on the characteristics of the salt layer and basement uplift, and the effects of these zones on the fault systems are evaluated. Basement uplift and the boundary of

  19. Survey of Jaemtland county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antal, I.; Bergman, S.; Freden, C.; Gierup, J.; Stoelen, L.K.; Thunholm, B.; Stephens, M.

    1999-06-01

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Jaemtland county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  20. Survey of Dalarna county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierup, J.; Kuebler, L.; Linden, A.; Ripa, M.; Stoelen, L.K.; Thunholm, B.; Stephens, M.

    1999-06-01

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Dalarna county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  1. Survey of Scania county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierup, J.; Kuebler, L.; Pamnert, M.; Persson, Magnus; Thunholm, B.; Wahlgren, C.H.; Wikman, H.; Stephens, M.

    1999-06-01

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Scania county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  2. Geology of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit near Meli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VMS) deposit near Meli/Rahwa, northern Ethiopia are presented in the paper. The study area forms part of Neoproterozoic basement of northern Ethiopia and southern part of the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). Selected surface rock samples of ...

  3. Basement domain map of the conterminous United States and Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Box, Stephen E.; Holm-Denoma, Christopher S.; San Juan, Carma A.; Blakely, Richard J.; Saltus, Richard W.; Anderson, Eric D.; DeWitt, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as a base layer for national-scale mineral resource assessments. Seventy-seven basement domains are represented as eighty-three polygons on the map. The domains are based on interpretations of basement composition, origin, and architecture and developed from a variety of sources. Analysis of previously published basement, lithotectonic, and terrane maps as well as models of planetary development were used to formulate the concept of basement and the methodology of defining domains that spanned the ages of Archean to present but formed through different processes. The preliminary compilations for the study areas utilized these maps, national-scale gravity and aeromagnetic data, published and limited new age and isotopic data, limited new field investigations, and conventional geologic maps. Citation of the relevant source data for compilations and the source and types of original interpretation, as derived from different types of data, are provided in supporting descriptive text and tables.

  4. Frictional Behavior of Altered Basement Approaching the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Rooney, T. O.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    The frictional behavior of basement rocks plays an important role in subduction zone faulting and seismicity. This includes earthquakes seaward of the trench, large megathrust earthquakes where seamounts are subducting, or where the plate interface steps down to basement. In exhumed subduction zone rocks such as the Shimanto complex in Japan, slivers of basalt are entrained in mélange which is evidence of basement involvement in the fault system. Scientific drilling during the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) recovered basement rock from two reference sites (C0011 and C0012) located seaward of the trench offshore the Kii Peninsula during Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 322 and 333. The basement rocks are pillow basalts that appear to be heterogeneously altered, resulting in contrasting dense blue material and more vesicular gray material. Major element geochemistry shows differences in silica, calcium oxides and loss-on-ignition between the two types of samples. Minor element geochemistry reveals significant differences in vanadium, chromium, and barium. X-ray diffraction on a bulk sample powder representing an average composition shows a phyllosilicate content of 20%, most of which is expandable clays. We performed laboratory friction experiments in a biaxial testing apparatus as either intact sample blocks, or as gouge powders. We combine these experiments with measurements of Pennsylvania slate for comparison, including a mixed-lithology intact block experiment. Intact Nankai basement blocks exhibit a coefficient of sliding friction of 0.73; for Nankai basement powder, slate powder, slate blocks and slate-on-basement blocks the coefficient of sliding friction ranges from 0.44 to 0.57. At slip rates ranging from 3x10-8 to 3x10-4 m/s we observe predominantly velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, indicating a tendency for stable slip. At rates of < 1x10-6 m/s some velocity-weakening was observed, specifically in

  5. Fabrication of a Microtubular La0.6Sr0.4Ti0.2Fe0.8O3−δ Membrane by Electrophoretic Deposition for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubular type La0.6Sr0.4Ti0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSTF membranes were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD. The oxygen permeation and hydrogen production behavior of the membranes were investigated under various conditions. LSTF green layer was successfully coated onto a carbon rod and, after heat treatment at 1400°C in air, a dense LSTF tubular membrane with a thickness of 250 mm can be obtained. The oxygen permeation and hydrogen production rate were enhanced by CH4 in the permeate side, and the hydrogen production rate by water splitting was 0.22 mL/min·cm2 at 1000°C. It is believed that hydrogen production via water splitting using these tubular LSTF membranes is possible.

  6. Membranous glomerulopathy and massive cervical lymphadenopathy due to immunoglobulin G4-disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel El-Reshaid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male presented with acute and severe nephrotic syndrome as well as massive right cervical lymphadenopathy for <2 years. Computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis did not reveal any lymphadenopathy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical testing of his lymph node biopsy showed infiltrate enriched with immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-positive plasma cells. His kidney biopsy showed granular membranous deposits of IgG4 in the basement membrane without interstitial infiltrate. Antiphospholipid 2 receptor antibodies were absent excluding its "idiopathic" nature. Since he was allergic to rituximab, he was treated with corticosteroids for two months and a combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. His lymphadenopathy disappeared, and his proteinuria abated. The dose of the latter two medications was reduced to half after four months and will be maintained for a minimum of two years to prevent relapse of his disease.

  7. Use of bortezomib in heavy-chain deposition disease: a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinjal; Dillon, John J; Leung, Nelson; Bomback, Andrew S; Appel, Gerald B; D'Agati, Vivette; Canetta, Pietro A

    2014-07-01

    Heavy-chain deposition disease (HCDD) is a rare complication of plasma cell dyscrasia in which monoclonal heavy chains deposit in glomerular and tubular basement membranes of the kidney. Clinical and pathologic features of HCDD have been well described in case reports and series, but evidence supporting specific therapies is sparse. Historically, the disease has had a poor prognosis, intensifying the need to clarify optimal treatments. We describe 3 cases of HCDD with biopsy-proven glomerular involvement, severe nephrotic syndrome, and decline in kidney function that were treated successfully with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor. None of these patients had multiple myeloma. In all cases, bortezomib-based therapy resulted in sustained resolution of nephrotic syndrome and improvement in kidney function. All 3 patients developed peripheral neuropathy; otherwise, treatment was well tolerated. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the clinical effectiveness of bortezomib against HCDD. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation induced deposition of copper nanoparticles inside the nanochannels of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Güven, Olgun; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Atıcı, Ayse Bakar; Gorin, Yevgeniy G.; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, track-etched membranes (TeMs) with 400 nm average pore size were UV-grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) after oxidation of inner surfaces by H2O2/UV system. Carboxylate groups of grafted PAA chains were easily complexed with Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. These ions were converted into metallic copper nanoparticles (NPs) by radiation-induced reduction of copper ions in aqueous-alcohol solution by gamma rays in the dose range of 46-250 kGy. Copper ions chelating with -COOH groups of PAA chains grafted on PET TeMs form polymer-metal ion complex that prevent the formation of agglomerates during reduction of copper ions to metallic nanoparticles. The detailed analysis by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the deposition of copper nanoparticles with the average size of 70 nm on the inner surface of nanochannels of PET TeMs. Samples were also investigated by FTIR, ESR spectroscopies to follow copper ion reduction.

  9. The role of complement receptors type 1 (CR1, CD35) and 2 (CR2, CD21) in promoting C3 fragment deposition and membrane attack complex formation on normal peripheral human B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Pedersen, Morten Løbner; Marquart, Hanne Vibeke Hansen

    2002-01-01

    Normal human B lymphocytes are known to activate the alternative pathway (AP) of complement, leading to C3-fragment deposition and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation. The process is mediated via complement receptor type 2 (CR2, CD21), with complement receptor type 1 (CR1, CD35) playing...... a subsidiary role. In this study, we examine the relative contributions of CR1 and CR2 to the deposition of C3 fragments and MAC on B lymphocytes under circumstances where all complement pathways are operational. C3-fragment deposition and MAC formation were assessed on human peripheral B lymphocytes...... in the presence of 30% autologous serum. Blocking the CR2 ligand-binding site with monoclonal antibody (mAb) FE8 resulted in significant reduction (37.9+/-11.9%) in C3-fragment deposition, whereas MAC formation was only marginally affected (12.1+/-22.2% reduction). Blocking the CR1 binding-site resulted...

  10. Magnetic Basement Depth Inversion in the Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Tiago Mane; Barbosa, Valéria Cristina F.; Silva, João Batista C.

    2008-10-01

    We present a total-field anomaly inversion method to determine both the basement relief and the magnetization direction (inclination and declination) of a 2D sedimentary basin presuming negligible sediment magnetization. Our method assumes that the magnetic intensity contrast is constant and known. We use a nonspectral approach based on approximating the vertical cross section of the sedimentary basin by a polygon, whose uppermost vertices are forced to coincide with the basin outcrop, which are presumably known. For fixed values of the x coordinates our method estimates the z coordinates of the unknown polygon vertices. To obtain the magnetization direction we assume that besides the total-field anomaly, information about the basement’s outcrops at the basin borders and the basement depths at a few points is available. To obtain stable depth-to-basement estimates we impose overall smoothness and positivity constraints on the parameter estimates. Tests on synthetic data showed that the simultaneous estimation of the irregular basement relief and the magnetization direction yields good estimates for the relief despite the mild instability in the magnetization direction. The inversion of aeromagnetic data from the onshore Almada Basin, Brazil, revealed a shallow, eastward-dipping basement basin.

  11. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignan, B.; O'Kelly, P.; Pilch, E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  12. Examination of the Basement of Historic Buildings in Investment Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulybin Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process and methodology of the survey of basements rarely mentioned in the various construction rules and regulations. Basically describes the procedure of conducting a detailed survey of some of the individual elements. These surveys are fundamental in nature, include a large number of estimates and require significant financial and time costs. Usually the purpose of these surveys is to check the state of the building as a whole, it’s safe operation or before starting of reconstruction. In the process of selecting areas of investment activity such large-scale survey is not possible. Needed a quick and inexpensive method intended for decision about investment in a particular object. At the same time, the survey should cover all the elements of the basement significantly affect the cost of reconstruction of the basement associated with his penetration. The article presents the general conception of conducting a rapid survey. The described methods and technologies applicable to the examination for the purpose of making decisions about investments in reconstruction of a basement level rooms. The composition of the works and their sequence. A comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. The practical examples. Scheme of conducting a rapid survey of the basement. The article analyzes the materials used in the construction of historic buildings in St. Petersburg.

  13. The significance of strike-slip faulting in the basement of the Zagros fold and thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessami, K.; Koyi, H.A.; Talbot, C.J. [Uppsala University (Sweden). Institute of Earth Sciences

    2000-01-01

    Lateral offsets in the pattern of seismicity along the Zagros fold and thrust belt indicate that transverse faults segmenting the Arabian basement are active deep-seated strike-slip faults. The dominant NW-SE trending features of the belt have undergone repeated horizontal displacements along these transverse faults. These reactivated basement faults, which are inherited from the Pan-African construction phase, controlled both deposition of the Phanerozoic cover before Tertiary-Recent deformation of the Zagros and probably the entrapment of hydrocarbons on the NE margin of Arabia and in the Zagros area. We have used observations of faulting recognized on Landsat satellite images, in conjunction with the spatial distribution of earthquakes and their focal mechanism solutions, to infer a tectonic model for the Zagros basement. Deformation in the NW Zagros appears to be concentrated on basement thrusts and a few widely-spaced north-south trending strike-slip faults which separate major structural segments. In the SE Zagros, two main structural domains can be distinguished. A domain of NNW-trending right-lateral faults in the northern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks are likely to have rotated anticlockwise about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. In contrast, the predominance of NNE-trending left-lateral faults in the southern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks may have rotated clockwise about vertical axes. We propose a tectonic model in which crustal blocks bounded by strike-slip faults in a zone of simple shear rotate about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. The presence of domains of strike-slip and thrust faulting in the Zagros basement suggest that some of the convergence between Arabia and Central Iran is accommodated by rotation and possible lateral movement of crust along the belt by strike-slip faults, as well as by obvious crustal shortening and thickening along thrust

  14. Uplift, Emergence, and Subsidence of the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge Offshore Cape Mendocino, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Susan M.; Tréhu, Anne M.

    2017-12-01

    The Gorda Escarpment is a topographic step that characterizes the south side of the Mendocino Transform Fault east of 126oW and forms the northern edge of the Vizcaino Block. Seismic reflection data suggest that the basement beneath the northern edge of the Vizcaino is composed of east-west trending slivers of oceanic crust that form a 15 km wide band of buried ridges we call the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge (GEBR) to distinguish it from the northwest-trending basement structure that characterizes most of the Vizcaino Block. The history of uplift and subsidence of the GEBR is reconstructed by combining the seismic reflection profiles with age and lithological constraints from ODP Site 1022, gravity cores, and grab samples from the northern face of the Escarpment recovered using a remotely operated vehicle. Uplift of the GEBR began prior to 6 Ma, and it was above sea level 3.7-2.5 Ma. GEBR uplift and emergence coincided with sediment deposition on the southern flank of the GEBR that we interpret as indicative of strong upwelling and turbulence in the lee of a shallow ridge and island chain. A bright reflection, interpreted to be a sill, is observed south of the shallowest part of the GEBR. We speculate that this sill may reflect a larger, hidden intrusion at depth and that thermal expansion of the crust combined with tectonic forces to drive enhanced uplift of this segment of the plate boundary. The GEBR has been subsiding since 2.7 Ma, and its shallowest point is now 1,400 m below sea level.

  15. The basement control on Xiazhuang uranium ore field in south sector of Wuyi tumescence and relevant geological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dazhong; Xue Zhenhua

    1994-01-01

    Based on the two rift-trench tectonic framework in Wuyi as well as its adjacent areas proposed previously, this study takes Yingtan-Nancheng-Anyuan-Heyuan tenacity fracture belt as the geological boundary between two types of uranium deposits (granite and volcanic rock). It is noted that the distinct function of Caledonian movement in this area is the formation of the linear migmatization and granitization on the basis of rift and tumescence basement. Simultaneously, according to the new discovery of hypometamorphic rock and large scaled ductile mylonitized zone in Xiazhuang uranium ore field and its adjacent area, it is concluded that the Xiazhuang uranium ore field is the result of multiple tectonism and magmatic activations on the Caledonian hot dome on the basis of ancient basement. Because the uranium mineralization is present in two kinds of rocks (ductile and brittle), it is suggested that the types of mineralization in Xiazhuang can be considered in order to guide the further prospecting

  16. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K–G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology. (charnockites ... Marine magnetic anomalies; offshore K–G basin; magnetic basement; extension of EGMB geology; continent– oceanic boundary. ..... of India; J. Australian Petroleum Exploration Association. 14 29–41.

  17. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    Analyses of about 6000 km of processed magnetic data in the central Bay of Bengal using Analytical Signal Processing and Werner Deconvolution techniques revealed that the depth to top of the magnetic basement varies between 5 and 12 km from the sea...

  18. Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. GC Onyedim, MO Awoyemi, EA Ariyibi, JB Arubayi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42 (2) 2006: pp. 157-163. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  19. lithologic characterisation of the basement aquifers of awe and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    resistivity exceeded 3000 ohm-m, then the bedrock is fresh and prospect for water is low (Olayinka and. Olorunfemi, 1992; Olorunfemi and Olorunniwo, 1990). Groundwater zones are found in the weathered and fractured zones in basement areas. In Ibarapa area of SW, Nigeria the associated fractured bedrock aquifers.

  20. Nanggulan Formation and Its Problem As a Basement in Kulonprogo Basin, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.2.71-80Nanggulan Formation consists of the oldest clastic rock sequence exposed in Kulonprogo area, Yogyakarta. This paper discusses the position of Nanggulan Formation as a basement. The method used in this research is surface and subsurface investigations based on gravity surveys. The rock assemblage is exposed and distributed partly in the east flank of Kulonprogo Mountains with weak undulated morphology. The rock sequence is composed of sand to clay grain sizes such as sandstone, quartz sandstone, calcareous sandstone, claystone, fossiliferous claystone, calcareous claystone, siltstone, and coal seam intercalations. The total thickness of the sequence is less than 200 m. Based on the fossil and palynology investigations, previous investigators concluded the age of the rock was Eocene to Middle Miocene. The geological structures developed in the rocks are the lithological stratification, fractures, folding, and faulting. The subsurface interpretation based on gravity data revealed the rock was located under the andesite breccias with 2.44 g/cc density. The density of the rock sequence was 2.63 g/cc. The gravity interpretation shows a strong indication that Nanggulan Formation underlies the andesitic breccias presumably associated with Old Andesite Formation exposed in Kulonprogo Mountains. The limited distribution, the thickness, and the closed environmental deposition of Nanggulan Formation found in the present investigation raised problems on the position of the formation as the basement of Old Andesite Formation occurring in the Kulonprogo Mountain.

  1. A method for evaluating basement exhumation histories from closure age distributions of detrital minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, Oscar M.; Grove, Marty; Kimbrough, David L.; Abbott, Patrick L.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional, thermokinetic model that predicts the closure age distributions of detrital minerals from pervasively intruded and differentially exhumed basement. Using this model, we outline a method to determine the denudation history of orogenic regions on the basis of closure age distributions in synorogenic to postorogenic forearc strata. At relatively high mean denudation rates of 0.5 km m.y.-1 sustained over millions of years, magmatic heating events have minimal influence upon the age distributions of detrital minerals such as K-feldspar that are moderately retentive of radiogenic Ar. At lower rates, however, the effects of batholith emplacement may be substantial. We have applied the approach to detrital K-feldspars from forearc strata derived from the deeply denuded Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB). Agreement of the denudation history deduced from the detrital K-feldspar data with thermochronologic constraints from exposed PRB basement lead us to conclude that exhumation histories of magmatic arcs should be decipherable solely from closure age distributions of detrital minerals whose depositional age is known. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union

  2. Punta del este terrane: meso proterozoic basement and neo proterozoic cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Basei, M.; Peel, E.; Oyhantcabal, P.; Cordani, U.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Eastern basement of Uruguay consists of Meso and Neoproterozoic rocks. Mesoproterozoic basement had been deformed by pre-Brasiliano and Brasiliano events. Regional variations in this basement and in the Neoproterozoic cover show equivalent deformation styles and intensities. Models proposed for tectonic evolution have been scarce and confusing. Specially, the ones that concern the moment of collision and/or juxtaposition of blocks. The Punta del Este Terrane (PET) is composed of gneisses and migmatites formed between 1000 Ma to 900 Ma (Preciozzi et al., 2001). These rocks had been strongly reworked during Brasiliano and Rio Doce orogenesis (ca. 900-500 Ma). This crustal segment represents a high grade metamorphic terrane, which is correlated to some gneissic complexes southwest of Africa. Particularly, it is correlated to Kibaran-Namaqua Belt in Namibia. U-Pb ages between 1000 Ma and 900 Ma, obtained in zircons from tonalitic granitoids, are interpreted as indicative of their crystallization (Fig. 1). Besides, anatectic fluids related to migmatites leucosomes yielded ages of ca. 520 to 540 Ma. This denotes that superimposed metamorphic conditions during Brasiliano orogenesis reached, at least, lower amphibolite facies. PET basement gneisses present Sm-Nd model ages (TDM) between 2.4 to 1.8 Ga, showing long crustal residence, corroborated by the very negative εNd values of –1.3 and –14.3. During Brazilian orogenesy they were affected by deformation processes and anatexis. Metasedimentary PET cover occurs near La Paloma and Rocha towns. It is represented by a siliciclastic metasedimentary succession corresponding to the Rocha formation. In La Pedrera town recognized three sedimentary facies were (1-3): (1) sandstones and pelites; (2) green pelites; and (3) rhytmites. The transition from facies (1) to facies (3) shows the passage from fluvial environment with tidal influence to tidal flat with predominance of sub tidal deposits (Pazos and S

  3. Basement inheritance and salt tectonics in the SE Barents Sea: Insights from new potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernigon, L.; Broenner, M.; Dumais, M. A.; Gradmann, S.; Grønlie, A.; Nasuti, A.; Roberts, D.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the former `grey zone' between Russia and Norway has so far remained poorly constrained due to a lack of geophysical data. In 2014, we carried out a new aeromagnetic survey (BASAR-14) in the southern part of the new Norwegian offshore territory. Caledonian and Timanian structures, highlighted by the new potential field data, dominate the basement patterns and have exerted a strong influence on the structure and development of the overlying basins and basement highs. Clearly associated with NW-SE-oriented Timanian trends, the Tiddlybanken Basin represents an atypical sag basin that developed at the southern edge of the Fedynsky High. Regional extension and rapid sedimentation initiated the salt tectonics in the Barents Sea in the Early Triassic. Some of the pillows became diapiric during the Early Triassic and rejuvenated during subsequent Jurassic-Tertiary episodes of regional extension and/or compression. At present, quite a few large diapiric salt domes along the Nordkapp and Tiddlybanken basins are relatively shallow, locally reaching the seabed and thus show a clear bathymetric and magnetic signature. Quantitative modelling along 2D seismic transects was also carried out to constrain the structural and basement composition of the study area. The predominant NE-SW Mesozoic trend of the Nordkapp Basin represents a major crustal hinge zone between the Finnmark Platform, poorly affected by major crustal deformation, and the Bjarmeland Platform where Late Palaeozoic rifting controlled the widespread accumulation of salt deposits in Late Carboniferous-Early Permian time. The entire structure and segmentation of the Nordkapp Basin have been influenced by the inherited basement configuration highlighted by the new aeromagnetic data. Both the Nordkapp and the Tiddlybanken basins appear to lie at the edge of a peculiar thick and rigid crustal feature that coincides with a highly magnetic region. The abrupt termination of the eastern Nordkapp

  4. Mitigating leaks in membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, Rohit N.; Bose, Suman; Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Jain, Tarun Kumar; O' Hern, Sean C.; Laoui, Tahar; Atieh, Muataz A.; Jang, Doojoon

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional material based filters, their method of manufacture, and their use are disclosed. In one embodiment, a membrane may include an active layer including a plurality of defects and a deposited material associated with the plurality of defects may reduce flow therethrough. Additionally, a majority of the active layer may be free from the material. In another embodiment, a membrane may include a porous substrate and an atomic layer deposited material disposed on a surface of the porous substrate. The atomic layer deposited material may be less hydrophilic than the porous substrate and an atomically thin active layer may be disposed on the atomic layer deposited material.

  5. 2.9-1.9 Ga paleoalterations of Archean granitic basement of the Franceville basin (Gabon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; El Albani, Abderrazak; Meunier, Alain; Boulvais, Philippe; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Martin, Hervé; Cuney, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The Archean granitoids in the Kiéné area, Gabon, are overlained by the Paleoproterozoic sediments of the Franceville basin (2.1 Ga). The basin is known for its high-grade uranium deposits among which some have been forming natural nuclear fission reactors. Most of the studies were dedicated to the FA-FB Paleoproterozoic sediments hosting these uranium deposits. Little is known on the Archean basement itself and specifically on the hydrous alteration events it experienced before and after the sediment deposition. The present work is focused on their petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization. Dating the successive alteration events has been attempted on altered monazite crystals. Rocks in different alteration states have been sampled from eight drill cores crosscutting the Archean - Paleoproterozoic unconformity. The Archean granitoids observed in the deepest levels exhibit typical petrographical features of a propylitic alteration while they are intensely illitized up to the unconformity. The propylitic alteration is mainly pervasive but the original texture of the granitoïds is conserved in spite of the formation of new minerals: Mg-chlorite, allanite and epidote forming a typical paragenesis. The illitic alteration is much more invasive near the unconformity. The illitization process leads to the replacement of feldspars and the corrosion of quartz crysals by an illitic matrix while the ferromagnesian minerals are pseudomorphosed by a Fe-chlorite + phengite + hematite assemblage. The final fluid-rock interaction step is marked by fissural deposits of calcite and anhydrite. The δ13C isotopic data show that the fissural carbonates precipitated from diagenetic fluids enriched carbon products deriving from the maturation of organic matter. The U-Pb isotopic analyzes performed on monazite crystals have dated three distinct events: 3.0-2.9 Ga (magmatic), 2.6 Ga (propylitic alteration) and 1.9 Ga (diagenetic illitization). The calculation of

  6. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in Bruch's membrane of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, W L; Essner, E; McCarthy, K J

    1992-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (Mab 4D5 and 2D6) raised against the core protein of a basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan from Reichert's membrane of the rat, were used for ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of this protein in Bruch's membrane of the rat. Immunoreactivity...

