WorldWideScience

Sample records for baselines reveal potential

  1. Digital signal processing reveals circadian baseline oscillation in majority of mammalian genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A Ptitsyn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, circadian periodicity has been described for gene expression in the hypothalamus and multiple peripheral tissues. It is accepted that 10%-15% of all genes oscillate in a daily rhythm, regulated by an intrinsic molecular clock. Statistical analyses of periodicity are limited by the small size of datasets and high levels of stochastic noise. Here, we propose a new approach applying digital signal processing algorithms separately to each group of genes oscillating in the same phase. Combined with the statistical tests for periodicity, this method identifies circadian baseline oscillation in almost 100% of all expressed genes. Consequently, circadian oscillation in gene expression should be evaluated in any study related to biological pathways. Changes in gene expression caused by mutations or regulation of environmental factors (such as photic stimuli or feeding should be considered in the context of changes in the amplitude and phase of genetic oscillations.

  2. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia reveal new threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ponti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  3. The long-period eccentric orbit of the particle accelerator HD 167971 revealed by long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; Sana, H.; Absil, O.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Blomme, R.

    2012-07-01

    Using optical long baseline interferometry, we resolved for the first time the two wide components of HD 167971, a candidate hierarchical triple system known to efficiently accelerate particles. Our multi-epoch Very Large Telescope Interferometer observations provide direct evidence for a gravitational link between the O8 supergiant and the close eclipsing O + O binary. The separation varies from 8 to 15 mas over the 3-year baseline of our observations, suggesting that the components evolve on a wide and very eccentric orbit (most probably e > 0.5). These results provide evidence that the wide orbit revealed by our study is not coplanar with the orbit of the inner eclipsing binary. From our measurements of the near-infrared luminosity ratio, we constrain the spectral classification of the components in the close binary to be O6-O7, and confirm that these stars are likely main-sequence objects. Our results are discussed in the context of the bright non-thermal radio emission already reported for this system, and we provide arguments in favour of a maximum radio emission coincident with periastron passage. HD 167971 turns out to be an efficient O-type particle accelerator that constitutes a valuable target for future high angular resolution radio imaging using Very Long Baseline Interferometry facilities. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, under the programme IDs 381.D-0095, 086.D-0586 and 087.D-0264.

  4. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  5. Consistency of Handedness, Regardless of Direction, Predicts Baseline Memory Accuracy and Potential for Memory Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B.; Hanaver-Torrez, Shelley D.; Hacklander, Ryan P.; Edlin, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that consistently right-handed individuals have poorer memory than do inconsistently right- or left-handed individuals under baseline conditions but more reliably exhibit enhanced memory retrieval after making a series of saccadic eye movements. From this it could be that consistent versus inconsistent handedness, regardless of…

  6. The long-period eccentric orbit of the particle accelerator HD 167971 revealed by long baseline interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Becker, M.; Sana, H.; Absil, O.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Blomme, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using optical long baseline interferometry, we resolved for the first time the two wide components of HD 167971, a candidate hierarchical triple system known to efficiently accelerate particles. Our multi-epoch Very Large Telescope Interferometer observations provide direct evidence for a gravitatio

  7. Limb-Brightened Jet of 3C 84 Revealed by the 43-GHz Very-Long-Baseline-Array Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, H; Giovannini, G; Doi, A; Orienti, M; D'Ammando, F; Kino, M; Nakamura, M; Asada, K; Hada, K; Giroletti, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of sub-pc scale radio structure of the radio galaxy 3C 84/NGC 1275 based on the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data at 43 GHz. We discover a limb-brightening in the "restarted" jet associated with the 2005 radio outburst. In the 1990s, the jet structure was ridge-brightening rather than limb-brightening, despite the observations being done with similar angular resolution. This indicates that the transverse jet structure has changed recently. This change in the morphology shows an interesting agreement with the $\\gamma$-ray flux increase, i.e., the $\\gamma$-ray flux in 1990s was at least seven times lower than the current one. One plausible explanation for the limb-brightening is the velocity structure of the jet in the context of the stratified jet, which is a successful scenario to explain the $\\gamma$-ray emission in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs). If this is the case, the change in apparent transverse structure might be caused by the change in the transverse velocity structure. We a...

  8. Baseline brain activity changes in patients with clinically isolated syndrome revealed by resting-state functional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Yu, Chunshui [Dept. of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China); Ye, Jing [Dept. of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Dept. of Medicine, Univ. of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Dong, Huiqing [Dept. of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China); Li, Kuncheng [Dept. of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of MRI and Brain Informatics, Beijing (China)], E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn

    2012-11-15

    Background A clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) is the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous task-related functional MRI studies demonstrate functional reorganization in patients with CIS. Purpose To assess baseline brain activity changes in patients with CIS by using the technique of regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index in resting-state fMRI. Material and Methods Resting-state fMRIs data acquired from 37 patients with CIS and 37 age- and sex-matched normal controls were compared to investigate ALFF differences. The relationships between ALFF in regions with significant group differences and the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), disease duration, and T2 lesion volume (T2LV) were further explored. Results Patients with CIS had significantly decreased ALFF in the right anterior cingulate cortex, right caudate, right lingual gyrus, and right cuneus (P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons using Monte Carlo simulation) compared to normal controls, while no significantly increased ALFF were observed in CIS. No significant correlation was found between the EDSS, disease duration, T2LV, and ALFF in regions with significant group differences. Conclusion In patients with CIS, resting-state fMRI demonstrates decreased activity in several brain regions. These results are in contrast to patients with established MS, in whom ALFF demonstrates several regions of increased activity. It is possible that this shift from decreased activity in CIS to increased activity in MS could reflect the dynamics of cortical reorganization.

  9. Physics Potential of a Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment Using J-PARC Neutrino Beam and Hyper-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Andreopoulos, C; Anghel, I; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Asfandiyarov, R; Askins, M; Back, J J; Ballett, P; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bay, F; Beltrame, P; Berardi, V; Bergevin, M; Berkman, S; Berry, T; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Boyd, S B; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Cafagna, F S; Carminati, G; Cartwright, S L; Catanesi, M G; Choi, K; Choi, J H; Collazuol, G; Cowan, G; Cremonesi, L; Davies, G; De Rosa, G; Densham, C; Detwiler, J; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Fernández, P; Feusels, T; Finch, A; Fitton, M; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Fukuda, D; Galymov, V; Ganezer, K; Gonin, M; Gumplinger, P; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haesler, A; Haga, Y; Hartfiel, B; Hartz, M; Hayato, Y; Hierholzer, M; Hill, J; Himmel, A; Hirota, S; Horiuchi, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Iijima, T; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Inoue, K; Insler, J; Intonti, R A; Irvine, T; Ishida, T; Ishino, H; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Izmaylov, A; Jamieson, B; Jang, H I; Jiang, M; Joo, K K; Jung, C K; Kaboth, A; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Karadhzov, Y; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, T; Koga, M; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W R; Kudenko, Y; Kutter, T; Kuze, M; Labarga, L; Lagoda, J; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Learned, J G; Lim, I T; Lindner, T; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Ma, W; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Mariani, C; Marti, L; Martin, J F; Martin, C; Martins, P P J; Mazzucato, E; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mezzetto, M; Minakata, H; Minamino, A; Mine, S; Mineev, O; Miura, M; Monroe, J; Mori, T; Moriyama, S; Mueller, T; Muheim, F; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakaya, T; Nakayama, S; Needham, M; Nicholls, T; Nirkko, M; Nishimura, Y; Noah, E; Nowak, J; Nunokawa, H; O'Keeffe, H M; Okajima, Y; Okumura, K; Oser, S M; O'Sullivan, E; Ovsiannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Pérez, J; Pac, M Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Pistillo, C; Playfer, S; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J -M; Quilain, B; Quinto, M; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A; Redij, A; Retiere, F; Riccio, C; Richard, E; Rondio, E; Rose, H J; Ross-Lonergan, M; Rott, C; Rountree, S D; Rubbia, A; Sacco, R; Sakuda, M; Sanchez, M C; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Shaikhiev, A; Shimizu, I; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Sinnis, G; Smy, M B; Sobczyk, J; Sobel, H W; Stewart, T; Stone, J L; Suda, Y; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, A T; Svoboda, R; Tacik, R; Takeda, A; Taketa, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, H K M; Tanaka, H; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorpe, M; Tobayama, S; Tolich, N; Tomura, T; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vagins, M R; Vasseur, G; Vogelaar, R B; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilson, J R; Xin, T; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Zito, M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper-Kamiokande will be a next generation underground water Cherenkov detector with a total (fiducial) mass of 0.99 (0.56) million metric tons, approximately 20 (25) times larger than that of Super-Kamiokande. One of the main goals of Hyper-Kamiokande is the study of $CP$ asymmetry in the lepton sector using accelerator neutrino and anti-neutrino beams. In this paper, the physics potential of a long baseline neutrino experiment using the Hyper-Kamiokande detector and a neutrino beam from the J-PARC proton synchrotron is presented. The analysis uses the framework and systematic uncertainties derived from the ongoing T2K experiment. With a total exposure of 7.5 MW $\\times$ 10$^7$ sec integrated proton beam power (corresponding to $1.56\\times10^{22}$ protons on target with a 30 GeV proton beam) to a $2.5$-degree off-axis neutrino beam, it is expected that the leptonic $CP$ phase $\\delta_{CP}$ can be determined to better than 19 degrees for all possible values of $\\delta_{CP}$, and $CP$ violation can be establis...

  10. Biophysical characteristics reveal neural stem cell differentiation potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima H Labeed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing human neural stem/progenitor cell (huNSPC populations that will predominantly generate neurons from those that produce glia is currently hampered by a lack of sufficient cell type-specific surface markers predictive of fate potential. This limits investigation of lineage-biased progenitors and their potential use as therapeutic agents. A live-cell biophysical and label-free measure of fate potential would solve this problem by obviating the need for specific cell surface markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used dielectrophoresis (DEP to analyze the biophysical, specifically electrophysiological, properties of cortical human and mouse NSPCs that vary in differentiation potential. Our data demonstrate that the electrophysiological property membrane capacitance inversely correlates with the neurogenic potential of NSPCs. Furthermore, as huNSPCs are continually passaged they decrease neuron generation and increase membrane capacitance, confirming that this parameter dynamically predicts and negatively correlates with neurogenic potential. In contrast, differences in membrane conductance between NSPCs do not consistently correlate with the ability of the cells to generate neurons. DEP crossover frequency, which is a quantitative measure of cell behavior in DEP, directly correlates with neuron generation of NSPCs, indicating a potential mechanism to separate stem cells biased to particular differentiated cell fates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show here that whole cell membrane capacitance, but not membrane conductance, reflects and predicts the neurogenic potential of human and mouse NSPCs. Stem cell biophysical characteristics therefore provide a completely novel and quantitative measure of stem cell fate potential and a label-free means to identify neuron- or glial-biased progenitors.

  11. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

  12. Brain potentials reveal unconscious translation during foreign-language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Guillaume; Wu, Yan Jing

    2007-07-24

    Whether the native language of bilingual individuals is active during second-language comprehension is the subject of lively debate. Studies of bilingualism have often used a mix of first- and second-language words, thereby creating an artificial "dual-language" context. Here, using event-related brain potentials, we demonstrate implicit access to the first language when bilinguals read words exclusively in their second language. Chinese-English bilinguals were required to decide whether English words presented in pairs were related in meaning or not; they were unaware of the fact that half of the words concealed a character repetition when translated into Chinese. Whereas the hidden factor failed to affect behavioral performance, it significantly modulated brain potentials in the expected direction, establishing that English words were automatically and unconsciously translated into Chinese. Critically, the same modulation was found in Chinese monolinguals reading the same words in Chinese, i.e., when Chinese character repetition was evident. Finally, we replicated this pattern of results in the auditory modality by using a listening comprehension task. These findings demonstrate that native-language activation is an unconscious correlate of second-language comprehension.

  13. Effects of baseline levels of flexibility and vertical jump ability on performance following different volumes of static stretching and potentiating exercises in elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donti, Olyvia; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Bogdanis, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of baseline flexibility and vertical jump ability on straight leg raise range of motion (ROM) and counter-movement jump performance (CMJ) following different volumes of stretching and potentiating exercises. ROM and CMJ were measured after two different warm-up protocols involving static stretching and potentiating exercises. Three groups of elite athletes (10 male, 14 female artistic gymnasts and 10 female rhythmic gymnasts) varying greatly in ROM and CMJ, performed two warm-up routines. One warm-up included short (15 s) static stretching followed by 5 tuck jumps, while the other included long static stretching (30 s) followed by 3x5 tuck jumps. ROM and CMJ were measured before, during and for 12 min after the two warm-up routines. Three-way ANOVA showed large differences between the three groups in baseline ROM and CMJ performance. A type of warm-up x time interaction was found for both ROM (p = 0.031) and CMJ (p = 0.016). However, all athletes, irrespective of group, responded in a similar fashion to the different warm-up protocols for both ROM and CMJ, as indicated from the lack of significant interactions for group (condition x group, time x group or condition x time x group). In the short warm-up protocol, ROM was not affected by stretching, while in the long warm-up protocol ROM increased by 5.9% ± 0.7% (p = 0.001) after stretching. Similarly, CMJ remained unchanged after the short warm-up protocol, but increased by 4.6 ± 0.9% (p = 0.012) 4 min after the long warm- up protocol, despite the increased ROM. It is concluded that the initial levels of flexibility and CMJ performance do not alter the responses of elite gymnasts to warm-up protocols differing in stretching and potentiating exercise volumes. Furthermore, 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps result in a relatively large increase in CMJ performance despite an increase in flexibility in these highly-trained athletes. Key PointsThe initial levels of flexibility and vertical jump

  14. Effects of Baseline Levels of Flexibility and Vertical Jump Ability on Performance Following Different Volumes of Static Stretching and Potentiating Exercises in Elite Gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olyvia Donti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of baseline flexibility and vertical jump ability on straight leg raise range of motion (ROM and counter-movement jump performance (CMJ following different volumes of stretching and potentiating exercises. ROM and CMJ were measured after two different warm-up protocols involving static stretching and potentiating exercises. Three groups of elite athletes (10 male, 14 female artistic gymnasts and 10 female rhythmic gymnasts varying greatly in ROM and CMJ, performed two warm-up routines. One warm-up included short (15 s static stretching followed by 5 tuck jumps, while the other included long static stretching (30 s followed by 3x5 tuck jumps. ROM and CMJ were measured before, during and for 12 min after the two warm-up routines. Three-way ANOVA showed large differences between the three groups in baseline ROM and CMJ performance. A type of warm-up x time interaction was found for both ROM (p = 0.031 and CMJ (p = 0.016. However, all athletes, irrespective of group, responded in a similar fashion to the different warm-up protocols for both ROM and CMJ, as indicated from the lack of significant interactions for group (condition x group, time x group or condition x time x group. In the short warm-up protocol, ROM was not affected by stretching, while in the long warm-up protocol ROM increased by 5.9% ± 0.7% (p = 0.001 after stretching. Similarly, CMJ remained unchanged after the short warm-up protocol, but increased by 4.6 ± 0.9% (p = 0.012 4 min after the long warm- up protocol, despite the increased ROM. It is concluded that the initial levels of flexibility and CMJ performance do not alter the responses of elite gymnasts to warm-up protocols differing in stretching and potentiating exercise volumes. Furthermore, 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps result in a relatively large increase in CMJ performance despite an increase in flexibility in these highly-trained athletes.

