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Sample records for basement membrane deposition

  1. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other...... basement membrane components, such as type IV collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. Using immunohistochemical techniques, the present experiments have demonstrated that in addition to the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, there are other basement membrane components present in splenic AA amyloid deposits...... and these are present as soon as AA amyloid deposits are detectable. The results indicate that within the time constraints imposed by the experiments, the basement membrane components, fibronectin, laminin, type IV collagen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan are co-deposited 36 to 48 hours after the AgNO3 and amyloid...

  2. Deposition of nucleosomal antigens (histones and DNA) in the epidermal basement membrane in human lupus nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, C.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Pijl, J.W. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Ligtenberg, G.; Derksen, R.H.W.M.; Berden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulfate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane. This binding is due to the binding of the positively charged histones to the strongly anionic HS. Nucleosomes and histones have been identified in glomerular deposits

  3. Co-deposition of basement membrane components during the induction of murine splenic AA amyloid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, A W; Narindrasorasak, S; Young, I D

    1991-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that during murine AA amyloid induction there is co-deposition of the AA amyloid peptide and the basement membrane form of heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The synthesis and accumulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan does not usually occur in the absence of other bas...

  4. Aluminum-containing dense deposits of the glomerular basement membrane: identification by energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M. Jr.; Pitcock, J.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals, including gold, mercury, lead, bismuth, and cadmium, have the potential to cause renal disease. With the development of X-ray microanalysis, these heavy metals can now be identified in tissue deposits. This report describes a case of renal failure, probably related to dysproteinemia, in which granular, electron-opaque dense deposits were present in the glomerular basement membranes. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis demonstrated that these dense deposits contained aluminum. An analysis of this patient's history in relation to the current knowledge of aluminum metabolism suggests that the aluminum deposition occurred secondary to previous glomerular injury. This case emphasizes the need to utilize heavy metal identification technology whenever granular, electron-opaque dense deposits are identified and represents, to our knowledge, the first study to document aluminum deposits within the glomerular basement membrane of humans

  5. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, William P; Gervais, Elise M; Centanni, Samuel W; Gulfo, Kathryn M; Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    The basement membrane is crucial for epithelial tissue organization and function. However, the mechanisms by which basement membrane is restricted to the basal periphery of epithelial tissues and the basement membrane-mediated signals that regulate coordinated tissue organization are not well defined. Here, we report that Rho kinase (ROCK) controls coordinated tissue organization by restricting basement membrane to the epithelial basal periphery in developing mouse submandibular salivary glands, and that ROCK inhibition results in accumulation of ectopic basement membrane throughout the epithelial compartment. ROCK-regulated restriction of PAR-1b (MARK2) localization in the outer basal epithelial cell layer is required for basement membrane positioning at the tissue periphery. PAR-1b is specifically required for basement membrane deposition, as inhibition of PAR-1b kinase activity prevents basement membrane deposition and disrupts overall tissue organization, and suppression of PAR-1b together with ROCK inhibition prevents interior accumulations of basement membrane. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of wild-type PAR-1b results in ectopic interior basement membrane deposition. Significantly, culture of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin β1 to maintain epithelial cell-cell adhesions. Taken together, these studies indicate that ROCK1/PAR-1b-dependent regulation of basement membrane placement is required for the coordination of tissue polarity and the elaboration of tissue structure in the developing submandibular salivary gland.

  6. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recent...

  7. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Sherwood, David R

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recently discovered that invadopodia breach basement membrane during anchor cell invasion in C. elegans, a genetically and visually tractable in vivo invasion event. Further, we found that the netrin receptor DCC localizes to the initial site of basement membrane breach and directs invasion through a single gap in the matrix. In this commentary, we examine how the dynamics and structure of AC-invadopodia compare with in vitro invadopodia and how the netrin receptor guides invasion through a single basement membrane breach. We end with a discussion of our surprising result that the anchor cell pushes the basement membrane aside, instead of completely dissolving it through proteolysis, and provide some ideas for how proteases and physical displacement may work together to ensure efficient and robust invasion. PMID:24778942

  8. Basement membrane proteoglycans and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Abrahamson, D R; McCarthy, K J

    1993-01-01

    -CSPG was only strongly expressed in the vasculature invading late comma stage glomeruli, and later in presumptive and mature Bowman's capsule. Over the first six to eight weeks, the capillary basement membranes contained BM-CSPG, but in gradually decreasing amounts until it became completely undetectable...

  9. Giant cell tubulitis with tubular basement membrane immune deposits: a report of two cases after cardiac valve replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anthony; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Kowalewska, Jolanta; Logar, Christine M; Gitomer, Jeremy J; Davis, Connie L; Shankland, Stuart J; Alpers, Charles E; Smith, Kelly D

    2006-09-01

    This paper presents two elderly patients who had normal baseline renal function and had stenotic valvular lesions secondary to rheumatic fever and underwent aortic valve replacements with mechanical valves. Both patients developed acute renal failure after cardiac valve replacement procedures. The renal biopsies revealed acute granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis. The unique histologic features were tubular basement membrane (TBM) immune complex deposition detected by both immunofluorescence and electron microscopy and prominent multinucleated giant cells surrounding intact TBM. The temporal relationship to the surgical procedure and the subsequent recovery of the patients' renal functions upon therapy suggested that the renal failure may have been due to an allergic drug reaction from the perioperative exposure to unknown agents, such as prophylactic antibiotics and furosemide. The literature on TBM immune complex deposition was reviewed, and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may account for the similarities between the clinicopathologic features of these two cases were examined. These two cases expand the histopathologic spectrum of previously described cases of putative drug-induced acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  10. De novo deposition of laminin-positive basement membrane in vitro by normal hepatocytes and during hepatocarcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Wewer, U M; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1988-01-01

    De novo formation of laminin-positive basement membranes was found to be a distinct morphologic feature of diethylnitrosamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocellular carcinomas of the rat. The first appearance of extracellularly located laminin occurred in the preneoplastic liver lesions......, a location where no laminin was seen in normal rat liver. The amount of extractable laminin from hepatocellular carcinomas was significantly higher (approximately 100 ng per mg tissue) than that of normal liver tissue (less than 20 ng per mg). In vitro experiments demonstrated that normal and preneoplastic...

  11. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  12. Glomerular basement membrane lipidosis in Alagille syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica; Griffiths, Ryan; Larkin, Kay; Rozansky, David; Troxell, Megan

    2010-06-01

    Alagille syndrome is characterized by a paucity of interlobular bile ducts with chronic cholestasis, cardiac, skeletal, and eye abnormalities and is associated predominantly with JAG1 mutations. Various renal abnormalities have been sporadically described. The classic renal histopathology described in Alagille syndrome is mesangiolipidosis, with lipid deposits predominately confined to the mesangium and minimal deposition within the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We report a 5-year-old girl with Alagille syndrome who presented with persistent subnephrotic proteinuria and renal tubular acidosis. A renal biopsy showed GBM irregularities (mimicking membranous glomerulonephritis), mesangial sclerosis, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on light microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed few lipid inclusions within the mesangium but extensive inclusions along the GBM. These findings are mostly consistent with those reported previously in Alagille syndrome. However, the histologic distribution of lipid vacuoles is seemingly reversed in this patient and is uniquely accompanied by FSGS, emphasizing the spectrum of renal histopathology seen in Alagille syndrome. The proteinuria observed in this patient is likely attributed to significant GBM lipid deposition, which over time may contribute to the development of FSGS.

  13. Expression and deposition of basement membrane proteins by brain capillary endothelial cells in a primary murine model of the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, Annette Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    of the present study was to create four different in vitro constructs of the murine BBB to characterise if the expression and secretion of basement membrane proteins by the murine brain capillary endothelial cells (mBCECs) was affected by co-culturing with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both. Primary m...... membrane, and astrocyte endfeet. To study the interaction of the different cells of the BBB, construction of in vitro BBB models is valuable. However, the modulation and contribution of the cells of the BBB to the synthesis of basement membrane proteins in vitro is not fully elaborated. Thus, the aim......, and immunofluorescent labelling were used. The mBCECs were found to express major basement membrane proteins in vitro and increased expression of laminin α5 and collagen IV α1 was correlated to the addition of BBB inducing factors (hydrocortisone, Ro20-1724, pCPT-cAMP). Co-culturing of the mBCECs with pericytes, mixed...

  14. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left...... with regard to protein and tissue type affected as well as intensity of the changes. However, changes in mRNA levels (but not protein deposition) for perlecan and type IV collagen were also observed in aortas from hypertensive rats compared with controls. Increases in steady-state mRNA levels for all basement...

  15. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    . For in vivo experiments, pieces of newborn rat epidermis obtained by dispase treatment were grafted onto athymic nude mice. Three and six weeks after grafting, immunofluorescence analysis of the grafted skin was carried out, using monoclonal antibodies specific for rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate...... on mice demonstrated the presence of rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and rat perlecan on interfollicular and follicular basement membranes including that separating dermal papillae from adjacent hair follicle epithelium. In contrast, the basement membranes of all dermal capillaries......-epidermal junction and hair follicle epithelium are of epidermal (epithelial) origin in vivo. Stratified rat keratinocytes cultured on a collagen matrix at the air-liquid interface showed the synthesis of perlecan, laminin 1, and type IV collagen in basement membranes, but not clearly detectable basement membrane...

  16. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    proteoglycan and rat and mouse perlecan. While the isolated rat epidermis was shown to completely lack rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and rat basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans, including perlecan, immunofluorescence staining of tissue sections from the grafted sites......-epidermal junction and hair follicle epithelium are of epidermal (epithelial) origin in vivo. Stratified rat keratinocytes cultured on a collagen matrix at the air-liquid interface showed the synthesis of perlecan, laminin 1, and type IV collagen in basement membranes, but not clearly detectable basement membrane...

  17. Basement Membrane Defects in Genetic Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Chew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular basement membrane (GBM is a specialized structure with a significant role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. This GBM is formed from the fusion of two basement membranes during development and its function in the filtration barrier is achieved by key extracellular matrix components including type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The characteristics of specific matrix isoforms such as laminin-521 (α5β2γ1 and the α3α4α5 chain of type IV collagen are essential for the formation of a mature GBM and the restricted tissue distribution of these isoforms makes the GBM a unique structure. Detailed investigation of the GBM has been driven by the identification of inherited abnormalities in matrix proteins and the need to understand pathogenic mechanisms causing severe glomerular disease. A well-described hereditary GBM disease is Alport syndrome, associated with a progressive glomerular disease, hearing loss, and lens defects due to mutations in the genes COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5. Other proteins associated with inherited diseases of the GBM include laminin β2 in Pierson syndrome and LMX1B in nail patella syndrome. The knowledge of these genetic mutations associated with GBM defects has enhanced our understanding of cell–matrix signaling pathways affected in glomerular disease. This review will address current knowledge of GBM-associated abnormalities and related signaling pathways, as well as discussing the advances toward disease-targeted therapies for patients with glomerular disease.

  18. The major basement membrane components localize to the chondrocyte pericellular matrix--a cartilage basement membrane equivalent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Alexander J.; Nyström, Alexander; Hultenby, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that articular cartilage chondrocytes are surrounded by the defining basement membrane proteins laminin, collagen type IV, nidogen and perlecan, and suggest that these form the functional equivalent of a basement membrane. We found by real-time PCR that mouse...... to the progression of degenerative joint disorders....

  19. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and characte...

  20. Glomerular basement membrane composition and the filtration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jeffrey H

    2011-09-01

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is an especially thick basement membrane that contributes importantly to the kidney's filtration barrier. The GBM derives from the fusion of separate podocyte and endothelial cell basement membranes during glomerulogenesis and consists primarily of laminin-521 (α5β2γ1), collagen α3α4α5(IV), nidogens-1 and -2, and agrin. Of these nine proteins, mutations in the genes encoding four of them (LAMB2, COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5) cause glomerular disease in humans as well as in mice. Furthermore, mutation of a fifth (Lama5) gene in podocytes in mice causes proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, and progression to renal failure. These results highlight the importance of the GBM for establishing and maintaining a properly functioning glomerular filtration barrier.

  1. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    . Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...... to undergo pseudodecidualization. We thus showed that stromal cells from pregnant and nonpregnant mouse uteri synthesize significant amounts of basement-membrane components in vitro, and hence could serve as a good model for the study of normal basement-membrane components.......During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations...

  2. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    . Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...

  3. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left ve...

  4. Basement membrane proteoglycans in glomerular morphogenesis: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is temporally and spatially restricted during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Bynum, K; St John, P L

    1993-01-01

    basement membrane (GBM) but present in other basement membranes of the nephron, including collecting ducts, tubules, Bowman's capsule, and the glomerular mesangium. In light of this unique pattern of distribution and of the complex histoarchitectural reorganization occurring during nephrogenesis...

  5. Immunological characterization of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Accavitti, M A; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    Reichert's membrane, an extraembryonic membrane present in developing rodents, has been proposed as an in vivo model for the study of basement membranes. We have used this membrane as a source for isolation of basement membrane proteoglycans. Reichert's membranes were extracted in a guanidine/3-[...

  6. Collective cell behavior on basement membranes floating in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Sarah; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Morley, Cameron; Sawyer, W.; Angelini, Thomas

    The basement membrane is an essential part of the polarity of endothelial and epithelial tissues. In tissue culture and organ-on-chip devices, monolayer polarity can be established by coating flat surfaces with extracellular matrix proteins and tuning the trans-substrate permeability. In epithelial 3D culture, spheroids spontaneously establish inside-out polarity, morphing into hollow shell-like structures called acini, generating their own basement membrane on the inner radius of the shell. However, 3D culture approaches generally lack the high degree of control provided by the 2D culture plate or organ-on-chip devices, making it difficult to create more faithful in vitro tissue models with complex surface curvature and morphology. Here we present a method for 3D printing complex basement membranes covered in cells. We 3D print collagen-I and Matrigel into a 3D growth medium made from jammed microgels. This soft, yielding material allows extracellular matrix to be formed as complex surfaces and shapes, floating in space. We then distribute MCF10A epithelial cells across the polymerized surface. We envision employing this strategy to study 3D collective cell behavior in numerous model tissue layers, beyond this simple epithelial model.

  7. Alterations of epithelial adhesion molecules and basement membrane components in lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Miklós D; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Hofmann-Rummelt, Carmen; Kruse, Friedrich E; Seitz, Berthold

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the histopathological and ultrastructural correlate of delayed epithelial healing in eyes with lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD). Corneal buttons from 4 patients with LCD (two with subepithelial, two with stromal amyloid deposits) and 2 control corneas were examined. Cell-matrix adhesion molecules and basement membrane components of the corneal epithelium were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and hemidesmosomes between epithelium and stroma were quantified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By TEM well-developed hemidesmosomes anchored the basal epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane in all normal and LCD corneas. Hemidesmosome density was not significantly different in subepithelial (224.7 +/- 34.1/100 microm) and stromal (234.3 +/- 36.3/100 microm) LCD compared to controls (241.3 +/- 26.8/100 microm). The basement membrane was interrupted in subepithelial, but continuous in stromal LCD. Integrin alpha6 and beta4 staining formed a continuous line along the basal surface of the corneal epithelium in control corneas, whereas it appeared discontinuous and patchy both in subepithelial and stromal forms of LCD. Staining for alphaV integrin showed irregular staining patterns, i.e. enhanced labelling intensity in subepithelial and interrupted pattern in stromal LCD, respectively. Integrins alpha3, beta1, beta2, and beta5, dystroglycan, and plectin were not markedly different in dystrophic corneas. Type VII collagen showed a discontinuous staining in subepithelial forms of LCD. In stromal forms of LCD, type VII collagen staining occurred in additional patches underneath the epithelial basement membrane zone. Type XVII collagen staining was reduced in subepithelial LCD. Laminin-1, laminin-5 and laminin gamma2 showed variable irregular staining patterns in dystrophic corneas with focal interruptions, focal thickenings, and reduplications of basement membrane. Some irregularities in corneas with subepithelial

  8. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne S.; Karsdal, Morten A.; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens...

  9. Effects of radiation on the permeability of human basement membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, B.-T.; Achour, S.; Simmonet, F.; Guerin, D.

    1999-02-01

    The influence of radiation on the permeability properties of human basement membrane was investigated by measuring the diffusion rate of several organic compounds (glycine, proline, glucose, urea and insulin) through human anterior lens capsules. The basement membranes borne an γ-irradiation treatment change significantly their permeability vis-a-vis studied organic substances. This modification in physico-chemical properties is probably due to the radiation, which alters or degrades the complex structure (or architecture) of basement membranes. Moreover the change in permeability is dependent upon the diffusing compounds. An increase in diffusion has been observed for glucose, glycine and urea. However for insulin and proline, a decrease in diffusion rate was observed. L'influence de radiation sur la perméabilité de la membrane basale a été étudiée par la mesure de la vitesse de diffusion de plusieurs composés organiques d'intérêt biologique (glycine, proline, glucose, urée et insuline) à travers la lame basale antérieure du cristallin de l'oil humain. Les membranes basales qui sont traitées avec l'irradiation γ changent significativement leur perméabilité vis-à-vis des substances organiques. Ce changement de propriétés physico-chimiques est probablement dû à l'altération ou la dégradation de la structure (ou de l'architecture) de la membrane basale entraînée par l'irradiation. De plus, la modification de la perméabilité de la membrane basale est dépendante des composés diffusants. Une augmentation de la vitesse de diffusion a été observée pour le glucose, le glycine et l'urée. Par contre, dans les cas de l'insuline et de la proline, on a observé une diminution de la vitesse de diffusion.

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J

    1984-01-01

    Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA was not ......Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA...... of the elongating follicle. HSPG was associated with the basal cell layer prior to the appearance of hair follicle primordia and became BMZ-associated before birth but after follicle buds were first observed. HSPG was also found to be associated with the basal cell surfaces in the epidermis, but not in the hair...... follicle. Laminin and type IV collagen were continually present in epidermal and follicular BMZ both before and during development of hair follicles and were later present in the dermal papilla matrix. From these observations we conclude that (1) laminin and type IV collagen are functionally important...

  11. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained...... discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular...

  12. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J

    1996-01-01

    discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular......Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections...... of human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained...

  13. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  14. Immunochemical and ultrastructural assessment of the nature of the pericellular basement membrane of human decidual cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Faber, M; Liotta, L A

    1985-01-01

    Human decidual cells of early and late pregnancy were studied immunochemically and ultrastructurally with respect to the presence and nature of pericellular basement membrane material. The most prominent cell type in decidual tissue of both early and late pregnancy were large, mature epithelioid...... of stromal cells into decidual cells of the pregnant endometrium. Predecidualization of the human endometrium, which is seen in the late secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle and in some states of hyperplasia, was also shown to be accompanied by the presence of deposits of laminin-positive material...

  15. Supportive properties of basement membrane layer of human amniotic membrane enable development of tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranpour, Sonia; Mahdavi-Shahri, Nasser; Miri, Raheleh; Hasanzadeh, Halimeh; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Zahabi, Ehsan; Matin, Maryam M

    2018-01-08

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) has been widely used as a natural scaffold in tissue engineering due to many of its unique biological properties such as providing growth factors, cytokines and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This study aimed at finding the most suitable and supportive layer of HAM as a delivery system for autologous or allogeneic cell transplantation. Three different layers of HAM were examined including basement membrane, epithelial and stromal layers. In order to prepare the basement membrane, de-epithelialization was performed using 0.5 M NaOH and its efficiency was investigated by histological stainings, DNA quantification, biomechanical testing and electron microscopy. Adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and a human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) were seeded on the three different layers of HAM and cultured for 3 weeks. The potential of the three different layers of HAM to support the attachment and viability of cells were then monitored by histology, electron microscopy and (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Moreover, mechanical strengths of the basement membrane were assessed before and after cell culture. The results indicated that the integrity of extra cellular matrix (ECM) components was preserved after de-epithelialization and resulted in producing an intact basement amniotic membrane (BAM). Moreover, all three layers of HAM could support the attachment and proliferation of cells with no visible cytotoxic effects. However, the growth and viability of both cell types on the BAM were significantly higher than the other two layers. We conclude that growth stimulating effectors of BAM and its increased mechanical strength after culturing of ASCs, besides lack of immunogenicity make it an ideal model for delivering allogeneic cells and tissue engineering applications.

  16. The basement membrane and tumor progression in the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S A; Nair, M B; Jayaprakash, P G; Rajalekshmy, T N; Nair, M K; Pillai, M R

    1997-06-01

    Immunocytochemical localization of the basement membrane (BM) proteins laminin, type-IV collagen and fibronectin were analyzed in normal cervical epithelium, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), high grade SILs and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix. A regular, thick and continuous BM was present in normal cervical epithelium and low grade SIL. Interruptions and discontinuity of the BM were more evident in high grade SILs. There was a good correlation between increasing severity of the lesion and increasing number of breaks. In SCC, the distribution of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin was related to the degree of cellular differentiation, with decreased immunoreactivity being evident in moderately and poorly differentiated tumors. As the invasive potential of the tumor increased, the fragmentation and loss of BM was more evident. Fibronectin showed only moderate to mild immunoreactivity in normal cervical epithelium and low grade SILs. However, the intensity of expression increased in high grade SILs especially in the peritumoral stroma. It may therefore be concluded from these results that snythesis and reabsorption of BM proteins may be related to shifts in cellular metabolism during tumorigenesis.

  17. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  18. Peroxynitrous acid induces structural and functional modifications to basement membranes and its key component, laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degendorfer, Georg; Chuang, Christine Y.; Hammer, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Basement membranes (BM) are specialized extracellular matrices underlying endothelial cells in the artery wall. Laminin, the most abundant BM glycoprotein, is a structural and biologically active component. Peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), a potent oxidizing and nitrating agent, is formed in vivo...

  19. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...

  20. Antiglomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis after intranasal cocaine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Navascués, R A; Baltar, J; Seco, M; Alvarez, J

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis due to antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies that progressed to end-stage renal disease in a 35-year-old man who used intranasal cocaine on an occasional basis. In contrast to many prior reports of acute renal failure occurring with cocaine-associated rhabdomyolysis, this patient did not have any evidence of acute muscle damage and myoglobin release. Circulating anti-GBM antibodies and renal biopsy with linear IgG and C3 deposits confirmed the diagnosis of anti-GBM disease. The possibility of anti-GBM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute renal failure in cocaine addicts. This unusual combination raises complex questions regarding the pathogenesis of this type of renal injury.

  1. Ultrastructure of Reichert's membrane, a multilayered basement membrane in the parietal wall of the rat yolk sac

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Reichert's membrane, a thick basement membrane in the parietal wall of the yolk sac, has been examined in 13-14-d pregnant rats. This membrane is composed of more or less distinct parallel layers, each one of which resembles a common basement membrane. After routine fixation in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, the layers appear to be mainly composed of 3-8-nm thick cords arranged in a three-dimensional network. Loosely scattered among the cords are unbranched...

  2. A Novel Function for the nm23-Hl Gene: Overexpression in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells Leads to the Formation of Basement Membrane and Growth Arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howlett, Anthony R; Petersen, Ole W; Steeg, Patricia S; Bissell, Mina J

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a culture system using reconstituted basement membrane components in which normal human mammary epithelial cells exhibit several aspects of the development and differentiation process, including formation of acinar-like structures, production and basal deposition of basement membrane components, and production and apical secretion of sialomucins. Cell lines and cultures from human breast carcinomas failed to recapitulate this process. The data indicate the importance of cellular interactions with the basement membrane in the regulation of normal breast differentiation and, potentially, its loss in neoplasia. Our purpose was to use this assay to investigate the role of the putative metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 in mammary development and differentiation. The metastatic human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, clones transfected with a control pCMVBamneo vector, and clones transfected with pCMVBamneo vector containing nm23-H1 complementary DNA (the latter of which exhibited a substantial reduction in spontaneous metastatic potential in vivo) were cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane. Clones were examined for formation of acinus-like spheres, deposition of basement membrane components, production of sialomucin, polarization, and growth arrest. In contrast to the parental cell line and control transfectants, MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells overexpressing Nm23-H1 protein regained several aspects of the normal phenotype within reconstituted basement membrane. Nm23-H1 protein-positive cells formed organized acinus-like spheres, deposited the basement membrane components type IV collagen and, to some extent, laminin to the outside of the spheres, expressed sialomucin, and growth arrested. Growth arrest of Nm23-H1 protein-positive cells was preceded by and correlated with formation of a basement membrane, suggesting a causal relationship. The data indicate a previously unidentified cause-and-effect relationship between nm23-H1 gene

  3. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Koon-Ja; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab, we investigated the structure changes of stroma and basement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 N NaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumab was delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl) by subconjunctival injections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 days after injury, basement membrane regeneration was observed by transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelial basement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes, and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in the alkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membrane and hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundles resulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired by bevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumab can play an important role in wound healing in the cornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basement membrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4): 195-200] PMID:23615260

  4. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Pozzi, Ambra [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Zent, Roy, E-mail: roy.zent@vanderbilt.edu [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  5. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda; Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito; Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  6. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...... extensive changes in concert with the hair cycle. Here it is shown that this matrix in anagen pelage follicles of postnatal rats contains an abundance of basement membrane components rather than dermal components such as interstitial collagens. In particular, type IV collagen, laminin, and basement membrane...

  7. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R

    1985-01-01

    Using immunological assays, we determined the relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by two different murine basement-membrane-producing tumors, i.e., the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor and the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor. Antibodies prepared against the heparan sulfate...... mainly heparan sulfate (75%) along with smaller amounts of chondroitin sulfate (19%), whereas the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor produced mainly chondroitin sulfate (76%) with smaller amounts of heparan sulfate (21%). We conclude that these two murine basement-membrane-producing tumors elaborate...

  8. Basement to surface expressions and critical factors in the genesis of unconformity-related deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Two subprojects: 1) Basement to surface expressions of deep mineralization and refinement of critical factors leading to the genesis of unconformity-related uranium deposits; and 2) Recognition of uranium ore system alteration signatures in complex terranes: IOCG vs albite-hosted uranium vs volcanic-hosted uranium.

  9. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    The amount and distribution of fibronectin associated with hair follicles was found to vary during the hair growth cycle in the rat. Immunocytochemical staining of follicles in mid-late anagen (the growth stage) revealed the presence of fibronectin in the dermal papilla matrix, in the basement...... membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...... of anagen, involving cell division and follicle elongation, was associated with a great increase in the amount of fibronectin in this zone and in and around the dermal papilla. Analysis of entry into anagen by [3H]thymidine incorporation and autoradiography revealed that growth could be detected before...

  10. Evidence for the existence of multiple heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the human glomerular basement membrane and mesangial matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groffen, Alexander J A; Hop, Frank W H; Tryggvason, Karl; Dijkman, Henri; Assmann, Karel J M; Veerkamp, Jacques H.; Monnens, Leo A H; Van Den Heuvel, Lambert P W J

    1997-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential components of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) carrying a strong anionic charge. A well- characterized extracellular HSPG is perlecan, ubiquitously expressed in basement membranes. A cDNA construct encoding domains I and II of human perlecan

  11. Antibody response against the glomerular basement membrane protein agrin in patients with transplant glomerulopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, S.A.; Sijpkens, Y.W.; Ham, V. van; Trouw, L.A.; Vlag, J. van der; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Kooten, C. van; Paul, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) of renal allografts is still the most important cause of graft loss. A subset of these patients have transplant glomerulopathy (TGP), characterized by glomerular basement membrane (GBM) duplications, but of unknown etiology. Recently, a role for the immune system

  12. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan alterations in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehara, T; Carone, F A; McCarthy, K J

    1994-01-01

    Alterations in basement membrane components, notably proteoglycans, in a rat model of polycystic kidney disease have been investigated. Rats were fed phenol II (2-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl-5-phenyl thiazole) for 4 days and then changed to normal diet for a 7-day recovery period. Marked dilation of di...

  13. Macrophage Chemotaxis in Anti-tubular Basement Membrane-Induced Interstitial Nephritis in Guinea Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, Thomas L.; Merrow, Martha; Phillips, S. Michael; Norman, Michael; Neilson, Eric G.

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial renal lesions containing T cells and macrophages develop after 14 days in guinea pigs immunized to produce anti-tubular basement membrane-induced interstitial nephritis. We serially examined the renal venous and systemic arterial sera from such animals to determine if chemotactic

  14. Spumiform capillary basement membrane swelling : A new type of microvascular degeneration in senescent hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; de Weerd, H.; Veenstra-Algra, A.; Luiten, P.G.M.; van der Want, J.J.L.; Veening, Jan

    Brain microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of homeostasis of neural tissues. The present study focuses on characteristic microvascular basement membrane (bm) aberrations in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and their relation to aging. The PAG can be considered a

  15. Spumiform capillary basement membrane swelling: a new type of microvascular degeneration in senescent hamster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; Weerd, H. de; Veenstra-Algra, A.; Luiten, P.G.M.; Want, J.J. van der; Veening, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain microvasculature plays a critical role in the regulation of homeostasis of neural tissues. The present study focuses on characteristic microvascular basement membrane (bm) aberrations in the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and their relation to aging. The PAG can be considered a

  16. Involvement of MIF in basement membrane damage in chronically UVB-exposed skin in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yoshihisa

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV B radiation is known to induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that degrade collagen in the basement membrane. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of skin inflammation induced by UV irradiation. This study examined the effects of MIF on basement membrane damage following chronic UVB irradiation in mice. The back skin of MIF transgenic (Tg and wild-type (WT mice was exposed to UVB three times a week for 10 weeks. There was a decrease in intact protein levels of type IV collagen and increased basement membrane damage in the exposed skin of the MIF Tg mice compared to that observed in the WT mice. Moreover, the skin of the MIF Tg mice exhibited higher MIF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and protein levels than those observed in the WT mice. We also found that chronic UVB exposure in MIF Tg mice resulted in higher levels of neutrophil infiltration in the dermis compared with that observed in the WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that MIF induced increases in the MMPs expression, including that of MMP-9 in keratinocytes and MMP-2 in fibroblasts. Cultured neutrophils also secreted MMP-9 stimulated by MIF. Therefore, MIF-mediated basement membrane damage occurs primarily through MMPs activation and neutrophil influx in murine skin following chronic UVB irradiation.

  17. Isotropic Versus Bipolar Functionalized Biomimetic Artificial Basement Membranes and Their Evaluation in Long-Term Human Cell Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angela; Wistlich, Laura; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Walles, Heike; Groll, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    In addition to dividing tissues into compartments, basement membranes are crucial as cell substrates and to regulate cellular behavior. The development of artificial basement membranes is indispensable for the ultimate formation of functional engineered tissues; however, pose a challenge due to their complex structure. Herein, biodegradable electrospun polyester meshes are presented, exhibiting isotropic or bipolar bioactivation as a biomimetic and biofunctional model of the natural basement membrane. In a one-step preparation process, reactive star-shaped prepolymer additives, which generate a hydrophilic fiber surface, are electrospun with cell-adhesion-mediating peptides, derived from major components of the basement membrane. Human skin cells adhere to the functionalized meshes, and long-term co-culture experiments confirm that the artificial basement membranes recapitulate and preserve tissue specific functions. Several layers of immortalized human keratinocytes grow on the membranes, differentiating toward the surface and expressing typical epithelial markers. Fibroblasts migrate into the reticular lamina mimicking part of the mesh. Both cells types begin to produce extracellular matrix proteins and to remodel the initial membrane. It is shown at the example of skin that the artificial basement membrane design provokes biomimetic responses of different cell types and can thus be used as basis for the future development of basement membrane containing tissues. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. AMACO is a novel component of the basement membrane associated Fraser complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rebecca J.; Gebauer, Jan M.; Zhang, Jin-Li; Kobbe, Birgit; Keene, Douglas R.; Karlsen, Kristina Røkenes; Richetti, Stefânia; Wohl, Alexander P.; Sengle, Gerhard; Neiss, Wolfram F.; Paulsson, Mats; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Wagener, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Fraser syndrome (FS) is a phenotypically variable, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmus, cutaneous syndactyly and other malformations resulting from mutations in FRAS1, FREM2 and GRIP1. Transient embryonic epidermal blistering causes the characteristic defects of the disorder. Fras1, Frem1 and Frem2 form the extracellular Fraser complex, which is believed to stabilize the basement membrane (BM). However, several cases of FS could not be attributed to mutations in FRAS1, FREM2 or GRIP1, while Fraser syndrome displays high clinical variability, suggesting there is an additional genetic, possibly modifying contribution to this disorder. AMACO, encoded by the VWA2 gene, has a very similar tissue distribution to the Fraser complex proteins in both mouse and zebrafish. Here, we show that AMACO deposition is lost in Fras1 deficient zebrafish and mice and that Fras1 and AMACO interact directly via their CSPG and P2 domains. Knockdown of vwa2, which alone causes no phenotype, enhances the phenotype of hypomorphic Fras1 mutant zebrafish. Together, our data suggest that AMACO represents a novel member of the Fraser complex. PMID:24232570

  19. AMACO is a component of the basement membrane-associated Fraser complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rebecca J; Gebauer, Jan M; Zhang, Jin-Li; Kobbe, Birgit; Keene, Douglas R; Karlsen, Kristina Røkenes; Richetti, Stefânia; Wohl, Alexander P; Sengle, Gerhard; Neiss, Wolfram F; Paulsson, Mats; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Wagener, Raimund

    2014-05-01

    Fraser syndrome (FS) is a phenotypically variable, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmus, cutaneous syndactyly, and other malformations resulting from mutations in FRAS1, FREM2, and GRIP1. Transient embryonic epidermal blistering causes the characteristic defects of the disorder. Fras1, Frem1, and Frem2 form the extracellular Fraser complex, which is believed to stabilize the basement membrane. However, several cases of FS could not be attributed to mutations in FRAS1, FREM2, or GRIP1, and FS displays high clinical variability, suggesting that there is an additional genetic, possibly modifying contribution to this disorder. An extracellular matrix protein containing VWA-like domains related to those in matrilins and collagens (AMACO), encoded by the VWA2 gene, has a very similar tissue distribution to the Fraser complex proteins in both mouse and zebrafish. Here, we show that AMACO deposition is lost in Fras1-deficient zebrafish and mice and that Fras1 and AMACO interact directly via their chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and P2 domains. Knockdown of vwa2, which alone causes no phenotype, enhances the phenotype of hypomorphic Fras1 mutant zebrafish. Together, our data suggest that AMACO represents a member of the Fraser complex.

  20. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Ja Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  1. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement [fr

  2. Immunochemical and autoantigenic properties of the globular domain of basement membrane collagen (type IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Mark, H; Oberbäumer, I; Timpl, R; Kemler, R; Wick, G

    1985-02-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the globular domain NC1 of collagen IV from human placenta and a mouse tumor react with conformational antigenic determinants present on the NC1 hexamers and also with the three major subunits obtained after dissociation. The antibodies recognized unique structures within basement membranes and showed a broad tissue reactivity but only limited species cross-reactivity. Using these antibodies, it was possible to detect small amounts of collagen IV antigens from cell cultures and in serum. Monoclonal rat antibodies against mouse NC1 revealed a similar reaction potential. Autoantibodies could be produced in mice against mouse NC1 which react with kidney and lung basement membranes in a pathological manner, mimicking Goodpasture syndrome.

  3. The basement membrane constituents in the mouse embryo's tooth. An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Enamel organs isolated from the lower first teeth of 18-days old white mouse embryo by trypsin treatment were used in this study. The organs were cultured during periods of increasing time on a semi-solid medium containing cock serum. In another chase experiments, the organs were cultured on a liquid medium containing proline- 3 H, leucine- 3 H, and glucosamine- 3 H, were studied by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopes. It has been shown that the nature of the culture medium does not apparently interfere with the ability of the enamel to reconstitute the basement membrane. On the other hand, it have been found obvious differences concerning the kinetic of the used isotopes. The results indicate that the turn-over of the basement membrane constituents represents a continuous and homogenous process which continues to take place during, before and after reconstitution. 42 refs. (author)

  4. [Effect of collagenase on the permeability of the glomerular basement membrane in the rat kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloi, C; Geloso-Meyer, A; Cheignon, M; Schaeverbeke, J

    1981-03-16

    Recently, several authors have emphasized the role of negative sites located in th laminae rarae of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in restricting glomerular permeability to anionic macromolecules. In this work, we point out that ultrafiltration properties involve integrity of the GBM. Indeed after intravenous perfusion of bacterian collagenase, anionic ferritin permeates the GBM though negative site distribution (as shown by fixation of colloidal iron) is unaffected.

  5. The timeline of lamellar basement membrane changes during equine laminitis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M B; Pollitt, C C

    2011-07-01

    The timing of lamellar basement membrane (BM) changes occurring during laminitis development is incompletely understood. To determine the temporal progression of lamellar BM changes and whether laminin-332 (Ln-332) γ2 cleavage products are generated during laminitis development. Eight clinically normal Standardbred horses were allocated into treatment (n = 5) or sham (n = 3) groups. The treatment group received, via nasogastric intubation, an oligofructose (OF) bolus (10 g/kg bwt) while the sham group was given water. Laminitis induction proceeded for 48 h followed by euthanasia. Lamellar biopsies were obtained prior to dosing and at intervals during the treatment period for analysis (at 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h and at 48 h following euthanasia). Changes in lamellar collagen type IV and Ln-332 were first observed at 12 h post dosing. A unique pattern of reactivity for the Ln-332 γ2 antibody D4B5 occurred, in which reactivity was observed only in lamellar tissue affected by laminitis. No bioactive Ln-332 γ2 proteolytic fragments were detected in lamellar samples. Basement membrane changes occurred early during the laminitis process. Direct Ln-332 γ2 cleavage to release biologically active products did not appear to occur. Thus loss of stability or protein interaction of the BM is probably responsible for the γ2 specific reactivity observed. Basement membrane changes may a first step in lamellar failure occurring prior to detection with conventional methods. Thus, more sensitive detection methods of BM changes are required to study laminitis development. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Normal mammary epithelial cells promote carcinoma basement membrane invasion by inducing microtubule-rich protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Horng; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Gilkes, Daniele; Aifuwa, Ivie; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-10-20

    Recent work suggests that the dissemination of tumor cells may occur in parallel with, and even preceed, tumor growth. The mechanism for this early invasion is largely unknown. Here, we find that mammary epithelial cells (MECs) induce neighboring breast carcinoma cells (BCCs) to cross the basement membrane by secreting soluble laminin. Laminin continuously produced by MECs induce long membrane cellular protrusions in BCCs that promote their contractility and invasion into the surrounding matrix. These protrusions depend on microtubule bundles assembled de novo through laminin-integrin β1 signaling. These results describe how non-cancerous MECs can actively participate in the invasive process of BCCs.

  7. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, I.

    1979-01-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed

  8. Regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane of the planarian Dugesia japonica after total-body x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, I.

    1979-03-01

    Fresh-water planarians were studied to examine effects of x rays on regeneration of the epidermis and basement membrane. During early stages of regeneration, free rhabdite-forming cells were associated with the wound epidermis and recruited it. In later stages, however, a gradual degeneration occurred in the epidermis and cells undergoing epithelization decreased in number. Eventually epidermal cells on the wound surface appeared necrotic as evidenced by pyknotic nuclei and vacuolized dense cytoplasm. The entire basement membrane could not be reconstituted in any stage after wounding though its precursor-like material was secreted in the interspace between epidermis and parenchyma. Morphological changes in extracellular products and in the cells surrounding the products suggest that epidermal cells which have covered the wound surface synthesize precursors of the basement membrane. Possible factors of a characteristic perturbation in epithelization and basement membrane formation after total-body irradiation are discussed.

  9. Anti-glomerular basement membrane: A rare cause of renal failure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease is a rare cause of acute renal failure and known to have bad prognosis regarding renal functions recovery and patient survival specially when diagnosed late and presents with severe renal failure that requires dialysis. We report a case of 11-year-old child with acute renal failure secondary to anti-GBM disease and associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. He was treated with plasmapheresis, steroids, and cyclophosphamide with recovery of his kidney functions.

  10. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  11. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently......-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane...

  12. Increasingly transformed MCF-10A cells have a progressively tumor-like phenotype in three-dimensional basement membrane culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbalzano, Karen M; Tatarkova, Iva; Imbalzano, Anthony N; Nickerson, Jeffrey A

    2009-03-16

    MCF-10A cells are near diploid and normal human mammary epithelial cells. In three-dimensional reconstituted basement membrane culture, they undergo a well-defined program of proliferation, differentiation, and growth arrest, forming acinar structures that recapitulate many aspects of mammary architecture in vivo. The pre-malignant MCF-10AT cells and malignant MCF-10CA1a lines were sequentially derived from the MCF-10A parental cell line first by expression of a constitutively active T24 H-Ras generating the MCF-10AT cell line. This was followed by repeated selection for increasingly aggressive tumor formation from cells recovered from xenograft tumors in immuno-compromised mice, generating the MCF-10CA1a cell line. When inoculated subcutaneously into the flanks of immuno-compromised mice, MCF-10AT cells occasionally form tumors, whereas MCF-10CA1a cells invariably form tumors with a shorter latency than MCF-10AT derived tumors. MCF-10AT cells grown in three-dimensional basement membrane culture form complex multi-acinar structures that produce a basement membrane but undergo delayed cell cycle arrest and have incomplete luminal development. MCF-10CA1a cells grown in three-dimensional basement membrane culture form large, hyper-proliferative masses, that retain few characteristics of MCF10A acini and more closely resemble tumors. Here we report on the growth and differentiation properties of these three matched cell lines in three-dimensional basement membrane culture. Features of tissue morphogenesis were assessed, including proliferation, basement membrane formation, polarization of alpha-6 beta-4 integrin to the basement membrane, formation of cell:cell junctions, and apoptosis for luminal clearance. The matched series of normal MCF-10A, pre-malignant MCF-10AT, and malignant MCF-10CA1a cells offers a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms of malignant progression both in a three-dimensional microenvironment and in the same cell background.

  13. Organogenesis of the kidney glomerulus: focus on the glomerular basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a crucial component of the kidney's filtration barrier that separates the vasculature from the urinary space. During glomerulogenesis, the GBM is formed from fusion of two distinct basement membranes, one synthesized by the glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) and the other by the glomerular endothelial cell. The main components of the GBM are laminin-521 (α5β2γ1), collagen α3α4α5(IV), nidogen and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, agrin. By studying mice lacking specific GBM components, we have shown that during glomerulogenesis, laminin is the only one that is required for GBM integrity and in turn, the GBM is required for completion of glomerulogenesis and glomerular vascularization. In addition, our results from laminin β2-null mice suggest that laminin-521, and thus the GBM, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier to plasma albumin. In contrast, mutations that affect GBM collagen IV or agrin do not impair glomerular development or cause immediate leakage of plasma proteins. However, collagen IV mutation, which causes Alport syndrome and ESRD in humans, leads to gradual damage to the GBM that eventually leads to albuminuria and renal failure. These results highlight the importance of the GBM for establishing and maintaining a perfectly functioning, highly selective glomerular filter.

  14. Morphological diagnosis of Alport syndrome and thin basement membrane nephropathy by low vacuum scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shinichi; Inaga, Sumire; Kitamoto, Koichi; Kawaba, Yasuo; Nakane, Hironobu; Naguro, Tomonori; Kaidoh, Toshiyuki; Kanzaki, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) and thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) are genetic disorders caused by mutations of the type IV collagen genes COL4A3, COL4A4, and/or COL4A5. We here aimed to investigate the three-dimensional ultrastructure of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in order to introduce a novel method of diagnosing AS and TBMN. The subjects were 4 patients with AS and 6 patients with TBMN. Conventional renal biopsy paraffin sections from AS and TBMN patients were stained with periodic acid methenamine silver (PAM) and observed directly under low vacuum scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM). The PAM-positive GBMs were clearly visible under LVSEM through the overlying cellular components. The GBMs showed characteristic coarse meshwork appearances in AS, and thin and sheet-like appearances in TBMN. At the cut side view of the capillary wall, the GBMs in AS appeared as fibrous inclusions between a podocyte and an endothelial cell, while the GBMs in TBMN showed thin linear appearances. These different findings of GBMs between AS and TBMN were easily observed under LVSEM. Thus, we conclude that three-dimensional morphological evaluation by LVSEM using conventional renal biopsy paraffin sections will likely be useful for the diagnosis of AS and TBMN, including for retrospective investigations.

  15. The chest X-ray in antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, N.B.; Steiner, R.E.; Chin, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 25 patients with proven antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome) were analysed. All except two of the patients had pulmonary haemorrhage at some stage of their disease. Altogether there were 39 episodes of pulmonary haemorrhage, 25 being relapses. During seven episodes the chest radiograph was normal. Relapses of pulmonary haemorrhage never occurred in isolation but were usually associated with infection (not necessarily a chest infection) or occasionally fluid overload. Conversely fluid overload or infection were always associated with pulmonary haemorrhage provided there were high or rising titres of circulating antibodies at the time. Therefore in a patient with antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease, the presence of shadowing in the lung fields on the chest radiograph almost invariably means the patient has pulmonary haemorrhage whether or not pulmonary oedema or a chest infection are present. Limitation of shadowing by a fissure, loss of major portions of the diaphragmatic or cardiac silhouette, involvement of the lung apex or costophrenic angles suggest an underlying chest infection. Septal lines suggest fluid overload. Pleural effusions are seen with chest infections and fluid overload. The carbon monoxide uptake (KCO) was invariably high in the presence of pulmonary haemorrhage even if the chest radiograph was normal. A combined use of KCO and chest radiographs is the best method of monitoring lung disease in these patients. (author)

  16. Effect of diabetes on in vivo metabolism of [35S]-labeled glomerular basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.P.; Surma, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) was labeled in vivo by the injection of tracer amounts of [ 35 S]-sulfate into normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. The biosynthesis and turnover of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the GBM was determined from the specific activity of [ 35 S] after pronase digestion of basement membranes purified from glomeruli isolated 1-7 days after injection. Peak radiolabeling of both normal and diabetic GBM occurred 24 h after injection and, when corrected for differences in serum sulfate specific activities, was less in diabetic than in normal samples. The specific activity of GBM sulfate, expressed as cpm/microgram uronic acid, progressively diminished over the ensuing period of study in both normal and diabetic samples. The rate of decrease in specific activity of [ 35 S]-labeled GBM was not significantly different in diabetic preparations compared with that in normal controls. The findings are compatible with diminished sulfation and/or production but normal turnover of glycosaminoglycans in the renal GBM in experimental diabetes

  17. Specific fixation of bovine brain and retinal acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors to mouse embryonic eye basement membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanny, J.C.; Fayein, N.; Courtois, Y.; Moenner, M.; Chevallier, B.; Barritault, D.

    1987-01-01

    The labeling pattern of mouse embryonic eye frozen sections incubated with radioiodinated brain acidic and basic fibroblasts growth factors (aFGF and bFGF) was investigated by autoradiography. Both growth factors bind to basement membranes in a dose-dependent way, with a higher affinity for bFGF. Similar data were obtained with eye-derived growth factors (EDGF), the retinal forms of FGF. There was a heterogeneity in the affinity of the various basement membranes toward these growth factors. The specificity of the growth factor-basement membrane interaction was demonstrated by the following experiments: (i) an excess of unlabeled growth factor displaced the labeling; (ii) unrelated proteins with different isoelectric points did not modify the labeling; and (iii) iodinated EGF or PDGF did not label basement membrane. In order to get a better understanding of the nature of this binding, the authors performed the incubation of the frozen sections with iodinated FGFs preincubated with various compounds. These results demonstrate that FGFs bind specifically to basement membranes, probably on the polysaccharidic part of the proteoheparan sulfate, and suggest that this type of interaction may be a general feature of the mechanism of action of these growth factors

  18. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer...

  19. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...... representing very early developmental ages, very diffuse immunoreaction products were detected. However, by approximately 76 gestational days, some accentuation of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was noted along the lamina densa, and by 142 gestational days, the distribution of heparan sulphate proteoglycan...

  20. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-10-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous globular domain (NC1) of type IV collagen from normal human GBM, while FNS identified only the 26,000-mol wt monomer. FNS reacted with EBM of 12 controls and nine unaffected male kindred members but not EBM of eight affected males. Five affected females exhibited interrupted reactivity of FNS with EBM. GPS showed variable reactivity with EBM and was not discriminating with respect to Alport-type FN. FNS did not stain renal basement members of five affected males. However, the EBM, tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsules of affected males contained antigens reactive with GPS. These immunochemical studies suggest that the FNS antigen is distinct from Goodpasture antigen(s). The expression of FNS antigen located on the NC1 domain of type IV collagen is altered in basement membranes of patients with Alport-type FN, and the distribution of this antigenic anomaly within kindreds suggests X-linked dominant transmission of a defective gene.

  1. Distribution of individual components of basement membrane in human colon polyps and adenocarcinomas as revealed by monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Bartek, J; Couchman, J R

    1992-01-01

    -membrane components (laminin, entactin/nidogen, collagen type IV and large heparan sulfate proteoglycan), as well as to keratin 8. In all adenocarcinomas, including mucinous, basement membranes were altered more at the invasive front than in the parenchyma. The degree of this alteration was inversely correlated......-membrane components and to a specific keratin may constitute an adequate immunohistochemical test for the presence of invasion, and may be useful in the histologic analysis of polyps, especially in dubious cases....

  2. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A J; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F

    1986-01-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  3. [Relationship between the changes in ischemia/reperfusion cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system in senile rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-sheng; Liu, Ke; Liu, Jing-xia; Wang, Ming-hang; Zhao, Yue-wu; Liu, Zheng-guo

    2008-11-01

    To study the relationship of cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury and gelatinase system after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in aged rats. Cerebral I/R injury model was reproduced by intraluminal silk ligature thrombosis of the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were divided randomly into sham control and I/R groups in young rats [ischemia 3 hours (I 3 h) and reperfusion 6 hours (I/R 6 h), 12 hours (I/R 12 h), 24 hours (I/R 24 h), 3 days (I/R 3 d), 6 days (I/R 6 d)], and sham control group and I/R group in aged rats (I 3 h and I/R 6 h, I/R 12 h, I/R 24 h , I/R 3 d, I/R 6 d). The change in cerebro-cortex microvessel basement membrane structure, basement membrane type IV collagen (Col IV) and laminin (LN) contents, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression in every group were determined with immunohistochemical method and zymogram analysis. With the increase in age, Col IV and LN contents of the microvessel basement membrane were increased, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions were stronger. With prolongation of I/R, the degradation of microvessel basement membrane components (Col IV and LN) was positively correlated with the duration of cerebral I/R. MMP-2 expression was increased gradually, and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression increased at the beginning and decreased subsequently. Col IV(I 3 h, I/R 6 h , I/R 12 h), LN (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h), MMP-2 (I 3 h, I/R 6 h-6 d) and MMP-9 (I 3 h, I/R 6-24 h) expression level in aged rats with I/R injury were higher, and TIMP-1 (I/R 24 h) expression was lower than those in young rats (Pcerebro-microvessel basement membrane in rats is related with MMPs and TIMP. Cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury is more serious in aged rats than that of young rats. Changes in cerebro-microvessel basement membrane injury in aged rats is related with gelatinase system change.

  4. Ultrastructure of Reichert's membrane, a multilayered basement membrane in the parietal wall of the rat yolk sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoué, S; Leblond, C P; Laurie, G W

    1983-11-01

    The ultrastructure of Reichert's membrane, a thick basement membrane in the parietal wall of the yolk sac, has been examined in 13-14-d pregnant rats. This membrane is composed of more or less distinct parallel layers, each one of which resembles a common basement membrane. After routine fixation in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, the layers appear to be mainly composed of 3-8-nm thick cords arranged in a three-dimensional network. Loosely scattered among the cords are unbranched, straight tubular structures with a diameter of 7-10 nm, which mainly run parallel to the surface and to one another; they are referred to as basotubules. Permanganate fixation emphasizes the presence of a thick feltwork of irregular material around basotubules. Finally, minute dot-like structures measuring 3.5 nm and referred to as double pegs are present within the meshes of the cord network. Reichert's membranes have been treated for 2-48 h at 25 degrees C with plasmin, a proteolytic enzyme known to rapidly digest laminin and fibronectin. After a 2-h treatment, most of the substance of the cords is digested away leaving a three-dimensional network of 1.5-2.0-nm thick filaments. The interpretation is that the cords are formed of a plasmin-resistant core filament and a plasmin-extractable sheath. When plasmin treatment is prolonged for 15 h or longer, the filaments are dissociated and disappear, while basotubules are maintained. Plasmin digestion also reveals that basotubules are composed of two parts: a ribbon-like helical wrapping and tubule proper. Further changes in the tubule under plasmin influence are interpreted as a dissociation into pentagonal units suggestive of the presence of the amyloid P component. After 48 h of plasmin treatment, basotubules are further disaggregated and dispersed, leaving only linearly arranged double pegs. Reichert's membranes with or without a 2-hr plasmin treatment have been immunostained by exposure to antibodies against either laminin or

  5. Cell Receptor-Basement Membrane Interactions in Health and Disease: a Kidney-Centric View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Corina M.; Chen, Xiwu; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are essential for tissue development, homeostasis, and response to injury. Basement membranes (BMs) are specialized ECMs that separate epithelial or endothelial cells from stromal components and interact with cells via cellular receptors, including integrins and discoidin domain receptors. Disruption of cell-BM interactions due to either injury or genetic defects in either the ECM components or cellular receptors often lead to irreversible tissue injury and loss of organ function. Animal models that lack specific BM components or receptors either globally or in selective tissues have been used to help with our understanding of the molecular mechanisms whereby cell-BM interactions regulate organ function in physiological and pathological conditions. We review recently published work on animal models that explore how cell-BM interactions regulate kidney homeostasis in both health and disease. PMID:26610916

  6. Heterogeneous distribution of a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1987-01-01

    A heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) synthesized by murine parietal yolk sac (PYS-2) cells has been characterized and purified from culture supernatants. A monospecific polyclonal antiserum was raised against it which showed activity against the HSPG core protein and basement membrane specificity...... for multiple HSPGs was derived from the finding that skeletal neuromuscular junction and liver epithelia also did not contain this type of HSPG, though previous reports have indicated the presence of HSPGs at these sites. The PYS-2 HSPG was shown to be antigenically related to the large, low buoyant density...... HSPG from the murine Engelbreth-Holm swarm tumor. It was, however, confirmed that only a single population of antibodies was present in the serum. Despite the presence of similar epitopes on these two proteoglycans of different hydrodynamic properties, it was apparent that the PYS-2 HSPG represents...

