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Sample records for basement membrane components

  1. Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Damjanov, A; Weiss, J;

    1986-01-01

    During mouse pregnancy, uterine stromal cells transform into morphologically distinct decidual cells under the influence of the implanting embryo and a proper hormonal environment. Mechanical stimulation of hormonally primed uterine stromal cells leads to the same morphologic alterations. The....... Mouse decidual cells isolated from 6- to 7-day pregnant uteri explanted in vitro continue to synthesize basement-membrane-like extracellular matrix. Using immunohistochemistry and metabolic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and fluorography, it was shown that the decidual cells...... undergo pseudodecidualization. We thus showed that stromal cells from pregnant and nonpregnant mouse uteri synthesize significant amounts of basement-membrane components in vitro, and hence could serve as a good model for the study of normal basement-membrane components....

  2. Distribution of individual components of basement membrane in human colon polyps and adenocarcinomas as revealed by monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Bartek, J; Couchman, J R; Kapuller, L L; Veselov, V V; Kovarik, J; Perevoshchikov, A G; Krutovskikh, V A

    1992-01-01

    -membrane components (laminin, entactin/nidogen, collagen type IV and large heparan sulfate proteoglycan), as well as to keratin 8. In all adenocarcinomas, including mucinous, basement membranes were altered more at the invasive front than in the parenchyma. The degree of this alteration was inversely correlated with...... basement-membrane components and to a specific keratin may constitute an adequate immunohistochemical test for the presence of invasion, and may be useful in the histologic analysis of polyps, especially in dubious cases....

  3. Laminin, a noncollagenous component of epithelial basement membranes synthesized by a rat yolk sac tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R; Ruoslahti, E

    1981-01-01

    Laminin, a glycoprotein antigenically similar or identical to a component of epithelial basement membranes, was identified as a major component of the abundant extracellular matrix synthesized by an experimentally induced rat yolk sac tumor. Immunocytochemical staining revealed laminin in cultured...... polypeptides with molecular weights of approximately 200,000 and 400,000. These comigrated with the polypeptides of mouse laminin isolated previously. The yolk sac tumor tissue grown in vivo contained laminin in the tumor cells and in the extracellular material as evidenced by immunofluorescence and...... membranes in rat tissues in a manner indistinguishable from antilaminin. The presence of laminin in rat yolk sac cells, the presumed origin of our yolk sac tumor, was studied in some detail. Laminin was found to be present in normal cells of the visceral as well as the parietal yolk sac layer and in their...

  4. Expression of basement membrane components through morphological changes in the hair growth cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Gibson, W T

    1985-01-01

    membrane separating this from the epithelial cells of the hair bulb, and in the basement membrane and connective tissue sheath which underly the cells of the outer root sheath. Early in catagen, the transitional stage, staining of the dermal papilla matrix disappeared. Fibronectin persisted in the basement...... the increase in fibronectin expression. However, growing cells, even in a suprabasal position, always had some fibronectin at their surface. Immunoelectron microscopy of early anagen follicles confirmed the light microscopic findings and also showed that fibronectin was present in small vesicles close...

  5. Cell invasion through basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, Meghan A; Hagedorn, Elliott J.; Sherwood, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Cell invasion through basement membrane is an essential part of normal development and physiology, and occurs during the pathological progression of human inflammatory diseases and cancer. F-actin-rich membrane protrusions, called invadopodia, have been hypothesized to be the “drill bits” of invasive cells, mediating invasion through the dense, highly cross-linked basement membrane matrix. Though studied in vitro for over 30 y, invadopodia function in vivo has remained elusive. We have recent...

  6. Glomerular Basement Membrane Type IV Collagen in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, Alfred J.; Kashtan, Clifford E.; Matsukura, Hiro; Butkowski, Ralph J.

    1991-01-01

    Glomerular basement membrane is the major supporting structural element of the glomerular capillary wall. This is a highly complex locus which functionally serves as a filtration barrier, and has been the subject of detailed investigation. The composition of whole glomerular basement membrane suggests that collagen is a major component. Isolation and characterization of the collagenous domains has revealed that glomerular basement membrane is chiefly composed of type IV collagen. This molecul...

  7. Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When primary mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on plastic, they rapidly lose their ability to synthesize and secrete most milk proteins even in the presence of lactogenic hormones, whereas cells cultured on release type I collagen gels show greatly enhanced mRNA levels and secretion rates of β-casein and of some other milk proteins. The authors show here that culture on a reconstituted basement membrane from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS) allows > 90% of cells to produce high levels of β-casein. By comparison, 30-40% of cells on released type 1 gels and only 2-10% of cells on plastic express β-casein after 6 days in culture. Because only 40% of cells from late pregnant gland produced β-casein before culture, the EHS matrix can both induce and maintain an increased level of casein gene expression. Individual basal lamina components were also evaluated. Type IV collagen and fibronectin had little effect on morphology and β-casein mRNA levels. In contrast, both laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan increased β-casein mRNA levels. Profound morphological differences were evident between cells cultured on plastic and on EHS matrix, the latter cells forming ducts, ductules, and lumina and resembling secretory alveoli. These results emphasize the vital role of the extracellular matrix in receiving and integrating structural and functional signals that can direct specific gene expression in differentiated tissues

  8. Effect of reconstituted basement membrane components on the growth of a panel of human tumour cell lines in nude mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Topley, P.; Jenkins, D C; Jessup, E. A.; Stables, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that reconstituted basement membrane (matrigel), when co-injected with either established or primary human tumour cells, can improve the growth of subcutaneous xenografts in nude mice. The human adenocarcinoma cell lines A549, SW480, and WiDr, and the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080scc2 exhibit varying degrees of tumourigenicity in nude mice. All these lines showed increased tumorigenicity and/or growth rate, together with a change towards a more differenti...

  9. Influence of a reconstituted basement membrane and its components on casein gene expression and secretion in mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Li; Aggeler, J; Farson, D A; Hatier, C; Hassell, J; Bissell, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    When primary mouse mammary epithelial cells are cultured on plastic, they rapidly lose their ability to synthesize and secrete most milk proteins even in the presence of lactogenic hormones, whereas cells cultured on released type I collagen gels show greatly enhanced mRNA levels and secretion rates of beta-casein and of some other milk proteins. We show here that culture on a reconstituted basement membrane from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (EHS) allows greater than 90% of cells to produce hi...

  10. Surface-bound basement membrane components accelerate amyloid-β peptide nucleation in air-free wells: an in vitro model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Ozawa, Daisaku; Ookoshi, Tadakazu; Naiki, Hironobu

    2013-08-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is caused by deposition of the amyloid β-peptide which consists of mainly 39-40 residues to the cortical and leptomeningeal vessel walls. There are no definite in vitro systems to support the hypothesis that the vascular basement membrane may act as a scaffold of amyloid β-peptide carried by perivascular drainage flow and accelerate its amyloid fibril formation in vivo. We previously reported the critical roles of interfaces and agitation on the nucleation of amyloid fibrils at low concentrations of amyloid β-peptide monomers. Here, we reproduced the perivascular drainage flow in vitro by using N-hydroxysuccinimide-Sepharose 4 Fast flow beads as an inert stirrer in air-free wells rotated at 1rpm. We then reproduced the basement membranes in the media of cerebral arteries in vitro by conjugating Matrigel and other proteins on the surface of Sepharose beads. These beads were incubated with 5μM amyloid β(1-40) at 37°C without air, where amyloid β(1-40) alone does not form amyloid fibrils. Using the initiation time of fibril growth kinetics (i.e., the lag time of fibril growth during which nuclei, on-pathway oligomers and protofibrils are successively formed) as a parameter of the efficiency of biological molecules to induce amyloid fibril formation, we found that basement membrane components including Matrigel, laminin, fibronectin, collagen type IV and fibrinogen accelerate the initiation of amyloid β-peptide fibril growth in vitro. These data support the essential role of vascular basement membranes in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. PMID:23608949

  11. Basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans: localization in adult rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R

    1990-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been described as the major proteoglycan component of basement membranes. However, previous investigators have also provided evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in these structures. Recently we described the production and...... characterization of core protein-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) present in Reichert's membrane, a transient extra-embryonic structure of rodents. This CSPG was also demonstrated to be present in adult rat kidney. We report here the tissue distribution of...... epitopes recognized by these MAb. The ubiquitous presence of these epitopes in the basement membranes of nearly all adult rat tissues demonstrates that at least one CSPG is a constituent of most basement membranes, and by virtue of its unique distribution is distinct from other chondroitin and dermatan...

  12. Still more complexity in mammalian basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2000-01-01

    At the epithelial/mesenchymal interface of most tissues lies the basement membrane (BM). These thin sheets of highly specialized extracellular matrix vary in composition in a tissue-specific manner, and during development and repair. For about two decades it has been apparent that all BMs contain...

  13. Coarctation induces alterations in basement membranes in the cardiovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; McCarthy, K J; Elton, T S;

    1993-01-01

    A coarctation hypertensive rat model was used to examine the effects of elevated blood pressure on basement membrane component synthesis by cardiac myocytes and aorta using immunohistochemistry and Northern blot analysis. Carotid arterial pressure increased immediately on coarctation, and left ve...

  14. Atypical anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    OpenAIRE

    Troxell, Megan L.; Donald C Houghton

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease classically presents with aggressive necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis, often with pulmonary hemorrhage. The pathologic hallmark is linear staining of GBMs for deposited immunoglobulin G (IgG), usually accompanied by serum autoantibodies to the collagen IV alpha-3 constituents of GBMs. Methods Renal pathology files were searched for cases with linear anti-GBM to identify cases with atypical or indolent course. Histopa...

  15. Basement membrane proteoglycans are of epithelial origin in rodent skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamane, Y; Yaoita, H; Couchman, J R

    1996-01-01

    sites on mice demonstrated the presence of rat basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and rat perlecan on interfollicular and follicular basement membranes including that separating dermal papillae from adjacent hair follicle epithelium. In contrast, the basement membranes of all dermal......-epidermal junction and hair follicle epithelium are of epidermal (epithelial) origin in vivo. Stratified rat keratinocytes cultured on a collagen matrix at the air-liquid interface showed the synthesis of perlecan, laminin 1, and type IV collagen in basement membranes, but not clearly detectable basement membrane...

  16. VP08R from Infectious Spleen and Kidney Necrosis Virus Is a Novel Component of the Virus-Mock Basement Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Yan, Muting; Wang, Rui; Lin, Ting; Tang, Junliang; Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), the type species of the genus Megalocytivirus, family Iridoviridae, brings great harm to fish farming. In infected tissues, ISKNV infection is characterized by a unique phenomenon, in that the infected cells are attached by lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), which are speculated to wall off the infected cells from host immune attack. A viral membrane protein, VP23R, binds and recruits the host nidogen-1 protein to construct a basement memb...

  17. Divergent mechanisms underlie Smad4-mediated positive regulation of the three genes encoding the basement membrane component laminin-332 (laminin-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn Stephan A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional inactivation of the tumor suppressor Smad4 in colorectal and pancreatic carcinogenesis occurs coincident with the transition to invasive growth. Breaking the basement membrane (BM barrier, a prerequisite for invasive growth, can be due to tumor induced proteolytic tissue remodeling or to reduced synthesis of BM molecules by incipient tumor cells. Laminin-332 (laminin-5, a heterotrimeric BM component composed of α3-, β3- and γ2-chains, has recently been identified as a target structure of Smad4 and represents the first example for expression control of an essential BM component by a tumor and invasion suppressor. Biochemically Smad4 is a transmitter of signals of the TGFβ superfamily of cytokines. We have reported previously, that Smad4 functions as a positive transcriptional regulator of constitutive and of TGFβ-induced transcription of all three genes encoding Laminin-332, LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2. Methods Promoter-reporter constructs harboring 4 kb upstream regions, each of the three genes encoding Laminin-322 as well as deletion and mutations constructs were established. Promoter activities and TGFβ induction were assayed through transient transfections in Smad4-negative human cancer cells and their stable Smad4-positive derivatives. Functionally relevant binding sites were subsequently confirmed through chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Herein, we report that Smad4 mediates transcriptional regulation through three different mechanisms, namely through Smad4 binding to a functional SBE site exclusively in the LAMA3 promoter, Smad4 binding to AP1 (and Sp1 sites presumably via interaction with AP1 family components and lastly a Smad4 impact on transcription of AP1 factors. Whereas Smad4 is essential for positive regulation of all three genes, the molecular mechanisms are significantly divergent between the LAMA3 promoter as compared to the LAMB3 and LAMC2 promoters. Conclusion We hypothesize that this

  18. Organogenesis of the kidney glomerulus: Focus on the glomerular basement membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Miner, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a crucial component of the kidney's filtration barrier that separates the vasculature from the urinary space. During glomerulogenesis, the GBM is formed from fusion of two distinct basement membranes, one synthesized by the glomerular epithelial cell (podocyte) and the other by the glomerular endothelial cell. The main components of the GBM are laminin-521 (α5β2γ1), collagen α3α4α5(IV), nidogen and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, agrin. By studying ...

  19. Basement membrane abnormalities in human eyes with diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljubimov, A V; Burgeson, R E; Butkowski, R J;

    1996-01-01

    human eyes obtained at autopsy (seven normal, five diabetic without DR, and 13 diabetic with DR) by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 30 BM and extracellular matrix components. In non-DR eyes, no qualitative changes of ocular BM components were seen. In some DR corneas, epithelial BM was stained......Vascular and parenchymal basement membranes (BMs) are thickened in diabetes, but alterations in individual BM components in diabetic eyes, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR), are obscure. To identify abnormalities in the distribution of specific constituents, we analyzed cryostat sections of...... discontinuously for laminin-1, entactin/nidogen, and alpha3-alpha4 Type IV collagen, in contrast to non-DR corneas. Major BM alterations were found in DR retinas compared to normals and non-DR diabetics. The inner limiting membrane (retinal BM) of DR eyes had accumulations of fibronectin (including cellular) and...

  20. Expression of VLA-integrins and their related basement membrane ligands in gingiva from patients of various periodontitis categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürses, N.; Thorup, Alis Karabulut; Reibel, J.; Carter, G.W.; Holmstrup, Palle

    integrins, basement membrane, gingiva, periodontitis, periodontal disease activity immunofluorescence......integrins, basement membrane, gingiva, periodontitis, periodontal disease activity immunofluorescence...

  1. Laminin isoforms in endothelial and perivascular basement membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lema F.; Di Russo, Jacopo; Sorokin, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, one of the major functional components of basement membranes, are found underlying endothelium, and encasing pericytes and smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. Depending on the type of blood vessel (capillary, venule, postcapillary venule, vein or artery) and their maturation state, both the endothelial and mural cell phenotype vary, with associated changes in laminin isoform expression. Laminins containing the α4 and α5 chains are the major isoforms found in the vessel wall, with the added contribution of laminin α2 in larger vessels. We here summarize current data on the precise localization of these laminin isoforms and their receptors in the different layers of the vessel wall, and their potential contribution to vascular homeostasis. PMID:23263631

  2. Isotropic Versus Bipolar Functionalized Biomimetic Artificial Basement Membranes and Their Evaluation in Long-Term Human Cell Co-Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angela; Wistlich, Laura; Heffels, Karl-Heinz; Walles, Heike; Groll, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    In addition to dividing tissues into compartments, basement membranes are crucial as cell substrates and to regulate cellular behavior. The development of artificial basement membranes is indispensable for the ultimate formation of functional engineered tissues; however, pose a challenge due to their complex structure. Herein, biodegradable electrospun polyester meshes are presented, exhibiting isotropic or bipolar bioactivation as a biomimetic and biofunctional model of the natural basement membrane. In a one-step preparation process, reactive star-shaped prepolymer additives, which generate a hydrophilic fiber surface, are electrospun with cell-adhesion-mediating peptides, derived from major components of the basement membrane. Human skin cells adhere to the functionalized meshes, and long-term co-culture experiments confirm that the artificial basement membranes recapitulate and preserve tissue specific functions. Several layers of immortalized human keratinocytes grow on the membranes, differentiating toward the surface and expressing typical epithelial markers. Fibroblasts migrate into the reticular lamina mimicking part of the mesh. Both cells types begin to produce extracellular matrix proteins and to remodel the initial membrane. It is shown at the example of skin that the artificial basement membrane design provokes biomimetic responses of different cell types and can thus be used as basis for the future development of basement membrane containing tissues. PMID:27283510

  3. Immunological characterization of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Accavitti, M A; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    Reichert's membrane, an extraembryonic membrane present in developing rodents, has been proposed as an in vivo model for the study of basement membranes. We have used this membrane as a source for isolation of basement membrane proteoglycans. Reichert's membranes were extracted in a guanidine/3-[...

  4. Regulation of the basement membrane by epithelia generated forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor metastasis involves a progressive loss of tissue architecture and dissolution of structural boundaries between the epithelium and connective tissue. The basement membrane (BM), a specialized network of extracellular matrix proteins forms a barrier that physically restricts pre-invasive lesions such that they remain as local insults. The BM is not a static structure, but one that is constantly regenerated and remodeled in the adult organism. Matrix organization also regulates cell function. Thus alterations in the balance of synthesis, remodeling and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix proteins may contribute to a loss of structural integrity. However, the de novo assembly and maintenance of the complex structural properties of in vivo basement membranes remain elusive. Here, this paper highlights the current understanding on the structural properties and the establishment of the BM, and discusses the potential role of self-generated forces in adult tissue remodeling and the maintenance of the BM as a malignancy suppressor. (paper)

  5. C3d fragment of complement interacts with laminin and binds to basement membranes of glomerulus and trophoblast

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Two mouse monoclonal antibodies generated against human placental homogenate were found to react specifically with human complement component C3. In immunofluorescence of human tissues, these antibodies gave a bright linear staining outlining the glomerular basement membrane of the adult kidney and the trophoblast basement membrane of placenta. An identical staining pattern was observed with a rabbit C3d antiserum which also prevented binding of the monoclonal antibodies to tissue sections. O...

  6. Monoclonal antibody GB3, a new probe for the study of human basement membranes and hemidesmosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrando, P.; Pisani, A.; Serieys, N.; Ortonne, J.P. (UER Medecine, Nice (France)); Hsi, Baeli; Yeh, Changjing (INSERM U210, Nice (France))

    1987-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody, GB3, has been raised against human amnion. Not only does GB3 bind to amniotic basement membrane, but it also recognizes an antigenic structure expressed by epidermal as well as by some other human basement membranes. This antigen is synthesized (and excreted) by cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. It is expressed to a lesser extent by the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, but is not expressed by the SV40 virus-transformed SVK14 keratinocyte cell line. In ultrastructural studies, this antigen was located in the epidermal basement membrane, both in the lamina densa and in the lamina lucida, associated with hemidesmosomes. It was identified as a protein by in vitro proteolytic cleavage studies. The radio-immunoprecipitates from cultured human keratinocytes, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showed that GB3 recognized five polypeptides of 93.5, 125, 130, 146 and 150 kD under reducing conditions. The tissue distribution of the antigen and the molecular weights (MWs) of its constitutive polypeptides suggest that it is different from other known components of basement membranes. It may provide a biochemical marker for hemidesmosomes. Furthermore, GB3 represents an interesting and original clinical probe, since the antigenic structure recognized by GB3 is lacking in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa, a lethal genodermatosis in which a dermo-epidermal splitting occurs at the level of lamina lucida.

  7. Monoclonal antibody GB3, a new probe for the study of human basement membranes and hemidesmosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monoclonal antibody, GB3, has been raised against human amnion. Not only does GB3 bind to amniotic basement membrane, but it also recognizes an antigenic structure expressed by epidermal as well as by some other human basement membranes. This antigen is synthesized (and excreted) by cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. It is expressed to a lesser extent by the A431 epidermoid carcinoma cell line, but is not expressed by the SV40 virus-transformed SVK14 keratinocyte cell line. In ultrastructural studies, this antigen was located in the epidermal basement membrane, both in the lamina densa and in the lamina lucida, associated with hemidesmosomes. It was identified as a protein by in vitro proteolytic cleavage studies. The radio-immunoprecipitates from cultured human keratinocytes, analyzed by SDS-PAGE, showed that GB3 recognized five polypeptides of 93.5, 125, 130, 146 and 150 kD under reducing conditions. The tissue distribution of the antigen and the molecular weights (MWs) of its constitutive polypeptides suggest that it is different from other known components of basement membranes. It may provide a biochemical marker for hemidesmosomes. Furthermore, GB3 represents an interesting and original clinical probe, since the antigenic structure recognized by GB3 is lacking in Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa, a lethal genodermatosis in which a dermo-epidermal splitting occurs at the level of lamina lucida

  8. Intercellular deposits of basement membrane material in active human pituitary adenomas detected by immunostaining for laminin and electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-eight human pituitary adenomas (24 endocrine active and 14 endocrine inactive tumors) were studied immunohistochemically for the presence of the basement membrane component, laminin, and ultrastructurally for the presence of basement membrane. Immunoreactivity of laminin delineated staining...... of epithelial and endothelial basement membranes, the reaction product being confined mostly to the perivascular zones. Moreover, a hitherto undescribed presence of intercellular laminin-positive droplets was observed in ten of the active adenomas (nine patients with hyperprolactinemia and....../or acromegalia and one patient with Cushing's syndrome). Concurrently, at the ultrastructural level, bunches of basement membrane-like material intermingled between the adenoma cells were demonstrated in seven of these ten active adenomas. Furthermore, secretory granules were entrapped occasionally in this...

  9. Basement membrane changes in capillaries of the ageing human retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powner, Michael B; Scott, Andrew; Zhu, Meidong; Munro, Peter M G; Foss, Alexander J E; Hageman, Gregory S; Gillies, Mark C; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The ultrastructural appearance of retinal capillaries can yield important information about disease mechanisms, but is not well characterised in human post mortem samples. We therefore aimed to create a baseline for the appearance of capillaries and establish how this is influenced by post mortem fixation delays and donor age. Methods Electron microscopy was used to characterise retinal capillaries in 20 anonymous donors (with no known eye diseases) of various ages and with various post mortem fixation delays. In addition, samples from six patients with conditions that are known to affect the retinal vasculature (four cases of type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy, one case of diabetic retinopathy and one case of macular telangiectasia type 2) were analysed. Results Vacuoles were found in capillary basement membranes at the vessel—glia interface in all samples, from both the normal and disease cases. Vacuole frequency increased with donor age but was not influenced by post mortem fixation delays. Conclusion Vacuoles in the basement membrane are a normal feature of adult human retinal capillaries and do not indicate disease. Their incidence increases with age and might be a contributing factor to late-onset pathologies of the retinal vasculature. PMID:21606466

  10. Enhanced assembly of basement membrane matrix by endodermal cells in response to fibronectin substrata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austria, M R; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    cells, in comparison to cells adherent to type I collagen-coated, vitronectin-coated or uncoated substrata. Direct effects of fibronectin or laminin on the degree of cell spreading or rate of proliferation were not responsible for enhanced matrix deposition. The effect did not result from a redirection...... of basement membrane components to the matrix, since there was no decrease in matrix constituents released to the culture supernatants. Furthermore, the synthesis and release of other molecules that are not basement membrane constituents was unaltered in response to different extracellular matrix...... substrata. Experiments with fibronectin fragments showed that a 105 x 10(3) Mr 'cell'-binding domain (containing the cell attachment sequence Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) was an important contributor to enhanced matrix deposition, while the N-terminal 29 x 10(3) Mr heparin-binding domain also contributed to the effect...

  11. The Acinar Cage: Basement Membranes Determine Molecule Exchange and Mechanical Stability of Human Breast Cell Acini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljona Gaiko-Shcherbak

    Full Text Available The biophysical properties of the basement membrane that surrounds human breast glands are poorly understood, but are thought to be decisive for normal organ function and malignancy. Here, we characterize the breast gland basement membrane with a focus on molecule permeation and mechanical stability, both crucial for organ function. We used well-established and nature-mimicking MCF10A acini as 3D cell model for human breast glands, with ether low- or highly-developed basement membrane scaffolds. Semi-quantitative dextran tracer (3 to 40 kDa experiments allowed us to investigate the basement membrane scaffold as a molecule diffusion barrier in human breast acini in vitro. We demonstrated that molecule permeation correlated positively with macromolecule size and intriguingly also with basement membrane development state, revealing a pore size of at least 9 nm. Notably, an intact collagen IV mesh proved to be essential for this permeation function. Furthermore, we performed ultra-sensitive atomic force microscopy to quantify the response of native breast acini and of decellularized basement membrane shells against mechanical indentation. We found a clear correlation between increasing acinar force resistance and basement membrane formation stage. Most important native acini with highly-developed basement membranes as well as cell-free basement membrane shells could both withstand physiologically relevant loads (≤ 20 nN without loss of structural integrity. In contrast, low-developed basement membranes were significantly softer and more fragile. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the key role of the basement membrane as conductor of acinar molecule influx and mechanical stability of human breast glands, which are fundamental for normal organ function.

  12. Production of monoclonal antibodies to human glomerular basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mino,Yasuaki

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the technique of somatic cell fusion, we produced monoclonal antibodies to collagenase-digested human glomerular basement membrane (GBM. Fourteen monoclonal antibodies which reacted with normal human kidney in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF studies were produced. An analysis of the binding patterns indicated that the antigens recognized could be divided into six broad groups. Monoclonal antibody B3-H10 (Group 1 reacted with only GBM in a fine granular pattern. A5-B12 and B5-C2 (Group 2 reacted with GBM and peritubular capillary in a linear pattern. B2-A12 (Group 3 reacted with only epithelial cells. Al-C9 and A4-E2 (Group 4 showed a mesangial pattern in glomerulus and a lineal pattern in tubular basement membrane (TBM, Bowman's capsule and peritubular capillary. A1-E1, A1-E11, A2-E6, A3-B6, A4-F8 and B5-H2 (Group 5 recognized determinants common to GBM, TBM, Bowman's capsule and/or peritubular capillary. A3-F1 and B5-E10 (Group 6 reacted with TBM and Bowman's capsule. The staining pattern of B3-H10 (Group 1 was characteristic because it was not linear, but finely granular along the GBM. The staining pattern of B2-A12 (Group 3 was also characteristic because only epithelial cells were stained, and processes of epithelial cells were observed as fine fibrils. To the best of our knowledge, these two types of monoclonal antibodies have not been reported previously.

  13. Basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is abnormally associated with the glomerular capillary basement membrane of diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Abrahamson, D R; Bynum, K R; St John, P L; Couchman, J R

    1994-01-01

    exception being the normal glomerular capillary basement membrane (GBM), where it is absent. In the present study of mature kidneys we examined the distribution of BM-CSPG in streptozocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rats. We found BM-CSPG atypically associated with the GBM of diabetic animals as early as 1...... month after induction of diabetes mellitus. Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) of affected capillary loops showed BM-CSPG present in the subendothelial matrix in areas of GBM thickening and absent in areas where the GBM appears to be of normal thickness. Moreover, the association of BM-CSPG with regions of...... the pericapillary GBM affects the morphology of the capillary endothelial cells within these areas, directly displacing the cell body from the GBM proper and causing loss of fenestrae. These new data on BM-CSPG distribution reflect abnormal glomerular extracellular matrix protein biosynthesis...

  14. Fluid Mechanics of the Vascular Basement Membrane in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Mikhail; Hui, Jonathan; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter; Carare, Roxana; McLeod, Kenneth; Schaffer, David

    2013-11-01

    Beta-amyloid is a normal product of brain metabolic function and is found within the interstitial fluid of the brain. Failure of the clearance of beta-amyloid from the aging brain leads to its accumulation within the walls of arteries and to Alzheimer's disease. The vascular basement membrane (VBM) within the walls of cerebral arteries surrounds the spirally arranged smooth muscle cells and represents an essential pathway for removal of beta-amyloid from the brain. This process fails with the stiffening of arterial walls associated with aging. In this study we hypothesize that the deformation of the VBM associated with arterial pulsations drives the interstitial fluid to drain in the direction opposite of the arterial blood flow. This hypothesis is theoretically investigated by modeling the VBM as a thin, coaxial, fluid-filled porous medium surrounding a periodically deforming cylindrical tube. Flow and boundary conditions required to achieve such a backward clearance are derived through a control volume analysis of mass, momentum, and energy.

  15. The vascular basement membrane as "soil" in brain metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Shawn Carbonell

    Full Text Available Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Paget's "seed and soil" concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this "neurotropic" growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of metastatic cells to grow along the exterior of pre-existing vessels of the CNS, a process termed vascular cooption. These observations suggest the "soil" for malignant cells in the CNS may well be vascular, rather than neuronal. We used in vivo experimental models of brain metastasis and analysis of human clinical specimens to test this hypothesis. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth. This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain. Accordingly, VBM promoted adhesion and invasion of malignant cells and was sufficient for tumor growth prior to any evidence of angiogenesis. Blockade or loss of the beta1 integrin subunit in tumor cells prevented adhesion to VBM and attenuated metastasis establishment and growth in vivo. Our data establishes a new understanding of CNS metastasis formation and identifies the neurovasculature as the critical partner for such growth. Further, we have elucidated the mechanism of vascular cooption for the first time. These findings may help inform the design of effective molecular therapies for patients with fatal CNS malignancies.

  16. Heterogeneous distribution of a basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan in rat tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1987-01-01

    buoyant density HSPG from the murine Engelbreth-Holm swarm tumor. It was, however, confirmed that only a single population of antibodies was present in the serum. Despite the presence of similar epitopes on these two proteoglycans of different hydrodynamic properties, it was apparent that the PYS-2 HSPG...... recognized by this antiserum. Those basement membranes that lacked the HSPG strongly stained with antisera against laminin and type IV collagen. The striking distribution pattern is possibly indicative of multiple species of basement membrane HSPGs of which one type is recognized by this antiserum. Further...... represents a basement membrane proteoglycan of distinct properties reflected in its restricted distribution in vivo....

  17. Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease superimposed on membranous nephropathy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivera Noel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-glomerular basement membrane disease is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage, crescentic glomerulonephritis and the presence of circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. The simultaneous occurrence of both anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is rare. Case presentation A 59-year-old Hispanic man presented with acute onset of nausea and vomiting and was found to have renal insufficiency. Work-up included a kidney biopsy, which revealed anti-glomerular basement membrane disease with underlying membranous nephropathy. He was treated with emergent hemodialysis, intravenous corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, and cyclophosphamide without improvement in his renal function. Conclusion Simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and membranous nephropathy is very rare. There have been 16 previous case reports in the English language literature that have been associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and a very high rate of renal failure resulting in hemodialysis. Co-existence of membranous nephropathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease may be immune-mediated, although the exact mechanism is not clear.

  18. Perlecan and basement membrane-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (bamacan) are two basement membrane chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans in the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Kapoor, R; Sthanam, M; Wu, R R

    1996-01-01

    perlecan but, in addition to being present as a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, it is also present as a hybrid molecule, with dermatan sulfate chains. A minor population of perlecan apparently lacks heparan sulfate chains totally, and some of this is substituted with chondroitin sulfate. The second species...... heparan sulfate proteoglycan, widespread in many basement membranes and connective tissues. We now identify two distinct proteoglycan species from this tumor source, which are substituted with galactosaminoglycans and which show basement membrane localization by immunohistochemistry. One species is...... is immunologically related to basement membrane-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG) and bears chondroitin sulfate chains. No BM-CSPG was detectable which was substituted with heparan sulfate chains. A combination of immunological and molecular approaches, including cDNA cloning, showed that...

  19. Remodeling of basement membrane in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoraş, Adriana; Grigoraş, Constantin Cristian; Giuşcă, Simona Eliza; Căruntu, Irina Draga; Amălinei, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The "bronchial remodeling" specific for the asthmatic disease consists in irreversible changes of the bronchial wall, including glandular and smooth muscle fibers hyperplasia and÷or hypertrophy, goblet cells hyperplasia, and thickening of basement membrane (BM). We aimed to analyze the BM thickness in asthma patients, in order to validate the relationship between its changes and the disease severity defined in agreement with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria. The study group has been formed of 38 patients with different degrees of severity of asthma established by spirometry using Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and two patients without asthma symptoms as controls. The specimens harvested by fibrobronchoscopy have been processed by paraffin embedding followed by Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. For each case, the BM measurement has been realized by a "point-by-point" method. Statistical analysis has been performed using SPSS 17 software, by applying non-parametric correlation tests. The quantitative assessment revealed a progressive increase in BM thickness during the course of the disease, from a mean value of 11.2 μm in stage 1 to that of 15.6 μm in stage 4. Even if this process has been noticed starting with the first stage of asthma, the differences in the BM size were statistically significant only for stages 1 and 3 (p=0.047), stages 1 and 4 (p=0.000), stages 2 and 3 (p=0.000), and stages 3 and 4 (p=0.000). Spearman's test has shown an opposite correlation between the BM thickness and asthma severity defined by FEV1 values (r=-0.86, pasthma and continues in a progressive modality, the BM thickening being correlated with the disease severity. Thus, we support the concept of biological consequences of BM thickening in asthma pathogenesis, a mechanism still incompletely deciphered. PMID:27151696

  20. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen JW Liesker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objective: To assess whether RBM thickness and composition differ between asthma and COPD. Methods: We investigated 24 allergic asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 92% predicted, and 17 nonallergic COPD patients (FEV1 60% predicted, and for each group a control group of similar age and smoking habits (12 and 10 persons, respectively. Snap-frozen sections of bronchial biopsies were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and for collagen I, III, IV, V, laminin and tenascin. RBM thickening was assessed by digital image analysis. Relative staining intensity of each matrix component was determined.Results: Mean (SD RBM thickness was not significantly different between asthma and COPD 5.5 (1.3 vs 6.0 (1.8 μm, but significantly larger than in their healthy counterparts, ie, 4.7 (0.9 and 4.8 (1.2 μm, respectively. Collagen I and laminin stained significantly stronger in asthma than in COPD. Tenascin stained stronger in asthma than in healthy controls of similar age, and stronger in COPD controls than in asthma controls (p 0.05.Conclusion: RBM thickening occurs both in asthma and COPD. We provide supportive evidence that its composition differs in asthma and COPD. Keywords: reticular basement membrane thickness, reticular basement membrane composition, asthma, biopsy, COPD, remodeling

  1. Cell Receptor-Basement Membrane Interactions in Health and Disease: A Kidney-Centric View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Corina M; Chen, Xiwu; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2015-01-01

    Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions are essential for tissue development, homeostasis, and response to injury. Basement membranes (BMs) are specialized ECMs that separate epithelial or endothelial cells from stromal components and interact with cells via cellular receptors, including integrins and discoidin domain receptors. Disruption of cell-BM interactions due to either injury or genetic defects in either the ECM components or cellular receptors often lead to irreversible tissue injury and loss of organ function. Animal models that lack specific BM components or receptors either globally or in selective tissues have been used to help with our understanding of the molecular mechanisms whereby cell-BM interactions regulate organ function in physiological and pathological conditions. We review recently published works on animal models that explore how cell-BM interactions regulate kidney homeostasis in both health and disease. PMID:26610916

  2. Detection of hidden nephritogenic antigen determinants in human renal and nonrenal basement membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, K; Michael, A F; Velosa, J; Fish, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reactivity of 10 human anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) autoantibodies with basement membrane antigens of human adult and infant kidney, lung, placenta, and skin was examined by ELISA and immunofluorescence microscopy. All autoantibodies were previously shown to react with adult kidney by indirect immunofluorescence and with collagenase-digested adult GBM by ELISA. Four antibodies (group A) were positive on infant and fetal kidney sections by immunofluorescence, and six antibodies ...

  3. Energy stored and dissipated in skeletal muscle basement membranes during sinusoidal oscillations.

    OpenAIRE

    Tidball, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    We subjected single skeletal muscle cells from frog semitendinosus to sinusoidal oscillations that simulated the strain experienced as the cells near the end of passive extension and begin active contraction in slow swimming. Other cells from which the basement membrane was removed by enzymatic and mechanical procedures were tested identically. Effectiveness of the basement membrane removal technique was evaluated by electron microscopy, by an electrophoretic and lectin-binding assay for depl...

  4. Attachment of oral bacteria to a basement-membrane-like matrix and to purified matrix proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, J R; S. R. John; Kramer, R H; Hoover, C.I.; Murray, P A

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the adherence of oral bacteria to an in vitro basement-membrane-like matrix and to selected individual macromolecular constituents of this matrix. Radiolabeled bacteria were incubated with basement-membrane-like matrices isolated from PF HR-9 cells. Bacteroides gingivalis 33277, Fusobacterium nucleatum FN-2, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans GA3(A) bound to the matrix in the range of 44 to 70%, considerably higher than the ranges of A. actin...

  5. Vascular basement membranes as pathways for the passage of fluid into and out of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan W J; Sharp, Matthew MacGregor; Albargothy, Nazira J; Fernandes, Rute; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Verma, Ajay; Weller, Roy O; Carare, Roxana O

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of conventional lymphatics, drainage of interstitial fluid and solutes from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes is along basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Perivascular pathways are also involved in the entry of CSF into the brain by the convective influx/glymphatic system. The objective of this study is to differentiate the cerebral vascular basement membrane pathways by which fluid passes out of the brain from the pathway by which CSF enters the brain. Experiment 1: 0.5 µl of soluble biotinylated or fluorescent Aβ, or 1 µl 15 nm gold nanoparticles was injected into the mouse hippocampus and their distributions determined at 5 min by transmission electron microscopy. Aβ was distributed within the extracellular spaces of the hippocampus and within basement membranes of capillaries and tunica media of arteries. Nanoparticles did not enter capillary basement membranes from the extracellular spaces. Experiment 2: 2 µl of 15 nm nanoparticles were injected into mouse CSF. Within 5min, groups of nanoparticles were present in the pial-glial basement membrane on the outer aspect of cortical arteries between the investing layer of pia mater and the glia limitans. The results of this study and previous research suggest that cerebral vascular basement membranes form the pathways by which fluid passes into and out of the brain but that different basement membrane layers are involved. The significance of these findings for neuroimmunology, Alzheimer's disease, drug delivery to the brain and the concept of the Virchow-Robin space are discussed. PMID:26975356

  6. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R;

    1990-01-01

    Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, fibronec...... primarily within the basal lamina, apparently concentrated in the lamina densa. In addition, some of the proteoglycan was also present beneath the lamina densa, associated with the reticular lamina collagen fibrils....

  7. Binding of Streptococcus mutans antigens to heart and kidney basement membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, M W; Barua, P K; Bergey, E J; Nisengard, R J; Neiders, M E; Albini, B

    1984-01-01

    Using indirect immunofluorescence, alkali-extracted components of Streptococcus mutans were found to bind in vitro to capillary walls and sarcolemmal sheaths of monkey cardiac muscle and to glomerular and tubular basement membranes of monkey kidney. Adsorption of S. mutans components to tissue fragments was also detected by indirect radioimmunoassay and immunoblotting on nitrocellulose paper. Antibodies did not bind to untreated, control tissues in these experiments, proving that antigens shared by S. mutans and tissue components were not involved. Rabbit and monkey heart and kidney components bound S. mutans antigens of 24,000, 35,000, and 65,000 Mr. Monkey heart also bound molecules of 90,000 and 120,000 Mr. Rabbits immunized by intravenous injection of disrupted S. mutans cells developed severe nephritis that was characterized by the deposition of immunoglobulins, complement component C3, and S. mutans antigens in the glomeruli. Immunoglobulin G eluted from nephritic kidneys reacted in immunoblots with the 24,000, 35,000, and 65,000 Mr components of S. mutans extract, indicating that the antigens that bound to tissue in vitro also bound in vivo and reacted with antibodies in situ. Antibodies to other S. mutans antigens were not detected in the kidney eluate, although they were present in the serum of the same rabbit. Images PMID:6384042

  8. Molecular sieve of the rat glomerular basement membrane: a transmission electron microscopic study of enzyme-treated specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiyasu,Akira

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolated rat glomerular basement membrane was treated with elastase and observed by transmission electron microscopy. The treatment with elastase revealed the fundamental structure of the glomerular basement membrane quite clearly, and enabled the observation of a sieve structure within the glomerular basement membrane. This sieve structure may play a major role in the filtration of blood as well as in the production of urine. Treatment with antibody showed that the sieve was mainly constituted of type IV collagen.

  9. ER stress and basement membrane defects combine to cause glomerular and tubular renal disease resulting from Col4a1 mutations in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frances E.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Murray, Lydia S.; Lu, Yinhui; McNeilly, Sarah; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Lennon, Rachel; Sado, Yoshikazu; Brownstein, David G.; Mullins, John J.; Kadler, Karl E.; Van Agtmael, Tom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Collagen IV is a major component of basement membranes, and mutations in COL4A1, which encodes collagen IV alpha chain 1, cause a multisystemic disease encompassing cerebrovascular, eye and kidney defects. However, COL4A1 renal disease remains poorly characterized and its pathomolecular mechanisms are unknown. We show that Col4a1 mutations in mice cause hypotension and renal disease, including proteinuria and defects in Bowman's capsule and the glomerular basement membrane, indicating a role for Col4a1 in glomerular filtration. Impaired sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle and distal nephron despite elevated aldosterone levels indicates that tubular defects contribute to the hypotension, highlighting a novel role for the basement membrane in vascular homeostasis by modulation of the tubular response to aldosterone. Col4a1 mutations also cause diabetes insipidus, whereby the tubular defects lead to polyuria associated with medullary atrophy and a subsequent reduction in the ability to upregulate aquaporin 2 and concentrate urine. Moreover, haematuria, haemorrhage and vascular basement membrane defects confirm an important vascular component. Interestingly, although structural and compositional basement membrane defects occurred in the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule, no tubular basement membrane defects were detected. By contrast, medullary atrophy was associated with chronic ER stress, providing evidence for cell-type-dependent molecular mechanisms of Col4a1 mutations. These data show that both basement membrane defects and ER stress contribute to Col4a1 renal disease, which has important implications for the development of treatment strategies for collagenopathies. PMID:26839400

  10. Basement membrane proteoglycans in glomerular morphogenesis: chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is temporally and spatially restricted during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Bynum, K; St John, P L; Abrahamson, D R; Couchman, J R

    1993-01-01

    basement membrane (GBM) but present in other basement membranes of the nephron, including collecting ducts, tubules, Bowman's capsule, and the glomerular mesangium. In light of this unique pattern of distribution and of the complex histoarchitectural reorganization occurring during nephrogenesis, the...... vasculature and ureteric buds, its first appearance in nephron basement membrane occurs during the late comma stage. In capillary loop-stage glomeruli of prenatal animals, BM-CSPG is present in the presumptive mesangial matrix but undetectable in the GBM. However, as postnatal glomerular maturation progresses...... BM-CSPG is also found in both the lamina rara interna and lamina densa of the GBM in progressively increasing amounts, being most evident in the GBM of 21-day-old animals. Micrographs of glomeruli from 42-day-old animals show that BM-CSPG gradually disappears from the GBM and, by 56 days after birth...

  11. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. II. Effects of injecting heterologous, homologous, or autologous glomerular basement membranes and complete Freund's adjuvant into sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Steblay, R. W.; Rudofsky, U H

    1983-01-01

    The effects of injecting human, rabbit, rat, or single-kidney homologous glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or autologous GBM, each in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into 15- to 18-month-old sheep are compared. All sheep receiving heterologous GBM and 3 of 6 sheep receiving homologous GBM had anti-GBM nephritis, but such sheep did not bind autoantibodies or have Goodpasturelike lesions in their lungs. Sheep given injections of human GBM had autoantibodies to antigenic determinants shared b...

  12. Development and heterogeneity of antigens in the immature nephron. Reactivity with human antiglomerular basement membrane autoantibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeraj, K.; Fish, A. J.; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy was performed with 15 human anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and mouse monoclonal antibodies to Type IV collagen (MBM4) and renal basement membranes (MBM15) on renal tissue from 6 fetuses (gestational age, 15-23 weeks), 8 infants (age, 1-21 days), and 8 children and adults (ages, 3-27 years). Of the 15 human anti-GBM antibodies that react with GBM in adult glomeruli, only 4 identified antigens in the GBM of fetal and infant glomeruli. I...

  13. A unique covalent bond in basement membrane is a primordial innovation for tissue evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Aaron L; Vanacore, Roberto M; Chetyrkin, Sergei V; Pedchenko, Vadim K; Bhave, Gautam; Yin, Viravuth P; Stothers, Cody L; Rose, Kristie Lindsey; McDonald, W Hayes; Clark, Travis A; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Steele, Robert E; Ivy, Michael T; Hudson, Julie K; Hudson, Billy G

    2014-01-01

    Basement membrane, a specialized ECM that underlies polarized epithelium of eumetazoans, provides signaling cues that regulate cell behavior and function in tissue genesis and homeostasis. A collagen IV scaffold, a major component, is essential for tissues and dysfunctional in several diseases. Studies of bovine and Drosophila tissues reveal that the scaffold is stabilized by sulfilimine chemical bonds (S = N) that covalently cross-link methionine and hydroxylysine residues at the interface of adjoining triple helical protomers. Peroxidasin, a heme peroxidase embedded in the basement membrane, produces hypohalous acid intermediates that oxidize methionine, forming the sulfilimine cross-link. We explored whether the sulfilimine cross-link is a fundamental requirement in the genesis and evolution of epithelial tissues by determining its occurrence and evolutionary origin in Eumetazoa and its essentiality in zebrafish development; 31 species, spanning 11 major phyla, were investigated for the occurrence of the sulfilimine cross-link by electrophoresis, MS, and multiple sequence alignment of de novo transcriptome and available genomic data for collagen IV and peroxidasin. The results show that the cross-link is conserved throughout Eumetazoa and arose at the divergence of Porifera and Cnidaria over 500 Mya. Also, peroxidasin, the enzyme that forms the bond, is evolutionarily conserved throughout Metazoa. Morpholino knockdown of peroxidasin in zebrafish revealed that the cross-link is essential for organogenesis. Collectively, our findings establish that the triad-a collagen IV scaffold with sulfilimine cross-links, peroxidasin, and hypohalous acids-is a primordial innovation of the ECM essential for organogenesis and tissue evolution. PMID:24344311

  14. Rituximab for the treatment of refractory simultaneous anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) and membranous nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bandak, Ghassan; Jones, Bruce A.; Li, Jian; Yee, Jerry; Umanath, Kausik

    2014-01-01

    Antibody-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease occurs rarely in the presence of another B-cell disorder, membranous nephropathy. The coexistence of these two autoimmune disorders would be anticipated to require differing, specific therapies targeted to each disease process. We describe a case of concomitant membranous nephropathy and anti-GBM disease in which conventional therapy, including steroids, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide, failed to attenuate the anti-GBM...

  15. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans made by different basement-membrane-producing tumors have immunological and structural similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R; Hassell, J R

    1985-01-01

    Using immunological assays, we determined the relationship between the heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by two different murine basement-membrane-producing tumors, i.e., the mouse Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor and the L2 rat yolk-sac tumor. Antibodies prepared against the heparan sulfat...

  16. Cdc42 expression in keratinocytes is required for the maintenance of the basement membrane in skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xunwei; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Brakebusch, Cord

    2006-01-01

    , structure and number of hemidesomosomes were not significantly changed in the Cdc42 mutant skin compared with the control mice and no blister formation was observed in mutant skin. These data indicate that Cdc42 in keratinocytes is important for maintenance of the basement membrane of skin....

  17. Experimental orchitis induced in rats by passive transfer of an antiserum to seminiferous tubule basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, L; Denduchis, B; González, N N; Puig, R P

    1978-09-01

    A multifocal damage of the testis was obtained when rats were injected intravenously or under the tunica albuginea of the testis with a rabbit antiseminiferous tubule basement membrane serum. The damage was characterized by foci of perivascular and peritubular infiltrates of mononuclear round cells, infolding, thickening, and rupture of the seminiferous tubular wall and different degrees of injury of the germinal epithelium such as, cell disorganization, cell sloughing, and atrophy. Delamination and thickening of seminiferous tubule basement membrane and vacuolization of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm was often observed by electron microscopy. A linear deposit of rabbit gamma-globulin was detected by immunohistochemical techniques along the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules and vessels. Testicular damage was not detected in rats injected with normal rabbit serum, used as control. In the kidneys of rats injected intravenously with the immune serum, a deposit of rabbit gamma-globulin was detected along glomerular basement membrane. Focal areas of mononuclear cell infiltrates, hypercellularity of glomeruli and thickening of glomerular capillary walls and Bowman's capsule were also observed. PMID:367304

  18. Deposition of nucleosomal antigens (histones and DNA) in the epidermal basement membrane in human lupus nephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, C.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Pijl, J.W. van der; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Ligtenberg, G.; Derksen, R.H.W.M.; Berden, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Antinuclear autoantibodies complexed to nucleosomes can bind to heparan sulfate (HS) in the glomerular basement membrane. This binding is due to the binding of the positively charged histones to the strongly anionic HS. Nucleosomes and histones have been identified in glomerular deposits

  19. Effect of 137Cs gamma radiation on the fibronectin content in basement membrane of mouse small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of fibronectin in the small intestine of the mouse was investigated using an indirect immunofluorescence technique. Tissue fibronectin was preferentially located in the basement membrane and in the muscularis layer. Semiquantitative immunofluorescence determination of tissue fibronectin in the basement membrane showed only minor changes at 24 or 48 hours after 10 or 20 Gy of 137Cs gamma irradiation. (Auth.)

  20. MT1-MMP-mediated basement membrane remodeling modulates renal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggins, Karen S.; Mernaugh, Glenda [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Su, Yan; Quaranta, Vito [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Koshikawa, Naohiko; Seiki, Motoharu [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Pozzi, Ambra [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Zent, Roy, E-mail: roy.zent@vanderbilt.edu [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Research Medicine, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates multiple cellular functions required for normal development and tissue repair. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key mediators of this process and membrane targeted MMPs (MT-MMPs) in particular have been shown to be important in normal development of specific organs. In this study we investigated the role of MT1-MMP in kidney development. We demonstrate that loss of MT1-MMP leads to a renal phenotype characterized by a moderate decrease in ureteric bud branching morphogenesis and a severe proliferation defect. The kidneys of MT1-MMP-null mice have increased deposition of collagen IV, laminins, perlecan, and nidogen and the phenotype is independent of the MT-1MMP target, MMP-2. Utilizing in vitro systems we demonstrated that MTI-MMP proteolytic activity is required for renal tubule cells to proliferate in three dimensional matrices and to migrate on collagen IV and laminins. Together these data suggest an important role for MT1-MMP in kidney development, which is mediated by its ability to regulate cell proliferation and migration by proteolytically cleaving kidney basement membrane components.

  1. Ultrastructural appearance of renal and other basement membranes in the Bull terrier model of autosomal dominant hereditary nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, J C; Savige, J; Seymour, A E; Dowling, J; Martinello, P; Colville, D; Sinclair, R; Naito, I; Jennings, G; Huxtable, C

    2000-08-01

    Bull terrier hereditary nephritis may represent a model for autosomal dominant Alport's syndrome because affected dogs have the typically lamellated glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and father-to-son disease transmission occurs. This study examined the ultrastructural appearance of the renal and extrarenal basement membranes and their composition in affected Bull terriers. Affected stillborn animals and puppies had subepithelial frilling and vacuolation of the GBM. In adult dogs, lamellation was common, and subepithelial frilling and vacuolation were less prominent. Foot-process effacement and mesangial matrix expansion occurred frequently. Basement membranes in the glomeruli, tubules, and Bowman's capsule were significantly thickened and often mineralized. Immunohistochemical examination showed alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) collagen chains in all renal basement membranes; alpha 3(IV), alpha 4(IV), and alpha 5(IV) chains in the GBM, distal tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsule; and the alpha 6(IV) chain in Bowman's capsule. Conversely, the basement membranes from the affected Bull terrier cornea, lens capsule, retina, skin, lung, and muscle had a normal ultrastructural appearance and were not thickened compared with membranes in normal age-matched dogs. The distribution of basement membrane abnormalities in Bull terrier hereditary nephritis may occur because the defective protein is present exclusively or more abundantly in the kidney and is structurally more important in the kidney or because of local intrarenal stresses. PMID:10922317

  2. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological activity of retinoids was assayed in an in vitro quantitative assay of human tumor cell invasion using human amnion basement membrane (BM). The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the BM and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 14C-proline labeled collagenous and noncollagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested, the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.009 μg/mL, and of TC-106 cells at 0.07 μg/mL. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels over 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more potent than retinol palmitate. The model system will be useful for investigating antiinvasive activity of other retinoids as well as other compounds

  3. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the basement membrane (BM) and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 3H-proline labeled collagenous and non collagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.09 μg/ml, and TC-106 cells at 0.08 μg/ml. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels almost 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more than retinol palmitate. Furthermore, A549 cells treated with retinol acetate, under conditions whereby an anti-invasive state was induced,showed an increase in the number of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP), a decrease in the activity of type IV collagenase and ectosialyltransferase, and no change in the activity of transglutaminase

  4. The basement membrane constituents in the mouse embryo's tooth. An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enamel organs isolated from the lower first teeth of 18-days old white mouse embryo by trypsin treatment were used in this study. The organs were cultured during periods of increasing time on a semi-solid medium containing cock serum. In another chase experiments, the organs were cultured on a liquid medium containing proline-3H, leucine-3H, and glucosamine-3H, were studied by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopes. It has been shown that the nature of the culture medium does not apparently interfere with the ability of the enamel to reconstitute the basement membrane. On the other hand, it have been found obvious differences concerning the kinetic of the used isotopes. The results indicate that the turn-over of the basement membrane constituents represents a continuous and homogenous process which continues to take place during, before and after reconstitution. 42 refs. (author)

  5. Ultrastructural and Temporal Changes of the Microvascular Basement Membrane and Astrocyte Interface Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Il; Kim, Eun Hee; del Zoppo, Gregory J.; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2009-01-01

    Microvascular integrity is lost during cerebral ischemia. Detachment of the microvascular basement membrane (BM) from the astrocyte, as well as degradation of the BM, is responsible for the loss of microvascular integrity. However, their ultrastructural and temporal changes during cerebral ischemia are not well known. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 48 hr. By using transmission electron microscopy, the p...

  6. Autoantibodies against basement membrane collagen type IV are associated with myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Olga McLeod; Pontus Dunér; Ann Samnegård; Per Tornvall; Jan Nilsson; Anders Hamsten; Eva Bengtsson

    2015-01-01

    Background: Collagen type IV is the major constituent of basement membranes underlying endothelial cells and is important for endothelial cell attachment and function. Autoantibodies against native collagen type IV have been found in various autoimmune diseases. Oxidation of LDL in the vascular wall results in the formation of reactive aldehydes, which could modify surrounding matrix proteins. Like oxidized LDL, these modified matrix proteins are likely to induce immune responses. We examined...

  7. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen JW Liesker; Ten Hacken, Nick H.; Mieke Zeinstra-Smith; Rutgers, Steven R; Dirkje S Postma; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objectiv...

  8. Immunohistochemical distribution of basement membrane proteins in the human inner ear from older subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiyama, Akira; Mowry, Sarah E.; Lopez, Ivan A.; Ishiyama, Gail

    2009-01-01

    The immunolocalization of several basement membrane (BM) proteins was investigated in vestibular endorgans microdissected from temporal bones obtained from subjects with a documented normal auditory and vestibular function (n = 5, average age = 88 years old). Fluorescent immunostaining using antibodies directed at collagen IVα2, nidogen-1, laminin-β2, α-dystroglycan, and tenascin-C was applied to cryosections from human cochlea, cristae ampullares, utricular and saccular maculae. Collagen IVα...