  15. BRAIN DYSFUNCTION OF PATIENTS WITH QIGONG INDUCED MENTAL DISORDER REVEALED BY EVOKED POTENTIALS RECORDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yingzhi; ZONG Wenbin; CHEN Xingshi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the brain function of patients with Qigong induced mental disorder (QIMD), this study was carried out. Methods: Four kinds of evoked potentials, including contingent negative variation (CNV), auditory evoked potentials (AEP), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), were recorded from 12 patients with Qigong induced mental disorder.Comparison of their evoked potentials with the data from some normal controls was made. Results: The results revealed that there were 3 kinds of abnormal changes in evoked potentials of patients with QIMD that is latency prolongation, amplitude increase and amplitude decrease, as compared with normal controls. Conclusion: Brain dysfunction of patients with QIMD was confirmed. Its biological mechanism needs further studying.

  16. A nonlinear strategy to reveal seismic precursory signatures in earthquake-related self-potential signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Ramirez-Rojas, Alejandro; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    The time fluctuations of self-potential data, recorded at the monitoring station Acapulco (Mexico) during 1994-1996 in the seismic area of Guerrero-Oaxaca, are analyzed by means of the Fisher Information Measure (FIM), a nonlinear powerful method to investigate complex dynamics in time series. The time evolution of the FIM shows a clear correlation with the largest earthquakes that occurred in the monitored area during the observation period. Seismic precursory patterns in the FIM evolution are also revealed.

  17. Educational games for brain health: revealing their unexplored potential through a neurocognitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eFissler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational games link the motivational nature of games with learning of knowledge and skills. Here, we go beyond effects on these learning outcomes. We review two lines of evidence which indicate the currently unexplored potential of educational games to promote brain health: First, gaming with specific neurocognitive demands (e.g., executive control, and second, educational learning experiences (e.g., studying foreign languages improve brain health markers. These markers include cognitive ability, brain function, and brain structure. As educational games allow the combination of specific neurocognitive demands with educational learning experiences, they seem to be optimally suited for promoting brain health. We propose a neurocognitive approach to reveal this unexplored potential of educational games in future research.

  18. Educational games for brain health: revealing their unexplored potential through a neurocognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissler, Patrick; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schrader, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Educational games link the motivational nature of games with learning of knowledge and skills. Here, we go beyond effects on these learning outcomes. We review two lines of evidence which indicate the currently unexplored potential of educational games to promote brain health: First, gaming with specific neurocognitive demands (e.g., executive control), and second, educational learning experiences (e.g., studying foreign languages) improve brain health markers. These markers include cognitive ability, brain function, and brain structure. As educational games allow the combination of specific neurocognitive demands with educational learning experiences, they seem to be optimally suited for promoting brain health. We propose a neurocognitive approach to reveal this unexplored potential of educational games in future research.

  19. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about...... the transcriptome, and may reveal novel genes affecting complex diseases. Integration of genomic and transcriptomic variation (expression quantitative trait loci [eQTL] mapping) has identified causal variants that affect complex diseases. We integrated transcriptomic data from adipose tissue and genomic data from...... a porcine model to investigate the mechanisms involved in obesity using a systems genetics approach. METHODS: Using a selective gene expression profiling approach, we selected 36 animals based on a previously created genomic Obesity Index for RNA sequencing of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Differential...

  20. Functional splicing network reveals extensive regulatory potential of the core spliceosomal machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasaikas, Panagiotis; Tejedor, J Ramón; Vigevani, Luisa; Valcárcel, Juan

    2015-01-08

    Pre-mRNA splicing relies on the poorly understood dynamic interplay between >150 protein components of the spliceosome. The steps at which splicing can be regulated remain largely unknown. We systematically analyzed the effect of knocking down the components of the splicing machinery on alternative splicing events relevant for cell proliferation and apoptosis and used this information to reconstruct a network of functional interactions. The network accurately captures known physical and functional associations and identifies new ones, revealing remarkable regulatory potential of core spliceosomal components, related to the order and duration of their recruitment during spliceosome assembly. In contrast with standard models of regulation at early steps of splice site recognition, factors involved in catalytic activation of the spliceosome display regulatory properties. The network also sheds light on the antagonism between hnRNP C and U2AF, and on targets of antitumor drugs, and can be widely used to identify mechanisms of splicing regulation.

  1. Early somatosensory event-related potentials reveal attentional bias for internal stimuli in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yoshihiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Kubo, Kenta; Sasaki-Aoki, Shoko; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2012-03-01

    The present study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate allocation of attentional resources to internal and external stimuli in individuals with social anxiety. High and low socially anxious individuals were presented with depictions of various facial expressions or household objects, followed by an internal (vibration presented to the finger) or external probe (the letter "E"). Participants were told that the vibration signals physiological changes and were asked to detect both probes. High socially anxious individuals showed larger front-central N140 amplitudes in response to vibratory internal probes as compared to non-anxious controls. ERPs elicited by picture stimuli and external probes and reaction times in response to both probe types did not differ between high and low social anxiety individuals. Early somatosensory ERPs reveal an attentional bias for internal stimuli that does not appear in overt behavior.

  2. Event-related potentials can reveal differences between two decision-making groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, T R; Muckert, T D

    1998-02-01

    Previous research has shown that a complex decision is dependent on an underlying utility metric that is used by decision making processes to accumulate preference for one alternative. This study postulated that a state of indecision may arise if this underlying metric is poorly organized. The underlying metric was examined with a paired comparison task while measuring event-related potentials (ERP) for subjects classified as 'career decided' and 'career undecided'. Stimuli for comparison were presented either sequentially or simultaneously. The simultaneous condition produced results consistent with the hypothesis that undecided subjects have a poorly organized value metric as revealed in both the behavioral data and the P3 component. A relationship between P3 amplitude and word distance on the underlying metric was found only for the decided group. This was interpreted in terms of the previously documented relationship between P3 and the constructs of decision confidence and task difficulty.

  3. Revealing the potential of squid chitosan-based structures for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reys, L L; Silva, S S; Oliveira, J M; Caridade, S G; Mano, J F; Silva, T H; Reis, R L

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, much attention has been given to different marine organisms, namely as potential sources of valuable materials with a vast range of properties and characteristics. In this work, β-chitin was isolated from the endoskeleton of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas and further deacetylated to produce chitosan. Then, the squid chitosan was processed into membranes and scaffolds using solvent casting and freeze-drying, respectively, to assess their potential biomedical application. The developed membranes have shown to be stiffer and less hydrophobic than those obtained with commercial chitosan. On the other hand, the morphological characterization of the developed scaffolds, by SEM and micro-computed tomography, revealed that the matrices were formed with a lamellar structure. The findings also indicated that the treatment with ethanol prior to neutralization with sodium hydroxide caused the formation of larger pores and loss of some lamellar features. The in vitro cell culture study has shown that all chitosan scaffolds exhibited a non-cytotoxic effect over the mouse fibroblast-like cell line, L929 cells. Thus, chitosan produced from the endoskeletons of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas has proven to be a valuable alternative to existing commercial materials when considering its use as biomaterial.

  4. Revealing the potential of Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide as efficient scaffold for fabrication of nano liquid crystalline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Rohini; Kaur, Gurpreet; Mehta, S K

    2016-03-01

    To exploit the potential of Didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (D12DAB) as a core lipidic constituent, an attempt was made to fabricate and optimize cationic nanostructured lipid carriers (cNLCs) using a cost-effective microemulsification methodology. Designed composition was optimized by studying the effect of different microemulsion components on D12DAB cNLCs characteristics. ​Spherical shaped D12DAB cNLCs were obtained with an average size of ∼160 nm and zeta potential of +30.2 mV. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) depicted the presence of thermotropic character, whereas polarized optical microscopy confirmed the mesophase like behavior of D12DAB based cNLCs. In addition, hemolysis analysis revealed that the toxicity was concentration dependent as LC50 was reached at a concentration of 50 μg/mL of cNLCs. This class of cNLCs is expected to become a potent candidate for a broad spectrum of medicaments as carriers, targeting for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes, due to the combination of a hard lipid with a soft lipid, where the liquid crystalline structure of the lipid co-exists.

  5. Dynamic chromatin states in human ES cells reveal potential regulatory sequences and genes involved in pluripotency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R David Hawkins; Zhen Ye; Samantha Kuan; Pengzhi Yu; Hui Liu; Xinmin Zhang; Roland D Green; Victor V Lobanenkov; Ron Stewart; James A Thomson; Bing Ren; Gary C Hon; Chuhu Yang; Jessica E Antosiewicz-Bourget; LeonardKLee; Que-Minh Ngo; Sarit Klugman; Keith A Ching; Lee E Edsall

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotency,the ability of a cell to differentiate and give rise to all embryonic lineages,defines a small number of mammalian cell types such as embryonic stem (ES) cells.While it has been generally held that pluripotency is the product of a transcriptional regulatory network that activates and maintains the expression of key stem cell genes,accumulating evidence is pointing to a critical role for epigenetic processes in establishing and safeguarding the pluripotency of ES cells,as well as maintaining the identity of differentiated cell types.In order to better understand the role of epigenetic mechanisms in pluripotency,we have examined the dynamics of chromatin modifications genomewide in human ES cells (hESCs) undergoing differentiation into a mesendodermal lineage.We found that chromatin modifications at promoters remain largely invariant during differentiation,except at a small number of promoters where a dynamic switch between acetylation and methylation at H3K27 marks the transition between activation and silencing of gene expression,suggesting a hierarchy in cell fate commitment over most differentially expressed genes.We also mapped over 50 000 potential enhancers,and observed much greater dynamics in chromatin modifications,especially H3K4mel and H3K27ac,which correlate with expression of their potential target genes.Further analysis of these enhancers revealed potentially key transcriptional regulators of pluripotency and a chromatin signature indicative of a poised state that may confer developmental competence in hESCs.Our results provide new evidence supporting the role of chromatin modifications in defining enhancers and pluripotency.

  6. Baseline well inventory and groundwater-quality data from a potential shale gas resource area in parts of Lee and Chatham Counties, North Carolina, October 2011-August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Gurley, Laura N.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Records were obtained for 305 wells and 1 spring in northwestern Lee and southeastern Chatham counties, North Carolina. Well depths ranged from 26 to 720 feet and yields ranged from 0.25 to 100 gallons per minute. A subset of 56 wells and 1 spring were sampled for baseline groundwaterquality constituents including the following: major ions; dissolved metals; nutrients; dissolved gases (including methane); volatile and semivolatile organic compounds; glycols; isotopes of strontium, radium, methane (if sufficient concentration), and water; and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon. Dissolved methane gas concentrations were low, ranging from less than 0.00007 (lowest reporting level) to 0.48 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nitrate, boron, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, total dissolved solids, and measurements of pH exceeded federal and state drinking water standards in a few samples. Iron and manganese concentrations exceeded the secondary (aesthetic) drinking water standard in approximately 35 to 37 percent of the samples.

  7. Electrophysiological potentials reveal cortical mechanisms for mental imagery, mental simulation, and grounded (embodied cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haline E. Schendan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grounded cognition theory proposes that cognition, including meaning, is grounded in sensorimotor processing. The mechanism for grounding cognition is mental simulation, which is a type of mental imagery that re-enacts modal processing. To reveal top-down, cortical mechanisms for mental simulation of shape, event-related potentials were recorded to face and object pictures preceded by mental imagery of a picture. Mental imagery of the identical face or object (congruous condition facilitated not only categorical perception (VPP/N170 but also later visual knowledge (N3[00] complex and linguistic knowledge (N400 for faces more than objects, and strategic semantic analysis (late positive complex between 200 and 700 ms. The later effects resembled semantic congruity effects with pictures. Mental imagery also facilitated category decisions, as a P3(00 peaked earlier for congruous than incongruous (other category pictures, resembling the case when identical pictures repeat immediately. Thus mental imagery mimics semantic congruity and immediate repetition priming processes with pictures. Perception control results showed the opposite for faces and were in the same direction for objects: Perceptual repetition adapts (and so impairs processing of perceived faces from categorical perception onwards, but primes processing of objects during categorical perception, visual knowledge processes, and strategic semantic analysis. For both imagery and perception, differences between faces and objects support domain-specificity and indicate that cognition is grounded in modal processing. Altogether, this direct neural evidence reveals that top-down processes of mental imagery sustain an imagistic representation that mimics perception well enough to prime subsequent perception and cognition. This also suggests that automatic mental simulation of the visual shape of faces and objects operates between 200 and 400 ms, and strategic mental simulation operates between

  8. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-01

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower

  9. Exome sequencing reveals a potential mutational trajectory and treatments for a specific pancreatic cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotterell J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available James Cotterell1,21Center for Genomic Regulation, Barcelona, Spain; 2Garvan Institute for Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth biggest killer, and has one of the worst prognoses, of any cancer type. Approximately 95% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer will not survive beyond 5 years post diagnosis, and these statistics have barely improved in over 40 years. Here, genomic changes in one particular patient with stage IV metastatic pancreatic cancer were explored to suggest a potential personalized treatment. In particular, exome sequencing of genomic DNA extracted from blood and the cancer biopsy was utilized with the aim of identifying mutational drivers of the cancer. This analysis revealed a splice site mutation in RBCK1 as the most promising driver of the cancer and a therapy based on a pan-cyclin-dependent kinase (pan-CDK inhibitor, flavopiridol. This study suggests that drugs whose effectiveness is unclear for general populations of cancer sufferers should possibly be reconsidered for specific patients where the drug could be rationally argued to improve outcome.Keyword: personalized medicine, driver mutation identification, next generation sequencing

  10. Potential Role of the Last Half Repeat in TAL Effectors Revealed by a Molecular Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TAL effectors (TALEs contain a modular DNA-binding domain that is composed of tandem repeats. In all naturally occurring TALEs, the end of tandem repeats is invariantly a truncated half repeat. To investigate the potential role of the last half repeat in TALEs, we performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal structure of DNA-bound TALE AvrBs3 lacking the last half repeat and its modeled structure having the last half repeat. The structural stability analysis indicates that the modeled system is more stable than the nonmodeled system. Based on the principle component analysis, it is found that the AvrBs3 increases its structural compactness in the presence of the last half repeat. The comparison of DNA groove parameters of the two systems implies that the last half repeat also causes the change of DNA major groove binding efficiency. The following calculation of hydrogen bond reveals that, by stabilizing the phosphate binding with DNA at the C-terminus, the last half repeat helps to adopt a compact conformation at the protein-DNA interface. It further mediates more contacts between TAL repeats and DNA nucleotide bases. Finally, we suggest that the last half repeat is required for the high-efficient recognition of DNA by TALE.