  7. Investigation of basement membrane proteins in a case of granular cell ameloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapthanasupkul, Puangwan; Poomsawat, Sopee; Chindasombatjaroen, Jira

    2012-01-01

    Granular cell ameloblastoma is a rare, benign neoplasm of the odontogenic epithelium. A case of massive granular cell ameloblastoma in a 44-year-old Thai female is reported. Histopathological features displayed a follicular type of ameloblastoma with an accumulation of granular cells residing within the tumor follicles. After treatment by partial mandibulectomy, the patient showed a good prognosis without recurrence in a 2-year follow-up. To characterize the granular cells in ameloblastoma, we examined the expression of basement membrane (BM) proteins, including collagen type IV, laminins 1 and 5 and fibronectin using immunohistochemistry. Except for the granular cells, the tumor cells demonstrated a similar expression of BM proteins compared to follicular and plexiform ameloblastomas in our previous study, whereas the granular cells showed strong positivity to laminins 1 and 5 and fibronectin. The increased fibronectin expression in granular cells suggests a possibility of age-related transformation of granular cells in ameloblastoma. PMID:22361945

  8. Intraepithelial expression of perlecan, a basement membrane-type heparan sulfate proteoglycan reflects dysplastic changes of the oral mucosal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Terué; Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2004-02-01

    Intercellular deposition of perlecan, a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of the basement membrane, is known to result in characteristic stellate reticulum-like structures in ameloblastomas or tooth germs. Although enlargement of the intercellular space is one of the histological characteristics of epithelial dysplasia of oral mucosa, the mode of expression of perlecan is poorly understood in these epithelial lesions. Eighty-two biopsy specimens consisting of normal and hyperplastic epithelium, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinomas were examined for both perlecan core protein and heparan sulfate (HS) chains by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In normal and hyperplastic epithelium, perlecan core protein and HS chains were localized in the cell border of parabasal cells and lower prickle cells, and HS chains were also found in basal cells. With an increase in the severity of epithelial dysplasia, the core protein was heavily and extensively deposited in the interepithelial space as well as in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells from the basal to the surface layers. Its gene expression was confirmed in the cells around the protein deposits. On the other hand, HS chains were enhanced in mild dysplasia, but decreased in moderate and severe dysplasias. In squamous cell carcinomas, either the core protein or HS chains were found scarcely in tumor cells but abundantly in the stromal space. The findings indicate that perlecan is localized in the intercellular space of the oral epithelia, and that it is over-expressed in dysplastic epithelial cells and is deposited in their interepithelial space, which results in the histology of reduction of cellular cohesion.

  9. Clinical outcome of patients with coexistent antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antibodies against glomerular basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindic, Jelka; Vizjak, Alenka; Ferluga, Dusan; Kovac, Damjan; Ales, Andreja; Kveder, Radoslav; Ponikvar, Rafael; Bren, Andrej

    2009-08-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and antibodies against glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) rarely coexist. Both antibodies may be associated with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. We describe the clinical, serological and histological features of our patients with dual antibodies. From 1977 to 2008, 48 patients with anti-GBM antibody-associated renal disease were observed. Eight out of the 30 tested patients (26.7%), all females, had positive myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA coexistent with anti-GBM antibodies. The patients' mean age was 63.4 +/- 7.8 years. Five presented with pulmonary-renal syndrome, all but one were dialysis-dependent on admission. They had constitutional symptoms and different organ involvement. The kidney biopsies revealed intense linear staining for immunoglobulin G and C3 along the glomerular and distal tubular basement membrane associated with irregular diffuse or focal extracapillary crescentic glomerulonephritis with necrosis of varying extent. Lesions of varying ages were characteristically expressed. Seven patients were treated with methylprednisolone and plasma exchange, four with cyclophosphamide, and one with intravenous immunoglobulin. After 28-74 months, there were three dialysis-dependent survivors and one patient with stable chronic renal disease. Two clinical relapses with pulmonary involvement and MPO-ANCA positivity without anti-GBM antibodies occurred in two dialysis-dependent patients. In summary, screening for ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies should be undertaken in patients with clinical signs of systemic vasculitis. In dialysis-dependent patients, the goal of treatment is to limit the damage of other involved organs and not to preserve renal function. Careful follow-up is necessary due to the relapsing nature of the ANCA component of the disease.

  10. Therapeutic Mechanism of Glucocorticoids on Cellular Crescent Formation in Patients With Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Mingchao; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Lihua; Zeng, Caihong; Zhang, Jiong; Liu, Zhihong; Tang, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the therapeutic mechanism of glucocorticoids (GCs) in antiglomerular basement membrane disease. Thirty-four patients with biopsy-proven antiglomerular basement membrane nephritis were divided into the following 2 groups: group 1 (patients treated with GCs, n = 22) and group 2 (patients who were not treated with GCs, n = 12). The expression of parietal epithelial cells (PECs), activated PECs and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) was examined quantitatively and compared between the 2 groups. Correlations between GR expression in glomeruli and patients' clinicopathological indices were also analyzed. Compared with patients in group 2, patients in group 1 showed lower levels of serum creatinine (SCr) (P = 0.03), average cellular crescent percentage (P = 0.005) and macrophages infiltrating in renal interstitium (P = 0.03). PECs (P = 0.007) and activated PECs (P = 0.03) were strongly detected in the cellular components of classic crescents, and both were significantly reduced in group 1 compared to group 2. GR expression either in glomeruli (P = 0.01) or interstitium (P = 0.009) was lower in group 1 after GCs treatment than in group 2. Additionally, GR expression in glomeruli was strongly correlated with renal function (SCr: r = 0.45, P = 0.009; eGFR: r = -0.35, P = 0.046), the proportion of cellular crescents (r = 0.67, P < 0.001), PECs (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and activated PECs (r = 0.72, P < 0.001), and the degree of interstitial (r = 0.50, P = 0.004) and glomerular (r = 0.49, P = 0.007) macrophage infiltration. GCs might exert their therapeutic effects via inhibiting the activation and proliferation of PECs, as well as macrophage infiltration, which could contribute to crescent formation and determine renal survival. GRs are involved in this process as well. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cloning and chromosomal mapping of mouse ladinin, a novel basement membrane zone component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoki, K.; Megahed, M.; LaForgia, S.; Uitto, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Linear IgA disease is characterized by circulating IgA autoantibodies recognizing basement membrane zone components, including an anchoring filament protein, ladinin. In this study, we have cloned the mouse ladinin cDNA, elucidated the intron-exon organization of the corresponding gene (Lad1), and determined its chromosomal assignment. We have also characterized the promoter region of Lad1 and examined its tissue-specific expression. The mouse Lad1 gene consists of 10 exons spanning {approximately}13.4 kb of the mouse genome on chromosome 1, and Southern analysis suggested that Lad1 is a single-copy gene. The coding region comprises 1584 nucleotides and encodes a 528-amino-acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 59 kDa. The deduced polypeptide contained two putative N-glycosylation and two O-glycosylation sites, and sequence analysis predicted a 15-amino-acid signal peptide. The 5{prime} upstream region demonstrated the presence of consensus cis-elements for AP2 and SP1 and was GC rich, consistent with eukaryotic promoter. Northern analysis revealed expression in cultured keratinocytes, but not in fibroblasts, with the mRNA transcript being {approximately}2.5 kb in size. A significant level of expression was also noted in the kidney and lung, and to a lesser degree in the liver, spleen, and brain. Ladinin is a novel component of the basement membranes and may function in contributing to the stability of the association of the epithelial layers with the underlying mesenchyme. 39 refs., 4 figs.

  12. [3H]glucosamine and [3H]proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.; Ruch, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    [ 3 H]proline and [ 3 H]glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with [ 3 H]proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With [ 3 H]glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of [ 3 H]glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived [ 3 H]glucosamine-labeled material

  13. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane

  14. The Peri-islet Basement Membrane, a Barrier to Infiltrating Leukocytes in Type 1 Diabetes in Mouse and Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korpos, Eva; Kadri, Nadir; Kappelhoff, Reinhild

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of peri-islet capsules, composed of the peri-islet basement membrane (BM) and subjacent interstitial matrix (IM), in development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice and in human type 1 diabetes. Our data demonstr...

  15. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, fibronec...

  16. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction of embry...

  17. Direct Observation of Early-Stage High-Dose Radiotherapy-Induced Vascular Injury via Basement Membrane-Targeting Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Kin Man; Hyder, Sayed Nabeel; Wagner, Kyle; Shi, Caihong; Kim, Young Seok; Caster, Joseph M; Tian, Xi; Min, Yuanzeng; Wang, Andrew Z

    2015-12-22

    Collagen IV-targeting peptide-conjugated basement membrane-targeting nanoparticles are successfully engineered to identify early-stage blood vessel injury induced by high-dose radiotherapy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBarrany, Wagih G.; Hamdy, Raid M.; AlHayani, Abdulmonem A.; Jalalah, Sawsan M.

    2009-01-01

    To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

  19. Role of 17 beta-estradiol on type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rogerio; Dambros, Miriam; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Riccetto, Cássio Luís Zanettini; Palma, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2007-10-01

    The authors quantified the type IV collagen fibers volumetric density in the basement membrane of bladder wall of ovariectomized rats with and without estradiol replacement. This study was conducted on 40 Wistar rats (3 months old) randomly divided in 4 groups: group 1, remained intact (control); group 2, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and daily replacement 4 weeks later of 17 beta-estradiol for 12 weeks; group 3, sham operated and daily replacement 4 weeks later of sesame oil for 12 weeks; and group 4, submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and killed after 12 weeks. It was used in immunohistochemistry evaluation using type IV collagen polyclonal antibody to stain the fibers on paraffin rat bladder sections. The M-42 stereological grid system was used to analyze the fibers. Ovariectomy had an increase effect on the volumetric density of the type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rat bladder wall. Estradiol replacement in castrated animals demonstrated a significative difference in the stereological parameters when compared to the castrated group without hormonal replacement. Surgical castration performed on rats induced an increasing volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall and the estradiol treatment had a significant effect in keeping a low volumetric density of type IV collagen fibers in the basement membrane of rats bladder wall.

  20. Spumiform basement membrane aberrations in the microvasculature of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region in hamster : Rostro-caudal pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; de Weerd, Heleen; Luiten, P.G.M.; van der Want, J.J.L.; Veening, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Spumiform basement membrane degeneration (sbmd) is a specific kind of aberration present in the capillaries of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the senescent hamster. These capillaries, separated by the ependymal cell layer, are bordering the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. The aqueduct,

  1. Spumiform basement membrane aberrations in the microvasculature of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region in hamster: rostro-caudal pathogenesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, P.O.; Kortekaas, R.; Weerd, H. de; Luiten, P.G.M.; Want, J.J. van der; Veening, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Spumiform basement membrane degeneration (sbmd) is a specific kind of aberration present in the capillaries of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region of the senescent hamster. These capillaries, separated by the ependymal cell layer, are bordering the Sylvian cerebral aqueduct. The aqueduct,

  2. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    , fibronectin, and entactin/nidogen. IN this paper we show, using core protein-specific antibodies, the presence of a newly described basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan at the epithelial/mesenchymal interface of adult rat skin. Ultrastructurally, this antigen was proven to reside...

  3. Increasingly transformed MCF-10A cells have a progressively tumor-like phenotype in three-dimensional basement membrane culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbalzano Anthony N

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MCF-10A cells are near diploid and normal human mammary epithelial cells. In three-dimensional reconstituted basement membrane culture, they undergo a well-defined program of proliferation, differentiation, and growth arrest, forming acinar structures that recapitulate many aspects of mammary architecture in vivo. The pre-malignant MCF-10AT cells and malignant MCF-10CA1a lines were sequentially derived from the MCF-10A parental cell line first by expression of a constitutively active T24 H-Ras generating the MCF-10AT cell line. This was followed by repeated selection for increasingly aggressive tumor formation from cells recovered from xenograft tumors in immuno-compromised mice, generating the MCF-10CA1a cell line. When inoculated subcutaneously into the flanks of immuno-compromised mice, MCF-10AT cells occasionally form tumors, whereas MCF-10CA1a cells invariably form tumors with a shorter latency than MCF-10AT derived tumors. Results MCF-10AT cells grown in three-dimensional basement membrane culture form complex multi-acinar structures that produce a basement membrane but undergo delayed cell cycle arrest and have incomplete luminal development. MCF-10CA1a cells grown in three-dimensional basement membrane culture form large, hyper-proliferative masses, that retain few characteristics of MCF10A acini and more closely resemble tumors. Conclusion Here we report on the growth and differentiation properties of these three matched cell lines in three-dimensional basement membrane culture. Features of tissue morphogenesis were assessed, including proliferation, basement membrane formation, polarization of alpha-6 beta-4 integrin to the basement membrane, formation of cell:cell junctions, and apoptosis for luminal clearance. The matched series of normal MCF-10A, pre-malignant MCF-10AT, and malignant MCF-10CA1a cells offers a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms of malignant progression both in a three

  4. Quantitative image analysis of laminin immunoreactivity in skin basement membrane irradiated with 1 GeV/nucleon iron particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, S; Streuli, C H; Barcellos-Hoff, M H

    2000-10-01

    We previously reported that laminin immunoreactivity in mouse mammary epithelium is altered shortly after whole-body irradiation with 0.8 Gy from 600 MeV/nucleon iron ions but is unaffected after exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation. This observation led us to propose that the effect could be due to protein damage from the high ionization density of the ion tracks. If so, we predicted that it would be evident soon after radiation exposure in basement membranes of other tissues and would depend on ion fluence. To test this hypothesis, we used immunofluorescence, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and image segmentation techniques to quantify changes in the basement membrane of mouse skin epidermis. At 1 h after exposure to 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions with doses from 0.03 to 1.6 Gy, neither the visual appearance nor the mean pixel intensity of laminin in the basement membrane of mouse dorsal skin epidermis was altered compared to sham-irradiated tissue. This result does not support the hypothesis that particle traversal directly affects laminin protein integrity. However, the mean pixel intensity of laminin immunoreactivity was significantly decreased in epidermal basement membrane at 48 and 96 h after exposure to 0.8 Gy 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. We confirmed this effect with two additional antibodies raised against affinity-purified laminin 1 and the E3 fragment of the long-arm of laminin 1. In contrast, collagen type IV, another component of the basement membrane, was unaffected. Our studies demonstrate quantitatively that densely ionizing radiation elicits changes in skin microenvironments distinct from those induced by sparsely ionizing radiation. Such effects may might contribute to the carcinogenic potential of densely ionizing radiation by altering cellular signaling cascades mediated by cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  5. Plasma deposited fluorinated films on porous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gancarz, Irena [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Bryjak, Marek, E-mail: marek.bryjak@pwr.edu.pl [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawski, Jan; Wolska, Joanna [Department of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Wrocław University of Technology, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Kujawa, Joanna; Kujawski, Wojciech [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry, 7 Gagarina St., 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2015-02-01

    75 KHz plasma was used to modify track etched poly(ethylene terephthalate) membranes and deposit on them flouropolymers. Two fluorine bearing monomers were used: perflourohexane and hexafluorobenzene. The modified surfaces were analyzed by means of attenuated total reflection infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and wettability. It was detected that hexaflourobenxene deposited to the larger extent than perflourohaxane did. The roughness of surfaces decreased when more fluoropolymer was deposited. The hydrophobic character of surface slightly disappeared during 20-days storage of hexaflourobenzene modified membrane. Perfluorohexane modified membrane did not change its character within 120 days after modification. It was expected that this phenomenon resulted from post-reactions of oxygen with radicals in polymer deposits. The obtained membranes could be used for membrane distillation of juices. - Highlights: • Plasma deposited hydrophobic layer of flouropolymers. • Deposition degree affects the surface properties. • Hydrohilization of surface due to reaction of oxygen with entrapped radicals. • Possibility to use modified porous membrane for water distillation and apple juice concentration.

  6. Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCELLOS-HOFF, M. H; AGGELER, J.; RAM, T. G; BISSELL, M. J

    1989-02-01

    An essential feature of mammary gland differentiation during pregnancy is the formation of alveoli composed of polarized epithelial cells, which, under the influence of lactogenic hormones, secrete vectorially and sequester milk proteins. Previous culture studies have described either organization of cells polarized towards lumina containing little or no demonstrable tissue-specific protein, or establishment of functional secretory cells exhibiting little or no glandular architecture. In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. The aggregates subsequently cavitated, so that by day 6 the cells were organized into hollow spheres in which apical cell surfaces faced lumina sealed by tight junctions and basal surfaces were surrounded by a distinct basal lamina. The profiles of proteins secreted into the apical (luminal) and basal (medium) compartments indicated that these alveoli-like structures were capable of an appreciable amount of vectorial secretion. Immunoprecipitation with a broad spectrum milk antiserum showed that more than 80% of caseins were secreted into the lumina, whereas iron-binding proteins (both lactoferrin and transferrin) were present in comparable amounts in each compartment. Thus, these mammary cells established protein targeting pathways directing milk-specific proteins to the luminal compartment. A time course monitoring secretory activity demonstrated that establishment of tissue-specific vectorial secretion and increased total and milk protein secretion coincided with functional alveolar

  7. Stratum, a Homolog of the Human GEF Mss4, Partnered with Rab8, Controls the Basal Restriction of Basement Membrane Proteins in Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Devergne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The basement membrane (BM, a sheet of extracellular matrix lining the basal side of epithelia, is essential for epithelial cell function and integrity, yet the mechanisms that control the basal restriction of BM proteins are poorly understood. In epithelial cells, a specialized pathway is dedicated to restrict the deposition of BM proteins basally. Here, we report the identification of a factor in this pathway, a homolog of the mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Mss4, which we have named Stratum. The loss of Stratum leads to the missecretion of BM proteins at the apical side of the cells, forming aberrant layers in close contact with the plasma membrane. We found that Rab8GTPase acts downstream of Stratum in this process. Altogether, our results uncover the importance of this GEF/Rab complex in specifically coordinating the basal restriction of BM proteins, a critical process for the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity.

  8. Crosslinked basement membrane-based coatings enhance glucose sensor function and continuous glucose monitoring in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, Ulrike; Ludzinska, Izabela; Czajkowski, Caroline; Qiao, Yi; Kreutzer, Donald L

    2018-01-01

    Overcoming sensor-induced tissue reactions is an essential element of achieving successful continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in the management of diabetes, particularly when used in closed loop technology. Recently, we demonstrated that basement membrane (BM)-based glucose sensor coatings significantly reduced tissue reactions at sites of device implantation. However, the biocompatible BM-based biohydrogel sensor coating rapidly degraded over a less than a 3-week period, which effectively eliminated the protective sensor coating. In an effort to increase the stability and effectiveness of the BM coating, we evaluated the impact of crosslinking BM utilizing glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent, designated as X-Cultrex. Sensor performance (nonrecalibrated) was evaluated for the impact of these X-Cultrex coatings in vitro and in vivo. Sensor performance was assessed over a 28-day time period in a murine CGM model and expressed as mean absolute relative difference (MARD) values. Tissue reactivity of Cultrex-coated, X-Cultrex-coated, and uncoated glucose sensors was evaluated over a 28-day time period in vivo using standard histological techniques. These studies demonstrated that X-Cultrex-based sensor coatings had no effect on glucose sensor function in vitro. In vivo, glucose sensor performance was significantly enhanced following X-Cultrex coating throughout the 28-day study. Histological evaluations of X-Cultrex-treated sensors demonstrated significantly less tissue reactivity when compared to uncoated sensors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 7-16, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of basement membrane proteins of verrucous carcinoma of the oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Carrozzo, Marco; Pagano, Marco; Broccoletti, Roberto; Scully, Crispian; Gandolfo, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is an extremely invasive tumour of stratified squamous epithelium that spreads throughout degradation of the basement membrane (BM) and extra-cellular matrix. Oral verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a rare low-grade variant of oral SCC that penetrates into the subepithelial connective tissue. It also has a different clinical behaviour from classical oral SCC. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of laminin, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin in VC, severe epithelial dysplasia (SED) and SCC in order to analyse if the pattern of these molecules expression contributes to the differences in the biological behaviour of these diseases. The staining pattern of laminin was less intensive in SCC compared with SED and VC, and collagen IV expression was increased in VC compared with SED. Discontinuities of laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin were more evident in SED than in VC. This study indicates that VC has a biological behaviour different from SED or SCC, observable by immunohistochemistry in the BM zone.

  10. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the basement membrane (BM) and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 3 H-proline labeled collagenous and non collagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.09 μg/ml, and TC-106 cells at 0.08 μg/ml. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels almost 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more than retinol palmitate. Furthermore, A549 cells treated with retinol acetate, under conditions whereby an anti-invasive state was induced,showed an increase in the number of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP), a decrease in the activity of type IV collagenase and ectosialyltransferase, and no change in the activity of transglutaminase

  11. Collagen IV and basement membrane at the evolutionary dawn of metazoan tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Aaron L; Darris, Carl E; Chetyrkin, Sergei V; Pedchenko, Vadim K; Boudko, Sergei P; Brown, Kyle L; Gray Jerome, W; Hudson, Julie K; Rokas, Antonis; Hudson, Billy G

    2017-04-18

    The role of the cellular microenvironment in enabling metazoan tissue genesis remains obscure. Ctenophora has recently emerged as one of the earliest-branching extant animal phyla, providing a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary role of the cellular microenvironment in tissue genesis. Here, we characterized the extracellular matrix (ECM), with a focus on collagen IV and its variant, spongin short-chain collagens, of non-bilaterian animal phyla. We identified basement membrane (BM) and collagen IV in Ctenophora, and show that the structural and genomic features of collagen IV are homologous to those of non-bilaterian animal phyla and Bilateria. Yet, ctenophore features are more diverse and distinct, expressing up to twenty genes compared to six in vertebrates. Moreover, collagen IV is absent in unicellular sister-groups. Collectively, we conclude that collagen IV and its variant, spongin, are primordial components of the extracellular microenvironment, and as a component of BM, collagen IV enabled the assembly of a fundamental architectural unit for multicellular tissue genesis.

  12. Chitosan facilitates structure formation of the salivary gland by regulating the basement membrane components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Hsiao, Ya-Chuan

    2015-10-01

    Tissue structure is important for inherent physiological function and should be recapitulated during tissue engineering for regenerative purposes. The salivary gland is a branched organ that is responsible for saliva secretion and regulation. The salivary glands develop from epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and depend on the support of the basement membrane (BM). Chitosan-based biomaterials have been demonstrated to be competent in facilitating the formation of salivary gland tissue structure. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. In the developing submandibular gland (SMG), the chitosan effect was found to diminish when collagen and laminin were removed from cultured SMG explants. Chitosan increased the expression of BM components including collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and also facilitated BM components and the corresponding receptors to be expressed in tissue-specific patterns beneficial for SMG branching. The chitosan effect decreased when either laminin components or receptors were inhibited, as well when the downstream signaling was blocked. Our results revealed that chitosan promotes salivary glands branching through the BM. By regulating BM components and receptors, chitosan efficiently stimulated downstream signaling to facilitate salivary gland branching. The present study revealed the underlying mechanism of the chitosan effect in engineering SMG structure formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epithelial basement membrane injury and regeneration modulates corneal fibrosis after pseudomonas corneal ulcers in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Gustavo K; Santhiago, Marcony R; Santhanam, Abirami; Lassance, Luciana; Thangavadivel, Shanmugapriya; Medeiros, Carla S; Bose, Karthikeyan; Tam, Kwai Ping; Wilson, Steven E

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether myofibroblast-related fibrosis (scarring) after microbial keratitis was modulated by the epithelial basement membrane (EBM) injury and regeneration. Rabbits were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa after epithelial scrape injury and the resultant severe keratitis was treated with topical tobramycin. Corneas were analyzed from one to four months after keratitis with slit lamp photos, immunohistochemistry for alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and monocyte lineage marker CD11b, and transmission electron microscopy. At one month after keratitis, corneas had no detectible EBM lamina lucida or lamina densa, and the central stroma was packed with myofibroblasts that in some eyes extended to the posterior corneal surface with damage to Descemet's membrane and the endothelium. At one month, a nest of stromal cells in the midst of the SMA + myofibroblasts in the stroma that were CD11b+ may be fibrocyte precursors to myofibroblasts. At two to four months after keratitis, the EBM fully-regenerated and myofibroblasts disappeared from the anterior 60-90% of the stroma of all corneas, except for one four-month post-keratitis cornea where anterior myofibroblasts were still present in one localized pocket in the cornea. The organization of the stromal extracellular matrix also became less disorganized from two to four months after keratitis but remained abnormal compared to controls at the last time point. Myofibroblasts persisted in the posterior 10%-20% of posterior stroma even at four months after keratitis in the central cornea where Descemet's membrane and the endothelium were damaged. This study suggests that the EBM has a critical role in modulating myofibroblast development and fibrosis after keratitis-similar to the role of EBM in fibrosis after photorefractive keratectomy. Damage to EBM likely allows epithelium-derived transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) to penetrate the stroma and drive development and

  14. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...

  15. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...... representing very early developmental ages, very diffuse immunoreaction products were detected. However, by approximately 76 gestational days, some accentuation of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was noted along the lamina densa, and by 142 gestational days, the distribution of heparan sulphate proteoglycan...... was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens....

  16. CCN2/connective tissue growth factor is essential for pericyte adhesion and endothelial basement membrane formation during angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Hall-Glenn

    Full Text Available CCN2/Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF is a matricellular protein that regulates cell adhesion, migration, and survival. CCN2 is best known for its ability to promote fibrosis by mediating the ability of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ to induce excess extracellular matrix production. In addition to its role in pathological processes, CCN2 is required for chondrogenesis. CCN2 is also highly expressed during development in endothelial cells, suggesting a role in angiogenesis. The potential role of CCN2 in angiogenesis is unclear, however, as both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. Here, through analysis of Ccn2-deficient mice, we show that CCN2 is required for stable association and retention of pericytes by endothelial cells. PDGF signaling and the establishment of the endothelial basement membrane are required for pericytes recruitment and retention. CCN2 induced PDGF-B expression in endothelial cells, and potentiated PDGF-B-mediated Akt signaling in mural (vascular smooth muscle/pericyte cells. In addition, CCN2 induced the production of endothelial basement membrane components in vitro, and was required for their expression in vivo. Overall, these results highlight CCN2 as an essential mediator of vascular remodeling by regulating endothelial-pericyte interactions. Although most studies of CCN2 function have focused on effects of CCN2 overexpression on the interstitial extracellular matrix, the results presented here show that CCN2 is required for the normal production of vascular basement membranes.

  17. Collagen metabolism and basement membrane formation in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: Induction of assembly on fibrillar type I collagen substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; van der Schueren, B.; van den Berghe, H.; Nusgens, B.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Lapiere, C.

    1987-01-01

    Collagen metabolism was compared in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells maintained on plastic or fibrillar type I collagen gel substrata. The accumulation of dialysable and non-dialysable [ 3 H]hydroxyproline and the identification of the collagens produced suggest no difference between substrata in the allover rates of collagen synthesis and degradation. The proportion of the [ 3 H]collagen which accumulates in the monolayers of cultures on collagen, however, markedly exceeds that of cultures on plastic. Cultures on collagen deposit a sheet-like layer of extracellular matrix materials on the surface of the collagen fibers. Transformed cells on collagen produce and accumulate more [ 3 H]collage, yet are less effective in basement membrane formation than normal cells, indicting that the accumulation of collagen alone and the effect of interstitial collagen thereupon do not suffice. Thus, exogenous fibrillar collagen appears to enhance, but is not sufficient for proper assembly of collagenous basement membrane components near the basal epithelial cell surface

  18. Basement membrane heterogeneity during chick development as shown by tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) lectin binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, J L; Icardo, J M

    2006-03-01

    Basement membranes (BMs) constitute a distinct compartment of the extracellular matrix (ECM). All BMs show a similar structural appearance but differ in molecular composition. These variations have critical functional implications. The aim of this study is to establish the pattern of the tomato lectin (Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin--LEA) binding sites in the BMs of the developing chick embryo (stages 4-21, Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951) in order to achieve a better understanding of the molecular heterogeneity of BMs. The study was performed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) histochemistry, and confocal laser microscopy. TEM showed that LEA bound to the lamina densa and to the lamina fibroreticularis of the BMs. Through the period studied, most of the LEA binding appeared in the ectodermal BM and its derivatives. In the limb bud, LEA binding to the ectoderm BM was more intense in the ventral half than in the dorsal half. Furthermore, LEA allowed the early (HH16) detection of the transverse fibrillar tracts. In the lens and in the inner ear primordium, the BMs were LEA positive through the placode and cup stages. The binding was progressively reduced through the vesicle stage. The BMs of the olfactory primordium, and of the Rathke's pouch were positive. In contrast, the BMs of the developing central nervous system were negative. The BMs of both the paraxial and the lateral plates of the mesoderm were negative, whereas the notochord and the BM of the Wolffian duct were positive. The endodermal BM and its derivatives were negative. The ECM located between the fusing endocardial tubes, and the BM of the fusion zone of the paired aortae, were positive. This suggested an active role of the LEA-positive glycoproteins in the fusion of endothelia. Our results show the heterogeneity of the chick embryo BMs during development. In addition, LEA constitutes an excellent marker for the primordial germ cells.

  19. A “Mini-Epidemic” of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: Clinical and epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Lingaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute glomerulonephritis due to anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibody disease is rare, estimated to occur in fewer than one case per million population and accounts for less than 20% of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The prevalence among patients evaluated for potential glomerular disease is lower. It accounts for fewer than 3% of all kidney biopsies done with crescentic glomerulonephritis. Cases of anti-GBM disease occurring in a cluster have rarely been reported. All biopsy proven anti-GBM disease cases were collected from January 2015 to March 2015 at our Institute. All cases were analyzed for demographic and clinical profile, pathological findings, treatment received and for any common environmental antigenic source. A total of 11 new biopsy proven anti-GBM cases were seen within a span of three months. Age group varied from 17–80 years. Seven were males and four were females. All were dialysis dependent at presentation. Seven had active cellular crescents, and four had fibrocellular. Only one patient was a smoker and none had a history of exposure to any forms of hydrocarbons. The peak seen from January 2015 to March 2015 does not correlate with any of seasonal occurrence of infections in southern India. Although there was clustering of cases to southern territories of Karnataka state, no common etiological agents could be identified. No patient had any previous urological surgeries. All patients received methylprednisolone with plasmapheresis 5–7 sessions and cyclophosphamide. All 11 patients were dialysis dependent at the end of three months. We conclude anti-GBM disease cannot be regarded as a rare cause of renal failure and lung hemorrhage. The occurrence of such epidemic within a short period suggests a possible unidentified environmental factor like infection or occupational agents as inciting agents. Identification of such inciting agents could help us in instituting appropriate preventing measures.

  20. Ultrastructural and Temporal Changes of the Microvascular Basement Membrane and Astrocyte Interface Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Il; Kim, Eun Hee; del Zoppo, Gregory J.; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2009-01-01

    Microvascular integrity is lost during cerebral ischemia. Detachment of the microvascular basement membrane (BM) from the astrocyte, as well as degradation of the BM, is responsible for the loss of microvascular integrity. However, their ultrastructural and temporal changes during cerebral ischemia are not well known. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 48 hr. By using transmission electron microscopy, the proportion of intact BM–astrocyte contacts and electron densities of the BM were measured from five randomly selected microvessels in the ischemic basal ganglia. Their temporal changes and associations with activities of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were investigated. The intact portion of the BM–astrocyte contacts was decreased significantly within 4 hr and was rarely observed at 48 hr after MCAO. Decreases in the electron density and degradation of the BM were significant 12 hr after MCAO. The intact BM–astrocyte contacts and the mean BM density showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.784, P < 0.001). MMP-9 activity was correlated negatively with the intact BM–astrocyte contacts (r = −0.711, P < 0.001) and with the BM density (r = −0.538, P 5 0.0016). The increase in MMP-9 coincided temporally with the loss of the BM–astrocyte contacts and a decrease in the BM density. Ultrastructural alterations occurring in the microvascular BM and its contacts with astrocyte endfeet were temporally associated in cerebral ischemia. Time courses of their alterations should be considered in the treatment targeted to the microvascular BM and its contact with astrocytes. PMID:18831008

  1. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biesenbach

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics.To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS.Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies.University Hospital of Vienna, Austria.10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS.Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies.Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23 to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186. Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation.IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  2. Permeation of macromolecules into the renal glomerular basement membrane and capture by the tubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Marlon G.; Altenburg, Michael K.; Sanford, Ryan; Willett, Julian D.; Bleasdale, Benjamin; Ballou, Byron; Wilder, Jennifer; Li, Feng; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Berg, Ulla B.; Smithies, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    How the kidney prevents urinary excretion of plasma proteins continues to be debated. Here, using unfixed whole-mount mouse kidneys, we show that fluorescent-tagged proteins and neutral dextrans permeate into the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in general agreement with Ogston's 1958 equation describing how permeation into gels is related to molecular size. Electron-microscopic analyses of kidneys fixed seconds to hours after injecting gold-tagged albumin, negatively charged gold nanoparticles, and stable oligoclusters of gold nanoparticles show that permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM is size-sensitive. Nanoparticles comparable in size with IgG dimers do not permeate into it. IgG monomer-sized particles permeate to some extent. Albumin-sized particles permeate extensively into the lamina densa. Particles traversing the lamina densa tend to accumulate upstream of the podocyte glycocalyx that spans the slit, but none are observed upstream of the slit diaphragm. At low concentrations, ovalbumin-sized nanoparticles reach the primary filtrate, are captured by proximal tubule cells, and are endocytosed. At higher concentrations, tubular capture is saturated, and they reach the urine. In mouse models of Pierson’s or Alport’s proteinuric syndromes resulting from defects in GBM structural proteins (laminin β2 or collagen α3 IV), the GBM is irregularly swollen, the lamina densa is absent, and permeation is increased. Our observations indicate that size-dependent permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM and the podocyte glycocalyx, together with saturable tubular capture, determines which macromolecules reach the urine without the need to invoke direct size selection by the slit diaphragm. PMID:28246329

  3. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: Case series from a tertiary center in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Prabhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement (anti-GBM disease is an uncommon disorder with a bimodal age of presentation. Patients presenting with dialysis-dependent renal failure have poor renal outcomes. There is limited data regarding the clinical presentation and outcomes of anti-GBM disease from India. We conducted this prospective study to analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of anti-GBM disease at a large tertiary care hospital in North India over 1½ years. Subjects with a biopsy proven anti-GBM disease (light microscopic examination showing crescents and immunofluorescence examination showing linear deposition of IgG with or without positive anti-GBM antibodies in serum were included in the study and followed-up for at least 12 months. All the patients were treated with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange. A total of 17 patients (nine males were included. The mean age at presentation was 39.11 ± 16.58 (range 11–72 years. Twelve patients (70% presented with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN, 4 (23.5% presented with Goodpasture syndrome, while 1 (5.8% had nephritic syndrome, 7 (41% were hypertensive, and 14 (82.3% required dialysis at the time of presentation. Four patients (23.5% had associated anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity (anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies in all. Fourteen (87.5% patients had crescentic glomerulonephritis, while 5 (31.25% showed necrotizing (n = 4 or granulomatous (n = 1 in the vasculitis. Of 16 patients who received treatment, four (23.25% achieved complete remission. In this single-center study, the majority of anti-GBM disease patients presented with RPGN and had crescentic glomerulonephritis on biopsy with poor treatment outcome.

  4. Quantitative Proteome Analysis Reveals Increased Content of Basement Membrane Proteins in Arteries from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Lower Levels among Metformin Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam Preil, Simone; Kristensen, Lars P; Beck, Hans C

    2015-01-01

    analysis was done by iTRAQ-labelling and LC-MS/MS analysis on individual arterial samples. The amounts of the basement membrane (BM) components, alpha-1- and alpha-2- type IV collagen, gamma-1- and beta-2-laminin were significantly increased in patients with diabetes. Moreover, the expressions of basement...... of collagen-stainable material in tunica intima and media among patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: -The distinct accumulation of arterial basement membrane proteins in type 2 diabetes discloses a similarity between the diabetic macro- and micro-angiopathy and suggests a molecular explanation behind...

  5. Geochemical, microtextural and petrological studies of the Samba prospect in the Zambian Copperbelt basement: a metamorphosed Palaeoproterozoic porphyry Cu deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Sharad; Mirrander Ndhlovu, N.

    2015-04-01

    Ever since Wakefield (1978, IMM Trans., B87, 43-52) described a porphyry-type meta-morphosed Cu prospect, the ca 50 Mt, 0.5% Cu Samba deposit (12.717°S, 27.833°E), hosted by porphyry-associated quartz-sericite-biotite schists in northern Zambia, there has been controversy about its origin and significance. This is because it is situated in the basement to the world's largest stratabound sediment-hosted copper province, the Central African Copperbelt, which is hosted by rocks of the Neoproterozoic Katanga Supergroup. Mineralization in the pre-Katangan basement has long played a prominent role in ore genetic models, with some authors suggesting that basement Cu mineralization may have been recycled into the Katangan basin through erosion and redeposition, while others have suggested that the circulation of fluids through Cu-rich basement may have leached out the metals which are found concentrated in the Katangan orebodies. On the basis of ca 490-460 Ma Ar-Ar ages, Hitzman et al. (2012, Sillitoe Vol., SEG Spec. Publ., 16, 487-514) suggested that Samba represents late-stage impregnation of copper mineralization into the basement, and that it was one of the youngest copper deposits known in the Central African Copperbelt. If the Samba deposit really is that young, then it would have post-dated regional deformation and metamorphism (560-510 Ma), and it ought to be undeformed and unmetamorphosed. The Samba mineralization consists of chalcopyrite and bornite, occurring as disseminations, stringers and veinlets, found in a zone >1 km along strike, in steeply-dipping lenses up to 10m thick and >150m deep. Our new major and trace element XRF geochemical data (14 samples) show that the host rocks are mainly calc-alkaline metadacites. Cu is correlated with Ag (Cu/Ag ~10,000:1) with no Au or Mo. Our study focused on the microtextures and petrology of the Samba ores. We confirm that there is alteration of similar style to that accompanying classical porphyry Cu mineralization

  6. Basement and climate controls on proximal depositional systems in continental settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation discusses the sedimentology and dynamics of selected, modern and ancient clastic depositional systems (alluvial fans and colluvial aprons) at continental basin margins. The focus on single depositional systems gave the opportunity to devote particular attention to

  7. Improved proliferation and differentiation capacity of human mesenchymal stromal cells cultured with basement-membrane extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Ulrich; Kramer, Jan; Behrends, Jochen; Driller, Birgit; Wendler, Nils-Ole; Boehrnsen, Florian; Rohwedel, Jürgen; Schlenke, Peter

    2010-12-01

    In vitro cultured mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are characterized by a short proliferative lifespan, an increasing loss of proliferation capacity and progressive reduction of differentiation potential. Laminin-1, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin are important constituents of the basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM) that are involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell attachment and motility. The in vitro proliferation capacity of MSC was significantly improved when the cells were incubated in the presence of basement membrane ECM proteins. For example, a mixture of proteins improved proliferation capacity 250-fold in comparison with standard conditions after five passages. Furthermore, in colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) assays colony numbers and size were significantly extended. Blocking specific integrin cell-surface receptors, positive effects on the proliferation capacity of MSC were inhibited. Additionally, when MSC were co-cultivated with ECM proteins, cells maintained their multipotential differentiation capacity throughout many culture passages in comparison with cells cultivated on plastic. However, expansion of MSC on laminin-5 suppressed any subsequent chondrogenic differentiation. Our results suggest that expansion of bone marrow-derived MSC in the presence of ECM proteins is a powerful approach for generating large numbers of MSC, showing a prolonged capacity to differentiate into mesodermal cell lineages, with the exception of the lack of chondrogenesis by using laminin-5 coating.

  8. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism.We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia.This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  9. An in vitro model of the glomerular capillary wall using electrospun collagen nanofibres in a bioartificial composite basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie C Slater

    Full Text Available The filtering unit of the kidney, the glomerulus, contains capillaries whose walls function as a biological sieve, the glomerular filtration barrier. This comprises layers of two specialised cells, glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC and podocytes, separated by a basement membrane. Glomerular filtration barrier function, and dysfunction in disease, remains incompletely understood, partly due to difficulties in studying the relevant cell types in vitro. We have addressed this by generation of unique conditionally immortalised human GEnC and podocytes. However, because the glomerular filtration barrier functions as a whole, it is necessary to develop three dimensional co-culture models to maximise the benefit of the availability of these cells. Here we have developed the first two tri-layer models of the glomerular capillary wall. The first is based on tissue culture inserts and provides evidence of cell-cell interaction via soluble mediators. In the second model the synthetic support of the tissue culture insert is replaced with a novel composite bioartificial membrane. This consists of a nanofibre membrane containing collagen I, electrospun directly onto a micro-photoelectroformed fine nickel supporting mesh. GEnC and podocytes grew in monolayers on either side of the insert support or the novel membrane to form a tri-layer model recapitulating the human glomerular capillary in vitro. These models will advance the study of both the physiology of normal glomerular filtration and of its disruption in glomerular disease.

  10. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Andrae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis of Pdgfc null mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants for Pdgfc−/− and PdgfraGFP/+. These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS, where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data on Pdgfa, Pdgfc and Pdgfra in the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges.

  11. Sequential development of pulmonary hemorrhage with MPO-ANCA complicating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Rodríguez, M; Pobes, A; Seco, M

    2000-05-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis caused by anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies that progressed to end-stage renal disease in a 67-year-old woman with diabetes. Intensive combined immunosuppressive therapy with methylprednisolone bolus, oral prednisone, and cyclophosphamide led to negativity of anti-GBM antibodies but was not able to restore renal function. After 28 months of hemodialysis, the patient suddenly presented with pulmonary hemorrhage. In this setting, high levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and negative anti-GBM antibodies were found. Therapy with oral prednisone and cyclophosphamide led to resolution of pulmonary hemorrhage and negativity of MPO-ANCA.

  12. Defective muscle basement membrane and lack of M-laminin in the dystrophic dy/dy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Christmas, P; Wu, X R

    1994-01-01

    -linked Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. We have examined M-laminin expression in mice with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by the mutation dy. The heavy chain of M-laminin was undetectable in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and peripheral nerve by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting......M-laminin is a major member of the laminin family of basement membrane proteins. It is prominently expressed in striated muscle and peripheral nerve. M-laminin is deficient in patients with the autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy but is normal in patients with the sex...... tissue from dy/dy mice, suggesting that M-laminin heavy-chain mRNA may be produced at very low levels or is unstable. Information about the chromosomal localization of the M heavy-chain in human and mouse suggests that a mutation in the M-chain gene causes the muscular dystrophy in dy/dy mice. The dy...

  13. Histones have high affinity for the glomerular basement membrane. Relevance for immune complex formation in lupus nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedeke, T.M.; Stoeckl, F.W.W.; Weber, R.; Sugisaki, Y.; Batsford, S.R.; Vogt, A.

    1989-01-01

    An effort has been made to integrate insights on charge-based interactions in immune complex glomerulonephritis with nuclear antigen involvement in lupus nephritis. Attention was focussed on the histones, a group of highly cationic nuclear constituents, which could be expected to bind to fixed anionic sites present in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We demonstrated that all histone subfractions, prepared according to Johns, have a high affinity for GBM and the basement membrane of peritubular capillaries. Tissue uptake of 125 I-labeled histones was measured by injecting 200 micrograms of each fraction into the left kidney via the aorta and measuring organ uptake after 15 min. In glomeruli isolated from the left kidneys, the following quantities of histones were found: f1, 13 micrograms; f2a (f2al + f2a2), 17 micrograms; f2b, 17 micrograms; and f3, 32 micrograms. Kinetic studies of glomerular binding showed that f1 disappeared much more rapidly than f2a. The high affinity of histones (pI between 10.5 and 11.0; mol wt 10,000-22,000) for the GBM correlates well with their ability to form aggregates (mol wt greater than 100,000) for comparison lysozyme (pI 11, mol wt 14,000), which does not aggregate spontaneously bound poorly (0.4 micrograms in isolated glomeruli). The quantity of histones and lysozyme found in the isolated glomeruli paralleled their in vitro affinity for a Heparin-Sepharose column (gradient elution studies). This gel matrix contains the sulfated, highly anionic polysaccharide heparin, which is similar to the negatively charged heparan sulfate present in the GBM. Lysozyme eluted with 0.15 M NaCl, f1 with 1 M NaCl, and f2a, f2b, and f3 could not be fully desorbed even with 2 M NaCl; 6 M guanidine-HCl was necessary

  14. Histones have high affinity for the glomerular basement membrane. Relevance for immune complex formation in lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedeke, T.M.; Stoeckl, F.W.W.; Weber, R.; Sugisaki, Y.; Batsford, S.R.; Vogt, A.

    1989-06-01

    An effort has been made to integrate insights on charge-based interactions in immune complex glomerulonephritis with nuclear antigen involvement in lupus nephritis. Attention was focussed on the histones, a group of highly cationic nuclear constituents, which could be expected to bind to fixed anionic sites present in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We demonstrated that all histone subfractions, prepared according to Johns, have a high affinity for GBM and the basement membrane of peritubular capillaries. Tissue uptake of /sup 125/I-labeled histones was measured by injecting 200 micrograms of each fraction into the left kidney via the aorta and measuring organ uptake after 15 min. In glomeruli isolated from the left kidneys, the following quantities of histones were found: f1, 13 micrograms; f2a (f2al + f2a2), 17 micrograms; f2b, 17 micrograms; and f3, 32 micrograms. Kinetic studies of glomerular binding showed that f1 disappeared much more rapidly than f2a. The high affinity of histones (pI between 10.5 and 11.0; mol wt 10,000-22,000) for the GBM correlates well with their ability to form aggregates (mol wt greater than 100,000) for comparison lysozyme (pI 11, mol wt 14,000), which does not aggregate spontaneously bound poorly (0.4 micrograms in isolated glomeruli). The quantity of histones and lysozyme found in the isolated glomeruli paralleled their in vitro affinity for a Heparin-Sepharose column (gradient elution studies). This gel matrix contains the sulfated, highly anionic polysaccharide heparin, which is similar to the negatively charged heparan sulfate present in the GBM. Lysozyme eluted with 0.15 M NaCl, f1 with 1 M NaCl, and f2a, f2b, and f3 could not be fully desorbed even with 2 M NaCl; 6 M guanidine-HCl was necessary.

  15. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Canada) hosts numerous giant unconformity-related uranium deposits. The scope of this study is to establish the pressure, temperature, and composition (P-T-X conditions) of the brines that circulated at the base of the Athabasca Basin and in its crystalline basement before, during and after UO2 deposition. These brines are commonly sampled as fluid inclusions in quartz- and dolomite-cementing veins and breccias associated with alteration and U mineralization. Microthermometry and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data from five deposits (Rabbit Lake, P-Patch, Eagle Point, Millennium, and Shea Creek) complement previously published data for the McArthur River deposit. In all of the deposits investigated, fluid inclusion salinity is between 25 and 40 wt.% NaCl equiv., with compositions displaying a continuum between a "NaCl-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Na > Ca > Mg > K) and a "CaCl2-rich brine" end-member (Cl > Ca ≈ Mg > Na > K). The CaCl2-rich brine has the highest salinity and shows evidence for halite saturation at the time of trapping. The continuum of compositions between the NaCl-rich brine and the CaCl2-rich brine end-members combined with P-T reconstructions suggest anisothermal mixing of the two brines (NaCl-rich brine, 180 ± 30 °C and 800 ± 400 bars; CaCl2-rich brine, 120 ± 30 °C and 600 ± 300 bars) that occurred under fluctuating pressure conditions (hydrostatic to supra-hydrostatic). However, because the two brines were U bearing and therefore oxidized, brine mixing was probably not the driving force for UO2 deposition. Several scenarios are put forward to account for the Cl-Na-Ca-Mg-K composition of the brines, involving combinations of seawater evaporation, halite dissolution, mixing with a halite-dissolution brine, Mg/Ca exchange by dolomitization, Na/Ca exchange by albitization of plagioclase, Na/K exchange by albitization of K-feldspar, and Mg loss by Mg

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entacti...

  17. 19-DEJ-1, a hemidesmosome-anchoring filament complex-associated monoclonal antibody. Definition of a new skin basement membrane antigenic defect in junctional and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    50% of patients with recessive dystrophic EB further suggests, for the first time, that an inherited defect in basement membrane is shared in patients with junctional and some recessive dystrophic EB. The difference in site of skin cleavage in the latter two disorders gives additional support...

  18. A bioartificial environment for kidney epithelial cells based on a supramolecular polymer basement membrane mimic and an organotypical culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Björne B; Bogaerts, Iven L J; van Almen, Geert C; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2017-06-01

    Renal applications in healthcare, such as renal replacement therapies and nephrotoxicity tests, could potentially benefit from bioartificial kidney membranes with fully differentiated and functional human tubular epithelial cells. A replacement of the natural environment of these cells is required to maintain and study cell functionality cell differentiation in vitro. Our approach was based on synthetic supramolecular biomaterials to mimic the natural basement membrane (BM) on which these cells grow and a bioreactor to provide the desired organotypical culture parameters. The BM mimics were constructed from ureidopyrimidinone (UPy)-functionalized polymer and bioactive peptides by electrospinning. The resultant membranes were shown to have a hierarchical fibrous BM-like structure consisting of self-assembled nanofibres within the electrospun microfibres. Human kidney-2 (HK-2) epithelial cells were cultured on the BM mimics under organotypical conditions in a custom-built bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitated in situ monitoring and functionality testing of the cultures. Cell viability and the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier were demonstrated inside the bioreactor by microscopy and transmembrane leakage of fluorescently labelled inulin, respectively. Furthermore, HK-2 cells maintained a polarized cell layer and showed modulation of both gene expression of membrane transporter proteins and metabolic activity of brush border enzymes when subjected to a continuous flow of culture medium inside the new bioreactor for 21 days. These results demonstrated that both the culture and study of renal epithelial cells was facilitated by the bioartificial in vitro environment that is formed by synthetic supramolecular BM mimics in our custom-built bioreactor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Ric-8a, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for heterotrimeric G proteins, regulates bergmann glia-basement membrane adhesion during cerebellar foliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shang; Kwon, Hyo Jun; Huang, Zhen

    2012-10-24

    The cerebellum consists of an intricate array of lobules that arises during the process of foliation. Foliation not only increases surface area, but may also facilitate organization of cerebellar neural circuitry. Defects in cerebellar foliation are associated with a number of diseases. Yet, little is known about how foliation, a process involving large-scale and simultaneous movement of several different cell types, is coordinated by cell-cell signaling at the molecular level. Here we show that Ric-8a, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the G-protein-coupled receptor pathway, is specifically required in Bergmann glia during cerebellar foliation. We find that ric-8a mutation in mice results in disorganized Bergmann glial scaffolding, defective granule cell migration, and disrupted Purkinje cell positioning. These abnormalities result from primary defects in Bergmann glia since mutations in granule cells do not show similar effects. They first arise during late embryogenesis, at the onset of foliation, when ric-8a mutant Bergmann glia fail to maintain adhesion to the basement membrane specifically at emerging fissures. This suggests that Ric-8a is essential for the enhanced Bergmann glia-basement membrane adhesion required for fissure formation. Indeed, we find that ric-8a-deficient cerebellar glia show decreased affinity for basement membrane components. We also find that weakening Bergmann glia-basement membrane interaction by β1 integrin deletion results in a similar phenotype. These results thus reveal a novel role of Ric-8a in modulating Bergmann glia-basement membrane adhesion during foliation, and provide new insights into the signaling pathways that coordinate cellular movement during cerebellar morphogenesis.

  20. Synthesis and localization of two sulphated glycoproteins associated with basement membranes and the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, B L; Taylor, A; Kurkinen, M

    1982-01-01

    interactions and are not precursors or products of each other. They contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, but these are not the exclusive sites of sulphate labeling. Antiserum raised against the Mr 150,000 sgp C of Reichert's membranes has been used in an immunohistochemical analysis of rat skin...

  1. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  2. Aggressive media exposed differential pressure sensor with a deposited membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaidat, Salim; Eriksen, Gert Friis; Reus, Roger De

    2001-01-01

    A new piezoresistive differential pressure sensor design for harsh wet environments is presented. The sensor design is based on a deposited membrane, which is deposited on top of polysilicon interconnects and piezoresistors. Flat membrane surfaces are thereby achieved. This enables thin film...

  3. Fibrosis is not just fibrosis - basement membrane modelling and collagen metabolism differs between hepatitis B- and C-induced injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M J; Karsdal, M A; Kazankov, K

    2016-01-01

    and fibrosis only in CHC. Basement membrane collagen fragments P4NP7S and C4M were significantly higher in matched activity and fibrosis cohorts within CHB vs CHC. CONCLUSION: The main parameters to determine extracellular matrix biomarker levels are inflammation, fibrosis, and type of viral insult. Compared...... fragments in plasma from 197 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 403 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients matched for inflammation grade and fibrosis stage. Markers of matrix metalloprotease degraded type I, III, IV and VI collagen (C1M, C3M, C4M, C6M) and type III and IV collagen formation (Pro-C3, P4NP7S......). RESULTS: P4NP7S, C3M, C4M and C6M were significantly elevated in CHB compared to CHC. In contrast, Pro-C3 was significantly elevated in CHC compared to CHB. Pro-C3, C3M and C4M were increased in parallel with inflammation and fibrosis in both cohorts. C6M and P4NP7S were associated with inflammation...

  4. An immunohistochemical study of basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan) in oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Mithilesh; Chandavarkar, Vidyadevi; Naik, Veena V; Kale, Alka D

    2013-01-01

    Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan (perlecan) has been demonstrated in precancer lesions and carcinomas of oral cavity. It helps in malignant transformation of epithelial cells. The aim of our study was to understand the immuno-localization of perlecan in oral dysplastic epithelium and oral carcinomas. A total of 50 cases comprising 10 normal mucosa, 20 dysplastic mucosa, and 20 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) were included in the retrospective study. They were examined for the presence of perlecan protein core by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody. Interpretation of the pattern of staining was done, and majority of the observations were taken for statistical analysis. In normal epithelium, perlecan was found to be present in basal layer at the cell border. In dysplastic epithelium, it was present in suprabasal layers also. With the increase in severity of dysplasia, its expression was more in suprabasal layers, and the immuno-localization was found to be at cell border and cytoplasm. In OSCC cases, perlecan was present in stroma and tumor islands. It was deduced from the above results that perlecan helps potentially in dysplastic changes of epithelial cells. It gets accumulated within the cell and intercellular spaces and serves as a reservoir for various growth factors. In OSCC, it breaks down and releases growth factors, which help in tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis of the carcinoma.

  5. Skin Basement Membrane: The Foundation of Epidermal Integrity—BM Functions and Diverse Roles of Bridging Molecules Nidogen and Perlecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Breitkreutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis functions in skin as first defense line or barrier against environmental impacts, resting on extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis underneath. Both compartments are connected by the basement membrane (BM, composed of a set of distinct glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Herein we are reviewing molecular aspects of BM structure, composition, and function regarding not only (i the dermoepidermal interface but also (ii the resident microvasculature, primarily focusing on the per se nonscaffold forming components perlecan and nidogen-1 and nidogen-2. Depletion or functional deficiencies of any BM component are lethal at some stage of development or around birth, though BM defects vary between organs and tissues. Lethality problems were overcome by developmental stage- and skin-specific gene targeting or by cell grafting and organotypic (3D cocultures of normal or defective cells, which allows recapitulating BM formation de novo. Thus, evidence is accumulating that BM assembly and turnover rely on mechanical properties and composition of the adjacent ECM and the dynamics of molecular assembly, including further “minor” local components, nidogens largely functioning as catalysts or molecular adaptors and perlecan as bridging stabilizer. Collectively, orchestration of BM assembly, remodeling, and the role of individual players herein are determined by the developmental, tissue-specific, or functional context.