  7. Geologic setting of the St. Catherine basement rocks, Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Maksoud, M. A. [محمد علي عبدالمقصود; Khalek, M. L. Abdel; Oweiss, K. A.

    1993-01-01

    St. Catherine area, some 900 km in size, is dominated by basement rocks Encompassing old continental gneisses, metasediments, greenstone belt, calc-alkaline granites (G-II-granites), rift-related volcanics (RV), and anorogenic within plate granites (G-III-granites). The greenstone belt is composed of subduction-related volcanics (SV) intercalated with metasediments. These volcanics split into older group (moderately metamorphosed) and younger group (slightly metamorphosed). The calc-alkaline ...

  8. Analisis Risiko pada Proyek Pembangunan Parkir Basement Jalan Sulawesi Denpasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Muka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction of Basement Parking Sulawesi Road Denpasar is a government attempt to tackle congestion and parking problems in the city of Denpasar. This activity is highly correlated with the location of Badung Market. This study aims to identify risks arising, assess the level of acceptance of risk analysis, risk mitigation and ownership of dominant risk. The results showed 25 risks identified. Of the risks identified are 24 risk dominant with 5 risk category is unacceptable occurrence of accidents in the project, the landslide during basement excavation, the lack of security fence project that can cause accidents especially hazard fell during basement excavation, the damage caused by natural disasters and the workers were not using safety equipment. Additionally identified 19 risk category is undesirable, one acceptable risk category. Dominant risk is unacceptable risks do 11 mitigation measures such as building damage due to natural disasters (force majeure, which is also a risk with follow-up by reducing the risk that anticipated early preparing for disasters and transfer risk to another party by insuring the work to others. Ownership is the most dominant risk of the contractor. The parties should consider the risks unacceptable category and also should pay attention to the risks classified as undesirable.

  9. Making more matrix: enhancing the deposition of dermal-epidermal junction components in vitro and accelerating organotypic skin culture development, using macromolecular crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, Paula; Badowski, Cedric; Lane, E Birgitte; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Skin is one of the most accessible tissues for experimental biomedical sciences, and cultured skin cells represent one of the longest-running clinical applications of stem cell therapy. However, culture-generated skin mimetic multicellular structures are still limited in their application by the time taken to develop these constructs in vitro and by their incomplete differentiation. The development of a functional dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) is one of the most sought after aspects of cultured skin, and one of the hardest to recreate in vitro. At the DEJ, dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes interact to form an interlinked basement membrane of extracellular matrix (ECM), which forms as a concerted action of both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Successful formation of this basement membrane is essential for take and stability of cultured skin autografts. We studied interactive matrix production by monocultures and cocultures of primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts in an attempt to improve the efficiency of basement membrane production in culture using mixed macromolecular crowding (mMMC); resulting ECM were enriched with the deposition of collagens I, IV, fibronectin, and laminin 332 (laminin 5) and also in collagen VII, the anchoring fibril component. Our in vitro data point to fibroblasts, rather than keratinocytes, as the major cellular contributors of the DEJ. Not only did we find more collagen VII production and deposition by fibroblasts in comparison to keratinocytes, but also observed that decellularized fibroblast ECM stimulated the production and deposition of collagen VII by keratinocytes, over and above that of keratinocyte monocultures. In confrontation cultures, keratinocytes and fibroblasts showed spontaneous segregation and demarcation of cell boundaries by DEJ protein deposition. Finally, mMMC was used in a classical organotypic coculture protocol with keratinocytes seeded over fibroblast-containing collagen gels. Applied during

  10. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  11. Dynamics of uranium ore formation in the basement and frame of the Streltsovskaya Caldera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.; Schukin, S.

    2014-01-01

    strike-slip displacements along interblock faults during Late Mesozoic TMA. Within the intersections of NW-SE shears with stratified low-angle faults the conditions for forming of bedded deposits were created. At the Paleozoic and Mesozoic border (T3-J2) into the caldera NW frame the pull-apart structure was developed. Dimension of the caldera and structure is comparable, and the latter is now hidden under K1-Q sediments of Sukhoy Urulunguy depression. Combination of paleotectonic analysis and data on dynamics of ore-forming processes and fluid-conducting fault zone formation allows us to identify three prospective areas. Two of them are located in Sukhoy Urulunguy depression in the intersection of NE-SW S-Urulyunguyevskiy fault with submeridional Gozogorsky and Meridional faults. The areas have prerequisites for detecting hidden Late Mesozoic mineralization both in volcanosedimentary cover and basement. The third area is located in intersection of NE-SW NUrulyunguyevskiy fault with meridional Chindachinskiy fault where prerequisites for detecting mineralization in Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic basement were found. It is inferred that these areas are prospective for identification of additional uranium resources within the Streltsovskoe ore field. (author)

  12. Stratigraphic implications of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1980-01-01

    One of the most consistent characteristics of economic uranium deposits is their restricted stratigraphic distribution. Uraninite deposited with direct igneous affiliation contains thorium, whereas chemical precipitates in sedimentary rocks are characterized by thorium-free primary uranium minerals with vanadium and selenium. In marine sediments, these minerals form low-grade disseminations; but in terrestrial sediments, chiefly fluvial sandstones, the concentration of uranium varies widely, with the high-grade portions constituting ore. Pitchblende vein deposits not only exhibit the same chemical characteristics as the Colorado-type sandstone deposits, but they have a stratigraphically consistent position at unconformities covered by fluvial sandstones. If deposits in such diverse situations have critical features in common, they are likely to have had many features of their origin in common. Thus, vein deposits in Saskatchewan and Australia may have analogues in areas that contain Colorado-type sandstone deposits. In New Mexico, the presence of continental sandstones with peneconformable uranium deposits should also indicate good prospecting ground for unconformity-type vein deposits. All unconformities within the periods of continental deposition ranging from Permian to Cretaceous should have uranium potential. Some situations, such as the onlap of the Abo Formation onto Precambrian basement in the Zuni Mountains, may be directly comparable to Saskatchewan deposition. However, uranium occurrences in the upper part of the Entrada Sandstone suggest that unconformities underlain by sedimentary rocks may also be exploration targets

  13. Development of nickel membranes deposited on ceramic materials by electroless plating: studies of the hydrogen perm-selectivity properties at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, J.

    2008-09-01

    The main objective of this work was to synthesize nickel based membranes by electroless plating on materials such as alumina-α, alumina-γ and zirconia with various textures and to determine their hydrogen perm-selectivity at high temperatures. The synthesis of metal films of high purity (≥ 99% mass Ni) resulting from the choice of hydrazine with its dual role of reducing and complexing agent has revealed that the diameter of pores on the surface support has an impact on the quality of metal adherence. The various contributions of hydrogen transport through these composite membranes at low temperatures (Knudsen and surface diffusion) and at high temperatures (Knudsen and activated diffusion) was established. At its implementation in a membrane reactor (reaction of propane dehydrogenation), the layer of nickel showed a very good resistance to coking. (author)

  14. Fabrication of PVDF-based blend membrane with a thin hydrophilic deposition layer and a network structure supporting layer via the thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguo; Cui, Zhenyu; Li, Tianyu; Qin, Shuhao; He, Benqiao; Han, Na; Li, Jianxin

    2017-10-01

    A simple strategy of thermally induced phase separation followed by non-solvent induced phase separation (TIPS-NIPS) is reported to fabricate poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based blend membrane. The dissolved poly (styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) in diluent prevents the crystallization of PVDF during the cooling process and deposites on the established PVDF matrix in the later extraction. Compared with traditional coating technique, this one-step TIPS-NIPS method can not only fabricate a supporting layer with an interconnected network structure even via solid-liquid phase separation of TIPS, but also form a uniform SMA skin layer approximately as thin as 200 nm via surface deposition of NIPS. Besides the better hydrophilicity, what's interesting is that the BSA rejection ratio increases from 48% to 94% with the increase of SMA, which indicates that the separation performance has improved. This strategy can be conveniently extended to the creation of firmly thin layer, surface functionalization and structure controllability of the membrane.

  15. Geoelectrical characterisation of basement aquifers: the case of Iberekodo, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizebeokhai, Ahzegbobor P.; Oyeyemi, Kehinde D.

    2018-03-01

    Basement aquifers, which occur within the weathered and fractured zones of crystalline bedrocks, are important groundwater resources in tropical and subtropical regions. The development of basement aquifers is complex owing to their high spatial variability. Geophysical techniques are used to obtain information about the hydrologic characteristics of the weathered and fractured zones of the crystalline basement rocks, which relates to the occurrence of groundwater in the zones. The spatial distributions of these hydrologic characteristics are then used to map the spatial variability of the basement aquifers. Thus, knowledge of the spatial variability of basement aquifers is useful in siting wells and boreholes for optimal and perennial yield. Geoelectrical resistivity is one of the most widely used geophysical methods for assessing the spatial variability of the weathered and fractured zones in groundwater exploration efforts in basement complex terrains. The presented study focuses on combining vertical electrical sounding with two-dimensional (2D) geoelectrical resistivity imaging to characterise the weathered and fractured zones in a crystalline basement complex terrain in southwestern Nigeria. The basement aquifer was delineated, and the nature, extent and spatial variability of the delineated basement aquifer were assessed based on the spatial variability of the weathered and fractured zones. The study shows that a multiple-gradient array for 2D resistivity imaging is sensitive to vertical and near-surface stratigraphic features, which have hydrological implications. The integration of resistivity sounding with 2D geoelectrical resistivity imaging is efficient and enhances near-surface characterisation in basement complex terrain.

  16. A fall-out shelter or basement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as a fallout shelter, tank, basement structure, blast-proof garage is described. It consists of several upright, concrete wall elements, including L-shaped sections, and at least one concrete roof element. The concrete elements are preferably encased in, and may also be supported on, a concrete surround which is formed in situ and which may be secured to the elements by projecting links. The structure may be assembled as an underground or above-ground building. This invention provides a strong structure of quite large span which is relatively simple in construction and can be rapidly assembled. (U.K.)

  17. The cataclasis in the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1987-01-01

    In the crystalline basement of Northern Switzerland two main phases of cataclastic deformation can be distinguished: a 'cataclasis 1' in a higher temperature hydrothermal regime, as a consequence of tectonic and magmatic-hydrothermal events in Upper Carboniferous time and a lower temperature 'cataclasis 2', which can be related to Permian tectonics at the northern margin of the Paleozoic Konstanz-Frick trough. These cataclases are interpreted as a result of longlasting and complex tectonic processes at shallow crustal levels. (author) 30 refs., 4 figs

  18. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    to Dept. of Science & Technology, New Delhi for granting the Junior Research Fel- lowship through Inspire Programme. This is NIO (CSIR) contribution no. 7132. References Aftalion M, Bowes D R, Dash B and Dempster T J 1988 Late proterozoic charnockites... anomaly map in figure 1. Keywords. Marine magnetic anomalies; offshore K–G basin; magnetic basement; extension of EGMB geology; continent– oceanic boundary. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 125, No. 3, April 2016, pp. 663–668 c© Indian Academy of Sciences 663 664 V...

  19. Air exchange rates and migration of VOCs in basements and residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Batterman, S; Godwin, C; Rowe, Z; Chin, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    Basements can influence indoor air quality by affecting air exchange rates (AERs) and by the presence of emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants. We characterized VOC levels, AERs, and interzonal flows between basements and occupied spaces in 74 residences in Detroit, Michigan. Flows were measured using a steady-state multitracer system, and 7-day VOC measurements were collected using passive samplers in both living areas and basements. A walk-through survey/inspection was conducted in each residence. AERs in residences and basements averaged 0.51 and 1.52/h, respectively, and had strong and opposite seasonal trends, for example, AERs were highest in residences during the summer, and highest in basements during the winter. Airflows from basements to occupied spaces also varied seasonally. VOC concentration distributions were right-skewed, for example, 90th percentile benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and limonene concentrations were 4.0, 19.1, 20.3, and 51.0 μg/m(3), respectively; maximum concentrations were 54, 888, 1117, and 134 μg/m(3). Identified VOC sources in basements included solvents, household cleaners, air fresheners, smoking, and gasoline-powered equipment. The number and type of potential VOC sources found in basements are significant and problematic, and may warrant advisories regarding the storage and use of potentially strong VOCs sources in basements. Few IAQ studies have examined basements. A sizable volume of air can flow between the basement and living area, and AERs in these two zones can differ considerably. In many residences, the basement contains significant emission sources and contributes a large fraction of VOC concentrations found in the living area. Exposures can be lowered by removing VOC sources from the basement; other exposure management options, such as local ventilation or isolation, are unlikely to be practical. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Thematic mapping of basement-related cross-strike structural discontinuities and their relationship to potential oil-bearing structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranpanah, A. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Pittsburg at Bradford, Bradford, PA (US))

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports how a digitally enhanced Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper mosaic (TM) data, a hand-held color space photograph from one of the early NASA satellite missions (Gemini), and field data were used to delineate three major basement-structural discontinuities (CSDs) with the Zagros Basin of southwestern Iran. Three major subparallel CSDs are, from north to south, Kazerun-Qatar (N05{sup {degrees}W} trend), Razak (N17{degrees}E trend), and Oman (N18{degrees}E). These subparallel CSDs subdivide the Zagros Basin into northern, central, and southern sub-basins. The Razak and Oman CSD enclose a relatively nonproductive area, separating the southern Zagros sub-basin from more productive regions to the northwest and the nonproductive Makran Ranges to the southeast where chromite and iron deposits are common. These findings suggest that CSD may serve as an exploration guide for hydrocarbons and economic mineral deposits, and as a model for developing the tectonic framework of sedimentary basins. The results of this investigation also prove that lineament analysis is a potentially effective method for interpreting the basement-related CSD within a basin setting.

  1. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamal, María J., E-mail: moretama@uc.cl; Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Seifert, Birger; Volkmann, Ulrich G. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados (CIEN-UC), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas [Computational Biology Lab (DLab), Fundación Ciencia y Vida, Av. Zañartu 1482, Santiago (Chile); Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencias de Valparaiso (CINV), Universidad de Valparaiso, Pasaje Harrington 287, Valparaiso (Chile); Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick [Institute of Materials Physics and Technology, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), D-21073 Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2014-09-14

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (∼25 Å) and DPPC (∼60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  2. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, María J.; Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Seifert, Birger; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick; Volkmann, Ulrich G.

    2014-09-01

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (˜25 Å) and DPPC (˜60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  3. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retamal, María J.; Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Seifert, Birger; Volkmann, Ulrich G.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (∼25 Å) and DPPC (∼60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer

  4. Radionuclide distribution in TMI-2 reactor building basement liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, J.T.; McIsaac, C.V.; Keefer, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the TMI-2 accident, approximately 2.46 x 10 6 L of contaminated water were released to the Reactor Building basement. The principal fission product release pathway from the damaged core was through the reactor coolant system (RCS) to the pressurizer, through the pressure-operated relief valve (PORV) on the pressurizer to the Reactor Coolant Drain Tank (RCDT), and then through the RCDT rupture disk to the Reactor Building basement. Since August 1979, a number of efforts have been made to determine the location, quantity, and composition of fission products released to the Reactor Building basement. These efforts have included sampling of the basement water and solids, the basement sump pump recirculation line, the RCDT, and visual surveys using a closed circuit television (CCTV) system. The analysis of basement samples has provided data on the physical and radioisotopic characteristics of the liquids and solids. This paper describes the sample collection techniques and discusses radiochemical analyses results

  5. Radon mitigation experience in houses with basements and adjoining crawl spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, M.; Henschel, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Active soil depressurization systems were installed in four basement houses with adjoining crawl spaces in Maryland. In addition, existing soil depressurization systems were modified in two additional basement-plus-crawl-space houses. These six houses were selected to include both good and poor communication beneath the basement slab, and different degrees of importance of the crawl space as a source of the indoor radon. The radon reduction effectiveness was compared for: depressurization only under the basement slab; depressurization only under a polyethylene liner over the unpaved crawl-space floor; and simultaneous depressurization under both the basement slab and the crawl-space liner. The objective of this paper is to identify under what conditions treatment of the basement alone might provide sufficient radon reductions in houses of this substructure, and what incremental benefits might be achieved by also treating the crawl space

  6. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  7. The plasma membrane as radiosensitive target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, Gy.J.

    1986-01-01

    Components and conditions rendering the plasma membrane susceptible for ionizing radiation are discussed. The list of reviews and articles pointing to various aspects of radiation effects on membranes is analyzed. Radiation induced alterations of plasma membrane and energy deposition in cellular microstructures are overviewed. The possible role of membrane alterations in the fate of irradiated cell is also discussed. (author)

  8. Geophysical studies for the evaluation of offshore placer deposits and basement configuration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Rao, T.K.S.P.; Srinivas, K.

    soft clays in further offshore regions. The total magnetic anomaly map reveals smooth and broad wavelength anomalies. Over riding them are a) high frequency short wavelength and low amplitude anomalies, b) short wavelength and large amplitude anomalies...

  9. Stress rotation along pre-Cenozoic basement structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, K.; Heidbach, O.; Henk, A.

    2017-12-01

    The in-situ stress state of the Earth's crust is under investigation since decades for both, scientific and economic purposes. Several methods have been established to indicate the contemporary orientation of the maximum compressive horizontal stress (SHmax). It is assumed that the same forces that drive plate motion are the first order stress sources and one could presume that SHmax is always parallel to plate motion, which is the case for some regions. However, deviations from this general trend occur in many regions. Therefore, second and third order sources of stress have been identified that potentially cause regional and local stress rotation with respect to the long wave-length trend imposed by plate tectonic forces. One group of such subordinate stress sources are lateral heterogeneities based on structures, petrothermal or petrophysical properties. The World Stress Map (WSM) project compiles systematically data records of the present day SHmax orientation. The increasing amount of stress orientation data allows to investigate areas with consistent stress rotation, divergent to the regional stress pattern. In our work we analyse the stress pattern variability and its causes beneath Germany. In the Molasse Basin in the Alpine foreland the SHmax orientation is perpendicular to the Alpine front as a consequence of gravitational potential energy of the orogen. SHmax is oriented in N-S direction in the central Alpine foreland and within the North German Basin. Between both, within the Mid-German Crystalline High, SHmax is divergent oriented in SE-NW direction. Neither gravitational potential energy nor petrothermal effects can be indicated as stress source. But when comparing the stress pattern with the Variscan basement structures it is obvious that SHmax is perpendicular oriented to this Palaeozoic basement structures. Therefore, petrophysical heterogeneities can be expected as reason for the observed stress rotation. Two assumptions can be made for the Mid

  10. Membranous glomerulonephritis in a patient with anti-u1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP antibody-positive mixed connective tissue disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Toriu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 33-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD who developed nephrotic proteinuria. Both speckled antinuclear antibody (ANA and anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP antibody were positive, but anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA antibody and anti-Smith (Sm antibody were negative, while complement levels were normal. Renal biopsy revealed membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN with diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM plus spike and bubble formation. Immunofluorescence demonstrated granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the GBM. Analysis of IgG subclasses showed predominant deposition of IgG1 and IgG4, unlike typical lupus nephritis in which there is predominant deposition of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and C1q. Electron microscopy identified numerous large electron-dense deposits (EDD of various types in the subepithelial region of the GBM, but there were no EDD localized in the mesangium or subendothelium. Based on these findings, MGN was considered to be closely related to MCTD in this patient.

  11. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Maeda, N; Falk, RJ; Assmann, KJM; Kallenberg, CGM; Jennette, JC

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In addition, NO radicals derived from eNOS inhibit platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and, thus, may have anti-inflammatory effects. To study

  12. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Karina J.; Tsykin, Anna; Giles, Keith M.; Sladic, Rosemary T.; Epis, Michael R.; Ganss, Ruth; Goodall, Gregory J.; Leedman, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. ► Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. ► miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. ► miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  13. Histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of vestibular endorgans in Meniere's disease reveals basement membrane pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCall Andrew A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the systematic analysis of the ultrastructural and cytological histopathology of vestibular endorgans acquired from labyrinthectomy in Meniere's disease. Methods 17 subjects with intractable Meniere's disease and ipsilateral non-serviceable hearing presenting to the Neurotology Clinic from 1997 to 2006 who chose ablative labyrinthectomy (average age = 62 years; range 29–83 years participated. The average duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 7 years (range 1–20 years. Results Nearly all vestibular endorgans demonstrated varying degrees of degeneration. A monolayer of epithelial cells occurred significantly more frequently in the horizontal cristae (12/13 = 92% (p Conclusion Systematic histopathological analysis of the vestibular endorgans from Meniere's disease demonstrated neuroepithelial degeneration which was highly correlated with an associated BM thickening. Other findings included hair cell and supporting cell microvessicles, increased intercellular clear spaces in the stroma, and endothelial cell vacuolization and stromal perivascular BM thickening.

  14. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  15. Formation evaluation of fractured basement, Cambay Basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh Datta; Farooqui, M Y; Chatterjee, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Unconventional reservoirs such as fractured basalts, shale gas and tight sand are currently playing an important role in producing a significant amount of hydrocarbon. The Deccan Trap basaltic rocks form the basement of the Cambay Basin, India, and hold commercially producible hydrocarbon. In this study two wells drilled through fractured basalts are chosen for evaluating the lithology, porosity and oil saturation of the reservoir sections. Well logs, such as gamma ray, high resolution resistivity, litho density, compensated neutron and elemental capture spectroscopy, have been used in cross-plotting techniques for lithology and mineral identification. Formation micro imagery log data have been analysed to quantify the fractures and porosity in the fractured reservoirs for a well in the south Ahmedabad block of the Cambay Basin. The results of the analysis of two wells are presented and discussed and they are found to be in good agreement with geological and production data. (paper)

  16. FROM BASEMENTS AND FOUNDATIONS TO LEADING MODERN SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIN V. L.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Everything starts with the bases, both in philosophy and construction sense, Basements and Foundations Department was an essential part for the formation of Dnipropetrovsk Civil Engineering Institute. For its 85 years of existence, it was a reflection of development of the native institute later academy and the construction industry also in the whole. Thanks to a classical base and 40 years traditions of the scientific school, the department staff always did scientific basis and took part in the development of the state construction norms documents. Today, the department develops with considering the requirements of the International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE, the science combining the engineering geology, studying the soil, soil mechanics, creating the model, designing of the foundation and subsurface structure with the use of the modern program complex, production technology works for foundation, monitoring of these works and the safety of the surrounding construction.