  11. Potential Role of the Last Half Repeat in TAL Effectors Revealed by a Molecular Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hua; Chang, Shan; Hu, Jian-ping; Tian, Xu-hong

    2016-01-01

    TAL effectors (TALEs) contain a modular DNA-binding domain that is composed of tandem repeats. In all naturally occurring TALEs, the end of tandem repeats is invariantly a truncated half repeat. To investigate the potential role of the last half repeat in TALEs, we performed comparative molecular dynamics simulations for the crystal structure of DNA-bound TALE AvrBs3 lacking the last half repeat and its modeled structure having the last half repeat. The structural stability analysis indicates that the modeled system is more stable than the nonmodeled system. Based on the principle component analysis, it is found that the AvrBs3 increases its structural compactness in the presence of the last half repeat. The comparison of DNA groove parameters of the two systems implies that the last half repeat also causes the change of DNA major groove binding efficiency. The following calculation of hydrogen bond reveals that, by stabilizing the phosphate binding with DNA at the C-terminus, the last half repeat helps to adopt a compact conformation at the protein-DNA interface. It further mediates more contacts between TAL repeats and DNA nucleotide bases. Finally, we suggest that the last half repeat is required for the high-efficient recognition of DNA by TALE. PMID:27803930

  12. The time course of word retrieval revealed by event-related brain potentials during overt speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Albert; Strijkers, Kristof; Martin, Clara; Thierry, Guillaume

    2009-12-15

    Speech production is one of the most fundamental activities of humans. A core cognitive operation involved in this skill is the retrieval of words from long-term memory, that is, from the mental lexicon. In this article, we establish the time course of lexical access by recording the brain electrical activity of participants while they named pictures aloud. By manipulating the ordinal position of pictures belonging to the same semantic categories, the cumulative semantic interference effect, we were able to measure the exact time at which lexical access takes place. We found significant correlations between naming latencies, ordinal position of pictures, and event-related potential mean amplitudes starting 200 ms after picture presentation and lasting for 180 ms. The study reveals that the brain engages extremely fast in the retrieval of words one wishes to utter and offers a clear time frame of how long it takes for the competitive process of activating and selecting words in the course of speech to be resolved.

  13. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard Allen; Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon; Suttle, Curtis A

    2015-01-01

    Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid, and chlorophyll biosynthesis) and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase). The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R (2) Mexico, but are more similar to polar Arctic mats (R (2) > 0.900). These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale.

  14. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Allen White III

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase. The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R2 0.900. These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale.

  15. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals Specific Novel Tetrapeptide and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Metabolites in Pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kim-Chung; Tam, Emily W T; Lo, Ka-Ching; Tsang, Alan K L; Lau, Candy C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Chan, Jasper F W; Lam, Ching-Wan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-06-17

    Infections related to Aspergillus species have emerged to become an important focus in infectious diseases, as a result of the increasing use of immunosuppressive agents and high fatality associated with invasive aspergillosis. However, laboratory diagnosis of Aspergillus infections remains difficult. In this study, by comparing the metabolomic profiles of the culture supernatants of 30 strains of six pathogenic Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, A. nomius and A. tamarii) and 31 strains of 10 non-Aspergillus fungi, eight compounds present in all strains of the six Aspergillus species but not in any strain of the non-Aspergillus fungi were observed. One of the eight compounds, Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, is a novel tetrapeptide and represents the first linear tetrapeptide observed in Aspergillus species, which we propose to be named aspergitide. Two other closely related Aspergillus-specific compounds, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid, may possess anti-inflammatory properties, as 2-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid possesses a structure similar to those of aspirin [2-(acetoxy)benzoic acid] and salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid). Further studies to examine the potentials of these Aspergillus-specific compounds for laboratory diagnosis of aspergillosis are warranted and further experiments will reveal whether Leu-Glu-Leu-Glu, hydroxy-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid and (sulfooxy)benzoic acid are virulent factors of the pathogenic Aspergillus species.

  16. Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan J; Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; O'Leary, Timothy P; Tabakoff, Boris; Brown, Richard E; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-01-10

    Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of endangered Aquilaria malaccensis revealed potential for future conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep; Nag, Akshay; Parmar, Rajni; Ghosh, Sneha; Bhau, Brijmohan Singh; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The endangered Aquilaria malaccensis,is an important plant with high economic values. Characterization of genetic diversity and population structure is receiving tremendous attention for effective conservation of genetic resources. Considering important repositories of biological diversity, the genetic relationships of 127 A. malaccensis accessions from 10 home gardens of three states of northeast India were assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Of the 1153 fragments amplified with four AFLP primer combinations, 916 (79.4%) were found to be polymorphic. Polymorphic information content (PIC) and marker index (MI) of each primer combination correlate significantly with the number of genotypes resolved. Overall, a high genetic diversity (avg. 71.85%) was recorded. Further, high gene flow (Nm: 3.37), low genetic differentiation (FST: 0.069) and high within population genetic variation (93%) suggests that most of the genetic diversity is restricted within population. Neighbour joining (NJ), principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian-based STRUCTURE grouped all the accessions in two clusters with significant intermixing between populations, therefore, revealed that two genetically distinct gene pools are operating in the A. malaccensis populations cultivated in home gardens. Based on the various diversity inferences, five diverse populations (JOH, FN, HLF, DHM and ITN) were identified, which can be potentially exploited to develop conservation strategies for A. malaccensis.

  18. A fibrolytic potential in the human ileum mucosal microbiota revealed by functional metagenomic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrascu, Orlane; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Marinelli, Ludovica; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Leclerc, Marion; Klopp, Christophe; Terrapon, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Blottière, Hervé M.; Doré, Joël; Béra-Maillet, Christel

    2017-01-01

    The digestion of dietary fibers is a major function of the human intestinal microbiota. So far this function has been attributed to the microorganisms inhabiting the colon, and many studies have focused on this distal part of the gastrointestinal tract using easily accessible fecal material. However, microbial fermentations, supported by the presence of short-chain fatty acids, are suspected to occur in the upper small intestine, particularly in the ileum. Using a fosmid library from the human ileal mucosa, we screened 20,000 clones for their activities against carboxymethylcellulose and xylans chosen as models of the major plant cell wall (PCW) polysaccharides from dietary fibres. Eleven positive clones revealed a broad range of CAZyme encoding genes from Bacteroides and Clostridiales species, as well as Polysaccharide Utilization Loci (PULs). The functional glycoside hydrolase genes were identified, and oligosaccharide break-down products examined from different polysaccharides including mixed-linkage β-glucans. CAZymes and PULs were also examined for their prevalence in human gut microbiome. Several clusters of genes of low prevalence in fecal microbiome suggested they belong to unidentified strains rather specifically established upstream the colon, in the ileum. Thus, the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota encompasses the enzymatic potential for PCW polysaccharide degradation in the small intestine. PMID:28091525

  19. Zero-expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR: recent developments reveal high potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter; Jedamzik, Ralf; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    ZERODUR® is a well-established material in astronomy and all fields of applications where temperature gradients might limit extreme precision and stability. Together with its rich heritage come a series of recent developments, which reveal the potential of the material for broader and more demanding applications. The outstanding degree of light-weighting achieved with progress in CNC grinding in the last two years shows its high suitability for space telescope mirrors. This is supported by new data on strength enabling higher mechanical loads. Also ground based telescopes benefit from the improved light-weight processing such as solar telescopes and downstream mirrors of extremely large telescopes. More and better data have been collected demonstrating the unique CTE homogeneity of ZERODUR® and its very high reproducibility a necessary precondition for large series mirror production. Deliveries of more than 250 ZERODUR mirrors of 1.5 m in diameter prove the availability of robust industrial serial production capability inevitable for ELT mirror segment production.

  20. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed along with maps combining

  1. The development of control processes supporting source memory discrimination as revealed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M

    2007-08-01

    Improvement in source memory performance throughout childhood is thought to be mediated by the development of executive control. As postretrieval control processes may be better time-locked to the recognition response rather than the retrieval cue, the development of processes underlying source memory was investigated with both stimulus- and response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs). These were recorded in children, adolescents, and adults during a recognition memory exclusion task. Green- and red-outlined pictures were studied, but were tested in black outline. The test requirement was to endorse old items shown in one study color ("targets") and to reject new items along with old items shown in the alternative study color ("nontargets"). Source memory improved with age. All age groups retrieved target and nontarget memories as reflected by reliable parietal episodic memory (EM) effects, a stimulus-locked ERP correlate of recollection. Response-locked ERPs to targets and nontargets diverged in all groups prior to the response, although this occurred at an increasingly earlier time point with age. We suggest these findings reflect the implementation of attentional control mechanisms to enhance target memories and facilitate response selection with the greatest and least success, respectively, in adults and children. In adults only, response-locked ERPs revealed an early-onsetting parietal negativity for nontargets, but not for targets. This was suggested to reflect adults' ability to consistently inhibit prepotent target responses for nontargets. The findings support the notion that the development of source memory relies on the maturation of control processes that serve to enhance accurate selection of task-relevant memories.

  2. Metal oxide-based nanoparticles: revealing their potential to enhance oil recovery in different wettability systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendraningrat, Luky; Torsæter, Ole

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents systematic studies of hydrophilic metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed in brine intended to reveal their potential to enhance oil recovery (EOR) in various rock wettability systems. The stability in suspension (nanofluid) of the NPs has been identified as a key factor related to their use as an EOR agent. Experimental techniques have been developed for nanofluid stability using three coupled methods: direct visual observation, surface conductivity and particle size measurements. The use of a dispersant has been investigated and has been shown to successfully improve metal oxide nanofluid stability as a function of its concentration. The dispersant alters the nanofluid properties, i.e. surface conductivity, pH and particle size distribution. A two-phase coreflood experiment was conducted by injecting the stable nanofluids as a tertiary process (nano-EOR) through core plugs with various wettabilities ranging from water-wet to oil-wet. The combination of metal oxide nanofluid and dispersant improved the oil recovery to a greater extent than either silica-based nanofluid or dispersant alone in all wettability systems. The contact angle, interfacial tension (IFT) and effluent were also measured. It was observed that metal oxide-based nanofluids altered the quartz plates to become more water-wet, and the results are consistent with those of the coreflood experiment. The particle adsorption during the transport process was identified from effluent analysis. The presence of NPs and dispersant reduced the IFT, but its reduction is sufficient to yield significant additional oil recovery. Hence, wettability alteration plays a dominant role in the oil displacement mechanism using nano-EOR.

  3. Storage buildings and greenhouses as stepping stones for non-native, potentially invasive spiders (Araneae) – a baseline study in Basel, Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Hänggi, Ambros; Straub, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Transportation of goods via land, sea or air causes a dissemination of species on a global scale. In central Europe species that are associated with fruit, vegetables and/or buildings are suspected to be imported and potentially build up populations in the following four categories of buildings: I) greenhouses, garden centres, flower shops and flower wholesale stores, II) storage buildings and logistic centres, III) botanical gardens and zoos and IV) touristic hotspots. During this research 2...

  4. Storage buildings and greenhouses as stepping stones for non-native, potentially invasive spiders (Araneae – a baseline study in Basel, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänggi, Ambros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of goods via land, sea or air causes a dissemination of species on a global scale. In central Europe species that are associated with fruit, vegetables and/or buildings are suspected to be imported and potentially build up populations in the following four categories of buildings: I greenhouses, garden centres, flower shops and flower wholesale stores, II storage buildings and logistic centres, III botanical gardens and zoos and IV touristic hotspots. During this research 20 such localities in and around Basel were investigated by means of visual searching. 340 adult spider individuals were collected, representing 37 species and 15 families. Three were first records for Switzerland. Eight species were not published before for the region of Basel even if six of these were already known in private, not published collections – partly going back to the 1930s. Our investigation shows that the interpretation of the spread and invasion of species needs good published knowledge about the actual status of our fauna which, especially for synanthropic spiders, is not the case. We therefore urge everybody to publish all knowledge about faunistics even for so-called common species.

  5. Proteomic and genomic analysis reveals novel Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins and potential heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Eleanor; Sherry, Aileen; Inglis, Neil F; Lainson, Alex; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Yaga, Raja; Manson, Erin; Imrie, Lisa; Everest, Paul; Smith, David G E

    2014-09-01

    Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins play important roles in the interaction of bacteria with their environment including nutrient acquisition, adhesion and invasion, and antibiotic resistance. In this study we identified 47 proteins within the Sarkosyl-insoluble fraction of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176, using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Comparative analysis of outer membrane protein sequences was visualised to reveal protein distribution within a panel of Campylobacter spp., identifying several C. jejuni-specific proteins. Smith-Waterman analyses of C. jejuni homologues revealed high sequence conservation amongst a number of hypothetical proteins, sequence heterogeneity of other proteins and several proteins which are absent in a proportion of strains.

  6. Distribution, enrichment, and potential toxicity of trace metals in the surface sediments of Sundarban mangrove ecosystem, Bangladesh: a baseline study before Sundarban oil spill of December, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok; Ramanathan, Al; Prasad, M B K; Datta, Dilip; Kumar, Manoj; Sappal, Swati Mohan

    2016-05-01

    The distribution, enrichment, and ecotoxicity potential of Bangladesh part of Sundarban mangrove was investigated for eight trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) using sediment quality assessment indices. The average concentration of trace metals in the sediments exceeded the crustal abundance suggesting sources other than natural in origin. Additionally, the trace metals profile may be a reflection of socio-economic development in the vicinity of Sundarban which further attributes trace metals abundance to the anthropogenic inputs. A total of eleven surficial sediment samples were collected along a vertical transect along the freshwater-saline water gradient. The sediment samples were digested using EPA 3051 method and were analyzed on ICP-MS. Geo-accumulation index suggests moderately polluted sediment quality with respect to Ni and As and background concentrations for Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, As, and Cd. Contamination factor analysis suggested low contamination by Zn, Cr, Co, and Cd, moderate by Fe, Mn, Cu, and Pb while Ni and As show considerable and high contamination, respectively. Enrichment factors for Ni, Pb, and As suggests high contamination from either biota or anthropogenic inputs besides natural enrichment. As per the three sediment quality guidelines, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, and As would be more of a concern with respect to ecotoxicological risk in the Sundarban mangroves. The correlation between various physiochemical variables and trace metals suggested significant role of fine grained particles (clay) in trace metal distribution whereas owing to low organic carbon content in the region the organic complexation may not be playing significant role in trace metal distribution in the Sundarban mangroves.

  7. Gene co-expression networks and profiles reveal potential biomarkers of boar taint in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Skinkyté-Juskiené, Rúta; Do, Duy Ngoc

    Boar taint (BT) is an offensive odour or taste of porcine meat which may occur in entire male pigs due to skatole and androstenone accumulation. To avoid BT, castration of young piglets is performed but this strategy is under debate due to animal welfare concerns. The study aimed to reveal...... synthesis. In testis, >80 DE genes were functionally classified by the PANTHER tool to “Gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor” and “Wnt signaling” pathways which play a role in reproductive maturation and proliferation of spermatogonia, respectively. WGCNA was used to build co-expression modules...... and enrichment analysis and semantic filtering revealed the GO terms “catalytic activity” and “transferase activity” to be overrepresented (p hormones. Extraction of hub...

  8. Proteomic and genomic analysis reveals novel Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins and potential heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Watson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins play important roles in the interaction of bacteria with their environment including nutrient acquisition, adhesion and invasion, and antibiotic resistance. In this study we identified 47 proteins within the Sarkosyl-insoluble fraction of Campylobacter jejuni 81-176, using LC–ESI-MS/MS. Comparative analysis of outer membrane protein sequences was visualised to reveal protein distribution within a panel of Campylobacter spp., identifying several C. jejuni-specific proteins. Smith–Waterman analyses of C. jejuni homologues revealed high sequence conservation amongst a number of hypothetical proteins, sequence heterogeneity of other proteins and several proteins which are absent in a proportion of strains.