  6. Basement membrane and vascular remodelling in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller H Konrad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about airway remodelling in bronchial biopsies (BB in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We conducted an initial pilot study comparing BB from COPD patients with nonsmoking controls. This pilot study suggested the presence of reticular basement membrane (Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in COPD. Methods To determine whether Rbm fragmentation and altered vessel distribution in BB were specific for COPD we designed a cross-sectional study and stained BB from 19 current smokers and 14 ex-smokers with mild to moderate COPD and compared these to 15 current smokers with normal lung function and 17 healthy and nonsmoking subjects. Results Thickness of the Rbm was not significantly different between groups; although in COPD this parameter was quite variable. The Rbm showed fragmentation and splitting in both current smoking groups and ex-smoker COPD compared with healthy nonsmokers (p Conclusions Airway remodelling in smokers and mild to moderate COPD is associated with fragmentation of the Rbm and altered distribution of vessels in the airway wall. Rbm fragmentation was also present to as great an extent in ex-smokers with COPD. These characteristics may have potential physiological consequences.

  7. Suppression of Apoptosis by Basement Membrane Requires three-dimensional Tissue Organization and Withdrawal from the Cell Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreau, N.; Werb, Z.; Bissell, M.J.

    1995-12-28

    The basement membrane (BM) extracellular matrix induces differentiation and suppresses apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells, whereas cells lacking BM lose their differentiated phenotype and undergo apoptosis. Addition of purified BM components, which are known to induce {beta}-casein expression, did not prevent apoptosis, indicating that a more complex BM was necessary. A comparison of culture conditions where apoptosis would or would not occur allowed us to relate inhibition of apoptosis to a complete withdrawal from the cell cycle, which was observed only when cells acquired a three-dimensional alveolar structure in response to BM. In the absence of this morphology, both the G1 cyclin kinase inhibitor p21/WAF-I and positive proliferative signals including c-myc and cyclin Dl were expressed and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) continued to be hyperphosphorylated. When we overexpressed either c-myc in quiescent cells or p21 when cells were still cycling, apoptosis was induced. In the absence of three-dimensional alveolar structures, mammary epithelial cells secrete a number of factors including transforming growth factor a and tenascin, which when added exogenously to quiescent cells induced expression of c-myc and interleukin-{beta}1-converting enzyme (ICE) mRNA and led to apoptosis. These experiments demonstrate that a correct tissue architecture is crucial for long-range homeostasis, suppression of apoptosis, and maintenance of differentiated phenotype.

  8. How to Study Basement Membrane Stiffness as a Biophysical Trigger in Prostate Cancer and Other Age-related Pathologies or Metabolic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Breit, Claudia; Clarke, Mitchell; Talar, Kamil; Wang, Kai; Mohammad, Mohammad A.; Pickwell, Sage; Etchandy, Guillermina; Stasiuk, Graeme J.; Sturge, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a protocol that can be used to study the biophysical microenvironment related to increased thickness and stiffness of the basement membrane (BM) during age-related pathologies and metabolic disorders (e.g. cancer, diabetes, microvascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy). The premise of the model is non-enzymatic crosslinking of reconstituted BM (rBM) matrix by treatment with glycolaldehyde (GLA) to promote advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) generation via th...

  9. PF-1355, a mechanism-based myeloperoxidase inhibitor, prevents immune complex vasculitis and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Warner, Roscoe; Ruggeri, Roger; Su, Chunyan; Cortes, Christian; Skoura, Athanasia; Ward, Jessica; Ahn, Kay; Kalgutkar, Amit; Sun, Dexue; Maurer, Tristan S; Bonin, Paul D; Okerberg, Carlin; Bobrowski, Walter; Kawabe, Thomas; Zhang, Yanwei; Coskran, Timothy; Bell, Sammy; Kapoor, Bhupesh; Johnson, Kent; Buckbinder, Leonard

    2015-05-01

    Small vessel vasculitis is a life-threatening condition and patients typically present with renal and pulmonary injury. Disease pathogenesis is associated with neutrophil accumulation, activation, and oxidative damage, the latter being driven in large part by myeloperoxidase (MPO), which generates hypochlorous acid among other oxidants. MPO has been associated with vasculitis, disseminated vascular inflammation typically involving pulmonary and renal microvasculature and often resulting in critical consequences. MPO contributes to vascular injury by 1) catabolizing nitric oxide, impairing vasomotor function; 2) causing oxidative damage to lipoproteins and endothelial cells, leading to atherosclerosis; and 3) stimulating formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, resulting in vessel occlusion and thrombosis. Here we report a selective 2-thiouracil mechanism-based MPO inhibitor (PF-1355 [2-(6-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)acetamide) and demonstrate that MPO is a critical mediator of vasculitis in mouse disease models. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic response model of PF-1355 exposure in relation with MPO activity was derived from mouse peritonitis. The contribution of MPO activity to vasculitis was then examined in an immune complex model of pulmonary disease. Oral administration of PF-1355 reduced plasma MPO activity, vascular edema, neutrophil recruitment, and elevated circulating cytokines. In a model of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, formerly known as Goodpasture disease, albuminuria and chronic renal dysfunction were completely suppressed by PF-1355 treatment. This study shows that MPO activity is critical in driving immune complex vasculitis and provides confidence in testing the hypothesis that MPO inhibition will provide benefit in treating human vasculitic diseases. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Catalyst layers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells prepared by electrospray deposition on Nafion membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, A. M.; Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Folgado, M. A.; Martín, A. J.; Daza, L.

    The electrospray deposition method has been used for preparation of catalyst layers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) on Nafion membrane. Deposition of Pt/C + ionomer suspensions on Nafion 212 gives rise to layers with a globular morphology, in contrast with the dendritic growth observed for the same layers when deposited on the gas diffusion layer, GDL (microporous carbon black layer on carbon cloth) or on metallic Al foils. Such a change is discussed in the light of the influence of the Nafion substrate on the electrospray deposition process. Nafion, which is a proton conductor and electronic insulator, gives rise to the discharge of particles through proton release and transport towards the counter electrode, compared with the direct electron transfer that takes place when depositing on an electronic conductor. There is also a change in the electric field distribution in the needle to counter-electrode gap due to the presence of Nafion, which may alter conditions for the electrospray effect. If discharging of particles is slow enough, for instances with a low membrane protonic conductivity, the Nafion substrate may be charged positively yielding a change in the electric field profile and, with it, in the properties of the film. Single cell characterization is carried out with Nafion 212 membranes catalyzed by electrospray on the cathode side. It is shown that the internal resistance of the cell decreases with on-membrane deposited cathodic catalyst layers, with respect to the same layers deposited on GDL, giving rise to a considerable improvement in cell performance. The lower internal resistance is due to higher proton conductivity at the catalyst layer-membrane interface resulting from on-membrane deposition. On the other hand, electroactive area and catalyst utilization appear little modified by on-membrane deposition, compared with on-GDL deposition.

  11. Synchronous egress and ingress fluid flow related to compressional reactivation of basement faults: the Phoenix and Gryphon uranium deposits, southeastern Athabasca Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zenghua; Chi, Guoxiang; Bethune, Kathryn M.; Eldursi, Khalifa; Thomas, David; Quirt, David; Ledru, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies on unconformity-related uranium deposits in the Athabasca Basin (Canada) suggest that egress flow and ingress flow can develop along single fault systems at different stages of compressional deformation. This research aims to examine whether or not both ingress and egress flow can develop at the same time within an area under a common compressional stress field, as suggested by the reverse displacement of the unconformity surface by the basement faults. The study considers the Phoenix and Gryphon uranium deposits in the Wheeler River area in the southeastern part of the Athabasca Basin. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of fluid flow, coupled with compressional deformation and thermal effects, was carried out to examine the fluid flow pattern. The results show that local variations in the basement geology under a common compressional stress field can result in both egress and ingress flow at the same time. The fault zone at Phoenix underwent a relatively low degree of deformation, as reflected by minor reverse displacement of the unconformity, and egress flow developed, whereas the fault zone at Gryphon experienced a relatively high degree of deformation, as demonstrated by significant reverse displacement of the unconformity, and ingress flow was dominant. The correlation between strain development and location of uranium mineralization, as exemplified by Gryphon and Phoenix uranium deposits, suggests that the localization of dilation predicted by numerical modeling may represent favourable sites for uranium mineralization in the Athabasca Basin.

  12. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    obtained cDNA clones encoding the entire bamacan core protein of Mr = 138 kD, which reveal a five domain, head-rod-tail configuration. The head and tail are potentially globular, while the central large rod probably forms coiled-coil structures, with one large central and several very short interruptions....../translation product from a full-length bamacan cDNA. The unusual structure of this proteoglycan is indicative of specific functional roles in basement membrane physiology, commensurate with its distinct expression in development and changes in disease models....

  13. Distribution, ultrastructural localization, and ontogeny of the core protein of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan in human skin and other basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R; Ljubimov, A V

    1989-01-01

    A variety of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) have been identified on cell surfaces and in basement membrane (BM). To more fully characterize HSPG in human skin BM, we used two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) directed against epitopes of the core protein of a high molecular weight HSPG isolated...... from murine EHS tumor. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed linear distribution of HSPG within all skin BM, and within BM of all other human organs investigated. In a study of the ontogeny of HSPG in human skin BM, HSPG was detectable as early as 54 gestational days, comparable with other ubiquitous BM...

  14. Fluorinated carboxylic membranes deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thery, J.; Faucheux, V.; Truffier-Boutry, D.; Martinent, A.; Laurent, J.-Y. [Laboratory of Printed Component, LITEN, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Martin, S.; Le Van Jodin, L. [Laboratory of Components for the Micro-storage of Energy, LITEN, CEA Grenoble, 17 rue des martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2010-09-01

    Among the fuel cell technologies, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are particularly promising because they are energy-efficient, clean, and fuel-flexible (i.e., can use hydrogen or methanol). The great majority of PEM fuel cells rely on a polymer electrolyte from the family of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, nevertheless alternative materials are currently being developed, mainly to offer the alternative workout techniques which are required for the portable energy sources. Plasma polymerization represents a good solution, as it offers the possibility to deposit thin layer with an accurate and homogeneous thickness, even on 3D surfaces. In this paper, we present the results for the growth of proton conductive fluoro carboxylic membranes elaborated by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. These membranes present conductivity values of the same order than the one of Nafion {sup registered}. The properties of the membrane, such as the chemical composition, the ionic conductivity, the swelling behaviour and the permeability were correlated to the plasma process parameters. The membranes were integrated in fuel cells on porous substrates and we present here the results regarding the barrier effect and the power output. Barrier effect similar to those of 40 {mu}m Nafion {sup registered} layers was reached for 10 {mu}m thick carboxylic membranes. Power outputs around 3 mW cm{sup -2} were measured. We discuss the results regarding the gas barrier effect and the power outputs. (author)

  15. Fluorinated carboxylic membranes deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thery, J.; Martin, S.; Faucheux, V.; Le Van Jodin, L.; Truffier-Boutry, D.; Martinent, A.; Laurent, J.-Y.

    Among the fuel cell technologies, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are particularly promising because they are energy-efficient, clean, and fuel-flexible (i.e., can use hydrogen or methanol). The great majority of PEM fuel cells rely on a polymer electrolyte from the family of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, nevertheless alternative materials are currently being developed, mainly to offer the alternative workout techniques which are required for the portable energy sources. Plasma polymerization represents a good solution, as it offers the possibility to deposit thin layer with an accurate and homogeneous thickness, even on 3D surfaces. In this paper, we present the results for the growth of proton conductive fluoro carboxylic membranes elaborated by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. These membranes present conductivity values of the same order than the one of Nafion ®. The properties of the membrane, such as the chemical composition, the ionic conductivity, the swelling behaviour and the permeability were correlated to the plasma process parameters. The membranes were integrated in fuel cells on porous substrates and we present here the results regarding the barrier effect and the power output. Barrier effect similar to those of 40 μm Nafion ® layers was reached for 10 μm thick carboxylic membranes. Power outputs around 3 mW cm -2 were measured. We discuss the results regarding the gas barrier effect and the power outputs.

  16. Immunohistochemical distribution of laminin-332 and collagen type IV in the basement membrane of normal horses and horses with induced laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M B; Pollitt, C C

    2011-07-01

    The basement membrane (BM) is a thin layer of extracellular matrix that regulates cell functions as well as providing support to tissues of the body. Primary components of the BM of epithelial tissues are laminin-332 (Ln-332) and collagen type IV. Equine laminitis is a disease characterized by destruction and dislocation of the hoof lamellar BM. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the distribution of Ln-332 and collagen type IV in the organs of normal horses and these proteins were found to be widespread. Analysis of a panel of tissue samples from horses with experimentally-induced laminitis revealed that Ln-332 and collagen type IV degradation occurs in the skin and stomach in addition to the hoof lamellae. These findings suggest that BM degradation is common to many epithelial tissues during equine laminitis and suggests a role for systemic trigger factors in this disease. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    , and laminin. A monoclonal antibody specific for the glycosaminoglycan portion (CS) of CSPG and a monoclonal antibody against the core protein of CSPG were used in an immunoperoxidase sequence to stain extracellular matrix (ECM) components of pulmonary basement membranes (BMs). Anti-CS stained airway BM...... alveolar, airway, and vascular BMs, in addition to smooth muscle external laminae (EL), in the adult and developing rat. Immunostaining for CSPG required hyaluronidase digestion, whereas CS staining was lost with the same treatment. A polyclonal antibody to the core protein of HSPG was found...... with CSPG, except that entactin showed particular affinity for EL. These results offer a more detailed perspective on previous survey observations of CSPG, HSPG, and entactin in the rat lung, and describe the immunoreactivity of CS for the first time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  18. In vitro blood-brain barrier models for drug research: state-of-the-art and new perspectives on reconstituting these models on artificial basement membrane platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jayati; Shi, Yejiao; Azevedo, Helena S

    2016-09-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models are indispensable screening tools for obtaining early information about the brain-penetrating behaviour of promising drug candidates. Until now, in vitro BBB models have focused on investigating the interplay among cellular components of neurovascular units and the effect of fluidic sheer stress in sustaining normal BBB phenotype and functions. However, an area that has received less recognition is the role of the noncellular basement membrane (BM) in modulating BBB physiology. This review describes the state-of-the-art on in vitro BBB models relevant in drug discovery research and highlights their strengths, weaknesses and the utility potential of some of these models in testing the permeability of nanocarriers as vectors for delivering therapeutics to the brain. Importantly, our review also introduces a new concept of engineering artificial BM platforms for reconstituting BBB models in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reciprocal interactions between Beta1-integrin and epidermal growth factor in three-dimensional basement membrane breast cultures: A different perspective in epithelial biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Weaver, V.M.; Petersen, O.W.; Larabell, C.A.; Dedhar, S.; Briand, P.; Lupu, R.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-09-30

    Anchorage and growth factor independence are cardinal features of the transformed phenotype. Although it is logical that the two pathways must be coregulated in normal tissues to maintain homeostasis, this has not been demonstrated directly. We showed previously that down-modulation of {beta}1-integrin signaling reverted the malignant behavior of a human breast tumor cell line (T4-2) derived from phenotypically normal cells (HMT-3522) and led to growth arrest in a threedimensional (3D) basement membrane assay in which the cells formed tissue-like acini (14). Here, we show that there is a bidirectional cross-modulation of {beta}1-integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling via the mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The reciprocal modulation does not occur in monolayer (2D) cultures. Antibodymediated inhibition of either of these receptors in the tumor cells, or inhibition of MAPK kinase, induced a concomitant downregulation of both receptors, followed by growth-arrest and restoration of normal breast tissue morphogenesis. Crossmodulation and tissue morphogenesis were associated with attenuation of EGF-induced transient MAPK activation. To specifically test EGFR and {beta}1-integrin interdependency, EGFR was overexpressed in nonmalignant cells, leading to disruption of morphogenesis and a compensatory up-regulation of {beta}1-integrin expression, again only in 3D. Our results indicate that when breast cells are spatially organized as a result of contact with basement membrane, the signaling pathways become coupled and bidirectional. They further explain why breast cells fail to differentiate in monolayer cultures in which these events are mostly uncoupled. Moreover, in a subset of tumor cells in which these pathways are misregulated but functional, the cells could be 'normalized' by manipulating either pathway.

  20. Desalination by Membrane Distillation using Electrospun Polyamide Fiber Membranes with Surface Fluorination by Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei; Servi, Amelia; Liu, Andong; Gleason, Karen K; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2015-04-22

    Fibrous membranes of poly(trimethyl hexamethylene terephthalamide) (PA6(3)T) were fabricated by electrospinning and rendered hydrophobic by applying a conformal coating of poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) (PPFDA) using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). A set of iCVD-treated electrospun PA6(3)T fiber membranes with fiber diameters ranging from 0.25 to 1.8 μm were tested for desalination using the air gap membrane distillation configuration. Permeate fluxes of 2-11 kg/m2/h were observed for temperature differentials of 20-45 °C between the feed stream and condenser plate, with rejections in excess of 99.98%. The liquid entry pressure was observed to increase dramatically, from 15 to 373 kPa with reduction in fiber diameter. Contrary to expectation, for a given feed temperature the permeate flux was observed to increase for membranes of decreasing fiber diameter. The results for permeate flux and salt rejection show that it is possible to construct membranes for membrane distillation even from intrinsically hydrophilic materials after surface modification by iCVD and that the fiber diameter is shown to play an important role on the membrane distillation performance in terms of permeate flux, salt rejection, and liquid entry pressure.

  1. Products of the unc-52 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans are homologous to the core protein of the mammalian basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, T M; Williams, B D; Mullen, G P; Moerman, D G

    1993-08-01

    Mutations in the unc-52 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans affect attachment of the myofilament lattice to the muscle cell membrane. Here, we demonstrate that the unc-52 gene encodes a nematode homolog of perlecan, the mammalian basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The longest potential open reading frame of this gene encodes a 2482-amino-acid protein with a signal peptide and four domains. The first domain is unique to the unc-52 polypeptide, whereas the three remaining domains contain sequences found in the LDL receptor (domain II) laminin (domain III) and N-CAM (domain IV). We have identified three alternatively spliced transcripts that encode different carboxy-terminal sequences. The two larger transcripts encode proteins containing all or part of domain IV, whereas the smaller transcript encodes a shortened polypeptide that completely lacks domain IV. We have determined that the disorganized muscle phenotype observed in unc-52(st196) animals is caused by the insertion of a Tc1 transposon into domain IV. Two monoclonal antibodies that recognize an extracellular component of all contractile tissues in C. elegans fail to stain embryos homozygous for a lethal unc-52 allele. We have mapped the epitopes recognized by both monoclonal antibodies to a region of domain IV in the unc-52-encoded protein sequence.

  2. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian

    2013-04-02

    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  3. Preparation of membranes using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA; Letts, Stephan A [San Ramon, CA; Spadaccini, Christopher M [Oakland, CA; Morse, Jeffrey C [Pleasant Hill, CA; Buckley, Steven R [Modesto, CA; Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Wilson, Keith B [San Ramon, CA

    2012-01-24

    A system of fabricating a composite membrane from a membrane substrate using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. A first monomer and a second monomer are directed into a mixing chamber in a deposition chamber. The first monomer and the second monomer are mixed in the mixing chamber providing a mixed first monomer and second monomer. The mixed first monomer and second monomer are solvent-less vapor deposited onto the membrane substrate in the deposition chamber. The membrane substrate and the mixed first monomer and second monomer are heated to produce in-situ polymerization and provide the composite membrane.

  4. Preparation of membranes using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kevin C [San Ramon, CA; Letts, Stephan A [San Ramon, CA; Spadaccini, Christopher M [Oakland, CA; Morse, Jeffrey C [Pleasant Hill, CA; Buckley, Steven R [Modesto, CA; Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Wilson, Keith B [San Ramon, CA

    2010-07-13

    A system of fabricating a composite membrane from a membrane substrate using solvent-less vapor deposition followed by in-situ polymerization. A first monomer and a second monomer are directed into a mixing chamber in a deposition chamber. The first monomer and the second monomer are mixed in the mixing chamber providing a mixed first monomer and second monomer. The mixed first monomer and second monomer are solvent-less vapor deposited onto the membrane substrate in the deposition chamber. The membrane substrate and the mixed first monomer and second monomer are heated to produce in-situ polymerization and provide the composite membrane.

  5. Reticular Basement Membrane Vessels Are Increased in COPD Bronchial Mucosa by Both Factor VIII and Collagen IV Immunostaining and Are Hyperpermeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Soltani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Using Collagen IV staining, we have previously reported that the reticular basement membrane (Rbm is hypervascular and the lamina propria (LP is hypovascular in COPD airways. This study compared Collagen IV staining with vessels marked with anti-Factor VIII and examined vessel permeability in bronchial biopsies from COPD and normal subjects using albumin staining. Results. Anti-Collagen IV antibody detected more vessels in the Rbm (P=0.002 and larger vessels in both Rbm (P<0.001 and LP (P=0.003 compared to Factor VIII. COPD airways had more vessels (with greater permeability in the Rbm (P=0.01 and fewer vessels (with normal permeability in the LP compared to controls with both Collagen IV and Factor VIII antibodies (P=0.04 and P=0.01. Conclusion. Rbm vessels were increased in number and were hyperpermeable in COPD airways. Anti-Collagen IV and anti-Factor VIII antibodies did not uniformly detect the same vessel populations; the first is likely to reflect larger and older vessels with the latter reflecting smaller, younger vessels.

  6. Reduced fibulin-2 contributes to loss of basement membrane integrity and skin blistering in mice lacking integrin α3β1 in the epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmate, Whitney M; Monichan, Ruby; Chu, Mon-Li; Tsuda, Takeshi; Mahoney, My G; DiPersio, C Michael

    2014-06-01

    Deficient epidermal adhesion is a hallmark of blistering skin disorders and chronic wounds, implicating integrins as potential therapeutic targets. Integrin α3β1, a major receptor in the epidermis for adhesion to laminin-332 (LN-332), has critical roles in basement membrane (BM) organization during skin development. In the current study we identify a role for α3β1 in promoting stability of nascent epidermal BMs through induction of fibulin-2, a matrix-associated protein that binds LN-332. We demonstrate that mice lacking α3β1 in the epidermis display ruptured BM beneath neo-epidermis of wounds, characterized by extensive blistering. This junctional blistering phenocopies defects reported in newborn α3-null mice, as well as in human patients with α3 gene mutations, indicating that the developmental role of α3β1 in BM organization is recapitulated during wound healing. Mice lacking epidermal α3β1 also have reduced fibulin-2 expression, and fibulin-2-null mice display perinatal skin blisters similar to those in α3β1-deficient mice. Interestingly, α3-null wound epidermis or keratinocytes also show impaired processing of the LN-332 γ2 chain, although this defect was independent of reduced fibulin-2 and did not appear to cause blistering. Our findings indicate a role for integrin α3β1 in BM stability through fibulin-2 induction, both in neonatal skin and in adult wounds.

  7. A two-dimensional model of the colonic crypt accounting for the role of the basement membrane and pericryptal fibroblast sheath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.

  8. Surface modification of titanium membrane by chemical vapor deposition and its electrochemical self-cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.W.; Li, J.X.; Gao, C.Y.; Chang, M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane separation is applied widely in many fields, while concentration polarization and membrane fouling, limiting its promotion and application greatly, are the bottlenecks in membrane application. Among which, membrane fouling is irreversible, membrane must be periodically cleaned or even replaced to restore permeability. Membrane cleaning has become one of Key issues in membrane separation areas. Considering incomparable electrochemical advantages of boron-doped diamond (BDD) film electrode over conventional electrode, a new composite membrane Ti/BDD, made by depositing CVD (chemical vapor deposition) boron-doped diamond film on titanium(Ti) membrane to modify porous titanium surface, that can be cleaned electrochemically is proposed. Feasibility of its preparation and application is discussed in this paper. Results shows that based on the unique electrochemical properties of diamond, cleaning level of this composite Ti/BDD membrane is significantly increased, making membrane life and efficiency improved prominently.

  9. Electrochemically Deposited Nickel Membranes; Process-Microstructure-Property Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Dahl; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the manufacturing, surface morphology, internal structure and mechanical properties of Ni-foils used as membranes in reference-microphones. Two types of foils, referred to as S-type and 0-type foils, were electrochemically deposited from a Watts-type electrolyte, with (S......-type) or without (0-type) the use of the sulphur-containing additive sodium saccharin. Both types of Ni-foils appeared perfectly smooth when investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed differences in the surface...... morphologies and a smaller grain-size in the S-type foils. X-ray diffraction showed a texture component in both types of Ni-foils, most pronounced for 0-type foils. A minor -texture component observed in both foil types was strongest in the S-type foils. Mechanically 0-type foils proved more ductile than S...

  10. Production of selective membranes using plasma deposited nanochanneled thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Motta Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolization of thin films obtained by tetraethoxysilane plasma polymerization results in the formation of a nanochanneled silicone like structure that could be useful for the production of selective membranes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to test the permeation properties of hydrolyzed thin films. The films were tested for: 1 permeation of polar organic compounds and/or water in gaseous phase and 2 permeation of salt in liquid phase. The efficiency of permeation was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM technique in gas phase and conductimetric analysis (CA in liquid phase. The substrates used were: silicon for characterization of the deposited films, piezoelectric quartz crystals for tests of selective membranes and cellophane paper for tests of permeation. QCM analysis showed that the nanochannels allow the adsorption and/or permeation of polar organic compounds, such as acetone and 2-propanol, and water. CA showed that the films allow salt permeation after an inhibition time needed for hydrolysis of the organic radicals within the film. Due to their characteristics, the films can be used for grains protection against microorganism proliferation during storage without preventing germination.

  11. Deposition and consolidation of porous ceramic films for membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal; Tricoli, Antonio; Johannessen, Tue

    The deposition of porous ceramic films for membrane separation can be done by several processes such as thermophoresis [1], dip-coating [2] and spray pyrolysis [3]. Here we present a high-speed method, in which ceramic nano-particles form a porous film by filtration on top of a porous ceramic...... substrate [4]. Ceramic nano-particles are generated in a flame, using either a premixed (gas) flame, in which a metal-oxide precursor is evaporated in an N2 stream, which is combusted with methane and air, or using a flame spray pyrolysis, in which a liquid metal-oxide precursor is sprayed through a nozzle.......E., Sahm, T., Gurlo, A., Barsan, N., Weimar, U., Sensors and Actuators B, 114, 283-295, 2006 [2] Cini, P., Blaha, S.R., Harold, M.P., Venkataraman, K., J. Membrane Sci., 55, 199-225, 1991 [3] Stoermer, A.O., Rupp, J.L.M., Gauckler, L.J., Solid State Ionics, In press, 2006 [4] Andersen, S.K., Johannessen, T...

  12. Direct observation of bacterial deposition on and detachment from nanocomposite membranes embedded with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolin; Rosenfield, Eric; Hu, Meng; Mi, Baoxia

    2013-06-01

    A microscope-equipped online monitoring system was used to investigate the bacterial deposition and detachment kinetics of a nanocomposite membrane that was synthesized by embedding silver nanoparticles in a polysulfone membrane. A pure polysulfone membrane was used as a control in the experiments. The deposition experiments with live bacteria showed that the bacterial deposition rates were the same for the nanocomposite and control polysulfone membranes. After the rinsing experiments, however, on average a high bacterial detachment ratio of 75% was observed for the nanocomposite membrane, compared with 18% for the control polysulfone membrane. These results indicate that the presence of silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent enhances the antiadhesive property of the nanocomposite membrane by decreasing the capability of bacteria in permanently attaching to the membrane surface. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation was used to study silver leaching. It was found that silver leaching significantly decreased within the first few hours. Deposition and rinsing experiments with dead bacterial cells revealed that the dead cell deposition rates were similar for both membranes, and so were the detachment ratios. Since the nanocomposite membrane did not show any antiadhesive action against dead cells, its antiadhesive property was most likely attributed to its ability to inhibit biological activities. Results of the antibacterial experiments confirmed that the nanocomposite membrane was highly effective in inhibiting bacterial growth with an antibacterial efficiency of over 98%, which did not decrease even after the membrane was soaked in DI water for seven days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface modification of reverse osmosis desalination membranes by thin-film coatings deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde, E-mail: gozdeince@sabanciuniv.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Matin, Asif, E-mail: amatin@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Zafarullah, E-mail: zukhan@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Zaidi, S.M. Javaid, E-mail: zaidismj@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Gleason, Karen K., E-mail: kkgleasn@mit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-31

    Thin-film polymeric reverse osmosis membranes, due to their high permeation rates and good salt rejection capabilities, are widely used for seawater desalination. However, these membranes are prone to biofouling, which affects their performance and efficiency. In this work, we report a method to modify the membrane surface without damaging the active layer or significantly affecting the performance of the membrane. Amphiphilic copolymer films of hydrophilic hydroxyethylmethacrylate and hydrophobic perfluorodecylacrylate (PFA) were synthesized and deposited on commercial RO membranes using an initiated chemical vapor deposition technique which is a polymer deposition technique that involves free-radical polymerization initiated by gas-phase radicals. Relevant surface characteristics such as hydrophilicity and roughness could be systematically controlled by varying the polymer chemistry. Increasing the hydrophobic PFA content in the films leads to an increase in the surface roughness and hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the surface morphology studies performed using the atomic force microscopy show that as the thickness of the coating increases average surface roughness increases. Using this knowledge, the coating thickness and chemistry were optimized to achieve high permeate flux and to reduce cell attachment. Results of the static bacterial adhesion tests show that the attachment of bacterial cells is significantly reduced on the coated membranes. - Highlights: • Thin films are deposited on reverse osmosis membranes. • Amphiphilic thin films are resistant to protein attachment. • The permeation performance of the membranes is not affected by the coating. • The thin film coatings delayed the biofouling.

  14. The association of HLA-DQB1, -DQA1 and -DPB1 alleles with anti- glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xu-Jie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM disease. In our previous study, it was demonstrated that HLA-DRB1*1501 was strongly associated with anti-GBM disease in Chinese. However, the association of anti-GBM disease and other HLA class II genes, including HLA-DQB1, -DQA1,-DPB1 alleles, has rarely been investigated in Asian, especially Chinese patients. The present study further analyzed the association between anti-GBM disease and HLA-DQB1, -DQA1, and -DPB1 genes. Apart from this, we tried to locate the potential risk amino acid residues of anti-GBM disease. Methods This study included 44 Chinese patients with anti-GBM disease and 200 healthy controls. The clinical and pathological data of the patients were collected and analyzed. Typing of HLA-DQB1, -DQA1 and -DPB1 alleles were performed by bi-directional sequencing of exon 2 using the SeCoreTM Sequencing Kits. Results Compared with normal controls, the prevalence of HLA-DPB1*0401 was significantly lower in patients with anti-GBM disease (3/88 vs. 74/400, p = 4.4 × 10-4, pc = 0.039. Comparing with normal controls, the combination of presence of DRB1*1501 and absence of DPB1*0401 was significantly prominent among anti-GBM patients (p = 2.0 × 10-12, pc = 1.7 × 10-10. Conclusions HLA-DPB1*0401 might be a protective allele to anti-GBM disease in Chinese patients. The combined presence of DRB1*1501 and absence of DPB1*0401 might have an even higher risk to anti-GBM disease than HLA-DRB1*1501 alone.

  15. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that the major gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mammalian craniofacial development. Since these matrix metalloproteinases are secreted as proenzymes that require activation, their tissue distribution does not necessarily reflect the sites of enzymatic activity. Information regarding the spatial and temporal expression of gelatinolytic activity in the head of the mammalian embryo is sparse. Sensitive in situ zymography with dye-quenched gelatin (DQ-gelatin) has been introduced recently; gelatinolytic activity results in a local increase in fluorescence. Using frontal sections of wild-type mouse embryo heads from embryonic day 14.5-15.5, we optimized and validated a simple double-labeling in situ technique for combining DQ-gelatin zymography with immunofluorescence staining. MMP inhibitors were tested to confirm the specificity of the reaction in situ, and results were compared to standard SDS-gel zymography of tissue extracts. Double-labeling was used to show the spatial relationship in situ between gelatinolytic activity and immunostaining for gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, collagenase 3 (MMP-13) and MT1-MMP (MMP-14), a major activator of pro-gelatinases. Strong gelatinolytic activity, which partially overlapped with MMP proteins, was confirmed for Meckel's cartilage and developing mandibular bone. In addition, we combined in situ zymography with immunostaining for extracellular matrix proteins that are potential gelatinase substrates. Interestingly, gelatinolytic activity colocalized precisely with laminin-positive basement membranes at specific sites around growing epithelia in the developing mouse head, such as the ducts of salivary glands or the epithelial fold between tongue and lower jaw region. Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo.

  16. Poliomyelitis in MuLV-infected ICR-SCID mice after injection of basement membrane matrix contaminated with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Scholz, Jodi A; Garg, Rohit; Compton, Susan R; Allore, Heather G; Zeiss, Caroline J; Uchio, Edward M

    2011-10-01

    The arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) causes life-long viremia in mice. Although LDV infection generally does not cause disease, infected mice that are homozygous for the Fv1(n) allele are prone to develop poliomyelitis when immunosuppressed, a condition known as age-dependent poliomyelitis. The development of age-dependent poliomyelitis requires coinfection with endogenous murine leukemia virus. Even though LDV is a common contaminant of transplantable tumors, clinical signs of poliomyelitis after inadvertent exposure to LDV have not been described in recent literature. In addition, LDV-induced poliomyelitis has not been reported in SCID or ICR mice. Here we describe the occurrence of poliomyelitis in ICR-SCID mice resulting from injection of LDV-contaminated basement membrane matrix. After exposure to LDV, a subset of mice presented with clinical signs including paresis, which was associated with atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, and tachypnea; in addition, some mice died suddenly with or without premonitory signs. Mice presenting within the first 6 mo after infection had regions of spongiosis, neuronal necrosis and astrocytosis of the ventral spinal cord, and less commonly, brainstem. Axonal degeneration of ventral roots prevailed in more chronically infected mice. LDV was identified by RT-PCR in 12 of 15 mice with typical neuropathology; positive antiLDV immunolabeling was identified in all PCR-positive animals (n = 7) tested. Three of 8 mice with neuropathology but no clinical signs were LDV negative by RT-PCR. RT-PCR yielded murine leukemia virus in spinal cords of all mice tested, regardless of clinical presentation or neuropathology.

  17. Co-deposition of tannic acid and diethlyenetriamine for surface hydrophilization of hydrophobic polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Ren, Peng-Fei; Yang, Hao-Cheng; Wan, Ling-Shu; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel approach toward the surface modification of commercial polymer membranes via co-deposition of tannic acid (TA) and diethlyenetriamine (DETA). Particle-free, superhydrophilic, and almost colorless coatings are fabricated on the surfaces of polypropylene, poly(vinylidene fluoride), and poly(tetrafluoroethlene) microfiltration membranes. Cross-linking between TA and DETA plays a crucial role during the co-deposition process, as well as the adhesion of TA on the hydrophobic membrane surfaces. Both the surface wettability and water permeation flux are dramatically improved for the studied membranes after the co-deposition. The results indicate that co-deposition of TA and DETA is great potential for the surface modification of hydrophobic membranes.

  18. C-O-H-N fluids circulations and graphite precipitation in reactivated Hudsonian shear zones during basement uplift of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone: Example of the Cigar Lake U deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Pierre; Cathelineau, Michel; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Jaguin, Justine; Tarantola, Alexandre; Demacon, Mickael; Gerbeaud, Olivier; Quirt, David; Doney, Amber; Ledru, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Graphitic shear zones are spatially associated with unconformity-related uranium deposits that are located around the unconformity between the strata of the Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada) and its underlying Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement. The present study focuses on basement-hosted ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones near the Cigar Lake U deposit, one of the largest unconformity-related U deposits. The goal of the study is to decipher the pre-Athabasca Basin fluid migration history recorded within such structures and its potential role on the formation of such exceptional deposit. Dominantly C-O-H(-N) metamorphic fluids have been trapped in Fluid Inclusion Planes (FIPs) in magmatic quartz within ductile-brittle graphitic shear zones active during retrograde metamorphism associated with the formation of the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ) between ca. 1805 and 1720 Ma. Such fluids show a compositional evolution along the retrograde path, from a dense and pure CO2 fluid during the earliest stages, through a lower density CO2 ± CH4-N2 (± H2O) fluid and, finally, to a very low density CH4-N2 fluid. Statistical study of the orientation, distribution, proportion, and chemical characterization of the FIPs shows that: i) CO2 (δ13CCO2 around - 9‰ PDB) from decarbonation reactions and/or partial water-metamorphic graphite equilibrium initially migrated regionally and pervasively under lithostatic conditions at about 500 to 800 °C and 150 to 300 MPa. Such P-T conditions attest to a high geothermal gradient of around 60 to 90 °C/km, probably related to rapid exhumation of the basement or a large-scale heat source. ii) Later brittle reactivation of the shear zone at around 450 °C and 25-50 MPa favored circulation of CO2-CH4-N2(± H2O) fluids in equilibrium with metamorphic graphite (δ13CCO2 around - 14‰) under hydrostatic conditions and only within the shear zones. Cooling of these fluids and the water uptake linked

  19. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  20. How to Study Basement Membrane Stiffness as a Biophysical Trigger in Prostate Cancer and Other Age-related Pathologies or Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Breit, Claudia; Clarke, Mitchell; Talar, Kamil; Wang, Kai; Mohammad, Mohammad A; Pickwell, Sage; Etchandy, Guillermina; Stasiuk, Graeme J; Sturge, Justin

    2016-09-20

    Here we describe a protocol that can be used to study the biophysical microenvironment related to increased thickness and stiffness of the basement membrane (BM) during age-related pathologies and metabolic disorders (e.g. cancer, diabetes, microvascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy). The premise of the model is non-enzymatic crosslinking of reconstituted BM (rBM) matrix by treatment with glycolaldehyde (GLA) to promote advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) generation via the Maillard reaction. Examples of laboratory techniques that can be used to confirm AGE generation, non-enzymatic crosslinking and increased stiffness in GLA treated rBM are outlined. These include preparation of native rBM (treated with phosphate-buffered saline, PBS) and stiff rBM (treated with GLA) for determination of: its AGE content by photometric analysis and immunofluorescent microscopy, its non-enzymatic crosslinking by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) as well as confocal microscopy, and its increased stiffness using rheometry. The procedure described here can be used to increase the rigidity (elastic moduli, E) of rBM up to 3.2-fold, consistent with measurements made in healthy versus diseased human prostate tissue. To recreate the biophysical microenvironment associated with the aging and diseased prostate gland three prostate cell types were introduced on to native rBM and stiff rBM: RWPE-1, prostate epithelial cells (PECs) derived from a normal prostate gland; BPH-1, PECs derived from a prostate gland affected by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); and PC3, metastatic cells derived from a secondary bone tumor originating from prostate cancer. Multiple parameters can be measured, including the size, shape and invasive characteristics of the 3D glandular acini formed by RWPE-1 and BPH-1 on native versus stiff rBM, and average cell length, migratory velocity and persistence of cell movement of 3D spheroids formed by PC3 cells under

  1. Pulmonary renal syndrome in a child with coexistence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Radovan; Minić, Predrag; Marković-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Stajić, Nataša; Savić, Nataša; Rodić, Milan

    2013-03-22

    Pulmonary renal syndrome (PRS), denoting the presence of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis as manifestations of systemic autoimmune disease, is very rare in childhood. The coexistence of circulating anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease in children affected by this syndrome is exceptional, with unfavorable outcome in five out of seven patients reported to date. We describe a child with PRS associated with both circulating anti-myeloperoxidase (anti-MPO) ANCA and anti-GBM disease on renal biopsy who was successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy. A 10-year old girl presented with fever, fatigue, malaise, and pallor followed by hemoptysis and severe anemia. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was revealed on fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Renal findings consisted of microscopic hematuria, moderate proteinuria, and anti-GBM disease on renal biopsy. ANCA with anti-MPO specificity were present whereas anti-GBM antibodies were on borderline for positivity. Methyl-prednisolone pulses followed by prednisone led to cessation of hemoptysis, marked improvement of lung fuction, and normal finding on chest x-ray within 10 days. An immunosuppressive regimen was then given consisting of prednisone daily for 4 weeks with subsequent taper on alternate day, i.v. cyclophosphamide pulses monthly for 6 doses, followed by mycophenolate mofetil that resulted in normal lung function tests, hemoglobin concentration, and anti-MPO level within four subsequent weeks. During 10-months of follow-up she remained well, her blood pressure and renal function tests were normal, and proteinuria and hematuria gradually resolved. We report a child with an exceptionally rare coexistence of circulating ANCA and anti-GBM disease manifesting as PRS in whom renal disease was not the prominent part of clinical presentation, contrary to other reported pediatric patients. A review of literature on disease with double positive antibodies is

  2. Plasma deposition of silver nanoparticles on ultrafiltration membranes: antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mercedes Cecilia; Ruano, Gustavo; Wolf, Marcus; Hecker, Dominic; Vidaurre, Elza Castro; Schmittgens, Ralph; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    A novel and versatile plasma reactor was used to modify Polyethersulphone commercial membranes. The equipment was applied to: i) functionalize the membranes with low-temperature plasmas, ii) deposit a film of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and, iii) deposit silver nanoparticles (SNP) by Gas Flow Sputtering. Each modification process was performed in the same reactor consecutively, without exposure of the membranes to atmospheric air. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the particles and modified membranes. SNP are evenly distributed on the membrane surface. Particle fixation and transport inside membranes were assessed before- and after-washing assays by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis. PMMA addition improved SNP fixation. Plasma-treated membranes showed higher hydrophilicity. Anti-biofouling activity was successfully achieved against Gram-positive ( Enterococcus faecalis ) and -negative ( Salmonella Typhimurium) bacteria. Therefore, disinfection by ultrafiltration showed substantial resistance to biofouling. The post-synthesis functionalization process developed provides a more efficient fabrication route for anti-biofouling and anti-bacterial membranes used in the water treatment field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a gas phase condensation process combined with a PECVD procedure in order to deposit SNP on commercial membranes to inhibit biofouling formation.

  3. Surface Modification of Ceramic Membranes with Thin-film Deposition Methods for Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling, which is caused by deposition/adsorption of foulants on the surface or within membrane pores, still remains a bottleneck that hampers the widespread application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment. Recently membrane surface modification has proved to be a useful method in water/wastewater treatment to improve the surface hydrophilicity of membranes to obtain higher water fluxes and to reduce fouling. In this study, membrane modification was investigated by depositing a thin film of same thickness of TiO2 on the surface of an ultrafiltration alumina membrane. Various thin-film deposition (TFD) methods were employed, i.e. electron-beam evaporation, sputter and atomic layer deposition (ALD), and a comparative study of the methods was conducted to assess fouling inhibition performance in a lab-scale anaerobic MBR (AnMBR) fed with synthetic municipal wastewater. Thorough surface characterization of all modified membranes was carried out along with clean water permeability (CWP) tests and fouling behavior by bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption tests. The study showed better fouling inhibition performance of all modified membranes; however the effect varied due to different surface characteristics obtained by different deposition methods. As a result, ALD-modified membrane showed a superior status in terms of surface characteristics and fouling inhibition performance in AnMBR filtration tests. Hence ALD was determined to be the best TFD method for alumina membrane surface modification for this study. ALD-modified membranes were further characterized to determine an optimum thickness of TiO2-film by applying different ALD cycles. ALD treatment significantly improved the surface hydrophilicity of the unmodified membrane. Also ALD-TiO2 modification was observed to reduce the surface roughness of original alumina membrane, which in turn enhanced the anti-fouling properties of modified membranes. Finally, a same thickness of ALD

  4. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radu, A.I.

    2014-11-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic observations in membrane fouling simulators revealed formation of specific particle deposition patterns for different diamond and ladder feed spacer orientations. A three-dimensional numerical model combining fluid flow with a Lagrangian approach for particle trajectory calculations could describe very well the in-situ observations on particle deposition in flow cells. Feed spacer geometry, positioning and cross-flow velocity sensitively influenced the particle transport and deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were not influenced by permeate production. This combined experimental-modeling approach could be used for feed spacer geometry optimization studies for reduced (bio)fouling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Copper deposition on Pd membranes by electroless plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acha, E.; Arias, P.L.; Cambra, J.F. [Chemical Engineering and Environmental Department, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Van Delft, Y.; Overbeek, J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    PdCu membranes were prepared by the electroless plating of Pd membranes prepared on ceramic tubular supports. Different PdCu membranes were prepared with Pd content between 45 and 77 wt% and a total metal layer between 0.5 and 1.9 {mu}m thickness. The alloying step was performed in two ways to compare and establish the required alloying time for obtaining high permeance membranes. The alloying was analysed with EDX composition measurements, and full alloying was not required to obtain a stable hydrogen flux. Finally, permeance tests were performed at different pressures, including temperature cycles in hydrogen and nitrogen, to observe membrane stability. The hydrogen permeance values of the membranes were high, between 1.5x10{sup -3} and 4.5x10{sup -3} mol/(s Pa{sup 0.5} m{sup 2}) at 673 K. The membranes recorded stable permeance values even after thermal cycles in a hydrogen atmosphere. Metal layer thickness was calculated using both the weight difference method and SEM images. SEM images were also used to analyse the surface morphology of the membranes, which was generally fairly uniform and smooth.

  6. Deposition of toxic metal particles on rough nanofiltration membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agboola, Oluranti; Maree, Jannie; Mbaya, Richard; Zvinowanda, Caliphs Musa; Molelekwa, Gomotsegang Fred; Jullok, Nora; Bruggen, Bart Van der; Volodine, Alexander; Haesendonck, Chris Van

    2014-01-01

    Two nanofiltration (NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012) membranes were investigated for their capacity to remove metal ions. This study presents the effect of membrane roughness on the removal of toxic metal ions during dead end membrane filtration. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, WSXM software and ImageJ were used to characterize the roughness of the membranes. Gradual decrease in filtration permeate flux was observed as foulants accumulated at the interface of the membranes; filtration permeate flux varied from 20 L/m 2 /h to 14 L/m 2 /h and 11 L/ m 2 /h to 6 L/m 2 /h for NF90 and Nano-Pro-3012, respectively. NF90 membrane was more prone to fouling than the Nano-Pro-3012 membrane: the percentage flux reduction was higher for NF90 (3.6%) than Nano-Pro-3012 (0.98%). The bearing ratio of the fouled NF90 exhibited a high peak of 7.09 nm than the fouled Nano-Pro-3012 with the peak of 6.8 nm

  7. Evidence for an Early Cretaceous mineralizing event above the basement/sediment unconformity in the intracratonic Paris Basin: paragenetic sequence and Sm-Nd dating of the world-class Pierre-Perthuis stratabound fluorite deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigoux, Morgane; Delpech, Guillaume; Guerrot, Catherine; Pagel, Maurice; Augé, Thierry; Négrel, Philippe; Brigaud, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    World-class stratabound fluorite deposits are spatially associated with the basement/sediment unconformity of the intracratonic Paris Basin and the Morvan Massif in Burgundy (France). The reserves are estimated to be about 5.5 Mt of fluorite within six fluorite deposits. In this study, we aim to determine the age of the major fluorite mineralization event of the Pierre-Perthuis deposit (1.4 Mt fluorite) by a combined study of the paragenetic mineral sequence and Sm-Nd dating on fluorite crystals. Fluorite occurs as isolated cubes or filling geodes in a Triassic, silicified, dolomitic formation. Three fluorite stages associated with sphalerite, pyrite, galena, barite, and quartz have been distinguished using optical, cathodoluminescence, and scanning electron microscopes. Seven crystals of the geodic fluorite stage were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents and their 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions. The normalized REE distribution displays homogeneous bell-shaped patterns for all the geodic fluorite samples with a Mid-REE enrichment over the Light-REE and Heavy-REE. The 147Sm/144Nd varies from 0.3108 to 0.5504 and the 143Nd/144Nd from 0.512313 to 0.512518. A six-point Sm-Nd isochron defines an age of 130 ± 15 Ma (initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512054, MSWD = 0.21). This Sm-Nd isochron provides the first age for the stratabound fluorite sediment-hosted deposit, related to an unconformity in the Paris Basin, and highlights a major Early Cretaceous fluid circulation event mainly above the basement/sediment unconformity during a flexural deformation of the Paris Basin, which relates to the rifting of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Ligurian Sea in the Western Europe domain.

  8. Discussion on the basement topography and its relation with the uranium mineralization in Xiangshan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Qihua; Liu Qingcheng

    2002-01-01

    The depth of the basement and the relation between the basement relief shape and uranium mineralization are discussed by forward and inverse computation for large-scale gravity data in Xiangshan basin. The difference of basement topography result in the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium mineralization. The margin of the basement upheaval section and the variation place of basement topography are the favorable place for uranium mineralization. It's helpful to prospect deep and blind uranium deposit in Xiangshan basin

  9. Cellulose microfibril deposition: coordinated activity at the plant plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.J.; Mulder, B.; Vos, J.W.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Plant cell wall production is a membrane-bound process. Cell walls are composed of cellulose microfibrils, embedded inside a matrix of other polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The cell wall matrix is extruded into the existing cell wall by exocytosis. This same process also inserts the cellulose

  10. Deposition of Pd–Ag thin film membranes on ceramic supports for hydrogen purification/separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.I. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus Azurém, 4800-058 (Portugal); Pérez, P.; Rodrigues, S.C.; Mendes, A.; Madeira, L.M. [LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Tavares, C.J., E-mail: ctavares@fisica.uminho.pt [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus Azurém, 4800-058 (Portugal)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Thin film Pd–Ag membranes have been produced for hydrogen selectivity. • Magnetron sputtering yields Pd–Ag compact films for atomic H diffusion. • The thin film Pd–Ag membranes yielded a selectivity of α (H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) = 10. - Abstract: Pd–Ag based membranes supported on porous α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (doped with yttria-stabilized zirconia) were studied for hydrogen selective separation. Magnetron sputtering technique was employed for the synthesis of thin film membranes. The hydrogen permeation flux is affected by the membrane columnar structure, which is formed during deposition. From scanning electron microscopy analysis, it was observed that different sputtering deposition pressures lead to distinct columnar structure growth. X-ray diffraction patterns provided evidence of a Pd–Ag solid solution with an average crystallite domain size of 21 nm, whose preferential growth can be altered by the deposition pressure. The gas-permeation results have shown that the Pd–Ag membrane supported on porous α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is selective toward H{sub 2}. For optimized membrane synthesis conditions, the permeance toward N{sub 2} is 0.076 × 10{sup −6} mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} Pa{sup −1} at room temperature, whereas for a pressure difference of 300 kPa the H{sub 2}-flux is of the order of ca. 0.21 mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, which corresponds to a permeance of 0.71 × 10{sup −6} mol m{sup −2} s{sup −1} Pa{sup −1}, yielding a selectivity of α (H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) = 10. These findings suggest that the membrane has a reasonable capacity to selectively permeate this gas.

  11. Deposition of Pd–Ag thin film membranes on ceramic supports for hydrogen purification/separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.I.; Pérez, P.; Rodrigues, S.C.; Mendes, A.; Madeira, L.M.; Tavares, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin film Pd–Ag membranes have been produced for hydrogen selectivity. • Magnetron sputtering yields Pd–Ag compact films for atomic H diffusion. • The thin film Pd–Ag membranes yielded a selectivity of α (H 2 /N 2 ) = 10. - Abstract: Pd–Ag based membranes supported on porous α-Al 2 O 3 (doped with yttria-stabilized zirconia) were studied for hydrogen selective separation. Magnetron sputtering technique was employed for the synthesis of thin film membranes. The hydrogen permeation flux is affected by the membrane columnar structure, which is formed during deposition. From scanning electron microscopy analysis, it was observed that different sputtering deposition pressures lead to distinct columnar structure growth. X-ray diffraction patterns provided evidence of a Pd–Ag solid solution with an average crystallite domain size of 21 nm, whose preferential growth can be altered by the deposition pressure. The gas-permeation results have shown that the Pd–Ag membrane supported on porous α-Al 2 O 3 is selective toward H 2 . For optimized membrane synthesis conditions, the permeance toward N 2 is 0.076 × 10 −6 mol m −2 s −1 Pa −1 at room temperature, whereas for a pressure difference of 300 kPa the H 2 -flux is of the order of ca. 0.21 mol m −2 s −1 , which corresponds to a permeance of 0.71 × 10 −6 mol m −2 s −1 Pa −1 , yielding a selectivity of α (H 2 /N 2 ) = 10. These findings suggest that the membrane has a reasonable capacity to selectively permeate this gas

  12. Enhancing the platinum atomic layer deposition infiltration depth inside anodic alumina nanoporous membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaish, Amit, E-mail: anv@udel.edu; Krueger, Susan; Dimitriou, Michael; Majkrzak, Charles [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8313 (United States); Vanderah, David J. [Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, NIST, Rockville, Maryland 20850 (United States); Chen, Lei, E-mail: lei.chen@nist.gov [NIST Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8313 (United States); Gawrisch, Klaus [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Nanoporous platinum membranes can be straightforwardly fabricated by forming a Pt coating inside the nanopores of anodic alumina membranes (AAO) using atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, the high-aspect-ratio of AAO makes Pt ALD very challenging. By tuning the process deposition temperature and precursor exposure time, enhanced infiltration depth along with conformal coating was achieved for Pt ALD inside the AAO templates. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and small angle neutron scattering were employed to analyze the Pt coverage and thickness inside the AAO nanopores. Additionally, one application of platinum-coated membrane was demonstrated by creating a high-density protein-functionalized interface.

  13. Deposition of thin ultrafiltration membranes on commercial SiC microfiltration tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facciotti, Marco; Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Porous SiC based materials present high mechanical, chemical and thermal robustness, and thus have been largely applied to water-filtration technologies. In this study, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes with nominal pore size of 0.04 m were used as carrier for depositing thin aluminium oxide....... After 5 times coating, a 5.6 µm thick γ-Al2O3 layer was obtained. This membrane shows retention of ~75% for polyethylene glycol molecules with Mn of 8 and 35 kDa, indicating that, despite their intrinsic surface roughness, commercial SiC microfiltration tubes can be applied as carrier for thin...... ultrafiltration membranes. This work also indicates that an improvement of the commercial SiC support surface smoothness may greatly enhance permeance and selectivity of Υ-Al2O3 ultrafiltration membranes by allowing the deposition of thinner defect-free layers....