  17. ENFORCEMENT OF FINANCIAL BASEMENTS AS A FACTOR OF TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Article contains description of structure of regional finance resources, discloses the sources of financing, describes the role of budgeting. Problems and possible ways of solution of inter-budget relationships optimisation are described with the purpose of increasing of financial prosperity of territories. Overall role of optimisation as one of the most important factors of strengthening of financial basement of territories is described along with the necessity of considering the budget process as stimulated factor for regional economic systems development. Suggestions on substitution of cost method of budget resources management by the model of outcomes management and further development of mechanisms of territorial bodies interaction with economic entities on the base of state-private partnership were proposed.

  18. Age of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Arculus, Richard J.; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Savov, Ivan P.; Kusano, Yuki; McCarthy, Anders; Brandl, Philipp A.; Sudo, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of "forearc basalt". Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 351) recovered basement-forming, low-Ti tholeiitic basalt crust formed shortly after subduction initiation but distal from the convergent margin (nominally reararc) of the future IBM arc (Amami Sankaku Basin: ASB). Radiometric dating of this basement gives an age range (49.3-46.8 Ma with a weighted average of 48.7 Ma) that overlaps that of basalt in the present-day IBM forearc, but up to 3.3 m.y. younger than the onset of forearc basalt activity. Similarity in age range and geochemical character between the reararc and forearc basalts implies that the ocean crust newly formed by seafloor spreading during subduction initiation extends from fore- to reararc of the present-day IBM arc. Given the age difference between the oldest forearc basalt and the ASB crust, asymmetric spreading caused by ridge migration might have taken place. This scenario for the formation of the ASB implies that the Mesozoic remnant arc terrane of the Daito Ridges comprised the overriding plate at subduction initiation. The juxtaposition of a relatively buoyant remnant arc terrane adjacent to an oceanic plate was more favourable for subduction initiation than would have been the case if both downgoing and overriding plates had been oceanic.

  19. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  20. Grenville age of basement rocks in Cape May NJ well: New evidence for Laurentian crust in U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain basement Chesapeake terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, R.E.; Maguire, T.J.; Feigenson, M.D.; Patino, L.C.; Volkert, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Chesapeake terrane of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain basement is bounded on the northwest by the Salisbury positive gravity and magnetic anomaly and extends to the southeast as far as the Atlantic coast. It underlies the Coastal Plain of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and southern New Jersey. Rubidium/Strontium dating of the Chesapeake terrane basement yields an age of 1.025 ?? 0.036 Ga. This age is typical of Grenville province rocks of the Middle to Late Proterozoic Laurentian continent. The basement lithologies are similar to some exposed Grenville-age rocks of the Appalachians. The TiO2 and Zr/P2O5 composition of the metagabbro from the Chesapeake terrane basement is overlapped by those of the Proterozoic mafic dikes in the New Jersey Highlands. These new findings support the interpretation that Laurentian basement extends southeast as far as the continental shelf in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The subcrop of Laurentian crust under the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain implies unroofing by erosion of the younger Carolina (Avalon) supracrustal terrane. Dextral-transpression fault duplexes may have caused excessive uplift in the Salisbury Embayment area during the Alleghanian orogeny. This extra uplift in the Salisbury area may have caused the subsequent greater subsidence of the Coastal Plain basement in the embayment.

  1. Geology of the Pan-African basement Complex in Ube-Wulko area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ube-Wulko area of southeast Akwanga falls within the Pan-African remobilized Basement Complex of northcentral Nigeria. It consists of intensely multi-deformed high grade polymetamorphic basement rocks, predominantly composed of migmatitic gneisses and schists and subordinate quartzites, marbles, and ...

  2. Basement radon entry and stack driven moisture infiltration reduced by active soil depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    This case study presents measurements of radon and moisture infiltration from soil gases into the basement of an unoccupied research house in Madison, Wisconsin, over two full years. The basement floor and exterior walls were constructed with preservative-treated lumber and plywood. In addition to continuous radon monitoring, measurements included building air...

  3. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface

  4. Hinkler Well - Centipede uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, D.; Dudley, R.; Mann, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Hinkler Well - Centipede deposits are near the northeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Block on a drainage system entering Lake Way. Basement rocks are granitoids and greenstones. The rocks are deeply weathered and overlain by alluvism. Granitoids, the probable uranium source, currently contain up to 25 ppm uranium, in spite of the weathering. The host calcrete body is 33 km long and 2 km wide. Uranium up to 1000 ppm occurs in carnotite over a 15 km by 2.5 km area. (author)

  5. Barents Sea Paleozoic basement and basin configurations: Crustal structure from deep seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Iselin; Mjelde, Rolf; Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Huismans, Ritske; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2016-04-01

    The Barents Sea is underlain by at least two different basement domains; the Caledonian in the west and the Timanian in the east. The transition between these two domains is not well constrained and contrasting interpretations have been published recently. Interpretations of new high-quality magnetic data covering most of the SW Barents Sea has challenged the Late Paleozoic basin configurations in the western and central Barents Sea as outlined in previous studies. Two regional ocean bottom seismic (OBS) profiles were acquired in 2014. This new dataset crosses the two major directions of Caledonian deformation proposed by different authors: N-S direction and SW-NE direction. Of particular importance are the high velocity anomalies related to Caledonian eclogites, revealing the location of Caledonian suture zones in the northern Barents Sea. One of the main objectives with this project is to locate the main Caledonian suture in the western Barents Sea, as well as the possible Barentsia-Baltica suture postulated further eastwards. The collapse of the Caledonian mountain range predominantly along these suture zones is expected to be tightly linked to the deposition of large thicknesses of Devonian erosional products, and later rifting is expected to be influenced by inheritance of Caledonian trends. The P-wave travel-time modelling is done by use of a combined ray-tracing and inversion scheme, and gravity- and magnetic modelling will be used to augment the seismic model. The preliminary results indicate high P-wave velocities (mostly over 4 km/s) close to the seafloor as well as high velocity (around 6 km/s) zones at shallow depths which are interpreted as volcanic sills. The crustal transects reveal areas of complex geology and velocity inversions. A low seismic impedance contrast between the sedimentary section and top crystalline basement makes identification of this interface uncertain. Depth to Moho mostly lies around 30 km, except in an area of rapid change in

  6. Eocene extensional exhumation of basement and arc rocks along southwesternmost Peru, Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, Mélanie; Bernet, Matthias; Sempéré, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    The overthickened crust of the current Central Andes is commonly viewed as the result of tectonic shortening. However, in the present-day terrestrial forearc and arc of southwesternmost Peru, crustal thickness increases from 30 km along the coastline to >60 km below the active arc, whereas the upper crust exhibits little to no evidence of crustal shortening and, in constrast, many extensional features. How (and when) crustal overthickness was acquired in this region is thus little understood. Because crustal overthickening often results in extensional collapse and/or significant erosion, here we address this issue through a regional-scale study of exhumation using fission-track thermochronology. The limited fission-track data previously available in the area suggested that exhumation began during the Mesozoic. In this study, we present new apatite and zircon fission-track data obtained along the current terrestrial forearc of southwesternmost Peru. This relatively restricted area presents the interest of providing extensive outcrops of Precambrian to Ordovician basement and Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous arc plutons. In order to compare the chronology of exhumation of these units, we performed extensive sampling for fission-track dating, as well as structural mapping. Our results indicate that the basement rocks and Jurassic plutons that crop out in the Arequipa region, where the crust is now >50 km-thick, experienced a rapid cooling through the 240-110°C temperature range between ~65 and ~35 Ma. This period of rapid exhumation coincided in time with the accumulation of terrestrial forearc deposits (the Lower Moquegua Group), that exhibit many syn-sedimentary extensional features and are bounded by conspicuous normal faults, specifically along the region where intense activity of the main arc between ~90 and ~60 Ma had led to voluminous magma emplacement. This close succession of (1) intense magmatic activity and (2) regional-scale exhumation associated with

  7. Revisiting Seafloor-Spreading in the Red Sea: Basement Nature, Transforms and Ocean-Continent Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapponnier, P.; Dyment, J.; Zinger, M. A.; Franken, D.; Afifi, A. M.; Wyllie, A.; Ali, H. G.; Hanbal, I.

    2013-12-01

    A new marine geophysical survey on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms early inferences that ~ 2/3 of the eastern Red Sea is floored by oceanic crust. Most seismic profiles south of 24°N show a strongly reflective, landward-deepening volcanic basement up to ~ 100 km east of the axial ridge, beneath thick evaporitic deposits. This position of the Ocean-Continent Boundary (OCB) is consistent with gravity measurements. The low amplitudes and long wavelengths of magnetic anomalies older than Chrons 1-3 can be accounted for by low-pass filtering due to thick sediments. Seafloor-spreading throughout the Red Sea started around 15 Ma, as in the western Gulf of Aden. Its onset was coeval with the activation of the Aqaba/Levant transform and short-cutting of the Gulf of Suez. The main difference between the southern and northern Red Sea lies not in the nature of the crust but in the direction and modulus of the plate motion rate. The ~ 30° counterclockwise strike change and halving of the spreading rate (~ 16 to ~ 8 mm/yr) between the Hermil (17°N) and Suez triple junctions results in a shift from slow (≈ North Atlantic) to highly oblique, ultra-slow (≈ Southwest Indian) ridge type. The obliquity of spreading in the central and northern basins is taken up by transform discontinuities that stop ~ 40 km short of the coastline, at the OCB. Three large transform fault systems (Jeddah, Zabargad, El Akhawein) nucleated as continental transfer faults reactivating NNE-trending Proterozoic shear zones. The former two systems divide the Red Sea into three main basins. Between ~15 and ~5 Ma, for about 10 million years, thick evaporites were deposited directly on top of oceanic crust in deep water, as the depositional environment, modulated by climate, became restricted by the Suez and Afar/Bab-el-Mandeb volcano-tectonic 'flood-gates.' The presence of these thick deposits (up to ~ 8 km) suffices to account for the difference between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden

  8. Influence of membrane properties on fouling in MBRs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Marel, P.

    2009-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) applies membranes for separating activated sludge and the purified water in the activated sludge process used for wastewater treatment. Membrane fouling occurs by activated sludge material depositing on the membrane surface or inside the membrane pores. The subject of

  9. Movement of fossil pore fluids in granite basement, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, R.A.; Seitz, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The compositions of pore fluids in granite cores from the Precambrian basement in northern Illinois were determined. The estimated chloride concentration in the aqueous phase increases from near zero at the upper contact with sandstone to 2.7 M at 624 m below the contact. Traces of aliphatic oil are present in the overlying sandstone and the upper 516 m of granite, and oil occupies most of the pore space in one sample of unaltered granite 176 m below the contact. The oil has a Δ 13 C of -25%, about the same as average petroleum. The high concentrations of salt more than 500 m below the contact imply that little or no fresh water has reached these levels of the granite by flow. Lower concentrations near the contact are consistent with replacement of brine in the sandstone by fresh water at least 11 m.y. ago and subsequent upward diffusion of salt from the granite. Geologic data suggest that the time of replacement was about 130 Ma. The purpose of the investigation is to study the record of movement of intergranular fluids within a granite pluton. The composition and movement of ground waters can determine the extent that hazardous or radioactive wastes disposed in igneous rock will remain isolated

  10. Basement geology of Taranaki and Wanganui basins, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Tulloch, A.J.; Ireland, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    We present a revised interpretation of the basement geology beneath Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic Taranaki and Wanganui basins of central New Zealand, based on new petrographic, geochemical, and geochronological data from 30 oil exploration wells. Recently published structural and magnetic interpretations of the area assist in the interpolation and extrapolation of geological boundaries. Torlesse and Waipapa terranes have been identified in Wanganui Basin, and Murihiku Terrane in eastern Taranaki Basin, but Maitai and Brook Street terrane rocks have not been recognised. Separation Point Suite, Karamea Suite, and Median Tectonic Zone igneous rocks are all identified on the basis of characteristic petrography, geochemistry, and/or age. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon measurements on igneous samples from western Taranaki wells do not give precise ages but do provide useful constraints: Motueka-1 granite is latest Devonian - earliest Carboniferous; Tangaroa-1 and Toropuihi-1 are Carboniferous; and Surville-1 is Cretaceous (cf. Separation Point Suite). Our interpretation of sub-basin geology is compatible with previously observed onland relationships in the North and South Islands. (author). 47 refs., 6 figs

  11. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, Beijing (China)

    1999-07-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed.

  12. Analysis on metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits in kelulun region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing metallogenic conditions of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits, the author discusses regional geologic background, characteristics of the basement and sedimentary cover of Kelulun basin and Huchawula-Hulun Lake basin, and the metallogenic potential of paleochannel sandstone type uranium deposits is proposed

  13. Experiments on pollutant transport from soil into residential basements by pressure-driven airflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Lewis, S.R.; Doyle, S.M.; Moed, B.A.; Nero, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    At two residences in Portland, OR, they have investigated (1) the coupling between residential basements and the air in nearby soil and (2) the influence of basement depressurization on the migration of air in soil. With the basements depressurized 25-50 Pa relative to outdoor air, underpressures as great as 20-40% of those in the basement were observed at sampling points in the soil. Sulfur hexafluoride was injected into the soil near the houses and its concentration monitored in soil air and in the house over time, both with and without basement depressurization. Depressurization was seen to have a substantial effect on the migration of the tracer within the soil. For basement depressurizations of 25-50 Pa, effective transport velocities through the soil and into the houses were observed to exceed 1 m h -1 . Airborne 222 Rn concentration was monitored in the basement of one house during the 6-day investigation and was seen to increase substantially on each of the seven occasions that the house was depressurized. The techniques employed are applicable to the study of problems of excessive radon entry into buildings and the migration of toxic vapors from waste dumps and landfills

  14. 3D depth-to-basement and density contrast estimates using gravity and borehole data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, V. C.; Martins, C. M.; Silva, J. B.

    2009-05-01

    We present a gravity inversion method for simultaneously estimating the 3D basement relief of a sedimentary basin and the parameters defining the parabolic decay of the density contrast with depth in a sedimentary pack assuming the prior knowledge about the basement depth at a few points. The sedimentary pack is approximated by a grid of 3D vertical prisms juxtaposed in both horizontal directions, x and y, of a right-handed coordinate system. The prisms' thicknesses represent the depths to the basement and are the parameters to be estimated from the gravity data. To produce stable depth-to-basement estimates we impose smoothness on the basement depths through minimization of the spatial derivatives of the parameters in the x and y directions. To estimate the parameters defining the parabolic decay of the density contrast with depth we mapped a functional containing prior information about the basement depths at a few points. We apply our method to synthetic data from a simulated complex 3D basement relief with two sedimentary sections having distinct parabolic laws describing the density contrast variation with depth. Our method retrieves the true parameters of the parabolic law of density contrast decay with depth and produces good estimates of the basement relief if the number and the distribution of boreholes are sufficient. We also applied our method to real gravity data from the onshore and part of the shallow offshore Almada Basin, on Brazil's northeastern coast. The estimated 3D Almada's basement shows geologic structures that cannot be easily inferred just from the inspection of the gravity anomaly. The estimated Almada relief presents steep borders evidencing the presence of gravity faults. Also, we note the existence of three terraces separating two local subbasins. These geologic features are consistent with Almada's geodynamic origin (the Mesozoic breakup of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean) and they are important in understanding

  15. Depth of magnetic basement in Iran based on fractal spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teknik, Vahid; Ghods, Abdolreza

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the shape of sedimentary basins, a critical parameter in hydrocarbon exploration, we calculated the depth of magnetic basement by applying a fractal spectral method to the aeromagnetic map of Iran. The depth of magnetic basement is a close proxy for the shape of sedimentary basins provided that igneous basement is strongly magnetized relative to the overlying sediments and there is no interbedding magnetic layer in the sediments. The shape of the power spectrum of magnetic anomalies is sensitive to the depth of magnetic basement, the thickness of the magnetic layer, the fractal parameter of magnetization and the size of the window used for the calculation of the power spectrum. Using a suite of synthetic tests, we have shown that the estimation of the depth of magnetic basement of up to 20 km is not very sensitive to the often unknown fractal parameter and thus the spectral method is a reliable tool to calculate the depth of magnetic basement. The depth of magnetic basement is in the range of 7-16 km in the Zagros, east Alborz, Tabas, Jazmurian and Makran regions, showing a close correlation with depths estimated from the maximum thickness of stratigraphic columns. We have also found new sedimentary basins in Bostan Abad, Bijar and south of Orumiyeh Lake. The significant depth of the magnetic basement in the Makran, Jazmurain depression, southeast Caspian Sea, Tabas, Great Kavir, south of Orumiyeh Lake, Bostan Abad and Bijar sedimentary basins makes them future prospects for hydrocarbon explorations. The depth of magnetic basement is strongly reduced over the Neyriz and Kermanshah Ophiolites, but it does not show any meaningful correlation with other outcrops of ophiolitic rocks in Iran.

  16. Structure of the surface of the Paleozoic basement of the cis-Kopetdag trough in connection with the oil and gas content of the sedimentary cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odekov, O.A.; Mel' nik, N.M.; Tulaeva, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    Use of a complex of different methods permitted a new approach to the study of the nature of the surface of the Paleozoic basement. As a result of constructing models of the deep structure of the cis-Kopetdag trough and the Bakhardok monocline a new map of the major tectonic elements of the region has been developed and a map of the surface structure of the Paleozoic basement and a map of the Moho discontinuity have been compiled. The former gives a major new solution to many problems of the dep structure of the region: 1) in the zone of juncture of the cis-Kopetdag trough and the Bakhardok monocline a new positive structural element has been identified, called the Bakhardok-Kumbet buried superarch; 2) a completely new morphology of the western part of the Serakh connector has been given, within which two independent buried arches are identified, the Shatlyk and Tedzhenskii; 3) it has been established that the Izgantskii arch of the sedimentary cover corresponds to the Izgant uplifted block of the basement. These structural elements are described, methods for identifying them are outlined, and some principles of the variatin of the parameters of the geophysical fields are described. The prospects for the juncture zone are estimated as fairly high from the viewpoint of discovering different types of oil and gas deposits in the widest stratigraphic interval, from the Lower Jurassic to the Neokomian.

  17. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  18. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  19. Fault distribution in the Precambrian basement of South Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Nystuen, Johan Petter; Olesen, Odleiv

    2018-03-01

    Mapping of the structural pattern by remote sensing methods (Landsat, SPOT, aerial photography, potential field data) and field study of selected structural elements shows that the cratonic basement of South Norway is strongly affected by a regular lineament pattern that encompasses fault swarms of different orientation, age, style, attitude and frequency. Albeit counting numerous fault and fracture populations, the faults are not evenly distributed and N-S to NNE-SSW/NNW-SSE and NE-SE/ENE-WSW-systems are spatially dominant. N-S to NNW-SSE structures can be traced underneath the Caledonian nappes to the Western Gneiss Region in western and central South Norway, emphasizing their ancient roots. Dyke swarms of different ages are found within most of these zones. Also, the Østfold, Oslo-Trondheim and the Mandal-Molde lineament zones coincide with trends of Sveconorwegian post-collision granites. We conclude that the N-S-trend includes the most ancient structural elements, and that the trend can be traced back to the Proterozoic (Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian) orogenic events. Some of the faults may have been active in Neoproterozoic times as marginal faults of rift basins at the western margin of Baltica. Remnants of such fault activity have survived in the cores of many of the faults belonging to this system. The ancient systems of lineaments were passively overridden by the Caledonian fold-and-thrust system and remained mostly, but note entirely inactive throughout the Sub-Cambrian peneplanation and the Caledonian orogenic collapse in the Silurian-Devonian. The system was reactivated in extension from Carboniferous times, particularly in the Permian with the formation of the Oslo Rift and parts of it remain active to the Present, albeit by decreasing extension and fault activity.

  20. Characteristics of the crystalline basement beneath the Ordos Basin: Constraint from aeromagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentao Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromagnetic anomaly zonation of the Ordos Basin and adjacent areas was obtained by processing high-precision and large-scale aeromagnetic anomalies with an approach of reduction to the pole upward continuation. Comparative study on aeromagnetic and seismic tomography suggests that aeromagnetic anomalies in this area are influenced by both the magnetic property of the rock and the burial depth of the Precambrian crystalline basement. Basement depth might be the fundamental control factor for aeromagnetic anomalies because the positive and negative anomalies on the reduction to the pole-upward-continuation anomaly maps roughly coincide with the uplifts and depressions of the crystalline basement in the basin. The results, together with the latest understanding of basement faults, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of metamorphic rock and granite, drilling data, detrital zircon ages, and gravity data interpretation, suggest that the Ordos block is not an entirety of Archean.

  1. Contribution To The Geology Of Basement Rocks In The South Western Desert Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.F.; Khyamy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Three major Precambrian basement inliers are exposed in the South Western Desert of Egypt between Long. 29 degree E and the River Nile within the Uweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan E-W uplift system. These are Bir Safsaf, Gabal EI-Asr and Gabal Umm Shaghir areas. Smaller outcrops include Gabal EI-Gara El-Hamra and Gabal El-Gara EI-Soda, Gabal Siri, GabaI EI-Fantas and Aswan-Kalabsha area as well as the scattered outcrops around Darb El-Arbain road. Band ratios 5/7, 5/1, 4 of Landsat TM images were applied to delineate the borders, the lithologic units and structural features of low relief basement outcrops within the surrounding flat lying sedimentary rocks and sand plains. These basement rocks comprise ortho gneisses (assumed by many authors as related to old continent pre Pan-African rocks), G 1 tonalite-granodiorite, and G2 monzogranite-alkali feldspar granite intruded by variable dykes. The boundaries between the basement exposures and the sedimentary rocks are marked by nonconformity surfaces or sets of faults. Both basement and sedimentary rocks are intruded by Mesozoic syenite-G3 granites, rhyolite, trachytic plugs and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary basalts. The basement exposures are structurally controlled by major E- W fault systems. Their vertical uplifting is overprinted by folding the overlying sedimentary rocks. This study revealed that, the different basement exposures in the SE of the Western Desert of Egypt are similar in appearance and field relations to the Pan-African basement rocks extending towards the east of the River Nile and exposed everywhere in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

  2. Reactor-building-basement radionuclide and source distribution studies. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, T.E.; Horan, J.T.; Worku, G.

    1983-06-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor Building basement has been sampled several times since August 1979. This report compiles the analytical results and sample history for the liquid and solid samples obtained to date. In addition, basement radiation levels were also obtained using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The data obtained will provide information to support ongoing mass balance and source term studies and will aid in characterizing the 282-ft elevation for decontamination planning and dose reduction

  3. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  4. Microfabricated hydrogen sensitive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, A.; Kraetz, L. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.; Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Faqir, N. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Bart, H.J.