  9. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential

    OpenAIRE

    White, Richard Allen; Power, Ian M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Southam, Gordon; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2015-01-01

    Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacte...

  10. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential

    OpenAIRE

    III, Richard Allen White; Ian Malcolm Power; Dipple, Gregory M.; Gordon eSoutham; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2015-01-01

    Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bact...

  11. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  12. Global metabolomics reveals potential urinary biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma for diagnosis and staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Chen, Yanhua; Zhang, Ruiping; He, Jiuming; Song, Yongmei; Wang, Jingbo; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Luhua; Zhan, Qimin; Abliz, Zeper

    2016-10-01

    We performed a metabolomics study using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) to discriminate global urine profiles in urine samples from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients and healthy controls (NC). Our work evaluated the feasibility of employing urine metabolomics for the diagnosis and staging of ESCC. The satisfactory classification between the healthy controls and ESCC patients was obtained using the MVDA model, and obvious classification of early-stage and advanced-stage patients was also observed. The results suggest that the combination of LC-MS analysis and MVDA may have potential applications for ESCC diagnosis and staging. We then conducted LC-MS/MS experiments to identify the potential biomarkers with large contributions to the discrimination. A total of 83 potential diagnostic biomarkers for ESCC were screened out, and 19 potential biomarkers were identified; the variations between the differences in staging using these potential biomarkers were further analyzed. These biomarkers may not be unique to ESCCs, but instead result from any malignant disease. To further elucidate the pathophysiology of ESCC, we studied related metabolic pathways and found that ESCC is associated with perturbations of fatty acid β-oxidation and the metabolism of amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines.

  13. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  14. Genome mining reveals unlocked bioactive potential of marine Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Sonnenschein, Eva; Melchiorsen, Jette;

    2015-01-01

    of bioactive compounds leading to successful applications in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Marine bacteria have so far not been exploited to the same extent; however, they are believed to harbor a multitude of novel bioactive chemistry. To explore this potential, genomes of 21 marine Alpha......- and Gammaproteobacteria collected during the Galathea 3 expedition were sequenced and mined for natural product encoding gene clusters. Results: Independently of genome size, bacteria of all tested genera carried a large number of clusters encoding different potential bioactivities, especially within the Vibrionaceae...... and Pseudoalteromonadaceae families. A very high potential was identified in pigmented pseudoalteromonads with up to 20 clusters in a single strain, mostly NRPSs and NRPS-PKS hybrids. Furthermore, regulatory elements in bioactivity-related pathways including chitin metabolism, quorum sensing and iron scavenging systems were...

  15. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon;

    2011-01-01

    Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social...... of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...

  16. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  17. Potential human pathogenic bacteria in a mixed urban watershed as revealed by pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for water depend on testing for fecal indicator bacterial counts or specific marker gene sequences to identify fecal contamination where potential human pathogenic bacteria could be present. In this study, we applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing ...

  18. Perceptual Shift in Bilingualism: Brain Potentials Reveal Plasticity in Pre-Attentive Colour Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulos, Panos; Dering, Benjamin; Wiggett, Alison; Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The validity of the linguistic relativity principle continues to stimulate vigorous debate and research. The debate has recently shifted from the behavioural investigation arena to a more biologically grounded field, in which tangible physiological evidence for language effects on perception can be obtained. Using brain potentials in a colour…

  19. Atypical Brain Responses to Reward Cues in Autism as Revealed by Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Schulte-Ruther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Social motivation deficit theories suggest that children with autism do not properly anticipate and appreciate the pleasure of social stimuli. In this study, we investigated event-related brain potentials evoked by cues that triggered social versus monetary reward anticipation in children with autism. Children with autism showed attenuated P3…

  20. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogelman, Lisette J. A.; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete; Franke, Lude; Kadarmideen, Haja N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about the tr

  1. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Potential New Targets for Improving Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Sorghum bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massel, Karen; Campbell, Bradley C.; Mace, Emma S.; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tao, Yongfu; Worland, Belinda G.; Jordan, David R.; Botella, Jose R.; Godwin, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are a major agricultural input where more than 100 million tons are supplied annually. Cereals are particularly inefficient at soil N uptake, where the unrecovered nitrogen causes serious environmental damage. Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) is an important cereal crop, particularly in resource-poor semi-arid regions, and is known to have a high NUE in comparison to other major cereals under limited N conditions. This study provides the first assessment of genetic diversity and signatures of selection across 230 fully sequenced genes putatively involved in the uptake and utilization of N from a diverse panel of sorghum lines. This comprehensive analysis reveals an overall reduction in diversity as a result of domestication and a total of 128 genes displaying signatures of purifying selection, thereby revealing possible gene targets to improve NUE in sorghum and cereals alike. A number of key genes appear to have been involved in selective sweeps, reducing their sequence diversity. The ammonium transporter (AMT) genes generally had low allelic diversity, whereas a substantial number of nitrate/peptide transporter 1 (NRT1/PTR) genes had higher nucleotide diversity in domesticated germplasm. Interestingly, members of the distinct race Guinea margaritiferum contained a number of unique alleles, and along with the wild sorghum species, represent a rich resource of new variation for plant improvement of NUE in sorghum. PMID:27826302

  2. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Potential New Targets for Improving Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Massel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers are a major agricultural input where more than 100 million tons are supplied annually. Cereals are particularly inefficient at soil N uptake, where the unrecovered nitrogen causes serious environmental damage. Sorghum bicolor (sorghum is an important cereal crop, particularly in resource-poor semi-arid regions, and is known to have a high NUE in comparison to other major cereals under limited N conditions. This study provides the first assessment of genetic diversity and signatures of selection across 230 fully sequenced genes putatively involved in the uptake and mobilization of N from a diverse panel of sorghum lines. This comprehensive analysis reveals an overall reduction in diversity as a result of domestication and a total of 128 genes displaying signatures of purifying selection, thereby revealing possible gene targets to improve NUE in sorghum and cereals alike. A number of key genes appear to have been involved in selective sweeps, reducing their sequence diversity. The ammonium transporter (AMT genes generally had low allelic diversity, whereas a substantial number of nitrate/peptide transporter 1 (NRT1/PTR genes had higher nucleotide diversity in domesticated germplasm. Interestingly, members of the distinct race Guinea margaritiferum contained a number of unique alleles, and along with the wild sorghum species, represent a rich resource of new variation for plant improvement of NUE in sorghum.

  3. An integrative genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals potential targets associated with cell proliferation in uterine leiomyomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirilo, Priscila Daniele Ramos; Marchi, Fábio Albuquerque; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo;

    2013-01-01

    proliferation, including FGFR1 and IGFBP5. Transcriptional and protein analyses showed that FGFR1 (P = 0.006 and P... and transcriptomic approach indicated that FGFR1 and IGFBP5 amplification, as well as the consequent up-regulation of the protein products, plays an important role in the aetiology of ULs and thus provides data for potential drug therapies development to target genes associated with cellular proliferation in ULs....

  4. Gene expression profiling of craniofacial fibrous dysplasia reveals ADAMTS2 overexpression as a potential marker

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Shang-Hui; Yang, Wen-Jun; Liu, Sheng-Wen; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Chun-Ye; Zhu, Yun; Zhang, Chen-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) as an abnormal bone growth is one of the common fibro-osseous leasions (FOL) in oral and maxillofacial region, however, its etiology still remains unclear. Here, we performed gene expression profiling of FD using microarray analysis to explore the key molecule events in FD development, and develop potential diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for FD. We found that 1,881 genes exhibited differential expression with more than two-fold changes in FD compared to norma...

  5. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon;

    2011-01-01

    Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social...... phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest....

  6. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  7. Set potential regulation reveals additional oxidation peaks of Geobacter sulfurreducens anodic biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2012-08-01

    Higher current densities produced in microbial fuel cells and other bioelectrochemical systems are associated with the presence of various Geobacter species. A number of electron transfer components are involved in extracellular electron transfer by the model exoelectrogen, Geobacter sulfurreducens. It has previously been shown that 5 main oxidation peaks can be identified in cyclic voltammetry scans. It is shown here that 7 separate oxidation peaks emerged over relatively long periods of time when a larger range of set potentials was used to acclimate electroactive biofilms. The potentials of oxidation peaks obtained with G. sulfurreducens biofilms acclimated at 0.60 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) were different from those that developed at - 0.46 V, and both of their peaks were different from those obtained for biofilms incubated at - 0.30 V, 0 V, and 0.30 V. These results expand the known range of potentials for which G. sulfurreducens produces identifiable oxidation peaks that could be important for extracellular electron transfer. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comprehensive molecular pathology analysis of small bowel adenocarcinoma reveals novel targets with potential for clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Muhammad A; McArt, Darragh G; Kelly, Paul; Fuchs, Marc-Aurel; Alderdice, Matthew; McCabe, Clare M; Bingham, Victoria; McGready, Claire; Tripathi, Shailesh; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Loughrey, Maurice B; McQuaid, Stephen; Maxwell, Perry; Hamilton, Peter W; Turkington, Richard; James, Jacqueline A; Wilson, Richard H; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

    2015-08-28

    Small bowel accounts for only 0.5% of cancer cases in the US but incidence rates have been rising at 2.4% per year over the past decade. One-third of these are adenocarcinomas but little is known about their molecular pathology and no molecular markers are available for clinical use. Using a retrospective 28 patient matched normal-tumor cohort, next-generation sequencing, gene expression arrays and CpG methylation arrays were used for molecular profiling. Next-generation sequencing identified novel mutations in IDH1, CDH1, KIT, FGFR2, FLT3, NPM1, PTEN, MET, AKT1, RET, NOTCH1 and ERBB4. Array data revealed 17% of CpGs and 5% of RNA transcripts assayed to be differentially methylated and expressed respectively (p clinically exploitable markers.

  9. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems.

  10. Eco-Efficiency Assessments as a Tool for Revealing the Environmental Improvement Potential of New Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Michelsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public regulations can result in improved environmental performance of products. In this paper eco-efficiency is used to assess the most likely outcome of potential new regulations. The paper presents a case study of furniture production in Norway where different scenarios for improving the environmental performance of the products are presented. Four regulatory options for imposing environmental improvements are assessed; (1 an introduction of a tax on emissions, (2 an increase of the tax on landfills, (3 an introduction of a tax on raw material consumption, and (4 introduction of take-back legislation.

  11. Exosome proteomics reveals transcriptional regulator proteins with potential to mediate downstream pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Timothy H; Madsen, Helen J; Hellwinkel, Justin E; Lencioni, Alex M; Graner, Michael W

    2014-11-01

    Exosomes are virus-sized, membrane-enclosed vesicles with origins in the cellular endosomal system, but are released extracellularly. As a population, these tiny vesicles carry relatively enormous amounts of information in their protein, lipid and nucleic acid content, and the vesicles can have profound impacts on recipient cells. This review employs publically-available data combined with gene ontology applications to propose a novel concept, that exosomes transport transcriptional and translational machinery that may have direct impacts on gene expression in recipient cells. Here, we examine the previously published proteomic contents of medulloblastoma-derived exosomes, focusing on transcriptional regulators; we found that there are numerous proteins that may have potential roles in transcriptional and translational regulation with putative influence on downstream, cancer-related pathways. We expanded this search to all of the proteins in the Vesiclepedia database; using gene ontology approaches, we see that these regulatory factors are implicated in many of the processes involved in cancer initiation and progression. This information suggests that some of the effects of exosomes on recipient cells may be due to the delivery of protein factors that can directly and fundamentally change the transcriptional landscape of the cells. Within a tumor environment, this has potential to tilt the advantage towards the cancer.

  12. A five-year survey of dematiaceous fungi in a tropical hospital reveals potential opportunistic species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Mei Yew

    Full Text Available Dematiaceous fungi (black fungi are a heterogeneous group of fungi present in diverse environments worldwide. Many species in this group are known to cause allergic reactions and potentially fatal diseases in humans and animals, especially in tropical and subtropical climates. This study represents the first survey of dematiaceous fungi in Malaysia and provides observations on their diversity as well as in vitro response to antifungal drugs. Seventy-five strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by morphology as well as an internal transcribed spacer (ITS-based phylogenetic analysis. The combined molecular and conventional approach enabled the identification of three classes of the Ascomycota phylum and 16 genera, the most common being Cladosporium, Cochliobolus and Neoscytalidium. Several of the species identified have not been associated before with human infections. Among 8 antifungal agents tested, the azoles posaconazole (96%, voriconazole (90.7%, ketoconazole (86.7% and itraconazole (85.3% showed in vitro activity (MIC ≤ 1 µg/mL to the largest number of strains, followed by anidulafungin (89.3%, caspofungin (74.7% and amphotericin B (70.7%. Fluconazole appeared to be the least effective with only 10.7% of isolates showing in vitro susceptibility. Overall, almost half (45.3% of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility (MIC >1 µg/mL to at least one antifungal agent, and three strains (one Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis and two Nigrospora oryzae showed potential multidrug resistance.

  13. Fast calcium and voltage-sensitive dye imaging in enteric neurones reveal calcium peaks associated with single action potential discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, K; Michaelis, M; Mazzuoli, G; Mueller, K; Vanden Berghe, P; Schemann, M

    2011-12-15

    Slow changes in [Ca(2+)](i) reflect increased neuronal activity. Our study demonstrates that single-trial fast [Ca(2+)](i) imaging (≥200 Hz sampling rate) revealed peaks each of which are associated with single spike discharge recorded by consecutive voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in enteric neurones and nerve fibres. Fast [Ca(2+)](i) imaging also revealed subthreshold fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Nicotine-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) peaks were reduced by -conotoxin and blocked by ruthenium red or tetrodotoxin. Fast [Ca(2+)](i) imaging can be used to directly record single action potentials in enteric neurones. [Ca(2+)](i) peaks required opening of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels as well as Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores.

  14. Potential microRNA-mediated oncogenic intercellular communication revealed by pan-cancer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Zhaolei

    2014-11-01

    Carcinogenesis consists of oncogenesis and metastasis, and intriguingly microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in both processes. Although aberrant miRNA activities are prevalent in diverse tumor types, the exact mechanisms for how they regulate cancerous processes are not always clear. To this end, we performed a large-scale pan-cancer analysis via a novel probabilistic approach to infer recurrent miRNA-target interactions implicated in 12 cancer types using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. We discovered ~20,000 recurrent miRNA regulations, which are enriched for cancer-related miRNAs/genes. Notably, miRNA 200 family (miR-200/141/429) is among the most prominent miRNA regulators, which is known to be involved in metastasis. Importantly, the recurrent miRNA regulatory network is not only enriched for cancer pathways but also for extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and ECM-receptor interactions. The results suggest an intriguing cancer mechanism involving miRNA-mediated cell-to-cell communication, which possibly involves delivery of tumorigenic miRNA messengers to adjacent cells via exosomes. Finally, survival analysis revealed 414 recurrent-prognostic associations, where both gene and miRNA involved in each interaction conferred significant prognostic power in one or more cancer types. Together, our comprehensive pan-cancer analysis provided not only biological insights into metastasis but also brought to bear the clinical relevance of the proposed recurrent miRNA-gene associations.