  14. Monatomic chemical-vapor-deposited graphene membranes bridge a half-millimeter-scale gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Kwang; Hwangbo, Yun; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Lee, Seung-Mo; Kim, Seong-Su; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Lee, Hak-Joo; Choi, Byung-Ik; Song, Chang-Kyu; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-03-25

    One of the main concerns in nanotechnology is the utilization of nanomaterials in macroscopic applications without losing their extreme properties. In an effort to bridge the gap between the nano- and macroscales, we propose a clever fabrication method, the inverted floating method (IFM), for preparing freestanding chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) graphene membranes. These freestanding membranes were then successfully suspended over a gap a half-millimeter in diameter. To understand the working principle of IFM, high-speed photography and white light interferometry were used to characterize and analyze the deformation behaviors of the freestanding graphene membranes in contact with a liquid during fabrication. Some nanoscale configurations in the macroscopic graphene membranes were able to be characterized by simple optical microscopy. The proposed IFM is a powerful approach to investigating the macroscopic structures of CVD graphene and enables the exploitation of freestanding CVD graphene for device applications.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) and CNs/alginate nanocomposite coatings and free standing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; de Larraya, Uxua Pérez; Garmendia, Nere; Lasheras-Zubiate, María; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-06-01

    This study presents the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) and CNs-based alginate composite coatings for biomedical applications. The mechanism of anodic deposition of CNs and co-deposition of CNs/alginate composites was analyzed based on the results of zeta-potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The capability of the EPD technique for manipulating the orientation of CNs and for the preparation of multilayer CNs coatings was demonstrated. The nanotopographic surface roughness and hydrophilicity of the deposited coatings were measured and discussed. Electrochemical testing demonstrated that a significant degree of corrosion protection of stainless steel could be achieved when CNs-containing coatings were present. Additionally, the one-step EPD-based processing of free-standing CNs/alginate membranes was demonstrated confirming the versatility of EPD to fabricate free-standing membrane structures compared to a layer-by-layer deposition technique. CNs and CNs/alginate nanocomposite coatings produced by EPD are potential candidates for biomedical, cell technology and drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of inorganic membranes by vapor deposition processes: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xomeritakis, George

    In this work, theoretical and experimental studies are presented regarding the application of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and Magnetron Sputtering for preparation of different types of inorganic membranes in/on porous supports. In the theoretical part, semi-analytical solutions of mathematical models that describe CVD in porous media are first developed, considering introduction of vapor precursors from either one side or opposite sides of a porous support. These solutions describe the deposition characteristics and pore narrowing kinetics as explicit functions of the various process parameters (precursors concentrations and diffusivities, reaction kinetics) and support properties (pore size, thickness and porosity). The extention of these solutions for the purpose of predicting macroscopic properties of inorganic membranes, of relevance to their application in gas separations, such as permeance, pore size (distribution) and selectivity is also demonstrated. The feasibility of CVD for preparing novel nanocrystalline ceramic-supported palladium membranes using different precursors and reaction schemes is demonstrated in this work. Thin (0.5-5 mum), nanocrystalline (15-50 nm grain size) Pd membranes can be prepared inside pores or on the surface of ultrafiltration ceramic supports, using volatile inorganic or metallorganic palladium salts and hydrogen as precursors, under proper experimental conditions. These membranes exhibit satisfactory permselectivity only when Pd is deposited in the form of a metal layer on the surface of the support. For the first time, synthesis of submicron-thick, ceramic-supported Pd-based metallic membranes with substantial permselectivity at elevated temperatures is demonstrated in this work, using the magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of synthesis conditions on metallic membrane texture and permeation properties is also systematically investigated. For Pd-based metallic membranes coated to a thickness of 0.1-1.5 mum on the

  17. Vesicle deposition and subsequent membrane-melittin interactions on different substrates: a QCM-D experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nai-Yan; Yang, Kai; Li, Jing-Liang; Yuan, Bing; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2013-08-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique is one of the most effective methods to monitor the dynamic behaviors of a layer on a solid surface. Moreover, it has been reported recently that it is able to provide a fingerprint for the peptide-membrane interactions. In this work, QCM-D technique combined with computer simulations was employed to investigate the deposition and transformation of vesicles, as well as the subsequent membrane-melittin interactions on different substrates. A range of substrate surfaces, i.e. naked SiO2 without or with Au/polyelectrolyte coating, were produced. The nature of the substrate determined whether the adsorbed vesicles were present as a high-quality supported bilayer or an assembled vesicle matrix, which consequently influenced the membrane-melittin interactions. It was indicated by the related computer simulations that the lipid packing state of the membrane was a key factor to determine the mechanism of membrane-peptide interactions. Furthermore, this work might be a good example of the application of QCM-D for the exploration of membrane-active peptides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma

    2014-11-01

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ~2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Possibilities of seismic exploration for crystalline basement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Н. Телегин

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of seismic methods of reflected and refracted waves have been examined for the purposes of detailed study on crystalline basement structure. Investigation of depth and structure of the basement plays an important role in the exploration of various deposits. Sedimentary cover is usually associated with oil and gas reserves. Ore deposits are formed in the basement rocks, basement splits and structure of its surface have a genetic relation not only to ore minerals, but also to oil resources. Reflection seismology is one of the main seismic methods of investigating structural geometry of the sedimentation mass, forecasting its material composition and possible hydrocarbon reserves. However, its possibilities for investigating crystalline basement are limited. Basing on many years’ experience of reflection seismology and physical modeling it has been identified that actual roughness of basement surface limits the obtainable amount of waves reflected from it. Possibilities of reflection seismology for basement structure study are mostly related to investigation of discontinuous faults as diffraction objects using diffracted waves. Method of refracted waves combined with modern procedures and material processing aimed at getting dynamic seismic sections holds much significance for the basement study, especially in the process of surface mapping and, to a lesser extent, in investigating discontinuous faults. Combining seismic methods of reflected and refracted waves in basement study increases reliability of forecasting its geological structure: in particular, its surface can be well defined by means of refraction seismology, and zones of discontinuous faults are identified from diffraction objects using both reflection and refraction methods. As a result of applying both reflection and refraction seismology, an opportunity arises to carry out detailed analysis of basement structure and to predict its oil and gas content.

  20. Influence of particle shape on bending rigidity of colloidal monolayer membranes and particle deposition during droplet evaporation in confined geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Peter J; Gratale, Matthew; Lohr, Matthew A; Still, Tim; Lubensky, T C; Yodh, A G

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the influence of particle shape on the bending rigidity of colloidal monolayer membranes (CMMs) and on evaporative processes associated with these membranes. Aqueous suspensions of colloidal particles are confined between glass plates and allowed to evaporate. Confinement creates ribbonlike air-water interfaces and facilitates measurement and characterization of CMM geometry during drying. Interestingly, interfacial buckling events occur during evaporation. Extension of the description of buckled elastic membranes to our quasi-2D geometry enables the determination of the ratio of CMM bending rigidity to its Young's modulus. Bending rigidity increases with increasing particle anisotropy, and particle deposition during evaporation is strongly affected by membrane elastic properties. During drying, spheres are deposited heterogeneously, but ellipsoids are not. Apparently, increased bending rigidity reduces contact line bending and pinning and induces uniform deposition of ellipsoids. Surprisingly, suspensions of spheres doped with a small number of ellipsoids are also deposited uniformly.

  1. Influence of Particle Shape on Bending Rigidity of Colloidal Monolayer Membranes and Particle Deposition during Droplet Evaporation in Confined Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunker, Peter J.; Gratale, Matthew; Lohr, Matthew A.; Still, Tim; Lubensky, T. C.; Yodh, A. G.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the influence of particle shape on the bending rigidity of colloidal monolayer membranes (CMMs) and on evaporative processes associated with these membranes. Aqueous suspensions of colloidal particles are confined between glass plates and allowed to evaporate. Confinement creates ribbonlike air-water interfaces and facilitates measurement and characterization of CMM geometry during drying. Interestingly, interfacial buckling events occur during evaporation. Extension of the description of buckled elastic membranes to our quasi-2D geometry enables the determination of the ratio of CMM bending rigidity to its Young’s modulus. Bending rigidity increases with increasing particle anisotropy, and particle deposition during evaporation is strongly affected by membrane elastic properties. During drying, spheres are deposited heterogeneously, but ellipsoids are not. Apparently, increased bending rigidity reduces contact line bending and pinning and induces uniform deposition of ellipsoids. Surprisingly, suspensions of spheres doped with a small number of ellipsoids are also deposited uniformly.

  2. Boron Nitride Nanoporous Membranes with High Surface Charge by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matthieu; Koonkaew, Boonprakrong; Balme, Sebastien; Utke, Ivo; Picaud, Fabien; Iatsunskyi, Igor; Coy, Emerson; Miele, Philippe; Bechelany, Mikhael

    2017-05-17

    In this work, we report the design and the fine-tuning of boron nitride single nanopore and nanoporous membranes by atomic layer deposition (ALD). First, we developed an ALD process based on the use of BBr 3 and NH 3 as precursors in order to synthesize BN thin films. The deposited films were characterized in terms of thickness, composition, and microstructure. Next, we used the newly developed process to grow BN films on anodic aluminum oxide nanoporous templates, demonstrating the conformality benefit of BN prepared by ALD, and its scalability for the manufacturing of membranes. For the first time, the ALD process was then used to tune the diameter of fabricated single transmembrane nanopores by adjusting the BN thickness and to enable studies of the fundamental aspects of ionic transport on a single nanopore. At pH = 7, we estimated a surface charge density of 0.16 C·m -2 without slip and 0.07 C·m -2 considering a reasonable slip length of 3 nm. Molecular dynamics simulations performed with experimental conditions confirmed the conductivities and the sign of surface charges measured. The high ion transport results obtained and the ability to fine-tune nanoporous membranes by such a scalable method pave the way toward applications such as ionic separation, energy harvesting, and ultrafiltration devices.

  3. Chemical vapor deposition on chabazite (CHA) zeolite membranes for effective post-combustion CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjoo; Lee, Taehee; Kim, Hyungmin; Jung, Won-Jin; Han, Doug-Young; Baik, Hionsuck; Choi, Nakwon; Choi, Jungkyu

    2014-12-16

    Chabazite (CHA) zeolites with a pore size of 0.37 × 0.42 nm(2) are expected to separate CO2 (0.33 nm) from larger N2 (0.364 nm) in postcombustion flue gases by recognizing their minute size differences. Furthermore, the hydrophobic siliceous constituent in CHA membranes can allow for maintaining the CO2/N2 separation performance in the presence of H2O in contrast with the CO2 affinity-based membranes. In an attempt to increase the molecular sieving ability, the pore mouth size of all silica CHA (Si-CHA) particles was reduced via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a silica precursor (tetraethyl orthosilicate). Accordingly, an increase of the CVD treatment duration decreased the penetration rate of CO2 into the CVD-treated Si-CHA particles. Furthermore, the CVD process was applied to siliceous CHA membranes in order to improve their CO2/N2 separation performance. Compared to the intact CHA membranes, the CO2/N2 maximum separation factor (max SF) for CVD-treated CHA membranes was increased by ∼ 2 fold under dry conditions. More desirably, the CO2/N2 max SF was increased by ∼ 3 fold under wet conditions at ∼ 50 °C, a representative temperature of the flue gas stream. In fact, the presence of H2O in the feed disfavored the permeation of N2 more than that of CO2 through CVD-modified CHA membranes and thus, contributed to the increased CO2/N2 separation factor.

  4. Membranes produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for low temperature fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennajdaoui, Aboubakr; Roualdes, Stéphanie; Brault, Pascal; Durand, Jean

    A plasma polymerization process using a continuous glow discharge has been implemented for preparing proton conducting membranes from trifluoromethane sulfonic acid and styrene. The chemical and physical structure of plasma membranes has been investigated using FTIR and SEM. The films are homogeneous with a good adhesion on commercial gas diffusion layer (E-Tek ®). Their deposition rate can be increased with increasing flow rate and input power. The thermogravimetric analysis under air of plasma polymers has showed a thermal stability up to 140 °C. Compared to the pulsed glow discharge studied in a previous paper, the continuous glow discharge has enabled to enhance the proton conductivity of membranes by a factor 3 (up to 1.7 mS cm -1). Moreover, the low methanol permeability (methanol diffusion coefficient down to 5 × 10 -13 m 2 s -1) of membranes has been confirmed by this study. In an industrial context, a reactor prototype has been developed to manufacture by plasma processes all active layers of fuel cell cores to be integrated in original compact PEMFC or DMFC.

  5. Fingerprint deposition on nitrocellulose and polyvinylidene difluoride membranes using alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Danda, Debashish; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Dactyloscopy or fingerprint identification is a vital part of forensic evidence. Identification with fingerprints has been known since the finding of finger impressions on the clay surface of Babylonian legal contracts almost 4,000 years ago. The skin on the fingers and palms appears as grooves and ridges when observed under a microscope. A unique fingerprint is produced by the patterns of these friction skin ridges. Visible fingerprints can be deposited on solid surfaces. Colored inks have been used to deposit fingermarks on documents. Herein, we show that alkaline phosphatase can be used to transfer prints from fingers or palm to nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. The prints can be detected by using the nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate method of detection.

  6. Colorectal laterally spreading tumors show characteristic expression of cell polarity factors, including atypical protein kinase C λ/ι, E-cadherin, β-catenin and basement membrane component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Yasushi; Nagashima, Yoji; Morioka, Kaori; Akimoto, Kazunori; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Goto, Ayumu; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Watanabe, Kazuteru; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Fujii, Shoichi; Kawamata, Mayumi; Takagawa, Ryo; Kunizaki, Chikara; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Shimada, Hiroshi; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shigeo; Endo, Itaru

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal flat-type tumors include laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) and flat depressed-type tumors. The former of which shows a predominant lateral spreading growth rather than an invasive growth. The present study examined the morphological characteristics of LSTs, in comparison with polypoid- or flat depressed-type tumors, along with the expression of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) λ/ι, a pivotal cell polarity regulator, and the hallmarks of cell polarity, as well as with type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. In total, 37 flat-type (24 LSTs and 13 flat depressed-type tumors) and 20 polypoid-type colorectal tumors were examined. The LSTs were classified as 15 LST adenoma (LST-A) and nine LST cancer in adenoma (LST-CA). An immunohistochemical examination was performed on aPKC λ/ι, type IV collagen, β-catenin and E-cadherin. The LST-A and -CA showed a superficial replacing growth pattern, with expression of β-catenin and E-cadherin in the basolateral membrane and type IV collagen along the basement membrane. In addition, 86.6% of LST-A and 55.6% of LST-CA showed aPKC λ/ι expression of 1+ (weak to normal intensity staining in the cytoplasm compared with the normal epithelium). Furthermore, ~45% of the polypoid-type adenomas showed 2+ (moderate intensity staining in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus) and 66.7% of the polypoid-type cancer in adenoma were 3+ (strong intensity staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus). A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the expression of aPKC λ/ι and β-catenin (r=0.842; P<0.001), or type IV collagen (r=0.823; P<0.001). The LSTs showed a unique growth pattern, different from the expanding growth pattern presented by a polypoid tumor and invasive cancer. The growth characteristics of LST appear to be caused by adequate coexpression of β-catenin, type IV collagen and aPKC λ/ι.

  7. Instrument for layer-by-layer deposition of catalyst layers directly on proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Wang, L; Liang, J; Liu, C

    2012-09-01

    A catalyst layer (CL) layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition instrument, consisting of an electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) device and a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fixing device, has been developed. It has been used to deposit anode CL on Nafion membrane under different working distances of 4, 5, and 6 mm. The incorporation of EHDA LbL deposition allowed the generation of the CLs with different structures, where the higher working distance produced more porous CL structure. A catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) was also produced using this EHDA LbL deposition and PEM fixing device. It was observed that the catalyst has been uniformly coated on the Nafion membrane and the CCM presents an uniform surface feature. The performance of a single direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) assembled with the deposited CCM at different working temperatures was analysed. The cell performance increased when the temperature rose. This instrument has the potential of being developed into a powerful device for controlling the deposition of CL of desired structures directly on PEM for DMFCs.

  8. Nucleosomes and histones are present in glomerular deposits in human lupus nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanBruggen, MCJ; Kramers, C; Walgreen, B; Elema, JD; Kallenberg, CGM; vandenBorn, J; Smeenk, RJT; Assmann, KJM; Muller, S; Monestier, M; Berden, JHM

    Background. Recently we showed that antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulphate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane (GEM) via the histone part of the nucleosome. Histones have been identified in glomerular deposits in human and murine lupus nephritis. In

  9. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  10. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F

    2017-03-07

    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  11. Deposition of low stress, high transmittance SiC as an x-ray mask membrane using ECR plasma CVD

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S Y; Lim, S T; Ahn, J H

    1998-01-01

    SiC for x-ray mask membrane is deposited by Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition from SiH sub 4 /CH sub 4 Ar mixtures. Stoichiometric SiC is deposited at SiH sub 4 /CH sub 4 ratio of 0.4, deposition temperature of 600.deg.C and microwave power of 500 W with +- 5% thickness uniformity, As-deposited film has compressive residual stress, very smooth surface (31 A rms) and high optical transmittance of 90% at 633 nm wavelength. The microstructure of this film consists of the nanocrystalline particle (100 A approx 200A) embedded in amorphous matrix. Residual stress can be turned to tensile stress via Rapid Thermal Annealing in N sub 2 atmosphere, while suppressing structural change during annealing, As a result, smooth (37 A rms) SiC film with moderate tensile stress and high optical transmittance (85% at 633 nm wavelength) is obtained.

  12. Comparative Study of Deposit through a Membrane and Spin-Coated MWCNT as a Flexible Anode for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Aloui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative study between multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrates using (i spin-coating technique and (ii deposition through a membrane. We deduce from transparence, electrical properties, and AFM image that deposition through membrane presents better properties than spin-coating method. The concentration comparison shows that the optimum result was achieved at a concentration of 1.2 mg·mL−1 corresponding to a resistance (Rs of 180 Ω·cm−2 and an optical transparence of about 81% using a wavelength 550 nm. We will also demonstrate the use of the elaborated electrodes to fabricate the following flexible structure: PET-MWCNTs/MEH-PPV/Al. The series resistance Rs and the ideality factor n were calculated.

  13. Glomerular deposition and urinary excretion of complement factor H in idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Morito; Fuke, Yoshinobu; Tamano, Mariko; Hidaka, Mutsuko; Ohsawa, Isao; Fujita, Takayuki; Ohi, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    The complement system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy (MN). In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of complement activation, we demonstrated glomerular deposition and urinary excretion of complement factor H, which controls the alternative pathway and the amplification loop at the C3 step, in patients with idiopathic MN. Renal biopsy specimens from 20 patients with idiopathic MN were studied immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibodies against complement components including factor H. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis of urine samples were performed, and the urinary excretion of factor H and C5b-9 were measured by quantitative sandwich ELISA. Intense glomerular deposition of factor H was observed with C3b.C3c and C5b-9 at an early stage of the disease. Factor H was detected in Western blots of urine samples, but factor H-like protein 1 (FHL-1) was not. The mean level of urinary factor H was elevated (86.30 +/- 21.93 U/mg urinary creatinine) in comparison to that of normal controls (4.76 +/- 1.03 U/mg urinary creatinine). Urinary factor H level exhibited no correlation with clinical parameters; however, a negative correlation was found between urinary C5b-9/factor H and creatinine clearance (r = 0.662, p 150-kD protein. There was no evidence to suggest that FHL-1 is synthesized at the site of inflammation. The urinary C5b-9 to urinary factor H ratio is indicative of the degree of ongoing complement activation in the glomeruli and complement-mediated renal injury. These findings suggest that factor H contributes to the control mechanism of in situ complement activation and prevents renal damage in idiopathic MN. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  15. EGFET pH Sensor Performance Dependence on Sputtered TiO2 Sensing Membrane Deposition Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Aimi Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were sputtered by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method and have been employed as the sensing membrane of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET for pH sensing detection application. The TiO2 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrates at room temperature and 200°C, respectively. The effect of deposition temperature on thin film properties and pH detection application was analyzed. The TiO2 samples used as the sensing membrane for EGFET pH-sensor and the current-voltage (I-V, hysteresis, and drift characteristics were examined. The sensitivity of TiO2 EGFET sensing membrane was obtained from the transfer characteristic (I-V curves for different substrate heating temperatures. TiO2 thin film sputtered at room temperature achieved higher sensitivity of 59.89 mV/pH compared to the one deposited at 200°C indicating lower sensitivity of 37.60 mV/pH. Moreover the hysteresis and the drift of TiO2 thin film deposited at room temperature showed lower values compared to the one at 200°C. We have also tested the effect of operating temperature on the performance of the EGFET pH-sensing and found that the temperature effect was very minimal.

  16. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  17. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane. PMID:24958295

  18. Plasma Deposited Thin Iron Oxide Films as Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz JOZWIAK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using plasma deposited thin films of iron oxides as electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC was examined. Results of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis indicated that the plasma deposit consisted mainly of FeOX structures with the X parameter close to 1.5. For as deposited material iron atoms are almost exclusively in the Fe3+ oxidation state without annealing in oxygen containing atmosphere. However, the annealing procedure can be used to remove the remains of carbon deposit from surface. The single cell test (SCT was performed to determine the suitability of the produced material for ORR. Preliminary results showed that power density of 0.23 mW/cm2 could be reached in the tested cell.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14406

  19. Differential mesenteric fat deposition in bovines fed on silage or concentrate is independent of glycerol membrane permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Paula; Lopes, Paula A.; Costa, Ana Sofia H.; Martins, Susana V.; Santos, Nuno C.; Prates, José A. M.; Moura, Teresa F.; Soveral, Graça

    2011-01-01

    © The Animal Consortium 2011 In the meat industry, the manipulation of fat deposition in cattle is of pivotal importance to improve production efficiency, carcass composition and ultimately meat quality. There is an increasing interest in the identification of key factors and molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of specific fat depots. This study aimed at elucidating the influence of breed and diet on adipose tissue membrane permeability and fluidity and their interplay on ...

  20. Fabrication of hierarchical porous N-doping carbon membrane by using ;confined nanospace deposition; method for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoxu; Liu, Meng; Du, Juan; Liu, Lei; Yu, Yifeng; Sha, Jitong; Chen, Aibing

    2018-03-01

    The membrane carbon materials with hierarchical porous architecture are attractive because they can provide more channels for ion transport and shorten the ions transport path. Herein, we develop a facile way based on "confined nanospace deposition" to fabricate N-dopi-ng three dimensional hierarchical porous membrane carbon material (N-THPMC) via coating the nickel nitrate, silicate oligomers and triblock copolymer P123 on the branches of commercial polyamide membrane (PAM). During high temperature treatment, the mesoporous silica layer and Ni species serve as a "confined nanospace" and catalyst respectively, which are indispensable elements for formation of carbon framework, and the gas-phase carbon precursors which derive from the decomposition of PAM are deposited into the "confined nanospace" forming carbon framework. The N-THPMC with hierarchical macro/meso/microporous structure, N-doping (2.9%) and large specific surface area (994m2 g-1) well inherits the membrane morphology and hierarchical porous structure of PAM. The N-THPMC as electrode without binder exhibits a specific capacitance of 252 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte and excellent cycling stability of 92.7% even after 5000 cycles.

  1. Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring of radionuclide contents in rainwater is a useful way to keep a check on any change in the external radiation dose caused by the deposited material. Thus analuses of 3 H, 89 Sr and 90 Sr as well as 137 Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents in deposition were continued both nationwide and in the vicinities of the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. The deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was lower than in previous years, being only a small fraction of the highest deposition values measured in 1983. The tritium concentrations were also lower than in 1982. The total annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 1.7 kBq/m 2 to 2.9 kBq/m 2

  2. Fabrication of zeolite/polymer multilayer composite membranes for carbon dioxide capture: Deposition of zeolite particles on polymer supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Kartik; Severance, Michael A; Dutta, Prabir K; Ho, W S Winston

    2015-08-15

    Membranes, due to their smaller footprint and potentially lower energy consumption than the amine process, offer a promising route for post-combustion CO2 capture. Zeolite Y based inorganic selective layers offer a favorable combination of CO2 permeance and CO2/N2 selectivity, membrane properties crucial to the economics. For economic viability on large scale, we propose to use flexible and scalable polymer supports for inorganic selective layers. The work described in this paper developed a detailed protocol for depositing thin zeolite Y seed layers on polymer supports, the first step in the synthesis of a polycrystalline zeolite Y membrane. We also studied the effects of support surface morphology (pore size and surface porosity) on the quality of deposition and identified favorable supports for the deposition. Two different zeolite Y particles with nominal sizes of 200 nm and 40 nm were investigated. To obtain a complete coverage of zeolite particles on the support surface with minimum defects and in a reproducible manner, a vacuum-assisted dip-coating technique was developed. Images obtained using both digital camera and optical microscope showed the presence of color patterns on the deposited surface which suggested that the coverage was complete. Electron microscopy revealed that the particle packing was dense with some drying cracks. Layer thickness with the larger zeolite Y particles was close to 1 μm while that with the smaller particles was reduced to less than 0.5 μm. In order to reduce drying cracks for layers with smaller zeolite Y particles, thickness was reduced by lowering the dispersion concentration. Transport measurement was used as an additional technique to characterize these layers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. One-step deposition of ultrafiltration SiC membranes on macroporous SiC supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Katja; Boffa, Vittorio; Buchbjerg, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated nearly defect-free SiC membranes for potential ultrafiltration applications by conducting pyrolysis of allylhydrido polycarbosilane in the presence of submicron α-SiC particles. The SiC membranes were developed on commercial macroporous SiC supports by a low-temperature-process in w......We fabricated nearly defect-free SiC membranes for potential ultrafiltration applications by conducting pyrolysis of allylhydrido polycarbosilane in the presence of submicron α-SiC particles. The SiC membranes were developed on commercial macroporous SiC supports by a low......-temperature-process in which allylhydrido polycarbosilane acted to bond together crystalline α-SiC particles to form a porous layer. The suspensions of α-SiC powder and allylhydrido polycarbosilane in hexane or hexane/tetradecane were used for membrane fabrication by dip-coating. By using optimized hexane suspension with 5% w...

  4. Catalytic, Conductive Bipolar Membrane Interfaces through Layer-by-Layer Deposition for the Design of Membrane-Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael B; Freund, Michael S; Hammond, Paula T

    2017-11-23

    In the presence of an electric field, bipolar membranes (BPMs) are capable of initiating water disassociation (WD) within the interfacial region, which can make water splitting for renewable energy in the presence of a pH gradient possible. In addition to WD catalytic efficiency, there is also the need for electronic conductivity in this region for membrane-integrated artificial photosynthesis (AP) systems. Graphene oxide (GO) was shown to catalyze WD and to be controllably reduced, which resulted in electronic conductivity. Layer-by-layer (LbL) film deposition was employed to improve GO film uniformity in the interfacial region to enhance WD catalysis and, through the addition of a conducting polymer in the process, add electronic conductivity in a hybrid film. Three different deposition methods were tested to optimize conducting polymer synthesis with the oxidant in a metastable solution and to yield the best film properties. It was found that an approach that included substrate dipping in a solution containing the expected final monomer/oxidant ratio provided the most predictable film growth and smoothest films (by UV/Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy/scanning electron microscopy, respectively), whereas dipping in excess oxidant or co-spraying the oxidant and monomer produced heterogeneous films. Optimized films were found to be electronically conductive and produced a membrane ohmic drop that was acceptable for AP applications. Films were integrated into the interfacial region of BPMs and revealed superior WD efficiency (≥1.4 V at 10 mA cm -2 ) for thinner films (<10 bilayers≈100 nm) than for either the pure GO catalyst or conducting polymer individually, which indicated that there was a synergistic effect between these materials in the structure configured by the LbL method. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Evolution and origin of brines in proterozoic basins in the vicinity of the basement / cover unconformity. Application to uranium deposits in the Kombolgie (Australia) and Athabasca (Canada) basins; Evolution et origine des saumures dans les bassins proterozoiques au voisinage de la discordance socle/couverture. L'exemple de l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes aux bassins Kombolgie (Australie) et Athabasca (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derome, D

    2002-11-01

    The nature, evolution and origin of the fluids circulating at the basis of two Proterozoic sandstone basins (Kombolgie, Australia and Athabasca, Canada), associated with unconformity type uranium mineralization have been characterised. The coupling of several techniques (micro-thermometry, Raman, LIBS) for analysing individual fluid inclusions trapped in different quartz generations, sampled in the vicinity of Australian and Canadian uranium deposits, has led to the quantitative determination of the composition of the paleo-fluids which may have had a role in the genesis of these deposits. The P-T,x evolution of these fluids, in the vicinity of the interface between the basement and the sedimentary cover, has been reconstructed. The proposed fluid circulation model for the two basins is the following: - A sodium dominated chloride-rich brine (15-20 wt% NaCl + 4-12 wt% CaCl{sub 2}), highly oxidising (equilibrated with hematite) is responsible for the early diagenetic silicification. - The circulation of a calcium chloride-rich brine (25-30 wt.% CaCl{sub 2}+0-10 wt.% NaCl) was responsible for the deposition of a second quartz generation and dravite (magnesium-rich tourmaline) in the sandstone at the nose of the reverse basement-rooted faults. The highly calcic nature of this brine probably results from the evolution of the sodic brine through Na{r_reversible}Ca exchange in the basement. A low salinity fluid with traces of methane was heated heated in the basement rocks. It was mixed with the brines at the basis of the Kombolgie basin, during tectonic movements and hydraulic brecciation. This fluid has been rarely observed in the Canadian deposits. This study has shown many similarities between the fluid regimes of the Kombolgie and Athabasca basins. In both districts, a mixing between two Na-Ca-(Mg) chloride brines has been evidenced. Estimated temperatures and depths (about 5 km) are similar for both basins. However the brines observed at the basis of the Athabasca

  6. Surface characterisation and photocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2 thin films deposited onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes by sol–gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilli, R.; Di Camillo, D.; Lozzi, L.; Horovitz, I.; Mamane, H.; Avisar, D.; Baker, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane filtration is employed for water treatment and wastewater reclamation purposes, but membranes alone are unable to remove pollutant molecules and certain pathogens. Photocatalytically active N-doped TiO 2 coatings have been deposited by sol–gel onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes for water treatment applications using two different methods, via pipette droplets or spiral bar applicator. The uncoated and coated membranes were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Both coatings showed the presence of N-doped anatase, with a surface coverage between 84 and 92%, and nitrogen concentration (predominantly interstitial) of 0.9 at.%. The spiral bar applicator deposited coatings exhibit a thicker mud-cracked surface layer with limited penetration of the porous membrane, whilst the pipette deposited coatings have mostly penetrated into the bulk of the membrane and a thinner layer is present at the surface. The photocatalytic activity (PCA), measured through the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), under irradiation of a solar simulator was 58.6% for the pipette coating and 63.3% for the spiral bar coating. These photocatalytically active N-doped sol–gel coated membranes offer strong potential in forming the fundamental basis of a sunlight based water treatment system. - Highlights: • Sol gel N-doped TiO 2 thin films were deposited on 200 nm pore size Al 2 O 3 membranes. • Two sol–gel methods have been compared – pipette drop and spiral bar deposition. • The coatings showed a similar microstructure and composition but different morphology. • The PCA (degradation of carbamazepine) was ∼60% for both sol–gel coatings. • The coated membranes are promising for use in a membrane based water treatment system

  7. High-performance anode for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells by multiple-layer Pt sputter deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sadesh Kumar; Hamelin, Jean

    We investigate the sputtering deposition as a tool for preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) electrodes with improved performance and catalyst utilization. Anodes of PEMFC with ultra-low loading of Pt (0.05 mg cm -2) are developed by alternate sputtering of Pt and painting layers of carbon nanotube ink with Nafion directly on the gas diffusion layer. Sputter depositing alternate layers of Pt on carbon-Nafion layer (CNL) has increased the anode activity over single-layer Pt deposited anode due to improved porosity and the presence of Pt nanoparticles in the inner CNL. Also, we investigated the influence of Nafion content in the CNL. The optimal Nafion content giving less resistance and better performance in an anode is 29 wt.%. This is significantly lower than for standard MEA anodes, indicating sufficient interfacial contact between each CNL. We studied the anodes prepared with 50 wt.% Nafion, which revealed larger ohmic resistance and also, blocks the CNL pores reducing gas permeability. Excellent mass transfer and performance is obtained with three-layer Pt sputter deposited anode with CNL containing 29 wt.% of Nafion.

  8. The influence of spreading rate, basement composition, fluid chemistry and chimney morphology on the formation of gold-rich SMS deposits at slow and ultraslow mid-ocean ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Robert D.; Roberts, Stephen; Webber, Alexander P.

    2018-01-01

    Seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) deposits are variably enriched in precious metals including gold. However, the processes invoked to explain the formation of auriferous deposits do not typically apply to mid-ocean ridge settings. Here, we show a statistically significant, negative correlation between the average gold concentration of SMS deposits with spreading rate, at non-sedimented mid-ocean ridges. Deposits located at slow spreading ridges (20-40 mm/a) have average gold concentrations of between 850 and 1600 ppb; however, with increasing spreading rate (up to 140 mm/a), gold concentrations gradually decrease to between 50 and 150 ppb. This correlation of gold content with spreading rate may be controlled by the degree and duration of fluid-rock interaction, which is a function of the heat flux, crustal structure (faulting) and the permeability of the source rocks. Deposits at ultraslow ridges, including ultramafic-hosted deposits, are particularly enriched in gold. This is attributed to the higher permeability of the ultramafic source rocks achieved by serpentinisation and the inherent porosity of serpentine minerals, combined with relatively high gold concentrations in peridotite compared with mid-ocean ridge basalt. Variations in fluid chemistry, such as reducing conditions and the potential for increased sulphur availability at ultramafic-hosted sites, may also contribute to the high concentrations observed. Beehive chimneys, which offer more favourable conditions for gold precipitation, may be more prevalent at ultramafic-hosted sites due to diffuse low-velocity venting compared with more focussed venting at basalt-hosted sites.

  9. B lymphocytes and macrophages release cell membrane deposited C3-fragments on exosomes with T cell response-enhancing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Krisztián; Végh, Péter; Prechl, József; Kerekes, Krisztina; Kovács, János; Csikós, György; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna

    2008-04-01

    Recently exosomes have been shown to play important roles in several immune phenomena. These small vesicles contain MHC proteins along with co-stimulatory and adhesion molecules, and mediate antigen presentation to T cells. In the present study we show that upon incubation with autologous serum, murine macrophages and B cells--but not T lymphocytes--fix C3-fragments covalently to the cell membrane and release them on exosomes in a time dependent fashion. While in the case of human B lymphocytes CR2 has been shown to serve as the main C3b-acceptor site, here we clearly demonstrate that cells derived from CR1/2 KO animals also have the capacity to fix C3b covalently. This finding points to a major difference between human and murine systems, and suggests the existence of additional acceptor sites on the cell membrane. Here we show that C3-fragment containing exosomes derived from OVA loaded antigen presenting cells induce a significantly elevated T cell response in the presence of suboptimal antigen stimulus. These data reveal a novel function of cell surface-deposited C3-fragments and provide further evidence for the role of exosomes secreted by antigen presenting cells. Since fixation of C3b to plasma membranes can be substantial in the presence of pathogens; moreover tumor cells are also known to activate the complement system resulting in complement-deposition, C3-carrying exosomes released by these cells may play an important immunomodulatory role in vivo, as well.

  10. Membranous Glomerulopathy With Light Chain–Restricted Deposits: A Clinicopathological Analysis of 28 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Best Rocha

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: The majority of MG cases with light chain isotype−restricted deposits lack a recognizable secondary etiology. However, the absence of PLA2R positivity, positive staining for a single IgG subclass, and presence of focal proliferation are worrisome histopathologic features that should prompt a thorough clinical workup to exclude the presence of an underlying LPD.

  11. Membranous glomerulopathy in a patient with selective IgA deficiency: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, A; Van Dorpe, J; Maes, B

    2011-01-01

    We report a 42-year-old woman, who presented with proteinuria (3.85 g/day) and malleolar oedema. She had a medical history of Graves' disease, recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, episodes of Raynaud phenomenon and dysphagia. Biochemistry showed a selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD). Percutaneous renal needle biopsy showed diffuse global thickening of the glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy and granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the glomerular basement membranes on immunofluorescence. The pathological diagnosis was membranous glomerulopathy stage II. A treatment with dietary salt restriction and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor was initiated, resulting in a reduction of proteinuria. Despite the fact that selective IgA deficiency is associated with various autoimmune disorders, the association with glomerular disease is rather rare and the pathogenesis is not fully understood.

  12. Coercivity and morphology in Fe/NiO films deposited on nanoporous Al2O3 membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Navarro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of ferro-antiferromagnetic (F/AF interfaces in Fe/NiO bilayers brings about the possibility of controlling the Fe layer hysteretic properties through the unidirectional anisotropy induced by the presence of unbalanced, antiferromagnetic phase moments at that interface. In this work, we report on the Fe thickness and temperature dependencies of the hysteretic parameters measured in Fe/NiO bilayers deposited on Al2O3 nanoporous membranes. The Fe/NiO bilayers grew in a six-fold columnar way around each one of the membrane nanopores. The in-plane hysteresis loops measured by field cooling the samples down to different temperatures below 300 K, evidenced the occurrence of coercive forces larger than that associated to the Fe anisotropy field and also of significant loop shifts, both of them clearly linked to the occurrence of exchange bias at the Fe/NiO interfaces. The magnetization reversal mechanism active in the Fe/NiO bilayers essentially differs from that responsible for the reversal occurring in continuous films incorporating lithographed antidots, due to the fact that in our samples it does not involve either domain wall propagation or pinning, and the reversal events are spatially restricted to the Fe-covered, hexagonally closely packed dot-like tops of the NiO columns.

  13. Optimization of the thickness of a conducting polymer, polyaniline, deposited on the surface of poly(vinyl chloride) membranes: a new way to improve their potentiometric response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkanova, T V; Matejka, P; Král, V; Sedenková, I; Trchová, M; Stejskal, J

    2008-08-29

    Repeated depositions of polyaniline (PANI) have been used to control the thickness of the polymeric film deposited on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane surface. The oxidation of aniline was carried out in a dispersion mode, i.e. in the presence of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Two kinds of PVC were used for this purpose: a non-plasticized PVC for the study of PANI deposition and PVC, plasticized with nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), as a prototype of a liquid membrane electrode. The results of UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopies and electron microscopy showed that (1) the film thickness increased by about equal increments of approximately 40 nm after each polymerization, and (2) the interface with PVC was constituted by PANI film and adhering PANI-PVP colloidal particles. The various thicknesses of the deposited PANI films affected the potentiometric response of the NPOE/PVC membrane with and without an anion-exchanger. The potentiometric anionic response was observed with a minimal thickness of PANI film on the blank NPOE/PVC membrane. Sensitivity of the PANI film to pH occurred only with a blank NPOE/PVC membrane coated with a thick polymeric film, while it was strongly suppressed by the presence of a lipophilic anion-exchanger, tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDDMACl), in the membrane, regardless of the thickness of the polymer film. The thickness of the PANI film did not affect the anionic selectivity pattern of TDDMACl-based membranes to any great extent, but its presence improved and stabilized their potentiometric characteristics (sensitivity, linear-response range).

  14. The Development and Validation of an In Vitro Airway Model to Assess Realistic Airway Deposition and Drug Permeation Behavior of Orally Inhaled Products Across Synthetic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao K; Traini, Daniela; Farkas, Dale R; Longest, P Worth; Hindle, Michael; Young, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Current in vitro approaches to assess lung deposition, dissolution, and cellular transport behavior of orally inhaled products (OIPs) have relied on compendial impactors to collect drug particles that are likely to deposit in the airway; however, the main drawback with this approach is that these impactors do not reflect the airway and may not necessarily represent drug deposition behavior in vivo. The aim of this article is to describe the development and method validation of a novel hybrid in vitro approach to assess drug deposition and permeation behavior in a more representative airway model. The medium-sized Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) mouth-throat (MT) and tracheal-bronchial (TB) realistic upper airway models were used in this study as representative models of the upper airway. The TB model was modified to accommodate two Snapwell ® inserts above the first TB airway bifurcation region to collect deposited nebulized ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride (CIP-HCL) droplets as a model drug aerosol system. Permeation characteristics of deposited nebulized CIP-HCL droplets were assessed across different synthetic membranes using the Snapwell test system. The Snapwell test system demonstrated reproducible and discriminatory drug permeation profiles for already dissolved and nebulized CIP-HCL droplets through a range of synthetic permeable membranes under different test conditions. The rate and extent of drug permeation depended on the permeable membrane material used, presence of a stirrer in the receptor compartment, and, most importantly, the drug collection method. This novel hybrid in vitro approach, which incorporates a modified version of a realistic upper airway model, coupled with the Snapwell test system holds great potential to evaluate postairway deposition characteristics, such as drug permeation and particle dissolution behavior of OIPs. Future studies will expand this approach using a cell culture-based setup instead of synthetic membranes, within a

  15. Sodium fire in the ILONA basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, H.

    1993-05-01

    The report describes the reasons, the course, the fire fighting measures and the consequences of the sodium fire, which damaged severely the 5 MW sodium test facility ILONA in Bergisch-Gladbach, Germany, in 1990. The accident occurred in the process of transferring Na from one tank containing 0.5 m''3 Na into another one with 6 m''3 Na, which were connected via sodium and gas exchange pipes. The 6 m''3 tank was also fitted with a dipping-pipe for the later purpose of filling or evacuation. The pipe was closed by a plug. The two tanks were flooded with argon. The leakage with consequent Na fire started during the preheating process of the 6 m''3 tank, and later investigations showed that Na had leaked from the dipping-pipe after a too high pressure built-up. Whether that happened because of the failure of a pressure compensation valve or because of a blockage of the pipe connecting the two tanks, could not be clarified after the accident because of the damages caused by the fire. The later analysis showed that about 4500 kg out of the originally 5820 kg had leaked from the tank during a time of about 5 hours. A total of 1344 kg Na were deposited as combustion product aerosols (carbonate and bi-carbonate) in the building and about 930 kg Na were released from the building to the atmosphere. On the basis of the temperature difference between 400 deg C in the basement and 20 deg C at the outlet and a height difference of 30 m, the gas stream was estimated to 4 m''3 per sec. The aerosol clouds left the building via the natural draught stack. They were quickly transformed into carbonate and bi-carbonate, which do not represent a risk for the people, the animals or the vegetation in the surroundings

  16. Electrochemical Deposition of Zinc Oxide on the Surface of Composite Membrane Polysulfone-Graphene-Polystyrene in the Presence of Water Soluble Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mocanu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study consisted in the development of an alternative synthesis procedure for hybrid ultrafiltration membranes for water purification. The membranes were obtained by wet-phase inversion method based on aliquots of polysulfone (PSF and graphene nanoplatelets modified with poly(styrene (G-PST. The hybrid materials were modified by electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO on one side of the membranes in the presence of water soluble polymers. Raman, XPS, and TGA analyses were used to characterize the chemical and thermal characteristics of the PST-G. SEM analysis showed the formation of asymmetric porous configuration in all cases and the generation of ZnO with different shapes/structures on the bottom surface of the membrane or inside the porous channels. EDS analysis confirmed the formation of ZnO.

  17. Tectonic inheritage from adjacent basement, north of the Campos Basin; Heranca tectonica no embasamento adjacente no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Felipe R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geologia Aplicada; Souza, Iata A. de; Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the Atlantic Brazilian basins is a target of researches since the firth discovery of oil deposits. With the advance of the geophysical methods the understanding of the structures in depth became possible. The objective of this paper is to determine if the adjacent basement in the north of Campos Basin has significant influence in the identification of areas that can contain hydrocarbons. Therefore, lineaments had been extracted with SRTM images of continental basement and the main alignment was correlated with gravimetric anomalies map and seismic data. Eight levels on seismic data had been interpreted (basement, top rift, shallow water Albian, Albian, mid-Oligocene and mid-Miocene). In all levels were identified a fault normal system, which cut sediments since basement until the Recent. The main direction of the basement is NE-SW, and the alignments formed for basin basement faults coincide with this direction, what indicates that the system is active and also genetically related. (author)

  18. Mussel-inspired co-deposition to enhance bisphenol A removal in a bifacial enzymatic membrane reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xiaotong; Luo, Jianquan; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    were used as the matrix to further exploit the potential of the biocatalytic membranes. such prepared biocatalytic membranes were enzymatically active on both sides, making it possible to construct a bifacial enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) for highly efficient micro-pollutants removal (taking....... The BPA removal efficiency was highest for the EMR with the PDA/Cu2+ coated membrane attributed to copper-enhanced electron transfer, while it was lowest for the EMR with the PDA/PEI coated membrane due to the high diffusional resistance of the dense PDA/PEI layer. Meanwhile, the mechanism for performance...... transfer improved the substrate accessibility to enzyme together with products removal....

  19. Application of a Coated Film Catalyst Layer Model to a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Low Catalyst Loading Produced by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Myles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a semi-empirical model is presented that correlates to previously obtained experimental overpotential data for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC. The goal is to reinforce the understanding of the performance of the cell from a modeling perspective. The HT-PEMFC membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs were constructed utilizing an 85 wt. % phosphoric acid doped Advent TPS® membranes for the electrolyte and gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs manufactured by Reactive Spray Deposition Technology (RSDT. MEAs with varying ratios of PTFE binder to carbon support material (I/C ratio were manufactured and their performance at various operating temperatures was recorded. The semi-empirical model derivation was based on the coated film catalyst layer approach and was calibrated to the experimental data by a least squares method. The behavior of important physical parameters as a function of I/C ratio and operating temperature were explored.

  20. Application of high resolution aeromagnetic data for basement topography mapping of Siluko and environs, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinowo, Olawale O.; Akanji, Adesoji O.; Olayinka, Abel I.

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of hydrocarbon in commercial quantity in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria, has since the early fifties shifted the attention of exploration/active geological studies from the Dahomey basin and the adjacent basement terrain in south-western Nigeria towards the south and this has left some gaps in information required for the discovery and exploitation of the economic potential of the region. This study mapped the Siluko transition zone in south-western Nigeria in terms of structures, geometry and basement topography with the object of providing requisite geological information that will engender interest in the exploration and exploitation of the numerous economic potentials of south-western part of Nigeria. Acquired high resolution aeromagnetic data were filtered, processed and enhanced, the resultant data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative magnetic interpretation, depth weighting analyses and modelling to generate the subsurface basement topography across the study area. The obtained results indicate regions of high and low magnetic anomalies with residual magnetic intensity values ranging from -100.8 nT to 100.9 nT. Euler Deconvolution indicates generally undulating basement topography with depth range of 125-1812 m. The basement relief is generally gentle and flat lying within the basement terrain with depth ranging from 125 to 500 m. However the sedimentary terrain is undulating and generally steeps south, down the basin with depth range of 300-1812 m. A basement topography model of the magnetic data constrained by Euler solutions correlate positively with the geology of the study area and indicates a generally increasing sedimentary deposits' thickness southward toward the western part of Dahomey basin. The revealed basement topography and structures as well as the delineated direction of continuous increase in thickness of sedimentary deposit provide insight to the controlling factor responsible for tar sand deposit and bitumen

  1. Does Alport syndrome affect the basement membrane of peritoneal vessels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, Denise E.; Vlijm, Anniek; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2010-01-01

    Alport syndrome and encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) are both rare diseases. Their joint occurrence is highly unlikely. Two patients at our center with Alport syndrome developed EPS. We therefore hypothesized that Alport syndrome might predispose to the development of EPS and that this

  2. Fukutin-related protein alters the deposition of laminin in the eye and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackroyd, Mark R; Whitmore, Charlotte; Prior, Sarah; Kaluarachchi, Manuja; Nikolic, Margareta; Mayer, Ulrike; Muntoni, Francesco; Brown, Susan C

    2011-09-07

    Mutations in fukutin-related protein (FKRP) are responsible for a common group of muscular dystrophies ranging from adult onset limb girdle muscular dystrophies to severe congenital forms with associated structural brain involvement. The defining feature of this group of disorders is the hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan and its inability to effectively bind extracellular matrix ligands such as laminin α2. However, α-dystroglycan has the potential to interact with a number of laminin isoforms many of which are basement membrane/tissue specific and developmentally regulated. To further investigate this we evaluated laminin α-chain expression in the cerebral cortex and eye of our FKRP knock-down mouse (FKRP(KD)). These mice showed a marked disturbance in the deposition of laminin α-chains including α1, α2, α4, and α5, although only laminin α1- and γ1-chain mRNA expression was significantly upregulated relative to controls. Moreover, there was a diffuse pattern of laminin deposition below the pial surface which correlated with an abrupt termination of many of the radial glial cells. This along with the pial basement membrane defects, contributed to the abnormal positioning of both early- and late-born neurons. Defects in the inner limiting membrane of the eye were associated with a reduction of laminin α1 demonstrating the involvement of the α-dystroglycan:laminin α1 axis in the disease process. These observations demonstrate for the first time that a reduction in Fkrp influences the ability of tissue-specific forms of α-dystroglycan to direct the deposition of several laminin isoforms in the formation of different basement membranes.

  3. Basement Construction of Measurement Standardization for Thermal Property and Basement Preparation of Industrial Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kweon Ho; Song, Kee Chan; Park, Chang Je

    2007-02-15

    There are three main categories in this report : 1)Basement construction of measurement standardization for nuclear material thermal property, 2) Reliability evaluation of measurement instrument, and 3) Standardization and industrial propagation.

  4. Erosion critical stress of a matter surface deposit on a micro filtration membrane; Contrainte critique d`erosion d`un depot superficiel de matiere sur membrane de microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, M.C.

    1995-05-11

    During the tangential micro filtration and ultrafiltration processes a membranes fouling in surface and inside the pores often appears. This fouling has the effect of a permeation flow decrease in terms of the filtration time. In order to keep this flow constant (to improve the rentability) the transfer pressure gradient is frequently increased and leads to solid matter surface deposit on the porous wall. The fouling can then be irreversible and requires the stopping of the facilities. The fouling and more particularly the fouling by solid deposit seems to be an abatement to the micro filtration technology development. It is then necessary to search the carrying away conditions of these solid deposits and thus to control the fouling process. An ultrafiltration or micro filtration appliance has been realized and allows to calculate experimentally the erosion critical stress on a porous wall : this is the minimum stress to apply in order to lead in the principal flow a solid particles deposit and the parietal stress to be imposed to lead by an erosion process a solid particles deposit. (O.L.). 122 refs., 73 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Complete Primary Sequences of Two λ Immunoglobulin Light Chains in Myelomas with Nonamyloid (Randall-Type) Light Chain Deposition Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decourt, Catherine; Touchard, Guy; Preud’homme, Jean-Louis; Vidal, Ruben; Beaufils, Hélène; Diemert, Marie-Claude; Cogné, Michel

    1998-01-01

    We herein report on the first two primary sequences (BOU and RAC) of monoclonal light chains of the λ type responsible for nonamyloid λ light chain deposition disease. Both patients were affected with severe forms of myeloma complicated with renal failure. The pathological presentation typically featured Congo red-negative deposits along tubular basement membranes but differed somewhat from the typical “Randall-type” κ light chain deposition disease: they lacked the prominent glomerulosclerosis pattern often featuring nonamyloid κ deposits and were associated with cylinders or myeloma casts. Both protein sequences were deduced from those of the corresponding complementary DNAs in the bone marrow plasma cells. For each chain, products of three independent amplifications by polymerase chain reaction were sequenced and found to be identical. BOU and RAC λ mRNAs had a normal overall structure consisting of Vλ2 segments rearranged to Jλ2Cλ2 but displayed a number of unusual features within their primary sequences. These substitutions are likely responsible for changes in light chain conformation that promote their aggregation and deposition along renal tubule basement membranes. PMID:9665493

  6. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  7. Structural and Geophysical Characterization of Oklahoma Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C.; Johnston, C. S.; Carpenter, B. M.; Reches, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Oklahoma has experienced a large increase in seismicity since 2009 that has been attributed to wastewater injection. Most earthquakes, including four M5+ earthquakes, nucleated at depths > 4 km, well within the pre-Cambrian crystalline basement, even though wastewater injection occurred almost exclusively in the sedimentary sequence above. To better understand the structural characteristics of the rhyolite and granite that makeup the midcontinent basement, we analyzed a 150 m long core recovered from a basement borehole (Shads 4) in Rogers County, NE Oklahoma. The analysis of the fracture network in the rhyolite core included measurements of fracture inclination, aperture, and density, the examination fracture surface features and fill minerology, as well as x-ray diffraction analysis of secondary mineralization. We also analyzed the highly fractured and faulted segments of the core with a portable gamma-ray detector, magnetometer, and rebound hammer. The preliminary analysis of the fractures within the rhyolite core showed: (1) Fracture density increasing with depth by a factor of 10, from 4 fractures/10m in the upper core segment to 40 fracture/10m at 150 m deeper. (2) The fractures are primarily sub-vertical, inclined 10-20° from the axis of the vertical core. (3) The secondary mineralization is dominated by calcite and epidote. (4) Fracture aperture ranges from 0.35 to 2.35mm based on the thickness of secondary filling. (5) About 8% of the examined fractures display slickenside striations. (6) Increases of elasticity (by rebound hammer) and gamma-ray emissions are systematically correlated with a decrease in magnetic susceptibility in core segments of high fracture density and/or faulting; this observation suggests diagenetic fracture re-mineralization.

  8. Reliability of residential basements as blast shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinow, A.; Mohammadi, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis method for predicting the probability of failure of a wood-framed basement when subjected to a static, uniformly distributed load. The analysis considers the primary failure modes of each framing member and determines the probability of failure for each mode acting alone. The failure probability of the system as a whole is then bounded. The upper bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are independent, while the lower bound is determined on the assumption that the failure modes are perfectly correlated. The analysis is described with reference to an example problem

  9. Clinical and pathological features of dense deposit disease in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinquan; Tang, Zheng; Luo, Chunlei; Hu, Yanglin; Zeng, Caihong; Chen, Huiping; Liu, Zhihong

    2012-09-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD) is a rare disease that has no universally effective treatment. Herein we explore the clinical and pathological features of DDD in Chinese patients and the therapeutic effect of Tripterygium wilfordii (TW). Clinical and pathological data of 10 Chinese patients with biopsy-proved DDD were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The patients consisted of 6 males and 4 females. All of them had heavy proteinuria and microscopic hematuria. Gross hematuria, renal insufficiency, anemia, hypertension and low serum complement 3 (C3) occurred in 3, 3, 5, 6 and 8 cases, respectively. Under light microscopy (LM), 8 cases exhibited membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain disclosed intense PAS-positive bright ribbon-like thickening of glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Immunofluorescence mainly showed diffuse fine granular and short linear deposition of C3 along the glomerular capillary wall. Under electron microscopy, ribbon-like electrondense intramembranous deposits were identified in the lamina densa of the GBM, along the tubule basement membranes (TBM) and wall of Bowman's capsule. Before admission, 6 cases were treated with prednisone, cyclophosphamide and/or cyclosporin A with no response. Proteinuria in 8 cases who received TW during the course decreased at different degrees. The clinical and pathological features in DDD patients were various. The effect of TW in patients with DDD merits further investigation.

  10. Magnetotelluric inversion for depth-to-basement estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method can be effectively applied for depth-to-basement estimation, because there exists a strong contrast in resistivity between a conductive sedimentary basin and a resistive crystalline basement. Conventional inversions of MT data are usually aimed at determining...... the volumetric distribution of the conductivity within the inversion domain. By the nature of the MT method, the recovered distribution of the subsurface conductivity is typically diffusive, which makes it difficult to select the sediment-basement interface. This paper develops a novel approach to 3D MT...... inversion for the depth-to-basement estimate. The key to this approach is selection of the model parameterization with the depth to basement being the major unknown parameter. In order to estimate the depth to the basement, the inversion algorithm recovers both the thickness and the conductivities...