    2009-01-15

    Thin, defect-free palladium, palladium/copper and palladium/silver hydrogen absorbing membranes were microfabricated. A dual sputtering technique was used to deposit the palladium alloy membranes of only 1 {mu}m thickness on a nonporous silicon substrate. Advanced silicon etching (ASE) was applied on the backside to create a mechanically stable support structure for the thin films. Performance evaluation was carried out for different gases in a temperature range of 20 C to 298 C at a constant differential pressure of 110 kPa at the two sides of the membrane. The composite membranes show an excellent permeation rate of hydrogen, which appears to be 0.05 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 0.01.10{sup -3} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 20 C for the microfabricated 23 % silver and the 53 % copper composite membranes, respectively. The selectivity to hydrogen over a gas mixture containing, in addition to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen was measured. The mass spectrometer did not detect any CO{sub 2} or CO, showing that the membrane is completely hydrogen selective. The microfabricated membranes exhibit both high mechanical strength (they easily withstand pressures up to 4 bar) and high thermal stability (up to 650 C). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Lung physiology and how aerosol deposits in the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    Weibel's morphologic data has been referred to not only for predicting aerosol deposition in the lungs but also lung physiology. During breathing the volume of air passes all through the mouth, the larynx, the trachea and the conductive airways into the alveolar space. When the airflow is not laminar and disturbed at the bifurcation or the irregular airway surface, eddies and turbulence occur there to result in deposition of aerosol by impaction or sedimentation. At high flow rates, there are more chances for turbulence to occur at these sites. Because the cross-section and volume of the subsequent airways increase, the flow rate decreases. It is worthwhile to remember that the pressure drop and resistance do not necessarily follow Poiseuille's law even in the large airways, and that with the turbulent flow the density of a gas plays an important role. If Poiseuille's law is applied, the resistance becomes sixteenfold when the radius of the airway segment is halved. When we breathe quietly, the flow in the trachea and the intermediate conductive airways is laminar and in very small conductive airways including the terminal bronchioles the airflow becomes so slow in velocity that the axial diffusion becomes more prominent, especially distal to the terminal bronchioles the cross-sectional area increases so much that molecular diffusion becomes more important. For gas transfer to occur, molecules of oxygen should pass through the surfactant layer, the alveolar epithelium, the basement membrane, the endothelium of the capillaries, and the plasma to get to the red blood cell to combine with hemoglobin

  6. High-quality heat flow determination from the crystalline basement of the south-east margin of North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangzheng; Tang, Xiaoyin; Rao, Song; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Linyou; Zhao, Ping; Hu, Shengbiao

    2016-03-01

    Very few of heat flow data have come from the crystalline basement in the North China Craton but rather from boreholes in the sedimentary cover of oil-gas basins. Explorations for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources and porphyry gold deposits in eastern China offer now valuable opportunities to study the terrestrial heat flow in the crystalline basement. In this study, we obtained continuous temperature logs from two boreholes (the LZ borehole with a depth of 3471 m and the DR borehole with a depth of 2179 m) located in the south-east margin of the North China Craton. The boreholes have experienced long shut-in times (442 days and 261 days for the LZ borehole and DR borehole, respectively); thus, it can be expected that the temperature conditions have re-equilibrated after drilling and drill-mud circulation. Rock thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production were measured for 68 crystalline rock samples from these two boreholes. The measured heat-flow density was determined to be 71.8 ± 2.3 mW m-2 (for the LZ borehole) and 91.5 ± 1.2 mW m-2 (for the DR borehole). The heat flow for the LZ borehole is close to the value of 75 mW m-2 determined in the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling main hole (CCSD MH), both being in the Sulu-Dabie orogenic belt and thus able to verify each other. The value for the DR borehole is higher than the above two values, which supports former high heat-flow values determined in the Bohai Bay Basin.

  7. From sources to deposits: Recent advances about the unconformity-related U deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercadier, Julien; Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cuney, Michel; Annesley, Irvine R.

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge: - Hydrothermal deposits (< 250°C); - U-Pb ages: 1.6-0.9 Ga + late remobilizations; - 3 locations; - Structure-related, graphite; - Strong K-Mg-B alteration: illite-chloritesdravite/ Mg-foitite (Mg Tour)-hydrothermal quartz; - Mineralizing fluids: Na-Ca-rich brines (25-35 wt% eq. NaCl). However still relevant scientific/geological questions remain: Can we provide new insights about: - the origin of the brines? - the source of U and other metals? - the percolation conditions within the basement rocks? - the chemical modifications at the origin of the formation of mineralizing brines? - the conditions for the transport and deposition of uranium?

  8. The metamorphic basement of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza: New geochronologic and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, Miguel; Ramos, Victor A.; Vujovich, Graciela I.; Poma, Stella

    1998-01-01

    The metamorphic rocks of the Cordillera Frontal exposed in the Cordon del Portillo, Mendoza were examined by Rb/Sr geochronology and Nd/Sm isotopic analysis. The Rb/Sr data defined a Devonian age for the last metamorphic episode, similar to the previous K/Ar and Ar/Ar ages obtained in this region and western Precordillera. The isotopic analysis identified three sets of model ages: 1.- The oldest corresponds to a set of meta sedimentary rocks with a model age of 1,400 to 1,700 Ma; 2.- A monzogranodiorite with a model age of 1,000 Ma; and 3.- Metabasites with model ages between 577 and 330 Ma. These rocks are interpreted as 1.- A typical Grenvillian derived basement; 2.- Late Paleozoic granitoids derived from a different Proterozoic basement; and 3.- Some Eopaleozoic metabasites tectonically inter fingered with the Grenvillian basement. These new data are coherent with the existence of a Laurentia derived terrane, Chilenia, that was separated by oceanic rocks from the basement of Pre cordillera during Eopaleozoic times. This last basement known as the Cuyania terrane, was also derived from Laurentia. (author)

  9. Dissolution of biogenic ooze over basement edifices in the equatorial Pacific with implications for hydrothermal ventilation of the oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Spivack, A.J.; Davis, E.E.; Mayer, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that curious closed depressions in carbonate sediments overlying basement edifices are widespread in the equatorial Pacific. A possible mechanism for their creation is dissolution by fluids exiting basement vents from off-axis hydrothermal flow. Quantitative analysis based on the retrograde solubility of calcium carbonate and cooling of basement fluids during ascent provides an estimate for the dissolution capacity of the venting fluids. Comparison of the dissolution capacity and fluid flux with typical equatorial Pacific carbonate mass accumulation rates shows that this mechanism is feasible. By maintaining sediment-free basement outcrops, the process may promote widespread circulation of relatively unaltered seawater in the basement in an area where average sediment thicknesses are 300-500 m. The enhanced ventilation can explain several previously puzzling observations in this region, including anomalously low heat flux, relatively unaltered seawater in the basement, and aerobic and nitrate-reducing microbial activity at the base of the sediments. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Development of silica RO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Ayumi; Kawamoto, Takashi; Matsuyama, Emi; Utsumi, Keisuke; Nomura, Mikihiro; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Silica based membranes have been developed by using a counter diffusion CVD method. Effects of alkyl groups in the silica precursors and deposition temperatures had investigated in order to control pore sizes of the silica membranes. In this study, this type of a silica membrane was applied for RO separation. Effects of silica sources, deposition temperatures and post treatments had been investigated. Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), Ethyltrimethoxysilane (ETMOS) and Phenyltrimethoxysilane (PhTMOS) were used as silica precursors. A counter diffusion CVD method was carried out for 90 min at 270 - 600degC on γ-alumina capillary substrates (effective length: 50 mm, φ: 4 nm: NOK Co.). O 3 or O 2 was introduced into the inside of the substrate at the O 2 rate of 0.2 L min -1 . Ion beam irradiation was carried out for a post treatment using Os at 490 MeV for 1.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 or 3.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 . Single gas permeance was measured by using H 2 , N 2 and SF 6 . RO tests were employed at 3.0 or 5.4 MPa for 100 mg L -1 of feed NaCl solution. First, effects of the silica sources were investigated. The total fluxes increased by increasing N 2 permeance through the silica membrane deposited by ETMOS. The maximum NaCl rejection was 28.2% at 12.2 kg m -2 h -1 of the total flux through the membrane deposited at 270degC. N 2 permeance was 9.6 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 . While, total fluxes through the membrane deposited by using PhTMOS were smaller than those through the ETMOS membranes. The phenyl groups for the PhTMOS membrane must be important for the hydrophobic properties through the membrane. Next, effects of ion beam irradiation were tested for the TMOS membranes. Water is difficult to permeate through the TMOS membranes due to the low N 2 permeance through the membrane (3.1 x 10 -11 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 ). N 2 permeance increased to 7.3 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 by the irradiation. Irradiation amounts had little effects on N 2 permeance. However, NaCl rejections

  11. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  12. Use of natural basement ventilation to control radon in single family dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a means of reducing radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy has never been documented. In these experiments, natural ventilation has for the first time been studied systematically in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. Ventilation rates, environmental and house operating parameters, as well as radon levels, have been monitored. It can be definitely concluded from radon entry rate calculations that natural ventilation can reduce radon levels in two ways. The first is by simple dilution. The second is by reducing basement depressurization and thus the amount of radon-contaminated soil gas drawn into the structure. Therefore, basement ventilation can be an effective mitigation strategy under some circumstances. It might be especially useful in houses with low radon concentrations (of the order of 370 Bq m -1 ) or those with low levels and which cannot be mitigated cost-effectively with conventional technology. (Author)

  13. Fracture Analysis of basement rock: A case example of the Eastern Part of the Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin, A; Ghosh, D

    2015-01-01

    In general, reservoir rocks can be defined into carbonates, tight elastics and basement rocks. Basement rocks came to be highlighted as their characteristics are quite complicated and remained as a significant challenge in exploration and production area. Motivation of this research is to solve the problem in some area in the Malay Basin which consist fractured basement reservoirs. Thus, in order to increase understanding about their characteristic, a study was conducted in the Eastern part of the Peninsular Malaysia. The study includes the main rock types that resemble the offshore rocks and analysis on the factors that give some effect on fracture characteristic that influence fracture systems and fracture networks. This study will allow better fracture prediction which will be beneficial for future hydrocarbon prediction in this region

  14. Hydrogeologic controls on induced seismicity in crystalline basement rocks due to fluid injection into basal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yipeng; Person, Mark; Rupp, John; Ellett, Kevin; Celia, Michael A; Gable, Carl W; Bowen, Brenda; Evans, James; Bandilla, Karl; Mozley, Peter; Dewers, Thomas; Elliot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mb 3.8-5.5 induced seismic events in the midcontinent region, United States, resulted from injection of fluid either into a basal sedimentary reservoir with no underlying confining unit or directly into the underlying crystalline basement complex. The earthquakes probably occurred along faults that were likely critically stressed within the crystalline basement. These faults were located at a considerable distance (up to 10 km) from the injection wells and head increases at the hypocenters were likely relatively small (∼70-150 m). We present a suite of simulations that use a simple hydrogeologic-geomechanical model to assess what hydrogeologic conditions promote or deter induced seismic events within the crystalline basement across the midcontinent. The presence of a confining unit beneath the injection reservoir horizon had the single largest effect in preventing induced seismicity within the underlying crystalline basement. For a crystalline basement having a permeability of 2 × 10(-17)  m(2) and specific storage coefficient of 10(-7) /m, injection at a rate of 5455 m(3) /d into the basal aquifer with no underlying basal seal over 10 years resulted in probable brittle failure to depths of about 0.6 km below the injection reservoir. Including a permeable (kz  = 10(-13)  m(2) ) Precambrian normal fault, located 20 m from the injection well, increased the depth of the failure region below the reservoir to 3 km. For a large permeability contrast between a Precambrian thrust fault (10(-12)  m(2) ) and the surrounding crystalline basement (10(-18)  m(2) ), the failure region can extend laterally 10 km away from the injection well. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  15. Modeling radon entry into houses with basements: Model description and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    We model radon entry into basements using a previously developed three-dimensional steady-state finite difference model that has been modified in the following ways: first, cylindrical coordinates are used to take advantage of the symmetry of the problem in the horizontal plant; second, the configuration of the basement has been made more realistic by incorporating the concrete footer; third, a quadratic relationship between the pressure and flow in the L-shaped gap between slab, footer, and wall has been employed; fourth, the natural convection of the soil gas which follows from the heating of the basement in winter has been taken into account. The temperature field in the soil is determined from the equation of energy conservation, using the basement, surface, and deep-soil temperatures as boundary conditions. The pressure field is determined from Darcy's law and the equation of mass conservation (continuity), assuming that there is no flow across any boundary except the soil surface (atmospheric pressure) and the opening in the basement shell (fixed pressure). After the pressure and temperatures field have been obtained the velocity field is found from Darcy's law. Finally, the radon concentration field is found from the equation of mass-transport. The convective radon entry rate through the opening or openings is then calculated. In this paper we describe the modified model, compare the predicted radon entry rates with and without the consideration of thermal convection, and compare the predicted rates with determined from data from 7 houses in the Spokane River valley of Washington and Idaho. Although the predicted rate is much lower than the mean of the rates determined from measurements, errors in the measurement of soil permeability and variations in the permeability of the area immediately under the basement slab, which has a significant influence on the pressure field, can account for the range of entry rates inferred from the data. 25 refs., 8 figs

  16. Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits in Somalia are of the valley-fill calcrete type and occur in the arid Mudugh Province of the Dusa Mareb-El Bur region. They are located in a belt about 240 km in length which is orientated parallel to the north-south regional tectonic framework. The uranium resources of the region amount to about 5,000 t U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 0.1% U 3 O 8 . Basement rocks constitute a 7,000 m thick succession of Jurassic to Quaternary sediments of the Somalian Basin. Uranium mineralization in the form of carnotite occurs in the uppermost Mercia Series. The origin of the uranium and vanadium is unclear due to a shortage of the favourable source rocks. (author)

  17. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  18. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  19. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus reduces proteinuria in membranous nephropathy accompanied by a decrease in angiopoietin-like-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Peng

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus is an anticalcineurinic agent with potent immunosuppressive activity that has recently been shown to have the added benefit of reducing proteinuria in membranous nephropathy (MN patients. However, its potential mechanisms remain unknown. To reveal the mechanism, rat cohorts were administered tacrolimus or vehicle from days 7 to 28 after the induction of passive Heymann nephritis (PHN. PHN induction resulted in heavy proteinuria and increased expression of desmin, a marker of injured podocytes. We also showed that the glomerular expression of angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4 was markedly upregulated in PHN rats and human MN followed by an increase in urine Angptl4 excretion. In addition, increased Angptl4 expression may be related to podocyte injury and proteinuria. Furthermore, upregulated Angptl4 expression primarily colocalized with podocytes rather than endothelial or mesangial cells, indicating that podocytes may be the source of Angptl4, which then gradually migrated to the glomerular basement membrane over time. However, tacrolimus treatment markedly reduced glomerular and urinary Angptl4, accompanied by a reduction in the established proteinuria and the promotion of podocyte repair. Additionally, glomerular immune deposits and circulating IgG levels induced by PHN clearly decreased following tacrolimus treatment. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus can reduce Angptl4 in podocytes accompanied by a decrease in established proteinuria and promotion of podocyte repair in MN.

  20. Tubulointerstitial nephritis accompanying gamma-heavy chain deposition and gamma-heavy chain restricted plasma cells in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayer, Ali; Green, Dollie F; Gonzalez-Suarez, Maria L; Sujoy, Victoria; Ikpatt, Offiong F; Thomas, David B

    2014-09-01

    Monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (HC) diseases are rare proliferative disorders of B lymphocytes or plasma cells characterized by the presence of monoclonal α-, µ-, or γ-HC without associated light chains in the blood, urine, or both. We report a 59-year-old woman with a history of Hodgkin disease who developed hypercalcemia, proteinuria, and impaired kidney function. Protein electrophoresis and immunofixation displayed γ-HC without associated light chains in the serum and urine. Pathologic examination demonstrated severe tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse and strong linear staining of the glomerular and tubular basement membranes as well as Bowman capsules for γ-HC, but not for κ- or λ-light chains. Immunohistochemical examination of the kidney and bone marrow demonstrated numerous CD138+ plasma cells immunoreactive for γ-HC, but not for κ- or λ-light chains. This is the first report of tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with γ-HC deposition and γ-HC restricted plasma cells in the kidney. This report heightens awareness about tubulointerstitial nephritis as a possible manifestation of γ-HC deposition in the kidney.

  1. Cobalt—Styles of deposits and the search for primary deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzman, Murray W.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Slack, John F.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2017-11-30

    Cobalt (Co) is a potentially critical mineral. The vast majority of cobalt is a byproduct of copper and (or) nickel production. Cobalt is increasingly used in magnets and rechargeable batteries. More than 50 percent of primary cobalt production is from the Central African Copperbelt. The Central African Copperbelt is the only sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper district that contains significant cobalt. Its presence may indicate significant mafic-ultramafic rocks in the local basement. The balance of primary cobalt production is from magmatic nickel-copper and nickel laterite deposits. Cobalt is present in several carbonate-hosted lead-zinc and copper districts. It is also variably present in Besshi-type volcanogenic massive sulfide and siliciclastic sedimentary rock-hosted deposits in back arc and rift environments associated with mafic-ultramafic rocks. Metasedimentary cobalt-copper-gold deposits (such as Blackbird, Idaho), iron oxide-copper-gold deposits, and the five-element vein deposits (such as Cobalt, Ontario) contain different amounts of cobalt. None of these deposit types show direct links to mafic-ultramafic rocks; the deposits may result from crustal-scale hydrothermal systems capable of leaching and transporting cobalt from great depths. Hydrothermal deposits associated with ultramafic rocks, typified by the Bou Azzer district of Morocco, represent another type of primary cobalt deposit.In the United States, exploration for cobalt deposits may focus on magmatic nickel-copper deposits in the Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the Midwest and the east coast (Pennsylvania) and younger mafic rocks in southeastern and southern Alaska; also, possibly basement rocks in southeastern Missouri. Other potential exploration targets include—The Belt-Purcell basin of British Columbia (Canada), Idaho, Montana, and Washington for different styles of sedimentary rock-hosted cobalt deposits;Besshi-type VMS deposits, such as the Greens Creek (Alaska) deposit and

  2. Significant association between renal function and area of amyloid deposition in kidney biopsy specimens in both AA amyloidosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis and AL amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Hasegawa, Eriko; Wakamatsu, Ayako; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Wada, Yoko; Ito, Yumi; Imai, Naofumi; Ueno, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    2017-06-01

    The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis, which results in proteinuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. The clinical manifestations and precursor proteins of amyloid A (AA) and light-chain (AL) amyloidosis are different, and the renal damage due to amyloid deposition also seems to differ. The purpose of this study was to clarify haw the difference in clinical features between AA and AL amyloidosis are explained by the difference in the amount and distribution of amyloid deposition in the renal tissues. A total of 119 patients participated: 58 patients with an established diagnosis of AA amyloidosis (AA group) and 61 with AL amyloidosis (AL group). We retrospectively investigated the correlation between clinical data, pathological manifestations, and the area occupied by amyloid in renal biopsy specimens. In most of the renal specimens the percentage area occupied by amyloid was less than 10%. For statistical analyses, the percentage area of amyloid deposition was transformed to a common logarithmic value (Log 10 %amyloid). The results of sex-, age-, and Log 10 %amyloid-adjusted analyses showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher in the AA group. In terms of renal function parameters, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (Ccr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) indicated significant renal impairment in the AA group, whereas urinary protein indicated significant renal impairment in the AL group. Pathological examinations revealed amyloid was predominantly deposited at glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and easily transferred to the mesangial area in the AA group, and it was predominantly deposited at in the AL group. The degree of amyloid deposition in the glomerular capillary was significantly more severe in AL group. The frequency of amyloid deposits in extraglomerular mesangium was not significantly different between the two groups, but in AA group, the degree amyloid deposition was significantly more severe, and

  3. Indoors and health: results of a systematic literature review assessing the potential health effects of living in basements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzoiuso, Angelo Giosué; Gola, Marco; Rebecchi, Andrea; Riccò, Matteo; Capolongo, Stefano; Buffoli, Maddalena; Tirani, Marcello; Odone, Anna; Signorelli, Carlo

    2017-10-23

    A new law approved in March 2017 in the Lombardy Region makes it possible to live in basements. Basements are defined as buildings partly below curb level but with at least one-half of its height above the curb. Basements' features and structural characteristics might pose risks to human health. In this paper we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to assess the potential health effects of living in basements. In particular, we define a conceptual framework to describe basements' structural characteristics which are risk factors, as well as the mechanisms through which they impact on human health. We also conduct a systematic review on the scientific databases PubMed,Embase, DOAJ, Proquest and EBSCO to retrieve, pool and critically analyze all available research that quantified the risk of living in basements for different health outcomes. Available evidence suggests living in basements increases the risk of respiratory diseases (asthma and allergic disorders); more heterogeneous data are available for cancers and cardiovascular diseases. As more quantitative data need to be prospectively retrieved to assess and monitor the risk of living in basements for human health, clear minimum requirements for light, air, sanitation and egress are to be defined by technical experts and enforced by policy makers.

  4. Possible options for reducing occupational dose from the TMI-2 basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, L.F.; Harty, R.

    1985-11-01

    The major sources of exposure in the basement include the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure, water and sludge in the elevator shaft, cast concrete walls, concrete floor slab, water and sludge on the floor, and activity in the paint and loose surface contamination. The sources were identified using data obtained by the utility from water processing, water and solid samples, remote video inspections and radiation monitoring with a robot, and strings of thermoluminescent dosimeters lowered from upper elevations. The area dose rates in the basement range from approximately 4 R/hr (in the NE quadrant) to over 1100 R/hr (near the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure). It is estimated that the basement contains between 11,000 and 21,000 curies of 137 Cs. Specific decontamination and cleanup techniques are discussed. These techniques include flushing with water, high-pressure water blasting, leaching, scabbling and chemical cleaning. The applicability of these techniques to the major sources of radiation are discussed, and possible approaches and work sequences for basement cleanup are given

  5. Evaluation of the layering of rock strata and basement rock depth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The layering of rock strata and depth to the basement rocks of a Federal University Teaching Hospital premises in Northern Nigeria was investigated in this study with the aim of providing 2D geo-electrical resistivity images of the subsurface for geotechnical development using a modern and state-of-the-art field instrument, ...

  6. Forms of iron in soils on basement complex rocks of Kaduna state in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The forms of iron extracted by different methods were studied in soils developed on four basement complex rocks within Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria namely: migmatite gneisses, older granite, quartzites and mica schists. The study shows that forms of iron generally decreased in the order of total elemental iron ...

  7. Improved Access To Aging Ocean Basement Biosphere For Microbial Geochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, J. P.; Glazer, B.; Rappe, M.; Kenig, F.; Fisher, A.; Copson, D.; Harris, D.; Jolly, J.; Nuzzio, D.

    2005-12-01

    CORK observatories affixed to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes offer an unprecedented opportunity to study biogeochemical properties and microbial diversity in circulating fluids from sediment-buried ocean basement. Preliminary 16S rRNA gene sequence data from 65 degrees C fluids escaping from the top of the over-pressured ODP borehole 1026B, on the flanks of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicated the presence of diverse Bacteria and Archaea, including gene clones with varying degrees of relatedness to known dissimilatory nitrate reducers (with ammonia production), thermophilic sulfate reducers, and thermophilic fermentative heterotrophs, consistent with fluid chemistry measurements. However, questions remain regarding microbial community structure, key metabolic pathways and rates, and redox chemistry of the basement fluids, along with concerns for contamination issues. We describe ongoing developments intended to address key in situ analytical and sampling challenges including: 1) The new generation CORKs' dedicated microbiological/geochemical fluid delivery system specifically designed to minimize chemical contamination and surface biofouling; and 2) Development of a seafloor instrument sled for coupling to the CORK's bio-fluid delivery system for acquisition of real-time, in situ electrochemical (voltammetry) redox chemistry data on basement fluids, in addition to in situ particle filtration of basement fluids for molecular genetics, culturing and biogeochemical studies. Results of the first deployment of this instrument sled to new CORK observatory 1301A in Cascadia Basin, on the flanks of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, will be described.

  8. Regional trends in radiogenic heat generation in the Precambrian basement of the Western Canadian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F. W.; Majorowicz, J. A.