  9. Tissue fibrocytes in patients with mild asthma: A possible link to thickness of reticular basement membrane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjermer Leif

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myofibroblasts, proposed as being derived from circulating fibrocytes, are considered to be important cells in thickening of the basement membrane in patients with asthma. We have studied the correlation of tissue fibrocyte levels to basement membrane thickness and the presence of fibrocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma and controls. Methods Patients with mild asthma (n = 9 were recruited and divided into two categories based on whether or not fibroblast-like cells could be established from BALF. Non-asthmatic healthy subjects (n = 5 were used as controls. Colocalization of the fibrocyte markers CD34, CD45RO, procollagen I, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA were identified in bronchial biopsies from patients and controls by confocal microscopy. Kruskall-Wallis method was used to calculate statistical significance and Spearman coefficient of rank correlation was used to assess the degree of association. Results In patients with BALF fibroblasts, a 14-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/CD45RO/α-SMA and a 16-fold increase of tissue cells expressing CD34/procollagen I was observed when compared to controls (p Conclusion These findings indicate a correlation between recruited fibrocytes in tissue and thickness of basement membrane. Fibroblast progenitor cells may therefore be important in airway remodeling in steroid-naive patients with mild asthma.

  10. Antigens of the basement membranes of the seminiferous tubules induce autoimmunity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, L; Satz, M L; Sztein, M B; Denduchis, B

    1982-05-01

    A preparation enriched in basement membranes from seminiferous tubules was isolated from rat testes (STBM) and injected with complete Freund's adjuvant into Wistar rats. In 60% of animals a mild multifocal orchitis was observed. In damaged areas, perivascular and peritubular mononuclear cell infiltrates and different degrees of cell sloughing of some seminiferous tubules were observed. Electron microscopy revealed focal thickenings and delamination of the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules as well as vacuolization of Sertoli cell cytoplasm. Using immunofluorescence discontinuous linear deposits of IgG were detected along the seminiferous tubular wall. Moreover, the same pattern of immunofluorescence was observed when the IgG eluted from the testes of the immunized rats was layered on sections of normal rat testis. Circulating antibodies to STBM were detected using passive haemagglutination in approximately 45% of the immunized rats, with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:80. Leukocyte migration was inhibited when the spleen cells of the immunized rats were incubated with antigens from the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, whilst a negative reaction was obtained when the soluble fraction of testis homogenate was used. PMID:7050376

  11. Overexpression of β1-chain-containing laminins in capillary basement membranes of human breast cancer and its metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminins are the major components of vascular and parenchymal basement membranes. We previously documented a switch in the expression of vascular laminins containing the α4 chain from predominantly laminin-9 (α4β2γ1) to predominantly laminin-8 (α4β1γ1) during progression of human brain gliomas to high-grade glioblastoma multiforme. Here, differential expression of laminins was studied in blood vessels and ductal epithelium of the breast. In the present study the expressions of laminin isoforms α1–α5, β1–β3, γ1, and γ2 were examined during progression of breast cancer. Forty-five clinical samples of breast tissues including normal breast, ductal carcinomas in situ, invasive ductal carcinomas, and their metastases to the brain were compared using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry for various chains of laminin, in particular laminin-8 and laminin-9. Laminin α4 chain was observed in vascular basement membranes of most studied tissues, with the highest expression in metastases. At the same time, the expression of laminin β2 chain (a constituent of laminin-9) was mostly seen in normal breast and carcinomas in situ but not in invasive carcinomas or metastases. In contrast, laminin β1 chain (a constituent of laminin-8) was typically found in vessel walls of carcinomas and their metastases but not in those of normal breast. The expression of laminin-8 increased in a progression-dependent manner. A similar change was observed from laminin-11 (α5β2γ1) to laminin-10 (α5β1γ1) during breast tumor progression. Additionally, laminin-2 (α2β1γ1) appeared in vascular basement membranes of invasive carcinomas and metastases. Chains of laminin-5 (α3β3γ2) were expressed in the ductal epithelium basement membranes of the breast and diminished with tumor progression. These results suggest that laminin-2, laminin-8, and laminin-10 are important components of tumor microvessels and may associate with breast tumor progression. Angiogenic switch

  12. Identification of the cutaneous basement membrane zone antigen and isolation of antibody in linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Zone, J J; Taylor, T B; Kadunce, D P; Meyer, L J

    1990-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) is a rare blistering skin disease characterized by basement membrane zone deposition of IgA. This study identifies a tissue antigen detected by patient serum and then isolates the autoantibody using epidermis and protein bands blotted on nitrocellulose as immunoabsorbents. Sera from 10 patients (9 with cutaneous disease and 1 with cicatrizing conjunctivitis) were evaluated. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed an IgA anti-basement membrane antibody in 6 of...

  13. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J; Couchman, J R

    1984-01-01

    visible by indirect immunofluorescence in the BMZ before epidermal involution but appeared in all regions of BMZ after this had occurred. As follicular length increased during maturation, the distribution of BPA was no longer uniform, being reduced or absent from the BMZ around the lower part of the...

  14. Optically Highlighting Basement Membrane Components in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Elliott Hagedorn & David Sherwood ### Abstract Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and other genetically encoded fluorescent proteins provide a means to study gene expression pattern and protein localization in living tissues. Recently discovered GFP-like fluorophores and engineered variants have further expanded the fluorescent protein toolkit for in vivo imaging. Here we describe a technique using transgenic C. elegans that contain laminin or type IV collagen fused to the g...

  15. Basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Wewer, U; Albrechtsen, R

    1984-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycan from the L2 rat yolk sac carcinoma has been purified and partially characterized. The proteoglycan has an apparent Mr of 750 000, 35% of which represents the core protein. The core protein seems to be homogeneous, whereas the heparan sulfate chains are heterogeneous w...... with an Mr of about 50 000-70 000, with 30% of the glucosamine being N-sulfated. Antibodies raised against the core protein of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan reacted with basement membranes of various rat and human tissue....

  16. Detection of the basement membrane-degrading proteolytic activity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis after SDS-PAGE using agarose overlays containing Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp

    OpenAIRE

    Puccia, R; M. A. Juliano; L. Juliano; Travassos, L R; Carmona, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    We have characterized, in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast phase, an exocellular SH-dependent serine proteinase activity against Abz-MKRLTL-EDDnp and analogous fluorescent-quenched peptides, and showed that it is also active against constituents of the basement membrane in vitro. In the present study, we separated the components of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates by electrophoresis and demonstrated that the serine-thiol exocellular proteinase has a diffuse and heterogeneous migration...

  17. Assessment of proteolytic degradation of the basement membrane: a fragment of type IV collagen as a biochemical marker for liver fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Veidal Sanne S; Karsdal Morten A; Nawrocki Arkadiusz; Larsen Martin R; Dai Yueqin; Zheng Qinlong; Hägglund Per; Vainer Ben; Skjøt-Arkil Helene; Leeming Diana J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Collagen deposition and an altered matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression profile are hallmarks of fibrosis. Type IV collagen is the most abundant structural basement membrane component of tissue, which increases 14-fold during fibrogenesis in the liver. Proteolytic degradation of collagens by proteases produces small fragments, so-called neoepitopes, which are released systemically. Technologies investigating MMP-generated fragments of collagens may provide more useful...

  18. Pericytes regulate vascular basement membrane remodeling and govern neutrophil extravasation during inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Wang

    Full Text Available During inflammation polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs traverse venular walls, composed of the endothelium, pericyte sheath and vascular basement membrane. Compared to PMN transendothelial migration, little is known about how PMNs penetrate the latter barriers. Using mouse models and intravital microscopy, we show that migrating PMNs expand and use the low expression regions (LERs of matrix proteins in the vascular basement membrane (BM for their transmigration. Importantly, we demonstrate that this remodeling of LERs is accompanied by the opening of gaps between pericytes, a response that depends on PMN engagement with pericytes. Exploring how PMNs modulate pericyte behavior, we discovered that direct PMN-pericyte contacts induce relaxation rather than contraction of pericyte cytoskeletons, an unexpected response that is mediated by inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in pericytes. Taking our in vitro results back into mouse models, we present evidence that pericyte relaxation contributes to the opening of the gaps between pericytes and to the enlargement of the LERs in the vascular BM, facilitating PMN extravasation. Our study demonstrates that pericytes can regulate PMN extravasation by controlling the size of pericyte gaps and thickness of LERs in venular walls. This raises the possibility that pericytes may be targeted in therapies aimed at regulating inflammation.

  19. Specific fixation of bovine brain and retinal acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors to mouse embryonic eye basement membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labeling pattern of mouse embryonic eye frozen sections incubated with radioiodinated brain acidic and basic fibroblasts growth factors (aFGF and bFGF) was investigated by autoradiography. Both growth factors bind to basement membranes in a dose-dependent way, with a higher affinity for bFGF. Similar data were obtained with eye-derived growth factors (EDGF), the retinal forms of FGF. There was a heterogeneity in the affinity of the various basement membranes toward these growth factors. The specificity of the growth factor-basement membrane interaction was demonstrated by the following experiments: (i) an excess of unlabeled growth factor displaced the labeling; (ii) unrelated proteins with different isoelectric points did not modify the labeling; and (iii) iodinated EGF or PDGF did not label basement membrane. In order to get a better understanding of the nature of this binding, the authors performed the incubation of the frozen sections with iodinated FGFs preincubated with various compounds. These results demonstrate that FGFs bind specifically to basement membranes, probably on the polysaccharidic part of the proteoheparan sulfate, and suggest that this type of interaction may be a general feature of the mechanism of action of these growth factors

  20. Nephritogenic antigen determinants in epidermal and renal basement membranes of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kashtan, C; Fish, A. J.; Kleppel, M; Yoshioka, K; Michael, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous ...

  1. Changes in the molecular sieve of glomerular basement membrane in rats with aminonucleoside nephrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaya,Yasumasa

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolated and purified glomerular basement membranes (GBM of normal and aminonucleoside (PAN nephrosis rats were observed by electron microscopy after negative staining. Although GBM of normal rats appeared as a molecular sieve with uniform pores, GBM of nephrotic rats showed enlargement and elongation of the pores. For an average of fifty pores, the long dimension was 40.4+/-10.7 A and the short dimension 13.8+/-3.6 A in nephrosis whereas the long dimension was 12.3+/-2.5 A and the short dimension 8.4+/-1.0 A in normal rats. Changes in the pores in GBM were thought to result in increased permeability of serum protein and hence proteinuria.

  2. Basement membrane changes in breast cancer detected by immunohistochemical staining for laminin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, R; Nielsen, M; Wewer, U;

    1981-01-01

    micrometastases were present, these cells also stained strongly for laminin. In nonmalignant breast tissues, the epithelial cells of the duct were positive for laminin, but the staining was weaker than in the carcinomas. Pretreatment of the fixed tissue sections with trypsin markedly enhanced the staining of......The distribution of the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin was studied by the immunoperoxidase technique in benign and malignant human breast tissue and in axillary lymph nodes from patients with breast cancer. An antiserum prepared against rat laminin was used. The specificity of this...... molecular weights of 400,000 and 200,000 of rat laminin in sodium dodecyl sulfate:polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The neoplastic cells in malignant breast tissues showed strong cytoplasmic staining for laminin, and a positive reaction was aslo found in lymph node metastases. In some cases in which only...

  3. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane

  4. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavan, L.A.; Davies, M.; Couchman, J.R.; Williams, M.A.; Mason, R.M.

    1989-03-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium (35S)sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defined times (0-163 h) the kidneys were perfused in situ with 0.01% cetylpyridinium chloride in phosphate-buffered saline to maximize the recovery of 35S-proteoglycans. Glomeruli were isolated from the renal cortex and analyzed for 35S-proteoglycans by autoradiographic, biochemical, and immunochemical methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of (35S)heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-((cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio)-1-propanesulfonate-4 M guanidine hydrochloride, a procedure which solubilized greater than 95% of the 35S-labeled macromolecules. Of these 11-13% was immunoprecipitated by an antiserum against heparan sulfate proteoglycan which, in immunolocalization experiments, showed specificity for staining the basement membrane of rat glomeruli. Autoradiographic analysis showed that 18% of total radioactivity present at the end of the labeling period was associated with the glomerular basement membrane.

  5. [3H]glucosamine and [3H]proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H]proline and [3H]glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with [3H]proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With [3H]glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of [3H]glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived [3H]glucosamine-labeled material

  6. An Overlapping Case of Alport Syndrome and Thin Basement Membrane Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganabi, Mashriq; Eter, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 48-year-old male who presented with hematuria of at least 10 years, and has a daughter with hematuria as well. The patient has a history of degenerative hearing loss, decreased vision and cataract formation, but no diabetes, hypertension or proteinuria. A full serology and urology workup was negative for any abnormality. A kidney biopsy for the patient revealed a diagnosis of Alport syndrome but was unable to rule out thin basement membrane disease. The biopsy was inconclusive in making the diagnosis but the patient’s clinical presentation led to the diagnosis of Alport syndrome. The patient’s 10-year-old daughter also has hematuria with no clear etiology but now can subsequently be anticipatorily managed for Alport syndrome progression. Due to the rarity of the disease, diagnosis is often missed or delayed by primary care providers especially when no associated proteinuria has yet developed. This can lead to confusion and misdiagnosis with thin basement membrane disease, a generally benign hematuria without kidney failure progression. Additionally, biopsy can be inconclusive in these patients, relying on the physician’s history and physical examination findings to diagnose. It is important to appropriately diagnose Alport syndrome not only to manage the patient’s rate of kidney failure progression but also allow for a higher degree of suspicion, screening and intervention in the patient’s family members. Both the inconclusive nature of kidney biopsies and the usefulness of diagnosis for family member screening are often overlooked in medical literature but are explored in this case.

  7. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  8. Skin Basement Membrane: The Foundation of Epidermal Integrity—BM Functions and Diverse Roles of Bridging Molecules Nidogen and Perlecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Breitkreutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis functions in skin as first defense line or barrier against environmental impacts, resting on extracellular matrix (ECM of the dermis underneath. Both compartments are connected by the basement membrane (BM, composed of a set of distinct glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Herein we are reviewing molecular aspects of BM structure, composition, and function regarding not only (i the dermoepidermal interface but also (ii the resident microvasculature, primarily focusing on the per se nonscaffold forming components perlecan and nidogen-1 and nidogen-2. Depletion or functional deficiencies of any BM component are lethal at some stage of development or around birth, though BM defects vary between organs and tissues. Lethality problems were overcome by developmental stage- and skin-specific gene targeting or by cell grafting and organotypic (3D cocultures of normal or defective cells, which allows recapitulating BM formation de novo. Thus, evidence is accumulating that BM assembly and turnover rely on mechanical properties and composition of the adjacent ECM and the dynamics of molecular assembly, including further “minor” local components, nidogens largely functioning as catalysts or molecular adaptors and perlecan as bridging stabilizer. Collectively, orchestration of BM assembly, remodeling, and the role of individual players herein are determined by the developmental, tissue-specific, or functional context.

  9. Basement membrane and interstitial proteoglycans produced by MDCK cells correspond to those expressed in the kidney cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erickson, A C; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Multiple proteoglycans (PGs) are present in all basement membranes (BM) and may contribute to their structure and function, but their effects on cell behavior are not well understood. Their postulated functions include: a structural role in maintaining tissue histoarchitecture, or aid in selectiv...

  10. Electron microscopic study of the myelinated nerve fibres and the perineurial cell basement membrane in the diabetic human peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the quantitative and ultrastructural changes in myelinated nerve fibers and the basement membranes of the perineurial cells in diabetic nerves. The study was performed at the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2003 to 2005. Human sural nerves were obtained from 15 lower limbs and 5 diabetic nerve biopsies. The total mean and density of myelinated nerve fibers per fascicle were calculated, with density of microtubules and mitochondria in the axoplasm. The number of the perineurial cell basement membrane layers was counted, and thickness of the basement membrane was measured. Among the 15 diabetic and 5 normal human sural nerves, the average diameters, number and surface area of myelinated nerve fibers and axonal microtubules density were found to be less in diabetic nerves. Mitochondrial density was higher in diabetic axons. Thickness of the perineurial cell basement membrane had a greater mean, but the number of perineurial cell layers was less than that of the diabetic group. The inner cellular layer of the perineurium of the diabetic nerves contained large vacuoles containing electron-dense degenerated myelin. A few specimens showed degenerated myelinated nerve fibers, while others showed recovering ones. Retracted axoplasms were encountered with albumin extravasation. Diabetes caused an increase in perineurial permeability. The diabetic sural nerve showed marked decrease in the myelinated nerve fibres, increase degenerated mitochondria, and decreased microtubules. (author)

  11. Functional differentiation and alveolar morphogenesis of primary mammary cultures on reconstituted basement membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARCELLOS-HOFF, M. H; AGGELER, J.; RAM, T. G; BISSELL, M. J

    1989-02-01

    An essential feature of mammary gland differentiation during pregnancy is the formation of alveoli composed of polarized epithelial cells, which, under the influence of lactogenic hormones, secrete vectorially and sequester milk proteins. Previous culture studies have described either organization of cells polarized towards lumina containing little or no demonstrable tissue-specific protein, or establishment of functional secretory cells exhibiting little or no glandular architecture. In this paper, we report that tissue-specific vectorial secretion coincides with the formation of functional alveoli-like structures by primary mammary epithelial cells cultured on a reconstituted basement membrane matrix (derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm murine tumour). Morphogenesis of these unique three-dimensional structures was initiated by cell-directed remodelling of the exogenous matrix leading to reorganization of cells into matrixensheathed aggregates by 24 h after plating. The aggregates subsequently cavitated, so that by day 6 the cells were organized into hollow spheres in which apical cell surfaces faced lumina sealed by tight junctions and basal surfaces were surrounded by a distinct basal lamina. The profiles of proteins secreted into the apical (luminal) and basal (medium) compartments indicated that these alveoli-like structures were capable of an appreciable amount of vectorial secretion. Immunoprecipitation with a broad spectrum milk antiserum showed that more than 80% of caseins were secreted into the lumina, whereas iron-binding proteins (both lactoferrin and transferrin) were present in comparable amounts in each compartment. Thus, these mammary cells established protein targeting pathways directing milk-specific proteins to the luminal compartment. A time course monitoring secretory activity demonstrated that establishment of tissue-specific vectorial secretion and increased total and milk protein secretion coincided with functional alveolar

  12. Deletion of PPAR-γ in immune cells enhances susceptibility to antiglomerular basement membrane disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristen Chafin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cristen Chafin2, Sarah Muse2, Raquel Hontecillas5, Josep Bassaganya-Riera5, David L Caudell2, Samuel K Shimp III4, M Nichole Rylander4, John Zhang6, Liwu Li3, Christopher M Reilly1,21Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 3Department of Biological Sciences, 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 5Nutritional Immunology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 6Medical University of SC, Charleston, SC, USAAbstract: Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ has been shown to be immunoregulatory in autoimmune diseases by inhibiting production of a number of inflammatory mediators. We investigated whether PPAR-γ gene deletion in hematopoietic cells would alter disease pathogenesis in the antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM mouse model. PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice were immunized with rabbit antimouse GBM antibodies and lipopolysaccharide and evaluated for two weeks. Although both the PPAR-γ+/+ and PPAR-γ-/- mice had IgG deposition in the glomerulus and showed proteinuria two weeks after injection, glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease in PPAR-γ-/- mice were significantly more severe compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. We observed that the PPAR-γ-/- mice had decreased CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and an increased CD8+:CD4+ ratio as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ mice, suggesting that PPAR-γ has a role in the regulation of T cells. Furthermore, plasma interleukin-6 levels were significantly increased in the PPAR-γ-/- mice at two weeks as compared with the PPAR-γ+/+ animals. Taken together, these studies show that

  13. Vascular Basement Membrane-derived Multifunctional Peptide, a Novel Inhibitor of Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo CAO; Shu-Ping PENG; Li SUN; Hui LI; Li WANG; Han-Wu DENG

    2006-01-01

    Vascular basement membrane-derived multifunctional peptide (VBMDMP) gene (fusion gene of the human immunoglobulin G3 upper hinge region and two tumstatin-derived fragments) obtained by chemical synthesis was cloned into vector pUC 19, and introduced into the expression vector pGEX-4T-1 to construct a prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1-VBMDMP. Recombinant VBMDMP produced in Escherichia coli has been shown to have significant activity of antitumor growth and antimetastasis in Lewis lung carcinoma transplanted into mouse C57B1/6. In the present study, we have studied the ability of rVBMDMP to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation, to induce apoptosis in vitro, and to suppress tumor growth in vivo. The experimental results showed that rVBMDMP potently inhibited proliferation of human endothelial (HUVEC-12) cells and human colon cancer (SW480) cells in vitro, with no inhibition of proliferation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. rVBMDMP also significantly inhibited human endothelial cell tube formation and suppressed tumor growth of SW480 cells in a mouse xenograft model. These results suggest that rVBMDMP is a powerful therapeutic agent for suppressing angiogenesis and tumor growth.

  14. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in an HIV positive patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Bellotto Monteiro

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a case of a patient with HIV infection, diagnosed 18 months prior to the development of an anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis; this is probably the first report of such an association. A 30-year-old white man presented with elevation of serum creatinine (1.3 - 13.5 mg/dL within one month. At admission, the urinalysis showed proteinuria of 7.2 g/L and 8,000,000 erythrocytes/mL. Renal biopsy corresponded to a crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis mediated by anti-GBM, and serum testing for anti-GBM antibodies was positive; antinuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA were also positive. The patient underwent hemodyalisis and was treated with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The association described here is not casual, as crescentic glomerulonephritis is not common in HIV-positive patients, anti-GBM glomerulonephritis is rare and anti-GBM antibodies are frequently observed in HIV-positive subjects when compared to the overall population. Based on the current case and on the elevated frequency of the positivity for such antibodies in this group of patients, it is advisable to be aware of the eventual association between these two conditions and to promote an active search for anti-GBM antibodies and early diagnosis of eventual urinary abnormalities in HIV-positive subjects, considering the severity of anti-GBM glomerulonephritis.

  15. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction of...... embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds as they...... developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...

  16. De novo adipogenesis in mice at the site of injection of basement membrane and basic fibroblast growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Nobuko; TORIYAMA, KAZUHIRO; Nicodemou-Lena, Eleni; Inou, Kazuhiko; Torii, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    Autografting of fat pads has a long history in plastic and reconstructive surgery for augmentation of lost soft tissue. However, the results are disappointing because of absorption of the grafts with time. The fate of transplanted fat is linked to adipose precursor cells distributed widely in connective tissues. Adipocyte precursor cells can proliferate and mature into adipocytes even in the adult body depending on microenvironment. When reconstituted basement membrane, Matrigel, supplemented...

  17. A Possible Clue for the Production of Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody Associated with Ureteral Obstruction and Hydronephrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Emiko; Kamata, Kouju

    2015-01-01

    Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) is an autoimmune disease with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Based on a case report of anti-GBM GN following hydronephrosis, we hypothesized that hydronephrosis may act as a trigger for the development of anti-GBM antibodies. Patients and Methods We evaluated 11 patients who were diagnosed with hydronephrosis. It was measured with serum anti-GBM antibody. These patients’ medical...

  18. Comparison of double filtration plasmapheresis with immunoadsorption therapy in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi-yan; Tang, Zheng; Chen, Dong-mei; Gong, De-Hua; Ji, Da-Xi; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) and (IA) are both used to clear antibody. However, the clinical efficacy and safety of DFPP in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease are unclear. Methods The 28 enrolled patients diagnosed serologically and pathologically with anti-GBM disease from 2003 to 2013 included 16 treated with DFPP and 12 with IA, with all patients administered immunosuppressive agents. DFPP consisted of an EC50W filter for plasma separat...

  19. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...... representing very early developmental ages, very diffuse immunoreaction products were detected. However, by approximately 76 gestational days, some accentuation of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was noted along the lamina densa, and by 142 gestational days, the distribution of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was...

  20. Alport familial nephritis. Absence of 28 kilodalton non-collagenous monomers of type IV collagen in glomerular basement membrane.

    OpenAIRE

    Kleppel, M M; Kashtan, C. E.; Butkowski, R J; Fish, A. J.; Michael, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    Alport-type familial nephritis (FN), a genetic disorder, results in progressive renal insufficiency and sensorineural hearing loss. Immunochemical and biochemical analyses of the non-collagenous (NC1) domain of type IV collagen isolated from the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of three males with this disease demonstrate absence of the normally occurring 28-kilodalton (kD) NC1 monomers, but persistence of the 26- and 24-kD monomeric subunits derived from alpha 1 and 2 (both type IV) colla...

  1. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, Stephen A; Dayal, Jasbani H.S; Wright, Sheila; Riddle, Megan; Pourreyron, Celine; McMillan, James R.; Kimble, Roy M; Prisco, Marco; Gartner, Ulrike; Warbrick, Emma; McLean, W H Irwin; Leigh, Irene M.; McGrath, John A.; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Tolar, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstra...

  2. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Watt

    Full Text Available Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3, in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstrate expression is in-part regulated by endogenous type VII collagen and that, in agreement with previous studies, even small reductions in LH3 expression lead to significantly less secreted LH3 protein. Exogenous type VII collagen did not alter LH3 expression in cultured RDEB keratinocytes and we show that RDEB patients receiving bone marrow transplantation who demonstrate significant increase in type VII collagen do not show increased levels of LH3 at the basement membrane. Our data report a direct link between LH3 and endogenous type VII collagen expression concluding that reduction of LH3 at the basement membrane in patients with RDEB will likely have significant implications for disease progression and therapeutic intervention.

  3. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Localizes to Epidermal Basement Membrane and Is Reduced in Patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Stephen A; Dayal, Jasbani H S; Wright, Sheila; Riddle, Megan; Pourreyron, Celine; McMillan, James R; Kimble, Roy M; Prisco, Marco; Gartner, Ulrike; Warbrick, Emma; McLean, W H Irwin; Leigh, Irene M; McGrath, John A; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Tolar, Jakub; South, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is caused by mutations in COL7A1 resulting in reduced or absent type VII collagen, aberrant anchoring fibril formation and subsequent dermal-epidermal fragility. Here, we identify a significant decrease in PLOD3 expression and its encoded protein, the collagen modifying enzyme lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3), in RDEB. We show abundant LH3 localising to the basement membrane in normal skin which is severely depleted in RDEB patient skin. We demonstrate expression is in-part regulated by endogenous type VII collagen and that, in agreement with previous studies, even small reductions in LH3 expression lead to significantly less secreted LH3 protein. Exogenous type VII collagen did not alter LH3 expression in cultured RDEB keratinocytes and we show that RDEB patients receiving bone marrow transplantation who demonstrate significant increase in type VII collagen do not show increased levels of LH3 at the basement membrane. Our data report a direct link between LH3 and endogenous type VII collagen expression concluding that reduction of LH3 at the basement membrane in patients with RDEB will likely have significant implications for disease progression and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26380979

  4. A Case of Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis Associated with Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akishi Momose

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first report of a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN associated with thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM antibody. A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for high fever and anuria. On the first hospital day, we initiated hemodialysis for renal dysfunction. Laboratory data revealed normocytic-normochromic anemia with schistocytes in the peripheral smear, thrombocytopenia, increased serum lactate dehydrogenase, decreased serum haptoglobin, and negative results for both direct and indirect Coombs tests. Based on these results, we diagnosed TMA. Assays conducted several days later indicated a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin motif 13 (ADAMTS13 activity of 31.6%, and ADAMTS13 inhibitors were negative. We started plasma exchange using fresh frozen plasma and steroid pulse therapy. Anti-GBM antibody was found to be positive. Renal biopsy showed FGN. Blood pressure rose on the 46th hospital day, and mild convulsions developed. Based on magnetic resonance imaging of the head, the patient was diagnosed with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. Hypertension persisted despite administration of multiple antihypertensive agents, and the patient experienced a sudden generalized seizure. Computed tomography of the head showed multiple cerebral hemorrhages. However, his blood pressure subsequently decreased and the platelet count increased. TMA remitted following 36 plasma exchange sessions, but renal function was not restored, and maintenance hemodialysis was continued. The patient was discharged on the 119th day of hospitalization. In conclusion, it was shown that TMA, FGN and anti-GBM antibody were closely related.

  5. Long-term outcome of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease treated with immunoadsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biesenbach

    Full Text Available Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM antibody disease may lead to acute crescentic glomerulonephritis with poor renal prognosis. Current therapy favours plasma exchange (PE for removal of pathogenic antibodies. Immunoadsorption (IAS is superior to PE regarding efficiency of antibody-removal and safety. Apart from anecdotal data, there is no systemic analysis of the long-term effects of IAS on anti-GBM-disease and antibody kinetics.To examine the long-term effect of high-frequency IAS combined with standard immunosuppression on patient and renal survival in patients with anti-GBM-disease and to quantify antibody removal and kinetics through IAS.Retrospective review of patients treated with IAS for anti-GBM-antibody disease confirmed by biopsy and/or anti-GBM-antibodies.University Hospital of Vienna, Austria.10 patients with anti-GBM-disease treated with IAS.Patient and renal survival, renal histology, anti-GBM-antibodies.Anti-GBM-antibodies were reduced by the first 9 IAS treatments (mean number of 23 to negative levels in all patients. Renal survival was 40% at diagnosis, 70% after the end of IAS, 63% after one year and 50% at the end of observation (mean 84 months, range 9 to 186. Dialysis dependency was successfully reversed in three of six patients. Patient survival was 90% at the end of observation.IAS efficiently eliminates anti-GBM-antibodies suggesting non-inferiority to PE with regard to renal and patient survival. Hence IAS should be considered as a valuable treatment option for anti-GBM-disease, especially in patients presenting with a high percentage of crescents and dialysis dependency due to an unusual high proportion of responders.

  6. Ultrastructural morphometry of capillary basement membrane thickness in normal and transgenic diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Edward C; Audette, Janice L; Veitenheimer, Nicole J; Risan, Jessica A; Laturnus, Donna I; Epstein, Paul N

    2003-04-01

    Capillary basement membrane (CBM) thickening is an ultrastructural hallmark in diabetic patients and in animal models of diabetes. However, the wide variety of tissues sampled and diverse methods employed have made the interpretation of thickness data difficult. We showed previously that acellular glomerular BMs in OVE26 transgenic diabetic mice were thickened beyond normal age-related thickening, and in the current study we hypothesized that other microvascular BMs likewise would show increased widths relative to age-matched controls. Accordingly, a series of tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle, ocular retina and choriod, peripheral nerve, lung, pancreas, and renal glomerulus was collected from 300-350-day-old normal and transgenic mice. Transmission electron micrographs of cross sections through capillary walls were prepared, and CBM thickness (CBMT) was determined by the "orthogonal intercept" method. Morphometric analyses showed highly variable transgene-related BMT increases in the sampled tissues, with glomerular BM showing by far the greatest increase (+87%). Significant thickness increases were also seen in the retina, pulmonary alveolus, and thoracoabdominal diaphragm. BMT increases were not universal; however, most were modestly widened, and those that were thickest in controls generally showed the greatest increase. Although the pathogenesis of diabetes-related increases in CBM is poorly understood, data in the current study showed that in OVE26 transgenic mice increased BMT was a frequent concomitant of hyperglycemia. Accordingly, it seems likely that hyperglycemia-induced microvascular damage may be a contributing factor in diabetic BM disease, and that microvessel cellular and extracellular heterogeneity may limit the extent of CBM thickening in diverse tissues. PMID:12629676

  7. Upregulation of basement membrane-degrading metalloproteinase secretion after balloon injury of pig carotid arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southgate, K M; Fisher, M; Banning, A P; Thurston, V J; Baker, A H; Fabunmi, R P; Groves, P H; Davies, M; Newby, A C

    1996-12-01

    Basement membrane-degrading metalloproteinases (gelatinases) appear necessary for vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation in culture and for intimal migration of cells after balloon injury to the rat carotid artery. We investigated in the present study the secretion of gelatinases from pig carotid artery tissue after balloon injury. Segments of injured artery and segments proximal and distal to the area of injury were removed 3, 7, and 21 days after balloon dilatation. Medial explants from these segments were then cultured for 3 days, and the serum-free conditioned media were subjected to gelatin zymography. Production of 72- and 95-kD gelatinases was quantified by densitometry. Balloon-injured segments secreted significantly more 72- and 95-kD gelatinase than did paired distal segments at all time points. Release of both gelatinase activities was increased at 3 and 7 days relative to segments from uninjured arteries but declined again by 21 days after balloon injury. Similar results were found for gelatinase levels in extracts of arterial tissue. Consistent with the protein secretion data, in situ hybridization demonstrated that the mRNAs for both gelatinases were upregulated after balloon injury. Expression was prominent in medial smooth muscle cells, particularly around foci of necrosis, and in neointimal cells 3 and 7 days after balloon injury; 72-kD gelatinase mRNA persisted after 21 days and was prominent in regrown endothelial cells. The upregulation of gelatinase activity paralleled the time course of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation in this model. We conclude that increased gelatinase production occurs in response to balloon injury and may play a role in permitting migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:8943956

  8. Insufficient Folding of Type IV Collagen and Formation of Abnormal Basement Membrane-like Structure in Embryoid Bodies Derived from Hsp47-Null Embryonic Stem CellsD⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Hiroshi; Adachi, Eijiro; Nagai, Naoko; Marutani, Toshihiro; Hosokawa, Nobuko; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Hsp47 is a molecular chaperone that specifically recognizes procollagen in the endoplasmic reticulum. Hsp47-null mouse embryos produce immature type I collagen and form discontinuous basement membranes. We established Hsp47-/- embryonic stem cell lines and examined formation of basement membrane and production of type IV collagen in embryoid bodies, a model for postimplantation egg-cylinder stage embryos. The visceral endodermal cell layers surrounding Hsp47-/- embryoid bodies were often diso...

  9. The central role of vascular extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: the matrix preloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh C

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The vascular endothelial basement membrane and extra cellular matrix is a compilation of different macromolecules organized by physical entanglements, opposing ionic charges, chemical covalent bonding, and cross-linking into a biomechanically active polymer. These matrices provide a gel-like form and scaffolding structure with regional tensile strength provided by collagens, elasticity by elastins, adhesiveness by structural glycoproteins, compressibility by proteoglycans – hyaluronans, and communicability by a family of integrins, which exchanges information between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix of vascular tissues. Each component of the extracellular matrix and specifically the capillary basement membrane possesses unique structural properties and interactions with one another, which determine the separate and combined roles in the multiple diabetic complications or diabetic opathies. Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and their parallel companion (atheroscleropathy are associated with multiple metabolic toxicities and chronic injurious stimuli. The adaptable quality of a matrix or form genetically preloaded with the necessary information to communicate and respond to an ever-changing environment, which supports the interstitium, capillary and arterial vessel wall is individually examined.

  10. The distribution of IgG subclass deposition on renal tissues from patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease

    OpenAIRE

    QU, ZHEN; Cui, Zhao; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal injury of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is defined by the linear deposition of IgG along GBM and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. To date, the distribution of anti-GBM IgG subclasses on renal tissue is still unclear. In the current study, we investigated the deposition of the four IgG subclasses using immunohistochemistry in the renal biopsy specimens from 46 patients with anti-GBM disease. Results All four IgG subclasses can be detected within the GB...

  11. Polyphophoinositides components of plant nuclear membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polyphosphoinositides, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), have been shown to be important components in signal transduction in many animal cells. Recently, these lipids have been found to be associated with plasma membrane but not microsomal membrane isolated from fusogenic wild carrot cells; however, in that study the lipids of the nuclear membrane were not analyzed. Since polyphosphoinositides had been shown to be associated with the nuclear membranes as well as the plasma membrane in some animal cells, it was important to determine whether they were associated with plant nuclear membranes as well. Cells were labeled for 18h with [3H] inositol and the nuclei were isolated by a modification of the procedure of Saxena et al. Preliminary lipid analyses indicate lower amount of PIP and PIP2 in nuclear membranes compared to whole protoplasts. This suggests that the nuclear membranes of carrot cells are not enriched in PIP and PIP2; however, the Triton X-100 used during the nuclear isolation procedure may have affected the recovery of the lipids. Experiments are in progress to determine the effects of Triton X-100 on lipid extraction

  12. Deletion of the basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan type XVIII collagen causes hypertriglyceridemia in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Bishop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetically altering endothelial cell heparan sulfate had no effect on Lpl localization or lipolysis. The objective of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix proteoglycans affect Lpl distribution and triglyceride metabolism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We examined mutant mice defective in collagen XVIII (Col18, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan present in vascular basement membranes. Loss of Col18 reduces plasma levels of Lpl enzyme and activity, which results in mild fasting hypertriglyceridemia and diet-induced hyperchylomicronemia. Humans with Knobloch Syndrome caused by a null mutation in the vascular form of Col18 also present lower than normal plasma Lpl mass and activity and exhibit fasting hypertriglyceridemia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report demonstrating that Lpl presentation on the lumenal side of the endothelium depends on a basement membrane proteoglycan and demonstrates a previously unrecognized phenotype in patients lacking Col18.

  13. cDNA cloning of the basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein, bamacan: a five domain structure including coiled-coil motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, R R; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    Basement membranes contain several proteoglycans, and those bearing heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans such as perlecan and agrin usually predominate. Most mammalian basement membranes also contain chondroitin sulfate, and a core protein, bamacan, has been partially characterized. We have now...... obtained cDNA clones encoding the entire bamacan core protein of Mr = 138 kD, which reveal a five domain, head-rod-tail configuration. The head and tail are potentially globular, while the central large rod probably forms coiled-coil structures, with one large central and several very short interruptions....... This molecular architecture is novel for an extracellular matrix molecule, but it resembles that of a group of intracellular proteins, including some proposed to stabilize the mitotic chromosome scaffold. We have previously proposed a similar stabilizing role for bamacan in the basement membrane matrix...

  14. Sequential occurrence of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease 9 years after anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pui Shan Julia; Leung, Moon Ho

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of 63-year-old Chinese man, having a history of anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibody anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated pulmonary-renal syndrome 9 years ago, presented with second episode of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and alveolar haemorrhage compatible with anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease. In first presentation, his anti-GBM antibody was negative. This time, anti-MPO antibody was negative, but anti-GBM antibody was positive. The long interval of sequential development of anti-GBM disease after ANCA-associated vasculitis in this patient may provide clues to the potential immunological links between these two distinct conditions. Clinicians should be aware of such double-positive association.

  15. A role for PDGF-C/PDGFRα signaling in the formation of the meningeal basement membranes surrounding the cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, Johanna; Gouveia, Leonor; Gallini, Radiosa; He, Liqun; Fredriksson, Linda; Nilsson, Ingrid; Johansson, Bengt R; Eriksson, Ulf; Betsholtz, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) is one of three known ligands for the tyrosine kinase receptor PDGFRα. Analysis ofPdgfcnull mice has demonstrated roles for PDGF-C in palate closure and the formation of cerebral ventricles, but redundancy with other PDGFRα ligands might obscure additional functions. In search of further developmental roles for PDGF-C, we generated mice that were double mutants forPdgfc(-/-)andPdgfra(GFP/+) These mice display a range of severe phenotypes including spina bifida, lung emphysema, abnormal meninges and neuronal over-migration in the cerebral cortex. We focused our analysis on the central nervous system (CNS), where PDGF-C was identified as a critical factor for the formation of meninges and assembly of the glia limitans basement membrane. We also present expression data onPdgfa,PdgfcandPdgfrain the cerebral cortex and microarray data on cerebral meninges. PMID:26988758

  16. Defective muscle basement membrane and lack of M-laminin in the dystrophic dy/dy mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, H; Christmas, P; Wu, X R;

    1994-01-01

    M-laminin is a major member of the laminin family of basement membrane proteins. It is prominently expressed in striated muscle and peripheral nerve. M-laminin is deficient in patients with the autosomal recessive Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy but is normal in patients with the sex......-linked Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. We have examined M-laminin expression in mice with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by the mutation dy. The heavy chain of M-laminin was undetectable in skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and peripheral nerve by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting in...... tissue from dy/dy mice, suggesting that M-laminin heavy-chain mRNA may be produced at very low levels or is unstable. Information about the chromosomal localization of the M heavy-chain in human and mouse suggests that a mutation in the M-chain gene causes the muscular dystrophy in dy/dy mice. The dy...

  17. (/sup 3/H)glucosamine and (/sup 3/H)proline radioautography of embryonic mouse dental basement membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, M.; Ruch, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    (/sup 3/H)proline and (/sup 3/H)glucosamine radioautography was performed to analyze the labeling pattern of mouse embryonic dental basement membrane before and during odontoblast terminal differentiation. Sixteen- and eighteen-day-old first lower molars and trypsin-isolated enamel organs, as well as EDTA-isolated dental papillae, were used. Continuous labeling for 12 to 24 hr was required with (/sup 3/H)proline to obtain a clear labeling of epithelial-mesenchymal junction in intact tooth germs or accumulation of surface label in trypsin-isolated enamel organs. With (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, after 6-hr labeling, the epithelial-mesenchymal junction was heavily labeled and the trypsin-isolated enamel organs accumulated substantial amounts of surface label, corresponding to the redeposited basement membrane. At Day 16 stage, these labels always had a uniform distribution and decreased during chase without any redistribution. At Day 18 stage, when the terminal differentiation of odontoblasts occurred the label accumulated in a unique pattern: much more label was at the epithelial surface corresponding to the top of the cusps than in the apical parts. During chase and only in intact tooth germs epithelial surfaces which had labeled poorly during pulse became labeled, but those labeling heavily during pulse lost label. This pattern existed only in the presence of mesenchyme. EDTA treatment of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled teeth enabled us to obtain isolated dental papillae with surface label. Distribution of this label was exactly the same as that for the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of intact teeth. During chase, these dental papillae completely lost the surface label. The mesenchyme seen to control the synthesis and/or the degradation of epithelially derived (/sup 3/H)glucosamine-labeled material.

  18. Histones have high affinity for the glomerular basement membrane. Relevance for immune complex formation in lupus nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedeke, T.M.; Stoeckl, F.W.W.; Weber, R.; Sugisaki, Y.; Batsford, S.R.; Vogt, A.

    1989-06-01

    An effort has been made to integrate insights on charge-based interactions in immune complex glomerulonephritis with nuclear antigen involvement in lupus nephritis. Attention was focussed on the histones, a group of highly cationic nuclear constituents, which could be expected to bind to fixed anionic sites present in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). We demonstrated that all histone subfractions, prepared according to Johns, have a high affinity for GBM and the basement membrane of peritubular capillaries. Tissue uptake of /sup 125/I-labeled histones was measured by injecting 200 micrograms of each fraction into the left kidney via the aorta and measuring organ uptake after 15 min. In glomeruli isolated from the left kidneys, the following quantities of histones were found: f1, 13 micrograms; f2a (f2al + f2a2), 17 micrograms; f2b, 17 micrograms; and f3, 32 micrograms. Kinetic studies of glomerular binding showed that f1 disappeared much more rapidly than f2a. The high affinity of histones (pI between 10.5 and 11.0; mol wt 10,000-22,000) for the GBM correlates well with their ability to form aggregates (mol wt greater than 100,000) for comparison lysozyme (pI 11, mol wt 14,000), which does not aggregate spontaneously bound poorly (0.4 micrograms in isolated glomeruli). The quantity of histones and lysozyme found in the isolated glomeruli paralleled their in vitro affinity for a Heparin-Sepharose column (gradient elution studies). This gel matrix contains the sulfated, highly anionic polysaccharide heparin, which is similar to the negatively charged heparan sulfate present in the GBM. Lysozyme eluted with 0.15 M NaCl, f1 with 1 M NaCl, and f2a, f2b, and f3 could not be fully desorbed even with 2 M NaCl; 6 M guanidine-HCl was necessary.

  19. 19-DEJ-1, a hemidesmosome-anchoring filament complex-associated monoclonal antibody. Definition of a new skin basement membrane antigenic defect in junctional and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    normally expressed in one or more forms of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) known to have structural and antigenic defects in skin basement membrane, we examined by indirect immunofluorescence 46 specimens of clinically normal skin from 43 patients representing each of the four forms of inherited EB (simplex, 15...

  20. Identification and expression profile of a putative basement membrane protein gene in the midgut of Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Da-Wei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The midgut undergoes histolysis and remodeling during the larval to adult transition in holometabolous insects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Results Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH, we identified a 531 bp cDNA predicted to encode a 176 amino acid protein, which we call hmg176. Northern and western blot analysis suggested that high levels of hmg176 are expressed in the midgut during molting, but not during metamorphosis. HMG176 protein was detected by immunofluorescence within the membrane of fat bodies and the basement membrane of the midgut of both molting and feeding larvae, but not in metamorphically committed larvae. In situ hybridization revealed that hmg176 transcripts mainly localized to the columnar cells of the midgut. Interestingly, a non-steroidal ecdysone agonist, RH-2485, significantly upregulated expression of hmg176. Conclusion These observations suggest that hmg176 encodes a larval-specific protein that may participate in sustaining larval midgut during larval development, possibly in response to ecdysteroid in vivo. This study will enlighten our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tissue histolysis during metamorphosis.

  1. Synthesis and localization of two sulphated glycoproteins associated with basement membranes and the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogan, B L; Taylor, A; Kurkinen, M; Couchman, J R

    1982-01-01

    Two sulphated glycoproteins (sgps) of apparent molecular weight (Mr) 180,000 and 150,000, are synthesized by murine PYS and PF HR9 parietal endoderm and Swiss 3T3 cells. The Mr 150,000 sgp has a similar chemical structure to the sulphated glycoprotein, C, synthesized and laid down in Reichert...... interactions and are not precursors or products of each other. They contain asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, but these are not the exclusive sites of sulphate labeling. Antiserum raised against the Mr 150,000 sgp C of Reichert's membranes has been used in an immunohistochemical analysis of rat skin. In...

  2. Localization of type IV collagen a 1 to a 6 chains in basement membrane during mouse molar germ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, N; Nakano, K; Sado, Y; Naito, I; Gunduz, M; Tsujigiwa, H; Nagatsuka, H; Ninomiya, Y; Siar, C H

    2001-10-01

    The dental basement membrane (BM) putatively mediates epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. Type IV collagen alpha chains, a major network-forming protein of the dental BM, was studied and results disclosed distinct expression patterns at different stages of mouse molar germ development. At the dental placode and bud stage, the BM of the oral epithelium expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains while the gubernaculum dentis, in addition to the above four chains, also expressed a 4 chain. An asymmetrical expression for alpha 4, alpha 5 and alpha 6 chains was observed at the bud stage. At the early bell stage, the BM associated with the inner enamel epithelium (IEE) of molar germ expressed alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 4 chains while the BM of the outer enamel epithelium (OEE) expressed only alpha 1 and a 2 chains. With the onset of dentinogenesis, the collagen a chain profile of the IEE BM gradually disappeared. Howeverfrom the early to late bell stage, the gubernaculum dentis consistently expressed alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5 and a 6 chains resembling fetal oral mucosa. These findings suggest that stage- and position-specific distribution of type IV collagen alpha subunits occur during molar germ development and that these changes are essential for molar morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. PMID:11732842

  3. Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrijsen, Ineke C M; Leegwater, Peter A J; Martin, Alan J; Harris, Stephen J; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Heuven, Henri C M; Hazewinkel, Herman A W

    2014-01-01

    Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, comparing data of nearly 18,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 48 cases and 30 controls using two different statistical methods. An individual SNP analysis based on comparison of allele frequencies with a χ(2) statistic was used, as well as a simultaneous SNP analysis based on Bayesian variable selection. Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the exons of genes of seven regions identified multiple associated alleles on chromosome 1, 5, 8, 20, 25 and 32 (phip dysplasia. These genes are involved in hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix integrity of basement membrane and cartilage. The functions of the genes are in agreement with the notion that disruptions in endochondral bone formation in combination with soft tissue defects are involved in the etiology of hip dysplasia. PMID:24498183

  4. Glomerular extraction of antiglomerular basement membrane antibody in normal Wistar and in Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our results show that A-GBM antibody is, unfortunably, not a suitable indicator for glomerular plasma flow distribution studies. Its fixation is influenced by other factors, among which the size of the glomeruli and hence the glomerular basement membrane surface area are probably predominant. This is suggested: 1) by the parallel patterns of antibody fixation and glomerular size found in normal and in DI rats; 2) by the simultaneous restoration of size and A-GBM fixation heterogeneity in treated DI rats; 3) by the correlation between size and A-GBM fixation found in the various glomeruli of a given rat. Further experiments are required to determine whether other factors are also involved in the process of A-GBM fixation. Because the A-GBM antibody is not an adequate blood flow indicator, it was not possible to study the influence of ADH on GPF distribution as we had first intended. Nevertheless, the use of Brattleboro rats in these experiments disclosed the fact that their deep glomeruli are abnormally small and that this anomaly can be reversed, or prevented, by chronic vasopressin treatment. It is not possible to determine from the present experiments whether ADH has a direct effect on kidney morphology or acts indirectly through the correction of the DI and its consequences or other mechanisms. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis and deposition of basement membrane proteins by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in a murine model of the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Burkhart, Annette;

    2016-01-01

    The brain vascular basement membrane is important for both blood-brain barrier (BBB) development, stability, and barrier integrity and the contribution hereto from brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), pericytes, and astrocytes of the BBB is probably significant. The aim of the present study......-culture, in co-culture with pericytes or mixed glial cells, or as a triple-culture with both pericytes and mixed glial cells. The integrity of the BBB models was validated by measures of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and passive permeability to mannitol. The expression of basement membrane...... proteins was analysed using RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry, and immunocytochemistry. Co-culturing mBCECs with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both significantly increased the TEER compared to the mono-culture, and a low passive permeability was correlated with high TEER. The mBCECs expressed all major...

  6. Control of mammary epithelial differentiation: basement membrane induces tissue-specific gene expression in the absence of cell-cell interaction and morphological polarity

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Functional differentiation in mammary epithelia requires specific hormones and local environmental signals. The latter are provided both by extracellular matrix and by communication with adjacent cells, their action being intricately connected in what appears to be a cascade of events leading to milk production. To distinguish between the influence of basement membrane and that of cell-cell contact in this process, we developed a novel suspension culture assay in which mammary epithelial cell...

  7. A two-dimensional model of the colonic crypt accounting for the role of the basement membrane and pericryptal fibroblast sheath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.

  8. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. ► Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. ► miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. ► miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a valuable approach to the in vitro study of miRNAs.

  9. Matrigel Basement Membrane Matrix influences expression of microRNAs in cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Karina J. [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6008 (Australia); Tsykin, Anna [Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Giles, Keith M. [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); Sladic, Rosemary T. [Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Epis, Michael R. [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); Ganss, Ruth [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine Angiogenesis Unit, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); Goodall, Gregory J. [Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); School of Molecular and Biomedical Science, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Department of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Leedman, Peter J., E-mail: peter.leedman@waimr.uwa.edu.au [Laboratory for Cancer Medicine, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Perth, WA 6000 (Australia); School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6008 (Australia)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Matrigel alters cancer cell line miRNA expression relative to culture on plastic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many identified Matrigel-regulated miRNAs are implicated in cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-1290, -210, -32 and -29b represent a Matrigel-induced miRNA signature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-32 down-regulates Integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) mRNA. -- Abstract: Matrigel is a medium rich in extracellular matrix (ECM) components used for three-dimensional cell culture and is known to alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and have roles in cancer. While miRNA profiles of numerous cell lines cultured on plastic have been reported, the influence of Matrigel-based culture on cancer cell miRNA expression is largely unknown. This study investigated the influence of Matrigel on the expression of miRNAs that might facilitate ECM-associated cancer cell growth. We performed miRNA profiling by microarray using two colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW620), identifying significant differential expression of miRNAs between cells cultured in Matrigel and on plastic. Many of these miRNAs have previously been implicated in cancer-related processes. A common Matrigel-induced miRNA signature comprised of up-regulated miR-1290 and miR-210 and down-regulated miR-29b and miR-32 was identified using RT-qPCR across five epithelial cancer cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29, A549 and MDA-MB-231). Experimental modulation of these miRNAs altered expression of their known target mRNAs involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and invasion, in colon cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ITGA5 was identified as a novel putative target of miR-32 that may facilitate cancer cell interactions with the ECM. We propose that culture of cancer cell lines in Matrigel more accurately recapitulates miRNA expression and function in cancer than culture on plastic and thus is a

  10. Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke C M Lavrijsen

    Full Text Available Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study in Dutch Labrador Retrievers, comparing data of nearly 18,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 48 cases and 30 controls using two different statistical methods. An individual SNP analysis based on comparison of allele frequencies with a χ(2 statistic was used, as well as a simultaneous SNP analysis based on Bayesian variable selection. Significant association with canine hip dysplasia was observed on chromosome 8, as well as suggestive association on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, 20, 25 and 32. Next-generation DNA sequencing of the exons of genes of seven regions identified multiple associated alleles on chromosome 1, 5, 8, 20, 25 and 32 (p<0.001. Candidate genes located in the associated regions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 25 included LAMA2, LRR1 and COL6A3, respectively. The associated region on CFA20 contained candidate genes GDF15, COMP and CILP2. In conclusion, our study identified candidate genes that might affect susceptibility to canine hip dysplasia. These genes are involved in hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix integrity of basement membrane and cartilage. The functions of the genes are in agreement with the notion that disruptions in endochondral bone formation in combination with soft tissue defects are involved in the etiology of hip dysplasia.

  11. Subepithelial basement membrane thickness in patients with normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopy:Results from southern Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazilet Kayaselcuk; Ender Serin; Yǖksel Gumurdulu; Birol Ozer; Ilhan Tuncer; Sedat Boyacioglu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Our aims were to determine the normal limits of subepithelial basement membrane (SEBM) thickness in order to more accurately diagnose collagenous colitis in the population from southern Turkey and to investigate into links between SEBM thickness and age, and sex.METHODS: The study included 100 patients (mean age 50.0±13.3 years; male, 34; female, 66) with miscellaneous gastrointestinal symptoms, and normal colonic mucosal appearance in colonoscopic evaluation. Biopsies were taken from five different regions of the colon. SEBM was measured with a calibrated eyepiece on specimens prepared with specific stains for collagen. Intensity of inflammatory cells was graded semiquantitatively. Differences in SEBM thickness among the different colon regions, and relationships between SEBM thickness and age, sex, and density of inflammatory cells were statistically evaluated.RESULTS: The cecum and rectum showed the largest amounts of infiltrate. None of the specimens showed histologic findings of collagenous colitis. The SEBM thicknesses measured for each case ranged from 3-20 μm. The biggest thickness was observed in rectal mucosa (median value: 10 μm).Cecum and ascending colon showed similar SEBM thickness (median value: 5 μm). SEBM thickness was not correlated with patient age or sex, but was positively correlated with the intensity of inflammatory cells in each colon segment.CONCLUSION: In this patient group from southern Turkey,SEBM was thickest in the rectum. Our results indicate that,in this population, SEBM thickness is not correlated with age or sex, but is positively correlated with severity of inflammation. The findings also support the concept that measuring SEBM thickness at one segment in the colon is inadequate and may be misleading.

  12. Basement membrane components secreted by mouse yolk sac carcinoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damjanov, A; Wewer, U M; Tuma, B;

    1990-01-01

    Three new cell lines (NE, ME, LRD) were cloned from mouse-embryo-derived teratocarcinomas and characterized on the basis of developmental, ultrastructural, and cytochemical criteria as nullipotent embryonal carcinoma (EC), pure parietal yolk sac (PYS) carcinoma and mixed parieto-visceral yolk sac...

  13. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    Dermal papillae are small mesenchymally derived zones at the bases of hair follicles which have an important role in hair morphogenesis in the embryo and control of the hair growth cycle in postnatal mammals. The cells of the papilla are enmeshed in a dense extracellular matrix which undergoes...