  15. Designing an Index to Reveal the Potential of Multipurpose Landscapes in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Torquebiau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multipurpose mosaic (“ecoagriculture” landscapes can serve the purpose of land sharing to combine objectives of agricultural production and biodiversity conservation. Rewarding the people who shape and maintain those landscapes could act as a mechanism to generate added-value representing an indirect payment for ecosystem services. We investigated the feasibility of such an approach in two areas in Southern Africa differing in spatial configurations, history and socio-economic context. We designed and tested a composite index describing the state of each landscape in terms of ecoagriculture criteria (conservation, production, institutions and livelihood and ecosystem services (provisioning, regulating and cultural services. The resulting index is made up of different sets of data each comprising 40 scores, obtained from stakeholders’ participatory interviews. Ecosystem services are in general assigned more importance than ecoagriculture criteria. In both cases, cultural services receive the highest scores, whereas the lowest ones are attributed to the livelihood and institutions in the Zimbabwean and South African sites, respectively. Index values reveal that the South African site, where there is more integration between land-use units, does better in terms of a landscape performing multiple functions. Provided relevant stakeholders are involved and a certification mechanism is developed, the landscape labelling index can be used to recognize and reward the value of outstanding rural landscapes.

  16. Targeted Disruption of ALK Reveals a Potential Role in Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Witek

    Full Text Available Mice lacking ALK activity have previously been reported to exhibit subtle behavioral phenotypes. In this study of ALK of loss of function mice we present data supporting a role for ALK in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in male mice. We observed lower level of serum testosterone at P40 in ALK knock-out males, accompanied by mild disorganization of seminiferous tubules exhibiting decreased numbers of GATA4 expressing cells. These observations highlight a role for ALK in testis function and are further supported by experiments in which chemical inhibition of ALK activity with the ALK TKI crizotinib was employed. Oral administration of crizotinib resulted in a decrease of serum testosterone levels in adult wild type male mice, which reverted to normal levels after cessation of treatment. Analysis of GnRH expression in neurons of the hypothalamus revealed a significant decrease in the number of GnRH positive neurons in ALK knock-out mice at P40 when compared with control littermates. Thus, ALK appears to be involved in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism by regulating the timing of pubertal onset and testis function at the upper levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis.

  17. Geological features of the northeastern Canadian Arctic margin revealed from analysis of potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anudu, Goodluck K.; Stephenson, Randell A.; Macdonald, David I. M.; Oakey, Gordon N.

    2016-11-01

    The northeastern Canadian Arctic margin is bordered to the north by Alpha Ridge, a dominantly magmatic complex within the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean, which forms part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). The characteristics of the gravity and magnetic anomaly fields change notably along the Arctic margin, with two main segments recognised. Aeromagnetic and gravity data in the transition zone between these contrasting domains of the Canadian Arctic margin are analysed here in detail. Results obtained using a variety of edge enhancement (derivative) methods highlight several magnetic domains and a major offshore sedimentary basin as well as some known and a number of previously unknown tectonic and magmatic elements. A magmatic intrusion distribution map derived from the edge enhanced magnetic anomaly maps reveals that magmatic rocks are much more widespread in the relatively shallow subsurface than implied by surface geological mapping. Magmatic intrusions (mainly dykes) and other geological structures have NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S major trends. Broad gravity and pseudogravity lows across most of the Sverdrup Basin region are due to thick, less dense sedimentary succession and low magnetised crust. Magnetic and pseudogravity highs observed over Alpha Ridge indicate high crustal magnetisation associated with the occurrence of extensive and voluminous crustal magmatic bodies. Absence of these volcanic and intrusive rocks in the imaged sedimentary basin beneath the northeast Canadian Arctic margin region suggests that the basin probably formed after the cessation of HALIP magmatism.

  18. Event related potentials reveal differences between morphological (prefixes) and phonological (syllables) processing of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alberto; Alija, Maira; Cuetos, Fernando; de Vega, Mauel

    2006-11-06

    Behavioral measures in visual priming tasks show opposite effects for syllables and morphemes, which indicate that they are processed by two independent systems. We used event related potentials (ERPs) to explore two priming situations in Spanish: prefix related words (reacción-REFORMA [reaction-reform]), in which prime and target words shared a first syllable that was also a prefix, and syllable related words (regalo-REFORMA [gift-reform.]), in which the shared first syllable was a pseudoprefix in the prime word. Prefix related pairs, unlike syllable related pairs, evoked a very early positivity in reaction to the target (at 150-250ms window), suggesting that the prefix information is immediately available, at a prelexical stage. By contrast, syllable related pairs showed a larger N400 effect. This late negativity may be caused by lateral inhibition among lexical candidates activated in the lexicon by the prime's first syllable.

  19. Social Network Analysis Reveals Potential Fission-Fusion Behavior in a Shark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haulsee, Danielle E.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Breece, Matthew W.; Brown, Lori M.; Kneebone, Jeff; Skomal, Gregory B.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2016-09-01

    Complex social networks and behaviors are difficult to observe for free-living marine species, especially those that move great distances. Using implanted acoustic transceivers to study the inter- and intraspecific interactions of sand tiger sharks Carcharias taurus, we observed group behavior that has historically been associated with higher order mammals. We found evidence strongly suggestive of fission-fusion behavior, or changes in group size and composition of sand tigers, related to five behavioral modes (summering, south migration, community bottleneck, dispersal, north migration). Our study shows sexually dimorphic behavior during migration, in addition to presenting evidence of a potential solitary phase for these typically gregarious sharks. Sand tigers spent up to 95 consecutive and 335 cumulative hours together, with the strongest relationships occurring between males. Species that exhibit fission-fusion group dynamics pose a particularly challenging issue for conservation and management because changes in group size and composition affect population estimates and amplify anthropogenic impacts.

  20. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan;

    2015-01-01

    expression analysis was performed using the Obesity Index as a continuous variable in a linear model. eQTL mapping was then performed to integrate 60 K porcine SNP chip data with the RNA sequencing data. Results were restricted based on genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms, detected...... polymorphisms to detect obesity-related genes and pathways. Building a co-expression network using eQTLs resulted in the detection of a module strongly associated with lipid pathways. Furthermore, we detected several obesity candidate genes, for example, ENPP1, CTSL, and ABHD12B. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge......BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about...

  1. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas;

    a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...... search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1...... in global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective...

  2. Social Network Analysis Reveals Potential Fission-Fusion Behavior in a Shark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haulsee, Danielle E.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Breece, Matthew W.; Brown, Lori M.; Kneebone, Jeff; Skomal, Gregory B.; Oliver, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Complex social networks and behaviors are difficult to observe for free-living marine species, especially those that move great distances. Using implanted acoustic transceivers to study the inter- and intraspecific interactions of sand tiger sharks Carcharias taurus, we observed group behavior that has historically been associated with higher order mammals. We found evidence strongly suggestive of fission-fusion behavior, or changes in group size and composition of sand tigers, related to five behavioral modes (summering, south migration, community bottleneck, dispersal, north migration). Our study shows sexually dimorphic behavior during migration, in addition to presenting evidence of a potential solitary phase for these typically gregarious sharks. Sand tigers spent up to 95 consecutive and 335 cumulative hours together, with the strongest relationships occurring between males. Species that exhibit fission-fusion group dynamics pose a particularly challenging issue for conservation and management because changes in group size and composition affect population estimates and amplify anthropogenic impacts. PMID:27686155

  3. Combining genomic sequencing methods to explore viral diversity and reveal potential virus-host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl-Emiliane Tien Chow

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Viral diversity and virus-host interactions in oxygen-starved regions of the ocean, also known as oxygen minimum zones (OMZs, remain relatively unexplored. Microbial community metabolism in OMZs alters nutrient and energy flow through marine food webs, resulting in biological nitrogen loss and greenhouse gas production. Thus, viruses infecting OMZ microbes have the potential to modulate community metabolism with resulting feedback on ecosystem function. Here, we describe viral communities inhabiting oxic surface (10m and oxygen-starved basin (200m waters of Saanich Inlet, a seasonally anoxic fjord on the coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia using viral metagenomics and complete viral fosmid sequencing on samples collected between April 2007 and April 2010. Of 6459 open reading frames (ORFs predicted across all 34 viral fosmids, 77.6% (n=5010 had no homology to reference viral genomes. These fosmids recruited a higher proportion of viral metagenomic sequences from Saanich Inlet than from nearby northeastern subarctic Pacific Ocean (Line P waters, indicating differences in the viral communities between coastal and open ocean locations. While functional annotations of fosmid ORFs were limited, recruitment to NCBI’s non-redundant ‘nr’ database and publicly available single-cell genomes identified putative viruses infecting marine thaumarchaeal and SUP05 proteobacteria to provide potential host linkages with relevance to coupled biogeochemical cycling processes in OMZ waters. Taken together, these results highlight the power of coupled analyses of multiple sequence data types, such as viral metagenomic and fosmid sequence data with prokaryotic single cell genomes, to chart viral diversity, elucidate genomic and ecological contexts for previously unclassifiable viral sequences, and identify novel host interactions in natural and engineered ecosystems.

  4. Genetic and genomic dissection of Prolactin revealed potential association with milk production traits in riverine buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, A; Maryam, J

    2016-08-01

    Milk yield and quality has been a major selection criterion for genetic improvement in livestock species. Role of Prolactin gene in determining milk quality in terms of protein profile, lactose, lipids and other imperative macromolecules is very important. In this context, genetic profiling of Prolactin gene in riverine buffalo of Pakistan was performed and potential genetic markers were identified illustrating worth of this gene in marker-assisted selection of superior dairy buffaloes. Series of wet and dry lab experimentation was performed starting with genomic DNA isolation from true to breed representatives of indigenous river buffalo (Nili-Ravi). After amplification of coding regions of Prolactin gene, products were eluted and sequenced by Sanger's chain termination method and aligned to get variations in genomic region. A total of 15 novel variations were identified and analyzed statistically for their significance at population level, haplotypes were constructed, and association was estimated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to evaluate the rate of evolution for Prolactin gene in various mammalian species. Lastly, biological networking for this molecule was predicted to get the bigger pictorial of its functional machinery. Pathway analysis was performed to find its physiological mode of action in milk synthesis. This is a first report toward complete genetic screening of Prolactin gene in Pakistani buffaloes. Results of this study not only provide an insight for potential role of Prolactin gene in milk-producing abilities of buffalo but also suggest new directions for exploration of more genes that may have promising role to enhance future milk production capabilities of river buffalo breeds of Asian region through marker-assisted selection.

  5. Revealing the biotechnological potential of Delftia sp. JD2 by a genomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Morel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delftia sp. JD2 is a chromium-resistant bacterium that reduces Cr(VI to Cr(III, accumulates Pb(II, produces the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores, and increases the plant growth performance of rhizobia in co-inoculation experiments. We aimed to analyze the biotechnological potential of JD2 using a genomic approach. JD2 has a genome of 6.76Mb, with 6,051 predicted protein coding sequences and 93 RNA genes (tRNA and rRNA. The indole-acetamide pathway was identified as responsible for the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. The genetic information involved in chromium resistance (the gene cluster, chrBACF, was found. At least 40 putative genes encoding for TonB-dependent receptors, probably involved in the utilization of siderophores and biopolymers, and genes for the synthesis, maturation, exportation and uptake of pyoverdine, and acquisition of Fe-pyochelin and Fe-enterobactin were also identified. The information also suggests that JD2 produce polyhydroxybutyrate, a carbon reserve polymer commonly used for manufacturing petrochemical free bioplastics. In addition, JD2 may degrade lignin-derived aromatic compounds to 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate, a molecule used in the bio-based polymer industry. Finally, a comparative genomic analysis of JD2, Delftia sp. Cs1-4 and Delftia acidovorans SPH-1 is also discussed. The present work provides insights into the physiology and genetics of a microorganism with many potential uses in biotechnology.

  6. Heterologous expression of the filarial nematode alt gene products reveals their potential to inhibit immune function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aebischer Toni

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites exploit sophisticated strategies to evade host immunity that require both adaptation of existing genes and evolution of new gene families. We have addressed this question by testing the immunological function of novel genes from helminth parasites, in which conventional transgenesis is not yet possible. We investigated two such novel genes from Brugia malayi termed abundant larval transcript (alt, expression of which reaches ~5% of total transcript at the time parasites enter the human host. Results To test the hypothesis that ALT proteins modulate host immunity, we adopted an alternative transfection strategy to express these products in the protozoan parasite Leishmania mexicana. We then followed the course of infection in vitro in macrophages and in vivo in mice. Expression of ALT proteins, but not a truncated mutant, conferred greater infectivity of macrophages in vitro, reaching 3-fold higher parasite densities. alt-transfected parasites also caused accelerated disease in vivo, and fewer mice were able to clear infection of organisms expressing ALT. alt-transfected parasites were more resistant to IFN-γ-induced killing by macrophages. Expression profiling of macrophages infected with transgenic L. mexicana revealed consistently higher levels of GATA-3 and SOCS-1 transcripts, both associated with the Th2-type response observed in in vivo filarial infection. Conclusion Leishmania transfection is a tractable and informative approach to determining immunological functions of single genes from heterologous organisms. In the case of the filarial ALT proteins, our data suggest that they may participate in the Th2 bias observed in the response to parasite infection by modulating cytokine-induced signalling within immune system cells.