    Radiogenic heat generation values for 381 basement samples from 229 sites in the western Canadian basin exhibit a lognormal frequency distribution. The mean value = 2.06 (S.D. = 1.22) µWm-3 is larger than the radiogenic heat generation values reported for the shield in the Superior (ca. 1.2 µWm-3, Jessop and Lewis, 1978) and Churchill (ca. 0.7 µWm-3, Drury, 1985) provinces. When equal Log A contour intervals are used to map the basement heat generation, three large zones of relatively high heat generation are found. One coincides with the Peace River Arch basement structure and one with the Athabasca axis (Darnley, 1981). There is no apparent indication of increased heat flow through the Paleozoic formations associated with these two zones. The third zone, in southwestern Saskatchewan, coincides with a high heat flow zone in the Swift Current area. The lack of correlation between heat flow and heat generation in Alberta may be due to the disturbance to the heat flow in the Paleozoic formations by water motion, or may indicate that the heat is from uranium, thorium and potassium isotope enrichment near the basement surface rather than enrichment throughout the entire upper crust.

  9. "We Dominate the Basement!": How Asian American Girls Construct a Borderland Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    This article, based on two years of ethnographic fieldwork, explores the ways in which eight Asian American immigrant high school girls construct a borderland community, which they call the "Basement Group," after the place where they gather at school. While the girls struggle with displacement in the borderlands, including isolation in…

  10. Natural-basement ventilation as a radon-mitigation technique. Final report Jun 89-Feb 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.

    1992-04-01

    The report documents a study of natural basement ventilation in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. (NOTE: Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a way to reduce radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy has never been documented. It has generally been assumed to be a very inefficient mitigation strategy since it was believed that dilution was the mechanism by which radon levels were reduced.) Ventilation rates, environmental and house operating parameters, and radon levels have been monitored; it can be concluded that natural ventilation can reduce radon levels two ways: (1) by simple dilution, and (2) although less obvious, by providing a pressure break that reduces basement depressurization and thus the amount of radon-contaminated soil gas drawn into the house. Thus, basement ventilation can be a much more effective mitigation strategy than was previously believed. It might be especially useful in houses with low radon concentrations (of the order of 10 pCi/L) or those with low levels that cannot be mitigated cost-effectively with conventional technology

  11. KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANG DI DAERAH PARKIR BASEMENT DAN PARKIR UPPERGROUND (STUDI KASUS DI SUPERMARKET SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono S Huboyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing building growth in urban areas is limited by land availability. Lack of space in this area lead to build high rise building rather landed building. In this type of building, parking area is built in the basement and or upperground inside the building. Within this enclosed space, indoor air quality might a problem. This study focus to compare emerged pollutants between basement parking area and upperground parking area in supermarket building. The dust sampler, the impinger and the CO monitor were used to measure TSP, NO2 and CO concentrations respectively in these areas during supermarket operations. In the basement area, in particular, the TSP concentrations tend to exceeds 300 µg/m3 mainly at weekend period. While for NO2 and CO concentrations still meet the air quality standard. Based on these findings it seems the main source of pollutants was derived from dust resuspension. Thus, the mitigation measures to reduce this dust resuspension should be emphasized in order to prevent air quality deterioration in the basement parking area.

  12. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80-400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths.

  13. Basement characterization and crustal structure beneath the Arabia-Eurasia collision (Iran): A combined gravity and magnetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Naeim; Ebbing, Jörg

    2018-04-01

    We present a study on the depth to basement and magnetic crustal domains beneath the Iranian Plateau by modeling aeromagnetic and gravity data. First, field processing of the aeromagnetic data was undertaken to estimate the general characteristics of the magnetic basement. Afterwards, inverse modeling of aeromagnetic data was carried out to estimate the depth to basement. The obtained model of basement was refined using combined gravity and magnetic forward modeling. Hereby, we were able to distinguish different magnetic domains in the uppermost crust (10-20 km depths) influencing the medium to long wavelength trends of the magnetic anomalies. Magnetic basement mapping shows that prominent shallow magnetic features are furthermore located in the volcanic areas, e.g. the Urumieh Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage. The presence of ophiolite outcrops in SE Iran implies that shallow oceanic crust (with high magnetization) is the main source of one of the biggest magnetic anomalies in entire Iran area located north of the Makran.

  14. Asymmetric Effects of Subaerial and Subaqueous Basement Slopes on Self-Similar Morphology of Prograding Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Steven Yueh Jen; Hsiao, Yung-Tai; Wu, Fu-Chun

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form over basements of various slope configurations. While the morphodynamics of prograding deltas over single-slope basements have been studied previously, our understanding of delta progradation over segmented basements is still limited. Here we use experimental and analytical approaches to investigate the deltaic morphologies developing over two-slope basements with unequal subaerial and subaqueous slopes. For each case considered, the scaled profiles of the evolving delta collapse to a single profile for constant water and sediment influxes, allowing us to use the analytical self-similar profiles to investigate the individual effects of subaerial/subaqueous slopes. Individually varying the subaerial/subaqueous slopes exerts asymmetric effects on the morphologies. Increasing the subaerial slope advances the entire delta; increasing the subaqueous slope advances the upstream boundary of the topset yet causes the downstream boundary to retreat. The delta front exhibits a first-retreat-then-advance migrating trend with increasing subaqueous slope. A decrease in subaerial topset length is always accompanied by an increase in subaqueous volume fraction, no matter which segment is steepened. Applications are presented for estimating shoreline retreat caused by steepening of basement slopes, and estimating subaqueous volume and delta front using the observed topset length. The results may have implications for real-world delta systems subjected to upstream tectonic uplift and/or downstream subsidence. Both scenarios would exhibit reduced topset lengths, which are indicative of the accompanied increases in subaqueous volume and signal tectonic uplift and/or subsidence that are at play. We highlight herein the importance of geometric controls on partitioning of sediment between subaerial and subaqueous delta components.

  15. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  16. Connective matrix organization in human pulmonary fibrosis. Collagen polymorphism analysis in fibrotic deposits by immunohistological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiya, C; Peyrol, S; Cordier, J F; Grimaud, J A

    1983-01-01

    In the interstitium of the alveolar septa in the peripheral parts of the lung, four molecular types of collagen (I, III, IV and V) each with different morphological appearances, can be identified. The structural integrity of collagens accounts for the physiological efficiency of the lung. Fibrous thickening of alveolar septa is an invariable result of various diseases affecting the interstitium of the lung. The light and electron microscopic findings, and the immunological typing of collagens in six cases of fibrotic alveolar disease, are described. In the alveolar septa, two different compartments (the alveolo-capillary junction and the supportive axis) were affected by fibrosis: the alveolo-capillary junction was widened by the addition of interstitial collagens to basement membranes. In the axis, the increase of interstitial (types I and III) collagen gave rise to different patterns of connective matrix organization, graded as Loose or Dense depending on quantitative alterations of the type I/III ratio. The mode of organization of the fibrotic lung connective matrix, which depends on the quality of deposits in the matrix, may be correlated with the evolution of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, in terms of its stability, remodelling ability and reversibility.

  17. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  18. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  19. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  20. Discussion on several problems on the mineralization of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits at home and abroad, the author discusses the division of mineralization types of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits, and analyzes the metallogenic geologic conditions such as regional geologic background, climatic and geomorphological conditions, basement and sedimentary cover, characteristics of paleo-valley and paleo-channel, mineralization features as well as epigenetic metallogenic process. Future prospecting direction is also proposed

  1. Records of Mesoproterozoic taphrogenic events in the eastern basement of the Araçuaí Orogen, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Maia Rabelo Fonte-Boa

    depositional age (although only one zircon with low discordance shows an age of 955 ± 66 Ma. Comparing with data from the western sector of the Araçuaí orogen and São Francisco craton, it is noteworthy that no igneous zircon from the three samples yielded an age older than early Orosirian (~2.05 Ga, showing age spectra essentially limited in the range of ca. 1-2 Ga; i.e., younger than the Late Rhyacian orogeny that amalgamated the basement, and older than the main anorogenic event (930-870 Ma associated with the Early Tonian precursor basin of AWCO. All together, these continental taphrogenic events testify the several unsuccessful fragmentation attempts that affected the long-lived São Francisco-Congo palaeocontinent, which remained preserved from a complete break-up associated with ocean spreading from the Early Orosirian to the Atlantic opening in Cretaceous time.

  2. Numerical analysis of temperature distribution due to basement radiogenic heat production, St. Lawrence Lowlands, eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hejuan; Giroux, Bernard; Harris, Lyal B.; Mansour, John

    2017-04-01

    Although eastern Canada is considered as having a low potential for high-temperature geothermal resources, the possibility for additional localized radioactive heat sources in Mesoproterozoic Grenvillian basement to parts of the Palaeozoic St. Lawrence Lowlands in Quebec, Canada, suggests that this potential should be reassessed. However, such a task remains hard to achieve due to scarcity of heat flow data and ambiguity about the nature of the basement. To get an appraisal, the impact of radiogenic heat production for different Grenville Province crystalline basement units on temperature distribution at depth was simulated using the Underworld Geothermal numerical modelling code. The region south of Trois-Rivières was selected as representative for the St. Lawrence Lowlands. An existing 3D geological model based on well log data, seismic profiles and surface geology was used to build a catalogue of plausible thermal models. Statistical analyses of radiogenic element (U, Th, K) concentrations from neighbouring outcropping Grenville domains indicate that the radiogenic heat production of rocks in the modelled region is in the range of 0.34-3.24 μW/m3, with variations in the range of 0.94-5.83 μW/m3 for the Portneuf-Mauricie (PM) Domain, 0.02-4.13 μW/m3 for the Shawinigan Domain (Morin Terrane), and 0.34-1.96 μW/m3 for the Parc des Laurentides (PDL) Domain. Various scenarios considering basement characteristics similar to the PM domain, Morin Terrane and PDL Domain were modelled. The results show that the temperature difference between the scenarios can be as much as 12 °C at a depth of 5 km. The results also show that the temperature distribution is strongly affected by both the concentration of radiogenic elements and the thermal conductivity of the basement rocks. The thermal conductivity in the basement affects the trend of temperature change between two different geological units, and the spatial extent of thermal anomalies. The validity of the results was

  3. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  4. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin-lightening creams Systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis, Graves disease, and other autoimmune disorders The disorder occurs at ... diagnosis. The following tests can help determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test Anti-double- ...

  5. Analysis of magnetic anomalies in relation to Placer deposits and basement configuration off Mirya bay, Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    The offshore ilmenite placers off Konkan, central west coast of India, have been surveyed by echosounding, shallow seismic profiling, magnetics, and seabed sampling. The magnetic data show two different types of anomalies: (1) N-S trending high...

  6. Time variation of 222Rn concentration and gamma level in a half-basement room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Eguchi, Hoshio; Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    1998-01-01

    Correlation between 222 Rn (radon) concentration and gamma level in a half-basement has been discussed. In order to decrease the background count of a whole-body counter (WBC), a ventilation blower of 72 m 2 h -1 was installed. The device succeeded in a big reduction of radon concentration in the half-basement and then the background of WBC (NaI(Tl)) decreased to the 76.5% of the saturated value. Through a radon saturation test the exhalation rate of radon from concrete wall was estimated as 2.1 Bqm -2 h -1 by a simple model calculation. In addition, through a ventilation test, the procedure was analyzed by another simple model. (author)

  7. Characterization of 222Rn entry into a basement structure surrounded by low permeability soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental facility has been developed to monitor the entry rate and concentration of 222 Rn in two basement type structures surrounded by soil having a permeability on the order of 1- -12 m 2 . A data acquisition system recorded environmental conditions outside and inside the structures, including basement air exchange rates, every 15 min. Indoor 222 Rn concentrations ranged from 400 to 1400 Bq m -3 . The observed 222 Rn entry rate is highly variable and has two primary components; a constant input rate caused by diffusion of 222 Rn through the concrete walls and floor, and a variable rate that depends upon indoor-soil pressure differentials of only a few pascals. Pressure differentials are dependent upon wind speed and wind direction. Stack effect was not significant. During a two week period, with relatively calm winds, diffusion through the concrete walls and floor plus the floor-wall joint accounted for more than 80% of the total 222 Rn entry

  8. Soil inertia and shallow basement envelope impact on cellar internal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Sakami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a three dimensional numerical study of heat transfer by conduction between the soil and the shallow basement in the city of Marrakech (Morocco. The heat transfer equation is solved by the finite difference method using the implicit alternative direction (ADI. The internal temperature of the cellar is computed by using energy balance equation in the cellar. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the nature of the soil, the nature of the walls, the thickness of the walls of the cellar and the distance L far from the cellar on the internal temperature and the heat exchanged between the soil and the shallow basement

  9. Geology and petrography of basement in south extreme in Sierra Grande de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosini, A.; Ortiz Suarez, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the south of the Sierra de San Luis is recognized a basement composed by La Escalerilla and Los Puquios granites, accompanied by schist, mylonite s and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The schists, La Escalerilla granite and the mafic -ultramafic rocks are affected by a regional metamorphism in anphibolites facies, the two first present a N-S foliation di ping to east. The mylonite s correspond to a second event of deformation, distributed in thin belts of NNE-SSO direction and inclination to east, developed in green schist to anphibolites facies. Los Puquios granite represents the more young of the basement rocks and the intrusion was associated with a shear zone. Los Puquios granite forms dikes and small plutons cutting La Escalerilla granite and micas chits in high cortical levels

  10. Membrane fouling mechanism of biofilm-membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR): Pore blocking model and membrane cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Wenxiang; Tang, Bing; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Zhien

    2018-02-01

    Biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) is considered as an important wastewater treatment technology that incorporates advantages of both biofilm and MBR process, as well as can alleviate membrane fouling, with respect to the conventional activated sludge MBR. But, to be efficient, it necessitates the establishment of proper methods for the assessment of membrane fouling. Four Hermia membrane blocking models were adopted to quantify and evaluate the membrane fouling of BF-MBR. The experiments were conducted with various operational conditions, including membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Good agreement between cake formation model and experimental data was found, confirming the validity of the Hermia models for assessing the membrane fouling of BF-MBR and that cake layer deposits on membrane. Moreover, the influences of membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure on the Hermia pore blocking coefficient of cake layer were investigated. In addition, the permeability recovery after membrane cleaning at various operational conditions was studied. This work confirms that, unlike conventional activated sludge MBR, BF-MBR possesses a low degree of membrane fouling and a higher membrane permeability recovery after cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radon transport into a detached one-story house with a basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ottavio, T.W.; Dietz, R.N.; Nazaroff, W.W.; California Institute of Technology

    1986-01-01

    The interpretation of the data presented in a paper published in 1985 on radon transport into a detached one-story house with a basement is extended by developing an improved model that can be used to predict radon concentration in this house. In particular, emphasis was placed on a more complete set of replotted sump activity data. In the author's reply, this development is welcomed but two concerns regarding the conclusions one might infer from the analysis are discussed. (UK)

  12. Geological Structure of the Basement of Western and Eastern Parts of the West-Siberian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kirill S.; Erokhin, Yuriy V.; Ponomarev, Vladimir S.; Pogromskaya, Olga E.; Berzin, Stepan V.

    2016-01-01

    The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP-II on zircon) was obtained for the first time from the basement of the West Siberian Plain in the Western half of the region. It is established that a large part of the protolith of the metamorphic depth in the Shaim-Kuznetsov meganticlinorium contained sedimentary late- and middle-Devonian rocks (395-358 million years).…

  13. Gravitational sliding of the Mt. Etna massif along a sloping basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John B.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Pitty, Andy; Sargent, Phil; Wooller, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Geological field evidence and laboratory modelling indicate that volcanoes constructed on slopes slide downhill. If this happens on an active volcano, then the movement will distort deformation data and thus potentially compromise interpretation. Our recent GPS measurements demonstrate that the entire edifice of Mt. Etna is sliding to the ESE, the overall direction of slope of its complex, rough sedimentary basement. We report methods of discriminating the sliding vector from other deformation processes and of measuring its velocity, which averaged 14 mm year-1 during four intervals between 2001 and 2012. Though sliding of one sector of a volcano due to flank instability is widespread and well-known, this is the first time basement sliding of an entire active volcano has been directly observed. This is important because the geological record shows that such sliding volcanoes are prone to devastating sector collapse on the downslope side, and whole volcano migration should be taken into account when assessing future collapse hazard. It is also important in eruption forecasting, as the sliding vector needs to be allowed for when interpreting deformation events that take place above the sliding basement within the superstructure of the active volcano, as might occur with dyke intrusion or inflation/deflation episodes.

  14. Uranium deposit types and resources of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, L.; Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    The uranium-related activities in Argentina begun in the 1950s and, as a result of the systematic exploration, several types of deposits have been discovered since then: volcanic and caldera-related, sandstone-hosted, vein spatially related to granite (intragranitic and perigranitic) and surficial. The deposits that have been the focus of the most important uranium exploitations are the ones that belong to the volcaniclastic type. These are localized in Permian formations associated with synsedimentary acid volcanism in the Sierra Pintada district (Mendoza province). The volcanic and caldera related type is also present in the Laguna Colorada deposit (Chubut province) located in the San Jorge basin (Cretaceous). Several important uranium mineralisations have been identified in Cretaceous fluvial sandstones and conglomerates, among which the most relevant is the Cerro Solo deposit (Chubut province) that corresponds to the paleochannel structure subtype. Other subtypes of sandstone model have been studied. For instance, the Don Otto deposit (Salta province), located in the Salta Group Basin (Cretaceous - Tertiary), belongs to the tabular U-V subtype. The roll front subtype can be also found in the Los Mogotes Colorados deposit (La Rioja province) which is hosted by Carboniferous continental sandstones. The uranium mineralisations in veins and disseminated episyenites within peraluminous leucogranites of the Sierras Pampeanas (Cordoba and San Luis provinces) represent other types of existing deposits. These granites are Devonian – Carboniferous and the related deposits are comparable to those from the Middle European Variscan. There are also other vein-type uranium deposits located in metamorphic basement in the periphery of high potassium calcalkaline granites (Sierras Pampeanas of Catamarca and La Rioja provinces), where the mineralisation control is mainly structural. The current uranium identified resources of the country are approximately 24,000 tU in the

  15. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 alpha Regulates Tubular Damage in Murine Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Ralf; Daniel, Christoph; Hugo, Christian; Amann, Kerstin; Mielenz, Dirk; Endlich, Karlhans; Braun, Tobias; van der Veen, Betty; Heeringa, Peter; Schett, Georg; Zwerina, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is thought to play a central role in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Whether p38MAPK plays a pathogenic role in crescentic GN (GN) and which of its four isoforms is preferentially involved in kidney inflammation is not definitely known. We thus

  16. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major......(Δ) (Ex2-6/) (Δ) (Ex2-6) mice, with constitutively exposed CTLD2 and decreased survival of men with early (non-invasive) prostate cancer with high epithelial Endo180 expression and levels of AGE. These findings indicate that AGE-dependent modification of the basal lamina induces invasive behaviour...

  17. Heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycan of the cell surface and basement membrane of mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; Van den Berghe, H.

    1985-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate represents approximately 15% of the 35 SO 4 -labeled glycosaminoglycans carried by the proteoglycans of the cell surface and of the basolateral secretions of normal mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture. Evidence is provided that these chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans are hybrid proteoglycans, carrying both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate chains. Complete N-desulfation but limited O-desulfation, by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide, of the proteoglycans decreased the anionic charge of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans to a greater extent than it decreased the charge of their constituent chondroitin sulfate chains. Partial depolymerization of the heparan sulfate residues of the proteoglycans with nitrous acid or with heparin lyase also reduced the effective molecular radius of the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans. The effect of heparin lyase on the chondroitin sulfate-carrying proteoglycans was prevented by treating the proteoglycan fractions with dimethyl sulfoxide, while the effect of nitrous acid on the dimethyl sulfoxide-treated proteoglycans was prevented by acetylation. This occurrence of heparan sulfate-chondroitin sulfate hybrid proteoglycans suggests that the substitution of core proteins by heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains may not solely be determined by the specific routing of these proteins through distinct chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate synthesizing mechanisms. Moreover, regional and temporal changes in pericellular glycosaminoglycan compositions might be due to variable postsynthetic modification of a single gene product

  18. Biomimetic triblock copolymer membrane arrays: a stable template for functional membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Perez, A.; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Vissing, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that biomimetic stable triblock copolymer membrane arrays can be prepared using a scaffold containing 64 apertures of 300 μm diameter each. The membranes were made from a stock solution of block copolymers with decane as a solvent using a new deposition method. By using decane...

  19. Manufacture and study of osmotic metallic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, Richard

    1970-01-01

    The manufacture of metallic membranes, which are semi-permeable to salt water, was investigated. The best results were obtained with nickel which had been deposited 'in situ' on sintered nickel, whose pore spectrum was sharp. The investigation showed that in the case of metallic membranes reverse osmosis is only a filtration. The large quantities of water produced and the low salt rejection rate compared to that with cellulose acetate membranes demonstrated that metallic membranes are better suited to depollution than desalination. (author) [fr

  20. Geology of the plutonic basement rocks of Stewart Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allibone, A.H.; Tulloch, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Exposures of basement rocks on Stewart Island provide a c. 70 km long by 50 km wide map of part of the Median Batholith that spans the margin of the Western Province. Because of their distance from the present plate boundary, these rocks are relatively unaffected by Cenozoic tectonism, allowing examination of unmodified Carboniferous-Cretaceous relationships within the Median Batholith. Thirty individual plutons (>c.20 km 2 ) have been mapped along with numerous relatively small intrusions ( 2 ). The large plutons form 85-90% of the Median Batholith on Stewart Island while the many smaller intrusions comprise 10-15%, mostly in the north. Lithologies include: biotite ± minor hornblende granodiorite, granite and leucogranite with accessory titanite - magmatic epidote and allanite (c. 50%); biotite ± muscovite ± garnet granite with S-type affinities (c. 10%); alkaline quartz monzonite, granite, and alkali feldspar granite with rare aegirine and blue-green amphibole (c. 3%); quartz monzodiorite and diorite with hornblende > biotite (c. 23%); gabbro and anorthosite (c. 12%) and ultramafic rocks (c. 2%). U-Pb zircon and monazite dating indicates that c. 12% of these plutonic rocks were emplaced during the Carboniferous between 345 and 290 Ma, c. 20% in the Early-Middle Jurassic at c. 170-165 Ma, c. 30% in the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous between 152 and 128 Ma, and c. 38% in the Early Cretaceous between 128 and 100 Ma. The distribution of Pegasus Group schists and peraluminous granitoid rocks indicates that the northern limit of extensive early Paleozoic Western Province basement is located either within the Gutter Shear Zone or at the Escarpment Fault, 10-15 km south of the Freshwater Fault System previously thought to mark this boundary. Carboniferous and Middle Jurassic magmatism extended plutonic basement northwards as far as the Freshwater Fault System, while further magmatism during the latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous produced the basement

  1. Observations of hydrotectonic stress/strain events at a basement high at the Nicoya outer rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    There is substantial and growing evidence from heat flow and coring investigations that the oceanic plate off Costa Rica is highly hydrologically active and that this activity is responsible for one of the most anomalously cold thermal environments encountered in the oceanic environment. Recent work by Fisher, et al. has identified limited regions above certain topographic highs with extremely high heat flows. Pore water profiles from cores above these thinly sedimented basement highs suggest upward flow on the order of ~1 cm/yr. These highs may be the principal regions of out-flow from the basement in this region and, thus, can potentially be used to constrain the general level of hydrologic activity. The nine Chemical and Aqueous Transport (CAT) meters we deployed at one of the highest heatflow sites provide a temporal record of both in-flow and out-flow of aqueous fluids at rates as low as 0.1 mm/yr. Our objective was to provide a direct measurement of long term flow rates to address the following questions: (1) What are the characteristic fluid fluxes at basement highs of the low heat flow region of the northern Costa Rican incoming plate, and (2) is this flow temporally variable? The results of the instrument deployments agree quite closely in general with the coring results in that the background rates are on the order of 1 cm/yr or less. There is, however, considerable detail in the temporal records which suggest small scale tectonic stress transients causing temporary increases in flow rate. While this is certainly not an area of major tectonic activity, the site is located at the top of the outer rise where one would expect bending-related stress and fault reactivation to occur. The CAT meters are capable of detecting minute strain events in the underlying sediments and therefore may be detecting small localized strain events. Two periods of increased flow lasting a few weeks each occur during the 5 month deployment and are indicated on all of the

  2. Geochemical variability of the Yucatan basement: Constraints from crystalline clasts in Chicxulub impactites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A.