  14. Normal and tumor-derived myoepithelial cells differ in their ability to interact with luminal breast epithelial cells for polarity and basement membrane deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Villadsen, Rene; Rank, Fritz; Bissell, Mina J.; Petersen, Ole William

    2001-10-04

    The signals that determine the correct polarity of breast epithelial structures in vivo are not understood. We have shown previously that luminal epithelial cells can be polarized when cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane gel. We reasoned that such cues in vivo may be given by myoepithelial cells. Accordingly, we used an assay where luminal epithelial cells are incorrectly polarized to test this hypothesis. We show that culturing human primary luminal epithelial cells within collagen-I gels leads to formation of structures with no lumina and with reverse polarity as judged by dual stainings for sialomucin, epithelial specific antigen or occludin. No basement membrane is deposited, and {beta}4-integrin staining is negative. Addition of purified human myoepithelial cells isolated from normal glands corrects the inverse polarity, and leads to formation of double-layered acini with central lumina. Among the laminins present in the human breast basement membrane (laminin-1, -5 and -10/11), laminin-1 was unique in its ability to substitute for myoepithelial cells in polarity reversal. Myoepithelial cells were purified also from four different breast cancer sources including a biphasic cell line. Three out of four samples either totally lacked the ability to interact with luminal epithelial cells, or conveyed only correction of polarity in a fraction of acini. This behavior was directly related to the ability of the tumor myoepithelial cells to produce {alpha}-1 chain of laminin. In vivo, breast carcinomas were either negative for laminin-1 (7/12 biopsies) or showed a focal, fragmented deposition of a less intensely stained basement membrane (5/12 biopsies). Dual staining with myoepithelial markers revealed that tumorassociated myoepithelial cells were either negative or weakly positive for expression of laminin-1, establishing a strong correlation between loss of laminin-1 and breast cancer. We conclude that the double-layered breast acinus may be

  15. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments. (fast track communication)

  16. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments. PMID:26448393

  17. Case with Brunsting-Perry-like localized subepidermal blister formations and immunoglobulin G antibodies against unidentified basement membrane zone antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Shibuya, Mami; Dainichi, Teruki; Egawa, Gyohei; Honda, Tetsuya; Otsuka, Atsushi; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kabashima, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    Brunsting-Perry type bullous pemphigoid is defined by the blister formation limited to the head and neck, and autoantibodies to type VII collagen are detected in several cases. However, the pathomechanisms and autoantigens in this condition remain unknown. We report a 20-year-old female patient with a more than 2-year history of recurrent tense blisters localized on the face with no distinct atrophic scar formation. The patient had neither extensive sun exposure nor a history suggestive of contact dermatitis. Oral betamethasone was effective on the skin lesions. Histopathology revealed subepidermal blister formation with dermal infiltrates of neutrophils. Although direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests detected immunoglobulin G antibodies to the basement membrane zone (BMZ), no known dermal or epidermal autoantigens were detected in immunoblot analyses. Therefore, this case may be a rare variant of Brunsting-Perry type localized bullous pemphigoid with autoantibodies to an undetermined BMZ antigen. PMID:26362108

  18. Glycosylation of human glomerular basement membrane collagen: increased content of hexose in ketoamine linkage and unaltered hydroxylysine-O-glycosides in patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, J; Perejda, A J; Grant, G A; Rowold, E A; Kilo, C; Williamson, J R

    1982-01-01

    To study the glycosylation of glomerular basement membrane collagen (GBMC) in diabetes, kidneys were obtained at autopsy from 5 patients with insulin-requiring diabetes of long duration and diabetic complications, and from 5 control subjects. Glomeruli were prepared by sieving and collagen was isolated by limited pepsin proteolysis followed by salt precipitations. Amino acid analyses of the collagen preparations, after acid hydrolysis, indicated a composition consistent with that of type IV collagen. No differences in the relative contents of various amino acids, and in particular, 3-hydroxyproline, 4-hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, were noted between diabetic and control samples. Non-enzymatic glucosylation was assessed by measuring hexose in ketoamine linkage with thiobarbituric acid after conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. In 4 of the 5 patients studied, glucosylation values exceeded the mean +2 S.D. of the controls; in the fifth subject glucosylation was in the high normal range. No correlation between the severity of diabetes and hexose content of GBMC was noted, however. In further studies, enzymatic glycosylation of GBMC was assayed after alkaline hydrolysis by separation of glucosylgalactosyl-O-hydroxylysine, galactosyl-O-hydroxylysine, and unsubstituted hydroxylysine in an amino acid analyzer. No differences in the relative contents of hydroxylysine-O-glycosides were evident between diabetic and control GBMC. The results suggest that non-enzymatic glucosylation, but not glycosylation catalyzed by collagen glucosyl and galactosyl transferases, is increased in diabetes. The increased carbohydrate content of collagen may lead to decreased turnover and/or excessive accumulations of basement membrane collagen thus contributing to the vascular complications of diabetes. PMID:6218960

  19. Heparanase expression,degradation of basement membrane and low degree of infiltration by immunocytes correlate with invasion and progression of human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zun-Jiang Xie; Ying Liu; Li-Min Jia; Ye-Chun He

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To disclose the mechanisms that accelerate or limit tumor invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer patients.METHODS: The heparanase expression,continuity of basement,degree of infiltration by dendritic cells and lymphocytes in gastric cancer tissues from 33 the early and late stage patients were examined by immunohistochemistry,in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy.RESULTS: Heparanase mRNA expression in the late stage patients with gastric cancer was stronger than that in the early stage gastric cancer patients.In the early stage gastric cancer tissues,basement membrane (BlVl) appeared intact,whereas in the late stage,discontinuous BM was often present.The density of $100 protein positive tumor infiltrating dendritic cells (TIDC) in the early stage gastric cancer tissues was higher than that in the late stage.The infiltrating degree of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in the early stage patients whose tumor tissues contained a high density of TIDC was significantly higher than that in the late stage gastric cancer tissues patients with a low density of TIDC.There were few cancer cells penetrated through the continuous BM of cancer nests in the early stage gastric cancers,but many cancer cells were found outside of the defective BM of cancer nests in the late stage.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that strong heparanase expression is related with the degradation of BM which allows or accelerates tumor invasion and metastasis.However,high density of TIDC and degree of infiltration by TIL are associated with tumor progression in human gastric cancers.

  20. H-ras oncogene-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single metalloprotease capable of degrading basement membrane collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H-ras transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (TBE-1) secrete a single major extracellular matrix metalloprotease which is not found in the normal parental cells. The enzyme is secreted in a latent form which can be activated to catalyze the cleavage of the basement membrane macromolecule type IV collagen. The substrates in their order of preference are: gelatin, type IV collagen, type V collagen, fibronectin, and type VII collagen; but the enzyme does not cleave the interstitial collagens or laminin. This protease is identical to gelatinase isolated from normal human skin explants, normal human skin fibroblasts, and SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts. Based on this ability to initiate the degradation of type IV collagen in a pepsin-resistant portion of the molecule, it will be referred to as type IV collagenase. This enzyme is most likely the human analog of type IV collagenase detected in several rodent tumors. Type IV collagenase consists of three domains. Type IV collagenase represents the third member of a newly recognized gene family coding for secreted extracellular matrix metalloproteases, which includes interstitial fibroblast collagenase and stromelysin

  1. Genetic interaction between Caenorhabditis elegans teneurin ten-1 and prolyl 4-hydroxylase phy-1 and their function in collagen IV–mediated basement membrane integrity during late elongation of the embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topf, Ulrike; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Teneurins are a family of phylogenetically conserved proteins implicated in pattern formation and morphogenesis. The sole orthologue in Caenorhabditis elegans, ten-1, is important for hypodermal cell migration, neuronal migration, path finding and fasciculation, gonad development, and basement membrane integrity of some tissues. However, the mechanisms of TEN-1 action remain to be elucidated. Using a genome-wide RNA interference approach, we identified phy-1 as a novel interaction partner of ten-1. phy-1 codes for the catalytic domain of collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase. Loss of phy-1 significantly enhanced the embryonic lethality of ten-1 null mutants. Double-mutant embryos arrested during late elongation with epidermal defects, disruption of basement membranes, and detachment of body wall muscles. We found that deletion of phy-1 caused aggregation of collagen IV in body wall muscles in elongated embryos and triggered the loss of tissue integrity in ten-1 mutants. In addition, phy-1 and ten-1 each genetically interact with genes encoding collagen IV. These findings support a functional mechanism in which loss of ten-1, together with a reduction of assembled and secreted basement membrane collagen IV protein, leads to detachment of the epidermis from muscle cells during late elongation of the embryo when mechanical stress is generated by muscle contractions. PMID:21795395

  2. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that the major gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mammalian craniofacial development. Since these matrix metalloproteinases are secreted as proenzymes that require activation, their tissue distribution does not necessarily reflect the sites of enzymatic activity. Information regarding the spatial and temporal expression of gelatinolytic activity in the head of the mammalian embryo is sparse. Sensitive in situ zymography with dye-quenched gelatin (DQ-gelatin) has been introduced recently; gelatinolytic activity results in a local increase in fluorescence. Using frontal sections of wild-type mouse embryo heads from embryonic day 14.5-15.5, we optimized and validated a simple double-labeling in situ technique for combining DQ-gelatin zymography with immunofluorescence staining. MMP inhibitors were tested to confirm the specificity of the reaction in situ, and results were compared to standard SDS-gel zymography of tissue extracts. Double-labeling was used to show the spatial relationship in situ between gelatinolytic activity and immunostaining for gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, collagenase 3 (MMP-13) and MT1-MMP (MMP-14), a major activator of pro-gelatinases. Strong gelatinolytic activity, which partially overlapped with MMP proteins, was confirmed for Meckel's cartilage and developing mandibular bone. In addition, we combined in situ zymography with immunostaining for extracellular matrix proteins that are potential gelatinase substrates. Interestingly, gelatinolytic activity colocalized precisely with laminin-positive basement membranes at specific sites around growing epithelia in the developing mouse head, such as the ducts of salivary glands or the epithelial fold between tongue and lower jaw region. Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:22688677

  3. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C6-C10 fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.

  4. Targeted Expression of Stromelysin-1 in Mammary Gland Provides Evidence for a Role of Proteinases in Branching Morphogenesis and the Requirement for an Intact Basement Membrane for Tissue-specific Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sympson, Carolyn J; Talhouk, Rabih S; Alexander, Caroline M; Chin, Jennie R; Cliff, Shirley M; Bissell, Mina J; Werb, Zena

    1994-05-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of the differentiated phenotype of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Despite the fact that ECM-degrading enzymes have been implicated in morphogenesis and tissue remodeling, there is little evidence for a direct role for such regulation in vivo. We generated transgenic mice that express autoactivated isoforms of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1, under the control of the whey acidic protein gene promoter, to examine the effect of inappropriate expression of this enzyme. Stromelysin-1 is implicated as the primary player in the loss of basement membrane and loss of function in the mammary gland during involution. The transgene was expressed at low levels in mammary glands of virgin female mice, leading to an unexpected phenotype: The primary ducts had supernumerary branches and showed precocious development of alveoli that expressed beta-casein at levels similar to that of an early- to mid-pregnant gland. Lactating glands showed high levels of transgene expression, with accumulation at the basement membrane, and a decrease in laminin and collagen IV, resulting in a loss of basement membrane integrity; this was accompanied by a dramatic alteration of alveolar morphology, with decreased size and shrunken lumina containing little beta-casein. During pregnancy, expression of endogenous whey acidic protein and beta-casein was reduced in transgenic glands, confirming the observed dependence of milk protein transcription of ECM in mammary epithelial cells in culture. These data provide direct evidence that stromelysin-1 activity can be morphogenic for mammary epithelial cells, inducing hyperproliferation and differentiation in virgin animals, and that its lytic activity can, indeed, disrupt membrane integrity and reduce mammary-specific function. We conclude that the balance of ECM-degrading enzymes with their inhibitors, and the associated regulation of ECM structure, is crucial for tissue-specific gene

  5. Proteolysis breaks tolerance toward intact α345(IV) collagen, eliciting novel anti-glomerular basement membrane autoantibodies specific for α345NC1 hexamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Florina; Wang, Xu-Ping; Luo, Wentian; Ge, Linna; Miner, Jeffrey H; Kleinau, Sandra; Geiger, Xochiquetzal J; Wasiluk, Andrew; Heidet, Laurence; Kitching, A Richard; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2013-02-15

    Goodpasture disease is an autoimmune kidney disease mediated by autoantibodies against noncollagenous domain 1 (NC1) monomers of α3(IV) collagen that bind to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), usually causing rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (GN). We identified a novel type of human IgG4-restricted anti-GBM autoantibodies associated with mild nonprogressive GN, which specifically targeted α345NC1 hexamers but not α3NC1 monomers. The mechanisms eliciting these anti-GBM autoantibodies were investigated in mouse models recapitulating this phenotype. Wild-type and FcγRIIB(-/-) mice immunized with autologous murine GBM NC1 hexamers produced mouse IgG1-restricted autoantibodies specific for α345NC1 hexamers, which bound to the GBM in vivo but did not cause GN. In these mice, intact collagen IV from murine GBM was not immunogenic. However, in Col4a3(-/-) Alport mice, both intact collagen IV and NC1 hexamers from murine GBM elicited IgG Abs specific for α345NC1 hexamers, which were not subclass restricted. As heterologous Ag in COL4A3-humanized mice, murine GBM NC1 hexamers elicited mouse IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b autoantibodies specific for α345NC1 hexamers and induced anti-GBM Ab GN. These findings indicate that tolerance toward autologous intact α345(IV) collagen is established in hosts expressing this Ag, even though autoreactive B cells specific for α345NC1 hexamers are not purged from their repertoire. Proteolysis selectively breaches this tolerance by generating autoimmunogenic α345NC1 hexamers. This provides a mechanism eliciting autoantibodies specific for α345NC1 hexamers, which are restricted to noninflammatory IgG subclasses and are nonnephritogenic. In Alport syndrome, lack of tolerance toward α345(IV) collagen promotes production of alloantibodies to α345NC1 hexamers, including proinflammatory IgG subclasses that mediate posttransplant anti-GBM nephritis. PMID:23303673

  6. PECAM-1 (CD31) Homophilic Interaction Up-Regulates α6β1 on Transmigrated Neutrophils In Vivo and Plays a Functional Role in the Ability of α6 Integrins to Mediate Leukocyte Migration through the Perivascular Basement Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Dangerfield, John; Larbi, Karen Y.; Huang, Miao-Tzu; Dewar, Ann; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2002-01-01

    Platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1 has been implicated in leukocyte migration through the perivascular basement membrane (PBM) though the mechanisms involved are unclear. The present results demonstrate that the ability of α6 integrins to mediate neutrophil migration through the PBM is PECAM-1 dependent, a response associated with PECAM-1–mediated increased expression of α6β1 on transmigrating neutrophils in vivo. An anti-α6 integrins mAb (GoH3) inhibited (78%, P < 0.001) n...

  7. Membrane processes in production of functional whey components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Yilmaz-Ersan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, whey has been recognised as a major source of nutritional and functional ingredients for the food industry. Commercial whey products include various powders, whey protein concentrates and isolates, and fractionated proteins, such as a-lactalbumin and b-lactoglobulin. The increased interest in separation and fractionation of whey proteins arises from the differences in their functional, biological and nutritional properties. In response to concerns about environmental aspects, research has been focused on membrane filtration technology, which provides exciting new opportunities for large-scale protein and lactose fractionation. Membrane separation is such technique in which particles are separated according to their molecular size. The types of membrane processing techniques are ultrafiltration, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, pervaporation, electrodialysis and nanofiltration. A higher purification of whey proteins is possible by combining membrane separation with ion-exchange. This paper provides an overview of types and applications of membrane separation techniques

  8. Seismic basement in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  9. Sendai Virus Fusion Activity as Modulated by Target Membrane Components

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes-Correia, Isabel; Ramalho-Santos, João; Maria C Pedroso de Lima

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the differences between erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts as target membranes for the study of Sendai virus fusion activity. Fusion was monitored continuously by fluorescence dequenching of R18-labeled virus. Experiments were carried out either with or without virus/target membrane prebinding. When Sendai virus was added directly to a erythrocyte/erythrocyte ghost suspension, fusion was always lower than that obtained when experiments were carried out with virus already boun...

  10. Effect of components in activated sludge liquor on membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shui-li; ZHAO Fang-bo; ZHANG Xiao-hui; JING Guo-lin; ZHEN Xiang-hua

    2006-01-01

    By a membrane bioreactor with a settle tank in long-term operation and batch experiments, the effects of flocs, soluble microorganism products (SMPs) and metal ions in activated sludge liquor on membrane fouling were investigated. The results showed that foulants absorbed each other and formed a fouling layer as a "second membrane" influencing the permeability of the membrane.The "gel layer" caused by SMPs and "cake layer" by flocs showed great differences in morphology by analysis of scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The "gel layer" was more compact and of poor permeability. When the membrane flux was MPa/h). SMPs played very important roles on membrane fouling. In the bu1king sludge, with SMPs increasing, the rate of membrane fouling (0.0132 MPa/h) was faster. While after flocculation of the SMPs, the rate of fouling decreased to 0.0034 MPa/h. Flocs could keep holes in their overlaps. They could alleviate membrane fouling by preventing the SMPs directly attaching on membrane surface.

  11. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 regulates hepcidin biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang LI; Rhee, David K.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Mayeur, Claire; Hurst, Liam A.; Ager, Emily; Shelton, Georgia; Kramer, Yael; McCulloh, David; Keefe, David; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Bloch, Donald B.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is tightly regulated by the membrane iron exporter ferroportin and its regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin. The hepcidin/ferroportin axis is considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases of iron overload or deficiency. Here, we conducted a chemical screen in zebrafish to identify small molecules that decrease ferroportin protein levels. The chemical screen led to the identification of 3 steroid molecules, epitiostanol, progesterone, and mifepristone,...

  12. Nanofiltration membranes: a new concept for component separation (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a treatment technology which is suitable for selective removal of solutes from solvents in process industries. Its application is increasing worldwide due to certain advantages associated to this technique such as low operation pressure, high flux, high retention of multivalent ion salts and low maintenance costs. Recently this technique has been successfully applied for removal of uranium from drinking water. Experiments were conducted for separation of 'U' contents from waste stream of Uranium Refining Plant at CPC Project. A spiral wound polypiprazine amide nano filtration membrane with an effective surface area of 2.60 m2 was used for this experimentation. The experiments were carried out with concentration mode. The results of this study show 'U' content retention of greater than 99% whereas 'U' contents were found to be less than 3 ppm in the permeate stream. The results further reveal that the pH of the feed solution had significant influence on retention efficiency of the membrane. The membrane retention efficiency was reduced to 85% when feed with a pH of 1.0 was processed whereas maximum retention was found to be at neutral pH value. (author)

  13. Slc20a2 deficiency results in fetal growth restriction and placental calcification associated with thickened basement membranes and novel CD13 and lamininα1 expressing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Mary C; Gammill, Hilary S; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2016-03-01

    The essential nutrient phosphorus must be taken up by the mammalian embryo during gestation. The mechanism(s) and key proteins responsible for maternal to fetal phosphate transport have not been identified. Established parameters for placental phosphate transport match those of the type III phosphate transporters, Slc20a1 and Slc20a2. Both members are expressed in human placenta, and their altered expression is linked to preeclampsia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Slc20a2 is required for placental function. Indeed, complete deficiency of Slc20a2 in either the maternal or embryonic placental compartment results in fetal growth restriction. We found that Slc20a2 null mice can reproduce, but are subviable; ∼50% are lost prior to weaning age. We also observed that 23% of Slc20a2 deficient females develop pregnancy complications at full term, with tremors and placental abnormalities including abnormal vascular structure, increased basement membrane deposition, abundant calcification, and accumulation of novel CD13 and lamininα1 positive cells. Together these data support that Slc20a2 deficiency impacts both maternal and neonatal health, and Slc20a2 is required for normal placental function. In humans, decreased levels of placental Slc20a1 and Slc20a2 have been correlated with early onset preeclampsia, a disorder that can manifest from placental dysfunction. In addition, preterm placental calcification has been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. We surveyed placental calcification in human preeclamptic placenta samples, and detected basement membrane-associated placental calcification as well as a comparable lamininα1 positive cell type, indicating that similar mechanisms may underlie both human and mouse placental calcification. PMID:26952749

  14. Gradient composite metal-ceramic foam as supportive component for planar SOFCs and MIEC membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel approach to the design of planar gradient porous supports for the thin-film SOFCs and MIEC membranes is described. The support's thermal expansion is controlled by the creation of a two-component composite metal-ceramic foam structure. Thin MIEC membranes and SOFCs were prepared on the composite supports by the layerwise deposition of composite functional layers including complex fluorites and perovskites. Lab-scale studies demonstrated promising performance of both MIEC membrane and SOFC.

  15. Role of basement membranes and their break-down in human carcinomas:a study by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of the expression of laminin chains, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Määttä, M. (Mikko)

    2000-01-01

    Abstract In malignancies many alterations involving matrix macromolecule synthesis, secretion and assembly into basement membranes (BMs) as well as their degradation are present. The most important groups associated with matrix turnover are matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs). In this study altogether 285 tissue samples were investigated comprising various malignant epithelial tumors and normal tissue structures, in which the distribution of different laminin ...

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    OpenAIRE

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different p...

  17. Actomyosin dynamics drive local membrane component organization in an in vitro active composite layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Darius Vasco; Husain, Kabir; Iljazi, Elda; Bhat, Abrar; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R Dyche; Rao, Madan; Mayor, Satyajit

    2016-03-22

    The surface of a living cell provides a platform for receptor signaling, protein sorting, transport, and endocytosis, whose regulation requires the local control of membrane organization. Previous work has revealed a role for dynamic actomyosin in membrane protein and lipid organization, suggesting that the cell surface behaves as an active composite composed of a fluid bilayer and a thin film of active actomyosin. We reconstitute an analogous system in vitro that consists of a fluid lipid bilayer coupled via membrane-associated actin-binding proteins to dynamic actin filaments and myosin motors. Upon complete consumption of ATP, this system settles into distinct phases of actin organization, namely bundled filaments, linked apolar asters, and a lattice of polar asters. These depend on actin concentration, filament length, and actin/myosin ratio. During formation of the polar aster phase, advection of the self-organizing actomyosin network drives transient clustering of actin-associated membrane components. Regeneration of ATP supports a constitutively remodeling actomyosin state, which in turn drives active fluctuations of coupled membrane components, resembling those observed at the cell surface. In a multicomponent membrane bilayer, this remodeling actomyosin layer contributes to changes in the extent and dynamics of phase-segregating domains. These results show how local membrane composition can be driven by active processes arising from actomyosin, highlighting the fundamental basis of the active composite model of the cell surface, and indicate its relevance to the study of membrane organization. PMID:26929326

  18. Photoaffinity labeling of components of the apamin-sensitive K+ channel in neuronal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An azidonitrophenylaminoacetyl mono[125I]iodoapamin derivative was prepared which showed specific binding to rat neuronal membranes. UV photolysis lead to the irreversible occupation of binding sites. Photo- labeling of intact primary cultured rat neurons followed by membrane solubilization, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and autoradiography revealed the covalent incorporation of radioactivity into 3 main components with Mr = 86,000, 30,000, and 23, 000. Labeling was completely prevented by a competing excess of native apamin. Similar studies on purified synaptic membranes from the rat brain showed another labeling pattern with major bands corresponding to Mr = 86,000 and 59,000. Although the reasons for the partial discrepancy between cultured embryonic neurons and an adult brain membrane fraction are not yet clear, the authors conclude that these proteins are intimately associated with the apamin binding site and are probably components of a type of Ca2+-activated K+ channel

  19. Photoaffinity labeling of components of the apamin-sensitive K+ channel in neuronal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seagar, M.J.; Labbe-Jullie, C.; Granier, C.; Van Rietschoten, J.; Couraud, F.

    1985-04-10

    An azidonitrophenylaminoacetyl mono(/sup 125/I)iodoapamin derivative was prepared which showed specific binding to rat neuronal membranes. UV photolysis lead to the irreversible occupation of binding sites. Photo- labeling of intact primary cultured rat neurons followed by membrane solubilization, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and autoradiography revealed the covalent incorporation of radioactivity into 3 main components with Mr = 86,000, 30,000, and 23, 000. Labeling was completely prevented by a competing excess of native apamin. Similar studies on purified synaptic membranes from the rat brain showed another labeling pattern with major bands corresponding to Mr = 86,000 and 59,000. Although the reasons for the partial discrepancy between cultured embryonic neurons and an adult brain membrane fraction are not yet clear, the authors conclude that these proteins are intimately associated with the apamin binding site and are probably components of a type of Ca2+-activated K+ channel.

  20. The core components of organelle biogenesis and membrane transport in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Rada

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protist of the Excavata group. It contains an anaerobic form of mitochondria called hydrogenosomes, which produce hydrogen and ATP; the majority of mitochondrial pathways and the organellar genome were lost during the mitochondrion-to-hydrogenosome transition. Consequently, all hydrogenosomal proteins are encoded in the nucleus and imported into the organelles. However, little is known about the membrane machineries required for biogenesis of the organelle and metabolite exchange. Using a combination of mass spectrometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, in vitro import assays and reverse genetics, we characterized the membrane proteins of the hydrogenosome. We identified components of the outer membrane (TOM and inner membrane (TIM protein translocases include multiple paralogs of the core Tom40-type porins and Tim17/22/23 channel proteins, respectively, and uniquely modified small Tim chaperones. The inner membrane proteins TvTim17/22/23-1 and Pam18 were shown to possess conserved information for targeting to mitochondrial inner membranes, but too divergent in sequence to support the growth of yeast strains lacking Tim17, Tim22, Tim23 or Pam18. Full complementation was seen only when the J-domain of hydrogenosomal Pam18 was fused with N-terminal region and transmembrane segment of the yeast homolog. Candidates for metabolite exchange across the outer membrane were identified including multiple isoforms of the β-barrel proteins, Hmp35 and Hmp36; inner membrane MCF-type metabolite carriers were limited to five homologs of the ATP/ADP carrier, Hmp31. Lastly, hydrogenosomes possess a pathway for the assembly of C-tail-anchored proteins into their outer membrane with several new tail-anchored proteins being identified. These results show that hydrogenosomes and mitochondria share common core membrane components required for protein import and metabolite exchange; however, they also reveal remarkable differences

  1. Computational Design of Multi-component Bio-Inspired Bilayer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Koufos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation is motivated by the need to design bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties for use in a range of applications, such as targeted drug delivery, sensing and imaging. We draw inspiration from biological cell membranes and focus on their principal constituents. In this paper, we present our results on the role of molecular architecture on the interfacial, structural and dynamical properties of bio-inspired membranes. We focus on four lipid architectures with variations in the head group shape and the hydrocarbon tail length. Each lipid species is composed of a hydrophilic head group and two hydrophobic tails. In addition, we study a model of the Cholesterol molecule to understand the interfacial properties of a bilayer membrane composed of rigid, single-tail molecular species. We demonstrate the properties of the bilayer membranes to be determined by the molecular architecture and rigidity of the constituent species. Finally, we demonstrate the formation of a stable mixed bilayer membrane composed of Cholesterol and one of the phospholipid species. Our approach can be adopted to design multi-component bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties. We use a Molecular Dynamics-based mesoscopic simulation technique called Dissipative Particle Dynamics that resolves the molecular details of the components through soft-sphere coarse-grained models and reproduces the hydrodynamic behavior of the system over extended time scales.

  2. Experimental study of application of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies neutralizing monoclonal antibody on anti-glomerular basement membrane nephritis rats%应用抗肾小球基底膜抗体的中和性单克隆抗体治疗抗肾小球基底膜肾炎大鼠的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖静; 刘章锁; 聂志勇; 王雅楠; 赵国强

    2010-01-01

    目的 应用抗肾小球基底膜(GBM)抗体的中和性单克隆抗体注射抗GBM肾炎大鼠,观察各种生化指标及肾脏病理学的变化.方法 将Wistar大鼠随机分为5组,每组9只:(1)肾炎模型组:经尾静脉注入人抗GBM抗体;(2)正常对照Ⅰ组:经尾静脉注入非抗体性的健康人IgG;(3)对照Ⅱ组:经尾静脉注入抗GBM抗体的中和性单克降抗体;(4)干预Ⅰ组:经尾静脉注入人抗GBM抗体,第7天后再经尾静脉注入抗GBM抗体的中和性单克隆抗体(1.5ml/100 g);(5)干预Ⅱ组:经尾静脉注入人抗GBM抗体,第14天后再经尾静脉注入抗GBM抗体的中和性单克隆抗体.分别在实验后第7、14、21天观察大鼠24 h尿蛋白量、BUN、Scr和肾组织病理学的变化.结果 第21天干预Ⅰ组尿蛋白量为(16.62±5.53)g/d、BUN为(11.53±2.26)mmol/L、Scr为(102.46±16.86)μmol/L,均显著低于肾炎模型组(P<0.05);干预Ⅱ组较肾炎模型组也有所降低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).干预Ⅰ组和干预Ⅱ组肾脏细胞增生、新月体的形成及免疫复合物的沉积均少于肾炎模型组,但干预Ⅰ组更为明显.对照Ⅰ组和对照Ⅱ组之间无明显变化.结论 早期应用抗GBM抗体的中和性单克隆抗体能够有效改善抗GBM肾炎大鼠的肾脏病变.%Objective To observe the effect of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody on anti-GBM nephritis rats. Methods Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group Ⅰ was a negative control and was injected with healthy human IgG via the caudal vein. Control group Ⅱ was injected with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to anti-GBM antibody only. Anti- GBM nephritis group was injected with human anti-GBM antibody via the caudal vein only. Intervention group Ⅰ was injected with human anti-GBM antibody via the caudal vein and then with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to anti-GBM antibody at day 7. Intervention group Ⅱ was

  3. Development of materials and components for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells are important energy sources particularly in the automobile industry and have been fabricated from less than one kilowatt to more than one megawatt power sources. Proton exchange membrane Fuel cells have been successfully used for power generation and to run different types of vehicles. These are very efficient and pollution free energy sources. Fuel cells have also been used as stationary power sources. For the commercialization of fuel-cell technology on competitive basis and to gain a significant share of the electrical power market, cost-effective and durable materials and components are needed to be further developed although a lot of progress have been done. Main materials and components of fuel cells are catalysts, ion exchange membranes, membrane electrode assemblies, bipolar plates etc. Development of fuel cell materials is very important for the fabrication of fuel cells. Synthesis and characterization of different materials including catalysts, ion exchange membranes and carbon composite materials are described. Fabrication of different components of fuel cells including membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), bipolar plates, and other hardware of fuel cells is discussed. (author)

  4. Structure of the poly-C9 component of the complement membrane attack complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkina, Natalya V.; Spicer, Bradley A.; Reboul, Cyril F.; Conroy, Paul J.; Lukoyanova, Natalya; Elmlund, Hans; Law, Ruby H. P.; Ekkel, Susan M.; Kondos, Stephanie C.; Goode, Robert J. A.; Ramm, Georg; Whisstock, James C.; Saibil, Helen R.; Dunstone, Michelle A.

    2016-02-01

    The membrane attack complex (MAC)/perforin-like protein complement component 9 (C9) is the major component of the MAC, a multi-protein complex that forms pores in the membrane of target pathogens. In contrast to homologous proteins such as perforin and the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), all of which require the membrane for oligomerisation, C9 assembles directly onto the nascent MAC from solution. However, the molecular mechanism of MAC assembly remains to be understood. Here we present the 8 Å cryo-EM structure of a soluble form of the poly-C9 component of the MAC. These data reveal a 22-fold symmetrical arrangement of C9 molecules that yield an 88-strand pore-forming β-barrel. The N-terminal thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) domain forms an unexpectedly extensive part of the oligomerisation interface, thus likely facilitating solution-based assembly. These TSP1 interactions may also explain how additional C9 subunits can be recruited to the growing MAC subsequent to membrane insertion.

  5. Internalization of components of the host cell plasma membrane during infection by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho TMU

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi attach to the macrophage surface and are internalized with the formation of a membrane bounded vacuole, known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV. In order to determine if components of the host cell membrane are internalized during formation of the PV we labeled the macrophage surface with fluorescent probes for proteins, lipids and sialic acid residues and then allowed the labeled cells to interact with the parasites. The interaction process was interrupted after 1 hr at 37ºC and the distribution of the probes analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. During attachment of the parasites to the macrophage surface an intense labeling of the attachment regions was observed. Subsequently labeling of the membrane lining the parasitophorous vacuole containing epimastigote and trypomastigote forms was seen. Labeling was not uniform, with regions of intense and light or no labeling. The results obtained show that host cell membrane lipids, proteins and sialoglycoconjugates contribute to the formation of the membrane lining the PV containing epimastigote and trypomastigote T. cruzi forms. Lysosomes of the host cell may participate in the process of PV membrane formation.

  6. Outer membrane protein binding sites of complement component 3 during opsonization of Haemophilus influenzae.

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, S V; Patrick, C C; Hansen, E J

    1993-01-01

    Complement component 3 (C3) binding to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important step in host defense against invasive disease, but the details of this process remain poorly understood. We have shown that the P1 and P2 outer membrane proteins (OMPs) serve as binding sites for C3 on serum-opsonized Hib. Whole-cell lysates of opsonized Hib were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the resolved proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose. Immunobl...

  7. Measure Guideline: Basement Insulation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Mantha, P.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-10-01

    This guideline is intended to describe good practices for insulating basements in new and existing homes, and is intended to be a practical resources for building contractors, designers, and also to homeowners.

  8. Sorption of selenite ions on solid soil components using dialysis membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium-79 is a radionuclide that is produced in nuclear reactors with a yield of about 0.04%. According to the French concept of deep geological high-level waste disposal selenium can have a significant effect on the cumulative radioactive dose if it is transported through the geosphere without retardation. Once in the biosphere, selenium may be retarded via sorption onto soil components including clays, calcite and Fe-oxides. The aim of this work is to develop a new method, an alternative of batch experiments, to determine the influence of chemical interactions on selenium sorption onto solid phases commonly present in soils. A method using a dialysis membrane was used. Five milliliters of a solid/synthesized water suspension in a dialysis bag was placed in 100 mL of synthesized water containing selenium in known concentration. We first studied the effect of the dialysis membrane on the equilibrium time for each soil components. The sorption of selenite ions onto bentonite, goethite and calcite was characterized by sorption kinetics. Also, the effects of pH and selenium concentration in solution on the sorption were investigated. To establish the contribution of the different solids to the sorption, experiments with one component (bentonite, calcite, goethite) were carried out and a value of Kd was calculated. The preliminary experimental Kd obtained were between 0-58 L.kg-1 for calcite and between 0-70 L.kg-1 for bentonite. Preliminary results with two solid phases at pH 7 (bentonite + calcite and goethite + calcite) show that the Kd of bentonite and goethite decrease in comparison with the single system. The retention behaviour of calcite remains the same one in a system with one component and in a system with two components at pH 7. (authors)

  9. Components of SurA required for outer membrane biogenesis in uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin M Watts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SurA is a periplasmic peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase and chaperone of Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. In contrast to other PPIases, SurA appears to have a distinct role in chaperoning newly synthesized porins destined for insertion into the outer membrane. Previous studies have indicated that the chaperone activity of SurA rests in its "core module" (the N- plus C-terminal domains, based on in vivo envelope phenotypes and in vitro binding and protection of non-native substrates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we determined the components of SurA required for chaperone activity using in vivo phenotypes relevant to disease causation by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC, namely membrane resistance to permeation by antimicrobials and maturation of the type 1 pilus usher FimD. FimD is a SurA-dependent, integral outer membrane protein through which heteropolymeric type 1 pili, which confer bladder epithelial binding and invasion capacity upon uropathogenic E. coli, are assembled and extruded. Consistent with prior results, the in vivo chaperone activity of SurA in UPEC rested primarily in the core module. However, the PPIase domains I and II were not expendable for wild-type resistance to novobiocin in broth culture. Steady-state levels of FimD were substantially restored in the UPEC surA mutant complemented with the SurA N- plus C-terminal domains. The addition of PPIase domain I augmented FimD maturation into the outer membrane, consistent with a model in which domain I enhances stability of and/or substrate binding by the core module. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results confirm the core module of E. coli SurA as a potential target for novel anti-infective development.

  10. Relation between peak period of microtremor spectral ratio (horizontal and vertical components) and basement depth; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi no peak to kiso shindo tono kankei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Mizutani, K.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    The peak period of the horizontal/vertical spectral ratio of microtremors was referred to the underground structure for the purpose of finding out if it was possible to estimate the ground structure by use of the peak period of the spectral ratio. The observation was carried in the areas of Morioka City and Hachinohe City using seismographs for measuring east-west, north-south, and up-down motions. As for the relationship between the peak period of the spectral ratio distribution involving 490 observation sites and the known gravity anomalies in the Morioka City area, it was found that the peak period of the spectral ratio tended to be shorter from west toward east while the gravity anomalies were greater from west toward east. Again, as for the relations with the underground geology, the period was longer when the distance to the granite basement was greater, and shorter when smaller. In the Hachinohe City area, relations not only of the first period peak but also of the second period peak to the basement were disclosed, which indicates the possibility that the peak period of the spectral ratio will be used as a means for estimating the basement structure. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Ion selective electrodes for protonable nitrogen containing analytes: Metallacarboranes as active membrane components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ISEs based on simple and low cost polymer membranes for different bioactive nitrogen containing compounds were prepared. • The analytical parameters, life time, response time, slope, concentration range, limit of detection and selectivity are very favorable. • The proposed anion represents a good material for ISEs preparation used in clinical and pharmaceutical daily routine analysis. -- Abstract: Ion selective electrodes with simple electroactive membrane components have been prepared for the testing of dopamine, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, histamine and metformin in aqueous solutions. The electroactive membrane component is the salt made of the protonated targeted analyte and the metallacarborane anion [Co(1,2-C2B9H11)2]−. The reason for the good performance of [Co(1,2-C2B9H11)2]− is its large capacity to produce weak hydrogen and dihydrogen bonds with the cation and the plasticizer that prevents leakage of the electroactive component. In this paper, we prove how easy is to produce a sensing material for a specific target. The only requirement is that the target has a protonable nitrogen, a situation encountered in many biological molecules or in many bio-relevant molecules. The analytical parameters for evaluation of ISEs performances, such as linearity range, slope, limit of detection, response time, and selectivity were studied and determined and all the produced selective ISEs have given favorable answer. The proposed electrodes showed Nernstian responses for protonable nitrogen containing analytes for almost 4 decades of concentrations, 1.00 × 10−6 to 1.00 × 10−2 mol dm−3, with fast response time (5 s) and adequate operational lifetime (50 days). For Dopamine the prepared ISEs exhibited linear responses with slope of ca. 58 mV decade−1 within the range 5.00 × 10−6 to 1.00 × 10−2 mol dm−3 and with a low detection limit of 1 μmol dm−3. The limits of detection ranged from 0.7 μmol dm−3 for nicotinamide up to 6

  12. The emergence of ribozymes synthesizing membrane components in RNA-based protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wentao; Yu, Chunwu; Zhang, Wentao; Zhou, Ping; Hu, Jiming

    2010-03-01

    A significant problem of the origin of life is the emergence of cellular self-replication. In the context of the "RNA world", a crucial concern is how the RNA-based protocells could achieve the ability to produce their own membrane. Here we show, with the aid of a computer simulation, that for these protocells, there would be "immediately" a selection pressure for the emergence of a ribozyme synthesizing membrane components. The ribozyme would promote the enlargement of cellular space and favor the incoming (by permeation) of RNA's precursors, thus benefit the replication of inner RNA, including itself. Via growth and division, protocells containing the ribozyme would achieve superiority and spread in the system, and meanwhile the ribozyme would spread in the system. The present work is inspiring because it suggests that the transition from molecular self-replication to cellular self-replication might have occurred naturally (and necessarily) in the origin of life, leading to the emergence of Darwinian evolution at the cellular level. PMID:19961895

  13. Study on a multi-component palladium alloy membrane for the fusion fuel cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration Tests with (D,T)2 gas to examine the reported hydrogen embrittlement and helium damage on Pd and Pd-Ag binary alloy are needed for a palladium alloy membrane for its application to a fusion fuel system. T2-gas circulating and T2-gas immersion tests with a multi-component palladium alloy, which had been selected for use of tritum purification, have been performed in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly(TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory under the Japan/US Fusion Cooperation Program. Mechanical tensile tests and metallographic studies have been conducted in these durability tests. Similar tests had been performed on the same material under tritium-free atmospheres(H2, N2) to analyse the data obtained by the T2-gas tests. This report describes the results of the mechanical tensile tests and the test conditions. (author)

  14. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lawrence

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  15. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  16. Multi-component transport in polymers: hydrocarbon / hydrogen separation by reverse selectivity membrane; Transport multi-composants dans les polymeres: separation hydrocarbures / hydrogene par membrane a selectivite inverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauviel, G.

    2003-12-15

    Hydrogen separation by reverse selectivity membranes is investigated. The first goal is to develop materials showing an increased selectivity. Silicone membranes loaded with inorganic fillers have been prepared, but the expected enhancement is not observed. The second goal is to model the multi- component transport through rubbers. Indeed the permeability model is not able to predict correctly permeation when a vapour is present. Thus many phenomena have to be considered: diffusional inter-dependency, sorption synergy, membrane swelling and drag effect. The dependence of diffusivities with the local composition is modelled according to free-volume theory. The model resolution allows to predict the permeation flow-rates of mixed species from their pure sorption and diffusion data. For the systems under consideration, the diffusional inter-dependency is shown to be preponderant. Besides, sorption synergy importance is pointed out, whereas it is most often neglected. (author)

  17. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and its role in ovarian follicle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnJPeluso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone (P4 is synthesized in the ovary and acts directly on granulosa cells of developing ovarian follicles to suppress their rate of mitosis and apoptosis. Granulosa cells do not express nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR but rather progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1. PGRMC1 binds P4 and mediates P4’s actions, as evidenced by PGRMC1 siRNA studies. PGRMC1 acts by binding plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein and regulating gene expression. Specifically, PGRMC1 suppresses some genes that promote cell death (i.e. Bad, Caspase-3, Caspase-4. P4 regulates gene expression in part by inhibiting PGRMC1 binding to Tcf/Lef transcription sites, thereby reducing Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Since Tcf/Lef transcription sites are located within the promoters of genes that initiate mitosis and/or apoptosis (i.e. c-jun and c-myc, P4-PGRMC1 mediated suppression of these Tcf/Lef regulated genes could account for P4’s actions. PGRMC1 expression is also altered in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, premature ovarian failure and infertility. Collectively, these observations support a role for PGRMC1 in regulating human ovarian follicle development.

  18. Free fatty acids as a major component of the chlorosulfolipid membrane of Ochromonas danica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winicov, I.

    1985-01-01

    This work is an attempt to determine whether or not free fatty acids are components of the natural membrane of Ochromonas danica. If the FFAs were artifacts, they would most likely have been produced during solvent extraction or during the procedure for flagellar detachment. Attempts to denature putative solvent-activated lipase(s) through exposure to boiling isopropanol or by crosslinking the flagella with glutaraldehyde prior to extraction failed to eliminate the free fatty acid fraction, nor to significantly alter its composition. Exposure of flagella to albumin resulted in the net transfer of FFAs to the supernatant phase, showing their presence is not caused by solvent activated lipolysis. Finally levels of labelled free fatty acids failed to rise as a function of time after deflagellation in cells grown in the presence of (10-/sup 14/C)-oleic acid. Acid hydrolysis of the total labelled lipid at elevated temperature increased the percentage of counts occurring as unesterified fatty acids (from 2.6% to 64.8%). This, taken together with a corresponding loss of the more polar labelled material (66.8% to 8.2%) indicates that some esterified lipids were present, but probably not broken down during the isolation procedure.

  19. Free fatty acids as a major component of the chlorosulfolipid membrane of Ochromonas danica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is an attempt to determine whether or not free fatty acids are components of the natural membrane of Ochromonas danica. If the FFAs were artifacts, they would most likely have been produced during solvent extraction or during the procedure for flagellar detachment. Attempts to denature putative solvent-activated lipase(s) through exposure to boiling isopropanol or by crosslinking the flagella with glutaraldehyde prior to extraction failed to eliminate the free fatty acid fraction, nor to significantly alter its composition. Exposure of flagella to albumin resulted in the net transfer of FFAs to the supernatant phase, showing their presence is not caused by solvent activated lipolysis. Finally levels of labelled free fatty acids failed to rise as a function of time after deflagellation in cells grown in the presence of [10-14C]-oleic acid. Acid hydrolysis of the total labelled lipid at elevated temperature increased the percentage of counts occurring as unesterified fatty acids (from 2.6% to 64.8%). This, taken together with a corresponding loss of the more polar labelled material (66.8% to 8.2%) indicates that some esterified lipids were present, but probably not broken down during the isolation procedure

  20. Immunogenicity of Coxiella burnetii whole cells and their other membrane components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the phase I and phase II Coxiella burnetii whole cells (Cb I and Cb II) and their other membrane components (OMC), i.e. phase I trichloroacetic acid extract (TCAE), phase I 29 K protein (PRO), phase I and II lipopolysaccharides (LPS I, LPS II, polysaccharides (PS I, PS II), and lipid A (LA I, LA II), were compared. The highest immune response was observed in BALB/c mice by Cb I in both humoral immunity and lymphocyte transformation assays, and in the protective effect as well. The immune response was also significant by Cb II, but their protective capacity was low. The OMC reacted variously. Only TCAE and PRO gave a high value of humoral immunity evaluated by the serological methods. All OMC reacted in the hemolytic plaque assay giving different responses. Lymphoprolipheration of splenocytes was positive with all OMC using both Cb I and Cb II antigens with the exception of PS I and PS II in the case of Cb II antigen. The induction of protection against infectious Cb I was demonstrated after immunization with TCAE, PRO, and LPS I. Other OMC did not induce protection against this agent. (author)

  1. Membraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Finn

    2009-01-01

    Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner......Notatet giver en kort introduktion til den statiske virkemåde af membraner og membrankonstruktioner...

  2. Progesterone, Inflammatory Cytokine (TNF-α), and Oxidative Stress (H2O2) Regulate Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 Expression in Fetal Membrane Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Murtha, Amy P; Feng, Liping

    2016-09-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is an important novel mediator of progesterone (P4) function in fetal membrane cells. We demonstrated previously that PGRMC1 is differentially expressed in fetal membranes among pregnancy subjects and diminished in preterm premature rupture of membrane subjects. In the current study, we aim to elucidate whether PGRMC1 expression is regulated by P4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and H2O2 in fetal membrane cells. Primary cultured membrane cells were serum starved for 24 hours followed by treatments of P4, 17 hydroxyprogesterone caproate, and medroxyprogesterone 17 acetate (MPA) at 10(-7) mol/L with ethanol as vehicle control; TNF-α at 10, 20, and 50 ng/mL with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as control; and H2O2 at 10 and 100 μmol/L with culture media as control for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of PGRMC1 was quantified using polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. We found that PGRMC1 protein expression was regulated by MPA, TNF-α, and H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. This regulation is also specific to the type of cell (amnion, chorion, or decidua). The upregulation of PGRMC1 by MPA might be mediated through glucocorticoid receptor (GR) demonstrated using amnion and chorion cells model with GR knockdown by specific small interfering RNA transfection. The mRNA expression of PGRMC1 was decreased by H2O2 (100 μmol/L) treatment in amnion cells, which might ultimately result in downregulation of PGRMC1 protein as our data demonstrated. None of other treatments changed PGRMC1 mRNA level in these cells. We conclude that these stimuli act as regulatory factors of PGRMC1 in a cell-specific manner. PMID:26919974

  3. Poisoning of mixed matrix membranes by fermentation components in pervaporation of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaporation is an alternative to distillation for recovering ethanol produced by fermentation of grains and biomass. Ethanol-selective mixed matrix membranes of the hydrophobic zeolite ZSM-5 in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have superior performance compared to pure PDMS membranes in pervaporation o...

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Hemolysins, bi-component Leukocidins, and Cytolytic Peptides: A Redundant Arsenal of Membrane-Damaging Virulence Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenesch, François; Lina, G.; Henry, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    One key aspect of the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus lies in its ability to target the host cell membrane with a large number of membrane-damaging toxins and peptides. In this review, we describe the hemolysins, the bi-component leukocidins (which include the Panton Valentine leukocidin, LukAB/GH, and LukED), and the cytolytic peptides (phenol soluble modulins). While at first glance, all of these factors might appear redundant, it is now clear that some of these factors play specific rol...

  5. S. aureus hemolysins, bi-component leukocidins and cytolytic peptides: a redundant arsenal of membrane-damaging virulence factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Francois eVandenesch; Gérard eLina; Thomas eHenry

    2012-01-01

    One key aspect of S. aureus virulence lies in its ability to target the host cell membrane with a large number of membrane-damaging toxins and peptides. In this review, we describe the hemolysins, the bi-component leukocidins, which include the Panton Valentine Leukocidin, LukAB/GH, LukED and the cytolytic peptides (Phenol Soluble Modulins). While at first glance, all these factors might appear redundant, it is now clear that some of these factors play specific roles in certain S. aureus lif...

  6. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of lipid and protein membrane components of erythrocytes oxidized with hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of spin labels was used to monitor membrane dynamic changes in erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The lipid spin label, 5-doxyl stearic acid, responded to dramatic reductions in membrane fluidity, which was correlated with increases in the protein content of the membrane. Membrane rigidity, associated with the binding of hemoglobin (Hb) to the erythrocyte membrane, was also indicated by a spin-labeled maleimide, 5-MSL, covalently bound to the sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins. At 2% hematocrit, these alterations in membrane occurred at very low concentrations of H2O2 (50 µM) after only 5 min of incubation at 37°C in azide phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Lipid peroxidation, suggested by oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde formation, started at 300 µM H2O2 (for incubation of 3 h), which is a concentration about six times higher than those detected with the probes. Ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol protected the membrane against lipoperoxidation, but did not prevent the binding of proteins to the erythrocyte membrane. Moreover, the antioxidant (+)-catechin, which also failed to prevent the cross-linking of cytoskeletal proteins with Hb, was very effective in protecting erythrocyte ghosts from lipid peroxidation induced by the Fenton reaction. This study also showed that EPR spectroscopy can be useful to assess the molecular dynamics of red blood cell membranes in both the lipid and protein domains and examine oxidation processes in a system that is so vulnerable to oxidation

  7. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of lipid and protein membrane components of erythrocytes oxidized with hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendanha, S.A.; Anjos, J.L.V.; Silva, A.H.M.; Alonso, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of spin labels was used to monitor membrane dynamic changes in erythrocytes subjected to oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The lipid spin label, 5-doxyl stearic acid, responded to dramatic reductions in membrane fluidity, which was correlated with increases in the protein content of the membrane. Membrane rigidity, associated with the binding of hemoglobin (Hb) to the erythrocyte membrane, was also indicated by a spin-labeled maleimide, 5-MSL, covalently bound to the sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins. At 2% hematocrit, these alterations in membrane occurred at very low concentrations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (50 µM) after only 5 min of incubation at 37°C in azide phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Lipid peroxidation, suggested by oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde formation, started at 300 µM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (for incubation of 3 h), which is a concentration about six times higher than those detected with the probes. Ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol protected the membrane against lipoperoxidation, but did not prevent the binding of proteins to the erythrocyte membrane. Moreover, the antioxidant (+)-catechin, which also failed to prevent the cross-linking of cytoskeletal proteins with Hb, was very effective in protecting erythrocyte ghosts from lipid peroxidation induced by the Fenton reaction. This study also showed that EPR spectroscopy can be useful to assess the molecular dynamics of red blood cell membranes in both the lipid and protein domains and examine oxidation processes in a system that is so vulnerable to oxidation.

  8. Discrete Element Framework for Modelling Extracellular Matrix, Deformable Cells and Subcellular Components

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, Bruce S.; Wong, Kelvin K. L.; Joldes, Grand R.; Rich, Addison J.; Tan, Chin Wee; Burgess, Antony W.; Smith, David W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for modelling biological tissues based on discrete particles. Cell components (e.g. cell membranes, cell cytoskeleton, cell nucleus) and extracellular matrix (e.g. collagen) are represented using collections of particles. Simple particle to particle interaction laws are used to simulate and control complex physical interaction types (e.g. cell-cell adhesion via cadherins, integrin basement membrane attachment, cytoskeletal mechanical properties). Particles may ...

  9. Interaction of 7-ketocholesterol with two major components of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane: phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Diana; Epand, Raquel F; Epand, Richard M; Wachtel, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    lipid components of the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. 7-Ketocholesterol is much less effective in promoting the formation of the H ii phase in phosphatidylethanolamines than cholesterol. This is likely due to the fact that 7-ketocholesterol is more polar than cholesterol and hence would be...... located closer to the membrane interface. However, in ternary mixtures of dipalmitoleoylphosphatidylethanolamine with low concentrations of both sterols, the effect of 7-ketocholesterol on lowering T H is enhanced. Both cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol are very soluble in bilayers of......, it appears that the solubility of cholesterol is enhanced by the presence of 7-ketocholesterol. It is thus to be expected that several of the biophysical properties of a membrane would change as a result of the oxidation of cholesterol to 7-ketocholesterol Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3/4...

  10. S. aureus hemolysins, bi-component leukocidins and cytolytic peptides: a redundant arsenal of membrane-damaging virulence factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois eVandenesch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One key aspect of S. aureus virulence lies in its ability to target the host cell membrane with a large number of membrane-damaging toxins and peptides. In this review, we describe the hemolysins, the bi-component leukocidins, which include the Panton Valentine Leukocidin, LukAB/GH, LukED and the cytolytic peptides (Phenol Soluble Modulins. While at first glance, all these factors might appear redundant, it is now clear that some of these factors play specific roles in certain S. aureus life stages and diseases or target specific cell types or species. Here, we present an update of the literature on toxins receptors and their cell type and species specificities. Furthermore, we review epidemiological studies and animal models illustrating a role of these membrane-damaging factors in various diseases. Finally, we emphasize the interplay of these factors with the host immune system and highlight all their non-lytic functions.

  11. Targeting and Assembly of Components of the TOC Protein Import Complex at the Chloroplast Outer Envelope Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn G.L. Richardson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts (TOC initiates the import of thousands of nuclear encoded preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis and function. The multimeric TOC complex contains two GTP-regulated receptors, Toc34 and Toc159, which recognize the transit peptides of preproteins and initiate protein import through a β–barrel membrane channel, Toc75. Different isoforms of Toc34 and Toc159 assemble with Toc75 to form structurally and functionally diverse translocons, and the composition and levels of TOC translocons is required for the import of specific subsets of coordinately expressed proteins during plant growth and development. Consequently, the proper assembly of the TOC complexes is key to ensuring organelle homeostasis. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the targeting and assembly of TOC components to form functional translocons at the outer membrane. Our analyses reveal that the targeting of TOC components involves elements common to the targeting of other outer membrane proteins, but also include unique features that appear to have evolved to specifically facilitate assembly of the import apparatus.

  12. The effects of applied electric fields on Micrasterias. II. The distributions of cytoplasmic and plasma membrane components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, D L; Giddings, T H

    1980-04-01

    The accompanying paper describes the effects of applied electric fields on the morphogenesis and patterns of wall deposition of growing cells of Micrasterias denticulata. This paper details the effects of electric fields (approximately 14 V cm-1) on the subcellular components of Micrasterias, including a description of the plasma membrane of growing semi-cells as visualized by freeze-fracturing. There are no gross cytoplasmic abnormalities or asymmetrics in the distributions of cytoplasmic organelles caused by the fields. In particular, neither the Large Vesicles nor Dark Vesicles are concentrated in the cathode-facing (CF) halves of lobes oriented perpendicular to the fields, where extra deposition of wall material has been shown to occur. In freeze-fracture replicas, there are about twice as many plasma membrane particles near the tips of growing lobes as there are in proximal regions of the lobes. Additionally, rosettes, consisting of 6 membrane particles, are seen predominantly in the distal parts of the lobes, and these rosettes are believed to be important in the synthesis of cell wall microfibrils. The applied fields cause a large asymmetry in the distributions of membrane particles, with larger numbers being found on the CF sides of lobes oriented perpendicular to the fields. We were not able to detect a specific effect on any class of particles. Taken all together, the data support the hypothesis that some of the factors responsible for growth localization in Micrasterias reside in the plasma membrane. PMID:7400237

  13. Purification and Characterization of Active-Site Components of the Putative p-Cresol Methylhydroxylase Membrane Complex from Geobacter metallireducens▿

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes, Jörg; Bluschke, Alexander; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Boll, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    p-Cresol methylhydroxylases (PCMH) from aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria are soluble, periplasmic flavocytochromes that catalyze the first step in biological p-cresol degradation, the hydroxylation of the substrate with water. Recent results suggested that p-cresol degradation in the strictly anaerobic Geobacter metallireducens involves a tightly membrane-bound PCMH complex. In this work, the soluble components of this complex were purified and characterized. The data obtained sug...