  7. Genome Analysis of Two Pseudonocardia Phylotypes Associated with Acromyrmex Leafcutter Ants Reveals Their Biosynthetic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Neil A; Innocent, Tabitha M; Heine, Daniel; Bassam, Mahmoud Al; Worsley, Sarah F; Trottmann, Felix; Patrick, Elaine H; Yu, Douglas W; Murrell, J C; Schiøtt, Morten; Wilkinson, Barrie; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2016-01-01

    The attine ants of South and Central America are ancient farmers, having evolved a symbiosis with a fungal food crop >50 million years ago. The most evolutionarily derived attines are the Atta and Acromyrmex leafcutter ants, which harvest fresh leaves to feed their fungus. Acromyrmex and many other attines vertically transmit a mutualistic strain of Pseudonocardia and use antifungal compounds made by these bacteria to protect their fungal partner against co-evolved fungal pathogens of the genus Escovopsis. Pseudonocardia mutualists associated with the attines Apterostigma dentigerum and Trachymyrmex cornetzi make novel cyclic depsipeptide compounds called gerumycins, while a mutualist strain isolated from derived Acromyrmex octospinosus makes an unusual polyene antifungal called nystatin P1. The novelty of these antimicrobials suggests there is merit in exploring secondary metabolites of Pseudonocardia on a genome-wide scale. Here, we report a genomic analysis of the Pseudonocardia phylotypes Ps1 and Ps2 that are consistently associated with Acromyrmex ants collected in Gamboa, Panama. These were previously distinguished solely on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing but genome sequencing of five Ps1 and five Ps2 strains revealed that the phylotypes are distinct species and each encodes between 11 and 15 secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). There are signature BGCs for Ps1 and Ps2 strains and some that are conserved in both. Ps1 strains all contain BGCs encoding nystatin P1-like antifungals, while the Ps2 strains encode novel nystatin-like molecules. Strains show variations in the arrangement of these BGCs that resemble those seen in gerumycin gene clusters. Genome analyses and invasion assays support our hypothesis that vertically transmitted Ps1 and Ps2 strains have antibacterial activity that could help shape the cuticular microbiome. Thus, our work defines the Pseudonocardia species associated with Acromyrmex ants and supports the hypothesis

  8. Systematically Altering Bacterial SOS Activity under Stress Reveals Therapeutic Strategies for Potentiating Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Charlie Y; Manning, Sara A; Roggiani, Manuela; Culyba, Matthew J; Samuels, Amanda N; Sniegowski, Paul D; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial SOS response is a DNA damage repair network that is strongly implicated in both survival and acquired drug resistance under antimicrobial stress. The two SOS regulators, LexA and RecA, have therefore emerged as potential targets for adjuvant therapies aimed at combating resistance, although many open questions remain. For example, it is not well understood whether SOS hyperactivation is a viable therapeutic approach or whether LexA or RecA is a better target. Furthermore, it is important to determine which antimicrobials could serve as the best treatment partners with SOS-targeting adjuvants. Here we derived Escherichia coli strains that have mutations in either lexA or recA genes in order to cover the full spectrum of possible SOS activity levels. We then systematically analyzed a wide range of antimicrobials by comparing the mean inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and induced mutation rates for each drug-strain combination. We first show that significant changes in MICs are largely confined to DNA-damaging antibiotics, with strains containing a constitutively repressed SOS response impacted to a greater extent than hyperactivated strains. Second, antibiotic-induced mutation rates were suppressed when SOS activity was reduced, and this trend was observed across a wider spectrum of antibiotics. Finally, perturbing either LexA or RecA proved to be equally viable strategies for targeting the SOS response. Our work provides support for multiple adjuvant strategies, while also suggesting that the combination of an SOS inhibitor with a DNA-damaging antibiotic could offer the best potential for lowering MICs and decreasing acquired drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Our antibiotic arsenal is becoming depleted, in part, because bacteria have the ability to rapidly adapt and acquire resistance to our best agents. The SOS pathway, a widely conserved DNA damage stress response in bacteria, is activated by many antibiotics and has been shown to play central role in

  9. In Vivo Differentiation Potential of Epiblast Stem Cells Revealed by Chimeric Embryo Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chimera formation after blastocyst injection or morula aggregation is the principal functional assay of the developmental potential of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs. This property, which demonstrates functional equivalence between ESCs and the preimplantation epiblast, is not shared by epiblast stem cell (EpiSC lines. Here, we show that EpiSCs derived either from postimplantation embryos or from ESCs in vitro readily generate chimeras when grafted to postimplantation embryos in whole embryo culture. EpiSC derivatives integrate and differentiate to derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers and primordial germ cells. In contrast, grafted ESCs seldom proliferate in postimplantation embryos, and fail to acquire the identity of their host-derived neighbors. EpiSCs do not incorporate efficiently into embryonic day 8.5 embryos, a stage by which pluripotency has been lost. Thus, chimera formation by EpiSCs requires a permissive environment, the postimplantation epiblast, and demonstrates functional equivalence between this cell type and EpiSCs.

  10. Perilipin Expression Reveals Adipogenic Potential of hADSCs inside Superporous Polymeric Cellular Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Dinescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine envisages the use of cell-scaffold bioconstructs to best mimic the natural in vivo microenvironment. Our aim was not only to develop novel 3D porous scaffolds for regenerative applications by the association of gelatin (G, alginate (A, and polyacrylamide (PAA major assets but also to evaluate their in vitro potential to support human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs adipogenesis. G-A-PAA biomatrix investigated in this work is an interesting substrate combining the advantages of the three individual constituents, namely, biodegradability of G, hydrophilicity of A and PAA, superior elasticity at compression with respect to the G-A and PAA controls, and the capacity to generate porous scaffolds. hADSCs inside these novel interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs were able to populate the entire scaffold structure and to display their characteristic spindle-like shape as a consequence of a good interaction with G component of the matrices. Additionally, hADSCs proved to display the capacity to differentiate towards mature adipocytes, to accumulate lipids inside their cytoplasm, and to express perilipin late adipogenic marker inside novel IPNs described in this study. On long term, this newly designed biomatrix aims to represent a stem cell delivery system product dedicated for modern regenerative strategies.

  11. A potential source for cellulolytic enzyme discovery and environmental aspects revealed through metagenomics of Brazilian mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Beys-da-Silva, Walter Orlando; Santi, Lucélia; Berger, Markus; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Guima Rães, Jorge Almeida; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release.

  12. Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twenty of the most common Fusarium species were molecularly characterized and inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA, rice and maize medium, where thirty three targeted mycotoxins, which might be the secondary metabolites of the identified fungal species, were detected by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Statistical analysis was performed with principal component analysis (PCA to characterize the mycotoxin profiles for the twenty fungi, suggesting that these fungi species could be discriminated and divided into three groups as follows. Group I, the fusaric acid producers, were defined into two subgroups, namely subgroup I as producers of fusaric acid and fumonisins, comprising of F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi and F. solani, and subgroup II considered to only produce fusaric acid, including F. temperatum, F. subglutinans, F. musae, F. tricinctum, F. oxysporum, F. equiseti, F. sacchari, F. concentricum, F. andiyazi. Group II, as type A trichothecenes producers, included F. langsethiae, F. sporotrichioides, F. polyphialidicum, while Group III were found to mainly produce type B trichothecenes, comprising of F. culmorum, F. poae, F. meridionale and F. graminearum. A comprehensive picture, which presents the mycotoxin-producing patterns by the selected fungal species in various matrices, is obtained for the first time, and thus from an application point of view, provides key information to explore mycotoxigenic potentials of Fusarium species and forecast the Fusarium infestation/mycotoxins contamination.

  13. In silico analysis reveals the anti-malarial potential of quinolinyl chalcone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillainayagam, Mahalakshmi; Pandian, Lavanya; Murugan, Kumar Kalavathy; Vijayaparthasarathi, Vijayakumar; Sundaramoorthy, Sarveswari; Anbarasu, Anand; Ramaiah, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the correlation between chemical structures and various parameters such as steric effects and electrostatic interactions to the inhibitory activities of quinolinyl chalcone derivatives is derived to identify the key structural elements required in the rational design of potent and novel anti-malarial compounds. The molecular docking simulations and Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) are carried out on 38 chalcones derivatives using Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) as potential target. Surflex-dock is used to determine the probable binding conformations of all the compounds at the active site of pfLDH and to identify the hydrogen bonding interactions which could be used to alter the inhibitory activities. The CoMFA model has provided statistically significant results with the cross-validated correlation coefficient (q(2)) of .850 and the non-cross-validated correlation coefficient (r(2)) of .912. Standard error of estimation (SEE) is .280 and the optimum number of component is five. The predictive ability of the resultant model is evaluated using a test set comprising of 13 molecules and the predicted r(2) value is .885. The results provide valuable insight for optimization of quinolinyl chalcone derivatives for better anti-malarial therapy.

  14. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  15. Microarray technology reveals potentially novel genes and pathways involved in non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X; Wang, H; Wang, X; Zhao, B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Microarray data of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) were analyzed to disclose novel genes and pathways involved in NFPA tumorigenesis. Raw microarray data were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Data pre-treatment and differential analysis were conducted using packages in R. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using package GOs-tats. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using server STRING and Cytoscape. Known genes involved in pituitary adenomas (PAs), were obtained from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. A total of 604 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identifed between NFPAs and controls, including 177 up- and 427 down-regulated genes. Jak-STAT and p53 signaling pathways were significantly enriched by DEGs. The PPI network of DEGs was constructed, containing 99 up- and 288 down-regulated known disease genes (e.g. EGFR and ESR1) as well as 16 up- and 17 down-regulated potential novel NFPAs-related genes (e.g. COL4A5, LHX3, MSN, and GHSR). Genes like COL4A5, LHX3, MSN, and GHSR and pathways such as p53 signaling and Jak-STAT signaling, might participate in NFPA development. Although further validations are required, these findings might provide guidance for future basic and therapy researches. PMID:28289583

  16. The time course of psychological stress as revealed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Qi, Mingming; Guan, Lili; Hou, Yan; Yang, Yu

    2012-11-14

    Psychological stress is common in everyday life and is believed to affect emotion, cognition and health. Previous brain imaging studies have been able to identify the brain regions involved in the stress response. However, our understanding of the temporal neurological response to psychological stress is limited. The present work aims to investigate the time course of psychological stress induced by a mental arithmetic task, utilizing event-related potentials (ERPs). The elicitation of stress was verified by self-reports of stress and increases in salivary cortisol levels. The subjective and physiological data showed that the stress-elicitation paradigm successfully induced a mild-to-moderate level of psychological stress. The electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of occipital N1 was more negative in the control task than in the stress task, and the latency of frontal P2 was shorter in the stress task than in the control task. Our results provide electrophysiological evidence that psychological stress occurs primarily at the early stage of cognitive processing.

  17. Recent advances reveal IL-8 signaling as a potential key to targeting breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagdeep K; Simões, Bruno M; Howell, Sacha J; Farnie, Gillian; Clarke, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are an important therapeutic target as they are purported to be responsible for tumor initiation, maintenance, metastases, and disease recurrence. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is upregulated in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue and is associated with poor prognosis. IL-8 is reported to promote breast cancer progression by increasing cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastases and is upregulated in HER2-positive cancers. Recently, we and others have established that IL-8 via its cognate receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, is also involved in regulating breast CSC activity. Our work demonstrates that in metastatic breast CSCs, CXCR1/2 signals via transactivation of HER2. Given the importance of HER2 in breast cancer and in regulating CSC activity, a pathway driving the activation of these receptors would have important biological and clinical consequences, especially in tumors that express high levels of IL-8 and other CXCR1/2-activating ligands. Here, we review the IL-8 signaling pathway and the role of HER2 in maintaining an IL-8 inflammatory loop and discuss the potential of combining CXCR1/2 inhibitors with other treatments such as HER2-targeted therapy as a novel approach to eliminate CSCs and improve patient survival.

  18. Source identification and distribution reveals the potential of the geochemical Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, S. T.; Smik, L.; Brown, T. A.; Kim, J.-H.; Rowland, S. J.; Allen, C. S.; Gal, J.-K.; Shin, K.-H.; Lee, J. I.; Taylor, K. W. R.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a di-unsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) lipid biomarker (diene II) in Southern Ocean sediments has previously been proposed as a proxy measure of palaeo Antarctic sea ice. Here we show that a source of diene II is the sympagic diatom Berkeleya adeliensis Medlin. Furthermore, the propensity for B. adeliensis to flourish in platelet ice is reflected by an offshore downward gradient in diene II concentration in >100 surface sediments from Antarctic coastal and near-coastal environments. Since platelet ice formation is strongly associated with super-cooled freshwater inflow, we further hypothesize that sedimentary diene II provides a potentially sensitive proxy indicator of landfast sea ice influenced by meltwater discharge from nearby glaciers and ice shelves, and re-examination of some previous diene II downcore records supports this hypothesis. The term IPSO25—Ice Proxy for the Southern Ocean with 25 carbon atoms—is proposed as a proxy name for diene II. PMID:27573030

  19. Cognitive impairment in generalized anxiety disorder revealed by event-related potential N270

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yingxue Yang,1,2 Xiating Zhang,1,2 Yu Zhu,1,2 Yakang Dai,3 Ting Liu,3 Yuping Wang1,2 1Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Cognitive function in anxiety disorders has been the subject of limited investigation, especially in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive function in subjects with GAD using mismatch-triggered negativity N270.Methods: Fifteen medication-free patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, and 15 well-matched healthy controls performed a dual-feature delayed matching task while event-related potentials were recorded from their scalp.Results: The GAD group was characterized by the decreased N270 amplitude in the left hemisphere. The smaller N270 amplitude was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety and depression.Conclusion: Since N270 is thought to index cognitive function in different domains, including attention and memory, our results suggest that individuals with GAD have an impaired cognitive function, particularly in selective attention and working memory. These cognitive deficits may have clinical significance in subjects with GAD and should be considered in treatment planning. Keywords: generalized anxiety disorder, N270, cognitive function, selective attention, working memory

  20. Antifungal susceptibility profiles of 1698 yeast reference strains revealing potential emerging human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Desnos-Ollivier

    Full Text Available New molecular identification techniques and the increased number of patients with various immune defects or underlying conditions lead to the emergence and/or the description of novel species of human and animal fungal opportunistic pathogens. Antifungal susceptibility provides important information for ecological, epidemiological and therapeutic issues. The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of the various species based on their antifungal drug resistance, keeping in mind the methodological limitations. Antifungal susceptibility profiles to the five classes of antifungal drugs (polyens, azoles, echinocandins, allylamines and antimetabolites were determined for 1698 yeast reference strains belonging to 992 species (634 Ascomycetes and 358 Basidiomycetes. Interestingly, geometric mean minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of all antifungal drugs tested were significantly higher for Basidiomycetes compared to Ascomycetes (p<0.001. Twenty four strains belonging to 23 species of which 19 were Basidiomycetes seem to be intrinsically "resistant" to all drugs. Comparison of the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the 4240 clinical isolates and the 315 reference strains belonging to 53 shared species showed similar results. Even in the absence of demonstrated in vitro/in vivo correlation, knowing the in vitro susceptibility to systemic antifungal agents and the putative intrinsic resistance of yeast species present in the environment is important because they could become opportunistic pathogens.

  1. Metagenomic analysis reveals potential biodegradation pathways of persistent pesticides in freshwater and marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Cai, Lin; Yang, Ying; Ju, Feng; Li, Xiangdong; Yu, Yunlong; Zhang, Tong

    2014-02-01

    The abundance and diversity of biodegradation genes (BDGs) and potential degradation pathways of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and atrazine (ATZ) in freshwater and marine sediments were investigated by metagenomic analysis using 6 datasets (16Gb in total). The datasets were derived using Illumina high-throughput sequencing and were based on BLAST against self-established databases of BDGs, DDT degradation genes (DDGs), HCH degradation genes (HDGs), and ATZ degradation genes (ADGs). The results showed that the abundance and diversity of BDGs, DDGs, HDGs, and ADGs varied with sample source and locations. The lip and mnp genes, which encode for peroxidase, and the carA gene, which encodes for laccase, were detected as the dominant genes for degradation of organic pollutants. The hdt, hdg, and atzB genes, which encode for hydratase, dehalogenase, and ethylaminohydrolase, were found to be the most abundant genes involved in DDT, HCH, and ATZ degradation, respectively. The identified 69 genera capable of degrading organic pollutants were mostly affiliated with Proteobacteria (49.3%) and Actinobacteria (21.7%). Four genera, including Plesiocystis, Anaerolinea, Jannaschia, and Mycobacterium, were the major biodegradation populations in all sediments. In this study, the nearly complete biodegradation pathways of DDT and ATZ were found, and the partial degradation pathway of HCH was detected in all sediments.