    2003-07-01

    The 65 Ma old Chicxulub impact structure with a diameter of about 180 km is again in the focus of the geosciences because of the recently commenced drilling of the scientific well Yaxcopoil- 1. Chicxulub is buried beneath thick post-impact sediments, yet samples of basement lithologies in the drill cores provide a unique insight into age and composition of the crust beneath Yucatan. This study presents major element, Sr, and Nd isotope data for Chicxulub impact melt lithologies and clasts of basement lithologies in impact breccias from the PEMEX drill cores C-1 and Y-6, as well as data for ejecta material from the K/T boundaries at La Lajilla, Mexico, and Furlo, Italy. The impact melt lithologies have an andesitic composition with significantly varying contents of Al, Ca, and alkali elements. Their present day 87Sr/86Sr ratios cluster at about 0.7085, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5123 to 0.5125. Compared to the melt lithologies that stayed inside the crater, data for ejecta material show larger variations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7081 for chloritized spherules from La Lajilla to 0.7151 for sanidine spherules from Furlo. The 143Nd/144Nd ratio is 0.5126 for La Lajilla and 0.5120 for the Furlo spherules. In an tCHUR(Nd)-tUR(Sr) diagram, the melt lithologies plot in a field delimited by Cretaceous platform sediments, various felsic lithic clasts and a newly found mafic fragment from a suevite. Granite, gneiss, and amphibolite have been identified among the fragments from crystalline basement gneiss. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7084 to 0.7141, and their 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5121 to 0.5126. The TNdDM model ages vary from 0.7 to 1.4 Ga, pointing to different source terranes for these rocks. This leads us to believe that the geological evolution and the lithological composition of the Yucatàn basement is probably more complex than generally assumed, and Gondwanan as well as Laurentian crust may be present in the Yucatàn basement.

  3. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  4. Modelling and analysis of CVD processes for ceramic membrane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, H.W.; Cao, G.Z.; Meijerink, J.; de Vries, Karel Jan; Burggraaf, Anthonie

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented that describes the modified chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process (which takes place in advance of the electrochemical vapour deposition (EVD) process) to deposit ZrO2 inside porous media for the preparation and modification of ceramic membranes. The isobaric

  5. The Effect of Mechanical Characteristics of Basal Decollement and Basement Structures on Deformation of the Zagros Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Bahroudi, Abbas

    2003-01-01

    Two fundamental structural elements, basement architecture and basal decollement, play a significant role in the evolution of a tectonically active region. Using different approaches (field data, literature review and analogue models) this thesis demonstrates that these two elements affected the deformation style in the Zagros fold-thrust belt during Mesozoic extensional and Cenozoic contractional episodes. Reassessment of available data suggests a new configuration for the basement to Zagro...

  6. Characterization of DNA antigens from immune complexes deposited in the skin of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡钦; 尹若菲; 谭国珍; 郭庆; 许德清

    2004-01-01

    Background Skin lesions are common manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is still unknown what the definite pathogenesis of skin involvement was and whether DNA participated in it. Our study was designed to explore the pathogenetic role and nature of nuclear antigen (DNA) deposited in the skin lesions of patients with SLE.Methods Thirty skin samples from patients with SLE and 2 normal skin samples were studied. Extracellular DNA was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence methods. The deposited immune complexes were extracted by cryoprecipitation, and DNA was then isolated with phenol and chloroform. DNA fragment sizes were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Finally, 8 different probes were used to analyze the origin of these DNA molecules using Dot hybridization.Results Extracellular DNA staining was found only in skin lesions, mainly those located in the basement membrane zone, vascular wall, and hair follicle wall. Normal skin and non-lesion SLE skin showed no fluorescence at locations outside the nuclei. There were no differences in the rate and intensity of extracellular DNA staining when comparing active phase to remission phase patients. No relationship was found between extracellular DNA and circulating anti-dsDNA antibodies. Deposited DNA fragments clustered into four bands of somewhat discrete sizes: 20 000 bp, 1300 bp, 800-900 bp, 100-200 bp. Small sized fragments (100-200 bp) were positively correlated with disease activity (P<0.05, r=0.407). Dot hybridization showed significant homology of the various extracellular DNA fragments examined with human genomic DNA, but not with DNA from the microorganisms and viruses we examined. There were also homologies between DNA samples from different individuals.Conclusions DNA and its immune complexes may contribute to the pathogenesis of skin lesions in SLE. These DNA molecules range in size from 100 bp to 20 kb and may be endogenous in origin.

  7. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement sampled near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, and eolian material has 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain

  8. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement samples near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain. 7 refs., 5 figs

  9. Axionic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurilia, A.; Spallucci, E.

    1992-01-01

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B μν (x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B μν field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.)

  10. Testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in basement houses having adjoining wings. Final report, August 1988-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, M.

    1990-11-01

    The report gives results of tests of indoor radon reduction techniques in 12 existing Maryland houses, with the objective of determining when basement houses with adjoining wings require active soil depressurization (ASD) treatment of both wings, and when treatment of the basement alone is sufficient. In five basement houses with adjoining slabs on grade, ASD treatment of both wings provided an incremental additional radon reduction of 0 to 5.2 pCi/L, compared to ASD treatment of either one of the slabs alone. However, basement-only treatment reduced radon to <4 pCi/L in all five houses. In six basement houses having adjoining crawl spaces, ASD treatment of both wings (including sub-liner depressurization of the crawl space) provided little additional reduction compared to basement-only treatment, when sub-slab communication was good. When communication was not good, treatment of both wings was required to achieve <4 pCi/L. Tests of one fully slab-on-grade house showed that, when there is good aggregate under the slab, a one-pipe sub-slab depressurization system can achieve <1-2 pCi/L, even when there are forced-air supply ducts under the slab

  11. Metamaterial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new class of metamaterial device to achieve separation of compounds by using coordinate transformations and metamaterial theory. By rationally designing the spatial anisotropy for mass diffusion, we simultaneously concentrate different compounds in different spatial locations, leading to separation of mixtures across a metamaterial membrane. The separation of mixtures into their constituent compounds is critically important in biophysics, biomedical, and chemical applications. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen diffusing through a polymeric planar matrix is separated. This work opens doors to new paradigms in membrane separations via coordinate transformations and metamaterials by introducing novel properties and unconventional mass diffusion phenomena. (paper)

  12. Mercury isotope constraints on the source for sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in the Changdu area, southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxia; Yin, Runsheng; Peng, Jiantang; Hurley, James P.; Lepak, Ryan F.; Gao, Jianfeng; Feng, Xinbin; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2018-03-01

    The Lanuoma and Cuona sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits hosted by Upper Triassic limestone and sandstone, respectively, are located in the Changdu area, SW China. Mercury concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions from sulfide minerals and potential source rocks (e.g., the host sedimentary rocks and the metamorphic basement) were investigated to constrain metal sources and mineralization processes. In both deposits, sulfide minerals have higher mercury (Hg) concentrations (0.35 to 1185 ppm) than the metamorphic basement rocks (0.05 to 0.15 ppm) and sedimentary rocks (0.02 to 0.08 ppm). Large variations of mass-dependent fractionation (3.3‰ in δ202Hg) and mass-independent fractionation (0.3‰ in Δ199Hg) of Hg isotopes were observed. Sulfide minerals have Hg isotope signatures that are similar to the hydrothermal altered rocks around the deposit, and similar to the metamorphic basement, but different from barren sedimentary rocks. The variation of Δ199Hg suggests that Hg in sulfides was mainly derived from the underlying metamorphic basement. Mercury isotopes could be a geochemical tracer in understanding metal sources in hydrothermal ore deposits.

  13. Successful treatment of nephrotic syndrome induced by lambda light chain deposition disease using lenalidomide: A case report and review of the literature
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, Akira; Nagahara, Dai; Tansho, Kosuke

    2018-06-01

    Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) that is characterized by the deposition of monoclonal light chains in multiple organs, including the kidney. It is a rare disorder caused by an underlying monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia. LCDD with renal involvement causes proteinuria, which sometimes can lead to nephrotic syndrome. The monoclonal light chains are mostly in the κ form. Treatment of LCDD is the same as that for multiple myeloma (MM); however, some conventional anticancer drugs show substantial toxicity and therefore cannot be administered to older patients or those with renal impairment. An 80-year-old woman was referred to our department with severe nephrotic syndrome (13.6 g/gCr) and anemia. A renal biopsy showed mesangial proliferation and mesangial matrix expansion, and immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for λ chains along the glomerular basement membrane, but was negative for κ chains or amyloid deposition. A bone marrow biopsy revealed 64% plasma cells. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-λ type M protein was detected, and the levels of free λ chain was significantly increased. We concluded that her nephrotic syndrome was caused by LCDD, which resulted from IgG-λ MM. The induction of a BCD (bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone) treatment regimen did not lead to a hematological response or decrease in proteinuria. The administration of combination therapy of lenalidomide and prednisolone led to the successful reduction of proteinuria and hematuria. We presented a very rare case report describing the successful treatment of LCDD (λ chain)-induced nephrotic syndrome with lenalidomide.
.

  14. Chelating polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos Vazquez de la Parra, Luis Francisco; Hilke, Roland

    2015-01-01

    microporous chelating polymeric membrane. Embodiments include, but are not limited to, microporous chelating polymeric membranes, device comprising the membranes, and methods of using and making the same.

  15. Alkaline fuel cell with nitride membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shen-Huei; Pilaski, Moritz; Wartmann, Jens; Letzkus, Florian; Funke, Benedikt; Dura, Georg; Heinzel, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate patterned nitride membranes with Si-MEMS-technology as a platform to build up new membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEA) for alkaline fuel cell applications. Two 6-inch wafer processes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were developed for the fabrication of separated nitride membranes with a nitride thickness up to 1 μm. The mechanical stability of the perforated nitride membrane has been adjusted in both processes either by embedding of subsequent ion implantation step or by optimizing the deposition process parameters. A nearly 100% yield of separated membranes of each deposition process was achieved with layer thickness from 150 nm to 1 μm and micro-channel pattern width of 1μm at a pitch of 3 μm. The process for membrane coating with electrolyte materials could be verified to build up MEA. Uniform membrane coating with channel filling was achieved after the optimization of speed controlled dip-coating method and the selection of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as electrolyte solvent. Finally, silver as conductive material was defined for printing a conductive layer onto the MEA by Ink-Technology. With the established IR-thermography setup, characterizations of MEAs in terms of catalytic conversion were performed successfully. The results of this work show promise for build up a platform on wafer-level for high throughput experiments.

  16. U-Pb SHRIMP-RG zircon ages and Nd signature of lower Paleozoic rifting-related magmatism in the Variscan basement of the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F.J.; Iriondo, A.; Dietsch, C.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Peucat, J.J.; Cires, J.; Reche, J.; Capdevila, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ages of orthogneisses exposed in massifs of the Variscan chain can determine whether they are part of a pre-Neoproterozoic basement, a Neoproterozoic, Panafrican arc, or are, in fact, lower Paleozoic, and their isotopic compositions can be used to probe the nature of their source rocks, adding to the understanding of the types, distribution, and tectonic evolution of peri-Gondwanan crystalline basement. Using SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd isotopic analysis, pre-Variscan metaigneous rocks from the N??ria massif in the Eastern Pyrenean axial zone and the Guilleries massif, 70km to the south, have been dated and their Nd signatures characterized. All dated orthogneisses from the N??ria massif have the same age within error, ~457Ma, including the Ribes granophyre, interpreted as a subvolcanic unit within Caradocian sediments contemporaneous with granitic magmas intruded into Cambro-Ordovician sediments at deeper levels. Orthogneisses in the Guilleries massif record essentially continuous magmatic activity during the Ordovician, beginning at the Cambro-Ordovician boundary (488??3Ma) and reaching a peak in the volume of magma in the early Late Ordovician (~460Ma). Metavolcanic rocks in the Guilleries massif were extruded at 452??4Ma and appear to have their intrusive equivalent in thin, deformed veins of granitic gneiss (451??7Ma) within metasedimentary rocks. In orthogneisses from both massifs, the cores of some zircons yield Neoproterozoic ages between ~520 and 900Ma. The age of deposition of a pre-Late Ordovician metapelite in the Guilleries massif is bracketed by the weighted average age of the youngest detrital zircon population, 582??11Ma, and the age of cross-cutting granitic veins, 451??7Ma. Older detrital zircons populations in this metapelite include Neoproterozoic (749-610Ma; n=10), Neo- to Mesoproterozoic (1.04-0.86Ga; n=7), Paleoproterozoic (2.02-1.59Ga; n=5), and Neoarchean (2.74-2.58Ga; n=3). Nd isotopic analyses of the N??ria and Guilleries

  17. Seismic stability analyses of various reactor buildings on quaternary deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Tsutagawa, M.; Asakura, S.; Katoh, T.; Tomura, H.; Uchiyama, S.; Koyama, M.; Oguro, E.; Akino, K.; Iizuka, S.; Hayashi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Many nuclear power plants have been built on Quaternary deposits in Europe and U.S.A., however, Japanese basic policy is to construct the reactor building and other auxiliary buildings on a bed rock which are important to safety, because large earthquakes are postulated to occur. Being limited bed rock sites in Japan, it has become necessary to increase possible place for nuclear power plant in order to cope with the middle and long term siting problems. For the purpose of establishing the draft of guideline on seismic design of reactor building on the Quaternary sand and gravel deposit in Japan, foundation soil stability and seismic resistance of the reactor building and plant equipment have been investigated and studied from 1983 to 1998. The studies have shown the following: 1) The response rotation angles of both common light weight basement (CL) and step basement (ES) plants during the earthquake reduce to 1/2 of the BR plant value, and the bearing pressure between the basement and the soil of improved plant are reduced as well; (2) every structure built on quaternary sand and gravel deposit, having 400m/s shear velocity, maintains enough seismic resistance, because the shear stress caused in the wall is small. The maximum shear strain of soil below the basemat of BR-BWR, which suffers the largest bearing pressure, is 1.1x10 -9 , but it can be said that the soil has enough stability according to the past soil tests for the Quaternary sand and gravel deposit that had been done by authors

  18. Control of Precambrian basement deformation zones on emplacement of the Laramide Boulder batholith and Butte mining district, Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; O'Neill, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    What are the roles of deep Precambrian basement deformation zones in the localization of subsequent shallow-crustal deformation zones and magmas? The Paleoproterozoic Great Falls tectonic zone and its included Boulder batholith (Montana, United States) provide an opportunity to examine the importance of inherited deformation fabrics in batholith emplacement and the localization of magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits. Northeast-trending deformation fabrics predominate in the Great Falls tectonic zone, which formed during the suturing of Paleoproterozoic and Archean cratonic masses approximately 1,800 mega-annum (Ma). Subsequent Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic deformation fabrics trend northwest. Following Paleozoic through Early Cretaceous sedimentation, a Late Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt with associated strike-slip faulting developed across the region, wherein some Proterozoic faults localized thrust faulting, while others were reactivated as strike-slip faults. The 81- to 76-Ma Boulder batholith was emplaced along the reactivated central Paleoproterozoic suture in the Great Falls tectonic zone. Early-stage Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced concurrent with east-directed thrust faulting and localized primarily by northwest-trending strike-slip and related faults. The late-stage Butte Quartz Monzonite pluton was localized in a northeast-trending pull-apart structure that formed behind the active thrust front and is axially symmetric across the underlying northeast-striking Paleoproterozoic fault zone, interpreted as a crustal suture. The modeling of potential-field geophysical data indicates that pull-apart?stage magmas fed into the structure through two funnel-shaped zones beneath the batholith. Renewed magmatic activity in the southern feeder from 66 to 64 Ma led to the formation of two small porphyry-style copper-molybdenum deposits and ensuing world-class polymetallic copper- and silver-bearing veins in the Butte mining district. Vein orientations

  19. Rock Magnetic Study of IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Site M0077A Drill Cores: Post-Impact Sediments, Impact Breccias, Melt, Granitic Basement and Dikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Tikoo, S.; Zylberman, W.; Lofi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drilling at Site M0077 sampled post-impact sediments overlying a peak ring consisting of impact breccias, melt rock and granitoids. Here we focus on characterizing the peak ring using magnetic properties, which vary widely and depend on mineralogy, depositional and emplacement conditions and secondary alterations. Rock magnetic properties are integrated with Multi-Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data, vertical seismic profile, physical properties, petrographic and chemical analyses and geophysical models. We measure low-field magnetic susceptibility at low- and high-frequencies, intensity and direction of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and laboratory-induced isothermal (IRM) and anhysteretic (ARM) magnetizations, alternating-field demagnetization of NRM, IRM and NRM, susceptibility variation with temperature, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis and IRM back-field demagnetization. Post-impact carbonates show low susceptibilities and NRM intensities, variable frequency-dependent susceptibilities and multivectorial remanences residing in low and high coercivity minerals. Hysteresis loops show low coercivity saturation magnetizations and variable paramagnetic mineral contents. Impact breccias (suevites) and melt rock show higher susceptibilities, low frequency-dependent susceptibilities, high NRM, ARM and IRM intensities and moderate ARM intensity/susceptibility ratios. Magnetic signal is dominated by fine-grained magnetite and titanomagnetites with PSD domain states. Melt rocks at the base of impactite section show the highest susceptibilities and remanence intensities. Basement section is characterized by low susceptibilities in the granites and higher values in the dikes, with NRM and ARM intensities increasing towards the base. The high susceptibilities and remanence intensities correlate with high seismic velocities, density and decreased porosity and electrical resistivity. Fracturing and alteration account for the reduced seismic velocities

  20. Petrology, geochemistry and zirconology of impure calcite marbles from the Precambrian metamorphic basement at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Can; Zhang, Pin-Gang; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Groppo, Chiara; Rolfo, Franco; Yang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Deng, Liang-Peng; Song, Biao

    2017-10-01

    Impure calcite marbles from the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Wuhe Complex, southeastern margin of the North China Craton, provide an exceptional opportunity to understand the depositional processes during the Late Archean and the subsequent Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic evolution of one of the oldest cratons in the world. The studied marbles are characterized by the assemblage calcite + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + K-feldspar + quartz + rutile ± biotite ± white mica. Based on petrography and geochemistry, the marbles can be broadly divided into two main types. The first type (type 1) is rich in REE with a negative Eu anomaly, whereas the second type (type 2) is relatively poor in REE with a positive Eu anomaly. Notably, all marbles exhibit remarkably uniform REE patterns with moderate LREE/HREE fractionation, suggesting a close genetic relationship. Cathodoluminescence imaging, trace elements and mineral inclusions reveal that most zircons from two dated samples display distinct core-rim structures. Zircon cores show typical igneous features with oscillatory growth zoning and high Th/U ratios (mostly in the range 0.3-0.7) and give ages of 2.53 - 2.48 Ga, thus dating the maximum age of deposition of the protolith. Zircon rims overgrew during granulite-facies metamorphism, as evidenced by calcite + clinopyroxene + rutile + plagioclase + quartz inclusions, by Ti-in-zircon temperatures in the range 660-743 °C and by the low Th/U (mostly marbles are ascribed to syn-depositional felsic hydrothermal activity which occurred at 2.53 - 2.48 Ga. Our results, together with other published data and the inferred tectonic setting, suggest that the marbles' protolith is an impure limestone, rich in detrital silicates of igneous origin, deposited in a back-arc basin within an active continental margin during the late Archean and affected by synchronous high-T hydrothermalism at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton.

  1. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  2. Polymetamorphic evolution of the granulite-facies Paleoproterozoic basement of the Kabul Block, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali; Mosazai, Amir Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    The Kabul Block is an elongate crustal fragment which cuts across the Afghan Central Blocks, adjoining the Indian and Eurasian continents. Bounded by major strike slip faults and ophiolitic material thrust onto either side, the block contains a strongly metamorphosed basement consisting of some of the only quantifiably Proterozoic rocks south of the Herat-Panjshir Suture Zone. The basement rocks crop-out extensively in the vicinity of Kabul City and consist predominantly of migmatites, gneisses, schists and small amounts of higher-grade granulite-facies rocks. Granulite-facies assemblages were identified in felsic and mafic siliceous rocks as well as impure carbonates. Granulite-facies conditions are recorded by the presence of orthopyroxene overgrowing biotite in felsic rocks; by orthopyroxene overgrowing amphibole in mafic rocks and by the presence of olivine and clinohumite in the marbles. The granulite-facies assemblages are overprinted by a younger amphibolite-facies event that is characterized by the growth of garnet at the expense of the granulite-facies phases. Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for the granulite-facies event of around 850 °C and up to 7 kbar were calculated through conventional thermobarometry and phase equilibria modeling. The younger, amphibolite-facies event shows moderately higher pressures of up to 8.5 kbar at around 600 °C. This metamorphism likely corresponds to the dominant metamorphic event within the basement of the Kabul Block. The results of this work are combined with the litho-stratigraphic relations and recent geochronological dating to analyze envisaged Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic metamorphic events in the Kabul Block.

  3. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Jaggs, M.P.R.

    1998-01-01

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m 3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  4. Lead isotopic study of aplites from the Precambrian basement rocks near Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    Pb isotopic compositions for three total-rock samples of aplite and their constituent K-feldspars from the Nigerian basement assemblage near Ibadan show lead homogenization during the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event. A secondary isochron formed by the K-feldspars data points is used to calculate a primary age of about 2750 m.y. for the aplites. The aplites do not register any Pb isotopic effect from the intrusion of granite gneiss in the area at 2330m.y. (Auth.)

  5. The First Evidence of the Precambrian Basement in the Fore Range Zone of the Great Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Kamzolkin, V.; Vidjapin, Y.; Somin, M.; Ivanov, S.