  14. Progesterone Signaling Mediated Through Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 in Ovarian Cells with Special Emphasis on Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Peluso, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Various ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and ovarian surface epithelial cells express the progesterone (P4) binding protein, Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1). PGRMC1 is also expressed in ovarian tumors. PGRMC1 plays an essential role in promoting the survival of both normal and cancerous ovarian cell in vitro. Given the clinical significance of factors that regulate the viability of ovarian cancer, this review will focus on the role of PGRMC1 in ovarian cancer, ...

  15. Differential labeling of components in human erythrocyte membranes associated with the transport of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irreversible inhibition of glucose transport by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (FDNB) has been used to identify membrane proteins possibly associated with glucose transport in human erythrocytes. D-Glucose was shown to enhance significantly the rate of FDNB inhibition of transport when present during the reaction, whereas cytochalasin B (CB) and D-maltose retarded this FDNB inhibition of transport. This modulation of the inhibition reaction formed basis for a double isotopic differential labeling technique using [14C]- and [3H] FDNB followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to distinguish transport-associated polypeptides from bulk membrane dinitrophenylated proteins. These results indicate that as many as three membrane polypeptides are differentially labeled by FDNB under conditions strongly associated with the inhibition of the glucose transport system and may be involved in the regulation of glucose transport

  16. Recovery of Phytochemical Components from Various Parts of Morinda citrifolia Extracts by Using Membrane Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Sarbatly, Rosalam; Nah, Ng Lee

    In this study, extracts from various Morinda Citrifolia parts (leaf, fruit and root) by methanol was separated into permeate and retentate fractions using a membrane system equipped with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. NF was carried on a ceramic membrane with MWCO of 5 kD. Effect of NF transmembrane pressure at 0.1, 0.12 and 0.17 bar was examined at constant temperature 45EC with constant flow rate. The influence of transmembrane pressure on the efficiency of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of permeate retentate concentration was examined. The antioxidant activities of crude mengkudu extracts, NF permeate and retentate were evaluated by using the DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  17. Membrane processes for fractionating mixtures with organic components. Membranverfahren zur Fraktionierung von Gemischen mit organischen Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenbach, R.; Herion, C.; Janisch, I. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Verfahrenstechnik 1 und Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik); Dahm, W. (Environ Consult Ingenieurgesellschaft, Aachen (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-07-01

    The maximum demand that can be placed on development of processes for removal of contaminants from waste water and waste gases is that the separated substances can be recovered for use. In this context, membrane processes are attracting steadily increasing interest because the separated substances are changed neither chemically, nor biologically, nor thermally. Two examples, in which solvent mixtures are recovered from waste water and waste gases by means of reverse osmosis, pervaporation, and gas permeation, are cited to demonstrate the potential of the method. The examles, are preceded by a joint consideration of the three above-mentioned membrane processes, which all use so-called pore-free solution-diffusion membranes. The limitations, which result from practical limits of the driving force and the respective resistances to transport are discussed in detail. (orig.).

  18. Gramicidin Induce Local Non-Uniform Distribution of Lipids in Multi-Component Membrane Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2015-03-01

    In lipid membranes, gramicidin form trans-membrane channels that are specific for monovalent cations. We performed Molecular Dynamics simulations of gramicidin in coexisting liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains using GROMACS. The lipid compositions of Lo and Ld domains are DOPC/DSPC/Cholesterol = 6.5/52.6/40.9 and 74.4/10.6/15, respectively. In the Ld domain, the membrane thickness matches the hydrophobic length of gramicidin quite well, and water molecules can diffuse through the gramicidin channels. However, in the Lo lipid domain, the bilayer thickness is far greater than the hydrophobic length of gramicidin and majority of gramicidin do not form conducting channel. The simulation result explained our experimental finding that gramicidin partition favorably into the Ld domains. The calculated radial distribution functions of lipids indicate that gramicidin recruit a layer of short DOPC surrounding each protein and keep cholesterol and taller DSPC away from the protein-bilayer interface. Our result indicates that membrane proteins are capable of inducing non-uniform distributions of lipids and creating a local bilayer environment, which favors protein function.

  19. Interaction of 7-ketocholesterol with two major components of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane: phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Diana; Epand, Raquel F; Epand, Richard M;

    2008-01-01

    lipid components of the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. 7-Ketocholesterol is much less effective in promoting the formation of the H ii phase in phosphatidylethanolamines than cholesterol. This is likely due to the fact that 7-ketocholesterol is more polar than cholesterol and hence would be......7-Ketocholesterol is one of the major forms of oxidized cholesterol found in vivo. Several toxic effects of this sterol have been documented, and it is suggested to have a role in atherosclerosis. We have studied how this oxysterol modifies the physical properties of bilayers composed of the major...... located closer to the membrane interface. However, in ternary mixtures of dipalmitoleoylphosphatidylethanolamine with low concentrations of both sterols, the effect of 7-ketocholesterol on lowering T H is enhanced. Both cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol are very soluble in bilayers of...

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Mass Transfer Coefficients of Permeating Components in Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izák, Pavel; Kárászová, Magda; Šimčík, Miroslav; Friess, K.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Růžička, Marek; Šolcová, Olga

    Bratislava: AXIMA Graphics Design & Printing Services, 2014, s. 91 ISBN 978-80-89475-13-1. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /41./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA ČR GA14-12695S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquid membrane * transport properties * trafer coefficients Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  1. Investigations of the health benefits of buttermilk fat globule membrane lipid components

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchta, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) that surrounds fat globules in milk is a natural source of sphingolipids, phoshpholipids and proteins with defined anticancer properties. Dairy processing operations can affect the structure and composition of MFGM, potentially influencing its anticancer activity. The aim of this project was to determine if anticancer activity can be attributed to sweet and fermented buttermilks which contain fragments of MFGM and examine if different milk processing o...

  2. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  3. Concentration-dependent repression of the soluble and membrane components of the Streptococcus mutans phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system by glucose.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, I R; L. Gauthier; Desjardins, B; Vadeboncoeur, C

    1989-01-01

    Growth of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt in continuous culture (pH 7.0, dilution rate of 0.1 h-1) at medium glucose concentrations above 2.6 mM resulted in repression of the sugar-specific membrane components, enzyme IIGlc (EIIGlc) and EIIMan, of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). In one experiment, significant repression (27-fold) was observed with 73 mM glucose when the glycolytic capacity of the cells was reduced by only 2-fold and when the culture was still gluc...

  4. Localization of extracellular matrix components in developing mouse salivary glands by confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in developing organisms is well established. Proteoglycans and interstitial collagens are required for the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of epithelial organs and the distribution of these molecules has been described. However, much less is known about other ECM macromolecules in developing epithelial organs. We used confocal microscopy to examine the distribution of laminin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, fibronectin, and collagen types I, IV, and V, in mouse embryonic salivary glands. Organ rudiments were isolated from gestational day 13 mouse embryos and cultured for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Whole mounts were stained by indirect immunofluorescence and then examined using a Zeiss Laser Scan Microscope. We found that each ECM component examined had a distinct distribution and that the distribution of some molecules varied with culture time. Laminin was mainly restricted to the basement membrane. BM-1 proteoglycan was concentrated in the basement membrane and also formed a fine network throughout the mesenchyme. Type IV collagen was mainly located in the basement membrane of the epithelium, but it was also present throughout the mesenchyme. Type V collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at 24 hours, but at 48 hours was principally located in the basement membrane. Type I collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at all culture times, and accumulated in the clefts and particularly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface as time in culture increased. Fibronectin was observed throughout the mesenchyme at all times.

  5. Linking Findings in Microfluidics to Membrane Emulsification Process Design: The Importance of Wettability and Component Interactions with Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Schroën

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In microfluidics and other microstructured devices, wettability changes, as a result of component interactions with the solid wall, can have dramatic effects. In emulsion separation and emulsification applications, the desired behavior can even be completely lost. Wettability changes also occur in one phase systems, but the effect is much more far-reaching when using two-phase systems. For microfluidic emulsification devices, this can be elegantly demonstrated and quantified for EDGE (Edge-base Droplet GEneration devices that have a specific behavior that allows us to distinguish between surfactant and liquid interactions with the solid surface. Based on these findings, design rules can be defined for emulsification with any micro-structured emulsification device, such as direct and premix membrane emulsification. In general, it can be concluded that mostly surface interactions increase the contact angle toward 90°, either through the surfactant, or the oil that is used. This leads to poor process stability, and very limited pressure ranges at which small droplets can be made in microfluidic systems, and cross-flow membrane emulsification. In a limited number of cases, surface interactions can also lead to lower contact angles, thereby increasing the operational stability. This paper concludes with a guideline that can be used to come to the appropriate combination of membrane construction material (or any micro-structured device, surfactants and liquids, in combination with process conditions.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus hemolysins, bi-component leukocidins, and cytolytic peptides: a redundant arsenal of membrane-damaging virulence factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenesch, François; Lina, G; Henry, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    One key aspect of the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus lies in its ability to target the host cell membrane with a large number of membrane-damaging toxins and peptides. In this review, we describe the hemolysins, the bi-component leukocidins (which include the Panton Valentine leukocidin, LukAB/GH, and LukED), and the cytolytic peptides (phenol soluble modulins). While at first glance, all of these factors might appear redundant, it is now clear that some of these factors play specific roles in certain S. aureus life stages and diseases or target specific cell types or species. In this review, we present an update of the literature on toxin receptors and their cell type and species specificities. Furthermore, we review epidemiological studies and animal models illustrating the role of these membrane-damaging factors in various diseases. Finally, we emphasize the interplay of these factors with the host immune system and highlight all their non-lytic functions. PMID:22919604

  7. Fractured unconventional reservoirs in the Crystalline Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Since the late 1960-es, the crystalline basement of Tatarstan has been in the focus of intense geological and geophysical surveys. Since 1975, within the framework of the Subsoil Survey Program of Tatarstan, two extra deep wells have been drilled in the Republic, including: 20000-Minnibaevskaya well (bottomhole depth - 5,099 m, meters drilled in the basement - 3,215 m) and 20009-Novoelkhovskaya well (bottomhole depth - 5,881 m, meters drilled in the basement - 4,077 m), as well as 24 wells penetrating the basement at depth from 100 to 2,432 m. Reservoir properties of the crystalline basement rocks can be evaluated based on the resulting volumes of produced liquid, which vary from 0.027 to 125 m3/day. The highest flow rate was registered for well № 20000 Minnibaevskaya. Therefore, there are high-capacity reservoir zones in the crystalline basement of the eastern margin of the Russian Platform. The statement saying that natural reservoirs with significant sizes and fluid storage capacities occur everywhere within the Precambrian crystalline massive on the territory of Tatarstan can be justified by the following provisions: - deconsolidation and fracturing zones of the crystalline basement are registered by a full set of geological and geophysical methods applied in the process of geophysical well surveys and in the process of surface geophysical studies; - there is a certain regular pattern of crystalline basement zone distribution by area and by profile. Wide-spaced drilling into the crystalline basement helped to identify numerous zones of deconsolidation and fracturing with different fluid storage capacity and different extent of fluid saturation. Thickness of the crystalline basement reservoir zones varies from several meters to dozens of meters. Such zones were identified close to the crystalline basement top, As well as at depths more than 5 km. Well log survey was the key method used for reservoir differentiation in the crystalline basement. In total, 16

  8. Investigation of interaction of human platelet membrane components with anticoagulant drugs Abciximab and Eptifibatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gorodkiewicz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abciximab (Abci and eptifibatide (Epti are antiaggregate drugs which may reduce thrombotic complications inacute coronary syndromes. The aim of this work was the investigation of the interaction between the phospholipid-GPIIb/IIIa glycoprotein complex and Abci or Epti, and the influence of these drugs on the phospholipid ratio in the plateletmembrane. The interaction between the phospholipid-GPIIb/IIIa glycoprotein complex and antiaggregate drugs were investigatedusing the Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging technique (SPRI. Phospholipids phosphatidylinositol (PI, phosphatidylserine(PS, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin (SM were first immobilizedonto the gold chip surface. The phospholipid ratio in the platelet membrane was determined by the HPLC. Only PI,PS, PE and PC were determined. Human platelets treated 'in vitro' with Abci or Epti exhibit changes in the phospholipidratio in the platelet membrane. The ratio of PS decreases and PC rises. The SPRI distinctly shows interactions between phospholipidsand glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa, and between the phospholipid-glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex and Abci or Epti.The interaction between phospholipids and glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa is growing in the sequence: PI<

  9. Recent Progress on the Key Materials and Components for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells in Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells are the most clean and efficient power source for vehicles. In particular, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are the most promising candidate for automobile applications due to their rapid start-up and low-temperature operation. Through extensive global research efforts in the latest decade, the performance of PEMFCs, including energy efficiency, volumetric and mass power density, and low temperature startup ability, have achieved significant breakthroughs. In 2014, fuel cell powered vehicles were introduced into the market by several prominent vehicle companies. However, the low durability and high cost of PEMFC systems are still the main obstacles for large-scale industrialization of this technology. The key materials and components used in PEMFCs greatly affect their durability and cost. In this review, the technical progress of key materials and components for PEMFCs has been summarized and critically discussed, including topics such as the membrane, catalyst layer, gas diffusion layer, and bipolar plate. The development of high-durability processing technologies is also introduced. Finally, this review is concluded with personal perspectives on the future research directions of this area.

  10. The influence of ionizing radiation in wide dose range on the structural and functional characteristics of protein and lipid components of erythrocyte plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of low and high dose radiation biological effects is studied by means of erythrocyte ghosts irradiation with doses of 4 x 10-3 - 103 Gy. Changes in the membrane lipid microviscosity, membrane proteins structural mobility, membrane surface potential and intensity of the lipid peroxidation processes were determined. Variations in all investigated parameters take place in ranges of effect as low, so high ionizing radiation doses. Low dose ionizing radiation effects significantly on structural properties of plasma membrane lipid phase, whereas high dose irradiation leads to significant changes in structural parameters of protein component of membranes. It has been established that the features of membrane structural changes are characterized by polyphase changes of examined parameters

  11. Two unrelated putative membrane-bound progestin receptors, progesterone membrane receptor component 1 (PGMRC1 and membrane progestin receptor (mPR beta, are expressed in the rainbow trout oocyte and exhibit similar ovarian expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fostier Alexis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In lower vertebrates, steroid-induced oocyte maturation is considered to involve membrane-bound progestin receptors. Two totally distinct classes of putative membrane-bound progestin receptors have been reported in vertebrates. A first class of receptors, now termed progesterone membrane receptor component (PGMRC; subtypes 1 and 2 has been studied since 1996 but never studied in a fish species nor in the oocyte of any animal species. A second class of receptors, termed membrane progestin receptors (mPR; subtypes alpha, beta and gamma, was recently described in vertebrates and implicated in the progestin-initiated induction of oocyte maturation in fish. Methods In the present study, we report the characterization of the full coding sequence of rainbow trout PGMRC1 and mPR beta cDNAs, their tissue distribution, their ovarian expression profiles during oogenesis, their hormonal regulation in the full grown ovary and the in situ localization of PGMRC1 mRNA in the ovary. Results Our results clearly show, for the first time in any animal species, that rainbow trout PGMRC1 mRNA is present in the oocyte and has a strong expression in ovarian tissue. In addition, we show that both mPR beta and PGMRC1, two members of distinct membrane-bound progestin receptor classes, exhibit highly similar ovarian expression profiles during the reproductive cycle with maximum levels during vitellogenesis and a down-expression during late vitellogenesis. In addition, the mRNA abundance of both genes is not increased after in vitro hormonal stimulation of full grown follicles by maturation inducing hormones. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that PGMRC1 is a new possible participant in the progestin-induced oocyte maturation in fish. However, its participation in the process of oocyte maturation, which remains to be confirmed, would occur at post-transcriptional levels.

  12. Predictions of Phase Separation in Three-Component Lipid Membranes by the MARTINI Force Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Ryan S.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Laradji, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    to understand which types of unsaturated PC induce the formation of thermodynamically stable coexisting phases when added to mixtures of DPPC and Chol and to unravel the mechanisms that drive phase separation in such three-component mixtures. Our simulations indicate that the currently used MARTINI...... force field does not induce such phase separation in mixtures of DPPC, Chol, and unsaturated PCs with a low unsaturation level, such as palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) or dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC). Also, we found that phase separation does occur in mixtures of DPPC, Chol, and...... polyunsaturated PCs, such as dilinoleyl-phosphatidylcholine (DUPC) and diarachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DAPC). Through systematic tweaking of the interactions between the hydrophobic groups of the PC molecules, we show that the appearance of phase separation in three-component lipid bilayers, as modeled...

  13. Process to remove turbidity-causing components from a fluid by micro-filtration - passes the fluid across an asymmetric membrane with inlet pores larger than those of nominal size, and cleans the membrane by backwashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    turbidity-causing components from beer, wine, fruit juice, milk and blood, and from bacterial and enzyme suspensions. ADVANTAGE-The process greatly reduces the lost production time associated with earlier filtration methods, and beneficial components can pass through the membrane, thereby improving the...

  14. Structural characterization of outer membrane components of the type IV pili system in pathogenic Neisseria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samta Jain

    Full Text Available Structures of the type IV pili secretin complexes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis, embedded in outer membranes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Single particle averaging revealed additional domains not observed previously. Secretin complexes of N. gonorrhoeae showed a double ring structure with a 14-15-fold symmetry in the central ring, and a 14-fold symmetry of the peripheral ring with 7 spikes protruding. In secretin complexes of N. meningitidis, the spikes were absent and the peripheral ring was partly or completely lacking. When present, it had a 19-fold symmetry. The structures of the complexes in several pil mutants were determined. Structures obtained from the pilC1/C2 adhesin and the pilW minor pilin deletion strains were similar to wild-type, whereas deletion of the homologue of N. meningitidis PilW resulted in the absence of secretin structures. Remarkably, the pilE pilin subunit and pilP lipoprotein deletion mutants showed a change in the symmetry of the peripheral ring from 14 to 19 and loss of spikes. The pilF ATPase mutant also lost the spikes, but maintained 14-fold symmetry. These results show that secretin complexes contain previously unidentified large and flexible extra domains with a probable role in stabilization or assembly of type IV pili.

  15. Differential Cytotoxicity of MEX: a Component of Neem Oil Whose Action Is Exerted at the Cell Membrane Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ricci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neem oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its chemical composition is very complex, being rich in terpenoids and limonoids, as well as volatile sulphur modified compounds. This work focused on the evaluation of a component of the whole Neem oil obtained by methanolic extraction and defined as MEX. Cytotoxicity was assessed on two different cell populations: a stabilized murine fibroblast line (3T6 and a tumor cell line (HeLa. The data presented here suggest a differential sensitivity of these two populations, the tumor line exhibiting a significantly higher sensitivity to MEX. The data strongly suggest that its toxic target is the cell membrane. In addition the results presented here imply that MEX may contain one or more agents that could find a potential use in anti-proliferative therapy.

  16. Mode of action of staphylococcal leukocidin: effects of the S and F components on the activities of membrane-associated enzymes of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, M; Kato, I.; Hirayama, T; Matsuda, F.

    1982-01-01

    The cytotoxic action of the S component of leukocidin from Staphylococcus aureus on rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes was supported by the following observations, (i) Leukocytes displayed a large chemotactic response to the S component (10(-10) M) as well as to the chemotactic factor N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (10(-11) M). (ii) The S component stimulated high levels of phospholipase A2 activity in the cell membranes, with concomitant synthesis and release of prostaglandins. (iii) ...

  17. Immunochemical characterization of three components of the hemidesmosome and their expression in cultured epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of bovine tongue mucosa with 1 M KCl induced a split in the lamina densa of the basement membrane zone (BMZ). The epithelium was then separated from the underlying connective tissue. Electron microscopic analysis of the stripped epithelium revealed that hemidesmosomes and their associated intermediate filaments (IF) remain along the basal surface of the epithelium. This surface was solubilized in an SDS/urea-containing buffer. Characterization of components of this protein mixture w...

  18. Ligand-binding sites in human serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Roepstorff, P.; Robey, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    Amyloid P component (AP) is a naturally occurring glycoprotein that is found in serum and basement membranes, AP is also a component of all types of amyloid, including that found in individuals who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Because AP has been found to bind strongly and...... of 25 mu M, while the IC50 of AP-(27-38)-peptide and AP-(33-38)-peptide are 10 mu M and 2 mu M, respectively, The understanding of the structure and function of active AP peptides will be useful for development of amyloid-targeted diagnostics and therapeutics....

  19. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  20. Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1 in cell division: its role in bovine granulosa cells mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Terzaghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were aimed to assess Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1 role in regulating bovine granulosa cells (bGC mitosis. First, we performed immunofluorescence studies on in vitro cultured bGC collected from antral follicles, which showed that PGRMC1 localizes to the spindle apparatus in mitotic cells. Then, to evaluate PGRMC1 effect on cell proliferation we silenced its expression with RNA interference technique (RNAi. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting confirmed down-regulation of PGRMC1 expression, when compared to CTRL-RNAi treated bGC (p<0.05. After 72h of culture, PGRMC1 silencing determined a lower growth rate (p<0.05 and a higher percentage of cells arrested at G2/M phase as assessed by flowcytometry (p<0.05. Accordingly, live imaging studies revealed more aberrant mitosis and a delayed M-phase in PGRMC1-RNAi treated cells compared to CTRL-RNAi group (p<0.05. These data confirmed that PGRMC1 is directly involved in bGC mitosis and ongoing preliminary studies are aimed to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Since PGRMC1 is a membrane protein, we hypothesize its possible involvement in vesicular trafficking and endocytosis, which is in turn an important process to assure proper cell division. To assess this hypothesis, we have preliminarily conducted immunofluorescence and in situ proximity ligation assay experiments that showed PGRMC1 co-localization and direct interaction with clathrin. This is important since clathrin is an essential protein for both endosomes formation, and cell division acting directly on the spindle apparatus. Thus our studies set the stage for analysis aimed to further characterize PGRMC1’s mechanism of action in mitotic cell.

  1. Demonstration and characterization of tumor-associated antigenic components from cell membranes of a UV-induced mouse sarcoma using the macrophage-electrophoretic-mobility (MEM) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of tumor-associated antigenic material from the ascites sarcoma cells was carried out by extraction with 3 M KCl and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The antigenic activity was assayed in the MEM test. Extraction of whole tumor cells with 3 M KCl results in preparations with low antigenic activity which on SDS-PAGE show a very heterogeneous composition of more than 2o protein bands. In comparing the antigenic activity of different subcellular fractions obtained by differential centrifugation of the homogenate, the antigenic activity could be attributed to the cell membrane fraction. With this cell membrane fraction, three extraction media - 3 M KCl, 2% Triton X-100, and 5% sodium cholate - were tested for their ability to extract selectively the antigenic membrane proteins. The Triton X-100 treatment sobubilized the greatest amount of membrane protein. Both Triton X-100 and sodium cholate, however, produced very heterogeneous protein extracts. In contrast, 3 M KCl extracted selectively three membrane components: a glycoprotein of high molecular weight and two low-molecular weight carbohydrate-free proteins. Removal of the KCl in the presence of Triton X-100 precipitates the carbohydrate-free proteins, while the glycoprotein remains in solution. Testing the components of the KCl extracts in the MEM test after isolation by preparative SDS-PAGE revealed antigenic activity only with the glycoprotein component. (author)

  2. Brucella abortus ornithine lipids are dispensable outer membrane components devoid of a marked pathogen-associated molecular pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Palacios-Chaves

    Full Text Available The brucellae are α-Proteobacteria facultative intracellular parasites that cause an important zoonosis. These bacteria escape early detection by innate immunity, an ability associated to the absence of marked pathogen-associated molecular patterns in the cell envelope lipopolysaccharide, lipoproteins and flagellin. We show here that, in contrast to the outer membrane ornithine lipids (OL of other Gram negative bacteria, Brucella abortus OL lack a marked pathogen-associated molecular pattern activity. We identified two OL genes (olsB and olsA and by generating the corresponding mutants found that olsB deficient B. abortus did not synthesize OL or their lyso-OL precursors. Liposomes constructed with B. abortus OL did not trigger IL-6 or TNF-α release by macrophages whereas those constructed with Bordetella pertussis OL and the olsB mutant lipids as carriers were highly active. The OL deficiency in the olsB mutant did not promote proinflammatory responses or generated attenuation in mice. In addition, OL deficiency did not increase sensitivity to polymyxins, normal serum or complement consumption, or alter the permeability to antibiotics and dyes. Taken together, these observations indicate that OL have become dispensable in the extant brucellae and are consistent within the trend observed in α-Proteobacteria animal pathogens to reduce and eventually eliminate the envelope components susceptible of recognition by innate immunity.

  3. Proteomic analysis of secreted membrane vesicles of archaeal Sulfolobus species reveals the presence of endosome sorting complex components

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen, Albert F.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Huibers, Wim; Pitcher, Angela; Hobel, Cedric F. V.; Schwarz, Heinz; Folea, Mihaela; Schouten, Stefan; Boekema, Egbert J.; Poolman, Bert; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The crenarchaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii, release membrane vesicles into the medium. These membrane vesicles consist of tetraether lipids and are coated with an S-layer. A proteomic analysis reveals the presence of proteins homologous to subunits of the eukaryotic endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). Immunodetection of one of these homologs suggest a cell surface localization in intact cells. These data suggest that the membrane vesicles ...

  4. Ultrastructural Study of Salmonella typhimurium Treated with Membrane-Active Agents: Specific Reaction of Dansylchloride with Cell Envelope Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Peter R. G.; Teuber, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Amino groups of cell envelope proteins, lipids, and lipopolysaccharides cannot be labeled in intact cells of Salmonella typhimurium G 30 by using 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonylchloride incorporated in lecithin-cholesterol vesicles. However, application of membrane-interacting agents like tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)-hydrochloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (Na salt) (EDTA), divalent cations, and sublethal doses of the cationic antibacterial agents polymyxin B and chlorhexidine induced specific fluorescent labeling of envelope proteins and lipids but not of cytoplasmic compounds, with the exception of a soluble protein with a molecular weight of 46,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Treatment with Tris-hydrochloride buffer produced labeling of the heat-modifiable protein B/B+ and of proteins with molecular weights of 26,000, 22,000, and below 17,000. A combination of Tris-hydrochloride and EDTA induced additional dansylation of the major protein A and of proteins of molecular weights 80,000, 60,000, and 44,000. Polymyxin B and chlorhexidine caused similar labeling patterns. In every case, except with divalent cation treatment, protein B/B+ was the most prominently labeled species. Phosphatidylethanolamine was dansylated up to 30%. Lipopolysaccharide was not reactive under any condition or treatment. In addition, the peptidoglycan-bound lipoprotein did not react with dansylchloride in either intact or Tris-hydrochloride-treated cells. The results are discussed with regard to a possible localization of labeled and unlabeled compounds of the cell envelope on the basis of a model placing cell envelope amino groups into ion-ion interactions with anionic components of other envelope compounds like phosphate and carboxyl groups. Images PMID:97268

  5. Signaling mechanism by the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system LytSR: role of acetyl phosphate in bypassing the cell membrane electrical potential sensor LytS

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Patel; Dasantila Golemi-Kotra

    2016-01-01

    The two-component system LytSR has been linked to the signal transduction of cell membrane electrical potential perturbation and is involved in the adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to cationic antimicrobial peptides. It consists of a membrane-bound histidine kinase, LytS, which belongs to the family of multiple transmembrane-spanning domains receptors, and a response regulator, LytR, which belongs to the novel family of non-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain proteins. LytR regulates the e...

  6. The Cytochrome c Maturation Components CcmF, CcmH, and CcmI Form a Membrane-integral Multisubunit Heme Ligation Complex*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Carsten; Turkarslan, Serdar; Lee, Dong-Woo; Onder, Ozlem; Kranz, Robert G.; Daldal, Fevzi

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome c maturation (Ccm) is a post-translational and post-export protein modification process that involves ten (CcmABCDEFGHI and CcdA or DsbD) components in most Gram-negative bacteria. The absence of any of these components abolishes the ability of cells to form cytochrome c, leading in the case of Rhodobacter capsulatus to the loss of photosynthetic proficiency and respiratory cytochrome oxidase activity. Based on earlier molecular genetic studies, we inferred that R. capsulatus CcmF, CcmH, and CcmI interact with each other to perform heme-apocytochrome c ligation. Here, using functional epitope-tagged derivatives of these components coproduced in appropriate mutant strains, we determined protein-protein interactions between them in detergent-dispersed membranes. Reciprocal affinity purification as well as tandem size exclusion and affinity chromatography analyses provided the first biochemical evidence that CcmF, CcmH, and CcmI associate stably with each other, indicating that these Ccm components form a membrane-integral complex. Under the conditions used, the CcmFHI complex does not contain CcmG, suggesting that the latter thio-reduction component is not always associated with the heme ligation components. The findings are discussed with respect to defining the obligatory components of a minimalistic heme-apocytochrome c ligation complex in R. capsulatus. PMID:18753134

  7. Basement Aquifers : How Useful Are Gravity Data ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthon, P.; Mouhouyouddine, A. H.; Hinderer, J.; Hector, B.; Yameogo, S.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity data with a few microgal precision were proved to be able to constrain the specific yield of various kinds of aquifer in West Africa from annual fluctuations of both the gravimetric and piezometric signals (Pfeffer et al., Geophys. J. Int., 2011; Hector et al., Geophys. J. Int., 2013). However some recent papers reported a disappointing potential of gravity measurements during a pumping experiment in a sandy aquifer (Blainey et al., WRR, 2007; Herckenrath et al., WRR, 2012) and their poor ability in constraining the transmissity and specific yield of the aquifer, which are the parameters to which pumping tests give access. Fresh basement rocks present generally a null porosity and the structure of basement aquifers is given by the weathering profile. In tropical climate, this profile consists of a few tens meter thick saprolite layer, with noticeable porosity but low permeability overlying the weathering front. This weathering front includes in many instances a fractured medium and presents a high permeability with variable porosity. It is hardly sampled in coring experiments. We present some numerical simulation results on the ability of gravity to constrain the transmissivity of this medium. Due to poroelasticity of clay minerals in the saprolite, soil subsidence is expected to occur during pumping with a significant gravity effect. Gravity measurements have therefore to be completed with leveling data at a millimetric precision. We present first the results of numerical modeling of the gravity and subsidence for a theoretical horizontally stratified basement aquifer, and show that gravity and leveling are able to provide independently the poroelasticity coefficient and a single transmissivity coefficient for the bottom of the aquifer, if the properties of the upper saprolites are known. We will discuss then the general case, where the aquifer presents a vertical fracture where the weathering profile thickens.

  8. Outer Membrane Targeting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Proteins Shows Variable Dependence on the Components of Bam and Lol Machineries

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Hanh H.; Nickerson, Nicholas N.; Lee, Vincent T.; Kazimirova, Anastasia; Chami, Mohamed; Pugsley, Anthony P.; Lory, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Gram-negative bacteria, the Lol and Bam machineries direct the targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins, respectively, to the outer membrane (OM). Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with depleted levels of specific Bam and Lol proteins, we demonstrated a variable dependence of different OM proteins on these targeting pathways. Reduction in the level of BamA significantly affected the ability of the β-barrel membrane protein OprF to localize to the OM, while the targeting...

  9. Affinity-purified tetanus neurotoxin interaction with synaptic membranes: properties of a protease-sensitive receptor component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacokinetic interaction of an affinity-purified 125I-labeled tetanotoxin fraction with guinea pig brain synaptosomal preparations was investigated. Binding of tetanotoxin was time- and temperature-dependent, was proportional to protein concentration, and was saturable at about 8 x 10-9 M as estimated by a solid-surface binding assay. Binding was optimal at pH 6.5 under low ionic strength buffer and was almost entirely blocked by gangliosides or antitoxin. In analogy to intact nerve cells, binding of toxin to membranes resulted in a tight association operationally defined as sequestration. Binding and sequestration were abolished after membrane pretreatment with sialidase. The enzyme could not dissociate the membrane-bound toxin formed at 4 or 370C under low ionic strength conditions, which is in part compatible with internalization as defined in nerve cell cultures. In the latter system the toxin could be removed at 40C but not at 370C. Binding was significantly reduced upon pretreatment of guinea pig brain membranes by a variety of hydrolytic enzymes. It is proposed that, in addition to a ganglioside, interaction of tetanotoxin with synaptic membranes is facilitated by a protein and may also require an appropriate lipid environment. These latter membrane constituents may play a pivotal role in the sequestration of the toxin

  10. Characterization and Two-Dimensional Crystallization of Membrane Component AlkB of the Medium-Chain Alkane Hydroxylase System from Pseudomonas putida GPo1

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Hernan; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The alkane hydroxylase system of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 allows it to use alkanes as the sole source of carbon and energy. Bacterial alkane hydroxylases have tremendous potential as biocatalysts for the stereo- and regioselective transformation of a wide range of chemically inert unreactive alkanes into valuable reactive chemical precursors. We have produced and characterized the first 2-dimensional crystals of the integral membrane component of the P. putida alkane hydroxylase system, the no...

  11. Geochemistry of the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major and trace elements, rare earths, and 143Nd/147Nd and, 147Sm/144Nd isotope ratios have been determined in the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement. The basement is formed by high temperature amphibolite facies rocks ranulites (750-550 degrees C) and green schists. They are represented by schists, paragneiss, orthogneiss, migmatites, few metabasites, marbles and chalcosilicatic banks. Hypotheses on the formation and evolution of the basement are presented

  12. Structural analysis of a fractured basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, Hugh; Schneider, Dave; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    The Pan-African Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), within which Yemen lies, formed as a result of Neoproterozoic collisional events between c. 870-550 Ma. Several subsequent phases of extension occurred, from the Mesozoic (due to the breakup of Gondwana) to the Recent (forming the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea). These resulted in the formation of numerous horst- and-graben structures and the development of fractured basement reservoirs in the southeast part of the ANS. Two drill cores from the Mesozoic Marib-Shabwa Basin, central Yemen, penetrated the upper part of the Pan-African basement. The cores show both a lithological and structural inhomogeneity, with variations in extension-related deformation structures such as dilatational breccias, open fractures and closed veins. At least three deformation events have been recognized: D1) Ductile to brittle NW-SE directed faulting during cooling of a granitic pluton. U-Pb zircon ages revealed an upper age limit for granite emplacement at 627±3.5 Ma. As these structures show evidence for ductile deformation, this event must have occurred during the Ediacaran, shortly after intrusion, since Rb/Sr and (U-Th)/He analyses show that subsequent re-heating of the basement did not take place. D2) The development of shallow dipping, NNE-SSW striking extensional faults that formed during the Upper Jurassic, simultaneously with the formation of the Marib-Shabwa Basin. These fractures are regularly cross-cut by D3. D3) Steeply dipping NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW veins that are consistent with the orientation of the opening of the Gulf of Aden. These faults are the youngest structures recognized. The formation of ductile to brittle faults in the granite (D1) resulted in a hydrothermally altered zone ca. 30 cm wide replacing (mainly) plagioclase with predominantly chlorite, as well as kaolinite and heavy element minerals such as pyrite. The alteration- induced porosity has an average value of 20%, indicating that the altered zone is potentially a

  13. Properties of the Membrane Binding Component of Catechol-O-methyltransferase Revealed by Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowski, A.; St-Pierre, J. F.; Magarkar, A.;

    2011-01-01

    helical segment brought about an interesting view that the flexible loop observed in our work can be a common structural element in these types of proteins. In the same spirit we close the article by discussing the role of salt bridges in the formation of three-dimensional structures of membrane proteins...... that was not included in our model. In numerous independent simulations we observed the formation of a salt bridge between ARC 27 and GLU40. The salt bridge closed the flexible loop that formed in the linker and kept it in the vicinity of the membrane-water interface. All simulations supported this...

  14. Water coning in fractured basement reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, S.E.D.M.; Darwich, T.D.; Asaad, Y.

    1995-11-01

    The problem of water coning in fractured basement reservoirs has been addressed in this work. The outcome of experimental and theoretical investigation to determine the critical production rate for single- and multi-fractured system, the capillary pressure effect, and the break-through time is presented. The results of the experimental work verify the presented theoretical relationship for different fluid viscosities, fracture angles, oil-water contacts (OWC), and rates for the case of single fracture system. The results also indicate that the capillary pressure effect may be generally neglected if the distance between the OWC and the fluid entry is sufficiently large compared to the capillary rise. The extension of the critical rate determination for a multi-fractured reservoir is also discussed. Finally, the main factors influencing the break-through time were investigated. The difference in viscosity between the oil and water phases has been fond to be the main factor affecting the breakthrough time.

  15. Membrane Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashrafuzzaman, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Physics, mathematics and chemistry all play a vital role in understanding the true nature and functioning of biological membranes, key elements of living processes. Besides simple spectroscopic observations and electrical measurements of membranes we address in this book the phenomena of coexistence and independent existence of different membrane components using various theoretical approaches. This treatment will be helpful for readers who want to understand biological processes by applying both simple observations and fundamental scientific analysis. It provides a deep understanding of the causes and effects of processes inside membranes, and will thus eventually open new doors for high-level pharmaceutical approaches towards fighting membrane- and cell-related diseases.

  16. Iodixanol Gradient Centrifugation to Separate Components of the Low-Density Membrane Fraction from 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Jessica B A; Lamb, Christopher A; Gould, Gwyn W; Bryant, Nia J

    2016-02-01

    We optimized a set of fractionation techniques to facilitate the isolation of subcellular compartments containing insulin-sensitive glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4), which is mobilized from GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs) in fat and muscle cells in response to insulin. In the absence of insulin, GLUT4 undergoes a continuous cycle of GSV formation and fusion with other compartments. Full membrane fractionation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes produces a low-density membrane fraction that contains both the constitutive recycling pool (the endosomal recycling compartments) and the insulin-sensitive pool (the GSVs). These two pools can be separated based on density using iodixanol gradient centrifugation, described here. PMID:26832683

  17. Adhesion-induced lateral phase separation of multi-component membranes: the effect of repellers and confinement

    OpenAIRE

    Asfaw, Mesfin; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical study for adhesion-induced lateral phase separation for a membrane with short stickers, long stickers and repellers confined between two hard walls. The effects of confinement and repellers on lateral phase separation are investigated. We find that the critical potential depth of the stickers for lateral phase separation increases as the distance between the hard walls decreases. This suggests confinement-induced or force-induced mixing of stickers. We also find that ...

  18. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Nanowires are Outer Membrane and Periplasmic Extensions of the Extracellular Electron Transport Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirbadian, S.; Barchinger, S. E.; Leung, K. M.; Byun, H. S.; Jangir, Y.; Bouhenni, Rachida; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A.; Golbeck, J. H.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-08-20

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella neidensis MR-1. Using live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis, we report that S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures, as previously thought. These bacterial nanowires were also associated with outer membrane vesicles and vesicle chains, structures ubiquitous in gram-negative bacteria. Redoxfunctionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution.

  19. Potential Development of Hydrocarbon in Basement Reservoirs In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sunarjanto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.165Basement rocks, in particular igneous and metamorphic rocks are known to have porosity and permeability which should not be ignored. Primary porosity of basement rocks occurs as the result of rock formation. The porosity increases by the presence of cracks occurring as the result of tectonic processes (secondary porosity. Various efforts have been carried out to explore hydrocarbon in basement rocks. Some oil and gas fields proved that the basement rocks are as reservoirs which so far have provided oil and gas in significant amount. A review using previous research data, new data, and observation of igneous rocks in some fields has been done to see the development of exploration and basement reservoirs in Indonesia. A review on terminology of basement rock up till the identification of oil and gas exploration in basement rocks need to be based on the latest technology. An environmental approach is suggested to be applied as an alternative in analyzing the policy on oil and gas exploration development, especially in basement reservoirs.

  20. Inoculation of a Poultry Isolate Salmonella enteritidis on Egg Vitelline Membrane: Survival and Growth in Egg Components after Different Refrigeration Storage Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Howard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid were inoculated on to the surface of the yolk membrane at a concentration of approximately 106 CFU mLˉ1. Yolks were then covered with albumen and incubated for 24 hrs at 25°C. After incubation, eggs were separated into component parts. Samples were removed from yolk, albumen and yolk membrane and diluted 10-fold in sterile phosphate buffered saline. In albumen, S. enteritidis counts were increased in weeks 3 and 8 compared to week 1 (trial 2. The frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis in albumen occurred at week 7 versus weeks 0 and 1 in trial 1 and weeks 3 and 8 versus weeks 0 and 2 in trial 2. In the membrane fraction, the frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis occurred at weeks 5 and 8 versus week 0 in trial 2. In the yolk fractions, S. enteritidis counts recovered from week 6 eggs were significantly higher (PS. enteritidis positive eggs were greater in week 8 than week 5 in trial 1. This suggests that egg components recovered from aged eggs stored at refrigeration temperatures infrequently supported S. enteritidis net growth but generally did not inhibit survivability.

  1. Ultrastructural immunocytochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in Bruch's membrane of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, W L; Essner, E; McCarthy, K J;

    1992-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (Mab 4D5 and 2D6) raised against the core protein of a basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan from Reichert's membrane of the rat, were used for ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of this protein in Bruch's membrane of the rat. Immunoreactivity for...... both antibodies was found in the basal lamina (basement membrane) of the choriocapillary endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium, in collagen fibers in the collagenous zones, and surrounding the elastic layer....

  2. Subsidence resistant repair of a block basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one story house was damaged by mine subsidence movement. The house is located in a small subsidence sag and is experiencing differential settlement and compressive ground strains. Instead of waiting for the ground movements to eventually stop, The Illinois Mine Subsidence Insurance Fund developed a permanent repair scheme that was implemented at the same time damaging mine subsidence movement was affecting the structure. This repair provided a significant structural resistance against the anticipated residual mine subsidence movement and was aesthetically acceptable to the homeowners. The repair consisted of epoxying vertical and horizontal steel straps and then applying a cover coat of fiber-cement on the unreinforced concrete block basement walls. The repair scheme was relatively untried, but had been successfully researched. This paper provides information on the mine subsidence movement/damage, the design concepts of steel strap/fiber-cement repair, construction details, performance and costs. Other applications of the use of the steel strap repair method are also discussed for releveling of a building and/or correcting subsidence damage to structures located in the tension zone

  3. Signaling mechanism by the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system LytSR: role of acetyl phosphate in bypassing the cell membrane electrical potential sensor LytS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kevin; Golemi-Kotra, Dasantila

    2015-01-01

    The two-component system LytSR has been linked to the signal transduction of cell membrane electrical potential perturbation and is involved in the adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to cationic antimicrobial peptides. It consists of a membrane-bound histidine kinase, LytS, which belongs to the family of multiple transmembrane-spanning domains receptors, and a response regulator, LytR, which belongs to the novel family of non-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain proteins. LytR regulates the expression of cidABC and lrgAB operons, the gene products of which are involved in programmed cell death and lysis. In vivo studies have demonstrated involvement of two overlapping regulatory networks in regulating the lrgAB operon, both depending on LytR. One regulatory network responds to glucose metabolism and the other responds to changes in the cell membrane potential. Herein, we show that LytS has autokinase activity and can catalyze a fast phosphotransfer reaction, with 50% of its phosphoryl group lost within 1 minute of incubation with LytR. LytS has also phosphatase activity. Notably, LytR undergoes phosphorylation by acetyl phosphate at a rate that is 2-fold faster than the phosphorylation by LytS. This observation is significant in lieu of the in vivo observations that regulation of the lrgAB operon is LytR-dependent in the presence of excess glucose in the medium. The latter condition does not lead to perturbation of the cell membrane potential but rather to the accumulation of acetate in the cell. Our study provides insights into the molecular basis for regulation of lrgAB in a LytR-dependent manner under conditions that do not involve sensing by LytS. PMID:27127614

  4. Catalytic phosphonation of high performance polymers and POSS. Novel components for polymer blend and nanocomposite fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, T.R.

    2006-10-15

    Aim of this thesis was the preparation and evaluation of phosphonated high performance (HP) polyelectrolytes and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) application. Brominated derivatives of the commercial high performance (HP) polymers poly(ethersulfone) (PES), poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK), poly(phenylsulfone) (PPSu), poly(sulfone) (PSU) and of octaphenyl-POSS of own production were phosphonated by Ni-catalysed Arbuzov reaction. Phosphonated PSU was cast into pure and blend films with sulfonated PEEK (s-PEEK) to investigate H+-conductivity, water uptake and film morphology. Blend films' properties were referenced to films containing unmodified blend partners. Solution-compounding of phosphonated octaphenyl-POSS and s-PEEK was used to produce novel nanocomposite films. An in-situ zirconisation method was assessed as convenient strategy for novel ionically crosslinked membranes of enhanced swelling resistance. Dibromo isocyanuric acid (DBI) and N-bromo succinimide (NBS) as brominating agents allowed polymer analogous preparation of the novel brominated PES and PEEK with precise reaction control. A random distribution of functional groups, i.e. polyelectrolytes' microstructural homogeneity was revealed as decisive factor concerning solubility of phosphonated PSU. Brominated phT8 was prepared with Br2 by a high temperature approach in tetrachloroethane (TCE). Brominated polymers were phosphonated by Ni-catalysis in non-coordinating high temperature solvents, such as diphenylether, benzophenone and diphenylsulfone without notable solvent influence. The lack of solvent - catalyst complexes and high reaction temperatures of 180-200 C led to halogen-free phosphonates with unprecedented high functionalities. Polymer analogous application of P(OSiMe3)3 offered a novel direct access to easily cleavable disilyl ester derivatives. These were obtained from PEEK and PSU in near quantitative yields at NiCl2-loads as

  5. Plasma membrane-located purine nucleotide transport proteins are key components for host exploitation by microsporidian intracellular parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heinz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites of most animal groups including humans, but despite their significant economic and medical importance there are major gaps in our understanding of how they exploit infected host cells. We have investigated the evolution, cellular locations and substrate specificities of a family of nucleotide transport (NTT proteins from Trachipleistophora hominis, a microsporidian isolated from an HIV/AIDS patient. Transport proteins are critical to microsporidian success because they compensate for the dramatic loss of metabolic pathways that is a hallmark of the group. Our data demonstrate that the use of plasma membrane-located nucleotide transport proteins (NTT is a key strategy adopted by microsporidians to exploit host cells. Acquisition of an ancestral transporter gene at the base of the microsporidian radiation was followed by lineage-specific events of gene duplication, which in the case of T. hominis has generated four paralogous NTT transporters. All four T. hominis NTT proteins are located predominantly to the plasma membrane of replicating intracellular cells where they can mediate transport at the host-parasite interface. In contrast to published data for Encephalitozoon cuniculi, we found no evidence for the location for any of the T. hominis NTT transporters to its minimal mitochondria (mitosomes, consistent with lineage-specific differences in transporter and mitosome evolution. All of the T. hominis NTTs transported radiolabelled purine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, GTP and GDP when expressed in Escherichia coli, but did not transport radiolabelled pyrimidine nucleotides. Genome analysis suggests that imported purine nucleotides could be used by T. hominis to make all of the critical purine-based building-blocks for DNA and RNA biosynthesis during parasite intracellular replication, as well as providing essential energy for parasite cellular metabolism and protein synthesis.

  6. 64 Effect of Formoterol on Eosinophil Trans-Basement Migration Induced by Interleukin-8-Stimulated Neutrophils

    OpenAIRE

    KAWASHIMA, Akiko; Nishihara, Fuyumi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Nagata, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Background Neutrophils are often increased in the airways of either chronic severe disease or acute exacerbation of asthma. Neutrophils migrated in response to interleukin-8 (IL-8) may lead eosinophils to accumulate in the airways of asthma and possibly aggravate this disease. In this study, we investigated whether formoterol modify the trans-basement membrane migration (TBM) of eosinophils stimulated with neutrophils and IL-8. Methods Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from peripheral...

  7. Survey of Scania county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Scania county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  8. Survey of Jaemtland county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Jaemtland county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  9. Survey of Dalarna county (basement rock part). Geologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey of the geologic conditions in Dalarna county is presented, with the aim to give background for the location of a repository for spent fuels. The study is restricted to the basement rock part of the county

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  11. Differential Cytotoxicity of MEX: a Component of Neem Oil Whose Action Is Exerted at the Cell Membrane Level

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Ricci; Valerio Berardi; Gianfranco Risuleo

    2008-01-01

    Neem oil is obtained from the seeds of the tree Azadirachta indica. Its chemical composition is very complex, being rich in terpenoids and limonoids, as well as volatile sulphur modified compounds. This work focused on the evaluation of a component of the whole Neem oil obtained by methanolic extraction and defined as MEX. Cytotoxicity was assessed on two different cell populations: a stabilized murine fibroblast line (3T6) and a tumor cell line (HeLa). The data presented here suggest a diffe...

  12. Dynamin-like protein 1 at the Golgi complex: A novel component of the sorting/targeting machinery en route to the plasma membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonekamp, Nina A. [Centre for Cell Biology and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Vormund, Kerstin; Jacob, Ralf [Department of Cell Biology and Cell Pathology, University of Marburg, Robert-Koch-Str. 6, 35037 Marburg (Germany); Schrader, Michael, E-mail: mschrader@ua.pt [Centre for Cell Biology and Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-12-10

    The final step in the liberation of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) involves the mechanical action of the large GTPase dynamin as well as conserved dynamin-independent fission mechanisms, e.g. mediated by Brefeldin A-dependent ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS). Another member of the dynamin family is the mammalian dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1/Drp1) that is known to constrict and tubulate membranes, and to divide mitochondria and peroxisomes. Here, we examined a potential role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex. DLP1 localized to the Golgi complex in some but not all cell lines tested, thus explaining controversial reports on its cellular distribution. After silencing of DLP1, an accumulation of the apical reporter protein YFP-GL-GPI, but not the basolateral reporter VSVG-SP-GFP at the Golgi complex was observed. A reduction in the transport of YFP-GL-GPI to the plasma membrane was confirmed by surface immunoprecipitation and TGN-exit assays. In contrast, YFP-GL-GPI trafficking was not disturbed in cells silenced for BARS, which is involved in basolateral sorting and trafficking of VSVG-SP-GFP in COS-7 cells. Our data indicate a new role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex and thus a role for DLP1 as a novel component of the apical sorting machinery at the TGN is discussed.

  13. Dynamin-like protein 1 at the Golgi complex: A novel component of the sorting/targeting machinery en route to the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final step in the liberation of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) involves the mechanical action of the large GTPase dynamin as well as conserved dynamin-independent fission mechanisms, e.g. mediated by Brefeldin A-dependent ADP-ribosylated substrate (BARS). Another member of the dynamin family is the mammalian dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1/Drp1) that is known to constrict and tubulate membranes, and to divide mitochondria and peroxisomes. Here, we examined a potential role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex. DLP1 localized to the Golgi complex in some but not all cell lines tested, thus explaining controversial reports on its cellular distribution. After silencing of DLP1, an accumulation of the apical reporter protein YFP-GL-GPI, but not the basolateral reporter VSVG-SP-GFP at the Golgi complex was observed. A reduction in the transport of YFP-GL-GPI to the plasma membrane was confirmed by surface immunoprecipitation and TGN-exit assays. In contrast, YFP-GL-GPI trafficking was not disturbed in cells silenced for BARS, which is involved in basolateral sorting and trafficking of VSVG-SP-GFP in COS-7 cells. Our data indicate a new role for DLP1 at the Golgi complex and thus a role for DLP1 as a novel component of the apical sorting machinery at the TGN is discussed.

  14. A Stochastic System with Infinite Interacting Components to Model the Time Evolution of the Membrane Potentials of a Population of Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaginuma, K.

    2016-05-01

    We consider a new class of interacting particle systems with a countable number of interacting components. The system represents the time evolution of the membrane potentials of an infinite set of interacting neurons. We prove the existence and uniqueness of the process, using a perfect simulation procedure. We show that this algorithm is successful, that is, we show that the number of steps of the algorithm is almost surely finite. We also construct a perfect simulation procedure for the coupling of a process with a finite number of neurons and the process with an infinite number of neurons. As a consequence, we obtain an upper bound for the error that we make when sampling from a finite set of neurons instead of the infinite set of neurons.

  15. Microbial community transitions across the deep sediment-basement interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, J.; Lever, M. A.; Orcutt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies of microbial abundance and geochemistry in deep marine sediments indicate a stimulation of microbial activity near the sediment-basement interface; yet, the extent to which microbial communities in bottom sediments and underlying crustal habitats interact is unclear. We conducted tag pyrosequencing on DNA extracted from a spectrum of deep sediment-basement samples to try to identify patterns in microbial community shifts across sediment-basement interfaces, focusing on samples from the subsurface of the Juan de Fuca Ridge flank (IODP Expedition 327). Our results demonstrate that sediment and the basaltic crust harbor microbial communities that are phylogenetically connected, but the eveness is characteristic of the environment. We will discuss the microbial community transitions that occur horizontally along fluid flow pathways and vertically across the sediment basement interface, as well as the possible implications regarding the controls of microbial community composition along deep sediment-basement interfaces in hydrothermal systems. We will also highlight efforts to overcome sample contamination in crustal subsurface samples.

  16. Basement depressurization using dwelling mechanical exhaust ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical ventilation exhaust system is commonly used in France to generate air renewal into building and especially into dwelling. It consists of a permanent mechanical air extraction from technical rooms (kitchen, bathrooms and toilets) using a unique fan connected to exhaust ducts. Natural air inlets in living room and bed rooms ensure an air flow from living spaces towards technical rooms. To fight against radon into building, the most recognised efficient technique is the Soil Depressurization System (S.D.S.) consisting in depressurizing the house basement. The aim of this study is to test the ability of the dwelling mechanical ventilation system to depressurize the basement in conjunction with air renewal of a house. For that purpose, a S.D.S. has been installed in an experimental house at CSTB during its construction. At first, tests undertaken with a variable velocity fan connected to the S.D.S. have characterised the permeability of the basement. It is shown that basement can be depressurized adequately with a relatively low air flow rate. At a second stage, S.D.S. has been connected to the exhaust ventilation fan used for the mechanical ventilation of the house. Results obtained show the ability of such ventilation system to generate sufficient depressurization in the basement and to ensure simultaneously adequate air change rate in the dwelling. (author)

  17. Discussion on the basement topography and its relation with the uranium mineralization in Xiangshan basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth of the basement and the relation between the basement relief shape and uranium mineralization are discussed by forward and inverse computation for large-scale gravity data in Xiangshan basin. The difference of basement topography result in the inhomogeneous distribution of uranium mineralization. The margin of the basement upheaval section and the variation place of basement topography are the favorable place for uranium mineralization. It's helpful to prospect deep and blind uranium deposit in Xiangshan basin

  18. Current Trends about Inner Limiting Membrane Peeling in Surgery for Epiretinal Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Semeraro; Francesco Morescalchi; Sarah Duse; Elena Gambicorti; Andrea Russo; Ciro Costagliola

    2015-01-01

    The inner limiting membrane (ILM) is the basement membrane of the Müller cells and can act as a scaffold for cellular proliferation in the pathophysiology of disorders affecting the vitreomacular interface. The atraumatic removal of the macular ILM has been proposed for treating various forms of tractional maculopathy in particular for macular pucker. In the last decade, the removal of ILM has become a routine practice in the surgery of the epiretinal membranes (ERMs), with good anatomical re...