  2. Serum proteomic analysis reveals potential serum biomarkers for occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis caused by trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peiwu; Ren, Xiaohu; Huang, Zhijun; Yang, Xifei; Hong, Wenxu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhang, Hang; Liu, Wei; Huang, Haiyan; Huang, Xinfeng; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Linqing; Tang, Haiyan; Zhou, Li; Li, Xuan; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-08-17

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent with widespread occupational exposure and also a major environmental contaminant. Occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis induced by trichloroethylene (OMLDT) is an autoimmune disease and it has become one major hazard in China. In this study, sera from 3 healthy controls and 3 OMLDT patients at different disease stages were used for a screening study by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS. Eight proteins including transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), haptoglobin, clusterin, serum amyloid A protein (SAA), apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-III and apolipoprotein C-II were found to be significantly altered among the healthy, acute-stage, healing-stage and healed-stage groups. Specifically, the altered expression of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin were further validated by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Our data not only suggested that TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin could serve as potential serum biomarkers of OMLDT, but also indicated that measurement of TTR, RBP4 and haptoglobin or their combination could help aid in the diagnosis, monitoring the progression and therapy of the disease.

  3. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acacio Aparecido Navarrete

    Full Text Available This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N, vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production, and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%, Planctomycetes (12.3%, Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%, Alphaproteobacteria (12.0% and Betaproteobacteria (11.1% were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  4. MicroRNA Profiling of CSF Reveals Potential Biomarkers to Detect Alzheimer`s Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Denk

    Full Text Available The miRBase-21 database currently lists 1881 microRNA (miRNA precursors and 2585 unique mature human miRNAs. Since their discovery, miRNAs have proved to present a new level of epigenetic post-transcriptional control of protein synthesis. Initial results point to a possible involvement of miRNA in Alzheimer's disease (AD. We applied OpenArray technology to profile the expression of 1178 unique miRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples of AD patients (n = 22 and controls (n = 28. Using a Cq of 34 as cut-off, we identified positive signals for 441 miRNAs, while 729 miRNAs could not be detected, indicating that at least 37% of miRNAs are present in the brain. We found 74 miRNAs being down- and 74 miRNAs being up-regulated in AD using a 1.5 fold change threshold. By applying the new explorative "Measure of relevance" method, 6 reliable and 9 informative biomarkers were identified. Confirmatory MANCOVA revealed reliable miR-100, miR-146a and miR-1274a as differentially expressed in AD reaching Bonferroni corrected significance. MANCOVA also confirmed differential expression of informative miR-103, miR-375, miR-505#, miR-708, miR-4467, miR-219, miR-296, miR-766 and miR-3622b-3p. Discrimination analysis using a combination of miR-100, miR-103 and miR-375 was able to detect AD in CSF by positively classifying controls and AD cases with 96.4% and 95.5% accuracy, respectively. Referring to the Ingenuity database we could identify a set of AD associated genes that are targeted by these miRNAs. Highly predicted targets included genes involved in the regulation of tau and amyloid pathways in AD like MAPT, BACE1 and mTOR.

  5. Rare human papillomavirus 16 E6 variants reveal significant oncogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasino Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether low prevalence human papillomavirus (HPV 16 E6 variants differ from high prevalence types in their functional abilities. We evaluated functions relevant to carcinogenesis for the rarely-detected European variants R8Q, R10G and R48W as compared to the commonly detected L83V. Human immortalized keratinocytes (NIKS stably transduced with the E6 variants were used in most functional assays. Low and high prevalence E6 variants displayed similar abilities in abrogation of growth arrest and inhibition of p53 elevation induced by actinomycin D. Differences were detected in the abilities to dysregulate stratification and differentiation of NIKS in organotypic raft cultures, modulate detachment induced apoptosis (anoikis and hyperactivate Wnt signaling. No distinctive phenotype could be assigned to include all rare variants. Like L83V, raft cultures derived from variants R10G and R48W similarly induced hyperplasia and aberrantly expressed keratin 5 in the suprabasal compartment with significantly lower expression of keratin 10. Unlike L83V, both variants, and particularly R48W, induced increased levels of anoikis upon suspension in semisolid medium. R8Q induced a unique phenotype characterized by thin organotypic raft cultures, low expression of keratin 10, and high expression of keratins 5 and 14 throughout all raft layers. Interestingly, in a reporter based assay R8Q exhibited a higher ability to augment TCF/β-catenin transcription. The data suggests that differences in E6 variant prevalence in cervical carcinoma may not be related to the carcinogenic potential of the E6 protein.

  6. Neuropeptidomics of mouse hypothalamus after imipramine treatment reveal somatostatin as a potential mediator of antidepressant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anna; Stroth, Nikolas; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Qi, Hongshi; Fälth, Maria; Sköld, Karl; Hoyer, Daniel; Andrén, Per E; Svenningsson, Per

    2012-01-01

    Excessive activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been associated with numerous diseases, including depression, and the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine has been shown to suppress activity of the HPA axis. Central hypothalamic control of the HPA axis is complex and involves a number of neuropeptides released from multiple hypothalamic subnuclei. The present study was therefore designed to determine the effects of imipramine administration on the mouse hypothalamus using a peptidomics approach. Among the factors found to be downregulated after acute (one day) or chronic (21 days) imipramine administration were peptides derived from secretogranin 1 (chromogranin B) as well as peptides derived from cerebellin precursors. In contrast, peptides SRIF-14 and SRIF-28 (1-11) derived from somatostatin (SRIF, somatotropin release inhibiting factor) were significantly upregulated by imipramine in the hypothalamus. Because diminished SRIF levels have long been known to occur in depression, a second part of the study investigated the roles of individual SRIF receptors in mediating potential antidepressant effects. SRA880, an antagonist of the somatostatin-1 autoreceptor (sst1) which positively modulates release of endogenous SRIF, was found to synergize with imipramine in causing antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test. Furthermore, chronic co-administration of SRA880 and imipramine synergistically increased BDNF mRNA expression in the cerebral cortex. Application of SRIF or L054264, an sst2 receptor agonist, but not L803807, an sst4 receptor agonist, increased phosphorylation of CaMKII and GluR1 in cerebrocortical slices. Our present experiments thus provide evidence for antidepressant-induced upregulation of SRIF in the brain, and strengthen the notion that augmented SRIF expression and signaling may counter depressive-like symptoms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'.

  7. Environmental metabarcodes for insects: in silico PCR reveals potential for taxonomic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Soubrier, Julien; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Studies of insect assemblages are suited to the simultaneous DNA-based identification of multiple taxa known as metabarcoding. To obtain accurate estimates of diversity, metabarcoding markers ideally possess appropriate taxonomic coverage to avoid PCR-amplification bias, as well as sufficient sequence divergence to resolve species. We used in silico PCR to compare the taxonomic coverage and resolution of newly designed insect metabarcodes (targeting 16S) with that of existing markers [16S and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI)] and then compared their efficiency in vitro. Existing metabarcoding primers amplified in silico mitochondrial genomes available, whereas new primers targeting 16S provided >90% coverage. Furthermore, metabarcodes targeting COI appeared to introduce taxonomic PCR-amplification bias, typically amplifying a greater percentage of Lepidoptera and Diptera species, while failing to amplify certain orders in silico. To test whether bias predicted in silico was observed in vitro, we created an artificial DNA blend containing equal amounts of DNA from 14 species, representing 11 insect orders and one arachnid. We PCR-amplified the blend using five primer sets, targeting either COI or 16S, with high-throughput amplicon sequencing yielding more than 6 million reads. In vitro results typically corresponded to in silico PCR predictions, with newly designed 16S primers detecting 11 insect taxa present, thus providing equivalent or better taxonomic coverage than COI metabarcodes. Our results demonstrate that in silico PCR is a useful tool for predicting taxonomic bias in mixed template PCR and that researchers should be wary of potential bias when selecting metabarcoding markers.

  8. Phase noise reveals early category-specific modulation of the event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Petra; Vakli, Pál; Kovács, Gyula; Zimmer, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the amplitude of the early event-related potential (ERP) components evoked by faces, such as N170 and P2, changes systematically as a function of noise added to the stimuli. This change has been linked to an increased perceptual processing demand and to enhanced difficulty in perceptual decision making about faces. However, to date it has not yet been tested whether noise manipulation affects the neural correlates of decisions about face and non-face stimuli similarly. To this end, we measured the ERPs for faces and cars at three different phase noise levels. Subjects performed the same two-alternative age-discrimination task on stimuli chosen from young-old morphing continua that were created from faces as well as cars and were calibrated to lead to similar performances at each noise-level. Adding phase noise to the stimuli reduced performance and enhanced response latency for the two categories to the same extent. Parallel to that, phase noise reduced the amplitude and prolonged the latency of the face-specific N170 component. The amplitude of the P1 showed category-specific noise dependence: it was enhanced over the right hemisphere for cars and over the left hemisphere for faces as a result of adding phase noise to the stimuli, but remained stable across noise levels for cars over the left and for faces over the right hemisphere. Moreover, noise modulation altered the category-selectivity of the N170, while the P2 ERP component, typically associated with task decision difficulty, was larger for the more noisy stimuli regardless of stimulus category. Our results suggest that the category-specificity of noise-induced modulations of ERP responses starts at around 100 ms post-stimulus.

  9. Projections of Biofuel Growth Patterns Reveal the Potential Importance of Nitrogen Fixation for Miscanthus Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Dohleman, F. G.; Gottel, N. R.; Smith, C. M.; Kent, A. D.; Delucia, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    Demand for liquid biofuels is increasing because of the disparity between fuel demand and supply. Relative to grain crops, the more intensive harvest required for second generation liquid biofuel production leads to the removal of significantly more carbon and nitrogen from the soil. These elements are conventionally litter products of crops that are returned to the soil and can accumulate over time. This loss of organic matter represents a management challenge because the energy cost associated with fertilizers or external sources of organic matter reduce the net energy value of the biofuel crops. Plants that have exceptional strategies for exploiting nutrients may be the most viable options for sustainable biofuel yields because of low management and energy cost. Miscanthus x giganteus has high N retranslocation rates, maintains high photosynthetic rates over a large temperature range, exploits a longer-than-average growing season, and yields at least twice the biomass of other candidate biofuel grass crops (i.e. switchgrass). We employed the DAYCENT model to project potential productivity of Miscanthus, corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie communities based on our current knowledge of these species. Ecosystem process descriptions that have been validated for many crop species did not accurately predict Miscanthus yields and lead to new hypotheses about unknown N cycling mechanisms for this species. We tested the hypothesis that Miscanthus hosts N-fixing bacteria in several ways. First, we used enrichment culture and molecular methods to detect N-fixing bacteria in Miscanthus. Then, we demonstrated the plant-growth promoting effect of diazotrophs isolated from Miscanthus rhizomes on a model grass. And finally, we applied 15N2 to the soil and rooting zone of field grown Miscanthus plants to determine if atmospheric N2 was incorporated into plant tissue, a process that requires N-fixation. These experiments are the first tests of N-fixation in Miscanthus x

  10. Global gene expression profiling reveals SPINK1 as a potential hepatocellular carcinoma marker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Marshall

    , demonstrated potential as a diagnostic HCC marker and should be evaluated in future studies.

  11. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  12. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  13. Competition between inverse piezoelectric effect and deformation potential mechanism in undoped GaAs revealed by ultrafast acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeril T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By using the picosecond ultrasonics technique, piezoelectric effect in GaAs undoped sample at both faces (A[111] and B[-1-1-1] is experimentally studied. We demonstrate that piezoelectric generation of sound can dominate in GaAs material over the deformation potential mechanism even in the absence of static externally applied or built-in electric field in the semiconductor material. In that case, the Dember field, caused by the separation of photo-generated electrons and holes in the process of supersonic diffusion, is sufficient for the dominance of the piezoelectric mechanism during the optoacoustic excitation. The experimental results on the sample at both faces reveal that in one case (A face, the two mechanisms, piezoelectric effect and deformation potential, can compensate each other leading to a large decrease of the measured Brillouin oscillation magnitude.

  14. Comparative genome analysis of Megasphaera sp. reveals niche specialization and its potential role in the human gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Anand Shetty

    Full Text Available With increasing number of novel bacteria being isolated from the human gut ecosystem, there is a greater need to study their role in the gut ecosystem and their effect on the host health. In the present study, we carried out in silico genome-wide analysis of two novel Megasphaera sp. isolates NM10 (DSM25563 and BL7 (DSM25562, isolated from feces of two healthy individuals and validated the key features by in vitro studies. The analysis revealed the general metabolic potential, adaptive features and the potential effects of these isolates on the host. The comparative genome analysis of the two human gut isolates NM10 and BL7 with ruminal isolate Megasphaera elsdenii (DSM20460 highlighted the differential adaptive features for their survival in human gut. The key findings include features like bile resistance, presence of various sensory and regulatory systems, stress response systems, membrane transporters and resistance to antibiotics. Comparison of the "glycobiome" based on the genomes of the ruminal isolate with the human gut isolates NM10 and BL revealed the presence of diverse and unique sets of Carbohydrate-Active enzymes (CAZymes amongst these isolates, with a higher collection of CAZymes in the human gut isolates. This could be attributed to the difference in host diet and thereby the environment, consequently suggesting host specific adaptation in these isolates. In silico analysis of metabolic potential predicted the ability of these isolates to produce important metabolites like short chain fatty acids (butyrate, acetate, formate, and caproate, vitamins and essential amino acids, which was further validated by in vitro experiments. The ability of these isolates to produce important metabolites advocates for a potential healthy influence on the host. Further in vivo studies including transcriptomic and proteomic analysis will be required for better understanding the role and impact of these Megasphaera sp. isolates NM10 and BL7 on the

  15. Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaun Reeder

    2007-01-01

    @@ Background There is worldwide concern about the potentially damaging effects of chemicals in the environment on the health of humans, animals, agriculture and ecosystems. Economic and population growth are increasing rapidly, exacerbating such problems as land degradation and pollution from uncontrolled urbanisation, industrialisation,intensive agricultural practices and over-exploitation of aquifers.

  16. Perceptual suppression revealed by adaptive multi-scale entropy analysis of local field potential in monkey visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Liang, Hualou

    2013-04-01

    Generalized flash suppression (GFS), in which a salient visual stimulus can be rendered invisible despite continuous retinal input, provides a rare opportunity to directly study the neural mechanism of visual perception. Previous work based on linear methods, such as spectral analysis, on local field potential (LFP) during GFS has shown that the LFP power at distinctive frequency bands are differentially modulated by perceptual suppression. Yet, the linear method alone may be insufficient for the full assessment of neural dynamic due to the fundamentally nonlinear nature of neural signals. In this study, we set forth to analyze the LFP data collected from multiple visual areas in V1, V2 and V4 of macaque monkeys while performing the GFS task using a nonlinear method - adaptive multi-scale entropy (AME) - to reveal the neural dynamic of perceptual suppression. In addition, we propose a new cross-entropy measure at multiple scales, namely adaptive multi-scale cross-entropy (AMCE), to assess the nonlinear functional connectivity between two cortical areas. We show that: (1) multi-scale entropy exhibits percept-related changes in all three areas, with higher entropy observed during perceptual suppression; (2) the magnitude of the perception-related entropy changes increases systematically over successive hierarchical stages (i.e. from lower areas V1 to V2, up to higher area V4); and (3) cross-entropy between any two cortical areas reveals higher degree of asynchrony or dissimilarity during perceptual suppression, indicating a decreased functional connectivity between cortical areas. These results, taken together, suggest that perceptual suppression is related to a reduced functional connectivity and increased uncertainty of neural responses, and the modulation of perceptual suppression is more effective at higher visual cortical areas. AME is demonstrated to be a useful technique in revealing the underlying dynamic of nonlinear/nonstationary neural signal.