  11. Geochemistry of the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchio, Raul; Lucassen, Friedrich; Franz, Gerhard; Kasemann, Simone

    1998-01-01

    Major and trace elements, rare earths, and 143 Nd/ 147 Nd and, 147 Sm/ 144 Nd isotope ratios have been determined in the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement. The basement is formed by high temperature amphibolite facies rocks ranulites (750-550 degrees C) and green schists. They are represented by schists, paragneiss, orthogneiss, migmatites, few metabasites, marbles and chalcosilicatic banks. Hypotheses on the formation and evolution of the basement are presented

  12. Fabrication and optical properties of TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays made by sol-gel electrophoresis deposition into anodic alumina membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Y; Yuan, X Y; Xie, T; Zhang, L D

    2003-01-01

    Ordered TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays have been successfully fabricated into the nanochannels of a porous anodic alumina membrane by sol-gel electrophoretic deposition. After annealing at 500 deg. C, the TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays and the individual nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and TEM images show that these nanowires are dense and continuous with a uniform diameter throughout their entire length. XRD and SAED analysis together indicate that these TiO sub 2 nanowires crystallize in the anatase polycrystalline structure. The optical absorption band edge of TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays exhibits a blue shift with respect of that of the bulk TiO sub 2 owing to the quantum size effect.

  13. Depth-To-Basement Mapping Using Fractal Technique: Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and can thus be obtained at source level. Application to aeromagnetic data from the Chad basin north eastern Nigeria produced a basement relief which range from depths of 2.47 km to 5.40 km with an average of 3.92 +- 0.66 km. Keywords: Fractal, depth, basement, spectra, aeromagnetic. Nigerian Journal of Physics Vol ...

  14. Investigation of the subsurface features of the basement complex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3D seismic reflection survey was recently carried out within the Zaria area of the basement complex of northern Nigeria, in order to investigate the complexity of the subsurface features within the basement. The geology of the survey area was characterized by gneisses and low grade meta-sedimentary rocks that form the ...

  15. Potential Development of Hydrocarbon in Basement Reservoirs In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sunarjanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.165Basement rocks, in particular igneous and metamorphic rocks are known to have porosity and permeability which should not be ignored. Primary porosity of basement rocks occurs as the result of rock formation. The porosity increases by the presence of cracks occurring as the result of tectonic processes (secondary porosity. Various efforts have been carried out to explore hydrocarbon in basement rocks. Some oil and gas fields proved that the basement rocks are as reservoirs which so far have provided oil and gas in significant amount. A review using previous research data, new data, and observation of igneous rocks in some fields has been done to see the development of exploration and basement reservoirs in Indonesia. A review on terminology of basement rock up till the identification of oil and gas exploration in basement rocks need to be based on the latest technology. An environmental approach is suggested to be applied as an alternative in analyzing the policy on oil and gas exploration development, especially in basement reservoirs.

  16. Basement and alluvial aquifers of Malawi: An overview of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the quality of groundwater in basement and alluvial aquifers of Malawi through literature assessment. Groundwater in these aquifers serves about 60% of Malawian population. Alluvial aquifers yield high groundwater in excess of 10 L/s and more mineralized than basement aquifers. The values from ...

  17. Estimation of Magnetic Basement Depth of Oyo Area from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digitized magnetic intensity data of Oyo area, south western Nigeria was analyzed to estimate depths to magnetic sources as well as source locations. The total magnetic intensity values ranges from -143.8 nT to 147.0 nT suggesting contrasting rock types in the basement complex. The magnetic basement depth results ...

  18. Evidence of basement controlled faulting of cretaceous strata in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence of basement controlled faulting of cretaceous strata in the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria from lineament analysis of gravity data. ... anomaly map of part of the Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria, was used to investigate the genetic relationship between the basement and intra-sedimentary structures in the study area.

  19. Micro-fabricated membrane gas valves with a non-stiction coating deposited by C4F8/Ar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeahyeong; Flachsbart, Bruce; Shannon, Mark A; Masel, Rich I

    2008-01-01

    Micro-fabricated gas valves with C 4 F 8 /Ar treatment at the sealing interface are designed, fabricated and characterized to passively control gases in a micro gas analysis system. The check valves form a seal between a polished Si/SiO 2 substrate and a smooth polyimide (PI) membrane. The smooth PI membrane touches the SiO 2 surface, giving rise to relatively strong van der Waals adhesion, and under humid conditions hydrogen-bonded stiction can occur at the interface between PI and SiO 2 . To prevent stiction from dominating adhesion, the valve-seat surface was treated with a hydrophobic CF n thin film, which was formed by exposing the surface to C 4 F 8 /Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) at low power. The valves without a non-stiction coating did not open with inlet pressures up to 210 kPa. With a non-stiction coating, the valves showed an average initial opening pressure of 59.25 kPa. In order to further reduce the opening pressure, 40% of the valve-seat area is reduced. After modification, the average opening pressure is reduced to 32.5 kPa. After the initial opening, the average in-use opening pressure was 16.9 kPa before area modification, and 13.1 kPa after the modification. The valve has been tested up to 10 000 open/close cycles under dry N 2 gas flow, and an additional 3000 open/close cycles under humid N 2 gas flow. The average forward flow conductance of the valves before modification was 1.1 sccm kPa −1 , and the conductance after modification was 1.41 sccm kPa −1 . The measured leakage is between 0.0003 and 0.004 sccm up to 35 kPa reverse pressure

  20. Dynamics of Uranium Ore Formation in the Basement and Frame of the Streltsovskaya Caldera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.; Poluektov, V.V.; Schukin, S.I.; Tolstobrov, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions and challenges: 1. Caldera Granitic Frame: Urtuy and Bambakay Massifs: • AR-PR 800 Ma (relics?) granite-gneiss and PZ1 520 Ma (Caledonian) granites • NE-SW main fluid conducting faults; • Uraninite formation 770±35 Ma and transformation 195±79 Ma (U-Pb). 2. Caldera Basement U Deposits: • AR-PR 800 Ma (relics) granite-gneiss (Argun deposit); • PZ2 240 Ma (Variscian) granites (Antey deposit); • NNE-submeridional main fluid conducting faults; • Hydromicatization 131-139 Ma; • U (economic) ores formation 133-135 Ma 3. Long-term fluid circulation in the ore-forming fluid-magmatic system: • Chronology; • Depth (source and PT conditions); • Pathways; • Transport mechanisms; • Stress-strain-temperature field evolution

  1. Geology of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit near Meli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VMS) deposit near Meli/Rahwa, northern Ethiopia are presented in the paper. The study area forms part of Neoproterozoic basement of northern Ethiopia and southern part of the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). Selected surface rock samples of ...

  2. Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.

  3. Association of Randall's Plaques with Collagen Fibers and Membrane Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed R.; Rodriguez, Douglas E.; Gower, Laurie B.; Monga, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) kidney stones develop by deposition of CaOx crystals on Randall's plaques (RP). Mechanisms involved in RP formation are still unclear. Objective It is our hypotheses that RP formation is similar to vascular calcification involving components of extracellular matrix including membrane bound vesicles (MV) and collagen fibers. In order to verify our hypothesis we critically examined renal papillary tissue from stone patients. Methods 4 mm cold-cup biopies of renal papillae were performed on fifteen idiopathic stone patients undergoing PCNL. Tissue was immediately fixed and processed for analyses by various light and electron microscopic techniques. Results and Limitations Spherulitic CaP crystals, the hallmark of RP's, were seen in all samples examined. They were seen in interstitium as well as laminated basement membrane of tubular epithelia. Large crystalline deposits comprised of dark elongated strands mixed with spherulites. Strands showed banded patterns similar to collagen. Crystal deposits were surrounded by collagen fibers and membrane bound vesicles. Energy dispersive x-ray microanalyses (EDX) and electron diffraction identified the crystals as hydroxyapatite. The number of kidneys examined is small and urinary data was not available for all the patients. Conclusions Results presented here show that crystals in the Randall's plaques are associated with both the collagen as well as MV. Collagen fibers appeared calcified and vesicles contained crystals. We conclude that crystal deposition in renal papillae may have started with membrane vesicle induced nucleation and grew by addition of crystals on the periphery within a collagen framework. PMID:22266007

  4. Effect of basement structure and salt tectonics on deformation styles along strike: An example from the Kuqa fold-thrust belt, West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, Yuan; Xie, Huiwen; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB) has a complex thrust-system geometry and comprises basement-involved thrusts, décollement thrusts, triangle zones, strike-slip faults, transpressional faults, and pop-up structures. These structures, combined with the effects of Paleogene salt tectonics and Paleozoic basement uplift form a complex structural zone trending E-W. Interpretation and comprehensive analysis of recent high-quality seismic data, field observations, boreholes, and gravity data covering the KFTB has been performed to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of the deformation styles along strike. Regional sections, fold-thrust system maps of the surface and the sub-salt layer, salt and basement structure distribution maps have been created, and a comprehensive analysis of thrust systems performed. The results indicate that the thrust-fold system in Paleogene salt range can be divided into five segments from east to west: the Kela-3, Keshen, Dabei, Bozi, and Awate segments. In the easternmost and westernmost parts of the Paleogene salt range, strike-slip faulting and basement-involved thrusting are the dominant deformation styles, as basement uplift and the limits of the Cenozoic evaporite deposit are the main controls on deformation. Salt-core detachment fold-thrust systems coincide with areas of salt tectonics, and pop-up, imbricate, and duplex structures are associated with the main thrust faults in the sub-salt layer. Distribution maps of thrust systems, basement structures, and salt tectonics show that Paleozoic basement uplift controlled the Paleozoic foreland basin morphology and the distribution of Cenozoic salt in the KFTB, and thus had a strong influence on the segmented structural deformation and evolution of the fold-thrust belt. Three types of transfer zone are identified, based on the characteristics of the salt layer and basement uplift, and the effects of these zones on the fault systems are evaluated. Basement uplift and the boundary of

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  6. Groundwater Exploration in the Basement Complex Around Chibok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    ABSTRACT: A geophysical survey employing Schlumberger electrode configuration using vertical electrical sounding (VES) method ... Keywords: Hydrogeology, Basement Complex, Alluvium, Colluviums, Electric resistivity, Chibok. INTRODUCTION .... unconcentrated surface runoff or sheet erosion. It is not concentrated ...

  7. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    basement is faulted along the NW-SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trend of this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with that of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB...

  8. Fabrication of a Microtubular La0.6Sr0.4Ti0.2Fe0.8O3−δ Membrane by Electrophoretic Deposition for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubular type La0.6Sr0.4Ti0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSTF membranes were prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD. The oxygen permeation and hydrogen production behavior of the membranes were investigated under various conditions. LSTF green layer was successfully coated onto a carbon rod and, after heat treatment at 1400°C in air, a dense LSTF tubular membrane with a thickness of 250 mm can be obtained. The oxygen permeation and hydrogen production rate were enhanced by CH4 in the permeate side, and the hydrogen production rate by water splitting was 0.22 mL/min·cm2 at 1000°C. It is believed that hydrogen production via water splitting using these tubular LSTF membranes is possible.

  9. Light-chain deposition disease of the kidney: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darouich, Sihem; Goucha, Rym; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Zekri, Semy; Kheder, Adel; Maiz, Hedi Ben

    2012-04-01

    A 41-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of nephrotic syndrome associated with microhematuria, hypertension, and moderate renal failure. In serum and urine samples, monoclonal IgG-lambda was detected. Bone marrow examination showed normal representation of all cell lines with normal range of plasma cells. Renal biopsy demonstrated diabetes-like nodular glomerulosclerosis. Immunofluorescence failed to demonstrate the presence of kappa or lambda light chains in the kidney. Electron microcopy showed granular electron-dense deposits along the glomerular basement membranes and in the mesangial nodules. The patient was diagnosed as having light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) without evidence of plasma cell dyscrasia. This report was designed to stress the significant challenges that remain in the diagnosis of LCDD-related glomerulopathy. The salient morphological features that help in making an accurate diagnosis are discussed.

  10. Frictional Behavior of Altered Basement Approaching the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Rooney, T. O.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    The frictional behavior of basement rocks plays an important role in subduction zone faulting and seismicity. This includes earthquakes seaward of the trench, large megathrust earthquakes where seamounts are subducting, or where the plate interface steps down to basement. In exhumed subduction zone rocks such as the Shimanto complex in Japan, slivers of basalt are entrained in mélange which is evidence of basement involvement in the fault system. Scientific drilling during the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) recovered basement rock from two reference sites (C0011 and C0012) located seaward of the trench offshore the Kii Peninsula during Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 322 and 333. The basement rocks are pillow basalts that appear to be heterogeneously altered, resulting in contrasting dense blue material and more vesicular gray material. Major element geochemistry shows differences in silica, calcium oxides and loss-on-ignition between the two types of samples. Minor element geochemistry reveals significant differences in vanadium, chromium, and barium. X-ray diffraction on a bulk sample powder representing an average composition shows a phyllosilicate content of 20%, most of which is expandable clays. We performed laboratory friction experiments in a biaxial testing apparatus as either intact sample blocks, or as gouge powders. We combine these experiments with measurements of Pennsylvania slate for comparison, including a mixed-lithology intact block experiment. Intact Nankai basement blocks exhibit a coefficient of sliding friction of 0.73; for Nankai basement powder, slate powder, slate blocks and slate-on-basement blocks the coefficient of sliding friction ranges from 0.44 to 0.57. At slip rates ranging from 3x10-8 to 3x10-4 m/s we observe predominantly velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, indicating a tendency for stable slip. At rates of < 1x10-6 m/s some velocity-weakening was observed, specifically in

  11. Basement Fault Reactivation by Fluid Injection into Sedimentary Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Eichhubl; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Many suspected injection-induced earthquakes occur in crystalline basement rather than in the overlying sedimentary injection reservoir. To address why earthquakes nucleate in the basement rather than the injection layer we investigate the relationship between pore pressure diffusion, rock matrix deformation, and induced fault reactivation through 3D fully coupled poroelastic finite element models. These models simulate the temporal and spatial perturbation of pore pressure and solid stresses within a basement fault that extends into overlying sedimentary layers and that is conductive for flow along the fault but a barrier for flow across. We compare the effects of direct pore pressure communication and indirect poroelastic stress transfer from the injection reservoir to the fault on increasing the Coulomb failure stress that could reactivate the basement fault for normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting stress regimes. Our numerical results demonstrate that volumetric expansion of the reservoir causes a bending of the fault near the injector and induces shear tractions along the downdip direction of the fault in the basement. These induced shear tractions act to increase the Coulomb failure stress for a normal faulting stress regime, and decrease the Coulomb failure stress for a reverse faulting regime. For a strike-slip faulting stress regime, the induced shear tractions increase the Coulomb failure stress both in the reservoir and basement. The induced normal traction on the fault reduces the Coulomb failure stress in all three tectonic regimes, but is larger in the reservoir than in the basement due to the more pronounced poroelastic effect in the reservoir. As a result, strike-slip stress regimes favor fault reactivation in the basement. Whereas the magnitude of the direct pore pressure increase exceeds the magnitude of induced poroelastic stress change, the poroelastic stress change increases the Coulomb failure stress in the basement fault for the normal

  12. Membranous glomerulopathy and massive cervical lymphadenopathy due to immunoglobulin G4-disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel El-Reshaid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old male presented with acute and severe nephrotic syndrome as well as massive right cervical lymphadenopathy for <2 years. Computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis did not reveal any lymphadenopathy. Histopathology and immunohistochemical testing of his lymph node biopsy showed infiltrate enriched with immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4-positive plasma cells. His kidney biopsy showed granular membranous deposits of IgG4 in the basement membrane without interstitial infiltrate. Antiphospholipid 2 receptor antibodies were absent excluding its "idiopathic" nature. Since he was allergic to rituximab, he was treated with corticosteroids for two months and a combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. His lymphadenopathy disappeared, and his proteinuria abated. The dose of the latter two medications was reduced to half after four months and will be maintained for a minimum of two years to prevent relapse of his disease.

  13. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignan, B.; O'Kelly, P.; Pilch, E.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  14. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Renata; Hackspacker, Peter Christian; Anderson de Souza, Iata; Sousa Lima Costa, Iago

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we show that from satellite-derived gravity field, bathymetry and sediment thicknesses, it is possible to give a 3-D model of the basement over oceanic areas, and for this purpose, we have chosen the Rio Grande Rise, in South Atlantic Ocean, to build a gravity-equivalent basement topography. The advantages of the method applied in this study are manifold: does not depend directly on reflection seismic data; can be applied quickly and with fewer costs for acquiring and interpreting the data; and as the main result, presents the physical surface below the sedimentary layer, which may be different from the acoustic basement. We evaluated the gravity effect of the sediments using the global sediment thickness model of NOAA, fitting a sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the gravity inversion procedure. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 to 27 km over the area, being thicker under the Rio Grande Rise and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied for a gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. A description of the basement depth over Rio Grande Rise area is unprecedented in the literature, however, our results could be compared to in situ data, provided by DSDP, and a small difference of only 9 m between our basement depth and leg 516 F was found. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Seamounts, guyots and fracture zones are much more

  15. Uplift, Emergence, and Subsidence of the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge Offshore Cape Mendocino, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Susan M.; Tréhu, Anne M.

    2017-12-01

    The Gorda Escarpment is a topographic step that characterizes the south side of the Mendocino Transform Fault east of 126oW and forms the northern edge of the Vizcaino Block. Seismic reflection data suggest that the basement beneath the northern edge of the Vizcaino is composed of east-west trending slivers of oceanic crust that form a 15 km wide band of buried ridges we call the Gorda Escarpment Basement Ridge (GEBR) to distinguish it from the northwest-trending basement structure that characterizes most of the Vizcaino Block. The history of uplift and subsidence of the GEBR is reconstructed by combining the seismic reflection profiles with age and lithological constraints from ODP Site 1022, gravity cores, and grab samples from the northern face of the Escarpment recovered using a remotely operated vehicle. Uplift of the GEBR began prior to 6 Ma, and it was above sea level 3.7-2.5 Ma. GEBR uplift and emergence coincided with sediment deposition on the southern flank of the GEBR that we interpret as indicative of strong upwelling and turbulence in the lee of a shallow ridge and island chain. A bright reflection, interpreted to be a sill, is observed south of the shallowest part of the GEBR. We speculate that this sill may reflect a larger, hidden intrusion at depth and that thermal expansion of the crust combined with tectonic forces to drive enhanced uplift of this segment of the plate boundary. The GEBR has been subsiding since 2.7 Ma, and its shallowest point is now 1,400 m below sea level.

  16. The nature of the acoustic basement on Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruvoll, Vibeke; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Coakley, Bernard J.; Hopper, John R.; Planke, Sverre; Kandilarov, Aleksandre

    2012-01-01

    The Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex, over 1500 km long and 250-400 km wide, is the largest submarine structure in the Arctic Ocean basin. Its origin is unknown, but often inferred to represent a large igneous province where domains of continental crust may also be a possibility. We investigate the basement geology of part of this large scale feature using 1100 km of multichannel seismic reflection data, sonobuoy recordings and marine gravity data acquired in 2005 from USCG icebreaker Healy. The sonobuoy results show top and intra-acoustic basement velocities in the range of 2.3-4.0 km/s and the seismic reflection attributes define three main acoustic facies: 1) continuous high amplitude reflections often with abrupt breaks, 3) weak wedge geometry and 3) segmented, disrupted to chaotic reflections. The acoustic characteristics and seismic velocities compare more closely with basement on Ontong Java Plateau than normal ocean crust or wedges of seaward dipping reflections at volcanic margins. The acoustic facies are interpreted to represent basalt flows and sills capping voluminous tuff deposits and possible sediments. At least two volcanic centres are identified. The upper volcanic carapace on the surveyed part of Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges was emplaced during a brief igneous episode no later than Campanian (80 Ma) and most likely part of wider Late Cretaceous circum Arctic volcanism. The horst and graben morphology on Mendeleev Ridge is largely a result of post-emplacement faulting where a number of the major extensional faults remained active until a late Miocene intrusive event.

  17. Nanggulan Formation and Its Problem As a Basement in Kulonprogo Basin, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Gendoet Hartono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.2.71-80Nanggulan Formation consists of the oldest clastic rock sequence exposed in Kulonprogo area, Yogyakarta. This paper discusses the position of Nanggulan Formation as a basement. The method used in this research is surface and subsurface investigations based on gravity surveys. The rock assemblage is exposed and distributed partly in the east flank of Kulonprogo Mountains with weak undulated morphology. The rock sequence is composed of sand to clay grain sizes such as sandstone, quartz sandstone, calcareous sandstone, claystone, fossiliferous claystone, calcareous claystone, siltstone, and coal seam intercalations. The total thickness of the sequence is less than 200 m. Based on the fossil and palynology investigations, previous investigators concluded the age of the rock was Eocene to Middle Miocene. The geological structures developed in the rocks are the lithological stratification, fractures, folding, and faulting. The subsurface interpretation based on gravity data revealed the rock was located under the andesite breccias with 2.44 g/cc density. The density of the rock sequence was 2.63 g/cc. The gravity interpretation shows a strong indication that Nanggulan Formation underlies the andesitic breccias presumably associated with Old Andesite Formation exposed in Kulonprogo Mountains. The limited distribution, the thickness, and the closed environmental deposition of Nanggulan Formation found in the present investigation raised problems on the position of the formation as the basement of Old Andesite Formation occurring in the Kulonprogo Mountain.

  18. Petrology and geotechnic setting of the basement comple rocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basement complex, located at the south-eastern borders of Ogoja town in the south-eastern part of Nigeria, consists of two varieties of migmatitic gneisses, namely banded and augen gneisses, which, in some cases, are inter-layered with amphibolite. Many concordant to discordant quartzofeldspathic veins in these ...

  19. Groundwater Exploration in the Basement Complex Around Chibok ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A geophysical survey employing Schlumberger electrode configuration using vertical electrical sounding (VES) method was carried out around Chibok area within the Basement Complex of north-eastern Nigeria using an ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter with a view to exploring groundwater within the study area.

  20. Source parameter imaging from areomagnetic data of the basement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Source parameter imaging from areomagnetic data of the basement rocks in part of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. GC Onyedim, EA Ariyibi, MO Awoyemi, JB Arubayi, OM Afolabi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42 (2) 2006: pp. 165-173. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  1. Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeromagnetic imaging of the basement morphology in part of the middle Benue trough, Nigeria. GC Onyedim, MO Awoyemi, EA Ariyibi, JB Arubayi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42 (2) 2006: pp. 157-163. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  2. Geoelectric characterization of Aquifer types in the basement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geoelectric characterization of Aquifer types in the basement complex terrain of parts of Osun state,Nigeria. S Bayode, JS Ojo, MO Olorunfemi. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 12(3) 2006: 377-385. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  3. Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in Ajaokuta, southwestern Nigeria. CC Osadebe, JO Fatoba, S Obrike. Abstract. No Abstract. Ife Journal of Science Vol. 7(2) 2005: 297-303. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. an investigation of basement fracture pattern in a part of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ANIFOWOSE

    The basement complex of southwestern Nigeria has undergone severe tectonic deformation over the geologic past, resulting in various degrees of fracturing and folding, even to the extent of complete obliteration of primary structures except for some places. This study focuses on Akoko area which is dominated by hills of ...

  5. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    . The N10-12 degrees W trending subsurface 85 degrees E Ridge buried under 2 to 3 km thick sediments is a prominent tectonic feature. Offshore basins characterised by deeper magnetic basement (approx. 9 km) and 100-200 km wide are present on either sides...

  6. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marine magnetic anomalies along three representative profiles falling between shelf break and continent–ocean boundary in the offshore Krishna–Godavari basin were quantitatively interpreted for understandingthe nature and structure of the magnetic basement using inversion technique. The interpretation of ...

  7. Mitigating leaks in membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, Rohit N.; Bose, Suman; Boutilier, Michael S.H.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.; Jain, Tarun Kumar; O' Hern, Sean C.; Laoui, Tahar; Atieh, Muataz A.; Jang, Doojoon

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional material based filters, their method of manufacture, and their use are disclosed. In one embodiment, a membrane may include an active layer including a plurality of defects and a deposited material associated with the plurality of defects may reduce flow therethrough. Additionally, a majority of the active layer may be free from the material. In another embodiment, a membrane may include a porous substrate and an atomic layer deposited material disposed on a surface of the porous substrate. The atomic layer deposited material may be less hydrophilic than the porous substrate and an atomically thin active layer may be disposed on the atomic layer deposited material.

  8. Basement inheritance and salt tectonics in the SE Barents Sea: Insights from new potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernigon, L.; Broenner, M.; Dumais, M. A.; Gradmann, S.; Grønlie, A.; Nasuti, A.; Roberts, D.

    2017-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of the former `grey zone' between Russia and Norway has so far remained poorly constrained due to a lack of geophysical data. In 2014, we carried out a new aeromagnetic survey (BASAR-14) in the southern part of the new Norwegian offshore territory. Caledonian and Timanian structures, highlighted by the new potential field data, dominate the basement patterns and have exerted a strong influence on the structure and development of the overlying basins and basement highs. Clearly associated with NW-SE-oriented Timanian trends, the Tiddlybanken Basin represents an atypical sag basin that developed at the southern edge of the Fedynsky High. Regional extension and rapid sedimentation initiated the salt tectonics in the Barents Sea in the Early Triassic. Some of the pillows became diapiric during the Early Triassic and rejuvenated during subsequent Jurassic-Tertiary episodes of regional extension and/or compression. At present, quite a few large diapiric salt domes along the Nordkapp and Tiddlybanken basins are relatively shallow, locally reaching the seabed and thus show a clear bathymetric and magnetic signature. Quantitative modelling along 2D seismic transects was also carried out to constrain the structural and basement composition of the study area. The predominant NE-SW Mesozoic trend of the Nordkapp Basin represents a major crustal hinge zone between the Finnmark Platform, poorly affected by major crustal deformation, and the Bjarmeland Platform where Late Palaeozoic rifting controlled the widespread accumulation of salt deposits in Late Carboniferous-Early Permian time. The entire structure and segmentation of the Nordkapp Basin have been influenced by the inherited basement configuration highlighted by the new aeromagnetic data. Both the Nordkapp and the Tiddlybanken basins appear to lie at the edge of a peculiar thick and rigid crustal feature that coincides with a highly magnetic region. The abrupt termination of the eastern Nordkapp

  9. Membrane projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  10. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  11. Basement depth and sedimentary infill from deep seismic reflection data at the western tip of the offshore Corinth Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Arnaud; Tripsanas, Efthymios; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Beck, Christian; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2015-04-01

    The Corinth rift is a young continental rift located in central Greece. The active part of the rift forms an E-W striking depression - the Gulf of Corinth - that is the deepest in its central part. Extensive seismic surveys have imaged the basin's basement and allowed to estimate the total extension across most of the Gulf except its western tip. Extension is high in the central part and decreases westward and eastward, as reflected in the present-day bathymetry. Two decades of GPS measurements have shown that the extension rate increases westwards from ~5 to 10-15 mm yr-1, but this is not consistent with the long term pattern. However, no data allowed so far to estimate the basement depth at the western tip of the Gulf, where the geodetic extension rate is the largest. Such data would allow to check the apparent inconsistency between the present rate and the long-term estimates of crustal extension. We present here an unpublished multichannel seismic line dating from 1979 and crossing the western tip of the Gulf of Corinth. The line is 22 km long and strikes WNW-ESE, from the Mornos delta to the West-Channel fault. A Maxipulse source has been used, allowing to image the basement below the synrift sedimentary infill. To the east, a ~1.6 km deep basin is imaged between the southern margin of the Gulf and an inactive south-dipping fault located between the Aigion and the Trizonia faults. The sedimentary infill consists in an alternation between basin-focused bodies made of incoherent reflections and more extensive high-amplitude reflectors. Attributing this alternation to eustatic variations give an age of 300-350 ka to the oldest well imaged deposits. Northwest of the Trizonia fault, the basement is imaged at shallower depth, i.e. ~450 m. The western tip of the seismic line reaches the Mornos delta, close to the northern shoreline. There, the depth to the basement is larger, reaching ~1.2 km. The infill is made of 3 units : on the basement lies a thin unit of

  12. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in Bruch's membrane of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, W L; Essner, E; McCarthy, K J

    1992-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (Mab 4D5 and 2D6) raised against the core protein of a basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan from Reichert's membrane of the rat, were used for ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of this protein in Bruch's membrane of the rat. Immunoreactivity for...

  13. Geo-Thermochronometric Insights on the Cycladic Basement and Cycladic Blueschist Unit Contact in the Southern Cyclades, Ios Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flansburg, M. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Poulaki, E. M.; Soukis, K. I.

    2017-12-01

    The North Cycladic Detachment System, the West Cycladic Detachment System, and the Naxos-Paros Detachment accommodated large-scale Oligo-Miocene exhumation in the backarc of the retreating Hellenic subduction zone. While bivergent detachment faults in the northern and western Cyclades are either contained within the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) or at the CBU-Upper Unit interface, the sheared contact between the CBU and the underlying Cycladic Basement in the southern Cyclades (Ios) has been debated for over 30 years, largely due to the ambiguous coexistence of both top-to-the-N and top-to-the-S shear sense indicators and a lack of robust timing information. Reliable chronostratigraphic and thermal history constraints allow us to test whether the contact is a low-angle normal fault-possibly part of a larger detachment system-or the South Cycladic Thrust by placing absolute ages on deformation, determining older over younger relationships or vice versa, and quantifying possible differential exhumation during Cenozoic extension. Zircon U-Pb dating for the granitic Basement core of Ios gave Carboniferous-Permian age and shows that surrounding Basement metasedimentary units can be divided into two groups based on detrital zircon signatures. An older group of metasedimentary rocks have maximum depositional ages (MDAs) ranging from 450 Ma to 354 Ma and predate the intrusions, and late Permian Basement paragneisses are younger than the intrusions and likely originally deposited unconformably on the older units. Samples from the CBU in northern Ios yielded MDAs ranging from Mid-Jurassic to Late Cretaceous and appear to be repeated due to either thrusting or subduction accretion and exhibit older over younger relationships. MDA data from mapped CBU at the southern end of Ios yielded Ordovician to Permian ages, calling into question their assignment as CBU, while also revealing older over younger relationships. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages for the Basement and the CBU on Ios are 9

  14. Development of nickel membranes deposited on ceramic materials by electroless plating: studies of the hydrogen perm-selectivity properties at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, J.

    2008-09-01

    The main objective of this work was to synthesize nickel based membranes by electroless plating on materials such as alumina-α, alumina-γ and zirconia with various textures and to determine their hydrogen perm-selectivity at high temperatures. The synthesis of metal films of high purity (≥ 99% mass Ni) resulting from the choice of hydrazine with its dual role of reducing and complexing agent has revealed that the diameter of pores on the surface support has an impact on the quality of metal adherence. The various contributions of hydrogen transport through these composite membranes at low temperatures (Knudsen and surface diffusion) and at high temperatures (Knudsen and activated diffusion) was established. At its implementation in a membrane reactor (reaction of propane dehydrogenation), the layer of nickel showed a very good resistance to coking. (author)

  15. Dynamics of uranium ore formation in the basement and frame of the Streltsovskaya Caldera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.; Schukin, S.

    2014-01-01

    strike-slip displacements along interblock faults during Late Mesozoic TMA. Within the intersections of NW-SE shears with stratified low-angle faults the conditions for forming of bedded deposits were created. At the Paleozoic and Mesozoic border (T3-J2) into the caldera NW frame the pull-apart structure was developed. Dimension of the caldera and structure is comparable, and the latter is now hidden under K1-Q sediments of Sukhoy Urulunguy depression. Combination of paleotectonic analysis and data on dynamics of ore-forming processes and fluid-conducting fault zone formation allows us to identify three prospective areas. Two of them are located in Sukhoy Urulunguy depression in the intersection of NE-SW S-Urulyunguyevskiy fault with submeridional Gozogorsky and Meridional faults. The areas have prerequisites for detecting hidden Late Mesozoic mineralization both in volcanosedimentary cover and basement. The third area is located in intersection of NE-SW NUrulyunguyevskiy fault with meridional Chindachinskiy fault where prerequisites for detecting mineralization in Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic basement were found. It is inferred that these areas are prospective for identification of additional uranium resources within the Streltsovskoe ore field. (author)

  16. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, María J; Cisternas, Marcelo A; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Seifert, Birger; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick; Volkmann, Ulrich G

    2014-09-14

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (~25 Å) and DPPC (~60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  17. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamal, María J., E-mail: moretama@uc.cl; Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Seifert, Birger; Volkmann, Ulrich G. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados (CIEN-UC), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas [Computational Biology Lab (DLab), Fundación Ciencia y Vida, Av. Zañartu 1482, Santiago (Chile); Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencias de Valparaiso (CINV), Universidad de Valparaiso, Pasaje Harrington 287, Valparaiso (Chile); Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick [Institute of Materials Physics and Technology, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), D-21073 Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2014-09-14

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (∼25 Å) and DPPC (∼60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  18. Optimization of the thickness of a conductiong polymer, polyaniline, deposited on the surface of poly(vinyl chloride) membranes: A new way to improve their potentiometric response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shishkanova, T. V.; Matějka, P.; Král, V.; Šeděnková, Ivana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 624, č. 2 (2008), s. 238-246 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : potentiometry * membrane electrode * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.146, year: 2008

  19. The nature of the basement in the archaean Dharwar carton of southern India and the age of the peninsular gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naha, K.; Vrevsky, A.B.; Bogomolov, Ye.S.

    1993-01-01

    The archaean peninsular gneiss of southern India is considered by a number of workers to be the basement upon which the Dharwar supra crustal rocks were deposited. However, the peninsular gneiss in its present state is a composite gneiss formed by syn kinematic migmatization during successive episodes of folding (DhF 1 , DhF 1a and DhF 2 ) that affected the Dharwar supra crustal rocks. An even earlier phase of migmatization and deformation (DhF * ) is evident from relict fabrics in small enclaves to represent the original basement for the Dharwar supra crustal rocks. Tonalitic pebbles in conglomerates of the Dharwar supergroup confirm the inference that the supra crustal rocks were deposited on a gneissic basement. Whole rock Rb-Sr ages of gneisses showing only the DhF 1 structure fall in the range of 3100-3200 Ma. Where the later deformation (DhF 2 ) has been associated with considerable recrystallization, the Rb-Sr ages are between 2500 Ma and 2700 Ma. Significantly, a new Rb-Sr analysis of tonalitic gneiss pebbles in the Kaldurga conglomerate of the Dharwar sequence is consistent with an age of ∼ 2500 Ma and not that of 3300 Ma reported earlier by Venkatasubramanian and Narayanaswamy (1974). Pb-Pb ages based on direct evaporation of detrital zircon grains from the metasedimentary rocks of the Dharwar sequence fall into two groups, 3300-3100 Ma, and 2800-3000 Ma. Stratigraphic, structural, textural and geochronologic data, therefore, indicate that the peninsular gneiss of the Dharwar craton evolved over a protracted period of time ranging from >3300 Ma to 2500 ma. (author). 26 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Geoelectrical characterisation of basement aquifers: the case of Iberekodo, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizebeokhai, Ahzegbobor P.; Oyeyemi, Kehinde D.

    2018-03-01

    Basement aquifers, which occur within the weathered and fractured zones of crystalline bedrocks, are important groundwater resources in tropical and subtropical regions. The development of basement aquifers is complex owing to their high spatial variability. Geophysical techniques are used to obtain information about the hydrologic characteristics of the weathered and fractured zones of the crystalline basement rocks, which relates to the occurrence of groundwater in the zones. The spatial distributions of these hydrologic characteristics are then used to map the spatial variability of the basement aquifers. Thus, knowledge of the spatial variability of basement aquifers is useful in siting wells and boreholes for optimal and perennial yield. Geoelectrical resistivity is one of the most widely used geophysical methods for assessing the spatial variability of the weathered and fractured zones in groundwater exploration efforts in basement complex terrains. The presented study focuses on combining vertical electrical sounding with two-dimensional (2D) geoelectrical resistivity imaging to characterise the weathered and fractured zones in a crystalline basement complex terrain in southwestern Nigeria. The basement aquifer was delineated, and the nature, extent and spatial variability of the delineated basement aquifer were assessed based on the spatial variability of the weathered and fractured zones. The study shows that a multiple-gradient array for 2D resistivity imaging is sensitive to vertical and near-surface stratigraphic features, which have hydrological implications. The integration of resistivity sounding with 2D geoelectrical resistivity imaging is efficient and enhances near-surface characterisation in basement complex terrain.

  1. A fall-out shelter or basement structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchford, J.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A strong structure of precast concrete for use as a fallout shelter, tank, basement structure, blast-proof garage is described. It consists of several upright, concrete wall elements, including L-shaped sections, and at least one concrete roof element. The concrete elements are preferably encased in, and may also be supported on, a concrete surround which is formed in situ and which may be secured to the elements by projecting links. The structure may be assembled as an underground or above-ground building. This invention provides a strong structure of quite large span which is relatively simple in construction and can be rapidly assembled. (U.K.)

  2. Air exchange rates and migration of VOCs in basements and residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L; Batterman, S; Godwin, C; Rowe, Z; Chin, J-Y

    2015-12-01

    Basements can influence indoor air quality by affecting air exchange rates (AERs) and by the presence of emission sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other pollutants. We characterized VOC levels, AERs, and interzonal flows between basements and occupied spaces in 74 residences in Detroit, Michigan. Flows were measured using a steady-state multitracer system, and 7-day VOC measurements were collected using passive samplers in both living areas and basements. A walk-through survey/inspection was conducted in each residence. AERs in residences and basements averaged 0.51 and 1.52/h, respectively, and had strong and opposite seasonal trends, for example, AERs were highest in residences during the summer, and highest in basements during the winter. Airflows from basements to occupied spaces also varied seasonally. VOC concentration distributions were right-skewed, for example, 90th percentile benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and limonene concentrations were 4.0, 19.1, 20.3, and 51.0 μg/m(3), respectively; maximum concentrations were 54, 888, 1117, and 134 μg/m(3). Identified VOC sources in basements included solvents, household cleaners, air fresheners, smoking, and gasoline-powered equipment. The number and type of potential VOC sources found in basements are significant and problematic, and may warrant advisories regarding the storage and use of potentially strong VOCs sources in basements. Few IAQ studies have examined basements. A sizable volume of air can flow between the basement and living area, and AERs in these two zones can differ considerably. In many residences, the basement contains significant emission sources and contributes a large fraction of VOC concentrations found in the living area. Exposures can be lowered by removing VOC sources from the basement; other exposure management options, such as local ventilation or isolation, are unlikely to be practical. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Basement-cover relationships in the Grampian Caledonides of Scotland - extensional strain preceding continental rupture and generation of the Laurentian ocean-continent transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Graham; Smith, Martin; Gillespie, Martin; Thomas, Christopher; Krabbendam, Maarten

    2010-05-01

    Ancient rift and passive margin basins can frequently only be studied in outcrop after uplift following orogenesis. Such basins are thus deformed, metamorphosed and partially eroded as a consequence of closure of the oceanic system in which the passive margin was originally established. As a result there are significant challenges in restoration and interpretation of the original basin geometries and lithostratigraphical relationships. The mid-Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland and Ireland was intensively deformed and metamorphosed by mid-Ordovician arc-accretion (c. 460 Ma) during the Caledonian Orogeny. Nevertheless, we can determine a history of stretching and break-up associated with rupture of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia and opening of Iapetus. Continental fragments apparently separated from the passive margin during rift-drift transition. The extensional structures bounding the various fragments subsequently exerted control on the collisional geometry and acted as nuclei for deformation structures during Caledonian orogenesis. Reading the record of Neoproterozoic extension in the Scottish Caledonides is further complicated by the need to unravel the structural record at the boundary between the Dalradian Supergroup and underlying early-Neoproterozoic metamorphic basement. The depositional age of the Dalradian succession is not well constrained but the oldest strata could pre-date 800 Ma. If such should be the case, then the thick siliciclastic deposits characteristic of the lower Dalradian Grampian Group succession accumulated before 800 Ma during an early stretching phase (distributed high angle faulting) that led to crustal thinning (low-angle shearing). A major low-angle, regional-scale ductile shear zone in the upper levels of the underlying basement is arranged sub-parallel to the present structural base of the Dalradian. The high-temperature regional metamorphism in basement is c. 830 Ma old while the ductile

  4. Geophysical studies for the evaluation of offshore placer deposits and basement configuration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Rao, T.K.S.P.; Srinivas, K.

    and c) medium to long wavelength and large amplitude anomalies. Besides, the anomaly map is characterisEd. by N-S, NW-SE and WNW-ESE trending magnetic lineaments. The presence of high frequency and short wavelength magnetic anomalies is due...

  5. Tectonic and neotectonic implications of a new basement map of the Lower Tagus Valley, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, João P. G.; Rabeh, Taha; Dias, Rui; Dias, Ruben P.; Pinto, Carlos C.; Oliveira, José Tomás; Cunha, Teresa Arriaga; Borges, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new basement (defined here as Paleozoic, Precambrian and Mesozoic igneous rocks) map of the Lower Tagus Valley area. This map is a contribution to the understanding of the structural evolution of the top of the basement in the Lower Tagus Valley area during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras. The map was produced using aeromagnetic, well, seismic reflection and geological outcrop data. It shows unprecedented details of the geometry of the basement rock's sur...

  6. Thermal history of the Pan-African basement under the Jurassic Marib-Shabwa Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David; Veeningen, Resi; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    cooling either as a result of near-surface conditions of emplacement or rapid exhumation. Zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages (~180°C) are constrained to the Early Carboniferous. The youngest (Cenozoic) set of veins contain pyrite, (saddle) dolomite and calcite. Pyrite sulphur isotopes, the occurrence of saddle dolomite and calcite fluid inclusions provide strong evidence that the Pan-African basement was not re-heated to above 150°C after the last stage of deformation; this places some constraint on the thickness of the sedimentary cover that was deposited.

  7. Membranous glomerulonephritis in a patient with anti-u1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP antibody-positive mixed connective tissue disease: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Toriu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 33-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD who developed nephrotic proteinuria. Both speckled antinuclear antibody (ANA and anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP antibody were positive, but anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA antibody and anti-Smith (Sm antibody were negative, while complement levels were normal. Renal biopsy revealed membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN with diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM plus spike and bubble formation. Immunofluorescence demonstrated granular deposits of IgG and C3 along the GBM. Analysis of IgG subclasses showed predominant deposition of IgG1 and IgG4, unlike typical lupus nephritis in which there is predominant deposition of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and C1q. Electron microscopy identified numerous large electron-dense deposits (EDD of various types in the subepithelial region of the GBM, but there were no EDD localized in the mesangium or subendothelium. Based on these findings, MGN was considered to be closely related to MCTD in this patient.

  8. Rac1 is essential for basement membrane-dependent epiblast survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiaowen; Liu, Jie; Qi, Yanmei

    2010-01-01

    biological process are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that Rac1 ablation in embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) leads to massive apoptosis of epiblast cells in contact with the BM. Expression of wild-type Rac1 in the mutant EBs rescues the BM-contacting epiblast, while expression...... of a constitutively active Rac1 additionally blocks the apoptosis of inner cells and cavitation, indicating that the spatially regulated activation of Rac1 is required for epithelial cyst formation. We further show that Rac1 is activated through integrin-mediated recruitment of the Crk-DOCK180 complex and mediates BM...

  9. Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase aggravate mild anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-mediated glomerular injury in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P.; Brouwer, E.; Klok, P. A.; Huitema, M. G.; van den Born, J.; Weening, J. J.; Kallenberg, C. G.

    1996-01-01

    Autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) are present in sera from patients with various forms of vasculitis-associated glomerulonephritis. Evidence for a pathogenic role of anti-MPO antibodies has been provided mainly by in vitro studies. We studied the pathogenic role of autoantibodies to MPO in a

  10. Structural analysis of how podocytes detach from the glomerular basement membrane under hypertrophic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm eKriz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Podocytes are lost by detachment from the GBM as viable cells; details are largely unknown. We studied this process in the rat after growth stimulation with FGF-2. Endothelial and mesangial cells responded by hyperplasia, podocytes underwent hypertrophy, but, in the long run, developed various changes that could either be interpreted showing progressing stages in detachment from the GBM or stages leading to a tighter attachment by foot process effacement (FPE. This occurred in microdomains within the same podocyte; thus features of detachment and of reinforced attachment may simultaneously be found in the same podocyte.(1 Initially, hypertrophied podocytes underwent cell body attenuation and formed large pseudocysts, i.e. expansions of the subpodocyte space.(2 Podocytes entered the process of FPE starting with the retraction of foot processes and the replacement of the slit diaphragm by occluding junctions thereby sealing the filtration slits. Successful completion of this process led to broad attachments of podocyte cell bodies to the GBM. (3 Failure of sealing the slits led to gaps of varying width between retracting foot processes facilitating the outflow of the filtrate from the GBM.(4 Since those gaps are frequently overarched by broadened primary processes the drainage of the filtrate into the Bowman's space may be hindered leading to the formation of small pseudocysts associated with bare areas of GBM.(5 The merging of pseudocysts created a system of communicating chambers through which the filtrate has to pass to reach Bowman's space. Multiple flow resistances in series likely generated an expansile force on podocytes contributing to detachment.(6 Such a situation appears to proceed to complete disconnection generally of a group of podocytes owing to the junctional connections between them. (7 Since such groups of detaching podocytes generally make contact to parietal cells, they start the formation of tuft adhesions to Bowman's capsule.

  11. Histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of vestibular endorgans in Meniere's disease reveals basement membrane pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCall Andrew A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the systematic analysis of the ultrastructural and cytological histopathology of vestibular endorgans acquired from labyrinthectomy in Meniere's disease. Methods 17 subjects with intractable Meniere's disease and ipsilateral non-serviceable hearing presenting to the Neurotology Clinic from 1997 to 2006 who chose ablative labyrinthectomy (average age = 62 years; range 29–83 years participated. The average duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 7 years (range 1–20 years. Results Nearly all vestibular endorgans demonstrated varying degrees of degeneration. A monolayer of epithelial cells occurred significantly more frequently in the horizontal cristae (12/13 = 92% (p Conclusion Systematic histopathological analysis of the vestibular endorgans from Meniere's disease demonstrated neuroepithelial degeneration which was highly correlated with an associated BM thickening. Other findings included hair cell and supporting cell microvessicles, increased intercellular clear spaces in the stroma, and endothelial cell vacuolization and stromal perivascular BM thickening.

  12. Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase aggravates murine accelerated anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; van Goor, H; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Maeda, N; Falk, RJ; Assmann, KJM; Kallenberg, CGM; Jennette, JC

    Nitric oxide (NO) radicals generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In addition, NO radicals derived from eNOS inhibit platelet aggregation and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and, thus, may have anti-inflammatory effects. To study

  13. In vivo imaging of basement membrane movement: ECM patterning shapes Hydra polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Roland; Zamir, Evan A; Little, Charles D; Özbek, Suat; Münder, Sandra; David, Charles N; Li, Li; Sarras, Michael P; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2011-12-01

    Growth and morphogenesis during embryonic development, asexual reproduction and regeneration require extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). We used the simple metazoan Hydra to examine the fate of ECM during tissue morphogenesis and asexual budding. In growing Hydra, epithelial cells constantly move towards the extremities of the animal and into outgrowing buds. It is not known, whether these tissue movements involve epithelial migration relative to the underlying matrix or whether cells and ECM are displaced as a composite structure. Furthermore, it is unclear, how the ECM is remodeled to adapt to the shape of developing buds and tentacles. To address these questions, we used a new in vivo labeling technique for Hydra collagen-1 and laminin, and tracked the fate of ECM in all body regions of the animal. Our results reveal that Hydra 'tissue movements' are largely displacements of epithelial cells together with associated ECM. By contrast, during the evagination of buds and tentacles, extensive movement of epithelial cells relative to the matrix is observed, together with local ECM remodeling. These findings provide new insights into the nature of growth and morphogenesis in epithelial tissues.

  14. FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR-2 DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRACHEAL BASEMENT MEMBRANE ZONE. (R827442)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Karina J.; Tsykin, Anna; Giles, Keith M.; Sladic, Rosemary T.; Epis, Michael R.; Ganss, Ruth; Goodall, Gregory J.; Leedman, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. ► Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. ► miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. ► miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  16. FLUORESCENCE OVERLAY ANTIGEN MAPPING OF THE EPIDERMAL BASEMENT-MEMBRANE ZONE .1. GEOMETRIC ERRORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUINS, S; DEJONG, MCJM; HEERES, K; WILKINSON, MHF; JONKMAN, MF; VANDERMEER, JB

    To identify in tissue sections the relative positions of antigen distributions close to the resolving power of the microscope, we have developed the fluorescence overlay antigen mapping (FOAM) procedure. As this technique makes high demands on the geometric fidelity of the overlay image, it is

  17. FLUORESCENCE OVERLAY ANTIGEN MAPPING OF THE EPIDERMAL BASEMENT-MEMBRANE ZONE .2. COLOR FIDELITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUINS, S; DEJONG, MCJM; HEERES, K; WILKINSON, MHF; JONKMAN, MF; VANDERMEER, JB

    In this second report on the fluorescence overlay antigen mapping (FOAM) technique, we highlight some of the errors that may influence faithful color rendition of slide preparations using triple antigen immunofluorescence staining. Reliable interpretation of multicolor fluorescence images requires

  18. Dye Transport across the Retinal Basement Membrane of the Blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyrauther, E.; Roebroek, J.G.H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    In the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, transport of dye into or out of the retina, following injection into the eye or thorax, was investigated, mainly by microspectrophotometry and fluorimetry. After injection into the eye, Phenol Red, Trypan Blue, Lucifer Yellow and 9-amino-acridine were

  19. CORRELATIVE LIGHT AND IMMUNOHISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE BASEMENT MEMBRANE OF THE HUMAN SQUAMOUS CERVICAL CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Masato, YAMASAKI; Gaiko, UEDA; Masaki, INOUE; Yoshiaki, TANAKA; IKeiichi, KURACH; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaha University Medical School

    1980-01-01

    子宮頚部扁平上皮癌に基底膜は存在するか否か光顕・電顕的に多くの研究がなされてきた.1968年Beutner et al.はbullous pemphigioid患者血清が扁平上皮に対する抗基底膜抗体を含むことが明らかにされた.今回,我々は子宮頚部の上皮内癌3例,微小浸潤癌1例,浸潤癌27例を用い,凍結切片を作製し,抗基底膜抗体を含むbullous pemphigioid患者血清を用い蛍光抗体法による基底膜の観察を行なった.更に同一症例について,PAS及びMucin染色を行なった.蛍光抗体法による基底膜の観察では上皮内癌3例及び正常上皮では全て連続した蛍光の線が認められた.浸潤癌27例中7例に陽性で,keratinizing type 1/3, large cell type 6/23, small cell type 1/1例に陽性所見を認めた.CPL分類ではC型3/9,P型5/16,L型0/2が陽性であった.間質細胞反応との関連では細胞浸潤の軽度のもの5/16例,中等度・高度のもの3/11例に陽性であった.PAS及びMucin染色との比較検討を行なうと,PAS陽性基底膜例では3...

  20. Formation evaluation of fractured basement, Cambay Basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh Datta; Farooqui, M Y; Chatterjee, Rima

    2012-01-01

    Unconventional reservoirs such as fractured basalts, shale gas and tight sand are currently playing an important role in producing a significant amount of hydrocarbon. The Deccan Trap basaltic rocks form the basement of the Cambay Basin, India, and hold commercially producible hydrocarbon. In this study two wells drilled through fractured basalts are chosen for evaluating the lithology, porosity and oil saturation of the reservoir sections. Well logs, such as gamma ray, high resolution resistivity, litho density, compensated neutron and elemental capture spectroscopy, have been used in cross-plotting techniques for lithology and mineral identification. Formation micro imagery log data have been analysed to quantify the fractures and porosity in the fractured reservoirs for a well in the south Ahmedabad block of the Cambay Basin. The results of the analysis of two wells are presented and discussed and they are found to be in good agreement with geological and production data. (paper)

  1. ENFORCEMENT OF FINANCIAL BASEMENTS AS A FACTOR OF TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Article contains description of structure of regional finance resources, discloses the sources of financing, describes the role of budgeting. Problems and possible ways of solution of inter-budget relationships optimisation are described with the purpose of increasing of financial prosperity of territories. Overall role of optimisation as one of the most important factors of strengthening of financial basement of territories is described along with the necessity of considering the budget process as stimulated factor for regional economic systems development. Suggestions on substitution of cost method of budget resources management by the model of outcomes management and further development of mechanisms of territorial bodies interaction with economic entities on the base of state-private partnership were proposed.

  2. Age of Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Osamu; Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Arculus, Richard J.; Yogodzinski, Gene M.; Savov, Ivan P.; Kusano, Yuki; McCarthy, Anders; Brandl, Philipp A.; Sudo, Masafumi

    2018-01-01

    Documenting the early tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc system in the Western Pacific is critical for understanding the process and cause of subduction initiation along the current convergent margin between the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates. Forearc igneous sections provide firm evidence for seafloor spreading at the time of subduction initiation (52 Ma) and production of "forearc basalt". Ocean floor drilling (International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 351) recovered basement-forming, low-Ti tholeiitic basalt crust formed shortly after subduction initiation but distal from the convergent margin (nominally reararc) of the future IBM arc (Amami Sankaku Basin: ASB). Radiometric dating of this basement gives an age range (49.3-46.8 Ma with a weighted average of 48.7 Ma) that overlaps that of basalt in the present-day IBM forearc, but up to 3.3 m.y. younger than the onset of forearc basalt activity. Similarity in age range and geochemical character between the reararc and forearc basalts implies that the ocean crust newly formed by seafloor spreading during subduction initiation extends from fore- to reararc of the present-day IBM arc. Given the age difference between the oldest forearc basalt and the ASB crust, asymmetric spreading caused by ridge migration might have taken place. This scenario for the formation of the ASB implies that the Mesozoic remnant arc terrane of the Daito Ridges comprised the overriding plate at subduction initiation. The juxtaposition of a relatively buoyant remnant arc terrane adjacent to an oceanic plate was more favourable for subduction initiation than would have been the case if both downgoing and overriding plates had been oceanic.

  3. AUTOANTIBODIES TO THE LAMININ P1 FRAGMENT IN HGCL2-INDUCED MEMBRANOUS GLOMERULOPATHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ATEN, J; VENINGA, A; COERS, W; SONNENBERG, A; TIMPL, R; CLAESSEN, N; VANEENDENBURG, JDH; DEHEER, E; WEENING, JJ

    Exposure to mercuric chloride induces the development of a membranous glomerulopathy with high proteinuria in DZB rats, in which immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG2a bound in the glomeruli were previously found to react with laminin of the EHS tumor and several unidentified glomerular basement membrane

  4. Fertility of late Archaean basement granite in the vicinity of U-mineralized Neoproterozoic Bhima basin, peninsular India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil Kumar, P.; Srinivasan, R.