  19. Bis-quaternary gemini surfactants as components of nonviral gene delivery systems: a comprehensive study from physicochemical properties to membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Silva, Sandra G; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Maria Amália S

    2014-10-20

    Gemini surfactants have been successfully used as components of gene delivery systems. In the present work, a family of gemini surfactants, represented by the general structure [CmH2m+1(CH3)2N(+)(CH2)sN(+)(CH3)2CmH2m+1]2Br(-), or simply m-s-m, was used to prepare cationic gene carriers, aiming at their application in transfection studies. An extensive characterization of the gemini surfactant-based complexes, produced with and without the helper lipids cholesterol and DOPE, was carried out in order to correlate their physico-chemical properties with transfection efficiency. The most efficient complexes were those containing helper lipids, which, combining amphiphiles with propensity to form structures with different intrinsic curvatures, displayed a morphologically labile architecture, putatively implicated in the efficient DNA release upon complex interaction with membranes. While complexes lacking helper lipids were translocated directly across the lipid bilayer, complexes containing helper lipids were taken up by cells also by macropinocytosis. This study contributes to shed light on the relationship between important physico-chemical properties of surfactant-based DNA vectors and their efficiency to promote gene transfer, which may represent a step forward to the rational design of gene delivery systems. PMID:25111434

  20. Inducing of Angiogenesis is the Net Effect of the Amniotic Membrane Without Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Niknejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic membrane (AM, the nearest layer of placenta to the fetus, has some biological properties important for the experimental and clinical applications including anti-microbial, anti-fibrosis, anti-scarring, as well as low immunogenicity. The basement membrane of the AM contains several extracellular matrix components such as types І, III, IV, V collagen, laminin, fibronectin and perlecan which can induce proliferation of endothelial cells. The stormal side of the AM consists of mesenchymal cells which have capability to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, several angiogenic factors such as interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, growth-related oncogene (GRO, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and intravascular adhesion molecule (ICAM are secreted by the amniotic mesenchymal cells. Since the majority of anti-angiogenic factors are released by amniotic epithelial cells and due to the advantages of basement membrane and stromal side for inducing of angiogenesis, we have suggested here that the AM without epithelial layer would promote angiogenesis, an effect that would be a beneficial therapeutic approach for ischemic vascular diseases. To evaluate the hypothesis, the AM with or without epithelial cells will be implanted onto the striated muscle tissue of rats. The dorsal skinfold chamber model will be employed for intravital microscopic observation of the angiogenic host tissue response to implanted biomaterials throughout a time period of 7-14 days.

  1. Injection-induced seismicity on basement faults including poroelastic stressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K. W.; Segall, P.

    2016-04-01

    Most significant induced earthquakes occur on faults within the basement beneath sedimentary cover. In this two-dimensional plane strain numerical study, we examine the full poroelastic response of basement faults to fluid injection into overlying strata, considering both (1) the permeability of the fault zone and (2) the hydraulic connectivity of the faults to the target horizon. Given hydraulic and mechanical properties, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress, which we separate into (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δτs+fΔσn, where Δτs and Δσn are changes in shear and normal stress (Δτs>0 and Δσn>0 both favor slip), and (2) the change in pore pressure fΔp. Pore pressure diffusion into hydraulically connected, permeable faults dominates their mechanical stability. For hydraulically isolated or low-permeability faults, however, poroelastic stresses transmitted to deeper basement levels can trigger slip, even without elevated pore pressure. The seismicity rate on basement fault zones is predicted using the model of Dieterich (1994). High seismicity rates can occur on permeable, hydraulically connected faults due to direct pore pressure diffusion. Lower rates are predicted on isolated steeply dipping normal faults, caused solely by poroelastic stressing. In contrast, seismicity on similarly oriented reverse faults is inhibited.

  2. Magnetic basement in the central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L; Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Rao, M.M.M.

    . The N10-12 degrees W trending subsurface 85 degrees E Ridge buried under 2 to 3 km thick sediments is a prominent tectonic feature. Offshore basins characterised by deeper magnetic basement (approx. 9 km) and 100-200 km wide are present on either sides...

  3. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grot, Stephen; Grot, Walther

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  4. On the Unusual Homeoviscous Adaptation of the Membrane Fatty Acyl Components against the Thermal Stress in RhiΖobium meliloti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to maintain the optimal fluidity in membrane, microorganism genetically regulates the ratio of the unsaturated fatty acids (Ufos) to saturated ones of its biological membrane in response to external perturbing condition such as the change of temperature. The remodelling of fatty acyl chain composition is the most frequently observed response to altered growth temperature. It is reflected in the elevated proportions of unsaturated fatty acid (UFAs) at low temperature. Because cis double bonds, normally positioned at the middle of fatty acyl chains, introduce a kink of approximately 30 .deg. into acyl chain, UFAs pack less compactly and exhibit lower melting points than their saturated homologues. Thus, enrichment of membranes with UFAs offsets, to a significant degree, the increase in membrane order caused by a drop in temperature. This is so called homeoviscous adaptation of the membrane fatty acyl chains against thermal stress. Membrane maintains the optimal viscosity using homeoviscous adaptation.

  5. On the Unusual Homeoviscous Adaptation of the Membrane Fatty Acyl Components against the Thermal Stress in Rhi{Zeta}obium meliloti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seb Yung; Jung, Seun Ho [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yong Hoon; Yang, Chul Hak [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Won [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    In order to maintain the optimal fluidity in membrane, microorganism genetically regulates the ratio of the unsaturated fatty acids (Ufos) to saturated ones of its biological membrane in response to external perturbing condition such as the change of temperature. The remodelling of fatty acyl chain composition is the most frequently observed response to altered growth temperature. It is reflected in the elevated proportions of unsaturated fatty acid (UFAs) at low temperature. Because cis double bonds, normally positioned at the middle of fatty acyl chains, introduce a kink of approximately 30 .deg. into acyl chain, UFAs pack less compactly and exhibit lower melting points than their saturated homologues. Thus, enrichment of membranes with UFAs offsets, to a significant degree, the increase in membrane order caused by a drop in temperature. This is so called homeoviscous adaptation of the membrane fatty acyl chains against thermal stress. Membrane maintains the optimal viscosity using homeoviscous adaptation.

  6. HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITE-SILICONE RUBBER MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANES FOR ETHANOL-WATER SEPARATION: EFFECT OF ZEOLITE AND SILICONE COMPONENT SELECTION ON PERVAPORATION PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-silica ZSM 5 zeolites were incorporated into poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) polymers to form mixed matrix membranes for ethanol removal from water via pervaporation. Membrane formulation and preparation parameters were varied to determine the effect on pervaporation perform...

  7. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Subrahmanyam; K V Swamy; Neetha Raj

    2016-04-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies along three representative profiles falling between shelf break and continent–ocean boundary in the offshore Krishna–Godavari basin were quantitatively interpreted for understandingthe nature and structure of the magnetic basement using inversion technique. The interpretation of theanomalies shows that the magnetic basement lies deeper than the base of the sediments, i.e., acousticbasement identified by the seismic studies. This interpretation also shows that the magnetic basementis faulted along the NW–SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trendof this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with thatof charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K–G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology(charnockites, granitic gneiss, etc.) extends up to COB in the offshore K–G basin.

  8. Multiple components of blood group A and B antigens in human erythrocyte membranes and their difference between A1 and A2 status.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, H.; Yoshida, A.

    1980-01-01

    Human type O erythrocyte membranes were converted to type A1 by purified human A1-enzyme, to type A2 by purified human A2-enzyme, and to type B by purified human B-enzyme in the presence of radioactive sugar donors (i.e., UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine for A-enzyme and UDP-galactose for B-enzyme, respectively). Type A2 erythrocyte membranes were also converted to type A1 by purified A1-enzyme A1-enzyme. The labeled blood group antigens (A1, A2, and B) thus produced were analyzed by sodium dodecyl ...

  9. Basement faults and volcanic rock distributions in the Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic rocks in the Ordos Basin are of mainly two types: one in the basin and the other along the margin of the basin. Besides those along the margin, the marginal volcanic rocks also include the volcanic rocks in the Yinshanian orogenic belt north of the basin. Based on the latest collection of gravitational and aeromagnetic data, here we interpret basement faults in the Ordos Basin and its peripheral region, compare the faults derived from aeromagnetic data with those from seismic data, and identify the geological ages of the fault development. Two aeromagnetic anomaly zones exist in the NE-trending faults of the southern basin, and they are in the volcanic basement formed in pre-Paleozoic. These NE-trending faults are the channel of volcanic material upwelling in the early age (Archean-Neoproterozoic), where igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks stack successively on both sides of the continental nucleus. In the Cambrian, the basin interior is relatively stable, but in the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic, the basin margin underwent a number of volcanic activities, accompanied by the formation of nearly north-south and east-west basement faults in the basin periphery and resulting in accumulation of great amount of volcanic materials. Volcanic tuff from the basin periphery is discovered in the central basin and volcanic materials are exposed in the margins of the basin. According to the source-reservoir-cap rock configuration, the basin peripheral igneous traps formed in the Indosinian-Early Yanshanian and Late Hercynian are favorable exploration objectives, and the volcanic rocks in the central basin are the future target of exploration.

  10. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K.V.; Raj, N.

    . The calculated depth (5.1 km) in this method corresponds to the depth to the center of the sheet. Thus for a throw of 1 km the depths to the top and bottom of the mag- netic basement will be 4.6 and 5.6 km respectively with an intensity of magnetization of 1030 n.... I V Radhakrishna Murthy for his valuable suggestions to improve the manuscript. The first author Dr. V Subrahmanyam is grateful to CSIR, New Delhi for grant of Emeritus Fellow- ship under which this work was carried out. Neetha Raj is thankful...

  11. Origin of natural gases in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Maciej

    2012-08-01

    Hydrocarbon gases from Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous reservoirs in the Paleozoic basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep were generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes ("oil window"). They contain only insignificant amounts of microbial methane and ethane. These gaseous hydrocarbons were generated from Lower Carboniferous and/or Middle Jurassic mixed Type III/II kerogen and from Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen, respectively. Methane, ethane and carbon dioxide of natural gas from the Middle Devonian reservoir contain a significant microbial component whereas their small thermogenic component is most probably genetically related to Ordovician-Silurian Type II kerogen. The gaseous hydrocarbons from the Upper Jurassic and the Upper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Mesozoic basement were generated both by microbial carbon dioxide reduction and thermogenic processes. The presence of microbial methane generated by carbon dioxide reduction suggests that in some deposits the traps had already been formed and sealed during the migration of microbial methane, presumably in the immature source rock environment. The traps were successively supplied with thermogenic methane and higher hydrocarbons generated at successively higher maturation stages of kerogen. The higher hydrocarbons of the majority of deposits were generated from mixed Type III/II kerogen deposited in the Middle Jurassic, Lower Carboniferous and/or Devonian strata. Type II or mixed Type II/III kerogen could be the source for hydrocarbons in both the Tarnów and Brzezówka deposits. In the Cenomanian sandstone reservoir of the Brzezowiec deposit and one Upper Jurassic carbonate block of the Lubaczów deposit microbial methane prevails. It migrated from the autochthonous Miocene strata.

  12. COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE PEMPHIGOID IN A MEDICALLY COMPROMISED PATIENT (DIABETES MELLITUS AND HYPERTENSION (A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Meutia Sari

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP is an autoimmune mucocutaneous blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies to components within the basement membrane zone. The lesions may produce risk of scarring of the cants (symblepharon, inversion of the eyelashes (entropion and trauma to the cornea (trichiasis. We reported a case of MMP in a 56-year old female with controlled diabetes mellitus and hypertension whose ocular involvement has lead to blindness of the right eye. The diagnosis of MMP was based on the history and clinical findings in oral medicine department. Management of this patient included the administration of anti-fungal, corticosteroid, diaminodiphenylsulfone, nutritional supplementation oral hygiene promotion and consultation to internal medicine specialist and ophtalmologist. The improvement of oral lesions progressed well within five months. We conclude that optimal improvement can be reached by comprehensive management with controlling systemic factor and good cooperation between medical team and patient.

  13. Basement topography and fresh-water resources of the coastal aquifer at Acapetahua, Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Birgit Steinich; Gerardo Bocanegra; Eva Sánchez

    1999-01-01

    The coastal aquifer of Acapetahua, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico, consists of one hydrostratigraphic unit composed of continental sediments overlying a crystalline basement. Twenty-four resistivity soundings were conducted and fifty-one water samples were taken in order to determine basic aquifer characteristics such as aquifer geometry and fresh water reserves. The basement topography in the study area is characterized by hills and deep valleys with highly variable basement depths ranging fro...

  14. Membrane-associated proteomics of chickpea identifies Sad1/UNC-84 protein (CaSUN1), a novel component of dehydration signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Mishra, Poonam; Subba, Pratigya; Rathi, Divya; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Dehydration affects almost all the physiological processes including those that result in the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which in turn elicits a highly conserved signaling, the unfolded protein response (UPR). We investigated the dehydration-responsive membrane-associated proteome of a legume, chickpea, by 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 184 protein spots were significantly altered over a dehydration treatment of 120 h. Among the diff...

  15. Investigation on evaluation method for characteristic seismic transmission. Standard earthquake basement from observation records of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of standard earthquake movement in seismic-resistant design for nuclear power plants is important and carried out at free surface of base stratum according to the guidelines. However, the seismic transmittance differs from site to site depending on the geological features, basement depth, and the state of uppers above the basement. The present method takes into account site characteristic propagation character between the basement surface and top surface and using standard and uniform earthquake motion throughout the country. Thus, the report presents investigation results of characteristic seismic motion at the basement from the records of observed earthquakes. (S. Ohno)

  16. Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

  17. Reconstitution of Membrane Proteins into Model Membranes: Seeking Better Ways to Retain Protein Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor Lithgow; Lisa Martin; Hsin-Hui Shen

    2013-01-01

    The function of any given biological membrane is determined largely by the specific set of integral membrane proteins embedded in it, and the peripheral membrane proteins attached to the membrane surface. The activity of these proteins, in turn, can be modulated by the phospholipid composition of the membrane. The reconstitution of membrane proteins into a model membrane allows investigation of individual features and activities of a given cell membrane component. However, the activity of mem...

  18. Entactin: ultrastructural localization of an ubiquitous basement membrane glycoprotein in mouse skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Ljubimov, A V; Yamasaki, H; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    present study, we have sought to determine the localization of entactin in mouse skin. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy (the latter via immunoperoxidase technique) were performed on both intact and NaCl-separated mouse skin, using a well-characterized IgG class entactin...

  19. IgA-mediated anti-glomerular basement membrane disease: an uncommon mechanism of Goodpasture's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moulis, Guillaume; Huart, Antoine; Guitard, Joëlle; Fortenfant, Françoise; Chauveau, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Goodpasture's (GP) disease is usually mediated by IgG autoantibodies. We describe a case of IgA-mediated GP, in a patient presenting with isolated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis was established on kidney biopsy, since routine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeted at IgG circulating autoantibodies failed to detect the nephritogenic antibodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed intense linear deposition of IgA along the glomerular capillary walls. An eleva...

  20. Bone marrow transplantation restores epidermal basement membrane protein expression and rescues epidermolysis bullosa model mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Yasuyuki; Abe, Riichiro; Inokuma, Daisuke; Sasaki, Mikako; Hoshina, Daichi; Natsuga, Ken; Nishie, Wataru; McMillan, James R.; Nakamura, Hideki; Shimizu, Tadamichi; Akiyama, Masashi; Sawamura, Daisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Attempts to treat congenital protein deficiencies using bone marrow-derived cells have been reported. These efforts have been based on the concepts of stem cell plasticity. However, it is considered more difficult to restore structural proteins than to restore secretory enzymes. This study aims to clarify whether bone marrow transplantation (BMT) treatment can rescue epidermolysis bullosa (EB) caused by defects in keratinocyte structural proteins. BMT treatment of adult collagen XVII (Col17) ...

  1. Dye Transport across the Retinal Basement Membrane of the Blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Weyrauther, E.; Roebroek, J.G.H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, transport of dye into or out of the retina, following injection into the eye or thorax, was investigated, mainly by microspectrophotometry and fluorimetry. After injection into the eye, Phenol Red, Trypan Blue, Lucifer Yellow and 9-amino-acridine were transported out of the retina; Procion Yellow and Rhodamine-123 stayed in it. The time constants of this transport process were in the range 45-80 min at 23°C, depending on the dye. When Lucifer Yellow ...

  2. Adipocyte-derived basement membrane extract with biological activity: applications in hepatocyte functional augmentation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Nripen S.; Nagrath, Deepak; Martin L Yarmush

    2010-01-01

    Natural and synthetic biomaterials utilized in tissue engineering applications require a dynamic interplay of complex macromolecular compositions of hydrated extracellular matrices (ECMs) and soluble growth factors. The challenges in utilizing synthetic ECMs is the effective control of temporal and spatial complexity of multiple signal presentation, as compared to natural ECMs that possess the inherent properties of biological recognition, including presentation of receptor-binding ligands, s...

  3. Histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of vestibular endorgans in Meniere's disease reveals basement membrane pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCall Andrew A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the systematic analysis of the ultrastructural and cytological histopathology of vestibular endorgans acquired from labyrinthectomy in Meniere's disease. Methods 17 subjects with intractable Meniere's disease and ipsilateral non-serviceable hearing presenting to the Neurotology Clinic from 1997 to 2006 who chose ablative labyrinthectomy (average age = 62 years; range 29–83 years participated. The average duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 7 years (range 1–20 years. Results Nearly all vestibular endorgans demonstrated varying degrees of degeneration. A monolayer of epithelial cells occurred significantly more frequently in the horizontal cristae (12/13 = 92% (p Conclusion Systematic histopathological analysis of the vestibular endorgans from Meniere's disease demonstrated neuroepithelial degeneration which was highly correlated with an associated BM thickening. Other findings included hair cell and supporting cell microvessicles, increased intercellular clear spaces in the stroma, and endothelial cell vacuolization and stromal perivascular BM thickening.

  4. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R;

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at...... methods. Grain counting of autoradiographs revealed a complex turnover pattern of 35S-labeled macromolecules, commencing with a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Biochemical analysis confirmed the biphasic pattern and showed that the total population of [35S]heparan sulfate proteoglycans had a...... metabolic half-life (t1/2) of 20 and 60 h in the early and late phases, respectively. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans accounted for 80% of total 35S-proteoglycans, the remainder being chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycans. Whole glomeruli were extracted with 4% 3-[(cholamidopropyl)dimethy-lammonio]-1...

  5. In vivo imaging of basement membrane movement: ECM patterning shapes Hydra polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Roland; Zamir, Evan A.; Little, Charles D.; Özbek, Suat; Münder, Sandra; David, Charles N.; Li, Li; Sarras, Michael P.; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Growth and morphogenesis during embryonic development, asexual reproduction and regeneration require extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). We used the simple metazoan Hydra to examine the fate of ECM during tissue morphogenesis and asexual budding. In growing Hydra, epithelial cells constantly move towards the extremities of the animal and into outgrowing buds. It is not known, whether these tissue movements involve epithelial migration relative to the underlying matrix or whether cells and ECM are displaced as a composite structure. Furthermore, it is unclear, how the ECM is remodeled to adapt to the shape of developing buds and tentacles. To address these questions, we used a new in vivo labeling technique for Hydra collagen-1 and laminin, and tracked the fate of ECM in all body regions of the animal. Our results reveal that Hydra ‘tissue movements’ are largely displacements of epithelial cells together with associated ECM. By contrast, during the evagination of buds and tentacles, extensive movement of epithelial cells relative to the matrix is observed, together with local ECM remodeling. These findings provide new insights into the nature of growth and morphogenesis in epithelial tissues. PMID:22194305

  6. Tectonic evolution of the Tombel graben basement, southwestern Cameroon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.S.Njome; C.E.Suh

    2005-01-01

    Planar structures (foliations and fractures) around the Tombel graben (southwestern end of the Central African Shear zone system) have been investigated and analyzed with the aim of unraveling the tectonic evolution of the basement. The foliations show two major trends, an older N-S-trending gneissose layering of uncertain agereworked by a later Pan-African (600 + 50 Ma) NE-SW ductile trend that is contemporaneous with sinistral shearing and mylonitization. The brittle phase characterized by NW-SE-trending open and partially filled fractures is younger than the mylonitization event and although it has not been dated, it is suggested that the origin of these fractures is linked to the onset of volcanism along the Cameroon volcanic line-31 m.y. ago.The mylonitic foliation is recognized for the first time and supports a tectonic evolution model for the Tombel graben in which ductile non-coaxial deformation was succeeded by brittle failure.

  7. The spatial organization of Descemet's membrane-associated type IV collagen in the avian cornea

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The organization of type IV collagen in the unconventional basement membrane of the corneal endothelium (Descemet's membrane) was investigated in developing chicken embryos using anti-collagen mAbs. Both immunofluorescence histochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy were performed. In mature embryos (greater than 15 d of development), the type IV collagen of Descemet's membrane was present as an array of discrete aggregates of amorphous material at the interface between Descemet's membrane a...

  8. The Cytochrome c Maturation Components CcmF, CcmH, and CcmI Form a Membrane-integral Multisubunit Heme Ligation Complex*

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Carsten; Turkarslan, Serdar; Lee, Dong-Woo; Onder, Ozlem; Kranz, Robert G.; Daldal, Fevzi

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome c maturation (Ccm) is a post-translational and post-export protein modification process that involves ten (CcmABCDEFGHI and CcdA or DsbD) components in most Gram-negative bacteria. The absence of any of these components abolishes the ability of cells to form cytochrome c, leading in the case of Rhodobacter capsulatus to the loss of photosynthetic proficiency and respiratory cytochrome oxidase activity. Based on earlier molecular genetic studies, we inferred ...

  9. A component of the Xanthomonadaceae type IV secretion system combines a VirB7 motif with a N0 domain found in outer membrane transport proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diorge P Souza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Type IV secretion systems (T4SS are used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope and into target cells. Translocation across the outer membrane is achieved via a ringed tetradecameric outer membrane complex made up of a small VirB7 lipoprotein (normally 30 to 45 residues in the mature form and the C-terminal domains of the VirB9 and VirB10 subunits. Several species from the genera of Xanthomonas phytopathogens possess an uncharacterized type IV secretion system with some distinguishing features, one of which is an unusually large VirB7 subunit (118 residues in the mature form. Here, we report the NMR and 1.0 Å X-ray structures of the VirB7 subunit from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (VirB7(XAC2622 and its interaction with VirB9. NMR solution studies show that residues 27-41 of the disordered flexible N-terminal region of VirB7(XAC2622 interact specifically with the VirB9 C-terminal domain, resulting in a significant reduction in the conformational freedom of both regions. VirB7(XAC2622 has a unique C-terminal domain whose topology is strikingly similar to that of N0 domains found in proteins from different systems involved in transport across the bacterial outer membrane. We show that VirB7(XAC2622 oligomerizes through interactions involving conserved residues in the N0 domain and residues 42-49 within the flexible N-terminal region and that these homotropic interactions can persist in the presence of heterotropic interactions with VirB9. Finally, we propose that VirB7(XAC2622 oligomerization is compatible with the core complex structure in a manner such that the N0 domains form an extra layer on the perimeter of the tetradecameric ring.

  10. Basement structures and geophysical anomalies in eastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G.R.; Suleiman, A.S.

    1986-03-01

    To understand basement structures in eastern New Mexico better, an integrated analysis of subsurface and geophysical data in the area was undertaken. A data base of 6600 gravity stations was used to generate complete Bouguer anomaly, polynomial, and residual maps. Aeromagnetic data for the New Mexico area were used to generate total intensity, residual, and low-pass filtered magnetic maps. The complete Bouguer gravity and total intensity magnetic maps show a large relief, which indicates substantial structures are present. A fifth-order polynomial surface map shows a regional gravity increase from the northwest to the southeast, and the residuals with respect to this surface provide a better definition of upper crustal structures, which are some-what obscured in the complete Bouguer gravity map. A low-pass filtered magnetic map, which was constructed from the third-order residual magnetic map, enhanced the major structures of interest in this study. These anomaly maps and the drilling results in the area were used to construct new maps of the depth to the Precambrian basement in the area. The authors obtained four major results concerning the features in this study area: (1) they believe the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen extends northwest as far as the Cimarron arch; (2) the north-south-trending, negative anomalies located along long. 105/sup 0/W in southern New Mexico possibly represent an extension of the Tucumcari basin or a new basin; (3) the exposed Precambrian rocks located west of the Raton and Las Vegas basins may be allochthonous because they overlie the negative anomalies associated with these basins; and (4) the central Basin platform is underlain by a large mafic mass, which has been recently penetrated by deep drilling in Pecos County, Texas.

  11. Correlative Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy for Observing the Three-Dimensional Ultrastructure of Membranous Cell Organelles in Relation to Their Molecular Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Daisuke; Kusumi, Satoshi; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    Although the osmium maceration method has been used to observe three-dimensional (3D) structures of membranous cell organelles with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the use of osmium tetroxide for membrane fixation and the removal of cytosolic soluble proteins largely impairs the antigenicity of molecules in the specimens. In the present study, we developed a novel method to combine cryosectioning with the maceration method for correlative immunocytochemical analysis. We first immunocytochemically stained a semi-thin cryosection cut from a pituitary tissue block with a cryo-ultramicrotome, according to the Tokuyasu method, before preparing an osmium-macerated specimen from the remaining tissue block. Correlative microscopy was performed by observing the same area between the immunostained section and the adjacent face of the tissue block. Using this correlative method, we could accurately identify the gonadotropes of pituitary glands in various experimental conditions with SEM. At 4 weeks after castration, dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were distributed throughout the cytoplasm. On the other hand, an extremely dilated cisterna of the RER occupied the large region of the cytoplasm at 12 weeks after castration. This novel method has the potential to analyze the relationship between the distribution of functional molecules and the 3D ultrastructure in different composite tissues. PMID:26374827

  12. Thermal history of the Pan-African basement under the Jurassic Marib-Shabwa Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David; Veeningen, Resi; Grasemann, Bernhard; Decker, Kurt

    2013-04-01

    Pan-African tectonism within the Arabian Nubian Shield in Yemen is very poorly known. New drill-cores from the Marib-Shabwa Basin (Habban oil field) from central Yemen penetrated 600 m into the pre-Jurassic crystalline basement, providing a unique opportunity to extend our understanding of Pan-African events in Yemen. The cores were obtained some 80 km NE of the exposure limit of the Al Bayda Terrane, which lies SE of Sana'a. This terrane, which has no direct correlative in the ANS further north in Saudi Arabia, comprises deformed greenschist facies acid to basic volcanic rocks later witnessing acid to basic magmatism and has been previously interpreted as a Pan-African island arc complex with a basement component. Ophiolite fragments are common, both within the terrane and at its margins (sutures). To the north lies the Abas Gneiss Terrane and to the south the Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane; both consist of older pre-Pan-African crystalline basement rocks. Geochemistry of a red, undeformed granite from the drill core indicates an A-type composition. LA-ICPMS U-Pb analysis of granite zircons gave two concordant age populations: 628.3 ± 3.1 Ma (large & small zircons) and 604.9 ± 2.0 Ma (intermediate sized zircons). The former age is interpreted as the time of crystallization, within the range of other A-type Younger Granites in the ANS, and the latter age as constraining lower temperature dissolution-reprecipitation of zircon, due to hydrothermal fluids or melt remobilization. Nd Tdm model ages for two granite samples from the drill core both gave ages of 1.24 Ga, within the range of the Al Bayda Terrane (1.2-2.5 Ga) and outside the range of the adjacent Palaeoproterozoic gneissic terranes (1.7-2.3 Ga, Abas Gneiss Terrane; 1.8-3.0 Ga, Al Mahfid Gneiss Terrane). Thus it seems certain that the Al Bayda Terrane extends at least 80 km to the NE of its present surface exposure. Rb-Sr biotite ages from the granite indicate closure through ~300°C at 593 Ma, indicating fast

  13. Signaling mechanism by the Staphylococcus aureus two-component system LytSR: role of acetyl phosphate in bypassing the cell membrane electrical potential sensor LytS [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Patel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The two-component system LytSR has been linked to the signal transduction of cell membrane electrical potential perturbation and is involved in the adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus to cationic antimicrobial peptides. It consists of a membrane-bound histidine kinase, LytS, which belongs to the family of multiple transmembrane-spanning domains receptors, and a response regulator, LytR, which belongs to the novel family of non-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain proteins. LytR regulates the expression of cidABC and lrgAB operons, the gene products of which are involved in programmed cell death and lysis. In vivo studies have demonstrated involvement of two overlapping regulatory networks in regulating the lrgAB operon, both depending on LytR. One regulatory network responds to glucose metabolism and the other responds to changes in the cell membrane potential. Herein, we show that LytS has autokinase activity and can catalyze a fast phosphotransfer reaction, with 50% of its phosphoryl group lost within 1 minute of incubation with LytR. LytS has also phosphatase activity. Notably, LytR undergoes phosphorylation by acetyl phosphate at a rate that is 2-fold faster than the phosphorylation by LytS. This observation is significant in lieu of the in vivo observations that regulation of the lrgAB operon is LytR-dependent in the presence of excess glucose in the medium. The latter condition does not lead to perturbation of the cell membrane potential but rather to the accumulation of acetate in the cell. Our study provides insights into the molecular basis for regulation of lrgAB in a LytR-dependent manner under conditions that do not involve sensing by LytS.

  14. Basement domain map of the conterminous U.S.A. and Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The basement-domain map is a compilation of basement domains in the conterminous United States and Alaska designed to be used at 1:5,000,000-scale, particularly as...

  15. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1998-12-17

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface.

  16. Basement Surface Faulting and Topography for Savannah River Site and Vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report integrates the data from more than 60 basement borings and over 100 miles of seismic reflection profiling acquired on the Savannah River Site to map the topography of the basement (unweathered rock) surface and faulting recorded on this surface

  17. Radionuclide distribution in TMI-2 reactor building basement liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of radioactive water and some core debris solids were released to the reactor building basement during the March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2). A reactor building basement sampling and analysis program is underway to support fission product mass balance and source term studies, TMI-2 accident analysis, and decontamination planning. Liquid and solid samples were collected from a variety of locations to determine the composition, quantity, and distribution of the debris and fission products released to the basement environment. Basement water sources, sample history, and sampling techniques are discussed. Fuel, radionuclide content and elemental composition of liquid and solid samples are presented. Conclusions are presented on the partitioning of fission products within liquids and solids and on the transport paths within the basement area

  18. A sonic well log of the basement complex of the Walvis Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Philip D.; Borella, Peter E.

    1984-03-01

    A sonic well log was obtained within the basement complex of the Walvis Ridge during Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 74. The top of the basement complex is characterized by smooth acoustic reflectors. The rocks recovered within the basement complex consist of basalts with intercalated sediments. According to the log ˜-50% of the upper 75 m of basement are igneous rocks and the other 50% sedimentary. Sonobuoy results indicate that the ratio of sediments to basalt increases with depth for an additional 225 m until a typical oceanic velocity structure is observed. Paleontological results suggest that the processes forming this upper 300 m of the basement complex was accomplished within a short time interval.

  19. Membranous glomerulonephropathy and nephrotic syndrome associated with iatrogenic metallic mercury poisoning in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, R M; Stowe, C M; Osborne, C A; O'Leary, T P; Vernier, R L; Hammer, R F

    1981-02-01

    The nephrotic syndrome, characterized by nonselective proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and ascites, was observed in a 10-month-old male cat. Profound glomerular changes and renal tubular changes appear to have been induced by iatrogenic chronic exposure to metallic mercury originally contained in a rectal thermometer. Large concentrations of mercury were present in the kidneys, liver, spleen, and urine. Evaluation of glomeruli by immunofluorescent microscopy revealed interrupted granular deposition of immuno-globulin G and the third component of complement in glomerular capillary walls and the mesangium. Electron microscopic evaluation of glomeruli revealed diffuse alterations in glomerular basement membranes and visceral epithelial cells. Small electron dense deposits were observed in capillary walls, but they were not characteristic of immune complexes. The mechanism(s) responsible for the mercury induced glomerulonephropathy in this patient could not be determined on the basis of available data. PMID:7257162

  20. Simulating Oil Production from Fractured/Faulted Basement Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Forster, C.; Fu, Y.; Huang, C.; Yang, Y.; Deo, M.

    2006-12-01

    A fully-implicit, three-dimensional (3D), three-phase, discrete fault/fracture, black oil simulator provides new insight and understanding of oil production from reservoirs in fractured, low-permeability basement rocks. Results obtained with a controlled volume finite element (CVFE) method compare favorably to those obtained using both single- and dual-porosity finite difference methods (e.g., ECLIPSE). A regularized network of 30 orthogonal faults within a 1000 by 1000 by 200 feet model domain is used to compare the simulator results and to explore the implications of grid sensitivity. In this simple reservoir, cumulative oil recoveries over 900 days of production are similar for CVFE, single-porosity and dual-porosity approaches. CVFE is used to simulate a complex network of intersecting faults that mimic a more realistic basement reservoir with the same fault surface area and fault volume as the regularized network. Cumulative oil production at 900 days is about 3% lower than for the regularized network. The CVFE method provides a much improved ability to represent complex fracture/fault geometries and spatial variations in the internal properties of faults. CVFE simulations of the realistic network illustrate the possible consequences of uncertainty in knowing fracture/fault properties (e.g., porosity, permeability, thickness, dip orientation, connectivity and flow transmissibility). For example, introducing spatial variability in permeability within the fault planes (using spatially randomized patterns of 10, 100 and 1000 md), while retaining a constant geometric mean permeability of 100 md, yields enhanced oil production due to the high-permeability pathways. A 50:50 mix of 10 and 1000 md elements yields 36%OOIP while a 33:33:33 mix of 10, 100 and 1000 md yields 24%OOIP. These results are 26% and 14% greater, respectively, than that obtained for the uniform 100 md case (11%OOIP). This inherent variability, combined with uncertainty in knowing the detailed

  1. Complement component C3 fixes selectively to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Legionella pneumophila and mediates phagocytosis of liposome-MOMP complexes by human monocytes

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that parasitizes human monocytes and alveolar macrophages. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that monocyte complement receptors CR1 and CR3 and complement component C3 in serum mediate L. pneumophila phagocytosis. In this study, we have explored C3 fixation to L. pneumophila. We developed a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure C3 fixation to the bacterial surface. By this assay, ...

  2. Inoculation of a Poultry Isolate Salmonella enteritidis on Egg Vitelline Membrane: Survival and Growth in Egg Components after Different Refrigeration Storage Times

    OpenAIRE

    Z. R. Howard; R. W. Moore; I. B. Zabala Diaz; Kim, W. K.; S. G. Birkhold; J. A. Byrd; L. F. Kubena; Nisbet, D. J.; Ricke, S C

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis re...

  3. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications for...

  4. Overexpression of HTRA1 leads to ultrastructural changes in the elastic layer of Bruch's membrane via cleavage of extracellular matrix components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vierkotten

    Full Text Available Variants in the chromosomal region 10q26 are strongly associated with an increased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Two potential AMD genes are located in this region: ARMS2 and HTRA1 (high-temperature requirement A1. Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in the promotor region of HTRA1 result in overexpression of HTRA1 protein. This study investigated the role of HTRA1 overexpression in the pathogenesis of AMD. Transgenic Htra1 mice overexpressing the murine protein in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer of the retina were generated and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and Western Blot analysis. The elastic layer of Bruch's membrane (BM in the Htra1 transgenic mice was fragmented and less continuous than in wild type (WT controls. Recombinant HTRA1 lacking the N-terminal domain cleaved various extracellular matrix (ECM proteins. Subsequent Western Blot analysis revealed an overexpression of fibronectin fragments and a reduction of fibulin 5 and tropoelastin in the RPE/choroid layer in transgenic mice compared to WT. Fibulin 5 is essential for elastogenesis by promoting elastic fiber assembly and maturation. Taken together, our data implicate that HTRA1 overexpression leads to an altered elastogenesis in BM through fibulin 5 cleavage. It highlights the importance of ECM related proteins in the development of AMD and links HTRA1 to other AMD risk genes such as fibulin 5, fibulin 6, ARMS2 and TIMP3.

  5. Movement of fossil pore fluids in granite basement, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compositions of pore fluids in granite cores from the Precambrian basement in northern Illinois were determined. The estimated chloride concentration in the aqueous phase increases from near zero at the upper contact with sandstone to 2.7 M at 624 m below the contact. Traces of aliphatic oil are present in the overlying sandstone and the upper 516 m of granite, and oil occupies most of the pore space in one sample of unaltered granite 176 m below the contact. The oil has a Δ13C of -25%, about the same as average petroleum. The high concentrations of salt more than 500 m below the contact imply that little or no fresh water has reached these levels of the granite by flow. Lower concentrations near the contact are consistent with replacement of brine in the sandstone by fresh water at least 11 m.y. ago and subsequent upward diffusion of salt from the granite. Geologic data suggest that the time of replacement was about 130 Ma. The purpose of the investigation is to study the record of movement of intergranular fluids within a granite pluton. The composition and movement of ground waters can determine the extent that hazardous or radioactive wastes disposed in igneous rock will remain isolated

  6. Geophysical siting of boreholes in crystalline basement areas of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayinka, A. I.

    1992-02-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness of surface geophysical methods namely electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, seismic refraction, magnetic, gravity and induced polarization for groundwater exploration in crystalline basement complex areas. Most of these geophysical techniques can provide quantitative information on the characteristics of the weathered zone which relate to the occurrence of an economic aquifer. The critical factors in the choice of a particular method include the local geological setting, the initial and maintenance costs of the equipment, the speed of surveying, the manpower required as field crew, the degree of sophistication entailed in data processing to enable a geologically meaningful interpretation, and anomaly resolution. The particular advantages and limitations of each technique are highlighted. Several case histories from Nigeria and the rest of Africa indicate that electrical resistivity (both vertical sounding and horizontal profiling) is the most widely used, followed by electromagnetic traversing. These are often employed in combination to improve upon the percentage of successful boreholes. Due to the high cost of equipment, large scale of the field operations and difficulties in data interpretation, seismic refraction is not widely adopted in commercial-type surveys. Similarly, magnetic, gravity and induced polarization are used only sparingly.

  7. Uranium distribution in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia

    CERN Document Server

    Kaçeli, Xhixha M; Baldoncini, M; Bezzon, G P; Buso, G P; Callegari, I; Casini, L; Cuccuru, S; Fiorentini, G; Guastaldi, E; Mantovani, F; Mou, L; Oggiano, G; Puccini, A; Alvarez, C Rossi; Strati, V; Xhixha, G; Zanon, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed map of the uranium distribution and its uncertainties in the Variscan Basement of Northeastern Sardinia (VBNS) at a scale 1:100,000. An area of 2100 km2 was investigated by means of 535 data points obtained from laboratory and in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. These data volume corresponds to the highest sampling density of the European Variscides, aimed at studying the genetic processes of the upper crust potentially triggered by an enrichment of radiogenic heat-producing elements. For the first time the Kriging with Variance of Measurement Error method was used to assign weights to the input data which are based on the degree of confidence associated to the measurements obtained with different gamma-ray spectrometry techniques. A detailed tuning of the model parameters for the adopted Experimental Semi-Variogram led to identify a maximum distance of spatial variability coherent to the observed tendency of the experimental data. We demonstrate that the obtained uranium distri...

  8. Tracers in high temperature and fractured basement rock reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background on FBR. Fractured Basement Reservoir is uncommon oil reservoir where hydrocarbone storage and conductivity are provided by fracture system which is fault oriented. The fractures can be classified by macrofracture developing close to the fault with high porosity and being filled with clay or minerals, microfracture of much smaller porosity developing in the solid rock. The average porosity of fractured reservoir is rather small, about 2-3% while the permeability distributed in relative wide range. Fracture system divides reservoir into compartments and creates high heterogeneity of permeability and porosity distribution. Flow in FBR is unpredictable. Water is injected in the deeper part of reservoir to maintain the reservoir pressure and replace the oil toward production zone at the upper part. Combining all available geology data and seismic data the reservoir model and flow model are not completed. Considering all these uncertainties, it is indispensable to develop a new concept to work on oil production in FBR and other applied techniques including tracer need to comply with.

  9. Geology and uranium mineralisation in the Deccan trap-lameta-crystalline basement at Lalbarra, Mandla district, Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proterozoic crystalline rocks of Lalbarra area comprise banded migmatites, biotite granites, and two-mica granites carrying components of pre-existing Sausar group metasediments. The biotite schists of the Sausar group had inherent anomalous radioelement contents mainly within the silicate bound structures of zircon and epidote. On being subjected to migmatisation and granitisation, the uranium has been partially re-distributed. Consequent to the emplacement of volatile rich two-mica granite (TMG) along shears, uranium is by and large partitioned from thorium and got enriched in TMG in labile state. A hiatus of long duration intervened before the Infratrappean (lametas) fresh water, sedimentary rocks with its provenance area comprising among others, the fertile TMG, were laid. Basalt flows of Deccan trap age which had covered the lametas and the basement are presently found as thin (<20 m) outliers. Uranium mineralisation is found at the Deccan trap (basalt)-lameta-crystalline basement contact zone hosted in ferruginous chert veins occupying fractures in the basal part of the flow as well as in pseudo quartzites in the lameta formation. Radioactivity is largely due to uranophane associated with ferruginous cherty matter. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Podocyte expression of membrane transporters involved in puromycin aminonucleoside-mediated injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zennaro

    Full Text Available Several complex mechanisms contribute to the maintenance of the intricate ramified morphology of glomerular podocytes and to interactions with neighboring cells and the underlying basement membrane. Recently, components of small molecule transporter families have been found in the podocyte membrane, but expression and function of membrane transporters in podocytes is largely unexplored. To investigate this complex field of investigation, we used two molecules which are known substrates of membrane transporters, namely Penicillin G and Puromycin Aminonucleoside (PA. We observed that Penicillin G pre-administration prevented both in vitro and in vivo podocyte damage caused by PA, suggesting the engagement of the same membrane transporters by the two molecules. Indeed, we found that podocytes express a series of transporters which are known to be used by Penicillin G, such as members of the Organic Anion Transporter Polypeptides (OATP/Oatp family of influx transporters, and P-glycoprotein, a member of the MultiDrug Resistance (MDR efflux transporter family. Expression of OATP/Oatp transporters was modified by PA treatment. Similarly, in vitro PA treatment increased mRNA and protein expression of P-glycoprotein, as well as its activity, confirming the engagement of the molecule upon PA administration. In summary, we have characterized some of the small molecule transporters present at the podocyte membrane, focusing on those used by PA to enter and exit the cell. Further investigation will be needed to understand precisely the role of these transporter families in maintaining podocyte homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of podocyte injury.

  11. Basement configuration of Visakhapatnam - Paradip continental margin from inversion of magnetic anomalies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, S.J.; Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Murthy, I.V.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.

    Inversion of magnetic data was carried out on 40 profiles collected across the continental margin of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India at a spacing of about 10 km and magnetic basement map for this region is prepared. The map reveals complex...

  12. Numerical investigation of thermal response of basement wall systems with low emissivity material and furred airspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saber, Hamed H.; Maref, Wahid; Swinton, Michael C. [Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada (Canada)], email: hamed.saber@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

    2011-07-01

    In Canada, most basements are used as a living space rather than a utility area and they are presumed to be inside the envelope. Basements account for significant heat loss and it is therefore crucial to improve their thermal resistance. The aim of this paper is to present a new method for increasing a basement's insulation by using foil in a furred-assembly with airspace next to the foil. The steady-state and transient thermal performance of this system was modeled using hygIRC-C and compared to a wall without furred airspace assembly. Results showed that the thermal performance of the system depends on the soil, outdoor and indoor temperatures, and that it can provide 17.7% energy savings compared to a wall without furred airspace assembly. This study highlighted that using foil in a furred-assembly with airspace next to the foil in basements can help reduce energy consumption.

  13. Characteristics of the crystalline basement beneath the Ordos Basin:Constraint from aeromagnetic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhentao Wang; Hongrui Zhou; Xunlian Wang; Xiuchun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Aeromagnetic anomaly zonation of the Ordos Basin and adjacent areas was obtained by processing high-precision and large-scale aeromagnetic anomalies with an approach of reduction to the pole upward continuation. Comparative study on aeromagnetic and seismic tomography suggests that aeromagnetic anomalies in this area are influenced by both the magnetic property of the rock and the burial depth of the Precambrian crystalline basement. Basement depth might be the fundamental control factor for aeromagnetic anomalies because the positive and negative anomalies on the reduction to the pole-upward-continuation anomaly maps roughly coincide with the uplifts and depressions of the crystal-line basement in the basin. The results, together with the latest understanding of basement faults, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating of metamorphic rock and granite, drilling data, detrital zircon ages, and gravity data interpretation, suggest that the Ordos block is not an entirety of Archean.

  14. Contribution To The Geology Of Basement Rocks In The South Western Desert Of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major Precambrian basement inliers are exposed in the South Western Desert of Egypt between Long. 29 degree E and the River Nile within the Uweinat-Bir Safsaf-Aswan E-W uplift system. These are Bir Safsaf, Gabal EI-Asr and Gabal Umm Shaghir areas. Smaller outcrops include Gabal EI-Gara El-Hamra and Gabal El-Gara EI-Soda, Gabal Siri, GabaI EI-Fantas and Aswan-Kalabsha area as well as the scattered outcrops around Darb El-Arbain road. Band ratios 5/7, 5/1, 4 of Landsat TM images were applied to delineate the borders, the lithologic units and structural features of low relief basement outcrops within the surrounding flat lying sedimentary rocks and sand plains. These basement rocks comprise ortho gneisses (assumed by many authors as related to old continent pre Pan-African rocks), G 1 tonalite-granodiorite, and G2 monzogranite-alkali feldspar granite intruded by variable dykes. The boundaries between the basement exposures and the sedimentary rocks are marked by nonconformity surfaces or sets of faults. Both basement and sedimentary rocks are intruded by Mesozoic syenite-G3 granites, rhyolite, trachytic plugs and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary basalts. The basement exposures are structurally controlled by major E- W fault systems. Their vertical uplifting is overprinted by folding the overlying sedimentary rocks. This study revealed that, the different basement exposures in the SE of the Western Desert of Egypt are similar in appearance and field relations to the Pan-African basement rocks extending towards the east of the River Nile and exposed everywhere in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

  15. Petrography Of The Basement Complex Of Maddhapara Mining (Production Level) Dinajpur District, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Saidul; Quamruzzaman, Chowdhury; Monir, Md. Minhaj Uddin; Jahan, Sakura; Begum, Momtaj

    2014-01-01

    This research work deals with the petrography of the Palaeoproterozoic Basement Complex (production level) Maddhapara Granite mining project area, Dinajpur district, Bangladesh. Tectonically the study area is a continuation of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ), where the Basement Complex is overlain by the Tertiary thin to moderate sediment sequence. The present study has been performed on the basis of collected samples which are taken from the production level at the elevation of about...

  16. The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Basement hosted copper-cobalt (uranium) deposits, NW Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernau, Robin

    2007-01-01

    The Lumwana Cu±Co deposits Malundwe and Chimiwungo are examples of pre-Katangan mineralized basement that are located in the Domes Region of the Lufilian Arc, an arcuate North neo-Proterozoic fold belt, which hosts the Zambian and Congolese deposits that make up the Central African Copperbelt. The Lumwana deposits are situated within the Mwombezhi Dome; a Mesoproterozoic basement inlier consisting of highly sheared amphibolite grade schist to gneiss units that host the Cu±Co mineralization. K...

  17. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  18. Metric dynamics for membrane transformation through regulated cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Hiroshi C.

    2016-01-01

    This study develops an equation for describing three-dimensional membrane transformation through proliferation of its component cells regulated by morphogen density distributions on the membrane. The equation is developed in a two-dimensional coordinate system mapped on the membrane, referred to as the membrane coordinates. When the membrane expands, the membrane coordinates expand in the same manner so that the membrane is invariant in the coordinates. In the membrane coordinate system, the ...

  19. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  20. Gravity and magnetic field features and basement relief of the Sanjiang Basin in Heilongjiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sanjiang Basin has received more attention in Mesozoic stratum and petroleum potential research because of its particularity in geographic and tectonic position. There remains debate on the basement structure of the basin since igneous rocks and faults make the structure and stratigraphy more complicated. In this paper we utilize gravity and magnetic data as well as petrophysical properties and drilling logs to understand the structure of the Sanjiang Basin. The study is focused on the comparison between the western and eastern parts of the basin. The comparison reveals that there are distinct differences in the gravity and magnetic field between the western and eastern parts. The integrated analysis of the gravity, magnetic, geological, petrophysical data and drilling logs indicates that the difference in the gravity and magnetic field results from the different basement structure and caprock formation of the two parts of the basin. The basement consists of three parts from west to east, the Proterozoic crystalline basement, the Neopaleozoic fold basement and the Lower Mesozoic fold basement separately. The Tongjiang–Yingchun Fault and the Qinglongshan–Xiaoheyan Fault controlled the formation and development of depressions and uplifts and also affected the sedimentation and volcanic activities of the basin. The Sanjiang Basin has relatively thin and stable crust thickness, varying around 33 km, and the deep structure has control and constraint over the shallow conformations. (paper)

  1. Basement Kind Effects on Air Temperature of a Solar Chimney in Baghdad - Iraq Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A solar updraft tower power plant (solar tower is a solar thermal power plant that utilizes a combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate an induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to generate electricity. This paper presents practical results of a prototype of a solar chimney with thermal mass, where the glass surface is replaced by transparence plastic cover. The study focused on chimney's basements kind effect on collected air temperatures. Three basements were used: concrete, black concrete and black pebbles basements. The study was conducted in Baghdad from August to November 2009. The results show that the best chimney efficiency attained was 49.7% for pebbles base. The highest collected air temperature reached was 49ºC when using the black pebbles basement also.also, the maximum basement temperature measured was 59ºC for black pebbles. High increaments in collected air temperatures were achieved in comparison with the ambient air temperatures for the three basement kinds. The highest temperature difference reached was 22ºC with the pebble ground.

  2. Late-Paleozoic emplacement and Meso-Cenozoic reactivation of the southern Kazakhstan granitoid basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhimulev, Fedor I.; Poujol, Marc; Korobkin, Valeriy V.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vetrov, Evgeny V.; De Grave, Johan

    2015-11-01

    The Ili-Balkhash Basin in southeastern Kazakhstan is located at the junction of the actively deforming mountain ranges of western Junggar and the Tien Shan, and is therefore part of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The basement of the Ili-Balkhash area consists of an assemblage of mainly Precambrian microcontinental fragments, magmatic arcs and accretionary complexes. Eight magmatic basement samples (granitoids and tuffs) from the Ili-Balkhash area were dated with zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS and yield Carboniferous to late Permian (~ 350-260 Ma) crystallization ages. These ages are interpreted as reflecting the transition from subduction to (post-) collisional magmatism, related to the closure of the Junggar-Balkhash Ocean during the Carboniferous-early Permian and hence, to the final late Paleozoic accretion history of the ancestral Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Apatite fission track (AFT) dating of 14 basement samples (gneiss, granitoids and volcanic tuffs) mainly provides Cretaceous cooling ages. Thermal history modeling based on the AFT data reveals that several intracontinental tectonic reactivation episodes affected the studied basement during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Late Mesozoic reactivation and associated basement exhumation is interpreted as distant effects of the Cimmerian collisions at the southern Eurasian margin and possibly of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny in SE Siberia during the Jurassic-Cretaceous. Following tectonic stability during the Paleogene, inherited basement structures were reactivated during the Neogene (constrained by Miocene AFT ages of ~ 17-10 Ma). This late Cenozoic reactivation is interpreted as the far-field response of the India-Eurasia collision and reflects the onset of modern mountain building and denudation in southeast Kazakhstan, which seems to be at least partially controlled by the inherited basement architecture.

  3. Modeling differentiation of Karaj Dam basement igneous rocks (northern Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeily, D.; M-Mashhour, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Karaj Dam basement igneous body (KDB) is located in the north of city of Karaj, 30 km from city of Tehran, which lies between 35° 50' N to 36° 05' N and between 50° 50' E to 51° 15' E. It is one of the several plutonic bodies within the E-W trending Alborz zone in northern Iran. Following the late Cretaceous orogenic movements, vast volumes of dacite, andesites and basaltic lavas with tuffaceous and other clastic sediments were deposited during Eocene time, forming Karaj Formation in central Iran and Albourz. The KDB is penetrated thorough middle and upper tuff units from Karaj Formation which is underlain by late Jurassic depositions (Shemshak Formation) and overlain by the Neogene red Conglomerates in regard to stratographic consideration. It is mainly composed of a layered series dominated by gabbro, diorite and monzonite, which is a rock sequence formed upward from the lower to upper chilled margins, respectively. The chilled margins, which have gabbroic in composition, show porphyritic texture with euhedral to subhedral plagioclase (andesine & labradorite) and pyroxene (augite) megacrysts up to 5 mm long. These rocks become coarse-grained inward and transform to equigranular texture gradually.In addition, a small fine-grained doleritic stock as well as some doleritic dykes is intrusive into the pyroclastic volcanic rocks of Karaj Formation. It is possible to observe doleritic enclaves included in the KDB, indicating that the KDB are slightly younger than the dolerites. Whole rock geochemistry and mineral chemistry of the plagioclase and pyroxene in various rock samples, suggest differentiation processes. The Mg# of the pyroxene and An% of plagioclase of the contact chilled samples can be used as an indication of the original magma and plotted between the gabbro and monzonitic samples. In addition, increasing of the Mg# within the whole rock samples from the upper of contact chilled, in comparison to the lower one, demonstrates elemental differentiation

  4. Interactions between bar dynamics and herbaceous vegetation in gravel bed rivers: numerical simulations using BASEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Tettamanti, Stefano; Bertoldi, Walter; Toffolon, Marco; Vetsch, David; Francalanci, Simona

    2014-05-01

    A new 2D morphodynamic model for gravel bed rivers have been used to investigate the interaction between alternate bar dynamics and herbaceous vegetation. In particular, bed topography evolution has been coupled with the growth of vegetation, included as a function of the access to ground water. Numerical simulations were performed using the code BASEMENT (Vetsch et al., 2013), with the addition of a new submodel, dealing with the numerical description of the vegetation. The vegetation was allowed to grow during the dry season on exposed areas, and the vertical distribution of peak biomass was modeled as a function of the bed elevation, using a simple analytical formulation, following Marani et al. (2013). Flow resistance was divided into a component exerted by the bed and a component exerted by vegetation (Crosato and Saleh, 2010; Li and Millar, 2011); in this way we reproduced both the decrease in bed shear stress, reducing the sediment transport capacity of the flow within the plants, and the increase in hydraulic resistance, reducing flow velocity. The model was applied to a hypothetical case study, with grain size, longitudinal slope, and hydrological regime similar to that of the Magra River (Italy). A straight river reach, 125 m wide and 20 km long was simulated. Starting from an initially flat configuration, the river developed its own bar morphology, under steady formative conditions. After reaching a dynamic equilibrium, we allowed the vegetation to grow and interact with the morphodynamic evolution, reproducing a sequence of floods and growing seasons at low flow. We assumed that vegetation can be uprooted only if the bed shear stress exceeds a fixed threshold. Different scenarios were examined, varying the effect of vegetation in terms of increased resistance and threshold for uprooting (i.e. added sediment cohesion). Preliminary results confirmed that the herbaceous vegetation has a stabilizing effect on river morphology. As the density and strength of

  5. Fracture and vein characterization of a crystalline basement reservoir, central Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, R.; Grasemann, B.; Decker, K.; Bischoff, R.; Rice, A. H. N.