    2017-12-01

    Within the Great Caucasus fold-thrust belt, the Fore Range zone has the most complicated structure, and the highest degree of metamorphism was found there. This zone consists of several salients with the different composition and the structural and metamorphic evolution. The largest Blyb salient includes the metamorphic basement covered by the pack of thrusts. According to the recent isotopic data the upper levels of the Blyb metamorphic complex (BMC) are supposed to be Middle-Paleozoic (Somin, 2011). We studied zircons from the granitic intrusions located in the metamorphic rocks of the BMC. The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP II, VSEGEI, Russia) of zircons from the large Balkan metadiorite massif yielded the ages of 549±7,4, 574,1±6,7, and 567,9±6,9 Ma. All studied zircons show the high Th/U ratios and likely have the magmatic origin. This data is the first confirmation of the presence of the Precambrian basement and Vendian magmatic activity in the Fore Range zone. Zircons from the Unnamed granodiorite massif from the south of the Blyb salient yielded the age of 319±3.8 Ma (the Early Carboniferous). This fact taken together with the low grade of metamorphism in this intrusion reveals the Late Paleozoic magmatic event in the Fore Range zone. We also suggest that the Precambrian basement of the BMC, including the Balkan intrusion, is covered by so-called Armovsky nappe. This is confirmed by the field data, Middle-Paleozoic U-Pb ages and the higher degree of metamorphism of the Armovsky gneisses and schists. Thus, the BMC is not uniform but includes the blocks of the different age and metamorphic grades. Finally, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of the Balkan metadiorites. The axes of AMS ellipsoid fix the conditions of the north-east compression, as well as the strain field reconstructed from the macrostructures orientation, which corresponds to the thrusts propagation. Therefore, the emplacement of the Balkan massif happened before the thrust

  6. Shock pressure estimation in basement rocks of the Chicxulub impact crater using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, N.; Tani, R.; Kayama, M.; Chang, Y.; Nishido, H.; Kaushik, D.; Rae, A.; Ferrière, L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure, located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, was drilled by the joint IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 in April-May 2016. This expedition is the first attempt to obtain materials from the topographic peak ring within the crater previously identified by seismic imaging. A continuous core was successfully recovered from the peak ring at depths between 505.7 and 1334.7 mbsf. Uplifted, fractured, and shocked granitic basement rocks forming the peak ring were found below, in the impact breccia and impact melt rock unit (747.0-1334.7 mbsf; Morgan et al. 2016). In order to constrain impact crater formation, we investigated shock pressure distribution in the peak-ring basement rocks. Thin sections of the granitic rocks were prepared at intervals of 60 m. All the samples contains shocked minerals, with quartz grains frequently showing planar deformation features (PDFs). We determined shock pressures based on the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy of quartz. The strong advantage of the CL method is its applicability to shock pressure estimation for individual grains for both quartz and diaplectic SiO2 glass with high-spatial resolution ( 1 μm) (Chang et al. 2016). CL spectra of quartz shows a blue emission band caused by shock-induced defect centers, where its intensity increases with shock pressure. A total of 108 quartz grains in ten thin sections were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with a CL spectrometer attached (an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 2 nA were used). Natural quartz single crystals, which were experimentally shocked at 0-30 GPa, were used for pressure calibration. CL spectra of all the quartz grains in the basement rocks showed broad blue emission band at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm and estimated shock pressures were in the range of 15-20 GPa. The result is consistent with values obtained from PDFs analysis in quartz using the universal stage (Ferrière et al. 2017; Rae et al. 2017

  7. Detailed petrographic-structural study of an outcrop of Crystalline Basement of Montevideo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascale, A.; Oyhantçabal, P.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis of detailed outcrop Punta Virgilo, located on the S E coast of the department of Montevideo are presented. The investigated outcrop includes gneisses, amphibolite s and several generations of pegmatite and aplite dikes of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement, plus a set of dikes emplaced lamprófido exhumed once the area. Petrographic and microstructural studies of metamorphic units allowed to determine the conditions of metamorphism and deformation temperature between 520-720 ° C and pressure between 2 and 6 kbar (depth of 10 to 23 km)

  8. Development of novel nano-composite membranes as introduction systems for mass spectrometers: Contrasting nano-composite membranes and conventional inlet systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Luis Diego

    This dissertation presents the development of novel nano-composite membranes as introduction systems for mass spectrometers. These nano-composite membranes incorporate anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes as templates that can be used by themselves or modified by a variety of chemical deposition processes. Two types of nano-composite membranes are presented. The first nano-composite membrane has carbon deposited within the pores of an AAO membrane. The second nano-composite membrane is made by coating an AAO membrane with a thin polymer film. The following chapters describe the transmission properties these nano-composite membranes and compare them to conventional mass spectrometry introduction systems. The nano- composite membranes were finally coupled to the inlet system of an underwater mass spectrometer revealing their utility in field deployments.

  9. Long term evolution and internal architecture of high-energy banner ridges of Mer d'Iroise (Western Brittany, France) : interplay of sea-level, basement morphology, biogenic productivity and hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, P., Sr.; Le Dantec, N.; Franzetti, M.; Delacourt, C.; Ehrhold, A.

    2016-12-01

    The recent completion of a coupled seismic and swath bathymetric survey, conducted across the Mer d'Iroise (Atlantic continental shelf, France), provided new data for the study of the long term evolution of deep tidal sand ridges. Three major banner sand ridges composed of biogenic sands were investigated: the Banc du Four, the Haut Fond d'Ouessant and the Banc d'Ar Men. Seismic interpretation reveals a compound internal architecture of these sand ridges with a sedimentary core forming the lower units interpreted to be shoreface deposits and overlain by sandwaves. Sandwave climbing, which combines progradation and accretion, is the major process controlling the growth of the ridges. The elevation of the preserved dune foresets reaches values of about 20 to 30 m and indicate a combination of giant dunes characterized by numerous steep (up to 20°) clinoforms corresponding to a high-energy depositional environment. All of the radiocarbon ages of the biogenic surficial deposits of the Banc du Four range from 10,036 to 2,748 cal years B.P. and suggest it has grown during the last sea-level rise. The apparent absence of recent surface deposits could be caused by a change in benthic biogenic productivity or the non-conservation of recent deposits. The multiphase accretion of the ridge is closely linked to the progressive flooding of the coastal promontories and straits that structured the igneous basement. A comparable evolutionary scheme is observed for the Haut-Fond d'Ouessant where a counter-clock wise migration of dunes characterizes the surface of the ridge. In contrast, the Banc d'Ar Men located above a regular basement displays a simpler structure with a consistent Northwestward migration of steep clinoforms. Therefore, the sand ridges of the Mer d'Iroise should be thought of as a representative example of large-scale high-energy banner banks controlled by interaction of sea-level, basement morphology, biogenic productivity, tidal and wave hydrodynamics.

  10. Origin of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits, Frome Embayment, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits in the Frome Embayment of South Australia is largely a result of tectonic events possibly as old as the Archean. Uranium deposits of several types and ages in the region demonstrate the importance of uranium enrichment in the source area. Mobile zones around the Archean terrane of the Gawler block have been the locus of intermittent tectonic activity from Early Proterozoic to recent time. Vein-type uranium deposits in basement source rocks are concentrated in these zones, because they favor deep crustal partial melting and ascent of Na-rich granitic magmas and hydrothermal solutions. Relatively stable areas bordered by mobile zones, are important for the formation of sandstone-hosted uranium deposits because they act as platforms for terrigenous sedimentation from the surrounding, uplifted, uranium-rich basement rocks. Wet, subtropical conditions prevailing at the time of uplift aided rapid erosion and subaerial deposition of channel sands with intermixed organic detritus. Later uplift accompanied by erosion of the recently deposited sands in the headwater area caused increased recharge of oxygenated uraniferous ground water, which led to the formation of geochemical-cell roll-front type deposits like those in the Wyoming basins. Subsequent arid conditions helped preserve the deposits. (author)

  11. Niobium and hafnium grown on porous membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morant, C.; Marquez, F.; Campo, T.; Sanz, J.M.; Elizalde, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we report on a method for fabricating highly ordered nanostructures of niobium and hafnium metals by physical vapour deposition using two different templates: anodized aluminum oxide membranes (AAO) and zirconium onto AAO membranes (Zr/AAO). The growth mechanism of these metal nanostructures is clearly different depending on the material used as a template. A different morphology was obtained by using AAO or Zr/AAO templates: when the metal is deposited onto AAO membranes, nanospheres with ordered hexagonal regularity are obtained; however, when the metal is deposited onto a Zr/AAO template, highly ordered nanocones are formed. The experimental approach described in this work is simple and suitable for synthesizing nanospheres or nanoholes of niobium and hafnium metals in a highly ordered structure.

  12. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico

    2013-01-01

    membrane fabrication methods have matured over the last decades, and the deposition of very thin films (1–5 µm) of Pd over porous ceramics or modified porous metal supports is quite common. The H2 permeances and the selectivities achieved at 400–500 °C were in the order of 50–100 Nm3/m/h/bar0.5 and greater......Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  13. Basement structure of the United Arab Emirates derived from an analysis of regional gravity and aeromagnetic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Fairhead, J. D.; Green, C. M.; Noufal, A.

    2017-08-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data covering the whole territory of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have been used to evaluate both shallow and deep geological structures, in particular the depth to basement since it is not imaged by seismic data anywhere within the UAE. Thus, the aim has been to map the basement so that its structure can help to assess its control on the distribution of hydrocarbons within the UAE. Power spectrum analysis reveals gravity and magnetic signatures to have some similarities, in having two main density/susceptibility interfaces widely separated in depth such that regional-residual anomaly separation could effectively be undertaken. The upper density/susceptibility interface occurs at a depth of about 1.0 km while the deeper interface varies in depth throughout the UAE. For gravity, this deeper interface is assumed to be due to the combined effect of lateral changes in density structures within the sediments and in depth of basement while for magnetics it is assumed the sediments have negligible susceptibility and the anomalies unrelated to the volcanic/magmatic bodies result from only changes in depth to basement. The power spectrum analysis over the suspect volcanic/magmatic bodies indicates they occur at 5 km depth. The finite tilt-depth and finite local wavenumber methods were used to estimate depth to source and only depths that agree to within 10% of each other were used to generate the depth to basement map. This depth to basement map, to the west of the UAE-Oman Mountains, varies in depth from 5 km to in excess of 15 km depth and is able to structurally account for the location of the shear structures, seen in the residual magnetic data, and the location of the volcanic/magmatic centres relative to a set of elongate N-S to NE-SW trending basement highs. The majority of oilfields in the UAE are located within these basement highs. Therefore, the hydrocarbon distribution in the UAE basin appears to be controlled by the location of the

  14. Multiscale analysis of potential fields by a ridge consistency criterion: the reconstruction of the Bishop basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, M.; Florio, G.; Cascone, L.

    2012-01-01

    We use a multiscale approach as a semi-automated interpreting tool of potential fields. The depth to the source and the structural index are estimated in two steps: first the depth to the source, as the intersection of the field ridges (lines built joining the extrema of the field at various altitudes) and secondly, the structural index by the scale function. We introduce a new criterion, called 'ridge consistency' in this strategy. The criterion is based on the principle that the structural index estimations on all the ridges converging towards the same source should be consistent. If these estimates are significantly different, field differentiation is used to lessen the interference effects from nearby sources or regional fields, to obtain a consistent set of estimates. In our multiscale framework, vertical differentiation is naturally joint to the low-pass filtering properties of the upward continuation, so is a stable process. Before applying our criterion, we studied carefully the errors on upward continuation caused by the finite size of the survey area. To this end, we analysed the complex magnetic synthetic case, known as Bishop model, and evaluated the best extrapolation algorithm and the optimal width of the area extension, needed to obtain accurate upward continuation. Afterwards, we applied the method to the depth estimation of the whole Bishop basement bathymetry. The result is a good reconstruction of the complex basement and of the shape properties of the source at the estimated points.

  15. Preliminary isotopic data from some amphibolites of the metamorphic basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa M, Ana Maria; Martens K, Uwe; Ordonez C, Oswaldo; Pimentel, Marcio M; Restrepo A, Jorge Julian

    2001-01-01

    Various amphibolite bodies are exposed in the Antioquia Department, Colombia, mainly around the cities of Medellin and El Retiro. Two types of amphibolites occur in the study area; the first one is considered as part of an ophiolite complex and the second one correspond to amphibolites associated to metasediments from the basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera. The present work refers to these last ones. The relationships between amphibolite bodies and other lythological units are the following ones: Intercalation of amphibolites layers with metasediments in the unit migmatites and granulites of El Retiro. The Medellin amphibolites are conformably overlaid by the paragneisses of Las Penas. The granodiorite body represented by the Antioquian Batolith is intrusive in the metamorphic rocks and the Medellin Dunites unit is in thrust fault contact with Medellin amphibolites. These amphibolites have been studied by Botero (1963), Gonzalez (1976 and 1980), Restrepo and Toussaint (1984), Ardila (1986), Restrepo (1986), Rendon (1999) and, Correa and Martens (2000). Available radiometric ages on the amphibolites come from former works by Restrepo y Toussaint (1978), Restrepo et al. (1991) that presented K-Ar ages in amphiboles and a Rb-Sr isochron which yielded a Cretaceous age that they interpreted as a metamorphic age. This work presents new evidences, obtained from field work, petrography, rock geochemistry and specially the first isotopic data on these amphibolites from the Central Cordillera Metamorphic Basement (au)

  16. Raetrad model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Rogers, V; Holt, R B

    1997-10-01

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of deltaP(i-o) = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of deltaP(i-o) = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (<1 m s(-1)) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations.

  17. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Webster, Elizabeth T.; Xu, Qunyin

    1994-01-01

    A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

  18. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-mediated laminin proteolysis generates a pro-angiogenic peptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Conway, R. E.; Rojas, C.; Alt, J.; Nováková, Zora; Richardson, S. M.; Rodrick, T. C.; Fuentes, J. L.; Richardson, N. H.; Attalla, J.; Stewart, S.; Fahmy, B.; Bařinka, Cyril; Ghosh, M.; Shapiro, L. H.; Slusher, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2016), s. 487-500 ISSN 0969-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1513; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : TUMOR-ASSOCIATED NEOVASCULATURE * BASEMENT-MEMBRANE * DISTINCT ANTITUMOR PROPERTIES Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.253, year: 2016

  19. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na N Ca N Mg N Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member...... but lost most of the plagioclase. The LSF has a comparable weathering history (CIA = 63–73), but the plagioclase is better preserved (PIA = 65–78). The significant variation of weathering rates of plagioclase and K-feldspar in the basement granite and the provenance of sandstone from the Borggård borehole...... are likely due to the different permeability developed within the internal crystal structures, a Ca- rich plagioclase original composition of the plagioclase, and the occurrence of weathering in a very humid climate. K metasomatism occurred in the basement granite and sandstone in both the Borggård and the G...

  20. Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit was discovered in July 1975. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide on Roxby Downs Station in South Australia. The first diamond drill hole, RD1, intersected 38 m of 1.05% copper. A further eight holes were drilled with only marginal encouragement to November 1976, when RD10 cored 170 m of 2.12% copper and 0.06% of uranium oxide, thus confirming an economic discovery. The discovery of Olympic Dam is an excellent example applying broad-scale, scientifically based conceptual studies to area selection. Exploration management supported its exploration scientists in testing their ideas with stratigraphic drilling. Geologic modeling, supported by geophysical interpretations and tectonic studies, was used to site the first hole. The discovery also illustrates the persistence required in mineral exploration. The deposit appears to be a new type of stratabound sediment-hosted ore. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. It is estimated to contain more than 2000 million MT of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6% copper, 0.06% uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/MT gold. The deposit occurs in middle Proterozoic basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat upper Proterozoic sediments. The sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias controlled by a northwest-trending graben

  1. Tympanic membrane changes in experimental acute otitis media and myringotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzbutiene, G.; Hermansson, A.; Caye-Thomasen, P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present experimental study explored pathomorphological changes and calcium depositions in the tympanic membrane during experimental acute otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in myringotomized and nonmyringotomized ears. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A rat model of exp...

  2. Nature of the Yucatan Block Basement as Derived From Study of Granitic Clasts in the Impact Breccias of Chicxulub Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sanchez, P.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-05-01

    The tectonic and petrologic nature of the basement of the Yucatan Block is studied from analyses of basement clasts present in the impact suevitic breccias of Chicxulub crater. The impact breccias have been sampled as part of the drilling projects conducted in the Yucatan peninsula by Petroleos Mexicanos, the National University of Mexico and the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project. Samples analyzed come mainly from the Yaxcopoil-1, Tekax, and Santa Elena boreholes, and partly from Pemex boreholes. In this study we concentrate on clasts of the granites, granodiorites and quartzmonzonites in the impact breccias. We report major and trace element geochemical and petrological data, which are compared with data from the granitic and volcanic rocks from the Maya Mountains in Belize and from the Swannee terrane in Florida. Basement granitic clasts analyzed present intermediate to acidic sub-alkaline compositions. Plots of major oxides (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and CaO) and trace elements (e.g., Th, Y, Hf, Nb and Zr) versus silica allow separation of samples into two major groups, which can be compared to units in the Maya Mountains and in Florida basement. The impact suevitic breccia samples have been affected by alteration likely related to the hydrothermal processes associated with the crater melt sheet. Cloritization, seritization and fenitization alterations are recognized, due to the long term hydrothermalism. Krogh et al. (1993) reported U-Pb dates on zircons from the suevitic breccias, which gave dates of 545 +/- 5 Ma and 418 +/- 6 Ma, which were interpreted in terms of the deep granitic metamorphic Yucatan basement. The younger date correlates with the age for the Osceola Granite and the St. Lucie metamorphic complex of the Swannee terrane in the Florida peninsula. The intrusive rocks in the Yucatan basement may be related to approx. 418 Ma ago collisional event in the Late Silurian.

  3. The Blind River uranium deposits: the ores and their setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The Matinenda Formation (basal Huronian) comprises northward-derived arkose, quartzite, and pyritic, uraniferous oligomictic conglomerate that contains 75 percent of Canada's uranium reserves. The conglomerate beds occur in southeasterly striking zones controlled by basement topography down-sedimentation from radioactive Archean granite. The mineralization is syngenetic, probably placer. Drab-coloured rocks, uranium and sulphide mineralization, and a post-Archean regolith formed under reducing conditions, suggest a reducing environment. Sedimentary features indicate deposition in fast-flowing shallow water, and possibly a cold climate. (author)

  4. Infraordinary Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition Infraordinary Deposits presents three works in progress by PhD Fellow Espen Lunde Nielsen from the on-going PhD project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary: Social Coexistence through Everyday Spaces. The infraordinary is understood as the opposite of the extraordinary...... and as that which is ‘worn half-invisible’ by use. Nevertheless, these unregarded spaces play a vital role to the social dimension of the city. The selected projects (‘urban biopsies’) on display explore how people coexist through these spaces and within the city itself, either through events in real......, daily 8.45 – 15.00 Where: Aarhus School of Architecture, The Canteen, Nørreport 18, 8000 Aarhus C...

  5. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  6. Nature of the basement of the East Anatolian plateau: Implications for the lithospheric foundering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, G.; Candan, O.; Zack, T.; Yılmaz, A.

    2017-12-01

    The East Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) is characterized by (1) an extensive volcanic-sedimentary cover of Neogene to Quaternary age, (2) crustal thicknesses of 42-50 km, and (3) an extremely thinned lithospheric mantle. Its basement beneath the young cover is thought to consist of oceanic accretionary complexes of Late Cretaceous to Oligocene age. The attenuated state of the lithospheric mantle and the causes of the young volcanism are accounted for by slab steepening and subsequent break-off. We present field geological, petrological and geochronological data on three basement inliers (Taşlıçay, Akdağ and Ilıca) in the region. These areas are made up of amphibolite- to granulite-facies rocks, comprising marble, amphibolite, metapelite, quartzite and metagranite. The granulite-facies domain is equilibrated at 0.7 GPa and 800 ˚C at 83 ± 2 Ma (2σ). The metamorphic rocks are intruded by subduction-related coeval gabbroic, quartz monzonitic to tonalitic rocks. Both the metamorphic rocks and the intrusions are tectonically overlain by ophiolitic rocks. All these crystalline rocks are unconformably overlain by lower Maastrichtien clastic rocks and reefal limestone, suggesting that the exhumation at the earth's surface and juxtaposition with ophiolitic rocks occurred by early Maastrichtien. U-Pb dating on igneous zircon from metagranite yielded a protolith age of 445 ± 10 Ma (2σ). The detrital zircons from a metaquartzite point to Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic provenance. All these data favor a more or less continuous continental substrate to the allochthonous ophiolitic rocks beneath the young volcanic-sedimentary cover. The metamorphism and coeval magmatism can be regarded as the middle- to lower-crustal root of the Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that developed due to northward subduction along the Bitlis-Zagros suture. The presence of a continental basement beneath the young cover requires that the loss of the lithospheric mantle from beneath the East

  7. Effect of alterations in glomerular charge on deposition of cationic and anionic antibodies to fixed glomerular antigens in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, S; Baker, P; Pritzl, P; Couser, W G

    1985-07-01

    Reduction of the negative charge of the glomerular capillary wall alters its charge- and size-selective properties. To investigate the effect of alteration in glomerular charge properties on antibody localization, we prepared cationic and anionic fractions of antibodies to subepithelial and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens, and compared their deposition in normal rats and rats treated with protamine sulfate or aminonucleoside of puromycin to reduce capillary wall charge. IgG antibodies were eluted from kidneys of rats with active Heymann's nephritis (AICN), passive Heymann's nephritis (PHN), or anti-GBM nephritis (NTN), separated into cationic and anionic fractions, and radiolabeled with iodine 125 or iodine 131. Relative antibody content of each fraction was determined by incubation with an excess of glomerular antigen. Varying amounts of cationic and anionic IgG eluted from kidneys of rats with AICN or PHN were injected into 24 normal or protamine sulfate-treated rats. Glomerular binding of all antibodies was highly correlated with IgG delivery to the kidney. The ratio of cationic to anionic antibody deposited in the glomeruli of normal rats after 4 hours was 1.08 +/- 0.07 for AICN eluate and 0.37 +/- 0.04 for PHN eluate. The ratios were not significantly different in animals pretreated with protamine sulfate (1.15 +/- 0.06 and 0.44 +/- 0.06, respectively; P greater than 0.05). Varying amounts of cationic and anionic IgG eluted from kidneys of rats with NTN were injected into 10 normal rats and four rats treated with aminonucleoside of puromycin. Glomerular binding of antibody was again highly correlated with IgG delivery to the kidney. The ratio of cationic to anionic antibody deposited in the glomeruli of normal rats after 1 hour was 1.03 +/- 0.06, and was not significantly altered in rats treated with aminonucleoside of puromycin (1.05 +/- 0.03, P greater than 0.5). Proteinuria in PHN rats was also unaffected by treatment with protamine sulfate for

  8. Biological mechanisms of gallium-67 tumor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Shinichi; Takeda, Shumpei; Sato, Tachio; Takusagawa, Kimihiko; Awano, Takayuki.