    2002-01-01

    Late Archaean granitoids constituting the basement for the Neoproterozoic Bhima Group are exposed along the southern margin of the Bhima basin in southern India. These are rich in accessory minerals such as sphene, allanite, apatite and zircon, which are the main carriers of uranium and thorium. In situ gamma-ray spectrometric analysis reveals that these granitoids have higher abundances of Th, U and K (Th range 10-43 ppm, mean 26 ppm; U range 3-21 ppm, mean 8 ppm; K range 1.2-5.2%, mean 4.0%) relative to granitoids occurring farther away from the basin. Thus, they belong to the class of fertile granitoids from the point of view of uranium mineralization. The granitoids have been mylnotized and hydrothermally altered in the Gugi-Ukkinal fault zone, which constitutes the zone of uranium mineralization discovered recently along the southern margin of the Bhima basin. Uranium apparently derived from hydrothermal leaching of basement granitoid rocks may have got deposited in the fault zone at the contact of carbonate rocks, which provided favourable geochemical environment (Eh-pH conditions) for uranium precipitation. (author)

  5. Geology of the Pan-African basement Complex in Ube-Wulko area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ube-Wulko area of southeast Akwanga falls within the Pan-African remobilized Basement Complex of northcentral Nigeria. It consists of intensely multi-deformed high grade polymetamorphic basement rocks, predominantly composed of migmatitic gneisses and schists and subordinate quartzites, marbles, and ...

  6. Basement radon entry and stack driven moisture infiltration reduced by active soil depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    This case study presents measurements of radon and moisture infiltration from soil gases into the basement of an unoccupied research house in Madison, Wisconsin, over two full years. The basement floor and exterior walls were constructed with preservative-treated lumber and plywood. In addition to continuous radon monitoring, measurements included building air...

  7. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface

  8. Integrated geophysical investigations of linkages between Precambrian basement and sedimentary structures in the Ucayali basin, Peru; Fort Worth basin, Texas; and Osage County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elebiju, Olubunmi Olumide

    I conducted integrated geophysical studies within the Fort Worth basin, Texas; Osage County, Oklahoma, and the Ucayali basin, Peru. My studies are directed at understanding the relationships or links between Precambrian basement structures and sedimentary structures using these three areas as case studies. Links between basement structure, hydrocarbon reservoirs, and sedimentary sequences are not a new concept. Such relationships have been documented in the Paradox, Hardeman, Anadarko, Arkoma, Ardmore and Williston basins among others. Structures such as fault zones that can influence the formation of sedimentary basins and mineral deposits are often formed by intraplate tectonism. In order to compare the relationship between the Precambrian basement structures and sedimentary structures, I analyzed series of derivative and filtered maps of aeromagnetic and gravity data, which enhance basement structures, that were integrated with seismic data and seismic attribute data that enhance structures within the sedimentary sections. Other information such as well data and geologic information etc were also integrated. This integrated workflow facilitates the comparison of the links or relationships between the two structures. The results of the Fort Worth basin are presented in Chapter 3. The results of this integrated study show that the sedimentary structures within the study area are mainly related to basement structures because these structures are aligned parallel to anomalies identified on the high-resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data. The northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast orientations of sedimentary features are consistently parallel with Precambrian structural fabrics that are associated with structures such as the northeast trending Ouachita orogenic belt and the northwest trending Muenster Arch, which reactivated a late Cambrian/Late Precambrian faults. The knowledge gained in this study will impact oil and gas exploration and development within the

  9. Behavior of uranium migration in epigenetic uranium ore deposits with reference to radioactive waste isolation in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, K.; Hirono, S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the numerous uranium ore deposits and indications which have been discovered in Japan, the important uranium occurrences are found as strata-bound epigenetic ore deposits. This mineralization occurs in basal Neogene sedimentary rocks unconformably overlying granitic basements of the Mesozoic and/or early Cenozoic era. In many of these deposits, the epigenetic uranium mineralization occurs just above the unconformity, and groundwater migration is observed at the unconformity between the Neogene sediments and the granitic basement. This groundwater at the unconformity is thought to be a migrating agent for uranium from source rock to the ore deposit

  10. Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data for the Sediment–Basement Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2016-01-01

    and a resistive basement. Conventional inversions of MT data are aimed at determining the volumetric distribution of the conductivity within the inversion domain. The recovered distribution of the subsurface conductivity is typically diffusive, which makes it difficult to select the sediment-basement interface....... This letter develops a novel approach to 3-D MT inversion for the depth-to-basement estimate. The key to this approach is selection of the model parameterization, with the depth to basement being the major unknown parameter. In order to estimate the depth to the basement, the inversion algorithm recovers both...... the thickness and the conductivities of the sedimentary basin. The forward modeling is based on the integral equation approach. The inverse problem is solved using a regularized conjugate gradient method. The Fréchet derivative matrix is calculated based on quasi-Born approximation. The developed method...

  11. Revisiting Seafloor-Spreading in the Red Sea: Basement Nature, Transforms and Ocean-Continent Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapponnier, P.; Dyment, J.; Zinger, M. A.; Franken, D.; Afifi, A. M.; Wyllie, A.; Ali, H. G.; Hanbal, I.

    2013-12-01

    A new marine geophysical survey on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms early inferences that ~ 2/3 of the eastern Red Sea is floored by oceanic crust. Most seismic profiles south of 24°N show a strongly reflective, landward-deepening volcanic basement up to ~ 100 km east of the axial ridge, beneath thick evaporitic deposits. This position of the Ocean-Continent Boundary (OCB) is consistent with gravity measurements. The low amplitudes and long wavelengths of magnetic anomalies older than Chrons 1-3 can be accounted for by low-pass filtering due to thick sediments. Seafloor-spreading throughout the Red Sea started around 15 Ma, as in the western Gulf of Aden. Its onset was coeval with the activation of the Aqaba/Levant transform and short-cutting of the Gulf of Suez. The main difference between the southern and northern Red Sea lies not in the nature of the crust but in the direction and modulus of the plate motion rate. The ~ 30° counterclockwise strike change and halving of the spreading rate (~ 16 to ~ 8 mm/yr) between the Hermil (17°N) and Suez triple junctions results in a shift from slow (≈ North Atlantic) to highly oblique, ultra-slow (≈ Southwest Indian) ridge type. The obliquity of spreading in the central and northern basins is taken up by transform discontinuities that stop ~ 40 km short of the coastline, at the OCB. Three large transform fault systems (Jeddah, Zabargad, El Akhawein) nucleated as continental transfer faults reactivating NNE-trending Proterozoic shear zones. The former two systems divide the Red Sea into three main basins. Between ~15 and ~5 Ma, for about 10 million years, thick evaporites were deposited directly on top of oceanic crust in deep water, as the depositional environment, modulated by climate, became restricted by the Suez and Afar/Bab-el-Mandeb volcano-tectonic 'flood-gates.' The presence of these thick deposits (up to ~ 8 km) suffices to account for the difference between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden

  12. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...

  13. Basement geology of Taranaki and Wanganui basins, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Tulloch, A.J.; Ireland, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    We present a revised interpretation of the basement geology beneath Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic Taranaki and Wanganui basins of central New Zealand, based on new petrographic, geochemical, and geochronological data from 30 oil exploration wells. Recently published structural and magnetic interpretations of the area assist in the interpolation and extrapolation of geological boundaries. Torlesse and Waipapa terranes have been identified in Wanganui Basin, and Murihiku Terrane in eastern Taranaki Basin, but Maitai and Brook Street terrane rocks have not been recognised. Separation Point Suite, Karamea Suite, and Median Tectonic Zone igneous rocks are all identified on the basis of characteristic petrography, geochemistry, and/or age. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon measurements on igneous samples from western Taranaki wells do not give precise ages but do provide useful constraints: Motueka-1 granite is latest Devonian - earliest Carboniferous; Tangaroa-1 and Toropuihi-1 are Carboniferous; and Surville-1 is Cretaceous (cf. Separation Point Suite). Our interpretation of sub-basin geology is compatible with previously observed onland relationships in the North and South Islands. (author). 47 refs., 6 figs

  14. Structural control of the basement in the central portion of the Santos Basin-Brazil; Controle estrutural do embasamento na porcao central da Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izeli, Maira G.B.; Morales, Norberto; Souza, Iata A. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    New discoveries of oil in deep water and ultra-deep water in Santos Basin suggest that it needs to be studied to better understanding of basement structures and their role in the basin control and configuration. This study characterizes the main tectonic structures of a portion at the central area of this basin, looking for their relation to the geological basement framework. The study is based on the integration of the geological and geophysical data from subsurface (offshore) and surface of the adjacent continent. These analyses include the continental structures that continue in direction of this basin (Guapiara Lineament and Ponta Grossa Arc), checking their possible influence on the basin evolution and deformation. To achieve the proposed goals, the Precambrian basement lineaments were extracted from the offshore area using remote sensing, as result was obtained strong NW-SE structural trend. According to the interpretation of seismic sections, it is possible to observe that this portion of the basin presents main NE-SW structural trend, and most of the structures are typical of passive margin and halokintics process. It is possible to see that some recognized faults in the rift deposits may be coinciding with the main continental guidelines which are projected into the basin. (author)

  15. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  16. Depth of magnetic basement in Iran based on fractal spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teknik, Vahid; Ghods, Abdolreza

    2017-06-01

    To estimate the shape of sedimentary basins, a critical parameter in hydrocarbon exploration, we calculated the depth of magnetic basement by applying a fractal spectral method to the aeromagnetic map of Iran. The depth of magnetic basement is a close proxy for the shape of sedimentary basins provided that igneous basement is strongly magnetized relative to the overlying sediments and there is no interbedding magnetic layer in the sediments. The shape of the power spectrum of magnetic anomalies is sensitive to the depth of magnetic basement, the thickness of the magnetic layer, the fractal parameter of magnetization and the size of the window used for the calculation of the power spectrum. Using a suite of synthetic tests, we have shown that the estimation of the depth of magnetic basement of up to 20 km is not very sensitive to the often unknown fractal parameter and thus the spectral method is a reliable tool to calculate the depth of magnetic basement. The depth of magnetic basement is in the range of 7-16 km in the Zagros, east Alborz, Tabas, Jazmurian and Makran regions, showing a close correlation with depths estimated from the maximum thickness of stratigraphic columns. We have also found new sedimentary basins in Bostan Abad, Bijar and south of Orumiyeh Lake. The significant depth of the magnetic basement in the Makran, Jazmurain depression, southeast Caspian Sea, Tabas, Great Kavir, south of Orumiyeh Lake, Bostan Abad and Bijar sedimentary basins makes them future prospects for hydrocarbon explorations. The depth of magnetic basement is strongly reduced over the Neyriz and Kermanshah Ophiolites, but it does not show any meaningful correlation with other outcrops of ophiolitic rocks in Iran.

  17. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Fault Zone Evolution in Basement Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, R. J.; Moir, H.; Shipton, Z. K.; Willson, J. P.

    2007-05-01

    There is considerable industrial interest in assessing the permeability of faults for the purpose of oil and gas production, deep well injection of waste liquids, underground storage of natural gas and disposal of radioactive waste. Deterministic prior estimation of fault hydraulic properties is highly error prone. Faults zones are formed through a complex interaction of mechanical, hydraulic and chemical processes and their permeability varies considerably over both space and time. Algorithms for predicting fault seal potential using throw and host rock property data exist for clay-rich fault seals but are contentious. In the case of crystalline rocks and sand-sand contacts, no such algorithms exist. In any case, the study of fault growth processes does not suggest that there is a clear or simple relationship between fault throw and the fault zone permeability. To improve estimates of fault zone permeability, it is important to understand the underlying hydro-mechanical processes of fault zone formation. In this research, we explore the spatial and temporal evolution of fault zones through development and application of a 2D hydro-mechanical finite element model. The temporal development of fault zone damage is simulated perpendicular to the main slip surface using Navier's equation for mechanical deformation. The model is applied to study development of fault zones in basement rocks. We simulate the evolution of fault zones from pre-existing joints and explore controls on the growth rate and locations of multiple splay fractures which link-up to form complex damage zones. We explore the temporal evolution of the stress field surrounding the fault tip for both propagation of isolated small faults and for fault linkage Results from these simulations have been validated using outcrop data.

  18. Fault distribution in the Precambrian basement of South Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Nystuen, Johan Petter; Olesen, Odleiv

    2018-03-01

    Mapping of the structural pattern by remote sensing methods (Landsat, SPOT, aerial photography, potential field data) and field study of selected structural elements shows that the cratonic basement of South Norway is strongly affected by a regular lineament pattern that encompasses fault swarms of different orientation, age, style, attitude and frequency. Albeit counting numerous fault and fracture populations, the faults are not evenly distributed and N-S to NNE-SSW/NNW-SSE and NE-SE/ENE-WSW-systems are spatially dominant. N-S to NNW-SSE structures can be traced underneath the Caledonian nappes to the Western Gneiss Region in western and central South Norway, emphasizing their ancient roots. Dyke swarms of different ages are found within most of these zones. Also, the Østfold, Oslo-Trondheim and the Mandal-Molde lineament zones coincide with trends of Sveconorwegian post-collision granites. We conclude that the N-S-trend includes the most ancient structural elements, and that the trend can be traced back to the Proterozoic (Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian) orogenic events. Some of the faults may have been active in Neoproterozoic times as marginal faults of rift basins at the western margin of Baltica. Remnants of such fault activity have survived in the cores of many of the faults belonging to this system. The ancient systems of lineaments were passively overridden by the Caledonian fold-and-thrust system and remained mostly, but note entirely inactive throughout the Sub-Cambrian peneplanation and the Caledonian orogenic collapse in the Silurian-Devonian. The system was reactivated in extension from Carboniferous times, particularly in the Permian with the formation of the Oslo Rift and parts of it remain active to the Present, albeit by decreasing extension and fault activity.

  19. Characteristics of the crystalline basement beneath the Ordos Basin: Constraint from aeromagnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhentao Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aeromagnetic anomaly zonation of the Ordos Basin and adjacent areas was obtained by processing high-precision and large-scale aeromagnetic anomalies with an approach of reduction to the pole upward continuation. Comparative study on aeromagnetic and seismic tomography suggests that aeromagnetic anomalies in this area are influenced by both the magnetic property of the rock and the burial depth of the Precambrian crystalline basement. Basement depth might be the fundamental control factor for aeromagnetic anomalies because the positive and negative anomalies on the reduction to the pole-upward-continuation anomaly maps roughly coincide with the uplifts and depressions of the crystalline basement in the basin. The results, together with the latest understanding of basement faults, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of metamorphic rock and granite, drilling data, detrital zircon ages, and gravity data interpretation, suggest that the Ordos block is not an entirety of Archean.

  20. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  1. Biobased Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.A.B.; Zlopasa, J.; Picken, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of a composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane applicable to building material, such as concrete, cement, etc., to a meth od of applying said composition for forming a bio-compatible membrane, a biocompatible membrane, use of said membrane for various

  2. Evidence of volcanism in the Paleozoic metamorphic basement of the Sierra Madre Oriental, NE-Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Sanchez, S. A.; Ramirez Fernandez, J. A.; Jenchen, U.; Barboza Gudino, J. R.; Augustsson, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleozoic metamorphic basement of the Sierra Madre Oriental comprises a wide variety of protoliths including psammites, pelites, tuffs, lava flows, pillow lavas as well as ultramafic rocks, metamorphosed under subgreenschist to greenschist facies. All these units are grouped under the Granjeno Schist Formation (GSF). They are limited by faults in the core of the Huizachal-Peregrina Anticlinorium (HPA), and in the uplifts of Miquihuana (M), Bustamante (B) and Aramberri (A) in NE Mexico. The aim of this work is to compare the metavolcanic units in the different localities, looking for a genetic relationship between them. These units include four different lithologies: a) pale green fine grained interstratified horizons of basic to intermediate metatuffs, b) massive, green and coarse greenstones, representing massive metalavas, c) well preserved dark green pillow lavas, and d) pale to dark massive talc schists. They are mainly massive, interbedded with the metasediments and do not display the typical pervasive schistosity of GSF. Preliminary analysis of the metavolcanic units indicate that they are alkaline (AB/OIB). Their origin is still under debate, they could be originated during continental intraplate volcanism or from an ancient oceanic island (?). It has to be noted that the Silurian to Permian HPÁs sedimentary sequence, encloses only a rhyolitic body (Aserradero Fm.) that cannot be directly correlated with the metavolcanics. The metamorphism age (≈ 330±30 Ma) and protoliths of all localities are similar, but there are enough petrographic differences to interpret that the metamorphic conditions are not similar at all. It is proposed that the vulcanosedimentary sequence were deposited in a forearc basin along the Pangea western margin, and later metamorphosed during the subduction process through Carboniferous times.

  3. Contribution To The Geology Of Basement Rocks In The South Western Desert Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, M.F.; Khyamy, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Three major Precambrian basement inliers are exposed in the South Western Desert of Egypt between Long. 29 degree E and the River Nile within the Uweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan E-W uplift system. These are Bir Safsaf, Gabal EI-Asr and Gabal Umm Shaghir areas. Smaller outcrops include Gabal EI-Gara El-Hamra and Gabal El-Gara EI-Soda, Gabal Siri, GabaI EI-Fantas and Aswan-Kalabsha area as well as the scattered outcrops around Darb El-Arbain road. Band ratios 5/7, 5/1, 4 of Landsat TM images were applied to delineate the borders, the lithologic units and structural features of low relief basement outcrops within the surrounding flat lying sedimentary rocks and sand plains. These basement rocks comprise ortho gneisses (assumed by many authors as related to old continent pre Pan-African rocks), G 1 tonalite-granodiorite, and G2 monzogranite-alkali feldspar granite intruded by variable dykes. The boundaries between the basement exposures and the sedimentary rocks are marked by nonconformity surfaces or sets of faults. Both basement and sedimentary rocks are intruded by Mesozoic syenite-G3 granites, rhyolite, trachytic plugs and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary basalts. The basement exposures are structurally controlled by major E- W fault systems. Their vertical uplifting is overprinted by folding the overlying sedimentary rocks. This study revealed that, the different basement exposures in the SE of the Western Desert of Egypt are similar in appearance and field relations to the Pan-African basement rocks extending towards the east of the River Nile and exposed everywhere in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

  4. The morphology and nature of the East Arctic ocean acoustic basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekant, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    As the result of the thorough interpretation and cross-correlation of the large seismic dataset (>150000 km and >600 seismic lines), the depth structure map of the acoustic basement was constrained. Tectonic framework, basement surface morphology and linkage of the deep basin structures with shelves ones, was significantly clarified based on the map. It becomes clear that most morphostructures presently located within deep-water basin are tectonically connected with shelf structures. Acoustic basement contains a number of pre-Cambrian, Caledonian and Mesozoic consolidated blocks. The basement heterogeneity is highlighted by faults framework and basement surface morphology differences, as well thickness and stratigraphy of the sediment cover. The deepest basins of the East Arctic - Hanna Trough, North Chukchi and Podvodnikov Basins form a united mega-depression, wedged between pre-Cambrian continental blocks (Chukchi Borderland - Mendeleev Rise - Toll Saddle) from the north and the Caledonian deformation front from the south. The basement age/origin speculations are consistent with paleontological and U-Pb zircon ages from dredged rock samples. Most of morphological boundaries in the modern Arctic differ considerably from the tectonic framework. Only part of the Arctic morphostructures is constrained by tectonic boundaries. They are: eastern slope of the Lomonosov Ridge, continental slope in the Laptev Sea, upper continental slope in the Podvodnikov Basin, southern slope of the North Chukchi Basin and borders of the Chukchi Borderland. The rest significant part of modern morphological boundaries are caused by sedimentation processes.

  5. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  6. Modelling Spatial and Temporal Fault Zone Evolution in Basement Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, R. J.; Willson, J. P.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2006-12-01

    There is considerable industrial interest in assessing the permeability of faults for the purpose of oil and gas production, deep well injection of waste liquids, underground storage of natural gas and disposal of radioactive waste. Prior estimation of fault hydraulic properties is highly error prone. Faults zones are formed through a complex interaction of mechanical, hydraulic and chemical processes and their permeability varies considerably over both space and time. Algorithms for predicting fault seal potential using throw and host rock property data exist for clay-rich fault seals but are contentious. In the case of crystalline rocks and sand-sand contacts, no such algorithms exist. In any case, the study of fault growth processes does not suggest that there is a clear or simple relationship between fault throw and the fault zone permeability. To improve estimates of fault zone permeability, it is important to understand the underlying hydro-mechanical processes of fault zone formation. In this research, we explore the spatial and temporal evolution of fault zones through development and application of a 2D hydro-mechanical finite element model. The development of fault zone damage is simulated perpendicular to the main slip surface using a fully coupled solution of Navier's equation for mechanical deformation and Darcy's Law/conservation of fluid mass for subsurface fluid flow. The model is applied to study development of fault zones in basement rocks, based on the conceptual model of S. J. Martell, J. Struct. Geol. 12(7):869-882, 1990. We simulate the evolution of fault zones from pre-existing joints and explore controls on the growth rate and locations of multiple splay fractures which link-up to form complex damage zones. We are the first researchers to successfully simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of multiple wing cracks, tertiary fracturing, antithetic fractures propagating into the compressive region, infill fracturing between faults and

  7. Unravelling the Formation and Exhumation of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit and Basement in the Southern Aegean, Sikinos Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulaki, E. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Flansburg, M. E.; Soukis, K. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Cycladic Islands of Greece expose an assemblage of HP/LT metamorphic rocks that record both processes related to subduction and backarc metamorphic core complex formation in the wake of the Hellenic subduction zone retreat. Sikinos Island is located in the southern Cyclades and exposes both the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) - greenschist-facies marbles and schists with preserved blueschist-facies - and the tectonically underlying Cycladic Basement(CB) - felsic plutonic rocks and metasedimentary country rocks known as the Carapace. Both units experienced Eocene subduction under eclogite/blueschist facies conditions and Miocene large-magnitude back-arc extension under greenschist facies conditions. The contact between the two units has been described as an extensional shear zone or a subduction-related thrust that was reactivated as an extensional top-to-the-N detachment. This study presents new (1) zircon U-Pb data to determine detrital provenance and maximum depositional ages (MDAs) of the CBU intervals on Sikinos, constrain protolith ages for the CB and Carapace, and quantify the timing of HP-LT metamorphism, (2) zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages to elucidate the cooling and exhumation history of the CBU and CB in Sikinos and the nature of the contact between the two units. Results from zircon U-Pb analysis from the CBU show a spread of detrital zircon U-Pb ages dominated by Triassic, Permian Variscan, Pan-African and Proterozoic modes and MDAs from Early Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. This is in contrast to ubiquitous Triassic CBU on other Cycladic islands. LA-SS-ICP depth-profile analysis allows for simultaneous trace element analysis and for the identification of metamorphic zircon rims with ages of 26, 50 and 70 Ma. Notably, metamorphic rims of 26 Ma have not been reported in the CBU of the southern Cyclades prior to this study. These rims appear to be restricted a zone along the CBU-Basement contact, suggesting fluid flow as a possible explanation

  8. Transplantation of amniotic membrane to the subretinal space in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Scherfig, Erik; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of transplanted amniotic membrane (AM) on subretinal wound healing. Methods. Nine Danish Landrace pigs had surgical removal of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and mechanical damage of Bruch's membrane (BM) and served as a control group. 15 pigs additionally had...... is well tolerated in the subretinal space, causes only limited inflammation, and is covered with a monolayer of pigmented cells when in contact with the host RPE. Conclusions. AM modifies choroidal neovascularisation after BM damage and may serve as a basement membrane substitute for the RPE....

  9. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  10. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and muscovite K-Ar ages of basement rocks from the south arm of Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Asri; Nishikawa, Osamu; Hayasaka, Yasutaka

    2017-11-01

    The zircon U-Pb and muscovite K-Ar age from the Bantimala, Barru and Biru basement complexes in the South Arm of Sulawesi, Indonesia provide new information regarding the timing of magmatism, metamorphism and sedimentation in this region and have implications for the origin and evolution of the study area. The study area is at the juncture between the southeast margin of Sundaland and Bird's Head-Australia. The age of both the zircon U-Pb of detrital materials in the Bantimala Complex and the muscovite K-Ar of amphibolite in the Biru Complex fall in the Late Early Cretaceous (between 109 and 115 Ma), which is a similar age range to previous data for both the sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The youngest detrital zircon in the schist samples from the Barru Complex fall into the Triassic in age (between 243 and 247 Ma). These age data indicate that the protolith of all three basement complexes were involved in the subduction system and metamorphosed in the late Early Cretaceous, but there are several differences in their deposition environment under and out of the influence of the late Early Cretaceous magmatism in the Bantimala and Barru Complexes, respectively. Felsic igneous activities are confirmed in the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene by the zircon U-Pb age of igneous rocks intruding or included as detrital fragments in three basement complexes. These dates are similar to those reported from the Meratus Complex of South Kalimantan. The detrital zircon age distributions of the basement rocks in the South Arm of Sulawesi display predominant Mesozoic (Cretaceous and Triassic) and Paleozoic populations with a small population of Proterozoic ages supporting the hypothesis that the West Sulawesi block originated from the region of the circum Bird's Head-Australian, namely the Inner Banda block. The absence of Jurassic zircon age population in the South Arm of Sulawesi suggests the division of the South Arm of Sulawesi from the Inner Banda block in early stage of

  11. Membranous nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... check for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis Complement levels Cryoglobulin test Treatment The goal of treatment ... not as helpful for people with membranous nephropathy. Medicines used treat membranous nephropathy include: Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ...

  12. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  13. Cobalt—Styles of deposits and the search for primary deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzman, Murray W.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Slack, John F.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2017-11-30

    Cobalt (Co) is a potentially critical mineral. The vast majority of cobalt is a byproduct of copper and (or) nickel production. Cobalt is increasingly used in magnets and rechargeable batteries. More than 50 percent of primary cobalt production is from the Central African Copperbelt. The Central African Copperbelt is the only sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper district that contains significant cobalt. Its presence may indicate significant mafic-ultramafic rocks in the local basement. The balance of primary cobalt production is from magmatic nickel-copper and nickel laterite deposits. Cobalt is present in several carbonate-hosted lead-zinc and copper districts. It is also variably present in Besshi-type volcanogenic massive sulfide and siliciclastic sedimentary rock-hosted deposits in back arc and rift environments associated with mafic-ultramafic rocks. Metasedimentary cobalt-copper-gold deposits (such as Blackbird, Idaho), iron oxide-copper-gold deposits, and the five-element vein deposits (such as Cobalt, Ontario) contain different amounts of cobalt. None of these deposit types show direct links to mafic-ultramafic rocks; the deposits may result from crustal-scale hydrothermal systems capable of leaching and transporting cobalt from great depths. Hydrothermal deposits associated with ultramafic rocks, typified by the Bou Azzer district of Morocco, represent another type of primary cobalt deposit.In the United States, exploration for cobalt deposits may focus on magmatic nickel-copper deposits in the Archean and Proterozoic rocks of the Midwest and the east coast (Pennsylvania) and younger mafic rocks in southeastern and southern Alaska; also, possibly basement rocks in southeastern Missouri. Other potential exploration targets include—The Belt-Purcell basin of British Columbia (Canada), Idaho, Montana, and Washington for different styles of sedimentary rock-hosted cobalt deposits;Besshi-type VMS deposits, such as the Greens Creek (Alaska) deposit and

  14. Development of silica RO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Ayumi; Kawamoto, Takashi; Matsuyama, Emi; Utsumi, Keisuke; Nomura, Mikihiro; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Silica based membranes have been developed by using a counter diffusion CVD method. Effects of alkyl groups in the silica precursors and deposition temperatures had investigated in order to control pore sizes of the silica membranes. In this study, this type of a silica membrane was applied for RO separation. Effects of silica sources, deposition temperatures and post treatments had been investigated. Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), Ethyltrimethoxysilane (ETMOS) and Phenyltrimethoxysilane (PhTMOS) were used as silica precursors. A counter diffusion CVD method was carried out for 90 min at 270 - 600degC on γ-alumina capillary substrates (effective length: 50 mm, φ: 4 nm: NOK Co.). O 3 or O 2 was introduced into the inside of the substrate at the O 2 rate of 0.2 L min -1 . Ion beam irradiation was carried out for a post treatment using Os at 490 MeV for 1.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 or 3.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 . Single gas permeance was measured by using H 2 , N 2 and SF 6 . RO tests were employed at 3.0 or 5.4 MPa for 100 mg L -1 of feed NaCl solution. First, effects of the silica sources were investigated. The total fluxes increased by increasing N 2 permeance through the silica membrane deposited by ETMOS. The maximum NaCl rejection was 28.2% at 12.2 kg m -2 h -1 of the total flux through the membrane deposited at 270degC. N 2 permeance was 9.6 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 . While, total fluxes through the membrane deposited by using PhTMOS were smaller than those through the ETMOS membranes. The phenyl groups for the PhTMOS membrane must be important for the hydrophobic properties through the membrane. Next, effects of ion beam irradiation were tested for the TMOS membranes. Water is difficult to permeate through the TMOS membranes due to the low N 2 permeance through the membrane (3.1 x 10 -11 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 ). N 2 permeance increased to 7.3 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 by the irradiation. Irradiation amounts had little effects on N 2 permeance. However, NaCl rejections

  15. Fault assessment for basement reservoir compartmentalization: Case study at Northeast Betara gas field, South Sumatra Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risyad, M.; Suta, I. N.; Haris, A.

    2017-07-01

    Northeast Betara field is situated on the northern part of prolific South Sumatra Basin. It has produced gas from Lower Talang Akar Formation sandstone and over 90 wells have been drilled. A 3D seismic data was acquired in 2000 and reprocessed in 2012 to enhance the subsurface image. In 2013 an exploratory well NEB Base-1 was drilled and made gas and condensate discovery from the subsequent pre-tertiary basement which is confirmed as granite. The well proved fractured basement reservoir play on paleo high of the structure. The absence of full-diameter conventional core prompts well logs and seismic data analysis by using a workstation. Main methods for fracture prediction have been seismic attributes extraction and structural geology studies of basement provided by image logs on a few exploration wells. Ant tracking attribute is widely employed to image seismic event discontinuities due to extensive faults which generated the natural fractures. Delineations well NEB Base-2 was drilled on second paleo high and unfortunately, it did not find any gas indication from pre-tertiary basement target. Seismic structural interpretation and seismic attributes are conducted to image distribution of event discontinuities related to faults or fracture. We found that compartmentalization on basement involved old faults and both paleo high have undergone different structural history and stress character which resulted in separated fractures distribution.

  16. BASECALC - software for residential basement and slab-on-grade heat-loss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beausoleil-Morrison, I. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    1999-11-01

    BASECALC models heat losses from residential building basements and slabs-on-grade by calculating heat loss based on thermal and physical properties of individual construction, insulation type and location, ground properties and weather. BASECALC provides bilingual software and numerical, graphical and parametric output. It can model above-grade and below-grade heat losses and include the effects of thermal bridging between the basement and the main-floor envelope. This is then validated against the National Research Council of Canada`s Mitalas method. The software can calculate insulation configurations with code implications and carry out batch processing for multiple runs. It includes libraries of common insulation and construction materials. BASECALC has the potential in other applications to develop more accurate basement algorithms for building simulation programs, establish building and energy code requirements for basement and slab-on-grade insulation, assess and demonstrate the performance of new products and novel insulation placements, and validate and calibrate basement heat-loss predictions from building simulation programs.

  17. The metamorphic basement of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza: New geochronologic and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, Miguel; Ramos, Victor A.; Vujovich, Graciela I.; Poma, Stella

    1998-01-01

    The metamorphic rocks of the Cordillera Frontal exposed in the Cordon del Portillo, Mendoza were examined by Rb/Sr geochronology and Nd/Sm isotopic analysis. The Rb/Sr data defined a Devonian age for the last metamorphic episode, similar to the previous K/Ar and Ar/Ar ages obtained in this region and western Precordillera. The isotopic analysis identified three sets of model ages: 1.- The oldest corresponds to a set of meta sedimentary rocks with a model age of 1,400 to 1,700 Ma; 2.- A monzogranodiorite with a model age of 1,000 Ma; and 3.- Metabasites with model ages between 577 and 330 Ma. These rocks are interpreted as 1.- A typical Grenvillian derived basement; 2.- Late Paleozoic granitoids derived from a different Proterozoic basement; and 3.- Some Eopaleozoic metabasites tectonically inter fingered with the Grenvillian basement. These new data are coherent with the existence of a Laurentia derived terrane, Chilenia, that was separated by oceanic rocks from the basement of Pre cordillera during Eopaleozoic times. This last basement known as the Cuyania terrane, was also derived from Laurentia. (author)

  18. Characteristic aerial and ground radioactives of basement and sedimentary rocks in (Egypt): relations and natural cycles across geologic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Each geologic unit, exposure, formation or rock group of the exposed precambrian I (igneous and metamorphic) basement complex (Upper proterozoic) and phanerozoic cover sediments in an area covering about 4500 km2 located in the central eastern desert of egypt, has been found to possess certain radioactivity characteristics and levels. Minimum values of radiation are generally associated with the first basement volcanics, maximum values are correlated are correlated with the third basement plutonites and phosphate formation (upper cretaceous), while intermedialte values are connected with the first basement sediments and upper eocene-quaternary fifth detrital-calcareous-evaporite sediments. Therefore, the radioactivities of various rock groups of the precambrian I basement complex - except the first basement sediments sediments- correlate progressively well with their chronology. Generally, the increase of radioactivity within this complex is connected with the transition into final stages of the magmatic evolution

  19. Dissolution of biogenic ooze over basement edifices in the equatorial Pacific with implications for hydrothermal ventilation of the oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Spivack, A.J.; Davis, E.E.; Mayer, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that curious closed depressions in carbonate sediments overlying basement edifices are widespread in the equatorial Pacific. A possible mechanism for their creation is dissolution by fluids exiting basement vents from off-axis hydrothermal flow. Quantitative analysis based on the retrograde solubility of calcium carbonate and cooling of basement fluids during ascent provides an estimate for the dissolution capacity of the venting fluids. Comparison of the dissolution capacity and fluid flux with typical equatorial Pacific carbonate mass accumulation rates shows that this mechanism is feasible. By maintaining sediment-free basement outcrops, the process may promote widespread circulation of relatively unaltered seawater in the basement in an area where average sediment thicknesses are 300-500 m. The enhanced ventilation can explain several previously puzzling observations in this region, including anomalously low heat flux, relatively unaltered seawater in the basement, and aerobic and nitrate-reducing microbial activity at the base of the sediments. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  20. Nanomaterial-enabled membranes for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogensues, Adam Roy

    Incorporating engineered nanomaterials as components of synthetic membranes can improve their separation performance and endow membranes with additional functions. This work explores two approaches to the design of membranes modified with nanomaterials. In the first chapter, exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnP) decorated with gold nanoparticles were embedded in a polysulfone matrix to fabricate phase inversion nanocomposite membranes. The cast membranes were evaluated as flow-through membrane reactors in experiments on the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The nanocomposite membranes were not as catalytically efficient as those fabricated by modifying anodized alumina membranes polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) containing gold nanoparticles. However, because of the facility of membrane casting by phase inversion and new opportunities enabled by the demonstrated hierarchy-based approach to nanocomposite membrane design, such membrane may hold commercial promise. In the second part of the study, the practicability of PEM-based nanofiltration was evaluated under conditions of precipitative fouling (i.e. scaling) by calcium sulfate. Polyelectrolytes were deposited onto 50 kDa polyethersulfone membranes to create PEM-based nanofiltration membranes. The prepared membranes were compared with the commercial NF270 membrane in terms of flux and rejection performance, as well as the morphology of gypsum crystals formed on the membrane surface. None of the PEM coatings tested inhibited scale formation.

  1. Inversion of gravity data in the Big Bear Lake Area to recover depth to basement using Cauchy-type integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    One of the important applications of the gravity method is evaluation of the depth to the basement, which is characterized by a significant density contrast with the sedimental layeres. We have introduced recently a new method of modeling and inversion of potential field data generated by a density...... response caused by sediment-basement interface with variable density in depth. We have also developed the inversion of gravity data to recover the depth to basement given the density profile with depth....

  2. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  3. Significant association between renal function and area of amyloid deposition in kidney biopsy specimens in both AA amyloidosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis and AL amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Hasegawa, Eriko; Wakamatsu, Ayako; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Wada, Yoko; Ito, Yumi; Imai, Naofumi; Ueno, Mitsuhiro; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    2017-06-01

    The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis, which results in proteinuria and an elevated serum creatinine level. The clinical manifestations and precursor proteins of amyloid A (AA) and light-chain (AL) amyloidosis are different, and the renal damage due to amyloid deposition also seems to differ. The purpose of this study was to clarify haw the difference in clinical features between AA and AL amyloidosis are explained by the difference in the amount and distribution of amyloid deposition in the renal tissues. A total of 119 patients participated: 58 patients with an established diagnosis of AA amyloidosis (AA group) and 61 with AL amyloidosis (AL group). We retrospectively investigated the correlation between clinical data, pathological manifestations, and the area occupied by amyloid in renal biopsy specimens. In most of the renal specimens the percentage area occupied by amyloid was less than 10%. For statistical analyses, the percentage area of amyloid deposition was transformed to a common logarithmic value (Log 10 %amyloid). The results of sex-, age-, and Log 10 %amyloid-adjusted analyses showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher in the AA group. In terms of renal function parameters, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (Ccr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) indicated significant renal impairment in the AA group, whereas urinary protein indicated significant renal impairment in the AL group. Pathological examinations revealed amyloid was predominantly deposited at glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and easily transferred to the mesangial area in the AA group, and it was predominantly deposited at in the AL group. The degree of amyloid deposition in the glomerular capillary was significantly more severe in AL group. The frequency of amyloid deposits in extraglomerular mesangium was not significantly different between the two groups, but in AA group, the degree amyloid deposition was significantly more severe, and

  4. Tubulointerstitial nephritis accompanying gamma-heavy chain deposition and gamma-heavy chain restricted plasma cells in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayer, Ali; Green, Dollie F; Gonzalez-Suarez, Maria L; Sujoy, Victoria; Ikpatt, Offiong F; Thomas, David B

    2014-09-01

    Monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (HC) diseases are rare proliferative disorders of B lymphocytes or plasma cells characterized by the presence of monoclonal α-, µ-, or γ-HC without associated light chains in the blood, urine, or both. We report a 59-year-old woman with a history of Hodgkin disease who developed hypercalcemia, proteinuria, and impaired kidney function. Protein electrophoresis and immunofixation displayed γ-HC without associated light chains in the serum and urine. Pathologic examination demonstrated severe tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with diffuse and strong linear staining of the glomerular and tubular basement membranes as well as Bowman capsules for γ-HC, but not for κ- or λ-light chains. Immunohistochemical examination of the kidney and bone marrow demonstrated numerous CD138+ plasma cells immunoreactive for γ-HC, but not for κ- or λ-light chains. This is the first report of tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with γ-HC deposition and γ-HC restricted plasma cells in the kidney. This report heightens awareness about tubulointerstitial nephritis as a possible manifestation of γ-HC deposition in the kidney.

  5. Brief communication: Contributions of enamel-dentine junction shape and enamel deposition to primate molar crown complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Matthew M; Evans, Alistair; Smith, Tanya; Jernvall, Jukka; Tafforeau, Paul; Kupczik, Kornelius; Olejniczak, Anthony J; Rosas, Antonio; Radovcić, Jakov; Thackeray, J Francis; Toussaint, Michel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-05-01

    Molar crown morphology varies among primates from relatively simple in some taxa to more complex in others, with such variability having both functional and taxonomic significance. In addition to the primary cusps, crown surface complexity derives from the presence of crests, cuspules, and crenulations. Developmentally, this complexity results from the deposition of an enamel cap over a basement membrane (the morphology of which is preserved as the enamel-dentine junction, or EDJ, in fully formed teeth). However, the relative contribution of the enamel cap and the EDJ to molar crown complexity is poorly characterized. In this study we examine the complexity of the EDJ and enamel surface of a broad sample of primate (including fossil hominin) lower molars through the application of micro-computed tomography and dental topographic analysis. Surface complexity of the EDJ and outer enamel surface (OES) is quantified by first mapping, and then summing, the total number of discrete surface orientation patches. We investigate the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to crown complexity by assessing the correlation in patch counts between the EDJ and OES within taxa and within individual teeth. We identify three patterns of EDJ/OES complexity which demonstrate that both crown patterning early in development and the subsequent deposition of the enamel cap contribute to overall crown complexity in primates.

  6. Fracture Analysis of basement rock: A case example of the Eastern Part of the Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuddin, A; Ghosh, D

    2015-01-01

    In general, reservoir rocks can be defined into carbonates, tight elastics and basement rocks. Basement rocks came to be highlighted as their characteristics are quite complicated and remained as a significant challenge in exploration and production area. Motivation of this research is to solve the problem in some area in the Malay Basin which consist fractured basement reservoirs. Thus, in order to increase understanding about their characteristic, a study was conducted in the Eastern part of the Peninsular Malaysia. The study includes the main rock types that resemble the offshore rocks and analysis on the factors that give some effect on fracture characteristic that influence fracture systems and fracture networks. This study will allow better fracture prediction which will be beneficial for future hydrocarbon prediction in this region

  7. Modeling radon entry into houses with basements: Model description and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revzan, K.L.; Fisk, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    We model radon entry into basements using a previously developed three-dimensional steady-state finite difference model that has been modified in the following ways: first, cylindrical coordinates are used to take advantage of the symmetry of the problem in the horizontal plant; second, the configuration of the basement has been made more realistic by incorporating the concrete footer; third, a quadratic relationship between the pressure and flow in the L-shaped gap between slab, footer, and wall has been employed; fourth, the natural convection of the soil gas which follows from the heating of the basement in winter has been taken into account. The temperature field in the soil is determined from the equation of energy conservation, using the basement, surface, and deep-soil temperatures as boundary conditions. The pressure field is determined from Darcy's law and the equation of mass conservation (continuity), assuming that there is no flow across any boundary except the soil surface (atmospheric pressure) and the opening in the basement shell (fixed pressure). After the pressure and temperatures field have been obtained the velocity field is found from Darcy's law. Finally, the radon concentration field is found from the equation of mass-transport. The convective radon entry rate through the opening or openings is then calculated. In this paper we describe the modified model, compare the predicted radon entry rates with and without the consideration of thermal convection, and compare the predicted rates with determined from data from 7 houses in the Spokane River valley of Washington and Idaho. Although the predicted rate is much lower than the mean of the rates determined from measurements, errors in the measurement of soil permeability and variations in the permeability of the area immediately under the basement slab, which has a significant influence on the pressure field, can account for the range of entry rates inferred from the data. 25 refs., 8 figs

  8. Hydrogeologic controls on induced seismicity in crystalline basement rocks due to fluid injection into basal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yipeng; Person, Mark; Rupp, John; Ellett, Kevin; Celia, Michael A; Gable, Carl W; Bowen, Brenda; Evans, James; Bandilla, Karl; Mozley, Peter; Dewers, Thomas; Elliot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mb 3.8-5.5 induced seismic events in the midcontinent region, United States, resulted from injection of fluid either into a basal sedimentary reservoir with no underlying confining unit or directly into the underlying crystalline basement complex. The earthquakes probably occurred along faults that were likely critically stressed within the crystalline basement. These faults were located at a considerable distance (up to 10 km) from the injection wells and head increases at the hypocenters were likely relatively small (∼70-150 m). We present a suite of simulations that use a simple hydrogeologic-geomechanical model to assess what hydrogeologic conditions promote or deter induced seismic events within the crystalline basement across the midcontinent. The presence of a confining unit beneath the injection reservoir horizon had the single largest effect in preventing induced seismicity within the underlying crystalline basement. For a crystalline basement having a permeability of 2 × 10(-17)  m(2) and specific storage coefficient of 10(-7) /m, injection at a rate of 5455 m(3) /d into the basal aquifer with no underlying basal seal over 10 years resulted in probable brittle failure to depths of about 0.6 km below the injection reservoir. Including a permeable (kz  = 10(-13)  m(2) ) Precambrian normal fault, located 20 m from the injection well, increased the depth of the failure region below the reservoir to 3 km. For a large permeability contrast between a Precambrian thrust fault (10(-12)  m(2) ) and the surrounding crystalline basement (10(-18)  m(2) ), the failure region can extend laterally 10 km away from the injection well. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Effects of Bronchial Thermoplasty on Airway Smooth Muscle and Collagen Deposition in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakir, Jamila; Haj-Salem, Ikhlass; Gras, Delphine; Joubert, Philippe; Beaudoin, Ève-Léa; Biardel, Sabrina; Lampron, Noel; Martel, Simon; Chanez, Pascal; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Laviolette, Michel

    2015-11-01

    The aim of bronchial thermoplasty is to improve asthma symptoms by reducing central airway smooth muscle mass. Up to now, the reduction of smooth muscle mass has been documented for only 1 group of 10 patients who had 15% or more of their pretreatment total bronchial biopsy area occupied by smooth muscle. To evaluate the effects of bronchial thermoplasty on airway smooth muscle mass and airway collagen deposition in adult patients with asthma, regardless of pretreatment smooth muscle area. Seventeen patients with asthma underwent bronchial thermoplasty over the course of three visits. At Visit 1, bronchial biopsies were taken from the lower lobe that was not treated during this session. At Visit 2 (3-14 wk after the first visit), all 17 patients underwent biopsy of the lower lobe treated during the first procedure. At Visit 3 (7-22 wk after the first visit), nine patients agreed to undergo biopsy of the same lower lobe. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on the biopsy specimens. Bronchial thermoplasty decreased airway smooth muscle from 12.9 ± 1.2% of the total biopsy surface at Visit 1 to 4.6 ± 0.8% at Visit 2 (P Bronchial thermoplasty also decreased Type I collagen deposition underneath the basement membrane from 6.8 ± 0.3 μm at Visit 1 to 4.3 ± 0.2 μm at Visit 2 (P bronchial thermoplasty reduced the smooth muscle mass of treated airway segments, regardless of the baseline level of muscle mass. Treatment also altered the deposition of collagen. At follow-up, bronchial thermoplasty improved asthma control; however, the limited number of subjects did not allow us to evaluate possible correlations between these improvements and the studied histological parameters. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and evaluate their persistence.

  10. Immunofluorescence serration pattern analysis as a diagnostic criterion in antilaminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid : immunopathological findings and clinical experience in 10 Dutch patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, J. B.; Pas, H. H.; Hertl, M.; Dikkers, F. G.; Kamminga, N.; Jonkman, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Antilaminin-332 mucous membrane pemphigoid (anti-LN-332 MMP) is a chronic subepidermal blistering disease characterized by IgG anti-epidermal basement membrane zone (BMZ) autoantibodies against laminin-332 (LN-332). Patients with anti-LN-332 MMP have an increased relative risk of

  11. STRATIGRAPHIC FEATURES OF NEOGENE DEPOSITS OF DİLEKÇİ (WEST OF KONYA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müjdat ÖZKAN

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The basement of the investigated area is Silurian-Cretaceous aged basement rocks. The basement rocks consists of phillite, schist, quartzite, limestone, dolomite, spilite, diorite, gabbro, diabase and serpentinite. This basement is overlined unconformably by Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene aged Sille formation, Yalıtepe formation, Ulumuhsine formation, Küçükmuhsine formation, Lower Pliocene aged Yürükler formation and Upper Pliocene-Quaternary aged Topraklı formation. Sille formation consists of red conglomerate, sandstone and mudstone, deposited in alluvial fan and braided stream environments. Yalıtepe formation contains cream, brown stromatolitic limestone formed in a shallow lake environment. Ulumuhsine formation is made by cream, limestone, clayey limestone, clayey limestone-mudstone alternation, mudstone, marl, dolomite, nodules and bands of chert-bearing, fossils-bearing limestone deposited in a shallow and open lake environment. Küçükmuhsine formation formed in a shallow and open lake environment consists of tuffite. Yürükler formation overlies conformably and unconformably in local Ulumuhsine and Küçükmuhsine formations, and contains conglomerate, and caliche nodulled mudstone deposited in alluvial fan and braided Stream environments. All these lithologies is overlined unconformably by Upper Pliocene-Quaternary aged Topraklı formation. Topraklı formation consists of conglomerate deposited in alluvial fan and braided stream environments. Neogene basin in the region have characteristics of an intra-mountain basin, time to time controlled by tectonics.

  12. Multiple and repeated sampling increases the sensitivity of direct immunofluorescence testing for the diagnosis of mucous membrane pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanovich, Iakov; Nitz, Julia Marie; Zillikens, Detlef

    2017-10-01

    Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the predominant blistering of mucosal surfaces and the linear deposition of complement, IgG, or IgA along the basement membrane detected by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) test. To assess the impact of multiple and repeated DIF sampling on establishing the diagnosis of MMP. We reviewed the results of DIF studies in 136 nonlesional biopsies from 78 patients who were immunologically confirmed to have MMP. Thirty-six of 52 patients (69%) who underwent only 1 biopsy at the first workup were positive. In 13 cases, the initial single biopsy was negative, and later biopsies were positive. Twenty-two of 26 patients (85%) who underwent multiple biopsies at the initial workup showed ≥1 positive DIF test result. Simultaneously obtained biopsies yielded discordant positive and negative findings in 11 patients. Overall, 74 of 78 patients (95%) had ≥1 positive result by DIF test. In the remaining 4 cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of circulating autoantibodies against BP180. This is a retrospective, single-center study. Our data demonstrate that multiple and repeated biopsies increase the sensitivity of the DIF test for MMP diagnosis. Negative DIF test findings in cases clinically suggestive of MMP should prompt repeat biopsies. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus reduces proteinuria in membranous nephropathy accompanied by a decrease in angiopoietin-like-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Peng

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus is an anticalcineurinic agent with potent immunosuppressive activity that has recently been shown to have the added benefit of reducing proteinuria in membranous nephropathy (MN patients. However, its potential mechanisms remain unknown. To reveal the mechanism, rat cohorts were administered tacrolimus or vehicle from days 7 to 28 after the induction of passive Heymann nephritis (PHN. PHN induction resulted in heavy proteinuria and increased expression of desmin, a marker of injured podocytes. We also showed that the glomerular expression of angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4 was markedly upregulated in PHN rats and human MN followed by an increase in urine Angptl4 excretion. In addition, increased Angptl4 expression may be related to podocyte injury and proteinuria. Furthermore, upregulated Angptl4 expression primarily colocalized with podocytes rather than endothelial or mesangial cells, indicating that podocytes may be the source of Angptl4, which then gradually migrated to the glomerular basement membrane over time. However, tacrolimus treatment markedly reduced glomerular and urinary Angptl4, accompanied by a reduction in the established proteinuria and the promotion of podocyte repair. Additionally, glomerular immune deposits and circulating IgG levels induced by PHN clearly decreased following tacrolimus treatment. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus can reduce Angptl4 in podocytes accompanied by a decrease in established proteinuria and promotion of podocyte repair in MN.

  14. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  15. Type-1 pericytes participate in fibrous tissue deposition in aged skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-12-01

    In older adults, changes in skeletal muscle composition are associated with increased fibrosis, loss of mass, and decreased force, which can lead to dependency, morbidity, and mortality. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible is essential to sustaining and improving their quality of life. Compared with young mice, aged mice take longer to recover from muscle injury; their tissue fibrosis is more extensive, and regenerated myofibers are smaller. Strong evidence indicates that cells called pericytes, embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries, contribute to the satellite-cell pool and muscle growth. In addition to their role in skeletal muscle repair, after tissue damage, they detach from capillaries and migrate to the interstitial space to participate in fibrosis formation. Here we distinguish two bona fide pericyte subtypes in the skeletal muscle interstitium, type-1 (Nestin-GFP(-)/NG2-DsRed(+)) and type-2 (Nestin-GFP(+)/NG2-DsRed(+)), and characterize their heretofore unknown specific roles in the aging environment. Our in vitro results show that type-1 and type-2 pericytes are either fibrogenic or myogenic, respectively. Transplantation studies in young animals indicate that type-2 pericytes are myogenic, while type-1 pericytes remain in the interstitial space. In older mice, however, the muscular regenerative capacity of type-2 pericytes is limited, and type-1 pericytes produce collagen, contributing to fibrous tissue deposition. We conclude that in injured muscles from aging mice, the pericytes involved in skeletal muscle repair differ from those associated with scar formation.

  16. Discussion on several problems on the mineralization of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits at home and abroad, the author discusses the division of mineralization types of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits, and analyzes the metallogenic geologic conditions such as regional geologic background, climatic and geomorphological conditions, basement and sedimentary cover, characteristics of paleo-valley and paleo-channel, mineralization features as well as epigenetic metallogenic process. Future prospecting direction is also proposed

  17. Forms of iron in soils on basement complex rocks of Kaduna state in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The forms of iron extracted by different methods were studied in soils developed on four basement complex rocks within Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria namely: migmatite gneisses, older granite, quartzites and mica schists. The study shows that forms of iron generally decreased in the order of total elemental iron ...

  18. Improved Access To Aging Ocean Basement Biosphere For Microbial Geochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, J. P.; Glazer, B.; Rappe, M.; Kenig, F.; Fisher, A.; Copson, D.; Harris, D.; Jolly, J.; Nuzzio, D.

    2005-12-01

    CORK observatories affixed to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes offer an unprecedented opportunity to study biogeochemical properties and microbial diversity in circulating fluids from sediment-buried ocean basement. Preliminary 16S rRNA gene sequence data from 65 degrees C fluids escaping from the top of the over-pressured ODP borehole 1026B, on the flanks of the Juan de Fuca Ridge indicated the presence of diverse Bacteria and Archaea, including gene clones with varying degrees of relatedness to known dissimilatory nitrate reducers (with ammonia production), thermophilic sulfate reducers, and thermophilic fermentative heterotrophs, consistent with fluid chemistry measurements. However, questions remain regarding microbial community structure, key metabolic pathways and rates, and redox chemistry of the basement fluids, along with concerns for contamination issues. We describe ongoing developments intended to address key in situ analytical and sampling challenges including: 1) The new generation CORKs' dedicated microbiological/geochemical fluid delivery system specifically designed to minimize chemical contamination and surface biofouling; and 2) Development of a seafloor instrument sled for coupling to the CORK's bio-fluid delivery system for acquisition of real-time, in situ electrochemical (voltammetry) redox chemistry data on basement fluids, in addition to in situ particle filtration of basement fluids for molecular genetics, culturing and biogeochemical studies. Results of the first deployment of this instrument sled to new CORK observatory 1301A in Cascadia Basin, on the flanks of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, will be described.

  19. KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANG DI DAERAH PARKIR BASEMENT DAN PARKIR UPPERGROUND (STUDI KASUS DI SUPERMARKET SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono S Huboyo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing building growth in urban areas is limited by land availability. Lack of space in this area lead to build high rise building rather landed building. In this type of building, parking area is built in the basement and or upperground inside the building. Within this enclosed space, indoor air quality might a problem. This study focus to compare emerged pollutants between basement parking area and upperground parking area in supermarket building. The dust sampler, the impinger and the CO monitor were used to measure TSP, NO2 and CO concentrations respectively in these areas during supermarket operations. In the basement area, in particular, the TSP concentrations tend to exceeds 300 µg/m3 mainly at weekend period. While for NO2 and CO concentrations still meet the air quality standard. Based on these findings it seems the main source of pollutants was derived from dust resuspension. Thus, the mitigation measures to reduce this dust resuspension should be emphasized in order to prevent air quality deterioration in the basement parking area.