    2012-04-01

    The country of Yemen is located in the south-western part of the Arabian plate. The Pan-African basement found in western and central Yemen is highly deformed during the Proterozoic eon and is part of the Arabian-Nubian shield ANS (670-540Ma). This ANS is a result of the amalgamation of high-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade island arcs. The development of an extensive horst-and-graben system related to the breakup of Gondwana in the Mesozoic, has reactivated the Pan-African basement along NW-SE trending normal faults. As a result, younger Meosozoic marls, sandstones, clastics and limestones are unconformably overlying the basement. Some of these formations act as a source and/or reservoir for hydrocarbons. Due to fracturing of the basement, hydrocarbons have migrated horizontally into the basement, causing the crystalline basement to be a potential hydrocarbon reservoir. Unfortunately, little is known about the Pan-African basement in Central Yemen and due its potential as a reservoir, the deformation and oil migration history (with a main focus on the fracturing and veining history) of the basement is investigated in high detail. Representative samples are taken from 2 different wells from the Habban Field reservoir, located approximately 320 ESE of Sana'a. These samples are analysed using e.g. the Optical Microscope, SEM, EDX and CL, but also by doing Rb-Sr age dating, isotope analysis and fluid inclusion analysis. In well 1, the only lithology present is an altered gneiss with relative large (<5 cm diameter) multi-mineralic veins. In well 3, quartzite (top), gneiss (middle) and quartz porphyry's (middle) are intruded by a so called "younger" granitoid body (592.6±4.1Ma). All lithologies record polyphase systems of mineral veins. Pyrite and saddle dolomite in these veins have euhedral shapes, which means that they have grown in open cavities. Calcite is the youngest mineral in these veins, closing the vein and aborting the fluid flow. Fluid inclusions inside

  6. STUDYING MEMBRANE ANCHOR ORGANIZATION IN LIVING CELL MEMBRANES

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hector Han-Li

    2011-01-01

    The cell membrane is a complex mixture of various lipids, proteins and other biomolecules that are all organized into a fluid 2-dimensional bilayer. A rather unique trait of this organelle is the lateral mobility of the component molecules. Surprisingly, these molecules are not necessarily distributed homogeneously in the membrane. From a physical perspective, these inhomogeneities are interesting because they indicate some level of organization in the membrane. From a biological perspect...

  7. The metamorphic basement of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza: New geochronologic and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metamorphic rocks of the Cordillera Frontal exposed in the Cordon del Portillo, Mendoza were examined by Rb/Sr geochronology and Nd/Sm isotopic analysis. The Rb/Sr data defined a Devonian age for the last metamorphic episode, similar to the previous K/Ar and Ar/Ar ages obtained in this region and western Precordillera. The isotopic analysis identified three sets of model ages: 1.- The oldest corresponds to a set of meta sedimentary rocks with a model age of 1,400 to 1,700 Ma; 2.- A monzogranodiorite with a model age of 1,000 Ma; and 3.- Metabasites with model ages between 577 and 330 Ma. These rocks are interpreted as 1.- A typical Grenvillian derived basement; 2.- Late Paleozoic granitoids derived from a different Proterozoic basement; and 3.- Some Eopaleozoic metabasites tectonically inter fingered with the Grenvillian basement. These new data are coherent with the existence of a Laurentia derived terrane, Chilenia, that was separated by oceanic rocks from the basement of Pre cordillera during Eopaleozoic times. This last basement known as the Cuyania terrane, was also derived from Laurentia. (author)

  8. Cuddapah uranium province, Andhra Pradesh role of basement granites, tectonism and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cuddapah Uranium Province encompasses two economically viable genetic types of uranium deposits as the carbonate-hosted stratabound uranium deposits around Tummalapalle-Rachakuntapalle area, and the unconformity-proximal type in basement granitoids and overlying Srisailam/Banganapalle quartzite in the Lambapur-Peddagattu-Chitrial-Koppunuru area . Besides, the basin characteristically hosts important occurrences, of fracture controlled uranium mineralisation in Gulcheru quartzite near Gandi and in basement granitoid around Lakkireddipalle-Rayachoti; shear-controlled along the thrusted eastern margin of Cuddapah basin in basic metavolcanics and schists at Gudarukoppu and Kasturigattu. In the northern part of the basin, uranium deposits of Lambapur, Peddagattu, Chitrial, and Koppunuru area characteristically show association of ore bodies along structures formed by intersection of prominent basement fractures with the unconformity separating Srisailam and Palnad sediments from the basement. In the southwestern part of the basin, potential carbonate-hosted, stratabound uranium mineralisation extends over a 160 km long belt from Chelumpalli to Maddimadugu with large-tonnage, low-grade, uranium deposits in Tummallapalle-Rachakuntapalle area. The unconformity-proximal and fracture controlled deposits/prospects characteristically share a common source for uranium, repeated tectonism, weathering of the basement granitoids and episodic, epigenetic hydrothermal processes of uranium mineralisation. This paper evaluates the role of granitoids spatially and temporally associated with uranium mineralisation in making the Cuddapah Basin a unique uranium province. (author)

  9. Dissolution of biogenic ooze over basement edifices in the equatorial Pacific with implications for hydrothermal ventilation of the oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Spivack, A.J.; Davis, E.E.; Mayer, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that curious closed depressions in carbonate sediments overlying basement edifices are widespread in the equatorial Pacific. A possible mechanism for their creation is dissolution by fluids exiting basement vents from off-axis hydrothermal flow. Quantitative analysis based on the retrograde solubility of calcium carbonate and cooling of basement fluids during ascent provides an estimate for the dissolution capacity of the venting fluids. Comparison of the dissolution capacity and fluid flux with typical equatorial Pacific carbonate mass accumulation rates shows that this mechanism is feasible. By maintaining sediment-free basement outcrops, the process may promote widespread circulation of relatively unaltered seawater in the basement in an area where average sediment thicknesses are 300-500 m. The enhanced ventilation can explain several previously puzzling observations in this region, including anomalously low heat flux, relatively unaltered seawater in the basement, and aerobic and nitrate-reducing microbial activity at the base of the sediments. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Characteristic aerial and ground radioactives of basement and sedimentary rocks in (Egypt): relations and natural cycles across geologic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each geologic unit, exposure, formation or rock group of the exposed precambrian I (igneous and metamorphic) basement complex (Upper proterozoic) and phanerozoic cover sediments in an area covering about 4500 km2 located in the central eastern desert of egypt, has been found to possess certain radioactivity characteristics and levels. Minimum values of radiation are generally associated with the first basement volcanics, maximum values are correlated are correlated with the third basement plutonites and phosphate formation (upper cretaceous), while intermedialte values are connected with the first basement sediments and upper eocene-quaternary fifth detrital-calcareous-evaporite sediments. Therefore, the radioactivities of various rock groups of the precambrian I basement complex - except the first basement sediments sediments- correlate progressively well with their chronology. Generally, the increase of radioactivity within this complex is connected with the transition into final stages of the magmatic evolution

  11. Membrane flow during nematode spermiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Two distinct types of surface membrane rearrangement occur during the differentiation of Caenorhabditis elegans spermatids into amoeboid spermatozoa. The first, detected by the behavior of latex beads attached to the surface, is a nondirected, intermittent movement of discrete portions of the membrane. This movement starts when spermatids are stimulated to differentiate and stops when a pseudopod is formed. The second type of movement is a directed, continual flow of membrane components from ...

  12. Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb geochronology of basement granites from Tintini, Yadgir district, Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'z' shaped Bhima Basin is located between the northern margin of the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) and the Deccan Traps. The Neo-Proterozoic Bhima group of sediments overlies the granitic basement of EDC with a profound unconformity and has faulted contacts at many places. Both the sediments and the granitoids have been affected by intense faulting. Significant radioactive zones have been located at Ukinal and Gogi along the Gogi-Kurlagere fault and at Ramtirth along the Wadi-Ramtirth fault on the southern margin of the basin. Uranium mineralization in these fault zones is associated with brecciated siliceous limestone and sheared basement granitoids. Another E-W striking fault which has affected the granitic basement along the southern margin of the Bhima basin is observed near Tintini, Yadgir District, Karnataka located about 40 km southwest of Gogi. The present study is an attempt to understand the geochronology and the isotopic characteristics of these granitoids around Tintini

  13. Use of natural basement ventilation to control radon in single family dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a means of reducing radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy has never been documented. In these experiments, natural ventilation has for the first time been studied systematically in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. Ventilation rates, environmental and house operating parameters, as well as radon levels, have been monitored. It can be definitely concluded from radon entry rate calculations that natural ventilation can reduce radon levels in two ways. The first is by simple dilution. The second is by reducing basement depressurization and thus the amount of radon-contaminated soil gas drawn into the structure. Therefore, basement ventilation can be an effective mitigation strategy under some circumstances. It might be especially useful in houses with low radon concentrations (of the order of 370 Bq m-1) or those with low levels and which cannot be mitigated cost-effectively with conventional technology. (Author)

  14. Fracture Analysis of basement rock: A case example of the Eastern Part of the Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, reservoir rocks can be defined into carbonates, tight elastics and basement rocks. Basement rocks came to be highlighted as their characteristics are quite complicated and remained as a significant challenge in exploration and production area. Motivation of this research is to solve the problem in some area in the Malay Basin which consist fractured basement reservoirs. Thus, in order to increase understanding about their characteristic, a study was conducted in the Eastern part of the Peninsular Malaysia. The study includes the main rock types that resemble the offshore rocks and analysis on the factors that give some effect on fracture characteristic that influence fracture systems and fracture networks. This study will allow better fracture prediction which will be beneficial for future hydrocarbon prediction in this region

  15. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating from granitoids in southern basement of Songliao basin: Constraints on ages of the basin basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuHong; XU WenLiang; YANG DeBin; PEI FuPing; LIU XiaoMing; HU ZhaoChu

    2007-01-01

    Seven LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb datings from granitoids in the southern basement of the Songliao basin were done in order to constrain the ages of the basin basement. The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the zircons from seven granitoids indicate that they are euhedral-subhedral ones with striped absorption and obvious oscillatory zoning rims. The dating results show that a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age is 236±3 Ma for quartz diorite (sample No.T6-1) located in the western slope of the basin, that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 319±1 Ma (2126 m) and 361±2 Ma (1994 m) for diorite (sample No.YC1-1) and granite (sample No.YC1-2) located in northern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively, and that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 161±5 Ma, 165±2 Ma, 165±1 Ma and 161±4 Ma for samples Q2-1, SN121, SN122, and SN72 granitoids located in southern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively. The statistical results of ages suggest that the middle Jurassic granitoids constitute the main part of basement granitoids, and that the Hercynian and Indo-Sino magmatisms also occur in the basin basement. It is implied that the Songliao basin should be a rift one formed in the intracontinent or active continental margin settings in the late Mesozoic after the Middle Jurassic orogeny took place.

  16. Hydrogeologic controls on induced seismicity in crystalline basement rocks due to fluid injection into basal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yipeng; Person, Mark; Rupp, John; Ellett, Kevin; Celia, Michael A; Gable, Carl W; Bowen, Brenda; Evans, James; Bandilla, Karl; Mozley, Peter; Dewers, Thomas; Elliot, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A series of Mb 3.8-5.5 induced seismic events in the midcontinent region, United States, resulted from injection of fluid either into a basal sedimentary reservoir with no underlying confining unit or directly into the underlying crystalline basement complex. The earthquakes probably occurred along faults that were likely critically stressed within the crystalline basement. These faults were located at a considerable distance (up to 10 km) from the injection wells and head increases at the hypocenters were likely relatively small (∼70-150 m). We present a suite of simulations that use a simple hydrogeologic-geomechanical model to assess what hydrogeologic conditions promote or deter induced seismic events within the crystalline basement across the midcontinent. The presence of a confining unit beneath the injection reservoir horizon had the single largest effect in preventing induced seismicity within the underlying crystalline basement. For a crystalline basement having a permeability of 2 × 10(-17)  m(2) and specific storage coefficient of 10(-7) /m, injection at a rate of 5455 m(3) /d into the basal aquifer with no underlying basal seal over 10 years resulted in probable brittle failure to depths of about 0.6 km below the injection reservoir. Including a permeable (kz  = 10(-13)  m(2) ) Precambrian normal fault, located 20 m from the injection well, increased the depth of the failure region below the reservoir to 3 km. For a large permeability contrast between a Precambrian thrust fault (10(-12)  m(2) ) and the surrounding crystalline basement (10(-18)  m(2) ), the failure region can extend laterally 10 km away from the injection well. PMID:23745958

  17. Influences of acid-base property of membrane on interfacial interactions related with membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor based on thermodynamic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leihong; Qu, Xiaolu; Zhang, Meijia; Lin, Hongjun; Zhou, Xiaoling; Liao, Bao-Qiang; Mei, Rongwu; Hong, Huachang

    2016-08-01

    Failure of membrane hydrophobicity in predicting membrane fouling requires a more reliable indicator. In this study, influences of membrane acid base (AB) property on interfacial interactions in two different interaction scenarios in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were studied according to thermodynamic approaches. It was found that both the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and foulant samples in the MBR had relatively high electron donor (γ(-)) component and low electron acceptor (γ(+)) component. For both of interaction scenarios, AB interaction was the major component of the total interaction. The results showed that, the total interaction monotonically decreased with membrane γ(-), while was marginally affected by membrane γ(+), suggesting that γ(-) could act as a reliable indicator for membrane fouling prediction. This study suggested that membrane modification for fouling mitigation should orient to improving membrane surface γ(-) component rather than hydrophilicity. PMID:27155263

  18. Resistivity soundings and VLF profiles for siting groundwater wells in a fractured basement aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kruse, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal shortages of groundwater are common in parts of the Arabian Shield, where complex basement hydrogeology can make siting of water wells difficult. To identify optimal production well locations, six 200-400 m-long Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic traverses and ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESes) were run at the western edge of the Arabian Shield near At-Taif town, Saudi Arabia. Here wadi sediments overlie fractured Precambrian basement, which in turn overlies unfractured basement. The fractured basement forms the water supply aquifer. Both VLF and VES data indicate significant lateral heterogeneity in the electrical conductivity of both wadi and basement deposits over lengths scales as small as ∼100 m. VES results correlate closely with data from two wells in the study area. The change in resistivity at the wadi-to-fractured basement contact is relatively subtle, but the transition from low resistivity fractured basement to high resistivity unfractured basement is well resolved. Inferred wadi thicknesses range from 0 to 14 m; the electrically conductive fractured basement extends from wadi down to 12-32 m depth. VES data indicate the fractured basement aquifer thickens progressively to the south in this area. A production well, sited on the basis of the VES analysis, successfully yielded 70m3/day. The relationship between VLF and VES data is complex, suggesting that the terrain is heterogeneous on the scale of the different effective sampling volumes of the two methods, and/or that fracture azimuth is locally heterogeneous. Overall resistivities in this study are similar to those observed at other locations in Saudi Arabia, suggesting these methods may be widely applicable for siting of groundwater wells in the complex basement of the Arabian Shield.

  19. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Burbano, Marie S; Sadler, Mary E; Diamond, Jason; Baker, Simon; Greiner, Anthony D; Arabi, Sara; Wong, Joseph; Doody, Alexandra; Padhye, Lokesh P; Sears, Keith; Kistenmacher, Peter; Kent, Fraser; Tootchi, Leila; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Saddredini, Sara; Schilling, Bill; Min, Kyungnan; McCandless, Robert; Danker, Bryce; Gamage, Neranga P; Wang, Sunny; Aerts, Peter

    2016-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2015, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:27620084

  20. Membrane Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrin, Marie-Laure; Sadler, Mary E; Greiner, Anthony D; Aguinaldo, Jorge; Min, Kyungnan; Zhang, Kai; Arabi, Sara; Burbano, Marie S; Kent, Fraser; Shoaf, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This review, for literature published in 2014, contains information related to membrane processes for municipal and industrial applications. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following topics: pretreatment, membrane bioreactor (MBR) configuration, design, nutrient removal, operation, industrial treatment, fixed film and anaerobic membrane systems, reuse, microconstituents removal, membrane technology advances, membrane fouling, and modeling. Other sub-sections of the Treatment Systems section that might relate to this literature review include: Biological Fixed-Film Systems, Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes, Anaerobic Processes, Water Reclamation and Reuse. The following sections might also have related information on membrane processes: Industrial Wastes, Hazardous Wastes, and Fate and Effects of Pollutants. PMID:26420079

  1. Delineation of Piceance Basin basement structures using multiple source data: Implications for fractured reservoir exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E.; Klawitter, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Fractured production trends in Piceance Basin Cretaceous-age Mesaverde Group gas reservoirs are controlled by subsurface structures. Because many of the subsurface structures are controlled by basement fault trends, a new interpretation of basement structure was performed using an integrated interpretation of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), high altitude, false color aerial photography, gas and water production data, high-resolution aeromagnetic data, subsurface geologic information, and surficial fracture maps. This new interpretation demonstrates the importance of basement structures on the nucleation and development of overlying structures and associated natural fractures in the hydrocarbon-bearing section. Grand Valley, Parachute, Rulison, Plateau, Shire Gulch, White River Dome, Divide Creek and Wolf Creek fields all produce gas from fractured tight gas sand and coal reservoirs within the Mesaverde Group. Tectonic fracturing involving basement structures is responsible for development of permeability allowing economic production from the reservoirs. In this context, the significance of detecting natural fractures using the intergrated fracture detection technique is critical to developing tight gas resources. Integration of data from widely-available, relatively inexpensive sources such as high-resolution aeromagnetics, remote sensing imagery analysis and regional geologic syntheses provide diagnostic data sets to incorporate into an overall methodology for targeting fractured reservoirs. The ultimate application of this methodology is the development and calibration of a potent exploration tool to predict subsurface fractured reservoirs, and target areas for exploration drilling, and infill and step-out development programs.

  2. Possible options for reducing occupational dose from the TMI-2 basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major sources of exposure in the basement include the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure, water and sludge in the elevator shaft, cast concrete walls, concrete floor slab, water and sludge on the floor, and activity in the paint and loose surface contamination. The sources were identified using data obtained by the utility from water processing, water and solid samples, remote video inspections and radiation monitoring with a robot, and strings of thermoluminescent dosimeters lowered from upper elevations. The area dose rates in the basement range from approximately 4 R/hr (in the NE quadrant) to over 1100 R/hr (near the enclosed stairwell/elevator shaft structure). It is estimated that the basement contains between 11,000 and 21,000 curies of 137Cs. Specific decontamination and cleanup techniques are discussed. These techniques include flushing with water, high-pressure water blasting, leaching, scabbling and chemical cleaning. The applicability of these techniques to the major sources of radiation are discussed, and possible approaches and work sequences for basement cleanup are given

  3. Influence of basement structures on in situ stresses over the Surat Basin, southeast Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke-Barnett, Samuel; Flottmann, Thomas; Paul, Pijush K.; Busetti, Seth; Hennings, Peter; Reid, Ray; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-07-01

    The Jurassic to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Surat Basin in southeast Queensland host a significant volume of coal seam gas resources. Consequently, knowledge of the in situ stress is important for coal permeability enhancement and wellbore stability. Using wireline log data and direct stress measurements, we have calculated stress orientations from 36 wells and stress magnitudes from 7 wells across the Surat Basin. Our results reveal a relationship between high tectonic stress and proximity to structures within the underlying "basement" rocks. The influence of tectonic stresses is diminished with depth in areas with thicker sedimentary cover that are relatively far from the basement structures. We suggest that this relationship is due to the redistribution of in situ stresses around areas where basement is shallower and where basement structures, such as the Leichhardt-Burunga Fault System, are present. This behavior is explained by a lower rigidity in the thickest basin cover, which reduces the ability to maintain higher tectonic stress. Over the entire Surat Basin, a significant amount of variability in in situ stress orientation is observed. The authors attribute this stress variability to complex plate boundary interactions on the northern and eastern margins of the Indo-Australian Plate.

  4. Impact of climate changes during the last 5 million years on groundwater in basement aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Les Landes, Antoine Armandine; Pauwels, Hélène; Davy, Philippe; Pételet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Labasque, Thierry; Roques, Clément; Chatton, Eliot; Bour, Olivier; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Khaska, Mahmoud; La Salle, Corinne Le Gal; Barbecot, Florent

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is thought to have major effects on groundwater resources. There is however a limited knowledge of the impacts of past climate changes such as warm or glacial periods on groundwater although marine or glacial fluids may have circulated in basements during these periods. Geochemical investigations of groundwater at shallow depth (80-400 m) in the Armorican basement (western France) revealed three major phases of evolution: (1) Mio-Pliocene transgressions led to marine water introduction in the whole rock porosity through density and then diffusion processes, (2) intensive and rapid recharge after the glacial maximum down to several hundred meters depths, (3) a present-day regime of groundwater circulation limited to shallow depth. This work identifies important constraints regarding the mechanisms responsible for both marine and glacial fluid migrations and their preservation within a basement. It defines the first clear time scales of these processes and thus provides a unique case for understanding the effects of climate changes on hydrogeology in basements. It reveals that glacial water is supplied in significant amounts to deep aquifers even in permafrosted zones. It also emphasizes the vulnerability of modern groundwater hydrosystems to climate change as groundwater active aquifers is restricted to shallow depths.

  5. SOME RESULTS FROM THE DEMONSTRATION OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION MEASURES IN BLOCK BASEMENT HOUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active soil ventilation techniques have been tested in 26 block-wall basement houses in eastern Pennsylvania with significantly elevated indoor radon concentrations, generally above 740 Bq/m3, and the results indicate that radon levels can be reduced substantially often below the...

  6. Quantification of focusing effects of the semi-spherical and semi-cylindrical synclinal basement topography on ground motion characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, D.; Narayan, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    The anomalous damage patterns developed by the focusing of seismic waves due to deep and shallow seated synclinal basement topography were reported during the Northridge earthquake of 1994 and the Nisqually earthquake of 2001, respectively. This paper presents the role of sediment velocity, depth and geometry of the basement topography in basement focusing effects on ground motion characteristics. An increase of amplitude of the mode converted and the diffracted waves with an increase of impedance contrast and curvature of the basement topography was inferred. It is concluded that the basement focusing effect is unaffected by the change of focal length due to the change of either sediment velocity or radius of curvature for a fixed chord length in the absence of sediment damping. Further, under a favourable condition, the focusing of multiples of the transmitted waves may cause much larger amplitude amplification than that caused by the focusing of the transmitted wave itself. Extensive spatial variations in ground motion level were obtained with the change of depth and chord length of the basement topography. A comparative analysis of the responses of semi-spherical basement topography (3D) and semi-cylindrical basement topography (2D) strongly suggests that 1D or 2D response of an area underlain by a 3D depression should not be used in predicting the ground motion.

  7. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement

  8. On the issue of the Precambrian basement of the Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Korago, Evgeny A.; Proskurnin, Vasily F.; Sobolev, Nikolay N.

    2015-04-01

    Many researchers of the geological structures of the Russian Arctic concluded that the basements of the terranes composing the Arctic shelf and continental slopes have a Precambrian age. It is assumed that these terranes are actually fragments of the ancient Arctida paleocontinent [Zonenshain, Natapov, 1987] that broke up as a result of rifting and its separate plates and terranes either were overlain by continental margins sediments or included in the fold belts in the periphery of the ocean. In the western part of the Russian Arctic, a Grenvillian and Mesoproterozoic basement was demonstrated for Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Taimyr Peninsula, and at least a Neoproterozoic basement was established for structures in the basement of Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. In the eastern part of the Russian Arctic, such proofs were almost nonexistent. In recent years, new information was obtained concerning the continental nature and Precambrian age of the basement crust of the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos as well as probably the Mendeleev Ridge. For the New Siberian Islands and De Long archipelagos, a whole series of geochronological evidence was obtained in addition to geological data (horizontally bedding Early Paleozoic passive continental margin sediments (Cambrian, Ordovician) at Bennett Island). In magmatic and tuffaceous-sedimentary rocks of Henrietta and Zhokhov islands we discovered zircons that had formed from magmatic crystallization in the Late Neoproterozoic. New U-Pb data for zircons from rocks of these islands do not contradict isotopic dating obtained earlier by other methods - Ar/Ar and Sm/Nd in different laboratories. Considering different closure temperatures for isotopic systems, these new results complement each other. On the islands of the eastern sector of the Russian Arctic, a Neoproterozoic complex of rocks is most certainly established in the basement of the mesozoides of Vrangel Island. Here were discovered metamorphosed volcanics

  9. Stress inversion and basement-cover stress transmission across weak layers in the Paris basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburger, Yann; Magnenet, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the source of non-purely gravitational horizontal stresses in the Paris basin, a nowadays tectonically quiet intracratonic basin, in its eastern border of which outstandingly dense stress measurements are available. Based on a synthesis of published data, the stress state in the basin is first shown to be very close to the one that may be extrapolated for the underlying basement, in terms of principal stress orientations and horizontal to vertical stress ratios. This is in favour of a mechanical coupling between the basement and its sedimentary cover, which may seem contradictory to the presence of several weak rock layers in the basin fill, e.g. an argillite layer that was shown to bear low deviatoric stresses, and salt layers that are implicated in a major décollement elsewhere. To unravel this apparent contradiction, a 3D-numerical modelling is performed, following a rigorous inverse problem approach, to determine the long-term elastic properties of both the basement and the basin rocks. The objective is to find the set of elastic constants that provides the best fit between the calculated stress state in the basin and the in situ data, by assuming that the stress state in the basement is known. This methodology provides a realistic set of mechanical parameters, in agreement with previous studies, which leads to the conclusion that the horizontal stresses in the basin constitute its mechanical response to the stresses that developed in the underlying basement during and since the last tectonic event (Alpine phase). The fact that horizontal stresses could be transmitted across the weak horizons, contrary to what may be expected at first glance, is explained both by the geometry of the basin and the fact that, over the long term, the stiffnesses of the various sedimentary rocks are only slightly different from each other.

  10. Metamorphic basement characteristics, palaeo-tectonic patterns and prospect of uranium and gold mineralization in South (East) China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metamorphic basement in South (East) China is composed of two geological terrains, Yangtze and Cathaysian, with different characteristics. After the Midde Proterozoic, the area experienced the evolution: collision-welding-pulling apart-rewelding. The main patterns of basement structures in the area are collision-welding zone and the intra-continental thrusting and strike-ship shearing welding zone which were developed on the old rift system. Uranium and gold prospect are intimately related with the basement structure. Uranium deposits mainly occur in the faulted-uplifted portion of the basement, while gold deposits, in the taphrogenic portion. The intersection part of the palaeo basement structures is an active part of Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic activities and the lateral volcanic rift basins controlled by the Meso-Cenozoic tectonics at the early stage and the magmatic complex belt formed under the extension condition at the late stage are the best prospective areas of uranium, gold and polymetallic metallogenesis

  11. Pervaporation from a dense membrane: roles of permeant-membrane interactions, Kelvin effect, and membrane swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Thampi, Sumesh P; Suggala, Satyanarayana V; Bhattacharya, Prashant K

    2004-05-25

    Dense polymeric membranes with extremely small pores in the form of free volume are used widely in the pervaporative separation of liquid mixtures. The membrane permeation of a component followed by its vaporization on the opposite face is governed by the solubility and downstream pressure. We measured the evaporative flux of pure methanol and 2-propanol using dense membranes with different free volumes and different affinities (wettabilities and solubilities) for the permeant. Interestingly, the evaporative flux for different membranes vanished substantially (10-75%) below the equilibrium vapor pressure in the bulk. The discrepancy was larger for a smaller pore size and for more wettable membranes (higher positive spreading coefficients). This observation, which cannot be explained by the existing (mostly solution-diffusion type) models ofpervaporation, suggests an important role for the membrane-permeant interactions in nanopores that can lower the equilibrium vapor pressure. The pore sizes, as estimated from the positron annihilation, ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 nm for the dry membranes. Solubilities of methanol in different composite membranes were estimated from the Flory-Huggins theory. The interaction parameter was obtained from the surface properties measured by the contact angle goniometry in conjunction with the acid-base theory of polar surface interactions. For the membranes examined, the increase in the "wet" pore volume due to membrane swelling correlates almost linearly with the solubility of methanol in these membranes. Indeed, the observations are found to be consistent with the lowering of the equilibrium vapor pressure on the basis of the Kelvin equation. Thus, a higher solubility or selectivity of a membrane also implies stronger permeant-membrane interactions and a greater retention of the permeant by the membrane, thus decreasing its evaporative flux. This observation has important implications for the interpretation of existing experiments and in

  12. Percolation of diagenetic fluids in the Archaean basement of the Franceville basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, Idalina Moubiya; Dudoignon, Patrick; Albani, Abderrazak El; Cuney, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Gauthier-Lafaye, François

    2014-01-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic Franceville basin, Gabon, is mainly known for its high-grade uranium deposits, which are the only ones known to act as natural nuclear fission reactors. Previous work in the Kiéné region investigated the nature of the fluids responsible for these natural nuclear reactors. The present work focuses on the top of the Archaean granitic basement, specifically, to identify and date the successive alteration events that affected this basement just below the unconformity separating it from the Palaeoproterozoic basin. Core from four drill holes crosscutting the basin-basement unconformity have been studied. Dating is based on U-Pb isotopic analyses performed on monazite. The origin of fluids is discussed from the study of fluid inclusion planes (FIP) in quartz from basement granitoids. From the deepest part of the drill holes to the unconformable boundary with the basin, propylitic alteration assemblages are progressively replaced by illite and locally by a phengite + Fe chlorite ± Fe oxide assemblage. Illitic alteration is particularly strong along the sediment-granitoid contact and is associated with quartz dissolution. It was followed by calcite and anhydrite precipitation as fracture fillings. U-Pb isotopic dating outlines three successive events: a 3.0-2.9-Ga primary magmatic event, a 2.6-Ga propylitic alteration and a late 1.9-Ga diagenetic event. Fluid inclusion microthermometry suggests the circulation of three types of fluids: (1) a Na-Ca-rich diagenetic brine, (2) a moderately saline (diagenetic + meteoric) fluid, and (3) a low-salinity fluid of probable meteoric origin. These fluids are similar to those previously identified within the overlying sedimentary rocks of the Franceville basin. Overall, the data collected in this study show that the Proterozoic-Archaean unconformity has operated as a major flow corridor for fluids circulation, around 1.9 Ga. highly saline diagenetic brines; hydrocarbon-rich fluids derived from organic matter

  13. Statistical analysis of indoor radon concentrations in a reinforced concrete building with three stories above ground and one basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to understand 222Rn concentrations in dwellings precisely for dose assessment. 222Rn concentrations were continuously measured in a reinforced-concrete house in Tokyo with three stories above ground and one basement for seven years, from October 1988 to September 1995. In the basement, temperature and humidity were also measured, which were used for analyzing the seasonal variation of the 222Rn concentration and its relationship with environmental factors. 222Rn concentrations on the 2nd and 3rd floors showed a statistically significant seasonal variation, i.e., higher in winter and lower in summer, but those on the 1st floor did not show any significant seasonal variation. The 222Rn concentration in the basement showed a reverse seasonal variation, i.e., higher in summer and lower in winter. The 222Rn concentrations on each floor showed a drastic decrease after the renewal of the dehumidifier in the basement, which suggests that the 222Rn concentration in the basement has an influence on that in the rooms above ground. A multiple regression analysis suggested that the 222Rn concentration in the basement and its seasonal variation can be expressed with statistical significance by the linear combination of temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure. It was also revealed that the 222Rn concentration on the 1st floor can be expressed by the linear combination of the concentrations in the basement, 2nd and 3rd floors. (author)

  14. Geology and petrography of basement in south extreme in Sierra Grande de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the south of the Sierra de San Luis is recognized a basement composed by La Escalerilla and Los Puquios granites, accompanied by schist, mylonite s and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The schists, La Escalerilla granite and the mafic -ultramafic rocks are affected by a regional metamorphism in anphibolites facies, the two first present a N-S foliation di ping to east. The mylonite s correspond to a second event of deformation, distributed in thin belts of NNE-SSO direction and inclination to east, developed in green schist to anphibolites facies. Los Puquios granite represents the more young of the basement rocks and the intrusion was associated with a shear zone. Los Puquios granite forms dikes and small plutons cutting La Escalerilla granite and micas chits in high cortical levels

  15. Time variation of 222Rn concentration and gamma level in a half-basement room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation between 222Rn (radon) concentration and gamma level in a half-basement has been discussed. In order to decrease the background count of a whole-body counter (WBC), a ventilation blower of 72 m2h-1 was installed. The device succeeded in a big reduction of radon concentration in the half-basement and then the background of WBC (NaI(Tl)) decreased to the 76.5% of the saturated value. Through a radon saturation test the exhalation rate of radon from concrete wall was estimated as 2.1 Bqm-2h-1 by a simple model calculation. In addition, through a ventilation test, the procedure was analyzed by another simple model. (author)

  16. Characteristics of basement granitoids and their role on uranium mineralisation in and around southwestern margin of Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of uranium mineralisation in the environs of Cuddapah Basin show temporal and spatial association with uraniferous basement granitoids (Closepet Equivalent) exposed in its southern and southwestern margin. Geochemical studies of these granitoids show that these are generally peraluminous and strongly differentiated with uranium concentration from 10 to 90 ppm. Uranium mineralisation (in terms of grade and thickness) in the granite-hosted, fracture- controlled type and in the Cuddapah sediments is pronounced in areas where basement rocks have more volume of these strongly differentiated uraniferous granitoids. In contrast, uranium mineralisation is of low grade and thickness where basement is represented by Peninsular gneisses. (author)

  17. Groundwater recharge estimation and water resources assessment in a tropical crystalline basement aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagwambo, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    While most groundwater recharge estimation methods give reasonable long-term annual average estimates very few if any methods offer guidance on monthly recharge. In crystalline basement aquifers (CBAs) the problem is compounded by the high seasonal, intra-annual and inter-annual variability. The chloride mass balance (CMB), the daily catchment water balance (WB) and the water table fluctuation (WTF) groundwater recharge estimation methods have been used to estimate groundwater recharge in a s...

  18. Apparatus for centrifuge modelling of top down basement construction with heave reducing piles

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, A M; Goodey, R J; Taylor, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    The construction of deep basements in urban areas is associated with many risks and problems among which is the possible damage to existing structures and services resulting from settlements near the excavation. A number of methods are routinely employed to attempt to control these movements (e.g. top-down construction, use of stiff diaphragm walls). This paper discusses the methodology and practicalities of a series of centrifuge model tests designed to investigate the effect of deep basemen...

  19. Hydrogeological characterisation and water-supply potential of basement aquifers in tropical Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chilton, P.J.; Foster, S S D

    1995-01-01

    AbstractCrystalline basement rocks, with a mantle of weathered alternation products, occur beneath very extensive areas of tropical Africa. Low-productivity aquifers are widely, but rather unpredictably, present in this formation. They yield small water supplies vital to the rural population for domestic purposes and for livestock watering. On a more localised basis, a potential may exist to develop larger supplies that are adequate for small towns or for small-scale irrigation. This paper re...

  20. Rat mesangial cells in vitro synthesize a spectrum of proteoglycan species including those of the basement membrane and interstitium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G J; Shewring, L; McCarthy, K J; Couchman, J R; Mason, R M; Davies, M

    1995-01-01

    Accumulation of extracellular matrix within the mesangium is an important event in the development of glomerular disease. In this report we have used indirect immunofluorescence to positively identify a number of constituents of the mesangial matrix synthesized by rat mesangial cells (RMC) in vitro...

  1. Genome wide analysis indicates genes for basement membrane and cartilage matrix proteins as candidates for hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrijsen, Ineke; Leegwater, Peter; Martin, AJ; Harris, SJ; Tryfonidou, Marianna; Heuven, Henri; Hazewinkel, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Hip dysplasia, an abnormal laxity of the hip joint, is seen in humans as well as dogs and is one of the most common skeletal disorders in dogs. Canine hip dysplasia is considered multifactorial and polygenic, and a variety of chromosomal regions have been associated with the disorder. We performed a

  2. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia;

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major...... [myosin-light chain-2 (MLC2) phosphorylation], loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion induced by AGE-modified basal lamina matrix in PEC acini. Our in vitro results were concordant with luminal occlusion of acini in the prostate glands of adult Endo180...

  3. Anti-IL-5 treatment reduces deposition of ECM proteins in the bronchial subepithelial basement membrane of mild atopic asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Flood-Page, Patrick; Menzies-Gow, Andrew; Phipps, Simon; Ying, Sun; Wangoo, Arun; Ludwig, Mara S.; Barnes, Neil; Robinson, Douglas; Kay, A. Barry

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophil-derived TGF-β has been implicated in remodeling events in asthma. We hypothesized that reduction of bronchial mucosal eosinophils with anti–IL-5 would reduce markers of airway remodeling. Bronchial biopsies were obtained before and after three infusions of a humanized, anti–IL-5 monoclonal antibody (mepolizumab) in 24 atopic asthmatics in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The thickness and density of tenascin, lumican, and procollagen III in the reticular baseme...

  4. Deletion of the Basement Membrane Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Type XVIII Collagen Causes Hypertriglyceridemia in Mice and Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Joseph R.; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Fong, Loren; Stanford, Kristin I.; Gonzales, Jon C.; Yeh, Erika; Young, Stephen G.; Bensadoun, Andre; Witztum, Joseph L.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Moulton, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl) acts on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the peripheral circulation, liberating free fatty acids for energy metabolism or storage. This essential enzyme is synthesized in parenchymal cells of adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscle and migrates to the luminal side of the vascular endothelium where it acts upon circulating lipoproteins. Prior studies suggested that Lpl is immobilized by way of heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the endothelium, but genetic...

  5. Cross-reactivity of cell-mediated immunity between interstitial (type I) and basement membrane (type IV) collagens

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to homologous type I collagen that cross-reacts with type IV collagen. Mice immunized with native or denatured type I collagens and challenged with these same antigens or native type IV collagen develop a peak DTH response on day 7. Challenge with denatured type IV collagen or collagenase-treated type IV collagen failed to elicit DTH in type I collagen-sensitized mice. Type I collagen-sensitized spleen cells adoptively t...

  6. Analysis on the basement constitution of the southern Okinawa Trough%冲绳海槽南段基底组成探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建华; 高金耀; 方银霞; 吴水根

    2008-01-01

    Based on the data of seismic reflection, seismic refraction and magnetism collected in the research area and geology obtained from adjacent areas, this paper deals with the issue of basement constitution of the southern part of the Okinawa Trough. In the shelf basin of the East China Sea, Taiwan folded belt and Ryukyu Islands folded belt which surround the trough, outcrop Later Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Eogene strata. In the southern trough, multichannel seismic reflection data indicate that the overlying strata are composed of Neogene and Quaternary deposits, and the acoustic basement consists of Eogent and even older strata. Seismic refraction profiles show that there are Eogene and Mesozoic velocity layers with longitudinal velocities of 4.7 - 5.3 km/s and 6.3 km/s respectively beneath the Quaternary-Miocene Layers. Qualitative analysis and forward and reversed calculation of magnetic data show that the magnetic basement is mainly formed by metamorphic rocks, the Yanshanian neutral-acid magmatic rocks and the Himalayan neutral-basic magmatic rocks being the next components, and the magnetic basement is mostly corresponding to the acoustic basement. Comprehensive analyses demonstrate that the basement of the southern Okinawa Trough is mainly formed by Eogene system and Mesozoic and Upper Paleozoic groups metamorphosed in varying degrees, and the basic magmatic rocks of Himalayan epoch have been formed in some parts of the basin.%本文根据反射地震、折射地震、磁力等资料,结合周边地质,探讨冲绳海槽南段基底组成.在海槽周边的东海陆架盆地、台湾褶皱带和琉球岛弧褶皱带,均出露不同程度变质的晚古生代、中生代和早第三纪地层.多道反射地震表明,海槽南段沉积盖层由上第三系和第四系组成,声学基底由下第三系及更老地层构成.邻近海槽的折射地震揭示,除第四系-中新统速度层之外,还存在纵波速度分别为4.7 ~ 5.3 km/s和6.3 km/s的下第三系

  7. Uraniferous rhyolitic vein in the basement fractures of Singhora Protobasin near Juba Village, Raipur District, Chhattisgarh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uraniferous rhyolitic vein occupying fracture (N80°E - S80°W), is reported in the in-lier exposed as basement (Sambalpur Granitoid) windows within the eastern margin of Singhora Group of rocks, near Juba village, in Raipur District of Chhattisgarh State. Chemically, vein shows granitic composition which is further confirmed by thin section studies. Presences of phenocrysts of bipyramidal quartz, euhedral senidine and biotite in fine grained glassy to devitrified groundmass classified the rock to rhyolitic category. The rhyolitic vein (5 m X 1 m) analysed uranium (28 to 100 ppm) associated with limonite, goethite and apatite. This Uranium bearing rhyolitic vein is fracture filled in the basement rocks and has significance in the light of uranium-sulphide mineralisation already reported in the overlying sedimentary rocks of Singhora Group exposed very near to this location. Presence of such acid volcanic activity during Singhora sedimentation or post Singhora basement activation is important from the uranium exploration point of view. (author)

  8. Volcanic conduit migration over a basement landslide at Mount Etna (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, I.; Caracciolo, F. D'ajello; Branca, S.; Ventura, G.; Chiappini, M.

    2014-06-01

    The flanks of volcanoes may slide in response to the loading of the edifice on a weak basement, magma push, and/or to tectonic stress. However, examples of stratovolcanoes emplaced on active landslides are lacking and the possible effects on the volcano dynamics unknown. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to construct a three-dimensional model of the clay-rich basement of Etna volcano (Italy). We provide evidence for a large stratovolcano growing on a pre-existing basement landslide and show that the eastern Etna flank, which slides toward the sea irrespective of volcanic activity, moves coherently with the underlying landslide. The filling of the landslide depression by lava flows through time allows the formation of a stiffness barrier, which is responsible for the long-term migration of the magma pathways from the coast to the present-day Etna summit. These unexpected results provide a new interpretation clue on the causes of the volcanic instability processes and of the mechanisms of deflection and migration of volcanic conduits.

  9. Live cell imaging of membrane / cytoskeleton interactions and membrane topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierico, Luca; Joseph, Adrian S.; Lewis, Andrew L.; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    We elucidate the interaction between actin and specific membrane components, using real time live cell imaging, by delivering probes that enable access to components, that cannot be accessed genetically. We initially investigated the close interplay between Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and the F-actin network. We show that, during the early stage of cell adhesion, PIP2 forms domains within the filopodia membrane. We studied these domains alongside cell spreading and observed that these very closely follow the actin tread-milling. We show that this mechanism is associated with an active transport of PIP2 rich organelles from the cell perinuclear area to the edge, along actin fibers. Finally, mapping other phospholipids and membrane components we observed that the PIP2 domains formation is correlated with sphingosine and cholesterol rafts.

  10. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  11. Estimation of velocity boundaries in basement - sedimentary layer system of Yokohama region by means of nonstationary ray decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, M.; Kinoshita, S.

    2011-12-01

    We estimated the velocity boundaries in a sedimentary layer-basement system in Yokohama by applying nonstationary ray decomposition method (NRDM) to the strong motion data recorded at the Yokohama dense strong motion array (YKH array). NRDM is a method to estimate the velocity boundaries of real layered structure from surface recordings by decomposing power of an SH-wave into instantaneous power of wave associated with rays in a homogeneous half space. The estimated results obtained by applying this method to seismograms are represented as a function of lapse time and depth time, which is travel time from surface toward depth-direction. A total of 10080 surface seismograms obtained at the YKH array for the 128 earthquakes that occurred in the Kanto area from 2000 to 2010 were used. The recordings were measured by acceleration seismometers. The data were obtained for the events having JMA magnitudes in the range of from 2.8 to 6.5. NRDM was applied to the transverse component data of velocity seismogram. Since the seismograms obtained at the YKH array predominate in high frequencies due to the weak subsurface structure, we applied bandpass filtering to the seismograms by using several intrinsic mode functions that are narrowband signals with different center frequencies. After such a processing, the data were converted to analytic signals, and then, the signals were used to estimate the instantaneous power by means of Wigner-Ville distribution. We have estimated the velocity boundaries in sediment in Yokohama region using 37 sites which were located in a rectangular area with a width of 4 km and a length of 40 km south-southeast of the FCH array. We were able to estimate two velocity boundaries, one in sediment (K-M) and the other being the upper boundary of the pre-Tertiary basement (M-B). On the whole, the upper boundary of the pre-Tertiary basement is dipping toward the south-southeast. The estimated depth times at K-M and M-B were from 1.5 to 2.2 s and from 2

  12. Geochemical variability of the Yucatan basement: Constraints from crystalline clasts in Chicxulub impactites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettrup, B.; Deutsch, A.

    2003-07-01

    The 65 Ma old Chicxulub impact structure with a diameter of about 180 km is again in the focus of the geosciences because of the recently commenced drilling of the scientific well Yaxcopoil- 1. Chicxulub is buried beneath thick post-impact sediments, yet samples of basement lithologies in the drill cores provide a unique insight into age and composition of the crust beneath Yucatan. This study presents major element, Sr, and Nd isotope data for Chicxulub impact melt lithologies and clasts of basement lithologies in impact breccias from the PEMEX drill cores C-1 and Y-6, as well as data for ejecta material from the K/T boundaries at La Lajilla, Mexico, and Furlo, Italy. The impact melt lithologies have an andesitic composition with significantly varying contents of Al, Ca, and alkali elements. Their present day 87Sr/86Sr ratios cluster at about 0.7085, and 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5123 to 0.5125. Compared to the melt lithologies that stayed inside the crater, data for ejecta material show larger variations. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7081 for chloritized spherules from La Lajilla to 0.7151 for sanidine spherules from Furlo. The 143Nd/144Nd ratio is 0.5126 for La Lajilla and 0.5120 for the Furlo spherules. In an tCHUR(Nd)-tUR(Sr) diagram, the melt lithologies plot in a field delimited by Cretaceous platform sediments, various felsic lithic clasts and a newly found mafic fragment from a suevite. Granite, gneiss, and amphibolite have been identified among the fragments from crystalline basement gneiss. Their 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7084 to 0.7141, and their 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.5121 to 0.5126. The TNdDM model ages vary from 0.7 to 1.4 Ga, pointing to different source terranes for these rocks. This leads us to believe that the geological evolution and the lithological composition of the Yucatàn basement is probably more complex than generally assumed, and Gondwanan as well as Laurentian crust may be present in the Yucatàn basement.

  13. Axionic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurilia, A. (Dept. of Physics, California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States)); Spallucci, E. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. Trieste (Italy) INFN, Sezione Trieste (Italy))

    1992-05-21

    A metal ring removed from a soap-water solution encloses a film of soap which can be mathematically described as a minimal surface having the ring as its only boundary. This is known to everybody. In this letter we suggest a relativistic extension of the above fluidodynamic system where the soap film is replaced by a Kalb-Ramand gauge potential B{sub {mu}{nu}}(x) and the ring by a closed string. The interaction between the B{sub {mu}{nu}} field and the string current excites a new configuration of the system consisting of a relativistic membrane bounded by the string. We call such a classical solution of the equation of motion an axionic membrane. As a dynamical system, the axionic membrane admits a Hamilton-Jacobi formulation which is an extension of the HJ theory of electromagnetic strings. (orig.).

  14. Membranous nephropathy with monoclonal IgG4 deposits and associated IgG4-related lung disease

    OpenAIRE

    Omokawa, Ayumi; Komatsuda, Atsushi; Hirokawa, Makoto; Wakui, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman was admitted for nephrotic syndrome and lung tumor. A renal biopsy showed membranous features of the glomeruli. Immunofluorescence studies revealed granular IgG4-κ deposits along with the glomerular basement membrane. Electron microscopy revealed granular electron-dense deposits. Further study denied multiple myeloma. Light microscopy of the resected lung tumor revealed IgG4-related lung disease with no malignancy. Steroid therapy induced a remission of the nephrotic syndr...

  15. Testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in basement houses having adjoining wings. Final report, August 1988-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report gives results of tests of indoor radon reduction techniques in 12 existing Maryland houses, with the objective of determining when basement houses with adjoining wings require active soil depressurization (ASD) treatment of both wings, and when treatment of the basement alone is sufficient. In five basement houses with adjoining slabs on grade, ASD treatment of both wings provided an incremental additional radon reduction of 0 to 5.2 pCi/L, compared to ASD treatment of either one of the slabs alone. However, basement-only treatment reduced radon to <4 pCi/L in all five houses. In six basement houses having adjoining crawl spaces, ASD treatment of both wings (including sub-liner depressurization of the crawl space) provided little additional reduction compared to basement-only treatment, when sub-slab communication was good. When communication was not good, treatment of both wings was required to achieve <4 pCi/L. Tests of one fully slab-on-grade house showed that, when there is good aggregate under the slab, a one-pipe sub-slab depressurization system can achieve <1-2 pCi/L, even when there are forced-air supply ducts under the slab

  16. The role of cholesterol in membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Kreutzberger, Alex J B; Lee, Jinwoo; Kiessling, Volker; Tamm, Lukas K

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol modulates the bilayer structure of biological membranes in multiple ways. It changes the fluidity, thickness, compressibility, water penetration and intrinsic curvature of lipid bilayers. In multi-component lipid mixtures, cholesterol induces phase separations, partitions selectively between different coexisting lipid phases, and causes integral membrane proteins to respond by changing conformation or redistribution in the membrane. But, which of these often overlapping properties are important for membrane fusion?-Here we review a range of recent experiments that elucidate the multiple roles that cholesterol plays in SNARE-mediated and viral envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion. PMID:27179407

  17. Nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features of the EPR concerning the fabrication of the reactor are: -) the size of the components, -) the modification of the design compared with classical PWR, and -) an intensive use of forging (in particular the cold and hot legs of the primary circuit are forged). This series of slides overviews the fabrication of the components for the EPR by highlighting the differences with the previous generation of reactors. 4 types of components are reviewed: the reactor vessel and internals, steam generators, primary circuit pipes, and primary coolant pumps. (A.C.)

  18. Robotic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    prototypes, Vivisection and Strange Metabolisms, were developed at the Centre for Information Technology and Architecture (CITA) at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen as a means of engaging intangible digital data with tactile physical material. As robotic membranes, they are a dual...

  19. Basement configuration of the northwestern South America - Caribbean margin from recent geophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oceanic nature of the crust in northern Colombia (underlying the lower Magdalena basins) has been postulated by different authors as a northern extension of the cretaceous, mafic and ultramafic rocks accreted to the western margin of northwest Colombia (in the western cordillera and Baudo range). Localized, small outcrops of oceanic affinity rocks seem to support this hypothesis. However, geophysical data do not support this northern extension, but clearly mark the boundary between the collision panama terrane with northern south America and the over thrusting of the latter on top of the obliquely convergent Caribbean plate. We produced maps to basement and Moho topography by integrated modeling of gravity, magnetic, seismic reflection surveys and well data from northwest Colombia and the southwestern Caribbean in areas with good seismic coverage, the basement under the lower Magdalena basins (LMB) is represented by o clear reflector. in areas where seismic data shows poor imaging or is absent, we use a bock stripping methodology to model first the sedimentary section, with known densities, composition and geometry controlled by oil wells and high quality seismic data, and then the deeper section. 2,50 gravity and magnetic modeling results in on initial Moho that con be extended to the entire region based on the control of available seismic refraction points. This controlled Moho provides the basis for basement modeling for the whole area and this sequence is iterated for several sections across the region. Our results indicate that the crust under northern Colombia is continental to thinned continental (transitional) in nature, with densities between 2,6 and 2,7 g/cm3. our model also requires a dense wedge of sediments (density 2,5 g/cm3) of the base of the modern fold belt, which may represent a fossil sedimentary wedge attachment to the continental margin. This wedge may have served as a backstop for the modern fold belt. The gravity modeling does not

  20. The high-spin cytochrome o' component of the cytochrome bo-type quinol oxidase in membranes from Escherichia coli: formation of the primary oxygenated species at low temperatures is characterized by a slow 'on' rate and low dissociation constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, R K; Salmon, I; Chance, B

    1994-05-01

    Cytochromes b and o in membrane vesicles from aerobically grown Escherichia coli were readily reduced by succinate; one cytochrome, which we propose should be called cytochrome o', reacted with CO in the Fe(II) state to give a photodissociable CO adduct. The photodissociation spectrum (photolysed minus pre-photolysis) at sub-zero temperatures had a relatively high gamma/alpha absorbance ratio, indicating a high-spin haem, which, in the reduced state, probably contributes little to the sharp alpha absorbance of the oxidase complex in membranes. Reaction with oxygen of the unliganded high-spin haem between -132 degrees C and -95 degrees C following photolytic activation gave a product that is identified as the oxygenated form, being spectrally similar to, but not identical with, the CO adduct. In membranes, the forward velocity constant at -95 degrees C was 61 M-1s-1, and the dissociation constant was 1.6 x 10(-5) M O2, as it is in intact cells. These data clearly distinguish the oxygen-trapping strategy of the cytochrome o' in this oxidase from that of cytochrome a3 and also suggest that the presence of the soluble flavohaemoglobin (Hmp) in intact cells is without effect on such measurements of the primary oxygen reaction. In view of recent findings that this oxidase complex contains predominantly one mole of haem O and one of haem B, a revised nomenclature for the oxidase complex is proposed, namely, cytochrome bo'. PMID:8025668

  1. Dwellings with cellars and basements. A BRE guide to radon remedial measures in existing dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is one of a series giving practical advice on methods of reducing radon levels in existing dwellings. It is intended to help surveyors, builders and householders who are trying to reduce indoor radon levels in houses with cellars or basements. The guide is based on a large body of remedial work carried out to advice given by BRE, and on discussions with others working in the field. The measures it describes are applicable, in principle, to all dwellings and other buildings of a similar scale and construction which have cellars or basements. Contact details of other organisations referred to are listed at the back of this guide. Basements and cellars are relatively uncommon in the United Kingdom, but where they do occur they are likely to be major contributors to the radon problem within a building. Experience shows that most houses with high indoor radon levels can be remedied through the use of straightforward building works. These can be carried out by a builder or householder competent in DIY. The cost should not be excessive. Before reading this guide, for background information on radon, consult Radon: a householder's guide and Radon: a guide to reducing levels M your home, obtainable from local Environmental Health Officers or from the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. The Government recommends that, if the average radon concentration in a dwelling exceeds 200 Bq/m3 (the 'action' level), measures should be taken to reduce it. This guide assumes that radon measurements have been made in the building and that the annual average indoor radon level was shown to exceed the action level

  2. The role of mechanical heterogeneities in evaporite sequence during deformation initiated by basement fault activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Burliga, Stanisław

    2016-04-01

    Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) situated in the centre of the Polish Zechstein Basin started to rise above a basement fault in the Early Triassic. Geological studies of the KSS revealed significant differences in the deformation patterns between the PZ1-PZ2 (intensely deformed) and PZ3-PZ4 (less deformed) cycle evaporites. These two older and two younger cycle evaporite complexes are separated by the thick Main Anhydrite (A3) bed. We use numerical simulations to assess the impact of a thick anhydrite bed on intrasalt deformation. In our models, the overburden consists of clastic sediments. A normal fault located in the rigid basement beneath the salt is activated due to model extension. At the same time, the sedimentation process takes place. The evaporites consist of a salt bed intercalated with a thick anhydrite layer of varying position and geometry. To understand the role of anhydrite layer, we run comparative simulations, in which no anhydrite layer is present. In the study, we use our own numerical codes implemented in MATLAB combined with the MILAMIN and MUTILS numerical packages. Our investigations revealed a significant influence of the anhydrite on deformation style in the evaporate series. The supra-anhydrite domain is characterized by weaker deformation and lower rates of salt flow in comparison to the sub-anhydrite domain. The highest contrast in the rate of salt flow between the two domains is observed in the case of the anhydrite layer situated close to the bottom of the salt complex. The thick anhydrite layer additionally diminishes the deformation rate in the supra-anhydrite domain and can lead to detachment of the basement deformation from its overlay. Our numerical simulations showed that the presence of the A3 Main Anhydrite bed could be the dominant factor responsible for the decoupling of deformation in the KSS salt complex.

  3. Structure of Charnockitic basement in a part of the Krishna–Godavari basin, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I V Radhakrishna Murthy; S Bangaru Babu

    2006-08-01

    A regional magnetic survey was carried out over an area of 8000 km2 in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh,India,which is covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) viz., the Khondalitic series and Charnockites in the northern half and Permian to Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in the southern half,and forms a part of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin. The survey brought out a strong NE –SW trending anomaly in the area covered by the rocks of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB),and a mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly in the area covered by the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.The NE –SW trending anomaly in the northern half could be attributed to the exposed/near surface Charnockite basement that has come closer to the surface as a result of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB)tectonics.Explanation of the mild ENE –WSW trending anomaly over the sediments of the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin required a faulted magnetic basement at depth downthrown towards the south.It is therefore concluded that the Charnockitic basement together with the Khondalite group of rocks which are folded and faulted during the different phases of tectonics of Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) extend into the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin and further,were involved in faulting during the phases of formation and sedimentation in the Krishna –Godavari (K –G)basin.