    1979-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken in order to clarify the tumor deposition mechanisms of 67 Ga citrate, a ''universal tumor labeler''. An interspecies comparison of various tumors in the rat and mouse indicated that its highest deposition was in the undifferentiated cell type. Amongst the siblings of experimental tumors, cellular membrane negative charge is greater in the free-cell types than the island-formers: a short-term labeling study revealed a greater 67 Ga deposition in the free-cell types. A subcellar fractionation showed an initial association of 67 Ga with the nuclear and membrane fractions, and a later transition to the lysosomal. Hypotonic lysis revealed a paralleled release of 67 Ga and lysosomal key enzymes. Morphological abnormality of the cancer lysosomes was thought to agree with their Ga retention. This property was clinically confirmed by a scintiscoring technique. Treatment with cold gallium of tumors modified the biological parameters of tumor growth: in vitro it suppressed cell proliferation, reduced saturation density; and produced cellular pleomorphism. In vivo it increased tumor consistency by reducing central necrosis and increasing the viable cell layer thickness. Thus, 67 Ga deposition is closely related to various biological parameters of malignancy including the cellular membrane negative charge as cancer is a membrane disorder, and the lysosomal morphology and function. (author)

  9. Chronological study of the pre-jurassic basement rocks of southern Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankhurst, R.J; Rapela, C.W; Loske, W.P; Fanning, C.M

    2001-01-01

    Southern Patagonia east of the Andes was the site of extensive rhyolite volcanism during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwana and subsequent shallow marine basin formation during the Cretaceous. Thus exposures of pre-Jurassic basement are extremely sparse. Nevertheless, extraction of the maximum amount of information from these scattered outcrops of granite and metamorphic rocks is crucial to assessment of the Palaeozoic and earliest Mesozoic history and crustal structure of the Pacific margin of the supercontinent. In particular, the identification and possible correlation of early terrane accretion on this margin depends on comparison of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic events with adjacent areas. This is a preliminary report on work now in progress to this end (au)

  10. Some results from the demonstration of indoor radon reduction measures in block basement houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Active soil ventilation techniques have been tested in 26 block-wall basement houses in eastern Pennsylvania with significantly elevated indoor radon concentrations, generally above 740 Bq/m 3 , and the results indicate that radon levels can be reduced substantially often below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guideline of 148 Bq/m 3 , if effective suction can be drawn on the soil underneath the concrete slabs of these houses. Such effective suction appears achievable when either: (1) the house has a complete loop of drain tile around its footings for water drainage purposes, and suction is drawn on that loop; or (2) a sufficient number of suction pipes can be inserted at the proper locations into the crushed rock or the soil underneath the slab

  11. Effects of Water and Low-Medium Temperature on Limestone from Mt Etna basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Angela; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Benson, Philip; Browning, John; Fazio, Marco; Walker, Richard; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, sits atop a structurally complex sedimentary basement continuously subjected to tectonic deformation. The flyschoid formations belonging to the Appenninic-Maghrebian Chain (AMC) and making up the accretionary wedge of a regional fold-and-thrust belt lie above carbonate Hyblean Plateau (HP) sequences, belonging to the African plate. Carbonate rocks represent a major component of the sedimentary basement: they are spread throughout the AMC as continuous strata and discontinuous lenses, and are the main constituent (e.g., Comiso Limestone) of the HP foreland. Etna is an active volcanic environment, characterized by complex stress field distributions, magmatic and non-magmatic fluid circulation, and elevated temperature gradients; the edifice has been constructed at various rates and with variable distribution of effusive products. These intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are known to impact the rheological behaviour of rocks. Previous triaxial deformation studies on carbonates (Tavel Limestone, Solnhofen Limestone and Comiso Limestone) have shown the importance of temperature, and the presence of water as pore fluid, on the mechanical strength and failure mode of the rocks. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have considered the distal heating effect of intrusions on the carbonate mechanical strength from the basement. Here we investigate the behaviour under varying P-T conditions at constant strain rate (10-5 s-1) on both dry and water saturated samples of Comiso Limestone, a low-porosity (10.2% average) carbonate rock belonging to the HP. We ran separate conventional triaxial experiments at various confining effective pressure from 0 up to 50 MPa at room temperature (20°C), in both dry and drained water-saturated conditions, using natural samples, and thermally-treated samples (150°C, 300°C, and 450°C). Acoustic Emissions and P-wave velocities were recorded during the experiments. Sample failure covers the brittle and

  12. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Several tectonothermal events in the pre-Carboniferous basement of Svalbard during Caledonian and Proterozoic times have been dated recently by radiometric age determinations. Three or four stages have been recognized in the Caledonian period; a post-orogentic graben formation during the Devonian, a late Caledonian event in the Middle Silurian, an earely Caledonian event in the Middle Ordovician and possibly an earliest event in the Middle to Late Cambrian. The Grenvillian event, 950-1270 Ma, has been well established by both radiometric ages and unconformities in Nordaustlandet and southwestern Spitsbergen. Sveco-Karelian ages, 1670-1750 Ma, also have been obtained from Ny Friesland, northerneastern Spitsbergen. Two even older ages (zircon U-Pb) upper intercept ages), 2.1 and 3.2 Ga, may suggest the presence of still older crust in Svalbard and adjacent areas. 40 refs., 2 figs

  13. Determination of the factors that control migration and entry of radon into basements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, T.B.; Gadd, M.S.; Ward, D.C.; Barry, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    'Full Text:' Elevated concentrations of radon gas indoors are the result or a complicated combination of factors. This report describes results from a facility designed to test and verify theories of radon migration into underground structures. The buildings resemble miniature basements using conventional construction methods, hut eliminate other confounding factors introduced by the activities of occupants. Sensors accumulate data on soil properties such as temperature, moisture, pressure differentials, and permeability, as well as outdoor meteorological conditions and indoor environment. Results indicate that indoor radon concentrations do not correlate with changes in the adjacent soil gas concentration or the rate that radon enters the structure. When no attempt is made to control the indoor environment, periods of highest indoor concentration occur when the rate of entry is low. Methods to identify the driving mechanisms and implication for mitigation and control will he described. (author)

  14. The genesis of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits can form in such diverse environments as calcareous-dolomitic-gypsiferous fluvial and aeolian valley sediments in hot arid and semi-arid regions, oxidizing and reducing alkaline and saline playas, highly organic and/or clay-rich wetland areas, calcareous regoliths in arid terranes, laterites, lake sediments, and highly fractured zones in igneous and metamorphic basement complexes. Formation of ore is governed by the interrelationships between source of ore-forming elements, mechanisms of migration, environment of deposition, climate, preservation, tectonic history and structural framework. The principal factors controlling mobilization of ore-forming elements from source to site of deposition are the availability of elements in source rocks, presence of complexing agents, climate, nature of source rock regolith and structure of source rock terrane. The major processes governing precipitation of uranium in the surficial environment are reduction mechanisms, sorption processes, dissociation of uranyl complexes, change in redox states of ore-forming constituents, evaporation of surface and groundwaters, change in partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide, changes in pH, colloidal precipitation, and mixing of two or more surface and groundwaters. One or a number of these processes may be actively involved in ore formation. (author)

  15. Basement-involved faults and deep structures in the West Philippine Basin: constrains from gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Jiang, Suhua; Li, Sanzhong; Zhang, Huixuan; Lei, Jianping; Gao, Song; Zhao, Feiyu

    2017-06-01

    To reveal the basement-involved faults and deep structures of the West Philippine Basin (WPB), the gravitational responses caused by these faults are observed and analyzed based on the latest spherical gravity model: WGM2012 Model. By mapping the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies, several main faults and some other linear structures are located and observed in the WPB. Then, by conducting a 2D discrete multi-scale wavelet decomposition, the Bouguer anomalies are decomposed into the first- to eighth-order detail and approximation fields (the first- to eighth-order Details and Approximations). The first- to third-order Details reflect detailed and localized geological information of the crust at different depths, and of which the higher-order reflects gravity field of the deeper depth. The first- to fourth-order Approximations represent the regional gravity fields at different depths of the crust, respectively. The fourth-order Approximation represents the regional gravity fluctuation caused by the density inhomogeneity of Moho interface. Therefore, taking the fourth-order Approximation as input, and adopting Parker-Oldenburg interactive inversion, We calculated the depth of Moho interface in the WPB. Results show that the Moho interface depth in the WPB ranges approximately from 8 to 12 km, indicating that there is typical oceanic crust in the basin. In the Urdaneta Plateau and the Benham Rise, the Moho interface depths are about 14 and 16 km, respectively, which provides a piece of evidence to support that the Banham Rise could be a transitional crust caused by a large igneous province. The second-order vertical derivative and the horizontal derivatives in direction 0° and 90° are computed based on the data of the third-order Detail, and most of the basement-involved faults and structures in the WPB, such as the Central Basin Fault Zone, the Gagua Ridge, the Luzon-Okinawa Fault Zone, and the Mindanao Fault Zone are interpreted by the gravity derivatives.

  16. Applications of aeromagnetic data to detect the Basement Tectonics of Eastern Yemen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to throw light on the tectonic implications concerned with the distribution of the sedimentary sequence belts and the related basement complex zones, as well as to differentiate between the causative sources (contacts, dykes and faults of Eastern Yemen region. The total intensity aeromagnetic map of the study area was first corrected by the application of the Reduction To the magnetic pole (for low latitude areas. The visual inspection of the RTP magnetic map defines a rapid change in the subsurface geologic conditions in the form of lithologic characters and tectonic inferences. On the other hand, this map showed different anomalies of varying frequencies and amplitudes that revealed various causative sources, as well as varying compositions and depths. At the interpretation stage, various techniques and software tools are available for extracting the geologic information from the data concerned. The magnetic fields of shallow sources can be separated from those of deeper causatives, using two processes known as power spectrum transformation and matched band pass filtering. Three methods for locating magnetic sources (Magnitude of Horizontal Gradients (HGM, the analytical signals (AS and the local wavenumbers (LW in three dimensions and identifying the properties of their sources indicated that, the area was affected by some intrusions at various depths in sill or dyke forms, almost oriented in the NW–SE, NE–SW, E–W and N–S trends. Tectonically, the area is highly affected by the tectonics related to the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is affecting both the basement and sedimentary rocks, dividing the study area into several faulted blocks.

  17. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees

    2015-07-09

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  18. Image-based modelling of lateral magma flow: the Basement Sill, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petford, Nick; Mirhadizadeh, Seyed

    2017-05-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle microstructure of a congested magma slurry. We simulated the flow regime in two and three dimensions using numerical models built on a finite-element mesh derived from field data. The model captures the flow behaviour of the Basement Sill magma over a viscosity range of 1-10 4  Pa s where the higher end (greater than or equal to 10 2  Pa s) corresponds to a magmatic slurry with crystal fractions varying between 30 and 70%. A novel feature of the model is the discovery of transient, low viscosity (less than or equal to 50 Pa s) high Reynolds number eddies formed along undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. Numerical tracing of particle orbits implies crystals trapped in eddies segregate according to their mass density. Recovered shear strain rates (10 -3 -10 -5  s -1 ) at viscosities equating to high particle concentrations (around more than 40%) in the Sill interior point to shear-thinning as an explanation for some types of magmatic layering there. Model transport rates for the Sill magmas imply a maximum emplacement time of ca 10 5 years, consistent with geochemical evidence for long-range lateral flow. It is a theoretically possibility that fast-flowing magma on a continental scale will be susceptible to planetary-scale rotational forces.

  19. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between digital and analogue is often constructed as one of opposition. The perception that the world is permeated with underlying patterns of data, describing events and matter alike, suggests that information can be understood apart from the substance to which it is associated......, and that its encoded logic can be constructed and reconfigured as an isolated entity. This disembodiment of information from materiality implies that an event like a thunderstorm, or a material like a body, can be described equally by data, in other words it can be read or written. The following prototypes......, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  20. Highly Hydrothermally Stable Microporous Membranes for Hydroge Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Qi; Wang, Fei; Wang, F.; Nie, Zuo-Ren; Song, C.; Wang, Yan-Li; Li, Qun-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Fluorocarbon-modified silica membranes were deposited on γ-Al2O3/α-Al2O3 supports by the sol−gel technique for hydrogen separation. The hydrophobic property, pore structure, gas transport and separation performance, and hydrothermal stability of the modified membranes were investigated. It is

  1. Studies on hydrogen separation membrane for IS process. Membrane preparation with porous α-alumina tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gab-Jin; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated the preparation technique of hydrogen separation membrane to enhance the decomposition ratio of hydrogen iodide in the thermochemical IS process. Hydrogen separation membranes based on porous α-alumina tubes having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the Si source. In the hydrogen separation membrane, its pore was closed by the deposited silica and then the permeation of gas was affected by the hindrance diffusion. At 600degC, the selectivity ratios (H 2 /N 2 ) were 5.2 and 160 for the membranes based on porous α-alumina tube having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. (author)

  2. Plasma treatment of polyethersulfone membrane for benzene removal from water by air gap membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Sara; Mortaheb, Hamid Reza; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain a durable cost-effective membrane for membrane distillation (MD) process, flat sheet polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were modified by an atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma generated using a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of argon and hexamethyldisiloxane as the organosilicon precursor. The surface properties of the plasma-modified membranes were characterized by water contact angle (CA), liquid entry pressure, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The water CA of the membrane was increased from 64° to 104° by depositing a Si(CH 3 )-rich thin layer. While the pristine PES membrane was not applicable in the MD process, the modified PES membrane could be applied for the first time in an air gap membrane distillation setup for the removal of benzene as a volatile organic compound from water. The experimental design using central composite design and response surface methodology was applied to study the effects of feed temperature, concentration, and flow rate as well as their binary interactions on the overall permeate flux and separation factor. The separation factor and permeation flux of the modified PES membrane at optimum conditions were comparable with those of commercial polytetrafluoroethylene membrane.

  3. Basement of Structure, Main Power and Design Parameters of Mechanism of Removing Sections of Mechanized Sets of Knife Plane Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, N. I.; Turuk, Yu V.; Kolesnichenko, I. Y.; Lugantsev, B. B.

    2017-10-01

    The reasons for the failure of the pitch stability of the knife-plane installation due to the action of extreme effort in the plane of the seam from the conveyor side on the mechanism of removing sections of mechanized sets are shown. The technique for determining this effort is presented. The constructions of the adaptive mechanisms of the removing sections of mechanized sets with the basements of catamaran type, in the constrictions of which elastic elements (rods) are used, are considered. The constructions of the mechanism of removing a section of the mechanized set with the basement of catamaran type in which the stock of the hydraulic jack is connected with the band loop through the movable rods intermediate basement with a link are worked out. The intermediate basement unloads the stock of the hydraulic jack of the moving installation from the side curving efforts, caused by the action of lateral forces in the plane of the seam on the conveyor side. It increases the reliability and efficiency of work of the knife plane mechanized complex.

  4. Inversion of gravity data in the Big Bear Lake Area to recover depth to basement using Cauchy-type integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    One of the important applications of the gravity method is evaluation of the depth to the basement, which is characterized by a significant density contrast with the sedimental layeres. We have introduced recently a new method of modeling and inversion of potential field data generated by a densi...

  5. NEW DATA ON AGE AND NATURE OF CARBONIZATION WITHIN SOUTHERN FLANK OF THE BAIKAL LEDGE OF THE SIBERIAN CRATON BASEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Danilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baikal ledge rock formations in the Siberian craton structure are included in the Akitkan mobile belt which is considered as the Late Paleoproterozoic independent island arc system moved up to the ancient basement during the terrains amalgamation 1.91–2.00 Ga ago (Fig. 1 [Rosen, 2003; Gladkochub et al., 2009; Didenko et al., 2013].

  6. Geochronology of the basement rocks, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela and the tectonic evolution of the western Guiana Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudette, H E; Olszewski, Jr, W J

    1985-01-01

    The Amazonas Territory of Venezuela is a large area of Precambrian basement rocks overlain in some locales by the supracrustal sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation. The basement rocks are medium to high grade gneisses with both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, plutonic rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite, and meta-volcanic rocks. Rb-Sr whole rock, and U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate a period of medium to high grade metamorphism and intrusion from 1860 to 1760 Ma. Post-tectonic plutonic activity continued to 1550 Ma. The volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in Venezuela give an age of 1746 Ma comparable to volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in other parts of the Guiana Shield. The ages and distribution of the basement rocks suggest the presence of a tectonic zone, approximately coincident with the Venezuelan-Colombian border, representing an active orogenic boundary between distinct tectonic provinces. The rocks to the northeast of this zone are part of the Trans-Amazonian of the Guiana Shield, while to the southwest and in adjacent Brazil and Colombia, new younger continental crust has been developed and cratonized. We suggest a model of collision and subduction followed by a chan0140n tectonic style to extensional-vertical to produce the basement rocks of the western Guiana Shield in the Amazonas Territory. (Auth.). 20 refs.; 13 figs.; 2 tabs.

  7. Assessing the geo-electric characteristics of Basement Complex rocks and its implication for groundwater prospecting in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Ifabiyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Basement Complex rocks where rainfall is seasonal, water provision in dry season depends on regolith aquifer. For effective exploitation of groundwater resources, it is reasonable that geophysical investigation be conducted before development of well. In many instances, geophysical surveys may be expensive or nonexistent. Hence, there is a need for spatial analysis which might advise water engineers within such environments. Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES data of 53 locations conducted with ABEM SAS-1000 terrameter using Schlumberger electrode configuration were obtained from the hydrogeology Department of Kwara state Ministry of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin and Rural Development Authority, Ilorin. VES locational coordinates were recorded using handheld GPS device. Sound curves were evaluated by partial curve matching approach and computer iteration using WinResist. The results depict six geo-electric regional successions, namely: top soil, lateritic clay, weathered basement, fairly-hard basement, thin fractured and hard basement. The geo-electric succession identified was plotted in Surfer 12 environment, using kriging interpolation method to show spatial distribution pattern of this zone. The spatial pattern is expected to give an insight to the nature of spatial variability of geo-electric layers and assist drillers as well as water resources policy makers in their operations.

  8. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic seafloor and oceanic basement roughness: Spreading rate, crustal age and sediment thickness correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert T.; Pockalny, Robert A.

    1994-05-01

    Single-channel seismic data from the South Australian Basin and Argentine Basin, and bathymetry data from the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise and Southwest Indian Ridge are analysed to determine the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the seafloor and oceanic basement created at seafloor spreading rates ranging from 3 to 80 km/Ma (half-rate). For these data, crustal ages range from near zero to 85 Ma and sediment thicknesses range from near zero to over 2 km. Our results are consistent with a negative correlation of basement roughness and spreading rate where roughness decreases dramatically through the slow-spreading regime (oceanic basement roughness and spreading rate appears to have existed since the late Cretaceous for slow and intermediate spreading rates, suggesting that the fundamental processes creating abyssal hill topography may have remained the same for this time period. Basement roughness does not appear to decrease (smooth) with increasing crustal age, and therefore off-ridge degradation of abyssal hill topography by mass wasting is not detected by our data. Seismic data reveal that sediment thickness increases with increasing crustal age in the South Australian Basin and Argentine Basin, but not monotonically and with significant regional variation. We show that minor accumulations of sediment can affect roughness significantly. Average sediment accumulations of less that 50 m (for our 100 km long sample seismic profiles and half-spreading rates ocean ridges.

  9. Heterogeneity of groundwater storage properties in the critical zone of Irish metamorphic basement from geophysical surveys and petrographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Caulfield, John; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Weathered/fractured bedrock aquifers contain groundwater resources that are crucial in hard rock basement regions for rural water supply and maintaining river flow and ecosystem resilience. Groundwater storage in metamorphic rocks is subject to high spatial variations due to the large degree of heterogeneity in fracture occurrence and weathering patterns. Point measurements such as borehole testing are, in most cases, insufficient to characterise and quantify those storage variations because borehole sampling density is usually much lower than the scale of heterogeneities. A suite of geophysical and petrographic investigations was implemented in the weathered/fractured micaschist basement of Donegal, NW Ireland. Electrical Resistivity Tomography provided a high resolution 2D distribution of subsurface resistivities. Resistivity variations were transferred into storage properties (i.e. porosities) in the saturated critical zone of the aquifer through application of a petrophysical model derived from Archie's Law. The petrophysical model was calibrated using complementary borehole gamma logging and clay petrographic analysis at multi-depth well clusters distributed along a hillslope transect at the site. The resulting distribution of porosities shows large spatial variations along the studied transect. With depth, porosities rapidly decrease from about a few % in the uppermost, highly weathered basement to less than 0.5% in the deep unweathered basement, which is encountered at depths of between 10 and 50m below the ground surface. Along the hillslope, porosities decrease with distance from the river in the valley floor, ranging between 5% at the river to less than 1% at the top of the hill. Local traces of regional fault zones that intersect the transect are responsible for local increases in porosity in relation to deeper fracturing and weathering. Such degrees of spatial variation in porosity are expected to have a major impact on the modality of the response of

  10. Reviews on the metallogenic and geological features of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Chengkai; Huang Xianfang; Zhang Baoju

    2006-01-01

    Regional geologic settings of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Japan are firstly analyzed. The regional tectonic evolution characteristics of 'Green tuff region' and 'Non green tuff region' and their relationship with uranium mineralization are elaborated in depth. Based on those mentioned above, the uranium sources of sandstone-type uranium deposits in Japan are discussed deeply and the most favorable uranium sources are considered to come from the basement and the surrounding granites. Their intrusive epochs range from Later Cretaceous to Palaeogene (about 60 to 70 Ma ago). The characteristics of ore-bearing host rocks, matter compositions of the deposits, ore formation enrichment factors, the hydrogeologic conditions and so on are described by taking Ningyo-Toge and Tono deposits as examples. Finally, the prospecting measures for the palaeo-channel sandstone-type uranium deposits (basal type) are reviewed. (authors)

  11. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, Roxby Downs, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.E.; Hudson, G.R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit appears to be a new type of strata-bound sediment-hosted ore deposit. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide in South Australia and was discovered in 1975. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. The deposit is estimated to contain in excess of 2,000 million metric tons of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6 percent copper, 0.06 percent uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/metric ton gold. The deposit occurs in the basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat-lying Adelaidean (late Proterozoic) to Cambrian sediments in the Stuart shelf region of South Australia. The host rocks of the deposit are unmetamorphosed and are probably younger than 1,580 m.y. The deposit is spatially related to coincident gravity and magnetic anomalies and the intersection of west-northwest- and north-northwest-trending lineaments. The Proterozoic sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias ranging from matrix-poor granite breccias to matrix-rich polymict breccias containing clasts of a variety of rock types. This sequence is over 1 km thick and has been divided into two main units--the Olympic Dam Formation and the Greenfield Formation. The Olympic Dam Formation has five members, three of which are matrix rich. The Greenfield Formation has three members, the lower two being very hematite rich while the upper has a significant volcanic component. Pervasive hematite, chlorite, and sericite alteration of varying intensity affects all the basement sequence

  12. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube (CNT Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Losic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are attractive approach for designing of new membranes for advanced molecular separation because of their unique transport properties and ability to mimic biological protein channels. In this work the synthetic approach for fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs composite membranes is presented. The method is based on growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on the template of nanoporous alumina (PA membranes. The influence of experimental conditions including carbon precursor, temperature, deposition time, and PA template on CNT growth process and quality of fabricated membranes was investigated. The synthesis of CNT/PA composites with controllable nanotube dimensions such as diameters (30–150 nm, and thickness (5–100 µm, was demonstrated. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of fabricated CNT/PA composite membranes were investigated by various characterisation techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Transport properties of prepared membranes were explored by diffusion of dye (Rose Bengal used as model of hydrophilic transport molecule.

  13. Human Lipoproteins at Model Cell Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, K L; Lind, T K; Maric, S

    2017-01-01

    High and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) are thought to play vital roles in the onset and development of atherosclerosis; the biggest killer in the western world. Key issues of initial lipoprotein (LP) interactions at cellular membranes need to be addressed including LP deposition and lipid...... exchange. Here we present a protocol for monitoring the in situ kinetics of lipoprotein deposition and lipid exchange/removal at model cellular membranes using the non-invasive, surface sensitive methods of neutron reflection and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. For neutron reflection, lipid...... support the notion of HDL acting as the 'good' cholesterol, removing lipid material from lipid-loaded cells, whereas LDL acts as the 'bad' cholesterol, depositing lipid material into the vascular wall....

  14. Uptake of raft components into amyloid β-peptide aggregates and membrane damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Kenji; Morigaki, Kenichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2015-07-15

    Amyloid aggregation and deposition of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) are pathologic characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent reports have shown that the association of Aβ with membranes containing ganglioside GM1 (GM1) plays a pivotal role in amyloid deposition and the pathogenesis of AD. However, the molecular interactions responsible for membrane damage associated with Aβ deposition are not fully understood. In this study, we microscopically observed amyloid aggregation of Aβ in the presence of lipid vesicles and on a substrate-supported planar membrane containing raft components and GM1. The experimental system enabled us to observe lipid-associated aggregation of Aβ, uptake of the raft components into Aβ aggregates, and relevant membrane damage. The results indicate that uptake of raft components from the membrane into Aβ deposits induces macroscopic heterogeneity of the membrane structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surficial origin of North American pitchblende and related uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1977-01-01