  20. Location of fishpond sites in the crystalline basement area of Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Location of fishpond sites in the crystalline basement area of Edo State Nigeria using geoelectric method. O Egwebe, RE Iserhien-Emekeme. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Fisheries Vol. 4 (2) 2007: pp. 160-171. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Possible options for reducing occupational dose from the TMI-2 basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, L.F.; Harty, R.

    1985-11-01

    The major sources of exposure in the basement include the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure, water and sludge in the elevator shaft, cast concrete walls, concrete floor slab, water and sludge on the floor, and activity in the paint and loose surface contamination. The sources were identified using data obtained by the utility from water processing, water and solid samples, remote video inspections and radiation monitoring with a robot, and strings of thermoluminescent dosimeters lowered from upper elevations. The area dose rates in the basement range from approximately 4 R/hr (in the NE quadrant) to over 1100 R/hr (near the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure). It is estimated that the basement contains between 11,000 and 21,000 curies of 137 Cs. Specific decontamination and cleanup techniques are discussed. These techniques include flushing with water, high-pressure water blasting, leaching, scabbling and chemical cleaning. The applicability of these techniques to the major sources of radiation are discussed, and possible approaches and work sequences for basement cleanup are given

  2. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; Le Gal La Salle, Corinne; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80-400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths.

  3. Cracked and full of sand: microstructural insights into how oil gets into a crystalline basement reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Bob; McCaffrey, Ken; Dempsey, Eddie

    2017-04-01

    The fractured Neoarchaean orthogneisses forming the 200km long, NE-SW trending Rona Ridge lie offshore along the southeast margin of the Faroe-Shetland Basin (FSB). The basement ridge was uplifted during Cretaceous-age normal faulting and is flanked and immediately overlain by Devonian to Cretaceous cover sequences. Basement-hosted oil is known to occur in significant volumes in at least two fields (Clair, Lancaster). Re-Os dating of bitumen samples from the Clair Field suggests that oil was generated in the period 64-72Ma. A new microstructural study of basement cores was carried out to assess the mechanisms and timing of oil charge and other fracture-hosted mineralization. Oil charge is everywhere associated with quartz-adularia-calcite-pyrite mineralization and is hosted in a complex mesh of interconnected shear and tensile fractures that formed during a single protracted episode of brittle deformation. This association is recognized in all basement cores containing oil and also in locally overlying well-cemented Devonian (Lower Clair Group) and Jurassic (Rona Sandstone) sequences. Mineralization and oil charge is everywhere associated with clastic sedimentary infillings which occur either as vein-hosted injected slurries, or as little deformed laminated infills in mm to dm-scale open fractures. The latter preserve delicate way-up criteria and geopetal structures. The largest accumulations of oil are found either in these poorly-cemented sedimentary infills, or in fracture-hosted vuggy cavities up to several cm across. All these features, together with the widespread development of zoned mineral cements and cockade textures suggest a low-temperature hydrothermal system that likely formed in a near surface (Jurassic source rocks located to the west in the FSB, through the basement ridge and up into the overlying Clair Group and other cover sequences during the 64-72Ma time period. Our findings have major implications for the development of fractured basement

  4. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance with Amyloid Deposition in the Lung and Non-Amyloid Eosinophilic Deposition in the Brain: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Abi-Fadel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS is rarely complicated by amyloidosis. Case. A 66-year-old white male presented to the emergency room (ER after an unwitnessed fall and change in mental status. Patient was awake and alert but not oriented. There was no focal deficit on neurological exam. Past medical history (PMH included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, aortic valve replacement (nonmetallic, incomplete heart block controlled by a pacemaker and IgG- IgA type Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance. The MGUS was diagnosed 9 months ago on serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP as patient was referred to the outpatient clinic for hyperglobulinemia on routine blood work. In ER, a head-computed tomography (CT revealed multiple parenchymal hemorrhagic lesions suspicious for metastases. A CT chest, abdomen and pelvis revealed numerous ground-glass and solid nodules in the lungs. Lower extremity duplex and transesophageal echocardiogram were negative. Serial blood cultures and serologies for cryptococcus and histoplasmosis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA, antinuclear antibody (ANA, rheumatoid factor (RF, cryoglobulin, and antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM antibodies were all negative. CT guided lung biopsy was positive for Thioflavin T amyloid deposits. Brain biopsy was positive for eosinophilic material (similar to the lungs but negative for Thioflavin T stain. The patient's clinical status continued to deteriorate with cold cyanotic fingers developing on day 12 and a health care acquired pneumonia, respiratory failure, and fungemia on day 18. On day 29, family withdrew life support and denied any autopsies. Conclusion. Described is an atypical course of MGUS complicated by amyloidosis of the lung and nonamyloid eosinophilic deposition in the brain. As MGUS might be complicated by diseases such as amyloidosis and multiple myeloma, a scheduled follow-up of these patients is always

  5. Basement characterization and crustal structure beneath the Arabia-Eurasia collision (Iran): A combined gravity and magnetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Naeim; Ebbing, Jörg

    2018-04-01

    We present a study on the depth to basement and magnetic crustal domains beneath the Iranian Plateau by modeling aeromagnetic and gravity data. First, field processing of the aeromagnetic data was undertaken to estimate the general characteristics of the magnetic basement. Afterwards, inverse modeling of aeromagnetic data was carried out to estimate the depth to basement. The obtained model of basement was refined using combined gravity and magnetic forward modeling. Hereby, we were able to distinguish different magnetic domains in the uppermost crust (10-20 km depths) influencing the medium to long wavelength trends of the magnetic anomalies. Magnetic basement mapping shows that prominent shallow magnetic features are furthermore located in the volcanic areas, e.g. the Urumieh Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage. The presence of ophiolite outcrops in SE Iran implies that shallow oceanic crust (with high magnetization) is the main source of one of the biggest magnetic anomalies in entire Iran area located north of the Makran.

  6. An Interactive GIS Procedure for Building and Basement Corrections in Urban Microgravity Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasseriau, P.; Olivier, R.

    2007-12-01

    Construction of a new underground railway in Lausanne, a highly-urbanized city in Switzerland, was an opportunity to test the feasibility and reliability of microgravity surveys in urban environments. The goal of our microgravity survey was to determine the depth-to-bedrock along the project corridor. Available drilling information allowed us verify the density model obtained. The geophysical results also provided spatially exhaustive subsurface information that could not be obtained with drilling methods alone. Gravimetry is one of the rare geophysical methods that can be used in noisy urban environments. An inevitable constraint of this method is terrain correction. It is not easy to obtain a simple and accurate digital elevation model (DEM) of an urban environment considering that buildings and basements are not included. However, these structures significantly influence gravity measurements. We calculate, with software that we have developed, the influence of buildings and basements in order to correct our gravity data. Our procedure permits the integration of gravity measurements, cadastral information (building typology and geometry) and basement geometry in an Access database that allows interactive determination of the Bouguer anomaly. A geographic information system (GIS) is used to extract building geometries based on cadastral information and to correct the influence of each building using a simplified architectural style. Basement voids are then introduced in the final DEM using building outlines given by cadastral maps. The depths and altitudes of the basements are measured by visiting them, and then linking the results to a regional topographic map. All of these corrections can be calculated before the gravity acquisition has begun in order to optimize the design of the survey. The surveys are executed late at night so as to minimize the effects of traffic noise. 160 gravity measurements were carried out before and after digging of the underground

  7. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  8. Membrane processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszak, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The membrane processes have played important role in the industrial separation process. These technologies can be found in all industrial areas such as food, beverages, metallurgy, pulp and paper, textile, pharmaceutical, automotive, biotechnology and chemical industry, as well as in water treatment for domestic and industrial application. Although these processes are known since twentieth century, there are still many studies that focus on the testing of new membranes' materials and determining of conditions for optimal selectivity, i. e. the optimum transmembrane pressure (TMP) or permeate flux to minimize fouling. Moreover the researchers proposed some calculation methods to predict the membrane processes properties. In this article, the laboratory scale experiments of membrane separation techniques, as well their validation by calculation methods are presented. Because membrane is the "heart" of the process, experimental and computational methods for its characterization are also described.

  9. Omniphobic Hollow-Fiber Membranes for Vacuum Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang Jia; Zuo, Jian; Chang, Jian; Kuan, Hong Nan; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2018-04-03

    Management of produced water from shale gas production is a global challenge. Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered a promising solution because of its various advantages. However, low-surface-tension species in produced water can easily deposit on the membrane surface and cause severe fouling or wetting problems. To solve the problems, an omniphobic polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) hollow-fiber membrane has been developed via silica nanoparticle deposition followed by a Teflon AF 2400 coating in this study. The resultant membrane shows good repellency toward various liquids with different surface tensions and chemistries, including water, ethylene glycol (EG), cooking oil, and ethanol. It also exhibits stable performance in 7 h VMD tests with a feed solution containing up to 0.6 mM of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In addition, the effects of surface energy and surface morphology as well as nanoparticle size on membrane omniphobicity have been systematically investigated. This work may provide valuable guidance to molecularly design omniphobic VMD membranes for produced water treatment.

  10. MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR TREATMENT OF RECALCITRANT WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  11. Gallium nitride electrodes for membrane-based electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, T; Steinhoff, G; von Ribbeck, H-G; Stutzmannn, M; Eickhoff, M; Tanaka, M

    2009-10-01

    We report on the deposition of planar lipid bilayers (supported membranes) on gallium nitride (GaN) electrodes for potential applications as membrane-based biosensors. The kinetics of the lipid membrane formation upon vesicle fusion were monitored by simultaneous measurements of resistance and capacitance of the membrane using AC impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range between 50 mHz and 50 kHz. We could identify a two-step process of membrane spreading and self-healing. Despite its relatively low resistance, the membrane can be modeled by a parallel combination of an ideal resistor and capacitor, indicating that the membrane efficiently blocks the diffusion of ions.

  12. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  13. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

  14. Records of Mesoproterozoic taphrogenic events in the eastern basement of the Araçuaí Orogen, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Maia Rabelo Fonte-Boa

    depositional age (although only one zircon with low discordance shows an age of 955 ± 66 Ma. Comparing with data from the western sector of the Araçuaí orogen and São Francisco craton, it is noteworthy that no igneous zircon from the three samples yielded an age older than early Orosirian (~2.05 Ga, showing age spectra essentially limited in the range of ca. 1-2 Ga; i.e., younger than the Late Rhyacian orogeny that amalgamated the basement, and older than the main anorogenic event (930-870 Ma associated with the Early Tonian precursor basin of AWCO. All together, these continental taphrogenic events testify the several unsuccessful fragmentation attempts that affected the long-lived São Francisco-Congo palaeocontinent, which remained preserved from a complete break-up associated with ocean spreading from the Early Orosirian to the Atlantic opening in Cretaceous time.

  15. Primordial membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanczyc, Martin M; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    Cellular membranes, which are self-assembled bilayer structures mainly composed of lipids, proteins and conjugated polysaccharides, are the defining feature of cell physiology. It is likely that the complexity of contemporary cells was preceded by simpler chemical systems or protocells during...... the various evolutionary stages that led from inanimate to living matter. It is also likely that primitive membranes played a similar role in protocell 'physiology'. The composition of such ancestral membranes has been proposed as mixtures of single hydrocarbon chain amphiphiles, which are simpler versions...

  16. Infiltration deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Infiltration deposits-is concentration of minerals matters formed by concretion on the some depth of readily soluble of descending waters of hyper genes zone. In the process of rocks chemical decomposition a great deal of readily soluble components in the form of sulfates, carbonates, bicarbonates, hydro-oxides and complex compounds, including ore element compounds become free

  17. Analysis of magnetic anomalies in relation to Placer deposits and basement configuration off Mirya bay, Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    The offshore ilmenite placers off Konkan, central west coast of India, have been surveyed by echosounding, shallow seismic profiling, magnetics, and seabed sampling. The magnetic data show two different types of anomalies: (1) N-S trending high...

  18. Real time visual characterization of membrane fouling and cleaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngene, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is focused on the phenomena of membrane fouling. Membrane fouling is simply described as the deposition of unwanted matter on the membrane surface during the course of operation, which results in reduction in filtration efficiency. This research is aimed at

  19. A Nonlinear Inversion Approach to Map the Magnetic Basement: A Case Study from Central India Using Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Bansal, A. R.; Anand, S. P.; Rao, V. K.; Singh, U. K.

    2016-12-01

    The central India region is having complex geology covering various geological units e.g., Precambrian Bastar Craton (including Proterozoic Chhattisgarh Basin, granitic intrusions etc.) and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt, Gondwana Godavari and Mahanadi Grabens, Late Cretaceous Deccan Traps etc. The central India is well covered by reconnaissance scale aeromagnetic data. We analyzed this data for mapping the basement by dividing into143 overlapping blocks of 100×100km using least square nonlinear inversion method for fractal distribution of sources. The scaling exponents and depth values are optimized using grid search method. We interpreted estimated depths of anomalous sources as magnetic basement and shallow anomalous magnetic sources. The shallow magnetic anomalies are found to vary from 1 to 3km whereas magnetic basement depths are found to vary from 2km to 7km. The shallowest basement depth of 2km found corresponding to Kanker granites a part of Bastar Craton whereas deepest basement depth of 7km is associated with Godavari Graben and south eastern part of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belts near the Parvatipuram Bobbili fault. The variation of magnetic basement, shallow depths and scaling exponent in the region indicate complex tectonic, heterogeneity and intrusive bodies at different depths which is due to different tectonic processes in the region. The detailed basement depth of central India is presented in this study.

  20. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement sampled near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, and eolian material has 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain

  1. Strontium isotopes in carbonate deposits at Crater Flat, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, B.D.; Futa, K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Strontium isotope studies of carbonates from soils, veins, eolian dust and Paleozoic basement samples near Crater Flat, southwest of Yucca Mountain, provide evidence for the origins of these materials. Vein and soil carbonates have nearly identical ranges of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios at the lower end of the pedogenic range. The average 87 Sr/ 86 Sr of Paleozoic basement from Black Marble Hill is similar to the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr in the eolian dust, perhaps indicating a local source for this material. Possible spring deposits have generally higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr than the other carbonates. These data are compared with similar data from areas east of Yucca Mountain. 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Membrane fouling mechanism of biofilm-membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR): Pore blocking model and membrane cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Wenxiang; Tang, Bing; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Zhien

    2018-02-01

    Biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR) is considered as an important wastewater treatment technology that incorporates advantages of both biofilm and MBR process, as well as can alleviate membrane fouling, with respect to the conventional activated sludge MBR. But, to be efficient, it necessitates the establishment of proper methods for the assessment of membrane fouling. Four Hermia membrane blocking models were adopted to quantify and evaluate the membrane fouling of BF-MBR. The experiments were conducted with various operational conditions, including membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure (TMP). Good agreement between cake formation model and experimental data was found, confirming the validity of the Hermia models for assessing the membrane fouling of BF-MBR and that cake layer deposits on membrane. Moreover, the influences of membrane types, agitation speeds and transmembrane pressure on the Hermia pore blocking coefficient of cake layer were investigated. In addition, the permeability recovery after membrane cleaning at various operational conditions was studied. This work confirms that, unlike conventional activated sludge MBR, BF-MBR possesses a low degree of membrane fouling and a higher membrane permeability recovery after cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geology and petrography of basement in south extreme in Sierra Grande de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosini, A.; Ortiz Suarez, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the south of the Sierra de San Luis is recognized a basement composed by La Escalerilla and Los Puquios granites, accompanied by schist, mylonite s and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The schists, La Escalerilla granite and the mafic -ultramafic rocks are affected by a regional metamorphism in anphibolites facies, the two first present a N-S foliation di ping to east. The mylonite s correspond to a second event of deformation, distributed in thin belts of NNE-SSO direction and inclination to east, developed in green schist to anphibolites facies. Los Puquios granite represents the more young of the basement rocks and the intrusion was associated with a shear zone. Los Puquios granite forms dikes and small plutons cutting La Escalerilla granite and micas chits in high cortical levels

  4. Soil inertia and shallow basement envelope impact on cellar internal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Sakami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a three dimensional numerical study of heat transfer by conduction between the soil and the shallow basement in the city of Marrakech (Morocco. The heat transfer equation is solved by the finite difference method using the implicit alternative direction (ADI. The internal temperature of the cellar is computed by using energy balance equation in the cellar. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the nature of the soil, the nature of the walls, the thickness of the walls of the cellar and the distance L far from the cellar on the internal temperature and the heat exchanged between the soil and the shallow basement

  5. Fractured but not fractal: Fragmentation of the gulf of suez basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korvin, Gabor

    1989-03-01

    Recent geophysical studies revealed that the Palaeozoic basement of the Gulf of Suez consists of an enormous number of fault blocks whose network qualitavely resembles the contraction-crack polygons which can be found in nature in a wide variety of materials and on all scales (mud cracks, hardening concrete, age cracking in paintings, etc.). The fault network of the Gulf of Suez basement forms a rather uniformly spaced polygonal pattern, most of the blocks are four-sided, the lengths of block sides parallel with the Gulf of Suez axis are exponentially distributed. The power-law size distribution associated with the fractal (scale-free) fragmentation can be possibly ruled out. The paper calls attention to the necessity of calssifying the physical processes leading to fragmentations with exponential-, lognormal-, and power-law size distributions, respectively.

  6. Utility of magnetic susceptibility values for the petrographic analysis of weathering crust basement samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Hernández-Ramsay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article exposes the resolving power of the magnetic susceptibility measurements in basement minerals samples of the lateritic weathering profile as an element of complementary analysis in the petrographic characterization of the rocks, and useful in the mapping of the magnetic heterogeneities of the basement. The comparison of the magnetic susceptibility data with the petrographic data of different samples revealed that even in samples that correspond to homogeneous lithotypes, great heterogeneities and differences can be manifested from the physical-mineralogical point of view. In general, a high concordance was observed between the intensity of the weathering processes in the rock samples, and the values of the magnetic susceptibility of such samples. The results support the possibility of extrapolating the composition information to samples with magnetic susceptibility measurements and without petrographic studies.

  7. Supported Pd-Au Membrane Reactor for Hydrogen Production: Membrane Preparation, Characterization and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iulianelli, Adolfo; Alavi, Marjan; Bagnato, Giuseppe; Liguori, Simona; Wilcox, Jennifer; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza; Eslamlouyan, Reza; Anzelmo, Bryce; Basile, Angelo

    2016-05-09

    A supported Pd-Au (Au 7wt%) membrane was produced by electroless plating deposition. Permeation tests were performed with pure gas (H₂, H₂, N₂, CO₂, CH₄) for long time operation. After around 400 h under testing, the composite Pd-Au membrane achieved steady state condition, with an H₂/N₂ ideal selectivity of around 500 at 420 °C and 50 kPa as transmembrane pressure, remaining stable up to 1100 h under operation. Afterwards, the membrane was allocated in a membrane reactor module for methane steam reforming reaction tests. As a preliminary application, at 420 °C, 300 kPa of reaction pressure, space velocity of 4100 h(-1), 40% methane conversion and 35% hydrogen recovery were reached using a commercial Ni/Al₂O₃ catalyst. Unfortunately, a severe coke deposition affected irreversibly the composite membrane, determining the loss of the hydrogen permeation characteristics of the supported Pd-Au membrane.

  8. Geological Structure of the Basement of Western and Eastern Parts of the West-Siberian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kirill S.; Erokhin, Yuriy V.; Ponomarev, Vladimir S.; Pogromskaya, Olga E.; Berzin, Stepan V.

    2016-01-01

    The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP-II on zircon) was obtained for the first time from the basement of the West Siberian Plain in the Western half of the region. It is established that a large part of the protolith of the metamorphic depth in the Shaim-Kuznetsov meganticlinorium contained sedimentary late- and middle-Devonian rocks (395-358 million years).…

  9. Equatorial Pacific gravity lineaments: interpretations with basement topography along seismic reflection lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Neil C.; Davies, Huw

    2018-03-01

    The central equatorial Pacific is interesting for studying clues to upper mantle processes, as the region lacks complicating effects of continental remnants or major volcanic plateaus. In particular, the most recently produced maps of the free-air gravity field from satellite altimetry show in greater detail the previously reported lineaments west of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) that are aligned with plate motion over the mantle and originally suggested to have formed from mantle convection rolls. In contrast, the gravity field 600 km or farther west of the EPR reveals lineaments with varied orientations. Some are also parallel with plate motion over the mantle but others are sub-parallel with fracture zones or have other orientations. This region is covered by pelagic sediments reaching 500-600 m thickness so bathymetry is not so useful for seeking evidence for plate deformation across the lineaments. We instead use depth to basement from three seismic reflection cruises. In some segments of these seismic data crossing the lineaments, we find that the co-variation between gravity and basement depth is roughly compatible with typical densities of basement rocks (basalt, gabbro or mantle), as expected for some explanations for the lineaments (e.g., mantle convection rolls, viscous asthenospheric inter-fingering or extensional deformation). However, some other lineaments are associated with major changes in basement depth with only subtle changes in the gravity field, suggesting topography that is locally supported by varied crustal thickness. Overall, the multiple gravity lineament orientations suggest that they have multiple origins. In particular, we propose that a further asthenospheric inter-fingering instability mechanism could occur from pressure variations in the asthenosphere arising from regional topography and such a mechanism may explain some obliquely oriented gravity lineaments that have no other obvious origin.

  10. Biomimetic triblock copolymer membrane arrays: a stable template for functional membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Perez, A.; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Vissing, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    It is demonstrated that biomimetic stable triblock copolymer membrane arrays can be prepared using a scaffold containing 64 apertures of 300 μm diameter each. The membranes were made from a stock solution of block copolymers with decane as a solvent using a new deposition method. By using decane...

  11. Gravitational sliding of the Mt. Etna massif along a sloping basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John B.; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Pitty, Andy; Sargent, Phil; Wooller, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Geological field evidence and laboratory modelling indicate that volcanoes constructed on slopes slide downhill. If this happens on an active volcano, then the movement will distort deformation data and thus potentially compromise interpretation. Our recent GPS measurements demonstrate that the entire edifice of Mt. Etna is sliding to the ESE, the overall direction of slope of its complex, rough sedimentary basement. We report methods of discriminating the sliding vector from other deformation processes and of measuring its velocity, which averaged 14 mm year-1 during four intervals between 2001 and 2012. Though sliding of one sector of a volcano due to flank instability is widespread and well-known, this is the first time basement sliding of an entire active volcano has been directly observed. This is important because the geological record shows that such sliding volcanoes are prone to devastating sector collapse on the downslope side, and whole volcano migration should be taken into account when assessing future collapse hazard. It is also important in eruption forecasting, as the sliding vector needs to be allowed for when interpreting deformation events that take place above the sliding basement within the superstructure of the active volcano, as might occur with dyke intrusion or inflation/deflation episodes.

  12. Basement membrane and interstitial proteoglycans produced by MDCK cells correspond to those expressed in the kidney cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    ) cells has been utilized. Proteoglycans were prepared from conditioned medium by DEAE anion exchange chromatography. The eluted PGs were treated with heparitinase or chondroitinase ABC (cABC), separately or combined, followed by SDS-PAGE. Western blot analysis, using antibodies specific for various PG...

  13. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase p38 alpha Regulates Tubular Damage in Murine Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Nephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Ralf; Daniel, Christoph; Hugo, Christian; Amann, Kerstin; Mielenz, Dirk; Endlich, Karlhans; Braun, Tobias; van der Veen, Betty; Heeringa, Peter; Schett, Georg; Zwerina, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is thought to play a central role in acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Whether p38MAPK plays a pathogenic role in crescentic GN (GN) and which of its four isoforms is preferentially involved in kidney inflammation is not definitely known. We thus

  14. Human Papillomavirus Species-Specific Interaction with the Basement Membrane-Resident Non-Heparan Sulfate Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F. Richards

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a cell culture model where virus is bound to the extracellular matrix (ECM prior to cell surface binding, we determined that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 utilizes ECM resident laminin (LN 332 as an attachment receptor for infectious entry. In presence of LN332, soluble heparin can function as ligand activator rather than competitive inhibitor of HPV16 infection. We also show that the ability to use LN332 binding as a productive attachment step for infectious entry is not conserved amongst HPV types. In the alpha genus, species 9 members (HPV16 attach to ECM via LN332, while members of species 7 (HPV18 are completely inhibited by heparin pre-incubation due to an inability to use LN332. Since HPV species 7 and 9 are preferentially associated with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, respectively, our data provide first evidence that pre-entry events may contribute to the anatomical-site preference of HPV species.

  15. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    in non-transformed PECs via a molecular mechanism linked to cancer progression. This study provides a rationale for targeting CTLD2 in Endo180 in prostate cancer and other pathologies in which increased basal lamina thickness and tissue stiffness are driving factors. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal......Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major...

  16. Manufacture and study of osmotic metallic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, Richard

    1970-01-01

    The manufacture of metallic membranes, which are semi-permeable to salt water, was investigated. The best results were obtained with nickel which had been deposited 'in situ' on sintered nickel, whose pore spectrum was sharp. The investigation showed that in the case of metallic membranes reverse osmosis is only a filtration. The large quantities of water produced and the low salt rejection rate compared to that with cellulose acetate membranes demonstrated that metallic membranes are better suited to depollution than desalination. (author) [fr

  17. Mercury isotope constraints on the source for sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in the Changdu area, southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunxia; Yin, Runsheng; Peng, Jiantang; Hurley, James P.; Lepak, Ryan F.; Gao, Jianfeng; Feng, Xinbin; Hu, Ruizhong; Bi, Xianwu

    2018-03-01

    The Lanuoma and Cuona sediment-hosted Pb-Zn deposits hosted by Upper Triassic limestone and sandstone, respectively, are located in the Changdu area, SW China. Mercury concentrations and Hg isotopic compositions from sulfide minerals and potential source rocks (e.g., the host sedimentary rocks and the metamorphic basement) were investigated to constrain metal sources and mineralization processes. In both deposits, sulfide minerals have higher mercury (Hg) concentrations (0.35 to 1185 ppm) than the metamorphic basement rocks (0.05 to 0.15 ppm) and sedimentary rocks (0.02 to 0.08 ppm). Large variations of mass-dependent fractionation (3.3‰ in δ202Hg) and mass-independent fractionation (0.3‰ in Δ199Hg) of Hg isotopes were observed. Sulfide minerals have Hg isotope signatures that are similar to the hydrothermal altered rocks around the deposit, and similar to the metamorphic basement, but different from barren sedimentary rocks. The variation of Δ199Hg suggests that Hg in sulfides was mainly derived from the underlying metamorphic basement. Mercury isotopes could be a geochemical tracer in understanding metal sources in hydrothermal ore deposits.

  18. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  19. Kallikrein genes are associated with lupus and glomerular basement membrane–specific antibody–induced nephritis in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Li, Quan-Zhen; Delgado-Vega, Angelica M.; Abelson, Anna-Karin; Sánchez, Elena; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Li, Li; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Jinchun; Yan, Mei; Ye, Qiu; Liu, Shenxi; Xie, Chun; Zhou, Xin J.; Chung, Sharon A.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo; Witte, Torsten; de Ramón, Enrique; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Barizzone, Nadia; Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Merrill, Joan T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Gilkeson, Gary G.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Kim, Il; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Martin, Javier; Harley, John B.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Wakeland, Edward K.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Mohan, Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Immune-mediated nephritis contributes to disease in systemic lupus erythematosus, Goodpasture syndrome (caused by antibodies specific for glomerular basement membrane [anti-GBM antibodies]), and spontaneous lupus nephritis. Inbred mouse strains differ in susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody–induced and spontaneous lupus nephritis. This study sought to clarify the genetic and molecular factors that may be responsible for enhanced immune-mediated renal disease in these models. When the kidneys of 3 mouse strains sensitive to anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis were compared with those of 2 control strains using microarray analysis, one-fifth of the underexpressed genes belonged to the kallikrein gene family, which encodes serine esterases. Mouse strains that upregulated renal and urinary kallikreins exhibited less evidence of disease. Antagonizing the kallikrein pathway augmented disease, while agonists dampened the severity of anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis. In addition, nephritis-sensitive mouse strains had kallikrein haplotypes that were distinct from those of control strains, including several regulatory polymorphisms, some of which were associated with functional consequences. Indeed, increased susceptibility to anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis and spontaneous lupus nephritis was achieved by breeding mice with a genetic interval harboring the kallikrein genes onto a disease-resistant background. Finally, both human SLE and spontaneous lupus nephritis were found to be associated with kallikrein genes, particularly KLK1 and the KLK3 promoter, when DNA SNPs from independent cohorts of SLE patients and controls were compared. Collectively, these studies suggest that kallikreins are protective disease-associated genes in anti-GBM antibody–induced nephritis and lupus. PMID:19307730

  20. Exploration for limestone deposit at Onigbedu, South–Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedele Kayode F.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Onigbedu limestone deposit was investigated using the aeromagnetic data, resistivity soundings and borings with the aim of characterizing the limestone deposit and estimating its reserves. The subsurface structural features and depth to basement were identified with the analysis of aeromagnetic data. Twenty nine boreholes were drilled for subsurface appraisal and correlation of the limestone deposit. Eighty nine Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES were acquired using the Schlumberger array. The results showed NE-SW trending lineaments that segmented the limestone. Depth to basement varied from 144.2 m to 1090 m. The VES results showed four to six layers indicating the topsoil (7-315 Ωm, clay (2-25 Ωm, shale (6-31 Ωm, limestone (20-223 Ωm, sandstone (>200 Ωm and sandy materials. The VES results correlated well with the lithological unit delineated from the borehole. The overburden thickness ranged from 3.3 m to 28 m, while the limestone thickness varies between 18.1 m and 48.3 m. The limestone reserve was estimated at 1.9 × 109 t. This study concluded that the study area had vast occurrence of the limestone deposits, which would be of economic importance, if exploited.

  1. Catalytic Membrane Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, T.J.; Brinker, C.J.; Gardner, T.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Sault, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    The proposed "catalytic membrane sensor" (CMS) was developed to generate a device which would selectively identify a specific reagent in a complex mixture of gases. This was to be accomplished by modifying an existing Hz sensor with a series of thin films. Through selectively sieving the desired component from a complex mixture and identifying it by decomposing it into Hz (and other by-products), a Hz sensor could then be used to detect the presence of the select component. The proposed "sandwich-type" modifications involved the deposition of a catalyst layered between two size selective sol-gel layers on a Pd/Ni resistive Hz sensor. The role of the catalyst was to convert organic materials to Hz and organic by-products. The role of the membraneo was to impart both chemical specificity by molecukir sieving of the analyte and converted product streams, as well as controlling access to the underlying Pd/Ni sensor. Ultimately, an array of these CMS elements encompassing different catalysts and membranes were to be developed which would enable improved selectivity and specificity from a compiex mixture of organic gases via pattern recognition methodologies. We have successfully generated a CMS device by a series of spin-coat deposited methods; however, it was determined that the high temperature required to activate the catalyst, destroys the sensor.

  2. High-resolution temporal analysis of deep subseafloor microbial communities inhabiting basement fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Lin, H. T.; Hsieh, C. C.; Rappe, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The temporal variation in microbial communities inhabiting the anoxic, sediment-covered basaltic ocean basement is largely uncharacterized due to the inaccessible nature of the environment and difficulties associated with collection of samples from low-biomass microbial habitats. Here, a deep sea instrumented platform was employed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the summer of 2013 to collect 46 samples of basement fluids from the most recent generation of borehole observatories (U1362A and B), which feature multiple sampling horizons at a single location and fluid delivery lines manufactured using stainless steel or inert polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) parts. Included were three time-series deployments of the GEOmicrobe sled meant to resolve the fine-scale (i.e. hourly) temporal variation within in situ crustal microbial communities. Illumina technology was used to sequence small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragments from sediment, seawater, and subseafloor fluids. Similar to has been reported previously, basic differences in the three environments was observed. Fluid samples from depth horizons extending 30, 70, and ~200 meters sub-basement revealed differences in the observed microbial communities, indicating potential depth-specific zonation of microorganisms in the basaltic basement fluids. Extensive overlap between microorganisms collected from a single depth horizon but using two fluid delivery lines manufactured with different materials was observed, though some differences were also noted. Several archaeal (e.g. THSCG, MCG, MBGE, Archaeoglobus) and bacterial (e.g. Nitrospiraceae, OP8, KB1) lineages detected in previous years of basement fluid sampling nearby were found here, which further supports the notion that these microorganisms are stable residents of anoxic basaltic subseafloor fluids. Direct cell enumeration of samples collected from U1362A and U1362B revealed an elevated biomass compared to samples at these locations from previous years

  3. Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.

    2012-12-01

    Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages

  4. Geochemical variability of the Yucatan basement: Constraints from crystalline clasts in Chicxulub impactites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A.

    2003-07-01

    The 65 Ma old Chicxulub impact structure with a diameter of about 180 km is again in the focus of the geosciences because of the recently commenced drilling of the scientific well Yaxcopoil- 1. Chicxulub is buried beneath thick post-impact sediments, yet samples of basement lithologies in the drill cores provide a unique insight into age and composition of the crust beneath Yucatan. This study presents major element, Sr, and Nd isotope data for Chicxulub impact melt lithologies and clasts of basement lithologies in impact breccias from the PEMEX drill cores C-1 and Y-6, as well as data for ejecta material from the K/T boundaries at La Lajilla, Mexico, and Furlo, Italy. The impact melt lithologies have an andesitic composition with significantly varying contents of Al, Ca, and alkali elements. Their present day 87Sr/86Sr ratios cluster at about 0.7085, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5123 to 0.5125. Compared to the melt lithologies that stayed inside the crater, data for ejecta material show larger variations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7081 for chloritized spherules from La Lajilla to 0.7151 for sanidine spherules from Furlo. The 143Nd/144Nd ratio is 0.5126 for La Lajilla and 0.5120 for the Furlo spherules. In an tCHUR(Nd)-tUR(Sr) diagram, the melt lithologies plot in a field delimited by Cretaceous platform sediments, various felsic lithic clasts and a newly found mafic fragment from a suevite. Granite, gneiss, and amphibolite have been identified among the fragments from crystalline basement gneiss. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7084 to 0.7141, and their 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5121 to 0.5126. The TNdDM model ages vary from 0.7 to 1.4 Ga, pointing to different source terranes for these rocks. This leads us to believe that the geological evolution and the lithological composition of the Yucatàn basement is probably more complex than generally assumed, and Gondwanan as well as Laurentian crust may be present in the Yucatàn basement.

  5. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  6. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual examination...

  7. U-Pb SHRIMP-RG zircon ages and Nd signature of lower Paleozoic rifting-related magmatism in the Variscan basement of the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F.J.; Iriondo, A.; Dietsch, C.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Peucat, J.J.; Cires, J.; Reche, J.; Capdevila, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ages of orthogneisses exposed in massifs of the Variscan chain can determine whether they are part of a pre-Neoproterozoic basement, a Neoproterozoic, Panafrican arc, or are, in fact, lower Paleozoic, and their isotopic compositions can be used to probe the nature of their source rocks, adding to the understanding of the types, distribution, and tectonic evolution of peri-Gondwanan crystalline basement. Using SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd isotopic analysis, pre-Variscan metaigneous rocks from the N??ria massif in the Eastern Pyrenean axial zone and the Guilleries massif, 70km to the south, have been dated and their Nd signatures characterized. All dated orthogneisses from the N??ria massif have the same age within error, ~457Ma, including the Ribes granophyre, interpreted as a subvolcanic unit within Caradocian sediments contemporaneous with granitic magmas intruded into Cambro-Ordovician sediments at deeper levels. Orthogneisses in the Guilleries massif record essentially continuous magmatic activity during the Ordovician, beginning at the Cambro-Ordovician boundary (488??3Ma) and reaching a peak in the volume of magma in the early Late Ordovician (~460Ma). Metavolcanic rocks in the Guilleries massif were extruded at 452??4Ma and appear to have their intrusive equivalent in thin, deformed veins of granitic gneiss (451??7Ma) within metasedimentary rocks. In orthogneisses from both massifs, the cores of some zircons yield Neoproterozoic ages between ~520 and 900Ma. The age of deposition of a pre-Late Ordovician metapelite in the Guilleries massif is bracketed by the weighted average age of the youngest detrital zircon population, 582??11Ma, and the age of cross-cutting granitic veins, 451??7Ma. Older detrital zircons populations in this metapelite include Neoproterozoic (749-610Ma; n=10), Neo- to Mesoproterozoic (1.04-0.86Ga; n=7), Paleoproterozoic (2.02-1.59Ga; n=5), and Neoarchean (2.74-2.58Ga; n=3). Nd isotopic analyses of the N??ria and Guilleries

  8. Treatment strategies in mucous membrane pemphigoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann G Neff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ann G Neff, Matthew Turner, Diya F MutasimDepartment of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USAAbstract: Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP is an autoimmune blistering disorder that is characterized by subepithelial bullae. Various basement membrane zone components have been identified as targets of autoantibodies in MMP. Considerable variability exists in the clinical presentation of MMP. Mucous membranes that may be involved include the oral cavity, conjunctiva, nasopharynx, larynx, esophagus, genitourinary tract, and anus. A multidisciplinary approach is essential in the management of MMP. Early recognition of this disorder and treatment may decrease disease-related complications. The choice of agents for treatment of MMP is based upon the sites of involvement, clinical severity, and disease progression. For more severe disease, or with rapid progression, systemic corticosteroids are the agents of choice for initial treatment, combined with steroid-sparing agents for long-term maintenance. Due to the rarity of this disease, large controlled studies comparing the efficacy of various agents are lacking.Keywords: mucous membrane pemphigoid, cicatricial pemphigoid

  9. The age and composition of the pre-Cenozoic basement of the Jalisco Block: implications for and relation to the Guerrero composite terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Victor A.; Righter, Kevin; Rosas-Elguera, Jose; López-Martínez, Margarita; Grove, Marty

    2013-09-01

    The Jalisco Block is thought to be part of the Guerrero terrane, but the nature and age of the underlying crystalline basement are largely unknown. We have collected a suite of schists, granitoids, and weakly metamorphosed marine sediments from various parts of the Jalisco Block including Atenguillo and Ameca, Mascota and San Sebastián, Cuale, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Mita, Yelapa, and Tomatlán. The schists range in age from 135 to 161 Ma, with many exhibiting Proterozoic and Phanerozoic zircon ages. The granitoids range in age from 65 to 90 Ma, and are calc-alkaline compositionally—similar to granitoids from the Puerto Vallarta and Los Cabos batholiths. The Jalisco granitoids also experienced similar uplift rates to granitoids from the regions to the north and south of the Jalisco Block. The marine sediments yield a maximum depositional age of 131 Ma, and also contain a significant zircon population with ages extending back to the Archean. Granitoids from this study define two age groups, even after the effects of thermal resetting and different closure temperatures are considered. The 66.8-Ma silicic ash flow tuff near Union de Tula significantly expands the extent of this Cretaceous-Paleocene age ash flow tuff unit within the Jalisco Block, and we propose calling the unit "Carmichael silicic ash flow tuff volcanic succession" in honor of Ian Carmichael. The ages of the basement schists in the Jalisco Block fully overlap with the ages of terranes of continental Mexico, and other parts of the Guerrero terrane in the south, confirming the autochthonous origin of the Jalisco Block rather than exotic arc or allochthonous origin. Geologic data, in combination with geochronologic and oxygen isotopic data, suggest the evolution of SW Mexico with an early 200-1,200-Ma passive margin, followed by steep subduction in a continental arc setting at 160-165 Ma, then shallower subduction by 135 Ma, and finally, emplacement of granitoids at 65-90 Ma.

  10. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  11. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Jaggs, M.P.R.

    1998-01-01

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m 3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  12. The fabrication of gold nanotubular membranes and their applications in separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirage, Kshama B.

    Membrane based template synthesis and an electroless deposition method was used to fabricate Au nanotubular membranes. The inside diameter of the nanotubules was controlled by varying the time of deposition. The final diameters of the nanotubules were on the order of few angstroms, comparable to the size of molecules. It was demonstrated that these membranes show, "molecular sieving" and can completely separate molecules differing in size. Furthermore, the chemical environment of the nanotubules can be controlled by chemisorbing thiols with different terminal groups. Membranes modified with hydrophobic thiols, are selective to hydrophobic molecules and when modified with hydrophilic thiols, the membranes are selective to hydrophilic molecules. In addition, these membranes can separate molecules when present in a mixture. Au nanotubular membranes can be modified by thiols with charged terminal groups. For e.g., membranes modified with -COO-- terminated thiol, were cation-permselective. When modified with - NH3+ terminated thiol, the membranes were anion-permselective. Membranes were permselective in a larger range of electrolyte concentrations for large anions. Finally, Au-Polyacrylic acid (PAA) composite was synthesized in a polyester template membrane by the consecutive deposition of Au and PAA. Au was deposited by electroless deposition and PAA was deposited by vacuum assisted deposition method. This composite can function as a chemical valve, upon change with pH in the presence of buffer. Furthermore, the composite also functions as an electrochemically controlled valve by the generation of H+ and OH-- ions at the Au surface.

  13. Detailed petrographic-structural study of an outcrop of Crystalline Basement of Montevideo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascale, A.; Oyhantçabal, P.

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary data analysis of detailed outcrop Punta Virgilo, located on the S E coast of the department of Montevideo are presented. The investigated outcrop includes gneisses, amphibolite s and several generations of pegmatite and aplite dikes of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement, plus a set of dikes emplaced lamprófido exhumed once the area. Petrographic and microstructural studies of metamorphic units allowed to determine the conditions of metamorphism and deformation temperature between 520-720 ° C and pressure between 2 and 6 kbar (depth of 10 to 23 km)

  14. Lead isotopic study of aplites from the Precambrian basement rocks near Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1975-01-01

    Pb isotopic compositions for three total-rock samples of aplite and their constituent K-feldspars from the Nigerian basement assemblage near Ibadan show lead homogenization during the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event. A secondary isochron formed by the K-feldspars data points is used to calculate a primary age of about 2750 m.y. for the aplites. The aplites do not register any Pb isotopic effect from the intrusion of granite gneiss in the area at 2330m.y. (Auth.)

  15. The First Evidence of the Precambrian Basement in the Fore Range Zone of the Great Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Kamzolkin, V.; Vidjapin, Y.; Somin, M.; Ivanov, S.

    2017-12-01

    Within the Great Caucasus fold-thrust belt, the Fore Range zone has the most complicated structure, and the highest degree of metamorphism was found there. This zone consists of several salients with the different composition and the structural and metamorphic evolution. The largest Blyb salient includes the metamorphic basement covered by the pack of thrusts. According to the recent isotopic data the upper levels of the Blyb metamorphic complex (BMC) are supposed to be Middle-Paleozoic (Somin, 2011). We studied zircons from the granitic intrusions located in the metamorphic rocks of the BMC. The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP II, VSEGEI, Russia) of zircons from the large Balkan metadiorite massif yielded the ages of 549±7,4, 574,1±6,7, and 567,9±6,9 Ma. All studied zircons show the high Th/U ratios and likely have the magmatic origin. This data is the first confirmation of the presence of the Precambrian basement and Vendian magmatic activity in the Fore Range zone. Zircons from the Unnamed granodiorite massif from the south of the Blyb salient yielded the age of 319±3.8 Ma (the Early Carboniferous). This fact taken together with the low grade of metamorphism in this intrusion reveals the Late Paleozoic magmatic event in the Fore Range zone. We also suggest that the Precambrian basement of the BMC, including the Balkan intrusion, is covered by so-called Armovsky nappe. This is confirmed by the field data, Middle-Paleozoic U-Pb ages and the higher degree of metamorphism of the Armovsky gneisses and schists. Thus, the BMC is not uniform but includes the blocks of the different age and metamorphic grades. Finally, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of the Balkan metadiorites. The axes of AMS ellipsoid fix the conditions of the north-east compression, as well as the strain field reconstructed from the macrostructures orientation, which corresponds to the thrusts propagation. Therefore, the emplacement of the Balkan massif happened before the thrust

  16. Shock pressure estimation in basement rocks of the Chicxulub impact crater using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, N.; Tani, R.; Kayama, M.; Chang, Y.; Nishido, H.; Kaushik, D.; Rae, A.; Ferrière, L.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub impact structure, located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, was drilled by the joint IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 in April-May 2016. This expedition is the first attempt to obtain materials from the topographic peak ring within the crater previously identified by seismic imaging. A continuous core was successfully recovered from the peak ring at depths between 505.7 and 1334.7 mbsf. Uplifted, fractured, and shocked granitic basement rocks forming the peak ring were found below, in the impact breccia and impact melt rock unit (747.0-1334.7 mbsf; Morgan et al. 2016). In order to constrain impact crater formation, we investigated shock pressure distribution in the peak-ring basement rocks. Thin sections of the granitic rocks were prepared at intervals of 60 m. All the samples contains shocked minerals, with quartz grains frequently showing planar deformation features (PDFs). We determined shock pressures based on the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy of quartz. The strong advantage of the CL method is its applicability to shock pressure estimation for individual grains for both quartz and diaplectic SiO2 glass with high-spatial resolution ( 1 μm) (Chang et al. 2016). CL spectra of quartz shows a blue emission band caused by shock-induced defect centers, where its intensity increases with shock pressure. A total of 108 quartz grains in ten thin sections were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with a CL spectrometer attached (an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and a beam current of 2 nA were used). Natural quartz single crystals, which were experimentally shocked at 0-30 GPa, were used for pressure calibration. CL spectra of all the quartz grains in the basement rocks showed broad blue emission band at the wavelength range of 300-500 nm and estimated shock pressures were in the range of 15-20 GPa. The result is consistent with values obtained from PDFs analysis in quartz using the universal stage (Ferrière et al. 2017; Rae et al. 2017

  17. Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit was discovered in July 1975. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide on Roxby Downs Station in South Australia. The first diamond drill hole, RD1, intersected 38 m of 1.05% copper. A further eight holes were drilled with only marginal encouragement to November 1976, when RD10 cored 170 m of 2.12% copper and 0.06% of uranium oxide, thus confirming an economic discovery. The discovery of Olympic Dam is an excellent example applying broad-scale, scientifically based conceptual studies to area selection. Exploration management supported its exploration scientists in testing their ideas with stratigraphic drilling. Geologic modeling, supported by geophysical interpretations and tectonic studies, was used to site the first hole. The discovery also illustrates the persistence required in mineral exploration. The deposit appears to be a new type of stratabound sediment-hosted ore. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. It is estimated to contain more than 2000 million MT of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6% copper, 0.06% uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/MT gold. The deposit occurs in middle Proterozoic basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat upper Proterozoic sediments. The sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias controlled by a northwest-trending graben

  18. The Blind River uranium deposits: the ores and their setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The Matinenda Formation (basal Huronian) comprises northward-derived arkose, quartzite, and pyritic, uraniferous oligomictic conglomerate that contains 75 percent of Canada's uranium reserves. The conglomerate beds occur in southeasterly striking zones controlled by basement topography down-sedimentation from radioactive Archean granite. The mineralization is syngenetic, probably placer. Drab-coloured rocks, uranium and sulphide mineralization, and a post-Archean regolith formed under reducing conditions, suggest a reducing environment. Sedimentary features indicate deposition in fast-flowing shallow water, and possibly a cold climate. (author)

  19. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Webster, Elizabeth T.; Xu, Qunyin

    1994-01-01

    A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

  20. Basement structure of the United Arab Emirates derived from an analysis of regional gravity and aeromagnetic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M. Y.; Fairhead, J. D.; Green, C. M.; Noufal, A.

    2017-08-01

    Gravity and aeromagnetic data covering the whole territory of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have been used to evaluate both shallow and deep geological structures, in particular the depth to basement since it is not imaged by seismic data anywhere within the UAE. Thus, the aim has been to map the basement so that its structure can help to assess its control on the distribution of hydrocarbons within the UAE. Power spectrum analysis reveals gravity and magnetic signatures to have some similarities, in having two main density/susceptibility interfaces widely separated in depth such that regional-residual anomaly separation could effectively be undertaken. The upper density/susceptibility interface occurs at a depth of about 1.0 km while the deeper interface varies in depth throughout the UAE. For gravity, this deeper interface is assumed to be due to the combined effect of lateral changes in density structures within the sediments and in depth of basement while for magnetics it is assumed the sediments have negligible susceptibility and the anomalies unrelated to the volcanic/magmatic bodies result from only changes in depth to basement. The power spectrum analysis over the suspect volcanic/magmatic bodies indicates they occur at 5 km depth. The finite tilt-depth and finite local wavenumber methods were used to estimate depth to source and only depths that agree to within 10% of each other were used to generate the depth to basement map. This depth to basement map, to the west of the UAE-Oman Mountains, varies in depth from 5 km to in excess of 15 km depth and is able to structurally account for the location of the shear structures, seen in the residual magnetic data, and the location of the volcanic/magmatic centres relative to a set of elongate N-S to NE-SW trending basement highs. The majority of oilfields in the UAE are located within these basement highs. Therefore, the hydrocarbon distribution in the UAE basin appears to be controlled by the location of the

  1. A skin substitute based on human amniotic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauzin, Hélène; Rolin, Gwenaël; Viennet, Céline; Saas, Philippe; Humbert, Philippe; Muret, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) has biological properties which are useful for wound healing. HAM is notably one of the therapeutic alternatives for venous leg ulcer care. Indeed, a prospective clinical study has demonstrated that cryopreserved HAM transplantation for leg ulcer is feasible, safe and has beneficial effects: 80 % of the patients had a significant clinical response. Nevertheless, at the end of the 3-month follow-up period, only 20 % of the ulcers were totally closed. The aim of this work was to create and characterize a model of epidermized HAM. The method of HAM desepithelialization was validated by histology, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. Then, de-epithelialized HAM was seeded with primary keratinocytes. After 21 days of culture, 15 at the air-liquid interface, the model obtained was analyzed histologically and by immunohistochemistry. The amniotic basement membrane was preserved during enzymatic desepithelialization of HAM. Primary keratinocytes proliferated on HAM: the model obtained showed involucrin expression and had a good basement membrane. As re-epithelialization is an important step for ulcer closure, a model of epidermized HAM could be used to speed up the healing of such wounds.

  2. Geophysical evaluation of groundwater potential in part of southwestern Basement Complex terrain of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayewu, Olateju O.; Oloruntola, Moroof O.; Mosuro, Ganiyu O.; Laniyan, Temitope A.; Ariyo, Stephen O.; Fatoba, Julius O.

    2017-12-01

    The geophysical assessment of groundwater in Awa-Ilaporu, near Ago Iwoye southwestern Nigeria was carried out with the aim of delineating probable areas of high groundwater potential. The area falls within the Crystalline Basement Complex of southwestern Nigeria which is predominantly underlain by banded gneiss, granite gneiss and pegmatite. The geophysical investigation involves the very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) methods. The VLF-EM survey was at 10 m interval along eight traverses ranging between 290 and 700 m in length using ABEM WADI VLF-EM unit. The VLF-EM survey was used to delineate areas with conductive/fractured zones. Twenty-three VES surveys were carried out with the use of Campus Ohmega resistivity meter at different location and at locations areas delineated as high conductive areas by VLF-EM survey. The result of VLF-EM survey along its traverse was used in delineating high conductive/fractured zones, it is, however, in agreement with the delineation of the VES survey. The VES results showed 3-4 geoelectric layers inferred as sandy topsoil, sandy clay, clayey and fractured/fresh basement. The combination of these two methods, therefore, helped in resolving the prospecting location for the groundwater yield in the study area.

  3. 3D modeling of the Strasbourg’s Cathedral basements for interdisciplinary research and virtual visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Landes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the millennium celebration of Strasbourg Cathedral, a transdisciplinary research group composed of archaeologists, surveyors, architects, art historians and a stonemason revised the 1966-1972 excavations under the St. Lawrence’s Chapel of the Cathedral having remains of Roman and medieval masonry. The 3D modeling of the Chapel has been realized based on the combination of conventional surveying techniques for the network creation, laser scanning for the model creation and photogrammetric techniques for the texturing of a few parts. According to the requirements and the end-user of the model, the level of detail and level of accuracy have been adapted and assessed for every floor. The basement has been acquired and modeled with more details and a higher accuracy than the other parts. Thanks to this modeling work, archaeologists can confront their assumptions to those of other disciplines by simulating constructions of other worship edifices on the massive stones composing the basement. The virtual reconstructions provided evidence in support of these assumptions and served for communication via virtual visits.

  4. 3D modeling of the Strasbourg's Cathedral basements for interdisciplinary research and virtual visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, T.; Kuhnle, G.; Bruna, R.

    2015-08-01

    On the occasion of the millennium celebration of Strasbourg Cathedral, a transdisciplinary research group composed of archaeologists, surveyors, architects, art historians and a stonemason revised the 1966-1972 excavations under the St. Lawrence's Chapel of the Cathedral having remains of Roman and medieval masonry. The 3D modeling of the Chapel has been realized based on the combination of conventional surveying techniques for the network creation, laser scanning for the model creation and photogrammetric techniques for the texturing of a few parts. According to the requirements and the end-user of the model, the level of detail and level of accuracy have been adapted and assessed for every floor. The basement has been acquired and modeled with more details and a higher accuracy than the other parts. Thanks to this modeling work, archaeologists can confront their assumptions to those of other disciplines by simulating constructions of other worship edifices on the massive stones composing the basement. The virtual reconstructions provided evidence in support of these assumptions and served for communication via virtual visits.

  5. First indication of mesoproterozoic age from the western basement of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, A.M.; Gonzalez, P.D; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Mafic to ultramafic metamagmatic rocks are widespread within the western basement of Sierra de San Luis (Eastern Sierras Pampeanas), through a belt of almost 45 km long, from Villa de la Quebrada in the south up to San Francisco del Monte de Oro in the north. The northern area have been studied by Merodio et al. (1978), Kilmurray and Villar (1981), Carugno Duran (1998) and Ortiz Suarez (1999). In the southern area, the detailed structural and metamorphic study revealed the presence of komatiites preserved within amphibolites. These rocks are in association with a supracrustal sequence composed of banded iron formations (BIF), metaquartzites, micaschists and other gneissic rocks (Gonzalez, 2000). Although this basement complex shows a penetrative Famatinian (Early Paleozoic) NNE-SSW trending foliation, remnants of an older NW-SE trending structures are also found (Gonzalez and Llambias, 1998; von Gosen and Prozzi, 1998). As a result of Sm-Nd whole rock analyses of the komatiites and amphibolites from the southern area, we obtained an isochron date of 1502 Ma. This is the first mention of an Early Mesoproterozoic date from the Sierra de San Luis, and hence, in this contribution we discuss its validity, taking into consideration the geological and regional context (au)

  6. The genesis of surficial uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Surficial uranium deposits can form in such diverse environments as calcareous-dolomitic-gypsiferous fluvial and aeolian valley sediments in hot arid and semi-arid regions, oxidizing and reducing alkaline and saline playas, highly organic and/or clay-rich wetland areas, calcareous regoliths in arid terranes, laterites, lake sediments, and highly fractured zones in igneous and metamorphic basement complexes. Formation of ore is governed by the interrelationships between source of ore-forming elements, mechanisms of migration, environment of deposition, climate, preservation, tectonic history and structural framework. The principal factors controlling mobilization of ore-forming elements from source to site of deposition are the availability of elements in source rocks, presence of complexing agents, climate, nature of source rock regolith and structure of source rock terrane. The major processes governing precipitation of uranium in the surficial environment are reduction mechanisms, sorption processes, dissociation of uranyl complexes, change in redox states of ore-forming constituents, evaporation of surface and groundwaters, change in partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide, changes in pH, colloidal precipitation, and mixing of two or more surface and groundwaters. One or a number of these processes may be actively involved in ore formation. (author)

  7. Tympanic membrane changes in experimental acute otitis media and myringotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzbutiene, G.; Hermansson, A.; Caye-Thomasen, P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present experimental study explored pathomorphological changes and calcium depositions in the tympanic membrane during experimental acute otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in myringotomized and nonmyringotomized ears. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A rat model of exp...