  4. The nature of the acoustic basement on Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruvoll, Vibeke; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Coakley, Bernard J.; Hopper, John R.; Planke, Sverre; Kandilarov, Aleksandre

    2012-01-01

    The Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex, over 1500 km long and 250-400 km wide, is the largest submarine structure in the Arctic Ocean basin. Its origin is unknown, but often inferred to represent a large igneous province where domains of continental crust may also be a possibility. We investigate the basement geology of part of this large scale feature using 1100 km of multichannel seismic reflection data, sonobuoy recordings and marine gravity data acquired in 2005 from USCG icebreaker Healy. The sonobuoy results show top and intra-acoustic basement velocities in the range of 2.3-4.0 km/s and the seismic reflection attributes define three main acoustic facies: 1) continuous high amplitude reflections often with abrupt breaks, 3) weak wedge geometry and 3) segmented, disrupted to chaotic reflections. The acoustic characteristics and seismic velocities compare more closely with basement on Ontong Java Plateau than normal ocean crust or wedges of seaward dipping reflections at volcanic margins. The acoustic facies are interpreted to represent basalt flows and sills capping voluminous tuff deposits and possible sediments. At least two volcanic centres are identified. The upper volcanic carapace on the surveyed part of Mendeleev and northwestern Alpha ridges was emplaced during a brief igneous episode no later than Campanian (80 Ma) and most likely part of wider Late Cretaceous circum Arctic volcanism. The horst and graben morphology on Mendeleev Ridge is largely a result of post-emplacement faulting where a number of the major extensional faults remained active until a late Miocene intrusive event.

  5. Thermochronology and geochemistry of the Pan-African basement below the Sab'atayn Basin, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeningen, Resi; Rice, A. Hugh N.; Schneider, David A.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    Three important lithologies occur in two drill wells from the Pan-African basement underlying the Mesozoic Sab'atayn Basin, in a previously undocumented area of the Pan-African, 83 and 90 km NE of known exposures in Yemen. Cores from well 1 include amphibolite, with basaltic to andesitic compositions, affected by crustal contamination during emplacement into a thickened crust. Deeper in the well, an unfoliated dark red monzogranite has a U-Pb zircon age of 628.8 ± 3.1 Ma and a Rb-Sr biotite cooling age of 591.6 ± 5.8 Ma (∼300 °C). Regional constraints suggest emplacement in a transitional tectonic setting with compressional terrane amalgamation followed by extensional collapse. Sm-Nd isotope analysis yields a TDM model age of 1.24 Ga with negative εNd values, suggesting the monzogranite is part of the Al Bayda island arc terrane. Cores from well 2 contains a weakly deformed, massive (unbedded) medium grey meta-arkose exhibiting essentially no geochemical signature of weathering and with an almost pure dacitic composition. This rock may have been directly derived from an (extrusive) granitoid that was emplaced prior to, or during terrane amalgamation. A (U-Th-Sm)/He zircon age of 156 ± 14 Ma constrains the time of basement cooling to ∼180 °C, synchronous with basin formation. These lithologies provide new insights in the development of the Pan-African basement of Yemen, extending our knowledge of the nearby surface geology to the subsurface.

  6. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  7. Ordovician magmatic belt upon pre-Variscan basement in the internal Sardinian Variscides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, H.; Frisch, W.; Tiepolo, M.

    2003-04-01

    A middle Ordovician angular unconformity overlain by conglomerates is exposed in the foreland of the Sardinian Variscides and marks the Sardic phase. Towards the orogen, the foreland is bordered by the nappe zone, in which calc-alkaline suite-derived porphyroids occur in the stratigraphic position of middle Ordovician, but such an unconformity as documented in the foreland is not exposed. The nappe zone records increasing metamorphism from low- to medium-grade towards internal parts and is juxtaposed against the high-grade axial zone along a late Variscan fault. Towards the internal parts, the stratigraphy and the porphyroid occurrence become increasingly uncertain. The Ordovician orthogneisses from Lodè and Tanaunella appear respectively in the medium-grade nappe zone and high-grade axial zone as plutonic equivalents to the porphyroids and rise the question whether these orthogneisses intruded in a sedimentary sequence or in an older basement. In order to solve this classical basement problem, we obtained the following results at the transition between nappe zone and axial zone in NE Sardinia. We discovered porphyroids in the low-grade nappe zone south of the village Lula. Furthermore, the earliest foliation S1 is restricted to the medium-grade nappe zone and high-grade axial zone, but is not developed neither in the orthogneisses nor in the porphyroid-interlayered low-grade nappe zone. In-situ U-Pb isotopic data obtained by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) on zircon yield 485 +/- 11 Ma for the low-grade Lula porphyroid, 493 +/- 11 Ma for the medium-grade Lodè orthogneiss, and 453 +/- 8 Ma for the high-grade Tanaunella orthogneiss. Besides these Ordovician ages, Neoproterozoic ages are inherited from a Pan-African episode. According to these results we can draw the following conclusions. The internal Sardinian Variscides are made up by an Ordovician magmatic belt upon a pre-Variscan basement. The displacement at the late

  8. Detailed petrographic-structural study of an outcrop of Crystalline Basement of Montevideo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary data analysis of detailed outcrop Punta Virgilo, located on the S E coast of the department of Montevideo are presented. The investigated outcrop includes gneisses, amphibolite s and several generations of pegmatite and aplite dikes of Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement, plus a set of dikes emplaced lamprófido exhumed once the area. Petrographic and microstructural studies of metamorphic units allowed to determine the conditions of metamorphism and deformation temperature between 520-720 ° C and pressure between 2 and 6 kbar (depth of 10 to 23 km)

  9. Roter Kamm impact crater, Namibia: Geochemistry of basement rocks and breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Koeberl, Christian; Bishop, Janice

    1994-06-01

    The Roter Kamm crater in the southern Namib Desert has previously been identified as an impact structure on the basis of crater morphology and the presence of impact melt breccias which contain shock metamorphosed quartz and lithic clasts. To better define the variety of target rocks and breccias, we studied the petrography and chemical composition of a new suite of twenty-eight basement and breccia samples from the Roter Kamm crater. Based on chemical data for target lithologies and breccias we suggest that the crater was formed in a two-layer target region: an upper layer of Gariep metasediments (schist, marble, ± quartzite and sandstone) overlying the crystalline basement of the Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The basement was also heavily intruded by coarse-grained quartz veins and quartz- and quartz-feldspar pegmatites. The clast population in the melt breccias indicates that impact-induced melting involved mainly metasedimentary target rocks, with rarely detected contributions from pegmatite and granite/granodiorite. Three varieties of melt breccias can be defined: (1) "schistose," (2) quartzitic melt breccias, (3) "true" impact melt breccias. These melt breccia types are chemically heterogeneous, and even the impact melt breccias may have been produced in situ and not from a coherent melt body. The shapes of the schistose melt breccias, previously thought to be ejected impact breccias, are most likely caused by erosion, and these breccias are now interpreted to be locally derived. The crater basement as exposed at the rim was structurally severely affected and, at least locally, considerable thermal energy was generated during formation of large volumes of cataclastic, mylonitic, and pseudotachylitic breccias. Analyses of mylonite and pseudotachylites from the crater rim, as well as their respective host rocks, show that these breccias were mainly formed from local material. Analyses of pseudotachylite-like breccias indicate that these possible friction

  10. Variszische Fahrstuhltektonik und cadomisches Basement im Westteil der Böhmischen Masse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zulauf, G.; Vejnar, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 85, - (2003), s. 295-315 ISSN 0078-2947. [Variszische Fahrstuhltektonik und cadomisches Basement im Westteil der Böhmischen Masse (Exkursion I).. Erlangen - Waldmänchen - Babylon - Česká Kubice - Domažlice - Mračnice - Horšovský Týn - Holyšov - Stod, 25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3012103 Keywords : Variscides * Orogenic collapse * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. Calc-alkaline magmatism at the Archean-Proterozoic transition : The caic complex basement (NE Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza, Z. S.; Martin, Hervé; Peucat, J. J.; Jardim de Sa, E. F.; De Freitas Macedo, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    The Paleoproterozoic metaplutonic rocks of the Caico Complex Basement (Serid region, NE Brazil) provide important and crucial insights into the petrogenetic processes governing crustal growth and may potentially be a proxy for understanding the ArcheanProterozoic transition. These rocks consist of high-K calc-alkaline diorite to granite, with RbSr, UPb, PbPb and SmNd ages of c. 225215 Ga. They are metaluminous, with high Yb-N, K2O/Na2O and Rb/Sr, low I-Sr ratios, and are large ion lithophile ...

  12. Nature of basement highs in ultra-distal ocean-continent transitions: on- and off-shore examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epin, Marie-Eva; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that many studies investigated magma-poor rifted margins, there are still questions that are related to the nature and the origin of basement highs in ultra-distal Ocean-Continent Transitions (OCT). Indeed it has been observed that the morphology of the OCT of magma-poor rifted margins is structured and complex. The aim of this study is to determine the nature of these basement highs, their 3D morphology, the processes associated to their creation, and the timing related to their formation. To do this, we focused on distal seismic lines with well data from the Iberia and Newfoundland margins and on field observations of the Platta nappe, which exposes an about 300 km² large, little overprinted remnant of a fossil OCT belonging to the Alpine Tethys, exposed in the area of Bivio in SE Switzerland. The first results are the establishment of criteria allowing the identification of the different types of basement highs or groups of basement highs using offshore and onshore data. The main criteria are: the top-basement morphology, seismic reflectivity patterns, rooting depth of basement highs, the size, the related sedimentary architecture, the relative location in the margin, and if possible to determine, the magmatic budget. These criteria allow us to define 4 different types of highs that are: 1) footwall crustal wedges, 2) hanging wall extensional allochthon blocks, 3) peridotite ridges, and 4) outer highs. The overall observations provide important information on the temporal and spatial organization of the structural and magmatic systems. These systems are at the origin of the creation of ultra-distal OCTs which are important for the understanding of the processes controlling the final rifting stage. The goal of this study is to use an observation driven approach and to create identification criteria that can be used to describe the nature of basement highs at not yet drilled distal magma-poor rifted margins.

  13. Gas separation with glass membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.L.; Abraham, L.C.; Blum, Y.; Way, J.D.

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop high temperature, high pressure inorganic membrane technology to perform a variety of gas separation processes to improve the efficiency and economics of advanced power generation systems such as direct coal-fueled turbines (DCFT) and the integrated gasification combined cycle process (IGCC). The temperatures encountered in these power generation systems are far above the temperature range for organic membrane materials. Inorganic materials such as ceramics are therefore the most likely membrane materials for use at high temperatures. This project focussed on silica glass fiber membranes made by PPG Industries (Pittsburgh, PA). The goals were both experimental and theoretical. The first objective was to develop a rational theory for the performance of these membranes. With existing theories as a starting point, a new theory was devised to explain the unusual molecular sieving'' behavior exhibited by these glass membranes. An apparatus was then devised for making permeation performance measurements at conditions of interest to DOE (temperatures to 2000[degrees]F; pressures to 1000 psia). With this apparatus, gas mixtures could be made typical of coal combustion or coal gasification processes, these gases could be passed into a membrane test cell, and the separation performance determined. Data were obtained for H[sub 2]/CO,N[sub 2]/CO[sub 2], 0[sub 2]/N[sub 2], and NH[sub 3]/N[sub 2] mixtures and for a variety of pure component gases (He, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], N[sub 2], CO, NH[sub 3]). The most challenging part of the project turned out to be the sealing of the membrane at high temperatures and pressures. The report concludes with an overview of the practical potential of these membranes and of inorganic membranes in general of DOE and other applications.

  14. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald;

    2016-01-01

    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization and...... motility but also provides survival and proliferation cues. The major classes of cell surface receptors for matrix macromols. are the integrins, discoidin domain receptors, and transmembrane proteoglycans such as syndecans and CD44. Cells respond not only to specific ligands, such as collagen, fibronectin......, or basement membrane glycoproteins, but also in terms of matrix rigidity. This can regulate the release and subsequent biol. activity of matrix-bound growth factors, for example, transforming growth factor-β. In the environment of tumors, there may be changes in cell populations and their receptor...

  15. Chondroitin-6-sulfate-containing proteoglycan: a new component of human skin dermoepidermal junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1988-01-01

    chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is present in adult, neonatal, and/or fetal skin, and if present, its ultrastructural localization. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed on human adult, neonatal, and fetal skin. To detect the antigen, specimens were pretreated with chondroitinase ABC; absence of enzyme...... treatment served as negative control. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan was detectable in linear homogeneous array along the dermoepidermal junction and within vascular (and when present, adnexal) basement membranes in both adult and neonatal skin. In fetal skin, basement membrane staining was noted as early...... as 54 gestational days. Indirect immunoelectron microscopy and NaCl-split skin studies were performed to ultrastructurally localize the antigen; immune deposits were detectable within the lamina densa in chondroitinase-treated skin. These findings demonstrate that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is...

  16. Analytical characterization of beetroot vacuole membrane

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Vacuoles from beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta Gurke) isolated by a mechanical procedure were osmotically lysed to separate the membrane and sap components for analysis. Approximately 62% of the vacuole proteins, 70% of the nondialyzable carbohydrates and almost all of the phospholipids and sterols were recovered in the membrane fraction. The vacuole membrane had a phospholipid protein ratio of 0.68 and a sterol:phospholipid ratio of 0.21. 17 complex polar lipids including phosphatid...

  17. Membrane structure and radiation and hyperthermic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general structure of the biological membrane and its involvement in cell damage from radiation and hyperthermic insults are discussed using bacterial cells as an example. Bacterial cells are useful models for these types of studies because they possess a simple membrane system whose composition can be readily altered. Also, various strains exist having different sensitivities to radiation and heat. For example, the response of Escherichia coli cells to ionizing radiation is found to be related to the degree of association between its DNA and membrane. The cell membrane, particularly the lipid component, is an important target in hyperthermic cell killing. The composition and organization of the membrane lipids can influence a cell's response to heat. Heat-induced changes in membrane lipids lead to altered distribution of E. coli proteins, particularly their translocation to the outer membrane. These and other aspects are discussed in this review. (author)

  18. Separation of function component of jujube dates by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes%超滤、纳滤技术分离大枣功效成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原超; 范三红; 林勤保; 王亚云

    2012-01-01

    The ultrafiltration and nanofiltration membranes were used to separate the crude polysaccharides, crude oligosaccharides and monosaccharide from Ziziphus jujube dates extract. The membranes with different molecular weight cut-off(10000, 5000, 800, 500 u) were screened and the operation conditions were optimized. It turned out that ultrafiltration was performed with 10000 u membrane and 3% of soluble solids at 0.12 MPa. Nanofiltration was carried out with 500 u membrane and 1.0% of soluble solids at 0.54 MPa. The final yield of crude polysaccharides was 5.21%, crude oligosaccharides was 19.24% and the monosaccharide was 58.27%. The purity was up to 52.61%, 54.78 % and 84.00%, respectively.%以大枣汁为材料,研究不同截留分子量(10000、5000、800、500 u)的超滤和纳滤膜分离大枣中粗多糖、粗低聚糖和单糖糖浆的效果,筛选了不同截留分子量的超滤膜和纳滤膜,并分别优化操作条件,得到适宜的工艺条件。结果表明:选用10000 u超滤膜,大枣汁可溶性固形物含量为3%,操作压力0.12 MPa;选用500 u纳滤膜,可溶性固形物含量为1.0%,操作压力0.54MPa。在此条件下,粗多糖、粗低聚糖和单糖糖浆的得率依次为5.21%、19.24%和58.27%,纯度可达到52.61%、54.78%和84.00%。

  19. Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors

  20. Membranes, mechanics, and intracellular transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2012-10-01

    Cellular membranes are remarkable materials -- self-assembled, flexible, two-dimensional fluids. Understanding how proteins manipulate membrane curvature is crucial to understanding the transport of cargo in cells, yet the mechanical activities of trafficking proteins remain poorly understood. Using an optical-trap based assay involving dynamic deformation of biomimetic membranes, we have examined the behavior of Sar1, a key component of the COPII family of transport proteins. We find that Sar1 from yeast (S. cerevisiae) lowers membrane rigidity by up to 100% as a function of its concentration, thereby lowering the energetic cost of membrane deformation. Human Sar1 proteins can also lower the mechanical rigidity of the membranes to which they bind. However, unlike the yeast proteins, the rigidity is not a monotonically decreasing function of concentration but rather shows increased rigidity and decreased mobility at high concentrations that implies interactions between proteins. In addition to describing this study of membrane mechanics, I'll also discuss some topics relevant to a range of biophysical investigations, such as the insights provided by imaging methods and open questions in the dynamics of multicellular systems.

  1. Study On Method For Simulation Of Partitioning Tracers In Double Porosity Model Of Fractured Basement Formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single well tracer test (SWTT) has been widely used and accepted as a standard method for residual oil saturation (SOR) measurement in the field. The test involves injecting of the partitioning tracers into the reservoir, producing them back and matching their profiles using a suitable simulation program. Most of simulation programs were first developed for sandstone reservoir using single porosity model cannot be applied for highly heterogeneous reservoirs such as fractured basement and carbonate reservoirs. Therefore a simulation code in double porosity model is needed to simulate tracer flow in our fractured basement reservoirs. In this project, a finite-difference simulation code has been developed by following the Tang mathematical model to simulate the partitioning tracers in double porosity medium. The code was matched with several field tracer data and compare with results of the University of Texas chemical simulator showing an acceptable agreement between our program and the famous UTChem simulator. Besides, several experiments were conducted to measure residual oil saturation in 1D column and a 2D sandpad model. Results of the experiments show that the partitioning tracers can measure residual oil saturation in glass bead models with a relatively high accuracy when the flow velocity of tracer is sufficiently low. (author)

  2. Development Of The Dipole Model For Investigating Of Tracer Flow In Fractured Basement Reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of extracting more reservoir information from tracer test, numerous analytical models have been developed since 1960 decade. However its applications are only suitable for sedimentary or layering reservoirs and hard to apply for Fractured Basement Reservoirs (FBRs) due to difference in flow geometry and heterogeneity structures. This paper has developed a semi-analytical model by streamtube method of Abbaszadeh-Brigham for characterizing of tracer flow in the dipole flow geometry in FBRs. Dipole model is a 2-D fractured plane in which water is injected at the bottom and produced at the upper part of the plane. The study consists of an analytical solution for predicting of tracer breakthrough and verification of this solution by mean of physical experiments and numerical simulations. Firstly an analytical solution for tracer breakthrough was derived by succeeding the direct-line solution of Abbaszadeh then the physical model was built in form of a glass bead filled box with the size of 117.5 x 47 x 2 cm on which 6 valves were placed equidistantly for playing role of injection and production wells. Verifications showed a good match between analytical solutions and physical experiments as well as the results of numerical simulations running by UTChem - a reservoir simulator developed by University of Texas that indicates the solution can be used in the next development steps of dipole model for investigating of tracer in Fractured Basement Reservoirs. (author)

  3. Gravity inversion and uncertainty assessment of basement relief via Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallero, J. L. G.; Fernández-Martínez, J. L.; Bonvalot, S.; Fudym, O.

    2015-05-01

    Gravity inversion is a classical tool in applied geophysics that corresponds, both, to a linear (density unknown) or nonlinear (geometry unknown) inverse problem depending on the model parameters. Inversion of basement relief of sedimentary basins is an important application among the nonlinear techniques. A common way to approach this problem consists in discretizing the basin using polygons (or other geometries), and iteratively solving the nonlinear inverse problem by local optimization. Nevertheless, this kind of approach is highly dependent of the prior information that is used and lacks from a correct solution appraisal (nonlinear uncertainty analysis). In this paper, we present the application of a full family Particle Swarm Optimizers (PSO) to the 2D gravity inversion and model appraisal (uncertainty assessment) of basement relief in sedimentary basins. The application of these algorithms to synthetic and real cases (a gravimetric profile from Atacama Desert in north Chile) shows that it is possible to perform a fast inversion and uncertainty assessment of the gravimetric model using a sampling while optimizing procedure. Besides, the parameters of these exploratory PSO optimizers are automatically tuned and selected based on stability criteria. We also show that the result is robust to the presence of noise in data. The fact that these algorithms do not require large computational resources makes them very attractive to solve this kind of gravity inversion problems.

  4. RAETRAD model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of ΔPi-o = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of ΔPi-o = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (-1) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations

  5. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the 3H, 2.7% of the 90Sr, 15% of the 129I, 20% of the 131I, and 42% of the 137Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of 90Sr and 144Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement

  6. Seismicity on Basement Faults Induced by Simultaneous Fluid Injection-Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung Won; Segall, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into geological formations increases pore pressure, potentially inducing seismicity on critically stressed faults by reducing the effective normal stress. In addition, poroelastic expansion of the reservoir alters stresses, both within and around the formation, which may trigger earthquakes without direct pore-pressure diffusion. One possible solution to mitigate injection-induced earthquakes is to simultaneously extract pre-existing pore fluids from the target reservoir. To examine the feasibility of the injection-extraction strategy, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress on basement normal faults, including: (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δ τ _s+fΔ σ _n, where Δ τ _s and Δ σ _n are changes in shear and normal stress. respectively, and (2) the change in pore-pressure fΔ p. Using the model of (J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 99(B2):2601-2618, 1994), we estimate the seismicity rate on basement fault zones. Fluid extraction reduces direct pore-pressure diffusion into conductive faults, generally reducing the risk of induced seismicity. Limited diffusion into/from sealing faults results in negligible pore pressure changes within them. However, fluid extraction can cause enhanced seismicity rates on deep normal faults near the injector as well as shallow normal faults near the producer by poroelastic stressing. Changes in seismicity rate driven by poroelastic response to fluid injection-extraction depends on fault geometry, well operations, and the background stressing rate.

  7. Seismicity on Basement Faults Induced by Simultaneous Fluid Injection-Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kyung Won; Segall, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) injection into geological formations increases pore pressure, potentially inducing seismicity on critically stressed faults by reducing the effective normal stress. In addition, poroelastic expansion of the reservoir alters stresses, both within and around the formation, which may trigger earthquakes without direct pore-pressure diffusion. One possible solution to mitigate injection-induced earthquakes is to simultaneously extract pre-existing pore fluids from the target reservoir. To examine the feasibility of the injection-extraction strategy, we compute the spatiotemporal change in Coulomb stress on basement normal faults, including: (1) the change in poroelastic stresses Δ τ _s+fΔ σ _n , where Δ τ _s and Δ σ _n are changes in shear and normal stress. respectively, and (2) the change in pore-pressure fΔ p . Using the model of (J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth 99(B2):2601-2618, 1994), we estimate the seismicity rate on basement fault zones. Fluid extraction reduces direct pore-pressure diffusion into conductive faults, generally reducing the risk of induced seismicity. Limited diffusion into/from sealing faults results in negligible pore pressure changes within them. However, fluid extraction can cause enhanced seismicity rates on deep normal faults near the injector as well as shallow normal faults near the producer by poroelastic stressing. Changes in seismicity rate driven by poroelastic response to fluid injection-extraction depends on fault geometry, well operations, and the background stressing rate.

  8. Fractured-basement reservoir modeling using continuous fracture modeling (CFM) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isniarny, Nadya; Haris, Abdul; Nurdin, Safrizal

    2016-02-01

    The challenge in oil and gas exploration has now shifted due to increasingly difficult to get back up economic value in a conventional reservoir. Explorationist are developing various drilling technology, optimizing conventional reserves and unconventional reserve in reservoirs. One of the unconventional reservoir that has been developed is the basement reservoir. This rock type has no primary porosity and the permeability of the rocks of this type are generally influenced by the naturally fracture networks. The purpose of this study is to map the fracture intensity distribution in the basement reservoir using Continuous Fracture Modeling (CFM) method. CFM method applies the basic concepts of neural network in finding a relationship between well data with seismic data in order to build a model of fracture intensity. The Formation Micro Imager (FMI) interpretation data is used to identify the presence of fracture along the well as dip angle and dip azimuth. This indicator will be laterally populated in 3D grid model. Several seismic attribute which are generated from seismic data is used as a guidance to populate fracture intensity in the model. The results from the model were validated with Drill Stem Test (DST) data. Zones of high fracture intensity on the model correlates positively with the presence of fluid in accordance with DST data.

  9. Groundwater supply and demand from southern Africa's crystalline basement aquifer: evidence from Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Nick; Davies, Jeffrey; Farr, John

    2013-06-01

    Failure of borehole sources in weathered and fractured crystalline basement aquifers in Malawi in southern Africa has been linked with poor borehole design, mechanical failure and badly sited boreholes. However, recent work in Malawi indicates that demand may now exceed long-term resource potential in some places and that this is also a cause of water point failure. An 11-year climate cycle (including a wet and dry period) necessitates overdraft from groundwater storage during the dry-cycle years before episodic rainfall events in the wetter part of the cycle again recharge the aquifers. Data, particularly groundwater hydrograph data, are sparse, but sufficient to evaluate the long-term renewable groundwater potential for both fractured and weathered basement-aquifer types in each of the 15 management areas in Malawi. The groundwater potential or long-term renewable resource (recharge) is given by the sum of Darcian throughflow and dry-season depletion of storage. Estimated rural demand exceeds the renewable resource in the fractured-rock aquifer in two management units and in the weathered-rock aquifer in two other units. Although there is inherent uncertainty in the water-balance estimates, the likelihood that rural demand is exceeding long-term average recharge in some areas is cause for concern.

  10. Real-Time Detection of Redox Species in Basement Fluids Accessed Through IODP CORK Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, B. T.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappe, M. S.; Matzinger, M.; Ricardo, A.

    2008-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that a substantial subseafloor biosphere extends throughout the immense volume of sediment-buried basement that underlies the global system of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) flanks and ocean basins. CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories affixed to Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes offer an unprecedented opportunity to study intriguing questions regarding biogeochemical properties and microbial diversity in circulating fluids from buried ocean basement. Here, we describe voltammetric measurements collected from DSV Alvin using an in situ electrochemical analyzer (ISEA) coupled to CORK Observatory Fluid Delivery Lines in Cascadia Basin on the Juan de Fuca Ridge Flanks. The ISEA allows for deployment of up to four solid-state gold amalgam working electrodes, capable of providing simultaneous detection of oxygen, iron, sulfur, and other species in real time or continuous data logging modes. We also present traditional and electrochemical on-deck measurements taken on discrete samples collected during voltammetric seafloor scanning to illustrate changes in speciation and oxidation rates that occur between sample collection and on-deck analyses.

  11. Faults in Quaternary cover as a relfection of basement tectonics: Kolguev island, barents sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapivner, R. B.; Skorobogat'ko, A. V.

    2012-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the results of the detailed study of dislocations in the Pliocene-Quaternary loose sediments exposed as cliffs extending for ˜30 km along the rectilinear shore of Kolguev Island. According to seismic data, this lineament is related to the Coastal Fault in the lower part of the sedimentary cover. A system of faults longitudinal, diagonal, and transverse relative to the shoreline is established from observations at the cliffs. Their arrangement in plan view corresponds to the geometry of the right-lateral shear zone, the axis of which almost coincides with the shoreline. This has allowed us to identify the faults as secondary disturbances in the region of dynamic effect of the Coastal Fault in the basement. The kinematics of the secondary faults and their dip azimuth are consistent with echeloned geometry in plan view. The low-angle dip of the reverse-strike-slip faults observed at the outcrops is caused by their near-surface flattening toward the subsided block. The shallow-seated dislocations are related to ductile lateral shear in the vertical plane. The lower layers of the sedimentary cover mimic the horizontal movements in the basement more closely than the upper layers. The data obtained indicate high neotectonic activity of the Barents Sea shelf and specify the geodynamic setting of the region in the Pliocene and Quaternary.

  12. Raetrad model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Rogers, V; Holt, R B

    1997-10-01

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of deltaP(i-o) = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of deltaP(i-o) = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (<1 m s(-1)) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations. PMID:9314234

  13. TMI-2 Reactor Building source term measurements: surfaces and basement water and sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C V; Keefer, D G

    1984-10-01

    Presented in this report are the results of radiochemical and elemental analyses performed on samples collected from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building from August 1979 to December 1983. The quantities of fission products and core materials that were measured on the external surfaces in the Reactor Building or in the water and sediment in its basement are summarized. Recent analysis results for access panels removed from the air cooling assembly and for liquid and particulate samples collected from the Reactor Building sump and reactor coolant drain tank are included in the report. Measurements show that 59% of the /sup 3/H, 2.7% of the /sup 90/Sr, 15% of the /sup 129/I, 20% of the /sup 131/I, and 42% of the /sup 137/Cs originally in the core at the time of the accident could be accounted for outside the core in the Reactor Building. With the exceptions of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 144/Ce, the vast majority of each radionuclide released was found dispersed in the water and sediment in the basement.

  14. Inflation and Instability of a Polymeric Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane. The polymeric materialis described by an arbitrary combination of a viscoelastic and a purely viscous component to the stress. Some viscoelastic materials described by a Mooney...

  15. Mesoscopic models of biological membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venturoli, M.; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Kranenburg, M.;

    2006-01-01

    Phospholipids are the main components of biological membranes and dissolved in water these molecules self-assemble into closed structures, of which bilayers are the most relevant from a biological point of view. Lipid bilayers are often used, both in experimental and by theoretical investigations...

  16. Tectonic inheritage from adjacent basement, north of the Campos Basin; Heranca tectonica no embasamento adjacente no norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Felipe R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geologia Aplicada; Souza, Iata A. de; Castro, Joel C. de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas

    2008-07-01

    The evolution of the Atlantic Brazilian basins is a target of researches since the firth discovery of oil deposits. With the advance of the geophysical methods the understanding of the structures in depth became possible. The objective of this paper is to determine if the adjacent basement in the north of Campos Basin has significant influence in the identification of areas that can contain hydrocarbons. Therefore, lineaments had been extracted with SRTM images of continental basement and the main alignment was correlated with gravimetric anomalies map and seismic data. Eight levels on seismic data had been interpreted (basement, top rift, shallow water Albian, Albian, mid-Oligocene and mid-Miocene). In all levels were identified a fault normal system, which cut sediments since basement until the Recent. The main direction of the basement is NE-SW, and the alignments formed for basin basement faults coincide with this direction, what indicates that the system is active and also genetically related. (author)

  17. Ultrastructure and function of cellular components of the intercentral joint in the percoid vertebral column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R J

    1995-10-01

    The intervertebral joint of the teleost, Perca flavescens, is formed by opposing amphicoelus centra whose rims are connected by external ligaments. The tissue, located within the space formed by these structures, is derived from the notochord and consists of the elastic externa, the fibrous sheath, and the notochordal cells. The cellular tissue within the joint has many characteristics of a stratified epithelium, and when examined with the transmission electron microscope, at least three morphologically distinct regions can be recognized. First, a peripheral single layer of columnar to squamous-shaped cells lies on a basement membrane immediately deep to the fibrous sheath. Second, several layers of cells, each containing a large central vacuole, occur. Third, in the deepest part of the joint, several layers of attenuated cells surround intracentral fluid-filled lacunae and form a transverse septum across the joint. All cells in this tissue are interconnected by numerous desmosomes. Further, an extensive intermediate filament network exists in all three types of cells. The intermediate filament network in the vacuolated cells is arranged cortically around a membrane-bound vacuole, and suggests that these cells may act as passive cellular hydrostats. The squamous cells surrounding the joint lacunae are structurally similar to mammalian epidermal cells, and the intermediate filament network within them is layered parallel to the surface of the lacunae. The organization of these cells suggests that they are the tensile component of extracellular hydrostats within the intercentral joint. These cellular and extracellular hydrostats within the intercentral joint would function to resist the compressive and tensile stresses encountered during undulatory swimming. PMID:7473764

  18. Membrane Disordering is not Sufficient for Membrane Permeabilization by Islet Amyloidogenic Polypeptide: Studies of IAPP(20-29) Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jeffrey R.; Heyl, Deborah L.; Samisetti, Shyamprasad; Kotler, Samuel A.; Osborne, Joshua M.; Pesaru, Ranadheer R.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    A key factor in the development of type II diabetes is the loss of insulin-producing beta-cells. Human islet amyloid polypeptide protein (human-IAPP) is believed to play a crucial role in this process by forming small aggregates that exhibit toxicity by disrupting the cell membrane. The actual mechanism of membrane disruption is complex and appears to involve an early component before fiber formation and later component associated with fiber formation on the membrane. By comparing the peptide-lipid interactions derived from solid-state NMR experiments of two IAPP fragments that bind the membrane and cause membrane disordering to IAPP derived peptides known to cause significant early membrane permeabilization, we show here that membrane disordering is not likely to be sufficient by itself to cause the early membrane permeabilization observed by IAPP, and may play a lesser role in IAPP membrane disruption than expected. PMID:23493863

  19. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapatsis, Michael [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Daoutidis, Prodromos [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Elyassi, Bahman [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Lima, Fernando [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Iyer, Aparna [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Agrawal, Kumar [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Sabnis, Sanket [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2015-04-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants

  20. U-Pb SHRIMP-RG zircon ages and Nd signature of lower Paleozoic rifting-related magmatism in the Variscan basement of the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F.J.; Iriondo, A.; Dietsch, C.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Peucat, J.J.; Cires, J.; Reche, J.; Capdevila, R.

    2011-01-01

    orthogneisses yielded negative ??Nd values ranging between -2.1 and -5.2 at 450Ma, the same as Ediacaran sediments from northwestern Iberia. We interpret these slightly negative ??Nd values as a signature of Panafrican arc rocks, mixed with an older crustal component as indicated by the inherited and detrital zircon ages we analyzed. The crustal level in which Ordovician melting occurred has not been recognized and the absence of pre-Neoproterozoic basement is a striking feature of the southern part of the Variscan Chain. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  2. Component Rhinoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mohmand, Muhammad Humayun; Ahmad, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND According to statistics of American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic rhinoplasty was the second most frequently performed cosmetic surgery. This study shares the experiences with component rhinoplasty. METHODS From 2004 to 2010, all patients underwent aesthetic nasal surgery were enrolled. The patients requiring only correction of septal deviation and those presenting with cleft lip nasal deformity were excluded. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia with ope...

  3. Component Separations

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H.; Ramirez, Oscar M.

    2012-01-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-...

  4. Component separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  5. Geometry of basement faults around the Soultz geothermal wells from reflected and converted seismic waves recorded during the 2007 multisource VSP survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrano Lavadera, P.; Marthelot, J.; Zillmer, M.; Cornet, F. H.; Genter, A.

    2012-12-01

    Three wells (GPK 2 to 4) drilled at the Soultz geothermal site (France) penetrate the granitic basement of the Rhine graben between 1.5 and 5 km depth where the temperature at TD is 200°C. They are located at a distance of 5 km from the western southeast-dipping border fault of the graben in an area where the sedimentary cover is affected by a network of antithetic normal faults having local strikes in a fan of +/-30° relative to the North. The wells are deviated beneath 2.5 km with a maximum lateral offset of 0.6 km between wells. A VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) survey has been conducted in 2007 with 3 component geophones placed at 20 m interval between depths of 3 to 5 km in the GPK 3 and 4 wells and a vertical vibrator located at 26 surface positions spread at distances between 500m and 5km from the well head in different azimuths. After correlation with the 8 to 88 Hz vibrator sweep, the different seismic waves are separated according to their apparent velocities across the geophone lines for each shot position and each well. The downgoing waves include P and S wave trains having the slopes of the direct P and S waves in the granite. After f-k filtering of these large amplitude waves, coherent downgoing arrivals with apparent velocities larger than the direct P waves appear on vertical and horizontal geophone components. In contrast to VSP in stratified sediments, upgoing waves are absent or restricted to a small depth interval in the vicinity of P wave first arrivals. The traveltimes of direct P waves correspond to a model with P wave velocities increasing from 2 to 4.6 km/s in the 1.5 km thick sedimentary cover and 6 km/s in the granite. A previous 3D model of fracture zone indicators at different scales within the reservoir (cores, image and flow logs, induced microseismicity patterns) has led to the tentative identification of a major NNW trending 70° dipping basement fault intersecting the GPK3 well at 4775 m measured depth. 3D ray tracing of P waves

  6. Magnetic Ultrafiltration Membrane Separation of Flavor Components from Low Value Trash Fish%低值小杂鱼风味成分磁性超滤膜分离技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧明; 伍志刚; 张仕发; 朱莹莹; 吕庆龙

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a new method to extract and separate flavor compounds from small trash fish,improving the added value of the resource and realizing its in-depth development and utilization.The method was based on bio-enzymatic hydrolysis and magnetic ultrafiltration membrane separation and the magnetic ultrafiltration membrane used was prepared by in situ synthesis from polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane with a molecular weight cut-off(MWCO) of 2000.Selective separation was achieved for umami small peptides small peptides in small trash fish hydrolysate.The difference in the composition of flavor compounds in small trash fish hydrolysates prepared with flavourzyme in combination with trypsin,papain,neutrase or alcalase was evaluated based on the percentage of umami amino acids in total amino acids,and the results showed that the combination of flavourzyme and alcalase provided optimum hydrolysis of small trash fish.Using orthogonal array design,the optimal conditions for the application of both enzymes to hydrolyz small trash fish was optimized to be: 2350 U/g alcalase dosage,700 U/g flavourzyme dosage,1:10 material/liquid ratio,55 ℃ and 6 h.The optimized hydrolysate was rich in umami peptides and umami amino acids with a yield of 6.43%.This study suggests that magnetic ultrafiltration membrane separation enables the selective separation of flavor compounds.%为建立一种风味成分提取分离新方法,提高低值小杂鱼附加值,实现小杂鱼资源深度开发利用。采用生物酶解技术和磁性超滤膜分离技术得到低值小杂鱼中的风味成分,基膜为截留相对分子质量2000的聚砜超滤膜经原位生成法制备得磁性超滤膜。超滤分离实验结果表明:利用此膜在压力0.4MPa、磁场强度0.6T条件下可实现对小杂鱼酶解液中呈鲜味小肽的选择性分离;以目标产物中呈鲜味的氨基酸占总氨基酸的百分比为指标,比较胰蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶、中

  7. The offshore basement of Perú: Evidence for different igneous and metamorphic domains in the forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Darwin; Valencia, Kiko; Alarcón, Pedro; Peña, Daniel; Ramos, Victor A.

    2013-03-01

    As a result of new studies carried out in the offshore of Perú during the exploration and hydrocarbon evaluation of the forearc basins, new U-Pb SHRIMP and TIMS in zircons and some Ar-Ar data were obtained in the metamorphic and igneous basement. The understanding of this basement was critical to evaluate different hypotheses that have been proposed for the tectonic evolution of pre-Andean crust of Perú. Recent research performed in the basement rocks of the Marañón Massif in northern Perú, claimed that west of this area was a basement-free region in the Paleozoic, where the arc and forearc were developed in a mafic quasi-oceanic crust. However, petrographic studies and new preliminary ages indicate, for the first time, the nature and age of this sialic basement. Reconnaissance studies were performed in several offshore islands, as the Las Hormigas de Afuera Island west of Lima, and Macabí and Lobera islands along the edge of the continental platform. These data were complemented with the studies of some cutting samples obtained in recent exploration wells in northern Perú. The results of the present work show two large crustal domains in the Peruvian offshore forearc. A northern domain contains late Paleozoic igneous rocks that appear to be the southern offshore continuation of the Amotape-Tahuin block, which is interpreted as the southernmost remnant of the Laurentia Alleghenian orogen. The central offshore domain, known as the Paracas High, corresponds to the outer shelf high of previous studies. It contains orthogneisses of Grenville-age, probably recrystallized during an Ordovician magmatic episode. The new results show that the central offshore of Perú is an extension of the Grenville-age basement affected by Famatinian, early Paleozoic magmatism, well exposed in the southern domain in the Arequipa Massif along the coast of southern Perú.

  8. Enfermedad de la mucosa oral: Penfigoide de las membranas mucosas Oral mucosal disease: Mucouse membrane pemphigoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Discepoli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos vesículobullosos subepiteliales representan desordenes autoinmunitarios que cogen origen de reacciones dirigidas hacia componentes de los hemidesmosomas o bien de las Zonas de la Membrana Basal (ZMB de los epitelios escamosos estratificados. A estos trastornos ha sido conferidoel término de enfermedades ampollosa subepiteliales inmunomediadas (EASIM y el penfigoide de las membranas mucosas (PMM es el más frecuente. Todas las enfermedades subepiteliales vesiculobullosas se presentan como lesiones ampollosas y descamativas, y el diagnostico debe de ser confirmado por una biopsia junta a tinción inmunológica. No hay un único tratamiento capaz de controlar todas las enfermedades subepiteliales vesiculoampollosas; las diferencias inmunológicas entre las EASIM proporciona diferencias en las respuestas al tratamiento. Hoy en día el tratamiento inmunorregulador es usado para controlar la lesión oral de PMM.Subepithelial vesiculobullous conditions are chronic autoimmune disorders that arise from reactions directed against components of the hemidesmosomes or basement membrane zones (BMZ of stratified squamous epithelium to which the term immune-mediated subepithelial blistering diseases (IMSEBD has been given. Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP is the most common, but variants do exist. All subepithelial vesiculobullous disorders present as blisters and erosions, and diagnosis must be confirmed by biopsy examination with immunostaining, sometimes supplemented by other investigations. No single treatment reliably controls all subepithelial vesiculobullous disorders; the immunological differences within IMSEBD may account for differences in responses to treatment. Currently, as well as improving oral hygiene, immunomodulatory treatment is used to control the oral lesions of MMP, but it is not known if its specific subsets reliably respond to different agents.

  9. Proteomics and the dynamic plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    plasma membrane is of particular interest, by not only serving as a barrier between the "cell interior" and the external environment, but moreover by organizing and clustering essential components to enable dynamic responses to internal and external stimuli. Defining and characterizing the dynamic plasma...... the challenges in functional proteomic studies of the plasma membrane. We review the recent progress in MS-based plasma membrane proteomics by presenting key examples from eukaryotic systems, including mammals, yeast and plants. We highlight the importance of enrichment and quantification technologies...... required for detailed functional and comparative analysis of the dynamic plasma membrane proteome....

  10. Tectonic aspect of the basement and its constrain on U-mineralization, in Shouchang-Lenpu volcanic belt, eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouchang-Linpu volcanic belt, at the margin of Eastern China Mesozoic continent, overlies on the upward zone of both the basement and the underlying mantle. A mechanism of U-mineralization in volcanic rents can be inferred from the following processes: thinning of the lithosphere; magma and heat flow transferred from the asthenosphere; U-rich basemental strata and anatectic volcanics which both were the efficient uranium sources; NNE trend compression-tensional fault system; Σ CO2 released from the intermediate-basic melt derived from the mantle

  11. Metal ion separations using reactive membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A membrane is a barrier between two phases. If one component of a mixture moves through the membrane faster than another mixture component, a separation can be accomplished. Membranes are used commercially for many applications including gas separations, water purification, particle filtration, and macromolecule separations (Abelson). There are two points to note concerning this definition. First, a membrane is defined based on its function, not the material used to make the membrane. Secondly, a membrane separation is a rate process. The separation is accomplished by a driving force, not by equilibrium between phases. Liquids that are immiscible with the feed and product streams can also be used as membrane materials. Different solutes will have different solubilities and diffusion coefficients in a liquid. The product of the diffusivity and the solubility is known as the permeability coefficient, which is proportional to the solute flux. Differences in permeability coefficient will produce a separation between solutes at constant driving force. Because the diffusion coefficients in liquids are typically orders of magnitude higher than in polymers, a larger flux can be obtained. Further enhancements can be accomplished by adding a nonvolatile complexation agent to the liquid membrane. One can then have either coupled or facilitated transport of metal ions through a liquid membrane. The author describes two implementations of this concept, one involving a liquid membrane supported on a microporous membrane, and the other an emulsion liquid membrane, where separation occurs to internal receiving phases. Applications and costing studies for this technology are reviewed, and a brief summary of some of the problems with liquid membranes is presented

  12. Assessment of Pollutant Spread from a Building Basement with three Ventilation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Koffi, Juslin

    2010-01-01

    Ventilation aims at providing a sufficient air renewal for ensuring a good indoor air quality (IAQ), yet building energy policies are leading to adapting various ventilation strategies minimising energy losses through air renewal. A recent IAQ evaluation campaign in French dwellings shows important pollution of living spaces by VOCs such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde or hexanal, particularly in buildings equipped with a garage. Besides, radon emission from soil is a subject of concern in many countries. Several studies are done to understand its release mode and deal with the spread of this carcinogen gas. This paper aims to experimentally assess a contaminant spread from a house basement using mechanical exhaust and balanced ventilation systems, and natural ventilation.

  13. Radon concentration in basements of old town buildings in the Lublin region, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration in basements of old buildings in the oldest towns of Lublin region (Zamosc, Chelm and Sandomierz) was determined. Two techniques were applied: passive (Pico-rad) and alpha-spectrometry for radon progeny concentration measurement (SILENA). It was found that only 7% of results exceeded a dose limit of 400 Bq x m-3, established for old buildings. Radon concentration levels ranged from 0.2 to 5150 Bq x m-3. Distribution of the results satisfied a log-normal relationship. Applying these two methods at the same time, the radioactive equilibrium factor of radon and its progeny was determined. In the underground ways, open for visitors, no higher radon concentration was observed. (author)

  14. On the long term indoor radon concentration measurements the basement of Japanese hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long term indoor radon gas measurements using a passive monitor were conducted in the basement rooms of five hospitals, which are built in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The ventilation rate averaged over all hospital was 12.3 air change per hour (ACH). The highest radon concentration was 56.3 Bq/m3. The value averaged concentration over all hospital and all season was 20 Bq/m3. But the average of the two hospitals were twice as high as those of three others. Since the total ventilation rate integrated over a day is not different much, the reason of the concentration difference is considered to be the difference in radon emission rate from concrete wall and soil of the each hospital. Though we inquired workers about 'Environmental complaints', it do not show the direct relation between radon and environmental complaints. (author)

  15. Chronological study of the pre-jurassic basement rocks of southern Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southern Patagonia east of the Andes was the site of extensive rhyolite volcanism during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwana and subsequent shallow marine basin formation during the Cretaceous. Thus exposures of pre-Jurassic basement are extremely sparse. Nevertheless, extraction of the maximum amount of information from these scattered outcrops of granite and metamorphic rocks is crucial to assessment of the Palaeozoic and earliest Mesozoic history and crustal structure of the Pacific margin of the supercontinent. In particular, the identification and possible correlation of early terrane accretion on this margin depends on comparison of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic events with adjacent areas. This is a preliminary report on work now in progress to this end (au)

  16. Preliminary low-T thermochronology of basement rocks and cover sequences in NE Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdel, C.; Stockli, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    We measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement rocks of the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from cover sequences and most basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 200 to 350 Ma. Our interpretation is that this large range results from protracted residence of these rocks in the zircon (U-Th)/He partial retention zone (temperatures of roughly 130-200 °C) during a ~100 My period that encompassed late Carboniferous-early Permian extensional exhumation, Triassic burial beneath thick sedimentary basins, and Late Triassic tectonic denudation related to retroarc shortening during the Hunter-Bowen Orogeny. Relatively tightly-clustered Paleogene zircon (U-Th)/He ages from an exposure of Ordovician granitic rocks in the core of a structural dome in east-central Queensland are exceptions to this pattern. These granitoids also have Paleogene apatite (U-Th)/He ages, suggesting either rapid Eocene-Oligocene exhumation of the dome or resetting of both apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages by nearby Paleogene magmas. Apatite (U-Th)/He data from late Permian sandstone in the Bowen Basin also suggest cooling to near-surface conditions during the Paleogene. Overall, these data refine the timing of major extensional and contractional events that have affected the back-arc of the northern New England Orogen over approximately the last 300 My.

  17. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees

    2015-07-09

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  18. Some Compositional and Kinetic Controls on the Bioenergetic Landscapes in Oceanic Basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This contribution assesses the availability of catabolic energy for microbial life during water–rock reactions in the flanks of mid-ocean ridges, where basaltic and ultramafic rocks interact with circulating seawater. In addition to equilibrium thermodynamic computations, results for kinetic reaction paths are presented. In these calculations, it is assumed that dissolution of olivine and basalt glass control the rates of hydrogen forming reactions in ultramafic and basaltic rocks, respectively. The results suggest that all ocean crust basement rocks release enough hydrogen (H2,aq) to support hydrogenotrophic life at low water-to-rock ratios. Olivine dissolution rate control imposes a stronger effect on hydrogen production than phase equilibrium controls, indicating that magnetite formation is not a requirement for production of large amounts of hydrogen in ultramafic rocks. The formation of non-tronite and celadonite are primarily responsible for the formation of the moderate amounts of hydrogen (H2,aq) expected in basaltic ridge flanks. Under conditions of large seawater fluxes required to account for the great global convective heat flow in ridge flanks, however, hydrogen production in basaltic ridge flanks is insufficient for supporting hydrogenotrophic life. It is hence proposed that the role of Fe oxidation in basaltic ridge flanks is greater than previously suggested. A standing stock of 2.4∗1028 cells may be supported by Fe oxidation in basaltic ridge flanks, equivalent of about 10% of the sedimentary deep biosphere. The size of a hydrogenotrophic biomass within the ocean crust is more difficult to estimate because the rates and processes of hydrogen release are insufficiently constrained. In any case, hydrogenotrophy in the ocean crust should be of key importance only in olivine-rich basement rocks and in sedimented ridge flanks with low time-integrated seawater fluxes. PMID:26903986

  19. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Lamees; Sultan, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed; Zaki, Abotalib; Sauck, William; Soliman, Farouk; Yan, Eugene; Elkadiri, Racha; Abouelmagd, Abdou

    2015-09-01

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17-18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest-southeast- to north-south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast-southwest to east-west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east-west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south-north to southwest-northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere.

  20. Can the Metamorphic Basement of Northwestern Guatemala be Correlated with the Chuacús Complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, N.; Martens, U.

    2007-05-01

    The Chuacús complex constitutes a northward concave metamorphic belt that stretches ca. 150 km south of the Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic (CCP) fault system in central and central-eastern Guatemala. It represents the basement of the southern edge of the Maya block, being well exposed in the sierra de Chuacús and the sierra de Las Minas. It is composed of high-Al metapelites, amphibolites, quartzofeldspathic gneisses, and migmatites. In central Guatemala the Chuacús complex contains ubiquitous epidote-amphibolite mineral associations, and local relics of eclogite reveal a previous high-pressure metamorphic event. North of the CCP, in the Sierra de Los Cuchumatanes area of western Guatemala, metamorphic rocks have been considered the equivalent of the Chuacús complex and hence been given the name Western Chuacús group, These rocks, which were intruded by granitic rocks and later mylonitized, include chloritic schist and gneiss, biotite-garnet schist, migmatites, and amphibolites. No eclogitic relics have been found within metamorphic rocks in northwestern Guatemala. Petrographic analyses of garnet-biotite schist reveal abundant retrogression and the formation of abundant zeolite-bearing veins associated with intrusion. Although metamorphic conditions in the greenschist and amphibolite facies are similar to those in the sierra de Chuacús, the association with deformed intrusive granites is unique for western Guatemala. Hence a correlation with metasediments intruded by the Rabinal granite in the San Gabriel area of Baja Verapaz seems more feasible than a correlation with the Chuacús complex. This idea is supported by reintegration of the Cenozoic left-lateral displacement along the CCP, which would place the metamorphic basement of western Guatemala north of Baja Verapaz, adjacent to metasediments intruded by granites in the San Gabriel-Rabinal area.

  1. Membranes for energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinemann, K.V.; Pereira Nunes, S. (eds.) [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    This volume contains the following chapters: 1. Sulfonated poly(arylether)-type polymers as proton exchange membranes: Synthesis and performance; 2. Polyimide ionomer membranes for PEFCs and DMFCs; 3. Membranes for high temperature PEFC based on acid-doped polybenzimidazoles; 4. Membrane for medium temperature PEFC based on Nafion filled with layered metal phosphates and phosphonates 5. Composite membranes for high temperature direct methanol fuel cells; 6. Dense ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation; 7. Membranes in energy systems with CO{sub 2} capture 8. Palladium membranes for hydrogen separation; 9. Membranes for power generation by pressure retarded osmosis.

  2. Electrophysiology of mycoplasma membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Schummer, U.; Schiefer, H G

    1983-01-01

    The influence of transmembrane ion fluxes on mycoplasma membrane potentials was studied. Fluorescence intensity of potential-sensitive carbocyanine dyes was calibrated vs. electric membrane potential. Potassium and sodium ion diffusion potentials significantly contributed to mycoplasma membrane potential. Chloride ions were obviously freely permeable across mycoplasma membranes. Under growth conditions the mycoplasma membrane potential was estimated to be delta psi = - 80 mV.

  3. Lipids in the structure and functions of biological membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov V.I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids are one of the main components of cellular membranes. Lipids make up 30-55% of the cell content depending on the types of cells. Phospholipids, sphingomyelins, cholesterol, etc. are characteristic to cellular membranes. The composition of lipids of the both sides of the membranes differs. This fact determines asymmetry of the structure of bili-pid layer. The reason for many pathologies is the changes in the properties of cellular membranes with the modification of their components. The study of structure and functioning of cellular biomembranes is essential for many researchers. The condition of membranes, their quality, their quantitative composition and modification under the influence of different factors as well as their interaction with carbohydrate and protein component are of great importance for the functioning of both membranes, cells and the body in general. Analysis and structuring of lipids and their functions in biological membranes are studied.

  4. Inflation and Instability of a Polymeric Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Kristensen, Susanne Brogaard; Larsen, Johannes Ruben;

    1999-01-01

    We consider an axisymmetric polymeric membrane inflated by a uniform pressure difference acting across the membrane. The polymeric material is described by an arbitrary combination of a viscoelastic and a purely viscous component to the stress. Some viscoelastic materials described by a Mooney......-Rivlin model show a monotone increasing pressure during inflation of a spherical membrane. These materials develop a homogeneous membrane thickness in agreement with the Considere-Pearson condition. Molecularly based models such as the neo-Hookean, Doi-Edwards or Tom-Pom model show a pressure maximum when...... inflated. Membranes described by these models develop a local thinning of the membrane which may lead to bursting in finite time. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Graphite components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reflector of the AVR reactor consists of needle coke graphite ARS/AMT made by the firm of Sigri GmbH. Although its orientation anisotropy is greater than those of materials developed in the last few years, the reflector graphite shows comparatively good dimensional stability in the conditions prevailing in the AVR reactor, as shown by tests on irradiation samples. It was also found that the strength increased. No damage was found during inspections in 1984 of the upper side and ceiling reflector. After a 20 year operating period, the graphite components of the AVR reactor should be in an excellent state. This will be possible to prove when samples are taken from the graphite reflector and examined in the context of a dismantling program. (orig.)

  6. From biological membranes to biomimetic model membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological membranes play an essential role in the cellular protection as well as in the control and the transport of nutrients. Many mechanisms such as molecular recognition, enzymatic catalysis, cellular adhesion and membrane fusion take place into the biological membranes. In 1972, Singer et al. provided a membrane model, called fluid mosaic model, in which each leaflet of the bilayer is formed by a homogeneous environment of lipids in a fluid state including globular assembling of proteins and glycoproteins. Since its conception in 1972, many developments were brought to this model in terms of composition and molecular organization. The main development of the fluid mosaic model was made by Simons et al. (1997 and Brown et al. (1997 who suggested that membrane lipids are organized into lateral microdomains (or lipid rafts with a specific composition and a molecular dynamic that are different to the composition and the dynamic of the surrounding liquid crystalline phase. The discovery of a phase separation in the plane of the membrane has induced an explosion in the research efforts related to the biology of cell membranes but also in the development of new technologies for the study of these biological systems. Due to the high complexity of biological membranes and in order to investigate the biological processes that occur on the membrane surface or within the membrane lipid bilayer, a large number of studies are performed using biomimicking model membranes. This paper aims at revisiting the fundamental properties of biological membranes in terms of membrane composition, membrane dynamic and molecular organization, as well as at describing the most common biomimicking models that are frequently used for investigating biological processes such as membrane fusion, membrane trafficking, pore formation as well as membrane interactions at a molecular level.