  8. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-mediated laminin proteolysis generates a pro-angiogenic peptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Conway, R. E.; Rojas, C.; Alt, J.; Nováková, Zora; Richardson, S. M.; Rodrick, T. C.; Fuentes, J. L.; Richardson, N. H.; Attalla, J.; Stewart, S.; Fahmy, B.; Bařinka, Cyril; Ghosh, M.; Shapiro, L. H.; Slusher, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2016), s. 487-500 ISSN 0969-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1513; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : TUMOR-ASSOCIATED NEOVASCULATURE * BASEMENT-MEMBRANE * DISTINCT ANTITUMOR PROPERTIES Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.253, year: 2016

  9. Metallic Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Y.H.; Catalano, Jacopo; Guazzone, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Composite palladium membranes have extensively been studied in laboratories and, more recently, in small pilot industrial applications for the high temperature separation of hydrogen from reactant mixtures such as water-gas shift (WGS) reaction or methane steam reforming (MSR). Composite Pd...... than 1000, respectively. This chapter describes in detail composite Pd-based membrane preparation methods, which consist of the grading of the support and the deposition of the dense metal layer, their performances, and their applications in catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) at high temperatures (400...

  10. Membrane contactors for textile wastewater ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardelli, Gianluca; Ciabatti, Ingrid; Ranieri, Laura; Capannelli, Gustavo; Bottino, Aldo

    2003-03-01

    This paper deals with the application of a membrane contactor for the ozone treatment of textile wastewater. Ceramic (alpha-Al(2)O(3)) membranes were chosen because of their ozone resistance. A thin metal oxide (TiO(2) and gamma-Al(2)O(3)) layer was deposited on the membrane surface to eliminate large defects. Membranes were characterized by bubble pressure and gas permeability tests. Mass transfer coefficients were calculated by using the double-film theory. Decolorization kinetics were studied with model dye solutions. Decolorization experiments with a real exhausted dyebath (untreated and after biological treatment) were also carried out. The potential advantages of membrane contactors for the treatment of these types of effluents are demonstrated.

  11. Layer-by-layer cell membrane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosevic, Sandro; Paegel, Brian M.

    2013-11-01

    Eukaryotic subcellular membrane systems, such as the nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum, present a rich array of architecturally and compositionally complex supramolecular targets that are as yet inaccessible. Here we describe layer-by-layer phospholipid membrane assembly on microfluidic droplets, a route to structures with defined compositional asymmetry and lamellarity. Starting with phospholipid-stabilized water-in-oil droplets trapped in a static droplet array, lipid monolayer deposition proceeds as oil/water-phase boundaries pass over the droplets. Unilamellar vesicles assembled layer-by-layer support functional insertion both of purified and of in situ expressed membrane proteins. Synthesis and chemical probing of asymmetric unilamellar and double-bilayer vesicles demonstrate the programmability of both membrane lamellarity and lipid-leaflet composition during assembly. The immobilized vesicle arrays are a pragmatic experimental platform for biophysical studies of membranes and their associated proteins, particularly complexes that assemble and function in multilamellar contexts in vivo.

  12. Development of nanoporous TiO2 and SiC membranes for membrane filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Katja; Vigna, Erika; Farsi, Ali

    Reverse osmosis membranes are increasingly used for the production of drinking water (desalination of sea water or brackish water), for demineralisation of water in industrial processes (boiled feed water, microelectronics production) as well as in food processing and pharmaceutical production....... Today´s reverse osmosis membranes are made of polymers; however, these membranes have several technical limitations, for example, low water fluxes and high sensitivity to oxidizing chemicals. Since membrane fouling is still a major problem in reverse osmosis desalination plants, replacement of polymer...... reverse osmosis membranes by ceramic counterparts would provide higher fluxes and allow more efficient cleaning of the membranes. The aim of this work was to prepare defect-free nanoporous ceramic (TiO2 and SiC) layers on macroporous SiC supports by using electrophoretic deposition and dip...

  13. Structural Evolution of the Eastern Sierra Madre Oriental: The Role of Basement Structures in Fold-Thrust Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, A.; Murphy, M. A.; Hall, S.

    2006-12-01

    Investigations worldwide show that basement plays an important role in the evolution of fold-thrust belts and recognizing their structural development leads to better understanding of zones of intercontinental deformation. Two explanations have been proposed to explain uplift of basement rocks in the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO) fold-thrust belt, 1) basement rocks are uplifted along high-angle reverse faults (Laramide-style) which postdate a thin-skinned phase of deformation; and 2) basement rocks are carried in deeper-rooted thrust sheets during the thin-skinned phase of deformation. A structural study in the SMO fold-thrust belt that integrates field mapping, structural analysis, and gravity modeling was conducted to distinguish between the two explanations. The study area lies in the southern section of the state of Nuevo Leon near the town of Aramberri. In this area the fold-thrust belt involves upper Cretaceous shale, Mesozoic carbonate rocks and crystalline basement. Thrusting is directed approximately due east. The structural style is characterized by fault bend folds. Mapping shows that evaporite rocks, at least locally, are not exploited as a regional slip surface and the thrust fault roots into the basement. Cross-sections across the study area indicate approximately 6.5 km east-west shortening (19%). Three forward 2-D structural models aid in constraining the fault geometry at depth and show the reactivation of half graben faults as a means for the main thrust to step up to shallower levels. These data are consistent with a single phase of deformation which involves movement along a thrust system that creates the structure in the study area implying magnitude of depth to detachment to be greater for this area of the SMO.

  14. Nature of the Yucatan Block Basement as Derived From Study of Granitic Clasts in the Impact Breccias of Chicxulub Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sanchez, P.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-05-01

    The tectonic and petrologic nature of the basement of the Yucatan Block is studied from analyses of basement clasts present in the impact suevitic breccias of Chicxulub crater. The impact breccias have been sampled as part of the drilling projects conducted in the Yucatan peninsula by Petroleos Mexicanos, the National University of Mexico and the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project. Samples analyzed come mainly from the Yaxcopoil-1, Tekax, and Santa Elena boreholes, and partly from Pemex boreholes. In this study we concentrate on clasts of the granites, granodiorites and quartzmonzonites in the impact breccias. We report major and trace element geochemical and petrological data, which are compared with data from the granitic and volcanic rocks from the Maya Mountains in Belize and from the Swannee terrane in Florida. Basement granitic clasts analyzed present intermediate to acidic sub-alkaline compositions. Plots of major oxides (e.g., Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and CaO) and trace elements (e.g., Th, Y, Hf, Nb and Zr) versus silica allow separation of samples into two major groups, which can be compared to units in the Maya Mountains and in Florida basement. The impact suevitic breccia samples have been affected by alteration likely related to the hydrothermal processes associated with the crater melt sheet. Cloritization, seritization and fenitization alterations are recognized, due to the long term hydrothermalism. Krogh et al. (1993) reported U-Pb dates on zircons from the suevitic breccias, which gave dates of 545 +/- 5 Ma and 418 +/- 6 Ma, which were interpreted in terms of the deep granitic metamorphic Yucatan basement. The younger date correlates with the age for the Osceola Granite and the St. Lucie metamorphic complex of the Swannee terrane in the Florida peninsula. The intrusive rocks in the Yucatan basement may be related to approx. 418 Ma ago collisional event in the Late Silurian.

  15. The offshore basement of Perú: Evidence for different igneous and metamorphic domains in the forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Darwin; Valencia, Kiko; Alarcón, Pedro; Peña, Daniel; Ramos, Victor A.

    2013-03-01

    As a result of new studies carried out in the offshore of Perú during the exploration and hydrocarbon evaluation of the forearc basins, new U-Pb SHRIMP and TIMS in zircons and some Ar-Ar data were obtained in the metamorphic and igneous basement. The understanding of this basement was critical to evaluate different hypotheses that have been proposed for the tectonic evolution of pre-Andean crust of Perú. Recent research performed in the basement rocks of the Marañón Massif in northern Perú, claimed that west of this area was a basement-free region in the Paleozoic, where the arc and forearc were developed in a mafic quasi-oceanic crust. However, petrographic studies and new preliminary ages indicate, for the first time, the nature and age of this sialic basement. Reconnaissance studies were performed in several offshore islands, as the Las Hormigas de Afuera Island west of Lima, and Macabí and Lobera islands along the edge of the continental platform. These data were complemented with the studies of some cutting samples obtained in recent exploration wells in northern Perú. The results of the present work show two large crustal domains in the Peruvian offshore forearc. A northern domain contains late Paleozoic igneous rocks that appear to be the southern offshore continuation of the Amotape-Tahuin block, which is interpreted as the southernmost remnant of the Laurentia Alleghenian orogen. The central offshore domain, known as the Paracas High, corresponds to the outer shelf high of previous studies. It contains orthogneisses of Grenville-age, probably recrystallized during an Ordovician magmatic episode. The new results show that the central offshore of Perú is an extension of the Grenville-age basement affected by Famatinian, early Paleozoic magmatism, well exposed in the southern domain in the Arequipa Massif along the coast of southern Perú.

  16. An analysis of radon levels in the basements of UK workplaces and review of when employers should test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Tracy Dawn

    2018-01-12

    Radon is a recognised lung carcinogen. The main source of radon in UK buildings is the ground. As basements have more ground contact than other parts of a building, and often limited ventilation, there is an increased potential for high radon levels to occur. Regulations are in place in the UK to control radon exposures at work, which prompt employers to undertake risk assessments, test where necessary and take action if levels exceed certain thresholds. Both Public Health England (PHE) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) currently advise employers to test routinely occupied basements for radon, irrespective of geographical location; the minimum annual occupancy threshold has been established as one hour per week (approximately 50 hours per year). PHE operates a routine measurement service for employers and holds the measurement data for radon levels in the basements of more than 3500 workplaces. Typically, radon concentrations follow a lognormal distribution over a wide range, when corrections are made for seasonal variations and the contribution of outside air. Statistical tests on these data show good correspondence in most cases for workplace basements of seven different occupational sectors. Radon should be included in the risk assessments of basements of all workplace types irrespective of the radon Affected Area status (i.e. whether they are located in a geographical unit where higher proportions of houses or workplaces are likely to exceed their reference levels). As a consequence of this analysis, however, evidence is presented that supports a change in the existing protocols on when to test the radon levels in basements if a more sophisticated approach were to be adopted that takes into account the Affected Area status. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. K-Ar age constrains on chemically weathered granitic basement rocks (saprolites) in Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margreth, Annina; Fredin, Ola; Viola, Giulio; Knies, Jochen; Sørlie, Ronald; Lie, Jan-Erik; Margrethe Grandal, Else; Zwingmann, Horst; Vogt, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Remnants of in-situ weathered bedrock, saprolite, are found in several locations in Scandinavia. Saprolites contain important information about past climate conditions and landscape evolution, although their age and genesis are commonly difficult to constrain. It is generally thought that clay-poor, coarse-grained (arêne) saprolites, mostly occurring as thin regolith blankets or in larger outcrops, formed in temperate climate during the Cenozoic, whereas clay-rich (argillic) saprolites, commonly restricted to small, fracture-bounded outcrops, formed in (sub-)tropical climate during the Mesozoic. Recent methodological and conceptual advances in K-Ar dating of illite-bearing fault rocks have been applied to date clay-rich saprolites. To test the K-Ar dating technique for saprolites, we first selected an offshore site in the Viking Graben of the North Sea, where weathered and fractured granitic basement highs have been drilled during petroleum exploration, and an abandoned kaolin mine in Southern Sweden. Both targets provide independent age control through the presence of overlying Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Clay-rich saprolites occurring in fractured basement rocks were additionally sampled in a joint valley landscape on the southwestern coast of Norway, which can be regarded as the possible onland correlative to the offshore basement high. In order to offer a sound interpretation of the obtained K-Ar ages, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the saprolites requires a thorough characterization. Scanning electron microscopy of thin sections, integrated by XRD and XRF analysis, reveals the progressive transformation of primary granitic rock minerals into secondary clay minerals. The authigenesis of illite is particularly important to understand, since it is the only K-bearing clay mineral that can be dated by the K-Ar method. K-feldspars and mica are the common primary K-bearing minerals, from which illite can be formed. While progressive leaching of

  18. Nature of the basement of the East Anatolian plateau: Implications for the lithospheric foundering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, G.; Candan, O.; Zack, T.; Yılmaz, A.

    2017-12-01

    The East Anatolian Plateau (Turkey) is characterized by (1) an extensive volcanic-sedimentary cover of Neogene to Quaternary age, (2) crustal thicknesses of 42-50 km, and (3) an extremely thinned lithospheric mantle. Its basement beneath the young cover is thought to consist of oceanic accretionary complexes of Late Cretaceous to Oligocene age. The attenuated state of the lithospheric mantle and the causes of the young volcanism are accounted for by slab steepening and subsequent break-off. We present field geological, petrological and geochronological data on three basement inliers (Taşlıçay, Akdağ and Ilıca) in the region. These areas are made up of amphibolite- to granulite-facies rocks, comprising marble, amphibolite, metapelite, quartzite and metagranite. The granulite-facies domain is equilibrated at 0.7 GPa and 800 ˚C at 83 ± 2 Ma (2σ). The metamorphic rocks are intruded by subduction-related coeval gabbroic, quartz monzonitic to tonalitic rocks. Both the metamorphic rocks and the intrusions are tectonically overlain by ophiolitic rocks. All these crystalline rocks are unconformably overlain by lower Maastrichtien clastic rocks and reefal limestone, suggesting that the exhumation at the earth's surface and juxtaposition with ophiolitic rocks occurred by early Maastrichtien. U-Pb dating on igneous zircon from metagranite yielded a protolith age of 445 ± 10 Ma (2σ). The detrital zircons from a metaquartzite point to Neoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic provenance. All these data favor a more or less continuous continental substrate to the allochthonous ophiolitic rocks beneath the young volcanic-sedimentary cover. The metamorphism and coeval magmatism can be regarded as the middle- to lower-crustal root of the Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that developed due to northward subduction along the Bitlis-Zagros suture. The presence of a continental basement beneath the young cover requires that the loss of the lithospheric mantle from beneath the East

  19. Microbial Relevant Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: Influencing Factors, Characterization, and Fouling Control

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony G. Fane; Bing Wu

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) play important roles on degradation of organic/inorganic substances in wastewaters, while microbial deposition/growth and microbial product accumulation on membranes potentially induce membrane fouling. Generally, there is a need to characterize membrane foulants and to determine their relations to the evolution of membrane fouling in order to identify a suitable fouling control approach in MBRs. This review summarized the factors in MBRs that inf...

  20. Relating Silica Scaling in Reverse Osmosis to Membrane Surface Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiezheng; Zhao, Song; Boo, Chanhee; Hashmi, Sara M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-04-18

    We investigated the relationship between membrane surface properties and silica scaling in reverse osmosis (RO). The effects of membrane hydrophilicity, free energy for heterogeneous nucleation, and surface charge on silica scaling were examined by comparing thin-film composite polyamide membranes grafted with a variety of polymers. Results show that the rate of silica scaling was independent of both membrane hydrophilicity and free energy for heterogeneous nucleation. In contrast, membrane surface charge demonstrated a strong correlation with the extent of silica scaling (R 2 > 0.95, p scaling, whereas a more negative membrane surface charge led to reduced scaling. This observation suggests that deposition of negatively charged silica species on the membrane surface plays a critical role in silica scale formation. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms governing silica scaling in reverse osmosis and highlight the potential of membrane surface modification as a strategy to reduce silica scaling.

  1. Microsystem technology for high-flux hydrogen separation membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielens, F.C.; Tong, D.H.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Vorstman, M.A.G.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2004-01-01

    The application of thin hydrogen-selective membranes suffers from the occurrence of pinholes and a significant resistance to mass transfer in the porous support. To overcome these problems, Pd, Pd/Ag and Pd–Ta–Pd membranes with a thickness between 0.5 and 1.2 μm have been deposited on a dense and

  2. Highly Hydrothermally Stable Microporous Membranes for Hydroge Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Qi; Wang, Fei; Wang, F.; Nie, Zuo-Ren; Song, C.; Wang, Yan-Li; Li, Qun-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Fluorocarbon-modified silica membranes were deposited on γ-Al2O3/α-Al2O3 supports by the sol−gel technique for hydrogen separation. The hydrophobic property, pore structure, gas transport and separation performance, and hydrothermal stability of the modified membranes were investigated. It is

  3. The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, Roxby Downs, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.E.; Hudson, G.R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit appears to be a new type of strata-bound sediment-hosted ore deposit. It is located 650 km north-northwest of Adelaide in South Australia and was discovered in 1975. It has an areal extent exceeding 20 km 2 with vertical thicknesses of mineralization up to 350 m. The deposit is estimated to contain in excess of 2,000 million metric tons of mineralized material with an average grade of 1.6 percent copper, 0.06 percent uranium oxide, and 0.6 g/metric ton gold. The deposit occurs in the basement beneath 350 m of unmineralized, flat-lying Adelaidean (late Proterozoic) to Cambrian sediments in the Stuart shelf region of South Australia. The host rocks of the deposit are unmetamorphosed and are probably younger than 1,580 m.y. The deposit is spatially related to coincident gravity and magnetic anomalies and the intersection of west-northwest- and north-northwest-trending lineaments. The Proterozoic sediments comprising the local basement sequence are predominantly sedimentary breccias ranging from matrix-poor granite breccias to matrix-rich polymict breccias containing clasts of a variety of rock types. This sequence is over 1 km thick and has been divided into two main units--the Olympic Dam Formation and the Greenfield Formation. The Olympic Dam Formation has five members, three of which are matrix rich. The Greenfield Formation has three members, the lower two being very hematite rich while the upper has a significant volcanic component. Pervasive hematite, chlorite, and sericite alteration of varying intensity affects all the basement sequence

  4. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Several tectonothermal events in the pre-Carboniferous basement of Svalbard during Caledonian and Proterozoic times have been dated recently by radiometric age determinations. Three or four stages have been recognized in the Caledonian period; a post-orogentic graben formation during the Devonian, a late Caledonian event in the Middle Silurian, an earely Caledonian event in the Middle Ordovician and possibly an earliest event in the Middle to Late Cambrian. The Grenvillian event, 950-1270 Ma, has been well established by both radiometric ages and unconformities in Nordaustlandet and southwestern Spitsbergen. Sveco-Karelian ages, 1670-1750 Ma, also have been obtained from Ny Friesland, northerneastern Spitsbergen. Two even older ages (zircon U-Pb) upper intercept ages), 2.1 and 3.2 Ga, may suggest the presence of still older crust in Svalbard and adjacent areas. 40 refs., 2 figs

  5. Effects of Water and Low-Medium Temperature on Limestone from Mt Etna basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Angela; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Benson, Philip; Browning, John; Fazio, Marco; Walker, Richard; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, sits atop a structurally complex sedimentary basement continuously subjected to tectonic deformation. The flyschoid formations belonging to the Appenninic-Maghrebian Chain (AMC) and making up the accretionary wedge of a regional fold-and-thrust belt lie above carbonate Hyblean Plateau (HP) sequences, belonging to the African plate. Carbonate rocks represent a major component of the sedimentary basement: they are spread throughout the AMC as continuous strata and discontinuous lenses, and are the main constituent (e.g., Comiso Limestone) of the HP foreland. Etna is an active volcanic environment, characterized by complex stress field distributions, magmatic and non-magmatic fluid circulation, and elevated temperature gradients; the edifice has been constructed at various rates and with variable distribution of effusive products. These intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are known to impact the rheological behaviour of rocks. Previous triaxial deformation studies on carbonates (Tavel Limestone, Solnhofen Limestone and Comiso Limestone) have shown the importance of temperature, and the presence of water as pore fluid, on the mechanical strength and failure mode of the rocks. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have considered the distal heating effect of intrusions on the carbonate mechanical strength from the basement. Here we investigate the behaviour under varying P-T conditions at constant strain rate (10-5 s-1) on both dry and water saturated samples of Comiso Limestone, a low-porosity (10.2% average) carbonate rock belonging to the HP. We ran separate conventional triaxial experiments at various confining effective pressure from 0 up to 50 MPa at room temperature (20°C), in both dry and drained water-saturated conditions, using natural samples, and thermally-treated samples (150°C, 300°C, and 450°C). Acoustic Emissions and P-wave velocities were recorded during the experiments. Sample failure covers the brittle and

  6. Chronological study of the pre-jurassic basement rocks of southern Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankhurst, R.J; Rapela, C.W; Loske, W.P; Fanning, C.M

    2001-01-01

    Southern Patagonia east of the Andes was the site of extensive rhyolite volcanism during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwana and subsequent shallow marine basin formation during the Cretaceous. Thus exposures of pre-Jurassic basement are extremely sparse. Nevertheless, extraction of the maximum amount of information from these scattered outcrops of granite and metamorphic rocks is crucial to assessment of the Palaeozoic and earliest Mesozoic history and crustal structure of the Pacific margin of the supercontinent. In particular, the identification and possible correlation of early terrane accretion on this margin depends on comparison of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic events with adjacent areas. This is a preliminary report on work now in progress to this end (au)

  7. Studies on hydrogen separation membrane for IS process. Membrane preparation with porous α-alumina tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Gab-Jin; Onuki, Kaoru; Shimizu, Saburo

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated the preparation technique of hydrogen separation membrane to enhance the decomposition ratio of hydrogen iodide in the thermochemical IS process. Hydrogen separation membranes based on porous α-alumina tubes having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the Si source. In the hydrogen separation membrane, its pore was closed by the deposited silica and then the permeation of gas was affected by the hindrance diffusion. At 600degC, the selectivity ratios (H 2 /N 2 ) were 5.2 and 160 for the membranes based on porous α-alumina tube having pore size of 100 nm and 10 nm, respectively. (author)

  8. Surficial origin of North American pitchblende and related uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langford, F.F.

    1977-01-01

    The ubiquitous association of pitchblende uranium deposits with terrestrial sediments is believed to be the natural result of formation of the orebodies by surficial processes operating under continental conditions. The major uranium deposits of North America illustrate this. The quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits of Elliot Lake, Ontario, have thorium-rich uranium minerals that indicate a detrital origin. With the development of an oxygenic atmosphere before 1,700 m.y. ago, uranium was transported in solution in meteoric surface and near-surface ground water, and produced pitchblende veins in fractures in the basement and in lava flows in terrestrial environments. This accounts for the closee association of fluvial sediments with the pitchblende deposits at Beaverlodge, Rabbit Lake, Baker Lake, and Great Bear Lake, Canada. The development of land plants about 300 m.y. ago produced favorable environments within the terrestrial sandstones themselves, and resulted in the tabular uranium orebodies of the Colorado Plateau. The close relation of tabular orebodies to sedimentation is apparent when compared to recent fluvial sedimentation. In Wyoming, the stratigraphic restriction of the boundary-roll deposits to a few zones in Eocene rocks results from their being remobilized tabular deposits

  9. Applications of aeromagnetic data to detect the Basement Tectonics of Eastern Yemen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to throw light on the tectonic implications concerned with the distribution of the sedimentary sequence belts and the related basement complex zones, as well as to differentiate between the causative sources (contacts, dykes and faults of Eastern Yemen region. The total intensity aeromagnetic map of the study area was first corrected by the application of the Reduction To the magnetic pole (for low latitude areas. The visual inspection of the RTP magnetic map defines a rapid change in the subsurface geologic conditions in the form of lithologic characters and tectonic inferences. On the other hand, this map showed different anomalies of varying frequencies and amplitudes that revealed various causative sources, as well as varying compositions and depths. At the interpretation stage, various techniques and software tools are available for extracting the geologic information from the data concerned. The magnetic fields of shallow sources can be separated from those of deeper causatives, using two processes known as power spectrum transformation and matched band pass filtering. Three methods for locating magnetic sources (Magnitude of Horizontal Gradients (HGM, the analytical signals (AS and the local wavenumbers (LW in three dimensions and identifying the properties of their sources indicated that, the area was affected by some intrusions at various depths in sill or dyke forms, almost oriented in the NW–SE, NE–SW, E–W and N–S trends. Tectonically, the area is highly affected by the tectonics related to the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea. It is affecting both the basement and sedimentary rocks, dividing the study area into several faulted blocks.

  10. Prospects for Assessing Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS Basement Rock Flow Stimulation by Wellbore Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Leary

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We use Matlab 3D finite element fluid flow/transport modelling to simulate localized wellbore temperature events of order 0.05–0.1 °C logged in Fennoscandia basement rock at ~1.5 km depths. The temperature events are approximated as steady-state heat transport due to fluid draining from the crust into the wellbore via naturally occurring fracture-connectivity structures. Flow simulation is based on the empirics of spatially-correlated fracture-connectivity fluid flow widely attested by well-log, well-core, and well-production data. Matching model wellbore-centric radial temperature profiles to a 2D analytic expression for steady-state radial heat transport with Peclet number Pe ≡ r0φv0/D (r0 = wellbore radius, v0 = Darcy velocity at r0, φ = ambient porosity, D = rock-water thermal diffusivity, gives Pe ~ 10–15 for fracture-connectivity flow intersecting the well, and Pe ~ 0 for ambient crust. Darcy flow for model Pe ~ 10 at radius ~10 m from the wellbore gives permeability estimate κ ~ 0.02 Darcy for flow driven by differential fluid pressure between least principal crustal stress pore pressure and hydrostatic wellbore pressure. Model temperature event flow permeability κm ~ 0.02 Darcy is related to well-core ambient permeability κ ~ 1 µDarcy by empirical poroperm relation κm ~ κ exp(αmφ for φ ~ 0.01 and αm ~ 1000. Our modelling of OTN1 wellbore temperature events helps assess the prospect of reactivating fossilized fracture-connectivity flow for EGS permeability stimulation of basement rock.

  11. Fluid Flow and Fault Zone Damage in Crystalline Basement Rocks (Ore Mountains Saxony)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtziger-Zupančič, P.; Loew, S.; Hiller, A.; Mariethoz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater flow in fractured basement rocks on aquifer scale and processes involved in the creation of fracture network permeability are poorly understood even though they have been studied for decades. A unique hydrogeological dataset consisting of 1030 discrete inflows (corresponding to preferential groundwater pathways) to the Poehla Ore Mine (Ore Mountains) of the SDAG Wismut has been compiled and quantitatively interpreted. Transmissivities and permeabilities were calculated from discrete and cumulative inflows using analytical equations and numerical groundwater flow models. The Variscan basement at Poehla Mine was modelled in 3-D, covering a volume of 14x4x1 km3 with 14 metamorphosed litho-stratigraphic units and 131 faults separated in 6 main strike directions. Mesoscale fractures mapped at inflows points, i.e. locally conductive fractures, show a weak correlation with fault orientation, and a large orientation scattering, which could be related to small scale stress heterogeneities. Inflow points were spatially correlated with major faults considering two distance criteria. This correlation suggests that mainly NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults are transmissive, which should be critically stressed considering all available data about the regional stress field. The trace length (extent) and width of the core and damage zones of the modelled faults were compiled in order to investigate the flow distribution and permeability profiles in directions perpendicular to fault strike. It can be shown that 90% of all inflows are located in damage zones. The inflows are usually situated within multiple fault zones which overlap each other. Cumulative flow distribution functions within damage zones are non-linear and vary between faults with different orientation. 75-95% of the flow occurs in the inner 50% of the damage zone. Significantly lower flow rates were recognized within most fault cores.

  12. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees

    2015-07-09

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  13. Image-based modelling of lateral magma flow: the Basement Sill, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhadizadeh, Seyed

    2017-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys magmatic system, Antarctica, provides a world-class example of pervasive lateral magma flow on a continental scale. The lowermost intrusion (Basement Sill) offers detailed sections through the now frozen particle microstructure of a congested magma slurry. We simulated the flow regime in two and three dimensions using numerical models built on a finite-element mesh derived from field data. The model captures the flow behaviour of the Basement Sill magma over a viscosity range of 1–104 Pa s where the higher end (greater than or equal to 102 Pa s) corresponds to a magmatic slurry with crystal fractions varying between 30 and 70%. A novel feature of the model is the discovery of transient, low viscosity (less than or equal to 50 Pa s) high Reynolds number eddies formed along undulating contacts at the floor and roof of the intrusion. Numerical tracing of particle orbits implies crystals trapped in eddies segregate according to their mass density. Recovered shear strain rates (10−3–10−5 s−1) at viscosities equating to high particle concentrations (around more than 40%) in the Sill interior point to shear-thinning as an explanation for some types of magmatic layering there. Model transport rates for the Sill magmas imply a maximum emplacement time of ca 105 years, consistent with geochemical evidence for long-range lateral flow. It is a theoretically possibility that fast-flowing magma on a continental scale will be susceptible to planetary-scale rotational forces. PMID:28573002

  14. Molecular sieving silica membrane fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Narayan K.; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    A process for producing a molecular sieve silica membrane comprising depositing a hybrid organic-inorganic polymer comprising at least one organic constituent and at least one inorganic constituent on a porous substrate material and removing at least a portion of the at least one organic constituent of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer, forming a porous film.

  15. Hydrogen Permeability of Palladium Membrane for Steam-Reforming of Bio-Ethanol Using the Membrane Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Kouji; Katoh, Masahiro; Horikawa, Toshihide; Yoshikawa, Takushi; Wada, Mamoru

    A Palladium membrane was prepared by electro-less plating method on porous stainless steel. The catalytic hydrogen production by steam-reforming of biomass-derived ethanol (bio-ethanol) using a Pd membrane was analyzed by comparing it with those for the reaction using reagent ethanol (the reference sample). And the hydrogen permeability of the palladium membrane was investigated using the same palladium membrane (H2/He selectivity = 249, at ΔP = 0.10 MPa, 873 K). As a result, for bio-ethanol, deposited carbon had a negative influence on the hydrogen-permeability of the palladium membrane and hydrogen purity. The sulfur content in the bio-ethanol may have promoted carbon deposition. By using a palladium membrane, it was confirmed that H2 yield (%) was increased. It can be attributed that methane was converted from ethanol and produced more hydrogen by steam reforming, due to the in situ removal of hydrogen from the reaction location.

  16. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  17. Plasma treatment of polyethersulfone membrane for benzene removal from water by air gap membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Sara; Mortaheb, Hamid Reza; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain a durable cost-effective membrane for membrane distillation (MD) process, flat sheet polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were modified by an atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma generated using a dielectric barrier discharge in a mixture of argon and hexamethyldisiloxane as the organosilicon precursor. The surface properties of the plasma-modified membranes were characterized by water contact angle (CA), liquid entry pressure, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The water CA of the membrane was increased from 64° to 104° by depositing a Si(CH 3 )-rich thin layer. While the pristine PES membrane was not applicable in the MD process, the modified PES membrane could be applied for the first time in an air gap membrane distillation setup for the removal of benzene as a volatile organic compound from water. The experimental design using central composite design and response surface methodology was applied to study the effects of feed temperature, concentration, and flow rate as well as their binary interactions on the overall permeate flux and separation factor. The separation factor and permeation flux of the modified PES membrane at optimum conditions were comparable with those of commercial polytetrafluoroethylene membrane.

  18. PLA2R antibodies, glomerular PLA2R deposits and variations in PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 genes in primary membranous nephropathy in South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Raja; Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Nada, Ritambhra; Kumar, Harsha; Kumar, Vivek; Rathi, Manish; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Sakhuja, Vinay; Jha, Vivekanand

    2016-09-01

    Antibodies to M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) correlate with clinical activity of primary membranous nephropathy (PMN). Risk alleles in PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 genes are associated with PMN. Whether these alleles are associated with the development of anti-PLA2R is unknown. In this prospective study we evaluated anti-PLA2R, enhanced glomerular staining for PLA2R and variations in PLA2R1 and HLA-DQA1 genes in Indian patients with PMN and examined their association with response to treatment. A total of 114 adult PMN patients were studied. Anti-PLA2R was estimated before treatment and after 6 and 12 months of therapy. Enhanced glomerular staining for PLA2R was assessed on fresh frozen tissue. Genotype analysis was done on recruited patients and 95 healthy controls by TaqMan assays for six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs4664308, rs3749119, rs3749117, rs4664308, rs3828323 and rs2187668). Patients were followed up monthly for a period of 12 months. Of 114 patients, 66.7% showed elevated serum anti-PLA2R by ELISA and 64.9% by indirect immunofluorescence. About 75% had enhanced glomerular staining for PLA2R. A total of 82% of patients had PLA2R-related disease. Reduction in serum anti-PLA2R titer had a significant association with remission of nephrotic syndrome (P = 0.0003) at 6 and 12 months. More than 85% of patients showing >90% reduction in the anti-PLA2R titer achieved remission of the nephrotic state, whereas of those showing HLA-DQA1 were significantly associated with PMN. The SNP rs2187668 was associated with anti-PLA2R positivity. Patients with a high-risk genotype had higher anti-PLA2R levels. To conclude, anti-PLA2R and enhanced glomerular PLA2R staining are found in more than two-thirds of Indian PMN cases. A reduction in the anti-PLA2R titer correlated with response to therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. Basement evolution in the Northern Hesperian Massif. A preliminary survey of results obtained by the Leiden research group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tex, den E.

    1981-01-01

    Historical notes on Galician geology, and on the work of the Leiden University petrology team in particular, are first provided. This is followed by an introduction to the geology of Galicia with emphasis on its crystalline basement and upper mantle inliers. Six lithotectonic units are

  20. Assessing the geo-electric characteristics of Basement Complex rocks and its implication for groundwater prospecting in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Ifabiyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Basement Complex rocks where rainfall is seasonal, water provision in dry season depends on regolith aquifer. For effective exploitation of groundwater resources, it is reasonable that geophysical investigation be conducted before development of well. In many instances, geophysical surveys may be expensive or nonexistent. Hence, there is a need for spatial analysis which might advise water engineers within such environments. Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES data of 53 locations conducted with ABEM SAS-1000 terrameter using Schlumberger electrode configuration were obtained from the hydrogeology Department of Kwara state Ministry of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin and Rural Development Authority, Ilorin. VES locational coordinates were recorded using handheld GPS device. Sound curves were evaluated by partial curve matching approach and computer iteration using WinResist. The results depict six geo-electric regional successions, namely: top soil, lateritic clay, weathered basement, fairly-hard basement, thin fractured and hard basement. The geo-electric succession identified was plotted in Surfer 12 environment, using kriging interpolation method to show spatial distribution pattern of this zone. The spatial pattern is expected to give an insight to the nature of spatial variability of geo-electric layers and assist drillers as well as water resources policy makers in their operations.

  1. Basement of Structure, Main Power and Design Parameters of Mechanism of Removing Sections of Mechanized Sets of Knife Plane Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, N. I.; Turuk, Yu V.; Kolesnichenko, I. Y.; Lugantsev, B. B.

    2017-10-01

    The reasons for the failure of the pitch stability of the knife-plane installation due to the action of extreme effort in the plane of the seam from the conveyor side on the mechanism of removing sections of mechanized sets are shown. The technique for determining this effort is presented. The constructions of the adaptive mechanisms of the removing sections of mechanized sets with the basements of catamaran type, in the constrictions of which elastic elements (rods) are used, are considered. The constructions of the mechanism of removing a section of the mechanized set with the basement of catamaran type in which the stock of the hydraulic jack is connected with the band loop through the movable rods intermediate basement with a link are worked out. The intermediate basement unloads the stock of the hydraulic jack of the moving installation from the side curving efforts, caused by the action of lateral forces in the plane of the seam on the conveyor side. It increases the reliability and efficiency of work of the knife plane mechanized complex.

  2. Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic seafloor and oceanic basement roughness: Spreading rate, crustal age and sediment thickness correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Robert T.; Pockalny, Robert A.

    1994-05-01

    Single-channel seismic data from the South Australian Basin and Argentine Basin, and bathymetry data from the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, East Pacific Rise and Southwest Indian Ridge are analysed to determine the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the seafloor and oceanic basement created at seafloor spreading rates ranging from 3 to 80 km/Ma (half-rate). For these data, crustal ages range from near zero to 85 Ma and sediment thicknesses range from near zero to over 2 km. Our results are consistent with a negative correlation of basement roughness and spreading rate where roughness decreases dramatically through the slow-spreading regime (oceanic basement roughness and spreading rate appears to have existed since the late Cretaceous for slow and intermediate spreading rates, suggesting that the fundamental processes creating abyssal hill topography may have remained the same for this time period. Basement roughness does not appear to decrease (smooth) with increasing crustal age, and therefore off-ridge degradation of abyssal hill topography by mass wasting is not detected by our data. Seismic data reveal that sediment thickness increases with increasing crustal age in the South Australian Basin and Argentine Basin, but not monotonically and with significant regional variation. We show that minor accumulations of sediment can affect roughness significantly. Average sediment accumulations of less that 50 m (for our 100 km long sample seismic profiles and half-spreading rates ocean ridges.

  3. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube (CNT Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Losic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are attractive approach for designing of new membranes for advanced molecular separation because of their unique transport properties and ability to mimic biological protein channels. In this work the synthetic approach for fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs composite membranes is presented. The method is based on growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on the template of nanoporous alumina (PA membranes. The influence of experimental conditions including carbon precursor, temperature, deposition time, and PA template on CNT growth process and quality of fabricated membranes was investigated. The synthesis of CNT/PA composites with controllable nanotube dimensions such as diameters (30–150 nm, and thickness (5–100 µm, was demonstrated. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of fabricated CNT/PA composite membranes were investigated by various characterisation techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Transport properties of prepared membranes were explored by diffusion of dye (Rose Bengal used as model of hydrophilic transport molecule.

  4. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . Deposit shedding can be defined as the process of deposit removal from the heat transfer surfaces. Mechanical and thermal shock devices for deposit removal can be implemented within into the boiler, which can be then referred to as artificial shedding. Sootblowing is one such process, where a pressurized...... on the ash characteristics and the boiler operation. Different deposit characteristics will govern the ash deposit behaviour, and thus the mechanism of deposit shedding. The deposit strength will influence the erosion and gravity shedding mechanisms. The ash viscosity and the melting behaviour will govern...

  5. Pt deposition on carbon paper and Ti mesh substrates by surface limited redox replacement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modibedi, M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available , the material used as gas diffusion layer for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and Ti-mesh. The deposition uses multiple redox replacement of underpotentially deposited Cu used as a sacrificial metal. The morphology and particle size of the deposited...

  6. Heterogeneity of groundwater storage properties in the critical zone of Irish metamorphic basement from geophysical surveys and petrographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Caulfield, John; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Weathered/fractured bedrock aquifers contain groundwater resources that are crucial in hard rock basement regions for rural water supply and maintaining river flow and ecosystem resilience. Groundwater storage in metamorphic rocks is subject to high spatial variations due to the large degree of heterogeneity in fracture occurrence and weathering patterns. Point measurements such as borehole testing are, in most cases, insufficient to characterise and quantify those storage variations because borehole sampling density is usually much lower than the scale of heterogeneities. A suite of geophysical and petrographic investigations was implemented in the weathered/fractured micaschist basement of Donegal, NW Ireland. Electrical Resistivity Tomography provided a high resolution 2D distribution of subsurface resistivities. Resistivity variations were transferred into storage properties (i.e. porosities) in the saturated critical zone of the aquifer through application of a petrophysical model derived from Archie's Law. The petrophysical model was calibrated using complementary borehole gamma logging and clay petrographic analysis at multi-depth well clusters distributed along a hillslope transect at the site. The resulting distribution of porosities shows large spatial variations along the studied transect. With depth, porosities rapidly decrease from about a few % in the uppermost, highly weathered basement to less than 0.5% in the deep unweathered basement, which is encountered at depths of between 10 and 50m below the ground surface. Along the hillslope, porosities decrease with distance from the river in the valley floor, ranging between 5% at the river to less than 1% at the top of the hill. Local traces of regional fault zones that intersect the transect are responsible for local increases in porosity in relation to deeper fracturing and weathering. Such degrees of spatial variation in porosity are expected to have a major impact on the modality of the response of

  7. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION VIA A COMMERCIALLY READY INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul K.T. Liu

    2004-07-21

    The porous stainless steel substrate commercially available from Pall offers great potential for large-scale membrane based high temperature gas separations. Our proposed project involves the deposition of the M&P carbon molecular sieve-based hydrogen membrane on AccuSep substrate as a membrane to reactor water-gas-shift reaction. However, the AccuSep substrate was originally designed for liquid phase applications . During the 1st half, this commercial substrate has been modified and improved with regard to its surface topography and end seals. The substrate is now suitable for the deposition of the CMS membrane for hydrogen separation according to the characterization we preformed. In addition, 40{angstrom} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} membrane layers have been deposited on the improved AccuSep substrate successfully. The SEM, EDX and pore size distribution analysis indicate that the 40{angstrom} membrane is extremely thin, and defect free with a narrow pore size distribution around 40{angstrom} primarily. As the above results suggest, we have made significant progress in preparing a high quality nominal 40{angstrom} (actually 50{angstrom}) layer on the Pall substrate. During the 2nd half of Year 1, we will (1) continue this development work with a focus on eliminating the high pore size peak and (2) begin the CMS layer deposition on the 40{angstrom} deposited AccuSep.

  8. Silt density index and modified fouling index relation, and effect of pressure, temperature and membrane resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hadidi, A.M.M.; Alhadidi, A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Blankert, B.; Blankert, B.; Schippers, J.C.; Wessling, Matthias; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Particulate matter present in feed water of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane elements tends to deposit on the membrane surface and spacers. This type of fouling results in permeate flux decline, loss of product quality and membrane damage. To characterize the fouling potential of RO feed

  9. Nanopore fabrication in silicon oxynitride membranes by heating Au-particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreede, Lennart; Schmidt Muniz, M.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    We report the fabrication of nanopores in a silicon oxynitride (SiON) membrane by heating a silicon rich-silicon nitride (SiRN) membrane with a gold nanoparticle array deposited on its surface. The gold nanoparticle array was realized by photolithography and the membrane by wet-etching. The entire

  10. A revised stratigraphy and petrogenetic interpretation of the Cordilleran basement in the Mazatlan, Sinaloa region (NW Mexico): Evidence from new geochemical and geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, G. F.; Schaaf, P. E.; Maldonado, R.; Solis, G.; Weber, B.; Rodriguez, L.

    2013-12-01

    The age, composition, and thermal history of the cordilleran basement in NW Mexico are still poorly known. We focus here on the Mazatlan, Sinaloa region where previous works identified the following sequences: 158 Ma orthogneisses(U-Pb) are covered by metamorphosed clastic sediments of supposed Jurassic age which are intruded by a mafic complex mainly represented by 134-139 Ma gabbros (K-Ar hornblende ages). Both rock series are considered as parts of the basement in this region. The remaining stratigraphy is characterized by a batholitic complex formed by two major magmatic events. The first one, around 100 Ma (U-Pb and K-Ar), is tonalitic in composition with some signs of regional deformation associated to a syntectonic emplacement. The second one, between 46 and 83 Ma (K-Ar), varies from diorite to granodiorite. The latter is the most widely distributed event, hosts the important ore deposits in the region and is interpreted to be emplaced postectonically, and. Our new U-Pb geochronological data include the identification of two additional plutonic events. The first occurred at 136 Ma and was obtained from the Concordia granodiorite 30 km E of Mazatlan. This unit was formerly dated at 54 Ma (hornblend, biotite; K-Ar). A fourth plutonic unit (Copala granodiorite) was dated at 28 Ma and can be correlated to the Upper Sierra Madre Supergroup. Additionally we obtained detrital zircon ages from a paragneiss covering the 158 Ma orthogneisses with peaks at 256 Ma, 492 Ma, and 1014 Ma. Our field observations indicate a reset of the 134-139 Ma gabbro ages by the close Concordia granodiorite, whose biotites were in turn rehomogenized by the 46 to 83 Ma plutonic event. Until now very few geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies with petrogenetic interpretation of the units mentioned above are published. The results of our new investigations will be presented at the meeting as well as a new dataset for the coastal Quaternary Piaxtla basalt and its peridotitic xenoliths. These

  11. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    Biological membranes are essential and complex structures in every living cell consisting of a fluid lipid bilayer sheet and membrane proteins. Its significance makes biological membranes not only interesting for medical research, but also has made it a target for toxins in the course of evolution....... Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... mechanisms of membrane compounds, including compounds associated with membranes, are still unknown due to the challenges that arise when probing the hydrophobic nature of the membrane's interior. For integral membrane proteins that span through the entire membrane, the amphiphilic environment is essential...

  12. Surface pattern by nanoimprint for membrane fouling mitigation: Design, performance and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Luo, Wenhai; Gray, Stephen R

    2017-11-01

    Imparting water treatment membrane with surface pattern by nanoimprint offered a novel approach to fouling resistance. We employed nanoimprint to fabricate line-shape nanostructure on membrane distillation (MD) membrane surface. Patterned MD membrane exhibited strong antifouling property to Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) protein during MD separation. Water flux decline and protein deposition were substantially minimized on the patterned MD membrane in comparison with the pristine one. Such lower fouling propensity on the patterned MD membrane was mainly driven by the weak hydrophobic interaction between BSA protein and patterned MD membrane surface. Weaker adhesion force mapping of the patterned MD membrane was quantified. Representative force-distance curve of pristine MD membrane showed a strong attractive depletion force comparing with that of patterned one. The simple, chemical-free, and scalable nanofabrication approach enables varying designs on membrane surface for special membrane properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  14. Geochemical interpretation of the Precambrian basement and overlying Cambrian sandstone on Bornholm, Denmark: Implications for the weathering history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingli; Friis, Henrik; Yang, Tian; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2017-08-01

    A geochemical study of the Precambrian basement granites from the Borggård borehole on Bornholm, Denmark, suggests that the granites were moderately weathered (Chemical Index of Alteration-CIA = 66-71) during subaerial exposure in a humid climate. The microcline is well preserved, whereas plagioclase was thoroughly altered to clay minerals (Plagioclase Index of Alteration-PIA = 93-99) which is likely due to its original Ca-rich composition. The primary Fe-Ti accessory minerals were oxidized to hematite and anatase. Evidence from REE distribution patterns and immobile element ratios, e.g. Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta, between the weathered basement granite from the Borggård borehole and regional granitoids on Bornholm, constrains the Svaneke Granite as the original basement lithology. A tau (τ) mass transport model (assuming immobile Ti) was applied to quantify the mass transfer during weathering of the basement granite. The results show a depletion of major elements in the following order: Na > Ca > Mg > Si; Al and Ti are immobile and stay constant; K shows sample dependent enrichment or depletion; Fe is slightly enriched. The Cambrian sandstone overlying the basement in the Borggård borehole, assigned to the Gadeby Member of the Nexø Formation, is feldspathic litharenite-litharenite in composition. Provenance indicators including (Gd/Yb)N, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta ratios and petrological features indicate that source material was derived from both weathered and fresh basement granite of intermediate composition. The Gadeby Member equivalents in Germany, the basal lower Cambrian Adlergrund Konglomerat Member (AKM) in the offshore G-14 well north of Rügen, and the approximately coeval Lubmin Sandstein Formation (LSF) from the Loissin-1 borehole, mainland Germany, must have been sourced from a basement with compositions comparable to the intermediate group of the regional granitoids on Bornholm. The source materials for the AKM (CIA = 71-72, PIA = 94-96), the Gadeby Member in the

  15. Isotopic composition of Pb in ore deposits of the Betic Cordillera, Spain; origin and relationship to other European deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas , Antonio; Tosdal, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    The Betic Cordillera in southern Spain is a complex Alpine fold belt that resulted from the Cretaceous through Cenozoic collision of Africa with Europe. The region is illustrative of one of the characteristics of the Alpine-Mediterranean orogen: the occurrence over a limited area of mineral deposits with a wide variety of host rocks, mineralization ages, and styles. The metamorphic basement in the Betic zone is characterized by a nappe structure of superimposed tectonostratigraphic units and consists of lower Paleozoic to Lower Triassic clastic metasedimentary rocks. This is overlain by Middle to Upper Triassic platform carbonate rocks with abundant strata-bound F-Pb-Zn-(Ba) deposits (e.g., Sierra de Gador, Sierra Alhamilla). Cretaceous to Paleogene subduction-related compression in southeastern Spain was followed by Miocene postcollisional extension and resulted in the formation of the Almeria-Cartagena volcanic belt and widespread hydrothermal activity and associated polymetallic mineralization. Typical Miocene hydrothermal deposits include volcanic-hosted Au (e.g., Rodalquilar) and Ag-rich base metal (e.g., Cabo de Gata, Mazarron) deposits as well as complex polymetallic veins, mantos, and irregular replacement bodies which are hosted by Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphic rocks and Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks (e.g., Cartagena, Sierra Almagrera, Sierra del Aguilon, Loma de Bas).Lead isotope compositions were measured on sulfide samples from nine ore districts and from representative fresh samples of volcanic and basement rock types of the region. The results have been used to evaluate ore-forming processes in southeastern Spain with emphasis on the sources of metals. During a Late Triassic mineralizing event, Pb was leached from Paleozoic clastic metasedimentary rocks and incorporated in galena in strata-bound F-Pb-Zn-(Ba) deposits ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.332 + or - 12, 207Pb/ 204 Pb = 15.672 + or - 12, 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.523 + or - 46). The second

  16. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  17. A Simple Alkaline Method for Decellularizing Human Amniotic Membrane for Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Winkler, Michael A.; Kramerov, Andrei A.; Hemmati, David M.; Ghiam, Chantelle A.; Dimitrijevich, Slobodan D.; Sareen, Dhruv; Ornelas, Loren; Ghiasi, Homayon; Brunken, William J.; Maguen, Ezra; Rabinowitz, Yaron S.; Svendsen, Clive N.; Jirsova, Katerina; Ljubimov, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane is a standard substratum used to culture limbal epithelial stem cells for transplantation to patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. Various methods were developed to decellularize amniotic membrane, because denuded membrane is poorly immunogenic and better supports repopulation by dissociated limbal epithelial cells. Amniotic membrane denuding usually involves treatment with EDTA and/or proteolytic enzymes; in many cases additional mechanical scraping is required. Although ensuring limbal cell proliferation, these methods are not standardized, require relatively long treatment times and can result in membrane damage. We propose to use 0.5 M NaOH to reliably remove amniotic cells from the membrane. This method was used before to lyse cells for DNA isolation and radioactivity counting. Gently rubbing a cotton swab soaked in NaOH over the epithelial side of amniotic membrane leads to nearly complete and easy removal of adherent cells in less than a minute. The denuded membrane is subsequently washed in a neutral buffer. Cell removal was more thorough and uniform than with EDTA, or EDTA plus mechanical scraping with an electric toothbrush, or n-heptanol plus EDTA treatment. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane did not show any perforations compared with mechanical or thermolysin denuding, and showed excellent preservation of immunoreactivity for major basement membrane components including laminin α2, γ1-γ3 chains, α1/α2 and α6 type IV collagen chains, fibronectin, nidogen-2, and perlecan. Sodium hydroxide treatment was efficient with fresh or cryopreserved (10% dimethyl sulfoxide or 50% glycerol) amniotic membrane. The latter method is a common way of membrane storage for subsequent grafting in the European Union. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane supported growth of human limbal epithelial cells, immortalized corneal epithelial cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. This simple, fast and reliable method can be used to standardize

  18. A simple alkaline method for decellularizing human amniotic membrane for cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Saghizadeh

    Full Text Available Human amniotic membrane is a standard substratum used to culture limbal epithelial stem cells for transplantation to patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. Various methods were developed to decellularize amniotic membrane, because denuded membrane is poorly immunogenic and better supports repopulation by dissociated limbal epithelial cells. Amniotic membrane denuding usually involves treatment with EDTA and/or proteolytic enzymes; in many cases additional mechanical scraping is required. Although ensuring limbal cell proliferation, these methods are not standardized, require relatively long treatment times and can result in membrane damage. We propose to use 0.5 M NaOH to reliably remove amniotic cells from the membrane. This method was used before to lyse cells for DNA isolation and radioactivity counting. Gently rubbing a cotton swab soaked in NaOH over the epithelial side of amniotic membrane leads to nearly complete and easy removal of adherent cells in less than a minute. The denuded membrane is subsequently washed in a neutral buffer. Cell removal was more thorough and uniform than with EDTA, or EDTA plus mechanical scraping with an electric toothbrush, or n-heptanol plus EDTA treatment. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane did not show any perforations compared with mechanical or thermolysin denuding, and showed excellent preservation of immunoreactivity for major basement membrane components including laminin α2, γ1-γ3 chains, α1/α2 and α6 type IV collagen chains, fibronectin, nidogen-2, and perlecan. Sodium hydroxide treatment was efficient with fresh or cryopreserved (10% dimethyl sulfoxide or 50% glycerol amniotic membrane. The latter method is a common way of membrane storage for subsequent grafting in the European Union. NaOH-denuded amniotic membrane supported growth of human limbal epithelial cells, immortalized corneal epithelial cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. This simple, fast and reliable method can be used to

  19. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.V.; Rao, R.U.M.

    1983-01-01

    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m exp(2). The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m exp(2)) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned. (5 figs., 14 refs., 4 tables).

  20. Heat flow in Indian Gondwana basins and heat production of their basement rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. V.; Rao, R. U. M.

    1983-01-01

    Temperatures have been measured in eight boreholes (ranging from 260 to 800 m in depth) in five Gondwana basins of the Damodar and Son valleys. With the aid of about 250 thermal conductivity determinations on core samples from these holes, heat flow has been evaluated. Measurements of radioactive heat generation have been made on samples of Precambrian gneisses constituting the basement for the Sonhat (Son valley) and Chintalapudi (Godavari valley) basins. Heat-flow values from all of the Damodar valley basins are within the narrow range of 69-79 mW/m 2. The value from the Sonhat basin (107 mW/m 2) is significantly higher. The generally high heat flows observed in Gondwana basins of India cannot be attributed to the known tectonism or igneous activity associated with these basins. The plots of heat flow vs. heat generation for three Gondwana basins (Jharia, Sonhat and Chintalapudi) are on the same line as those of three regions in the exposed Precambrian crystalline terrains in the northern part of the Indian shield. This indicates that the crust under exposed regions of the Precambrian crystalline rocks as well as the Gondwana basins, form an integral unit as far as the present-day geothermal character is concerned.