  7. Hyaluronan: A Matrix Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rügheimer, Louise

    2008-09-01

    The glucosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key component of the extracellular matrix. It is a large, negatively charged molecule that can act as an ion exchange reservoir for positive ions. Hyaluronan is involved in renomedullary water handling through its water-binding capacity. In the renal medulla, the main source for hyaluronan production is the renomedullary interstitial cells. Hyaluronan synthases are found in the inner part of the plasma membrane and polymerize hyaluronan chains which are extruded into the extracellular space. Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes involved in the degradation of hyaluronan. They have a wide range of properties, including differences in size, inhibitor sensitivities, catalytic mechanisms, substrate specificities and pH optima.

  8. Tensile mechanical and creep properties of Descemet's membrane and lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Carl Christian

    2004-09-01

    Descemet's membrane (DM) and the lens capsule (LC) are two ocular basement membrane structures which in comparison with other basement membranes have exceptional thicknesses which increase with age. Both membranes are supposed to contain networks of type IV collagen and laminin linked together with nidogen/entactin and containing other glycoproteins and proteoglycans. DM is a unique basement membrane which in addition contains fine filaments of type VIII collagen arranged in a hexagonal lattice. The mechanical functions of the LC are in lens suspension and accommodation, and its mechanical properties, previously investigated, are of great interest from a surgical point of view. DM serves as an endothelial basement membrane. Otherwise, its physiological function is unknown but may be one of mechanical support, filtration, or fluid barrier. Data on the mechanical properties of DM or the supramolecular assembly of type VIII collagen are very scarce or absent. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the mechanical properties of the two ocular membranes in order to elucidate the properties of DM in the light of those of LC. The human eyes were from testamentary donors and rat, cow, and sow eyes were obtained from normal animals. The tensile mechanical properties were determined by a volume-strain procedure and creep properties by subjecting the membranes from the latter three species to a constant axial stress. In rat, cow, and sow, DM was less strained to obtain a fixed moderate stress value (0.5 MPa) and showed to be 3.4- to 5.2-fold stiffer and to attain 2.7- to 4.6-fold higher stress at a strain value of 0.10 when compared with LC. The maximal strain, stiffness and stress were found to be less than those of the LC. In humans, DM and LC showed very similar mechanical properties. The instantaneous creep of DM was found to be less than that of LC indicating a higher stiffness of DM in the axial direction. In conclusion, depending on the species, DM showed to

  9. Basement evolution in the Northern Hesperian Massif. A preliminary survey of results obtained by the Leiden research group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tex, den E.

    1981-01-01

    Historical notes on Galician geology, and on the work of the Leiden University petrology team in particular, are first provided. This is followed by an introduction to the geology of Galicia with emphasis on its crystalline basement and upper mantle inliers. Six lithotectonic units are distinguished

  10. Simulation of the steady-state transport of radon from soil into houses with basements under constant negative pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical model was developed to simulate this phenomenon, under some specific assumptions. The model simulates: the generation and decay of radon within the soil; its transport throughout the soil due to diffusion and convection induced by the pressure disturbance applied at a crack in the basement; its entrance into the house through the crack; and the resultant indoor radon concentration. The most important assumptions adopted in the model were: a steady-state condition; a house with a basement; a geometrically well-defined crack at the wall-floor joint in the basement; and a constant negative pressure applied at the crack in relation to the outside atmospheric pressure. Two three-dimensional finite-difference computer programs were written to solve the mathematical equations of the model. The first program, called PRESSU, was used to calculate: the pressure distribution within the soil as a result of the applied disturbance pressure at the crack; and the resultant velocity distribution of the soil gas throughout the soil matrix. The second program, called MASTRA, was used to: solve the radon mass-transport equation, and to calculate the concentration distribution of radon in the soil gas within the whole soil; and to calculate the entry rate of radon through the crack into the basement, and the final indoor radon concentration. A parametric sensitivity analysis performed on the model, revealed several features of the mechanisms involved in the transport of radon into the house. 84 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs

  11. Geochronology of the basement rocks, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela and the tectonic evolution of the western Guiana Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amazonas Territory of Venezuela is a large area of Precambrian basement rocks overlain in some locales by the supracrustal sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation. The basement rocks are medium to high grade gneisses with both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, plutonic rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite, and meta-volcanic rocks. Rb-Sr whole rock, and U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate a period of medium to high grade metamorphism and intrusion from 1860 to 1760 Ma. Post-tectonic plutonic activity continued to 1550 Ma. The volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in Venezuela give an age of 1746 Ma comparable to volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in other parts of the Guiana Shield. The ages and distribution of the basement rocks suggest the presence of a tectonic zone, approximately coincident with the Venezuelan-Colombian border, representing an active orogenic boundary between distinct tectonic provinces. The rocks to the northeast of this zone are part of the Trans-Amazonian of the Guiana Shield, while to the southwest and in adjacent Brazil and Colombia, new younger continental crust has been developed and cratonized. We suggest a model of collision and subduction followed by a chan0140n tectonic style to extensional-vertical to produce the basement rocks of the western Guiana Shield in the Amazonas Territory. (Auth.)

  12. Membrane disordering is not sufficient for membrane permeabilization by islet amyloid polypeptide: studies of IAPP(20-29) fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jeffrey R; Heyl, Deborah L; Samisetti, Shyamprasad; Kotler, Samuel A; Osborne, Joshua M; Pesaru, Ranadheer R; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-06-21

    A key factor in the development of type II diabetes is the loss of insulin-producing beta-cells. Human islet amyloid polypeptide protein (human-IAPP) is believed to play a crucial role in this process by forming small aggregates that exhibit toxicity by disrupting the cell membrane. The actual mechanism of membrane disruption is complex and appears to involve an early component before fiber formation and a later component associated with fiber formation on the membrane. By comparing the peptide-lipid interactions derived from solid-state NMR experiments of two IAPP fragments that cause membrane disordering to IAPP derived peptides known to cause significant early membrane permeabilization, we show here that membrane disordering is not likely to be sufficient by itself to cause the early membrane permeabilization observed by IAPP, and may play a lesser role in IAPP membrane disruption than expected. PMID:23493863

  13. Diffusion and regionalization in membranes of maturing ram spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    An essential feature of the "fluid mosaic model" (Singer, S. J., and G. L. Nicolson , 1972, Science (Wash. DC)., 175:720-731) of the cell plasma membrane is the ability of membrane lipids and proteins to diffuse laterally in the plane of the membrane. Mammalian sperm are capable of overcoming free random diffusion and restricting specific membrane components, both lipid and protein, to defined regions of the sperm's surface. The patterns of these regionalizations evolve with the processes of ...

  14. Effect of stress on the membrane capacitance of the auditory outer hair cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, K H

    1993-01-01

    The membrane capacitance of the outer hair cell, which has unique membrane potential-dependent motility, was monitored during application of membrane tension. It was found that the membrane capacitance of the cell decreased when stress was applied to the membrane. This result is the opposite of stretching the lipid bilayer in the plasma membrane. It thus indicates the importance of some other capacitance component that decreases on stretching. It has been known that charge movement across the...

  15. Near-Critical Fluctuations and Cytoskeleton-Assisted Phase Separation Lead to Subdiffusion in Cell Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrig, Jens; Petrov, Eugene P.; Schwille, Petra

    2011-01-01

    We address the relationship between membrane microheterogeneity and anomalous subdiffusion in cell membranes by carrying out Monte Carlo simulations of two-component lipid membranes. We find that near-critical fluctuations in the membrane lead to transient subdiffusion, while membrane-cytoskeleton interaction strongly affects phase separation, enhances subdiffusion, and eventually leads to hop diffusion of lipids. Thus, we present a minimum realistic model for membrane rafts showing the featu...

  16. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Van, Lier, G

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A self-forming dynamic membrane only requires a support material over which a cake layer is formed, which determines the rejection properties of the system. The present research studies the applicat...

  17. Heterogeneity of groundwater storage properties in the critical zone of Irish metamorphic basement from geophysical surveys and petrographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Caulfield, John; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Weathered/fractured bedrock aquifers contain groundwater resources that are crucial in hard rock basement regions for rural water supply and maintaining river flow and ecosystem resilience. Groundwater storage in metamorphic rocks is subject to high spatial variations due to the large degree of heterogeneity in fracture occurrence and weathering patterns. Point measurements such as borehole testing are, in most cases, insufficient to characterise and quantify those storage variations because borehole sampling density is usually much lower than the scale of heterogeneities. A suite of geophysical and petrographic investigations was implemented in the weathered/fractured micaschist basement of Donegal, NW Ireland. Electrical Resistivity Tomography provided a high resolution 2D distribution of subsurface resistivities. Resistivity variations were transferred into storage properties (i.e. porosities) in the saturated critical zone of the aquifer through application of a petrophysical model derived from Archie's Law. The petrophysical model was calibrated using complementary borehole gamma logging and clay petrographic analysis at multi-depth well clusters distributed along a hillslope transect at the site. The resulting distribution of porosities shows large spatial variations along the studied transect. With depth, porosities rapidly decrease from about a few % in the uppermost, highly weathered basement to less than 0.5% in the deep unweathered basement, which is encountered at depths of between 10 and 50m below the ground surface. Along the hillslope, porosities decrease with distance from the river in the valley floor, ranging between 5% at the river to less than 1% at the top of the hill. Local traces of regional fault zones that intersect the transect are responsible for local increases in porosity in relation to deeper fracturing and weathering. Such degrees of spatial variation in porosity are expected to have a major impact on the modality of the response of

  18. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, M.; Kassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A

  19. Protein secretion by hybrid bacterial ABC-transporters: specific functions of the membrane ATPase and the membrane fusion protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Binet, R; Wandersman, C

    1995-01-01

    The Erwinia chrysanthemi metalloprotease C and the Serratia marcescens haem acquisition protein HasA are both secreted from Gram-negative bacteria by a signal peptide-independent pathway which requires a C-terminal secretion signal and a specific ABC-transporter made up of three proteins: a membrane ATPase (the ABC-protein), a second inner membrane component belonging to the membrane fusion protein family and an outer membrane polypeptide. HasA and protease C transporters are homologous altho...

  20. Interactions between basement and cover during the evolution of the Salar de Atacama Basin, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A reinterpretation of the structural style on the eastern Cordillera Domeyko and the adjacent Salar de Atacama Basin reveals the existence of west-dipping, high-angle, thrust-faults extending below the Cordillera Domeyko and Cordón de Lila, resulting from inversion of Cretaceous extensional faults, that transferred west-ward their displacement into the cover, generating fault-propagation and detachment folds. The most conspicuous of these structures is the Cordillera de la Sal. Contractional structures in the Cordillera Domeyko involved a Paleozoic crystalline, volcanic, and sedimentary, uplifted basement. Seismic reflection sections and available surface geology allows to study the interactions between development of the thick-skinned basement structures, sedimentation within the basin, and the thin-skinned deformation in the sedimentary cover. Geometry of the units in the basin continuously modified. Anticline growth above basement thrust-faults locally controlled syn-thrusting sequences, and generated progressive unconformities. Stratigraphic architecture in the basin seems to have been mainly controlled by tectonic activity. Tectonism generated accommodation space, altered base levels, and controlled source areas. The stratigraphy and geometry of the basin deposits resulted mainly from the succession of the following events: local extensional subsidence during the Early to Late Cretaceous, uplift of the Cordillera Domeyko during the latest Cretaceous to Miocene, uplift of the Puna, and subsidence probably caused by flexural response of the lithosphere during thrust-sheet loading, and sediment accumulationRESUMEN Interacciones entre el basamento y la cobertura durante la evolución de la Cuenca del Salar de Atacama, norte de Chile. La reinterpretación del estilo estructural del borde oriental de la Cordillera Domeyko y de la adyacente cuenca del Salar de Atacama, basada en el análisis de la geología de superficie y de perfiles s

  1. Component Compatibility in Component Based Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Hardeep Singh; Anitpal Kaur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a research on component compatibility in component based development. Component-based software engineering is a process that emphasizes the design and construction of computer-based systems using reusable software components. Commercial components repositories contain hundred thousand components that make component selection an extremely difficult and time expensive task. Often component selected by functional features are incompatible or the integration effort...

  2. Erythrocyte membrane proteins and membrane skeleton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yiqin; LIU Junfan

    2007-01-01

    Considerable advances in the research field of erythrocyte membrane were achieved in the recent two decades.New findings in the structure-function correlation and interactions of erythrocyte membrane proteins have attracted extensive attention.Interesting progress was also made in the molecular pathogenesis of erythrocyte membrane disorders.Advances in the composition,function and interaction of erythrocyte membrane proteins,erythrocyte membrane skeleton,and relevant diseases are briefly described and summarized here on the basis of domestic and world literatures.

  3. K-Ar geochronology of basement rocks on the northern flank of the Huancabama deflection, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feininger, Tomas; Silberman, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Huancabamba deflection, a major Andean orocline located at the Ecuador-Peru border, constitutes an important geologic boundary on the Pacific coast of South America. Crust to the north of the deflection is oceanic and the basement is composed of basic igneous rocks of Cretaceous age, whereas crust to the south is continental and felsic rocks of Precambrian to Cretaceous age make up the basement. The northern flank of the Huancabamba Deflection in El Oro Province, Ecuador, is underlain by Precambrian polymetamorphic basic rocks of the Piedras Group; shale, siltstone, sandstone, and their metamorphosed equivalents in the Tahuin Group (in part of Devonian age); concordant syntectonic granitic rocks; quartz diorite and alaskite of the Maroabeli pluton; a protrusion of serpentinized harzburgite that contains a large inclusion of blueschist-facies metamorphic rocks, the Raspas Formation, and metamorphic rocks north of the La Palma fault. Biotite from gneiss of the Tahuin Group yields a Late Triassic K-Ar age (210 ? 8 m.y.). This is interpreted as an uplift age and is consistent with a regional metamorphism of Paleozoic age. A nearby sample from the Piedras Group that yielded a hornblende K-Ar age of 196 ? 8 m.y. was affected by the same metamorphic event. Biotite from quartz diorite of the mesozonal Maroabeli pluton yields a Late Triassic age (214 ? 6 m.y.) which is interpreted as an uplift age which may be only slightly younger than the age of magmatic crystallization. Emplacement of the pluton may postdate regional metamorphism of the Tahuin Group. Phengite from politic schist of the Raspas Formation yields an Early Cretaceous K-Ar age (132 ? 5 m.y.). This age is believed to date the isostatic rise of the encasing serpentinized harzburgite as movement along a subjacent subduction zone ceased, and it is synchronous with the age of the youngest lavas of a coeval volcanic arc in eastern Ecuador. A Late Cretaceous K-Ar age (74.4 ? 1.1 m.y.) from hornblende in

  4. Barents Sea Paleozoic basement and basin configurations: Crustal structure from deep seismic and potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, Iselin; Mjelde, Rolf; Breivik, Asbjørn Johan; Huismans, Ritske; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2016-04-01

    The Barents Sea is underlain by at least two different basement domains; the Caledonian in the west and the Timanian in the east. The transition between these two domains is not well constrained and contrasting interpretations have been published recently. Interpretations of new high-quality magnetic data covering most of the SW Barents Sea has challenged the Late Paleozoic basin configurations in the western and central Barents Sea as outlined in previous studies. Two regional ocean bottom seismic (OBS) profiles were acquired in 2014. This new dataset crosses the two major directions of Caledonian deformation proposed by different authors: N-S direction and SW-NE direction. Of particular importance are the high velocity anomalies related to Caledonian eclogites, revealing the location of Caledonian suture zones in the northern Barents Sea. One of the main objectives with this project is to locate the main Caledonian suture in the western Barents Sea, as well as the possible Barentsia-Baltica suture postulated further eastwards. The collapse of the Caledonian mountain range predominantly along these suture zones is expected to be tightly linked to the deposition of large thicknesses of Devonian erosional products, and later rifting is expected to be influenced by inheritance of Caledonian trends. The P-wave travel-time modelling is done by use of a combined ray-tracing and inversion scheme, and gravity- and magnetic modelling will be used to augment the seismic model. The preliminary results indicate high P-wave velocities (mostly over 4 km/s) close to the seafloor as well as high velocity (around 6 km/s) zones at shallow depths which are interpreted as volcanic sills. The crustal transects reveal areas of complex geology and velocity inversions. A low seismic impedance contrast between the sedimentary section and top crystalline basement makes identification of this interface uncertain. Depth to Moho mostly lies around 30 km, except in an area of rapid change in

  5. Variscan terrane boundaries in the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone: New evidence from ocean ridge, intraplate and arc-derived metabasaltic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, T. M.; Lee, S.-H.; Schmädicke, E.; Frimmel, H. E.; Okrusch, M.

    2015-04-01

    The Mid-German Crystalline Zone is part of a large Variscan suture and consists of various basement complexes that are exposed in central Germany. New lithogeochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data obtained on various amphibolites from the Odenwald-Spessart basement show that their protoliths formed in different tectonic settings and were subsequently incorporated into a subduction zone prior to Variscan continental collision. Metabasic rocks from the northernmost Spessart and the western Odenwald are geochemically almost identical and their protoliths are interpreted to have formed in an extensional, possibly, a back-arc setting. The tholeiitic and calc-alkaline rocks have intermediate TiO2 concentrations and high Th/Nb ratios, typical of volcanic arc-type and/or subduction-fluid modified rocks. The Nd initial ratios are depleted (εNd330 Ma = 5.0-5.8) and Nd model ages range from 660 to 610 Ma, which points at juvenile crustal addition towards the end of the Neoproterozoic. The samples define a linear array in 206Pb/204Pb versus 207Pb/204Pb space. In contrast, the protoliths of the metabasic rocks from the southern and central Spessart formed either in an intraplate oceanic island or a continental arc setting. The alkaline intraplate rocks from the southern Spessart basement are very TiO2-rich and have very low Th/Nb ratios. The rocks have weakly depleted Nd initals (εNd330 Ma = 2.6-3.3) and Nd model ages between 870 and 810 Ma. In contrast, the central Spessart within-plate rocks have considerably lower TiO2 concentrations but higher Th/Nb ratios. In addition, these rocks are isotopically enriched (εNd330 Ma = - 13.1 to - 9.5) and have Palaeoproterozoic Nd model ages. The continental arc rocks from the central and southern Spessart basement have low TiO2 concentrations and variable Th/Nb ratios. Mostly negative Nd initials (εNd330 Ma = - 2.6 to + 0.9) and late Mesoproterozoic Nd model ages indicate that recycling of older crust or mixing of crustal components of

  6. A membrane disdrometer based on membrane vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raindrop sizes were indirectly determined through the distinctive vibrations and sounds that occur when raindrops of different sizes impact on a membrane. The relationships between diameter, raindrop kinetic momentum, membrane deflection, and impact force were analyzed. Membrane deflection and vibration models were created, and the optimum membrane diameter and thickness were identified. A prototype membrane disdrometer was developed on the basis of these findings. The relationship between raindrop size and membrane vibration sound pressure was determined experimentally. The fundamental parameter of raindrop size recognition was used. The test results indicate that raindrops 0.4–2.0 mm in diameter can be detected by the proposed membrane disdrometer, and 50 raindrops per second in a zone area of 28.3 cm2 can be detected in natural rain. (paper)

  7. Possible involvement of membrane lipids peroxidation and oxidation of catalytically essential thiols of the cerebral transmembrane sodium pump as component mechanisms of iron-mediated oxidative stress-linked dysfunction of the pump's activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotayo, T I; Akinyemi, G S; Omololu, P A; Ajayi, B O; Akindahunsi, A A; Rocha, J B T; Kade, I J

    2015-01-01

    The precise molecular events defining the complex role of oxidative stress in the inactivation of the cerebral sodium pump in radical-induced neurodegenerative diseases is yet to be fully clarified and thus still open. Herein we investigated the modulation of the activity of the cerebral transmembrane electrogenic enzyme in Fe(2+)-mediated in vitro oxidative stress model. The results show that Fe(2+) inhibited the transmembrane enzyme in a concentration dependent manner and this effect was accompanied by a biphasic generation of aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation. While dithiothreitol prevented both Fe(2+) inhibitory effect on the pump and lipid peroxidation, vitamin E prevented only lipid peroxidation but not inhibition of the pump. Besides, malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibited the pump by a mechanism not related to oxidation of its critical thiols. Apparently, the low activity of the pump in degenerative diseases mediated by Fe(2+) may involve complex multi-component mechanisms which may partly involve an initial oxidation of the critical thiols of the enzyme directly mediated by Fe(2+) and during severe progression of such diseases; aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation such as MDA may further exacerbate this inhibitory effect by a mechanism that is likely not related to the oxidation of the catalytically essential thiols of the ouabain-sensitive cerebral electrogenic pump. PMID:25618580

  8. Rhodiola crenulata and Its Bioactive Components, Salidroside and Tyrosol, Reverse the Hypoxia-Induced Reduction of Plasma-Membrane-Associated Na,K-ATPase Expression via Inhibition of ROS-AMPK-PKCξ Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to hypoxia leads to impaired pulmonary sodium transport, which is associated with Na,K-ATPase dysfunction in the alveolar epithelium. The present study is designed to examine the effect and mechanism of Rhodiola crenulata extract (RCE and its bioactive components on hypoxia-mediated Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. A549 cells were exposed to hypoxia in the presence or absence of RCE, salidroside, or tyrosol. The generation of intracellular ROS was measured by using the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA, and the endocytosis was determined by measuring the expression level of Na,K-ATPase in the PM fraction. Rats exposed to a hypobaric hypoxia chamber were used to investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanism of RCE in vivo. Our results showed that RCE and its bioactive compounds significantly prevented the hypoxia-mediated endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase via the inhibition of the ROS-AMPK-PKCζ pathway in A549 cells. Furthermore, RCE also showed a comparable preventive effect on the reduction of Na,K-ATPase endocytosis and inhibition of AMPK-PKCξ pathway in the rodent model. Our study is the first to offer substantial evidence to support the efficacy of Rhodiola products against hypoxia-associated Na,K-ATPase endocytosis and clarify the ethnopharmacological relevance of Rhodiola crenulata as a popular folk medicine for high-altitude illness.

  9. Possible involvement of membrane lipids peroxidation and oxidation of catalytically essential thiols of the cerebral transmembrane sodium pump as component mechanisms of iron-mediated oxidative stress-linked dysfunction of the pump's activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Omotayo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The precise molecular events defining the complex role of oxidative stress in the inactivation of the cerebral sodium pump in radical-induced neurodegenerative diseases is yet to be fully clarified and thus still open. Herein we investigated the modulation of the activity of the cerebral transmembrane electrogenic enzyme in Fe2+-mediated in vitro oxidative stress model. The results show that Fe2+ inhibited the transmembrane enzyme in a concentration dependent manner and this effect was accompanied by a biphasic generation of aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation. While dithiothreitol prevented both Fe2+ inhibitory effect on the pump and lipid peroxidation, vitamin E prevented only lipid peroxidation but not inhibition of the pump. Besides, malondialdehyde (MDA inhibited the pump by a mechanism not related to oxidation of its critical thiols. Apparently, the low activity of the pump in degenerative diseases mediated by Fe2+ may involve complex multi-component mechanisms which may partly involve an initial oxidation of the critical thiols of the enzyme directly mediated by Fe2+ and during severe progression of such diseases; aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation such as MDA may further exacerbate this inhibitory effect by a mechanism that is likely not related to the oxidation of the catalytically essential thiols of the ouabain-sensitive cerebral electrogenic pump.

  10. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  11. Compositional asynchronous membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cosmin Bonchis; Cornel Izbasa; Gabriel Ciobanu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithmic way of building complex membrane systems by coupling elementary membranes. Its application seems particularly valuable in the case of asynchronous membrane systems, since the resulting membrane system remains asynchronous. The composition method is based on a handshake mechanism implemented by using antiport rules and promoters.

  12. Composite sensor membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Arun; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Yue, Min

    2008-03-18

    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  13. Correspondence of ores of silver and gold with basement terranes in the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titley, S. R.

    1991-04-01

    The ratios of silver to gold produced from epigenetic ore districts of the American southwest reveal a consistency of value ranges, differing by an order of magnitude, that may be identified with either one or the other of two geologic terranes in which the ores occur. A discriminating value of the ratio is about 17.5∶1, the ratio of crustal abundance given by Ahrens (1965). (No further significance is attributed to this value, at this time, beyond the fact that it appears to establish a reasonable separation of values on the basis of geographic occurrence.) Ores relatively enriched in Ag occur in terranes floored by thick Proterozoic clastic and Paleozoic marine successions, and ores relatively enriched in Au lie above or within a Proterozoic basement dominated by maficfelsic volcanic (arc) successions. Proterozoic granites occur in each region. The values of the ratio are broadly consistent within each terrane, irrespective of the age of ore formation, the ore deposit style, associated igneous rocks, structural control, differing interpreted styles of subduction, and weathering histories. These characteristics and associations support a hypothesis that metallogenic signatures of ore districts in this region are fundamentally related to the crust in which the ores occur.

  14. MORPHOTECTONICS OF THE BASEMENT SURFACE OF THE WEST SIBERIAN BASIN WITHIN NADYM-TAZ INTERFLUVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEYEV E. V.; ZINOVIEV S. V.

    2003-01-01

    The map of reflecting horizon A, plotted on the basis of regional geophysical materials, yieldsinformation about the bottom topography of sedimentary cover of the West-Siberian Basin within Nadym-Taz interfluve. Through morphotectonic analysis about this surface, the authors are able tounderstand the distribution characteristics of the main topographic irregularities, with the blockstructure of the lower cover floors and underlying complexes as the focus.The largest irregularities are caused by the presence of three regional altitude steps, which show a regional tendency of basement being submerged in the north-north-east direction. Within these irregularities, the authors have distinguished some regions, which can be divided, based on the characteristics of morphostructural distribution, into two groups, i.e., areal (Nadym, Tol'ka, Urengoy)and belt (Tarko-Sale, Russko-Chasel'ka and Messoyakha). The first ones represent quasihomogeneous blocks, whose surfaces are complicated by irregular low-amplitude elevations and troughs and low-gradient zones with gradient values being up to 0.03, or they submerge stepwise, with the leveled areas being separated by zones with high gradients (0.07-0.15). The morphostructure of the other group of regions is characterized by the en-echelon distribution of contrastingly positive and negative elements with high values of slope gradients (higher than 0.1-0.2).

  15. Impact of climate on groundwater recharge in the crystalline basement rocks aquifer of Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Water is the cornerstone of human life and for all economic developments. West Africa and specifically Ghana are no exception to this reality.Northern Ghana is characterized by a semi-arid climate, with prolonged dry season (7 months of very few rainfall) leading to the drying up of many rivers and streams. In addition, rainfall is highly variable in space and time. Therefore, surface water is unreliable and insufficient to meet the water demands for socio-economic development in this area. As a result, the area is heavily dependent on groundwater for domestic water supply as well as for dry season irrigation of vegetables (cash crops).However, aquifers in northern Ghana are dominantly the hard rock type (Crystalline basement rock). This aquifer has no primary porosity and may not be able to sustain the increasing demand on the resource. Further, climate change may worsen the situation as recharge is dependent on rainfall in northern Ghana. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly how climate change will impact on recharge to the groundwater for sustainable development and management of the resource.Previous groundwater studies in Northern Ghana barely analyzed the combined impacts of Climate change on the recharge to the groundwater. This research is aimed at determining the current relationship between groundwater recharge and rainfall and to use the relationships to determine the impacts of changes in climate on the groundwater recharge. The results will inform plans and strategies for sustainably managing groundwater resources in Ghana and the Volta basin.

  16. New Rb-Sr age determinations on the Archaean basement of eastern Sierra Leone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Archaean basement of Sierra Leone is a typical example of granite-greenstone terrains found in ancient continental nuclei. Reconnaissance field mapping showed that the area can be subdivided into old gneiss, which predates the greenstone belts, and young granite which is later than the greenstone belts. New Rb-Sr whole-rock age determinations on two suites of old tonalitic gneiss yield ages of 2786 +- 49 Ma and 2770 +- 137 Ma, which either reflect the time of formation of the original tonalites or their metamorphism. Three new Rb-Sr whole-rock age determinations on young granites yield ages of 2786 +- 143 Ma, 2780 +- 79 Ma and 2770 +- 50 Ma, which are interpreted as the time of emplacement. The widespread occurrence of similar young granites, throughout the Archaean of West Africa, suggests that these results date a major event in the evolution of this segment of the crust. A published Pb-Pb age of the old gneiss and the new ages of the young granite bracket the age of the greenstone belts to 3000-2770 Ma. However, if the Rb-Sr ages of the old gneiss reported in this paper reflect the time of their formation, the age of the greenstone belts is tightly bracketed to ca. 2770 Ma. There is no isotopic evidence for rocks substantially older than 3000 Ma in the West African Archaean. (Auth.)

  17. Trace-element composition of Chicxulub crater melt rock, K/T tektites and Yucatan basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Gregoire, D. C.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Claeys, P.; Thompson, C. M.; Boynton, W. V.

    1993-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary Chicxulub impact is the best preserved large impact in the geologic record. The Chicxulub crater has been buried with no apparent erosion of its intracrater deposits, and its ejecta blanket is known and is well preserved at hundreds of localities globally. Although most of the molten material ejected from the crater has been largely altered, a few localities still preserve tektite glass. Availability of intra- and extracrater impact products as well as plausible matches to the targeted rocks allows the comparison of compositions of the different classes of impact products to those of the impacted lithologies. Determination of trace-element compositions of the K/T tektites, Chicxulub melt rock, and the targeted Yucatan silicate basement and carbonate/evaporite lithologies have been made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Some sample splits were studied with both techniques to ensure that inter-laboratory variation was not significant or could be corrected. The concentration of a few major and minor elements was also checked against microprobe results. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to determine Ir abundances in some samples.

  18. Modeling of membrane processes for air revitalization and water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kevin E.; Foerg, Sandra L.; Dall-Bauman, Liese A.

    1992-01-01

    Gas-separation and reverse-osmosis membrane models are being developed in conjunction with membrane testing at NASA JSC. The completed gas-separation membrane model extracts effective component permeabilities from multicomponent test data, and predicts the effects of flow configuration, operating conditions, and membrane dimensions on module performance. Variable feed- and permeate-side pressures are considered. The model has been applied to test data for hollow-fiber membrane modules with simulated cabin-air feeds. Results are presented for a membrane designed for air drying applications. Extracted permeabilities are used to predict the effect of operating conditions on water enrichment in the permeate. A first-order reverse-osmosis model has been applied to test data for spiral wound membrane modules with a simulated hygiene water feed. The model estimates an effective local component rejection coefficient under pseudosteady-state conditions. Results are used to define requirements for a detailed reverse-osmosis model.

  19. Rab40b regulates trafficking of MMP2 and MMP9 during invadopodia formation and invasion of breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Abitha; Jing, Jian; Lee, James; Schedin, Pepper; Gilbert, Simon M.; Peden, Andrew A.; Junutula, Jagath R; Prekeris, Rytis

    2013-01-01

    Invadopodia-dependent degradation of the basement membrane plays a major role during metastasis of breast cancer cells. Basement membrane degradation is mediated by targeted secretion of various matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Specifically, MMP2 and MMP9 (MMP2/9) possess the ability to hydrolyze components of the basement membrane and regulate various aspects of tumor growth and metastasis. However, the membrane transport machinery that mediates targeting of MMP2/9 to the invadopodia during...

  20. Membrane protein structure determination in membrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Yao, Yong; Marassi, Francesca M

    2013-09-17

    The two principal components of biological membranes, the lipid bilayer and the proteins integrated within it, have coevolved for specific functions that mediate the interactions of cells with their environment. Molecular structures can provide very significant insights about protein function. In the case of membrane proteins, the physical and chemical properties of lipids and proteins are highly interdependent; therefore structure determination should include the membrane environment. Considering the membrane alongside the protein eliminates the possibility that crystal contacts or detergent molecules could distort protein structure, dynamics, and function and enables ligand binding studies to be performed in a natural setting. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is compatible with three-dimensional structure determination of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayer membranes under physiological conditions and has played an important role in elucidating the physical and chemical properties of biological membranes, providing key information about the structure and dynamics of the phospholipid components. Recently, developments in the recombinant expression of membrane proteins, sample preparation, pulse sequences for high-resolution spectroscopy, radio frequency probes, high-field magnets, and computational methods have enabled a number of membrane protein structures to be determined in lipid bilayer membranes. In this Account, we illustrate solid-state NMR methods with examples from two bacterial outer membrane proteins (OmpX and Ail) that form integral membrane β-barrels. The ability to measure orientation-dependent frequencies in the solid-state NMR spectra of membrane-embedded proteins provides the foundation for a powerful approach to structure determination based primarily on orientation restraints. Orientation restraints are particularly useful for NMR structural studies of membrane proteins because they provide information about both three-dimensional structure

  1. Membrane-type-3 matrix metalloproteinase (MT3-MMP functions as a matrix composition-dependent effector of melanoma cell invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tatti

    Full Text Available In primary human melanoma, the membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase, MT3-MMP, is overexpressed in the most aggressive nodular-type tumors. Unlike MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, which promote cell invasion through basement membranes and collagen type I-rich tissues, the function of MT3-MMP in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that MT3-MMP inhibits MT1-MMP-driven melanoma cell invasion in three-dimensional collagen, while yielding an altered, yet MT1-MMP-dependent, form of expansive growth behavior that phenocopies the formation of nodular cell colonies. In melanoma cell lines originating from advanced primary or metastatic lesions, endogenous MT3-MMP expression was associated with limited collagen-invasive potential. In the cell lines with highest MT3-MMP expression relative to MT1-MMP, collagen-invasive activity was increased following stable MT3-MMP gene silencing. Consistently, MT3-MMP overexpression in cells derived from less advanced superficially spreading melanoma lesions, or in the MT3-MMP knockdown cells, reduced MT1-MMP-dependent collagen invasion. Rather than altering MT1-MMP transcription, MT3-MMP interacted with MT1-MMP in membrane complexes and reduced its cell surface expression. By contrast, as a potent fibrinolytic enzyme, MT3-MMP induced efficient invasion of the cells in fibrin, a provisional matrix component frequently found at tumor-host tissue interfaces and perivascular spaces of melanoma. Since MT3-MMP was significantly upregulated in biopsies of human melanoma metastases, these results identify MT3-MMP as a matrix-dependent modifier of the invasive tumor cell functions during melanoma progression.

  2. 3D seismic analysis of gravity-driven and basement influenced normal fault growth in the deepwater Otway Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A. G.; King, R. C.; Holford, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    We use three-dimensional (3D) seismic reflection data to analyse the structural style and growth of a normal fault array located at the present-day shelf-edge break and into the deepwater province of the Otway Basin, southern Australia. The Otway Basin is a Late Jurassic to Cenozoic, rift-to-passive margin basin. The seismic reflection data images a NW-SE (128-308) striking, normal fault array, located within Upper Cretaceous clastic sediments and which consists of ten fault segments. The fault array contains two hard-linked fault assemblages, separated by only 2 km in the dip direction. The gravity-driven, down-dip fault assemblage is entirely contained within the 3D seismic survey, is located over a basement plateau and displays growth commencing and terminating during the Campanian-Maastrichtian, with up to 1.45 km of accumulated throw (vertical displacement). The up-dip normal fault assemblage penetrates deeper than the base of the seismic survey, but is interpreted to be partially linked along strike at depth to major basement-involved normal faults that can be observed on regional 2D seismic lines. This fault assemblage displays growth initiating in the Turonian-Santonian and has accumulated up to 1.74 km of throw. Our detailed analysis of the 3D seismic data constraints post-Cenomanian fault growth of both fault assemblages into four evolutionary stages: [1] Turonian-Santonian basement reactivation during crustal extension between Australia and Antarctica. This either caused the upward propagation of basement-involved normal faults or the nucleation of a vertically isolated normal fault array in shallow cover sediments directly above the reactivated basement-involved faults; [2] continued Campanian-Maastrichtian crustal extension and sediment loading eventually created gravitational instability on the basement plateau, nucleating a second, vertically isolated normal fault array in the cover sediments; [3] eventual hard-linkage of fault segments in both fault

  3. Proterozoic basement and Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High characterized by zircon U–Pb ages and heavy minerals from Danish onshore wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Friis, Henrik; Kokfelt, Thomas F.;

    2015-01-01

    New data from the Proterozoic basement and scattered Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High including zircon U–Pb geochronometry, heavy mineral compositions and whole rock geochemistry is presented here to provide a frame of reference for detrital provenance studies. The Ringkøbing......–Fyn High is a WNW–ESE trending structural high including subcropping basement rocks, and the results indicate that it is a southerly extension of the Fennoscandian Shield. The zircon data show matching age distribution patterns in crystalline basement rocks obtained from two drill sites, the Glamsbjerg-1...

  4. Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, M G

    2004-01-01

    The relation between two different methods of membrane fluid description is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

  5. Integrated Analysis on Gravity and Magnetic Fields of the Hailar Basin, NE China: Implications for Basement Structure and Deep Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B.; Wang, L.; Dong, P.; Scientific Team Of Applied Geophysics

    2010-12-01

    The Hailar Basin is one of the most representative basins among the Northeast China Basin Group, which is situated in the east of East Asia Orogene between the Siberia Plate and the North China Plate. Based on the detailed analysis of the Bouguer gravity anomaly, aeromagnetic anomaly as well as petrophysical data, we studied the features of gravity-magnetic fields in the basin and its neighboring areas. A combined approach of Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition and Power Spectrum Analysis was adopted to quantitatively grade the gravity and magnetic anomalies into four levels. Accordingly, the apparent depths of the source fields can be assessed. The results reveal the crustal density and magnetic structures of the Hailar Basin. Low-order wavelet details of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying basin basement structure. Seven major basement faults of the basin were identified, and the basement lithology was discussed and predicted. Three major uplifts and 14 depressions were delineated according to basement depth inversion by the Park method. High-order wavelet approximations of gravity-magnetic anomalies were carried out on studying deep tectonics of the basin. The average Moho depth of the study area is about 40 km, with a mantle uplift located in the northeast of the basin. The average depth of the Curie interface is about 19 km, while the uplift of the Curie interface is in the basin center and its east and west sides are depressions. Finally, inversion of Bouguer gravity anomalies was conducted on an across-basin GGT profile using the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition. The inversion results are consistent with those of GGT seismic inversion, suggesting that the Wavelet Multi-scale Decomposition can be applied to distinguish major crustal density interfaces.

  6. Mapping of a buried basement combining aeromagnetic, gravity and petrophysical data: The substratum of southwest Paris Basin, France

    OpenAIRE

    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrin, José; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    International audience Aeromagnetic and gravity data have proven to be among the most effective methods for mapping deeply buried basin/basement interfaces. However, the data interpretation generally suffers from ambiguities, due to the non-uniqueness of the gravity and magnetic signatures. Here, we tie the gravity and magnetic signatures with a petrophysical characterization of the lithologies outcropping around the French Paris Basin. Our methodology investigates the lithology and struct...

  7. Basement evolution in the Northern Hesperian Massif. A preliminary survey of results obtained by the Leiden research group

    OpenAIRE

    Tex, den, E.

    1981-01-01

    Historical notes on Galician geology, and on the work of the Leiden University petrology team in particular, are first provided. This is followed by an introduction to the geology of Galicia with emphasis on its crystalline basement and upper mantle inliers. Six lithotectonic units are distinguished: 1) the Variscan granitic rocks and migmatites. 2) the Palaeozoic supracrustal rocks and dismembered meta-ophiolites, 3) the blastomylonitic graben between Malpica and Tuy, 4) the Lalin and Forcar...

  8. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the mafic-ultramafic rock association from NW Senja, West Troms Basement Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Priyatkina, Nadezda

    2013-01-01

    The studied mafic-ultramafic rock association occurs within Archean tonalitic gneisses and metasupracrustal suites of the Astridal belt belonging to the West Troms Basement Complex in the northwestern part of the Senja Island. The rock association appears in lens-shaped bodies, up to 200 m long, which are oriented conformal to the major metamorphic fabric of the host rock. The rock association is made up by interlayered units of green spinel-bearing olivine orthopyroxene-hornblendite, hornble...

  9. Identification of the fractured basement/cover unconformity on former oil seismic profiles in the Upper Rhine Graben.

    OpenAIRE

    Dezayes, Chrystel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Capar, Laure; Chenin, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    Fluid circulation at fractured basement/cover unconformity is of first importance for geothermal energy exploitation especially in continental rifting as the Upper Rhine Graben. This unconformity presents lot of natural fractures which constitute a large permeable fracture network driving brine movement. That constitutes a reservoir of hot water, which is exploited by several geothermal power projects at great depth with flow rate between 50 and 80 l/s of water produced. On the French territo...

  10. Appraisal of pyrolytic techniques on different forms of organic matter from a Cretaceous basement in Central Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Almendros Martín, Gonzalo; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Martín Martínez, Francisco; Sanz Perucha, Jesús; Álvarez Ramis, Concepción

    1998-01-01

    Pyrolytic techniques were used to characterize three different forms of fossil organic matter in Cerro de la Mesa (an important Cretaceous palcobotanic basement in Central Spain): two kerogens isolated from carbonaceous marls, and from lignitiferous layers, and well-preserved remains of the fossil Gymnosperm Frenelopsis oligostomala. By conventional flash pyrolysis the Frenelopsis remains released mainly alkyl-substituted phenols and polyaromatic compounds, whereas the organic matter from the...

  11. Sheet Membrane Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Zapata, Felipe; Dillion, Paul; Castillo, Juan; Vonau, Walter; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Frodge, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    A document describes a sheet membrane spacesuit water membrane evaporator (SWME), which allows for the use of one common water tank that can supply cooling water to the astronaut and to the evaporator. Test data showed that heat rejection performance dropped only 6 percent after being subjected to highly contaminated water. It also exhibited robustness with respect to freezing and Martian atmospheric simulation testing. Water was allowed to freeze in the water channels during testing that simulated a water loop failure and vapor backpressure valve failure. Upon closing the backpressure valve and energizing the pump, the ice eventually thawed and water began to flow with no apparent damage to the sheet membrane. The membrane evaporator also serves to de-gas the water loop from entrained gases, thereby eliminating the need for special degassing equipment such as is needed by the current spacesuit system. As water flows through the three annular water channels, water evaporates with the vapor flowing across the hydrophobic, porous sheet membrane to the vacuum side of the membrane. The rate at which water evaporates, and therefore, the rate at which the flowing water is cooled, is a function of the difference between the water saturation pressure on the water side of the membrane, and the pressure on the vacuum side of the membrane. The primary theory is that the hydrophobic sheet membrane retains water, but permits vapor pass-through when the vapor side pressure is less than the water saturation pressure. This results in evaporative cooling of the remaining water.

  12. Biogeochemistry of dissolved methane and hydrogen within basement fluids of the sediment-buried Juan de Fuca Ridge flank at Borehole (CORKs) 1301A, 1362A and 1362B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Cowen, J. P.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.; Jungbluth, S.; Rappé, M.; Bowers, R.

    2012-12-01

    at all three sites. The carbon isotopic compositions of the methane collected from CORK 1301A (-42±2 ‰, n=4) fall within the range of isotopic values for thermogenic (-20‰ to -62‰) and near the heavy end of biogenic methane (-110‰ to -45‰). Interestingly, 16S rRNA gene-based community structure data from borehole fluid samples do not indicate the presence of known methanogens or methanotrophs. Further investigation is needed to determine the source of methane at the basement environment. Nevertheless, the presence of hydrogen and methane provide energy to sustain a potentially important component of the basaltic subseafloor biosphere. The differences in the gas contents also suggest that the fluids circulating near the three CORKs are not completely well-mixed. The presence of microhabitats helps to explain the heterogeneous fluid compositions.

  13. Structural elements and incremental strain history of the basement rocks of Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Um Had area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt shows a regional stretching in the NW-SE and a contraction in the NE-SW direction. Major NW-SE folds, small recumbent folds, and local thrusts and reverse faults were recognized. Complicated relation between folds and boudinage was identified. This stretching amount ranges from 1.282 to 1.309. Earlier coaxial and later non-coaxial strains were inferred. The change from axial to non-coaxial stress regime was gradual and the latter was associated with minor clockwise and anticlockwise rotation of structural elements. During the non-coaxial strain, strain fringes were formed as a consequence of the high circulation of fluids in low temperature and high pressure conditions. Superimposed strain fringes indicating right- and left-lateral senses of movement were recognized. At least three generations of fringes were recognized, implying three stages of non-coaxial stretching. Each generation has about 15 increments which show irregular strain gradient and intensity over the different increments. Eastwards, the strain increments became mature and westwards, the finite strain increases. The strongest finite strain was found in a narrow belt delimiting the basement rocks on the west and underlying the Phanerozoic sediments. Chocolate-tablet structure was recorded and indicates later multidirectional tension. Not all Nubia Sandstone exposures are overlying the basement rocks and some are separated by NW-SE normal faults. Major NW-SE normal faults are cutting basement rocks of different ages. (author)

  14. Uranium deposits in the Beaverlodge area, northern Saskatchewan: their relationship to the Martin Group (Proterozoic) and the underlying basement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rocks of the Martin Group crop out in an area 60 km by 50 km north of Lake Athabasca near Uranium City, northern Saskatchewan. This area has numerous uranium showings within a few kilometres of the unconformity below the Martin Group. Mineralization occurs in fault zones, in basement rocks and in sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Martin Group. Martin Group sediments accumulated in alluvial fans, braided streams, and ephemeral lakes. The thickest sequence (8 km to 10 km) is preserved in the Beaverlodge area, near Uranium City. The style of sedimentation changed through time as the basin evolved from deposition of conglomeratic detritus along fault scarps to the accumulation of silt in ephemeral lakes. The uneven nature of the sub-Martin unconformity surface, the lithotype of the lowermost conglomerates and breccias (Beaverlodge Formation), and the shape of the basin fill indicate deposition in fault-controlled basins. The earliest economic uranium mineralization in the rocks of the Martin Group was epigenetic. The mineralization was coeval with that in basement rocks. Economic mineralization in basement rocks and in the lowermost formation of the Martin Group is close to the unconformity. Epigenetic uranium mineralization thus appears to have resulted from processes that were related, in time and space, to either the formation of the unconformity or the deposition of the Martin Group or both. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  15. Metamorphism of the Basement of the Qilian Fold Belt in the Minhe-Ledu Area, Qinghai Province, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡金郎; 魏光华; 王庆树

    2002-01-01

    The basement of the central Qilian fold belt exposed along the Minhe-Ledu highway consists of psammiticschists, metabasitic rocks, and crystalline limestone. Migmatitic rocks occur sporadically among psammitic schist andmetabasitic rocks. The mineral assemblage of psammitic schist is muscovite + biotite + feldspar + quartz + tourmaline ±titanite ± sillimanite and that of metabasitic rocks is amphibole + plagioclase + biotite ± apatite ± magnetite ± pyroxene ±garnet ± quartz. The migmatitic rock consists of leucosome and restite of various volume proportions; the former consistsof muscovite + alkaline feldspar + quartz ± garnet ± plagioclase while the latter is either fragments of psammitic schist orthose of metabasitic rock. The crystalline limestone consists of calcite that has been partly replaced by olivine. The olivinewas subsequently altered to serpentine. Weak deformations as indicated by cleavages and fractures were imposed promi-nently on the psammitic schists, occasionally on metabasitic rocks, but not on migmatitic rocks. The basement experiencedmetamorphism up to temperature 606-778C and pressure 4.8-6.1 kbar (0.48-0.61 GPa), equivalent to amphibolite-granulite facies. The peak of the metamorphism is marked by a migmatization which occurred at several localities alongthe studied route 587-535 Ma ago. The basement also recorded a retrograde metamorphism of greenschist facies, duringwhich biotite, garnet, amphibole, and pyroxene were partly altered to chlorite.

  16. Kinematics and surface fracture pattern of the Anaran basement fault zone in NW of the Zagros fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joudaki, M.; Farzipour-Saein, A.; Nilfouroushan, F.

    2016-04-01

    The preexisting north-south trending basement faults and their reactivation played an important role during the evolution of the Zagros fold-thrust belt. The Anaran Basement Fault (ABF) in the Lurestan region, NW of the Zagros, has been considered as a N-S trending basement lineament, although its surface structural expression is still debated. In this study, we use satellite images and field observations to identify and analyze the fractures in the sedimentary cover above the ABF. Fracture analysis demonstrates that approaching the ABF, the fracture pattern changes. The fractures association with reactivation of the deep-seated preexisting ABF can be categorized in four sets based on their directions. The mean direction for maximum compressional stress is different between the fault- and fold-related fractures within and around the ABF shear zone. We estimated an orientation of N30° ± 5° for the fault-related fractures and N45° ± 5° for the fold-related fracture sets outside of the ABF shear zone. This difference suggests that the fold-related and fault-related fracture sets have been formed in different two stages of deformation throughout the area. The axial traces of some folds, especially the Anaran anticline, demonstrate a right-lateral offset along the ABF, such that, in central part of the Anaran anticline, the fold axis of this anticline is changed from its original NW-SE trend to approximately north-south trend of the ABF.

  17. Scaling and geometric properties of extensional fracture systems in the proterozoic basement of Yemen. Tectonic interpretation and fluid flow implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Garzic, Edouard; de L'Hamaide, Thibaut; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; Sausse, Judith; de Urreiztieta, Marc; Hauville, Benoît; Champanhet, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    Multi-scale mappings of fracture systems in the crystalline basement of Yemen are presented. Fracture datasets are described through statistical analyses of direction, length, spacing, density, and spatial distribution. Results are combined with field observations and can be directly used to model the geometry of the fracture networks in analog basement rocks, from multi-kilometric to decametric scales. The fractured reservoir analog is defined with a dual porosity model in which tectonic and joint systems correspond to the basement reservoir "backbone" and "matrix" respectively. These two end-members reveal contrasting geometrical, reservoir, and scaling properties. In tectonic systems, multi-scale geometries are "self-similar", the fracture network shows fractal behavior (power-law length distribution and clustered spacing), and fault zones show hierarchical organization of geometrical parameters such as length, thickness, and spacing. In joint systems, the fracture network is scale dependent with exponential length distribution, and shows anti-clustered spacing. However, these two end-members have both well-connected properties, with fault zones acting as main drain and joint systems acting as the fluid supply.

  18. The first deep heat flow determination in crystalline basement rocks beneath the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorowicz, Jacek; Chan, Judith; Crowell, James; Gosnold, Will; Heaman, Larry M.; Kück, Jochem; Nieuwenhuis, Greg; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Unsworth, Martyn; Walsh, Nathaniel; Weides, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Heat flow (Q) determined from bottom-hole temperatures measured in oil and gas wells in Alberta show a large scatter with values ranging from 40 to 90 mW m-2. Only two precise measurements of heat flow were previously reported in Alberta, and were made more than half a century ago. These were made in wells located near Edmonton, Alberta, and penetrated the upper kilometre of clastic sedimentary rocks yielding heat flows values of 61 and 67 mW m-2 (Garland & Lennox). Here, we report a new precise heat flow determination from a 2363-m deep well drilled into basement granite rocks just west of Fort McMurray, Alberta (the Hunt Well). Temperature logs acquired in 2010-2011 show a significant increase in the thermal gradient in the granite due to palaeoclimatic effects. In the case of the Hunt Well, heat flow at depths >2200 m is beyond the influence of the glacial-interglacial surface temperatures. Thermal conductivity and temperature measurements in the Hunt Well have shown that the heat flow below 2.2 km is 51 mW m-2 (±3 mW m-2), thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method under bottom of the well in situ like condition is 2.5 W m-1 K-1, and 2.7 W m-1 K-1 in ambient conditions), and the geothermal gradient was measured as 20.4 mK m-1. The palaeoclimatic effect causes an underestimate of heat flow derived from measurements collected at depths shallower than 2200 m, meaning other heat flow estimates calculated from basin measurements have likely been underestimated. Heat production (A) was calculated from spectral gamma recorded in the Hunt Well granites to a depth of 1880 m and give an average A of 3.4 and 2.9 μW m-3 for the whole depth range of granites down to 2263 m, based on both gamma and spectral logs. This high A explains the relatively high heat flow measured within the Precambrian basement intersected by the Hunt Well; the Taltson Magmatic Zone. Heat flow and related heat generation from the Hunt Well fits the heat flow-heat generation

  19. Rift architecture and evolution: The Sirt Basin, Libya: The influence of basement fabrics and oblique tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdunaser, K. M.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary northwest-trending Sirt Basin system, Libya, is a rift/sag basin formed on Pan-African to Paleozoic-aged basement of North Africa. In this study, we investigate the rift-basin architecture and tectonic framework of the western Sirt Basin. Using remote sensed data, supported by borehole data from about 300 deep wells and surface geologic maps, we constructed geological cross sections and surface geology maps. Indication of the relative timing of structures and movement along faults has been determined where possible. Direction statistics for all the interpreted linear features acquired in the study area were calculated and given as a total distribution and then the totals are broken down by the major basin elements of the area. Hundreds of lineaments were recognized. Their lengths, range between a hundred meters up to hundreds of kilometers and the longest of the dominant trends are between N35W-N55W and between N55E-N65E which coincides with Sirt Basin structures. The produced rose diagrams reveal that the majority of the surface linear features in the region have four preferred orientations: N40-50W in the Zallah Trough, N45-55W in the Dur al Abd Trough, N35-55W in the Az Zahrah-Al Hufrah Platform, and in contrast in the Waddan Uplift a N55-65E trend. We recognize six lithostratigraphic sequences (phases) in the area's stratigraphic framework. A Pre-graben (Pre-rift) initiation stage involved the Pre-Cretaceous sediments formed before the main Sirt Basin subsidence. Then followed a Cretaceous to Eocene graben-fill stage that can divided into four structurally-active and structurally-inactive periods, and finally a terminal continental siliciclastics-rich package representing the post-rift stage of the development in post-Eocene time. In general five major fault systems dissect and divide the study area into geomorphological elevated blocks and depressions. Most of the oil fields present in the study area are associated with structural hinge

  20. Post-orogenic exhumation history of a Variscan mid-crustal basement in Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Rene; Alvarez-Marrón, Joaquina; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Stuart, Finlay; Castañeda-Zarauz, A.

    2010-05-01

    The present study aims to quantify the complex post-orogenic history of cooling, denudation, and long-term landscape evolution of a mid-crustal section of Variscan basement in Galicia (NW Spain). We use apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronological techniques combined with time-temperature (t-T) path modelling using the software code HeFTy©. The topography is characterized by an extensive, low relief area at ~500 m elevation in central Galicia, and a WNW-ESE ridge that reaches up to 1000 m to the North. The area experienced two major tectonic events since the end of the Variscan orogeny in the Late Palaeozoic: 1) continental break-up and Mesozoic rifting leading to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay, and 2) limited convergence between Iberia and Eurasia since Middle Eocene times. Apatite fission-track ages range from 68.1 ± 5.0 Ma to 174.5 ± 7.7 Ma and apatite (U-Th)/He ages range from 73.6 ± 5.4 to 147.1 ± 16.6 Ma. Age-elevation plots and t-T path modelling suggest a tectonothermal evolution with faster exhumation associated to faulting during Mesozoic rifting. In particular, two major fault systems trending WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW, the As Pontes and the Lugo faults respectively separate areas with the fastest exhumation around 115 Ma from areas with overall slow exhumation since 200-150 Ma. A landscape of subdued topography in central Galicia was acquired prior to Eocene convergence. The higher elevation areas along the northern ridge formed since Middle Eocene times due to fault reactivation and minor exhumation occurred along the fault escarpment.