  17. Bile acid-induced virulence gene expression of Vibrio parahaemolyticus reveals a novel therapeutic potential for bile acid sequestrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Gotoh

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a bacterial pathogen, causes human gastroenteritis. A type III secretion system (T3SS2 encoded in pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI is the main contributor to enterotoxicity and expression of Vp-PAI encoded genes is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB. However, a host-derived inducer for the Vp-PAI genes has not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that bile induces production of T3SS2-related proteins under osmotic conditions equivalent to those in the intestinal lumen. We also show that bile induces vtrA-mediated vtrB transcription. Transcriptome analysis of bile-responsive genes revealed that bile strongly induces expression of Vp-PAI genes in a vtrA-dependent manner. The inducing activity of bile was diminished by treatment with bile acid sequestrant cholestyramine. Finally, we demonstrate an in vivo protective effect of cholestyramine on enterotoxicity and show that similar protection is observed in infection with a different type of V. parahaemolyticus or with non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae strains of vibrios carrying the same kind of T3SS. In summary, these results provide an insight into how bacteria, through the ingenious action of Vp-PAI genes, can take advantage of an otherwise hostile host environment. The results also reveal a new therapeutic potential for widely used bile acid sequestrants in enteric bacterial infections.

  18. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  19. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-09-30

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of September 30, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that dellinate the differences between this revision and revision 4 (May 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  20. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Qin Fen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chalise, Dol Raj [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Centurion, Emma E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  1. Post-genomic analyses of fungal lignocellulosic biomass degradation reveal the unexpected potential of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couturier Marie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are potent biomass degraders due to their ability to thrive in ligno(hemicellulose-rich environments. During the last decade, fungal genome sequencing initiatives have yielded abundant information on the genes that are putatively involved in lignocellulose degradation. At present, additional experimental studies are essential to provide insights into the fungal secreted enzymatic pools involved in lignocellulose degradation. Results In this study, we performed a wide analysis of 20 filamentous fungi for which genomic data are available to investigate their biomass-hydrolysis potential. A comparison of fungal genomes and secretomes using enzyme activity profiling revealed discrepancies in carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes sets dedicated to plant cell wall. Investigation of the contribution made by each secretome to the saccharification of wheat straw demonstrated that most of them individually supplemented the industrial Trichoderma reesei CL847 enzymatic cocktail. Unexpectedly, the most striking effect was obtained with the phytopathogen Ustilago maydis that improved the release of total sugars by 57% and of glucose by 22%. Proteomic analyses of the best-performing secretomes indicated a specific enzymatic mechanism of U. maydis that is likely to involve oxido-reductases and hemicellulases. Conclusion This study provides insight into the lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms by filamentous fungi and allows for the identification of a number of enzymes that are potentially useful to further improve the industrial lignocellulose bioconversion process.

  2. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  3. ModM DNA methyltransferase methylome analysis reveals a potential role for Moraxella catarrhalis phasevarions in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeway, Luke V; Power, Peter M; Jen, Freda E-C; Worboys, Sam R; Boitano, Matthew; Clark, Tyson A; Korlach, Jonas; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Jennings, Michael P; Peak, Ian R; Seib, Kate L

    2014-12-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a significant cause of otitis media and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here, we characterize a phase-variable DNA methyltransferase (ModM), which contains 5'-CAAC-3' repeats in its open reading frame that mediate high-frequency mutation resulting in reversible on/off switching of ModM expression. Three modM alleles have been identified (modM1-3), with modM2 being the most commonly found allele. Using single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) genome sequencing and methylome analysis, we have determined that the ModM2 methylation target is 5'-GAR(m6)AC-3', and 100% of these sites are methylated in the genome of the M. catarrhalis 25239 ModM2 on strain. Proteomic analysis of ModM2 on and off variants revealed that ModM2 regulates expression of multiple genes that have potential roles in colonization, infection, and protection against host defenses. Investigation of the distribution of modM alleles in a panel of M. catarrhalis strains, isolated from the nasopharynx of healthy children or middle ear effusions from patients with otitis media, revealed a statistically significant association of modM3 with otitis media isolates. The modulation of gene expression via the ModM phase-variable regulon (phasevarion), and the significant association of the modM3 allele with otitis media, suggests a key role for ModM phasevarions in the pathogenesis of this organism.

  4. The complete genome and proteome of Laribacter hongkongensis reveal potential mechanisms for adaptations to different temperatures and habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C Y Woo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Laribacter hongkongensis is a newly discovered Gram-negative bacillus of the Neisseriaceae family associated with freshwater fish-borne gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. The complete genome sequence of L. hongkongensis HLHK9, recovered from an immunocompetent patient with severe gastroenteritis, consists of a 3,169-kb chromosome with G+C content of 62.35%. Genome analysis reveals different mechanisms potentially important for its adaptation to diverse habitats of human and freshwater fish intestines and freshwater environments. The gene contents support its phenotypic properties and suggest that amino acids and fatty acids can be used as carbon sources. The extensive variety of transporters, including multidrug efflux and heavy metal transporters as well as genes involved in chemotaxis, may enable L. hongkongensis to survive in different environmental niches. Genes encoding urease, bile salts efflux pump, adhesin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other putative virulence factors-such as hemolysins, RTX toxins, patatin-like proteins, phospholipase A1, and collagenases-are present. Proteomes of L. hongkongensis HLHK9 cultured at 37 degrees C (human body temperature and 20 degrees C (freshwater habitat temperature showed differential gene expression, including two homologous copies of argB, argB-20, and argB-37, which encode two isoenzymes of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK-NAGK-20 and NAGK-37-in the arginine biosynthesis pathway. NAGK-20 showed higher expression at 20 degrees C, whereas NAGK-37 showed higher expression at 37 degrees C. NAGK-20 also had a lower optimal temperature for enzymatic activities and was inhibited by arginine probably as negative-feedback control. Similar duplicated copies of argB are also observed in bacteria from hot springs such as Thermus thermophilus, Deinococcus geothermalis, Deinococcus radiodurans, and Roseiflexus castenholzii, suggesting that similar mechanisms for temperature adaptation may be

  5. Comparative genomics of four closely related Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages reveals variable evolution among core genes with therapeutic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragusa Gregory R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because biotechnological uses of bacteriophage gene products as alternatives to conventional antibiotics will require a thorough understanding of their genomic context, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of four closely related phages isolated from Clostridium perfringens, an important agricultural and human pathogen. Results Phage whole-genome tetra-nucleotide signatures and proteomic tree topologies correlated closely with host phylogeny. Comparisons of our phage genomes to 26 others revealed three shared COGs; of particular interest within this core genome was an endolysin (PF01520, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and a holin (PF04531. Comparative analyses of the evolutionary history and genomic context of these common phage proteins revealed two important results: 1 strongly significant host-specific sequence variation within the endolysin, and 2 a protein domain architecture apparently unique to our phage genomes in which the endolysin is located upstream of its associated holin. Endolysin sequences from our phages were one of two very distinct genotypes distinguished by variability within the putative enzymatically-active domain. The shared or core genome was comprised of genes with multiple sequence types belonging to five pfam families, and genes belonging to 12 pfam families, including the holin genes, which were nearly identical. Conclusions Significant genomic diversity exists even among closely-related bacteriophages. Holins and endolysins represent conserved functions across divergent phage genomes and, as we demonstrate here, endolysins can have significant variability and host-specificity even among closely-related genomes. Endolysins in our phage genomes may be subject to different selective pressures than the rest of the genome. These findings may have important implications for potential biotechnological applications of phage gene products.

  6. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  7. Heterogeneity in the developmental potential of motor neuron progenitors revealed by clonal analysis of single cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schieren Ira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differentiation of neural progenitors into distinct classes within the central nervous system occurs over an extended period during which cells become progressively restricted in their fates. In the developing spinal cord, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh controls neural fates in a concentration-dependent manner by establishing discrete ventral progenitor domains characterized by specific combinations of transcription factors. It is unclear whether motor neuron progenitors can maintain their identities when expanded in vitro and whether their developmental potentials are restricted when exposed to defined extracellular signals. Results We have generated mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the Nkx6.1 promoter, enabling fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS, purification and culture of individual spinal progenitors at clonal density, and analysis of their progeny. We demonstrate that cells isolated after progenitor domains are established are heterogeneous with respect to maintaining their identity after in vitro expansion. Most Nkx6.1+ progenitors lose their ventral identity following several divisions in culture, whereas a small subset is able to maintain its identity. Thus, subtype-restricted progenitors from the Nkx6.1+ region are present in the ventral spinal cord, although at a lower frequency than expected. Clones that maintain a motor neuron identity assume a transcriptional profile characteristic of thoracic motor neurons, despite some having been isolated from non-thoracic regions initially. Exposure of progenitors to Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 induces some dorsal cell type characteristics in their progeny, revealing that lineage-restricted progenitor subtypes are not fully committed to their fates. Conclusion These findings support a model whereby continuous Shh signaling is required to maintain the identity of ventral progenitors isolated from the spinal cord, including motor

  8. Field transcriptome revealed critical developmental and physiological transitions involved in the expression of growth potential in japonica rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamatsuki Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant growth depends on synergistic interactions between internal and external signals, and yield potential of crops is a manifestation of how these complex factors interact, particularly at critical stages of development. As an initial step towards developing a systems-level understanding of the biological processes underlying the expression of overall agronomic potential in cereal crops, a high-resolution transcriptome analysis of rice was conducted throughout life cycle of rice grown under natural field conditions. Results A wide range of gene expression profiles based on 48 organs and tissues at various developmental stages identified 731 organ/tissue specific genes as well as 215 growth stage-specific expressed genes universally in leaf blade, leaf sheath, and root. Continuous transcriptome profiling of leaf from transplanting until harvesting further elucidated the growth-stage specificity of gene expression and uncovered two major drastic changes in the leaf transcriptional program. The first major change occurred before the panicle differentiation, accompanied by the expression of RFT1, a putative florigen gene in long day conditions, and the downregulation of the precursors of two microRNAs. This transcriptome change was also associated with physiological alterations including phosphate-homeostasis state as evident from the behavior of several key regulators such as miR399. The second major transcriptome change occurred just after flowering, and based on analysis of sterile mutant lines, we further revealed that the formation of strong sink, i.e., a developing grain, is not the major cause but is rather a promoter of this change. Conclusions Our study provides not only the genetic basis for functional genomics in rice but also new insight into understanding the critical physiological processes involved in flowering and seed development, that could lead to novel strategies for optimizing crop productivity.

  9. Extroversion-related differences in speed of premotor and motor processing as revealed by lateralized readiness potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jutta; Rammsayer, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    To further elucidate extroversion-related differences in speed of sensorimotor processing, the authors obtained behavioral and psychophysiological measures as participants (16 introverts and 16 extroverts) performed a visual go/no-go task. Although no extroversion-related differences in reaction time emerged, introverts showed faster premotor processing but slower central and peripheral motor processing--as indicated by latencies of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and electromyographic (EMG) data, respectively--than extroverts did. Additional regression analyses revealed that stimulus-locked LRP latency, response-locked LRP latency, and Nl EMG amplitude accounted for 40% of overall variability in individual extroversion scores. On the basis of the present results, the authors introduce a compensation hypothesis that accounts for the common failure of researchers to demonstrate extroversion-related differences in reaction time. The present results challenge J. Brebner and C. Cooper's (1985) model of extroversion in which stimulus analysis is not slower in introverts than in extroverts. However, the present findings support the assumption of faster motor processing in extroverts.

  10. Metabolomics approach reveals metabolic disorders and potential biomarkers associated with the developmental toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachlorobisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guozhu; Chen, Yajie; Wang, Hong-Ou; Ye, Ting; Lin, Yi; Huang, Qiansheng; Chi, Yulang; Dong, Sijun

    2016-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A and tetrachlorobisphenol A are halogenated bisphenol A (H-BPA), and has raised concerns about their adverse effects on the development of fetuses and infants, however, the molecular mechanisms are unclear, and related metabolomics studies are limited. Accordingly, a metabolomics study based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to elucidate the molecular developmental toxicology of H-BPA using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigmas) embryo model. Here, we revealed decreased synthesis of nucleosides, amino acids and lipids, and disruptions in the TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, glycolysis and lipid metabolism, thus inhibiting the developmental processes of embryos exposed to H-BPA. Unexpectedly, we observed enhanced neural activity accompanied by lactate accumulation and accelerated heart rates due to an increase in dopamine pathway and a decrease in inhibitory neurotransmitters following H-BPA exposure. Notably, disorders of the neural system, and disruptions in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, nucleoside metabolism, lipid metabolism, glutamate and aspartate metabolism induced by H-BPA exposure were heritable. Furthermore, lactate and dopa were identified as potential biomarkers of the developmental toxicity of H-BPA and related genetic effects. This study has demonstrated that the metabolomics approach is a useful tool for obtaining comprehensive and novel insights into the molecular developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants.

  11. Phonological abilities in literacy-impaired children: Brain potentials reveal deficient phoneme discrimination, but intact prosodic processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Männel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Intact phonological processing is crucial for successful literacy acquisition. While individuals with difficulties in reading and spelling (i.e., developmental dyslexia are known to experience deficient phoneme discrimination (i.e., segmental phonology, findings concerning their prosodic processing (i.e., suprasegmental phonology are controversial. Because there are no behavior-independent studies on the underlying neural correlates of prosodic processing in dyslexia, these controversial findings might be explained by different task demands. To provide an objective behavior-independent picture of segmental and suprasegmental phonological processing in impaired literacy acquisition, we investigated event-related brain potentials during passive listening in typically and poor-spelling German school children. For segmental phonology, we analyzed the Mismatch Negativity (MMN during vowel length discrimination, capturing automatic auditory deviancy detection in repetitive contexts. For suprasegmental phonology, we analyzed the Closure Positive Shift (CPS that automatically occurs in response to prosodic boundaries. Our results revealed spelling group differences for the MMN, but not for the CPS, indicating deficient segmental, but intact suprasegmental phonological processing in poor spellers. The present findings point towards a differential role of segmental and suprasegmental phonology in literacy disorders and call for interventions that invigorate impaired literacy by utilizing intact prosody in addition to training deficient phonemic awareness.

  12. Sex-specific automatic responses to infant cries: TMS reveals greater excitability in females than males in motor evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene eMessina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the biceps brachii (BB and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1 muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms from sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of the infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was delayed, attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry, and was absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this modulation is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. This effect may reflect the greater and longstanding burden on females in caregiving infants.

  13. Comparative Analysis of JmjC Domain-containing Proteins Reveals the Potential Histone Demethylases in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Falong Lu; Guanglin Li; Xia Cui; Chunyan Liu; Xiu-Jie Wang; Xiaofeng Cao

    2008-01-01

    Histone methylation homeostasis is achieved by controlling the balance between methylation and demethylation to maintain chromatin function and developmental regulation. In animals, a conserved Jumonji C (JmjC) domain was found In a large group of histone demethylases. However, it is still unclear whether plants also contain the JmjC domaincontaining active histone demethylases. Here we performed genome-wide screen and phylogenetic analysis of JmjC domaincontaining proteins in the dicot plant, Arabidopsis, and monocot plant rice, and found 21 and 20 JmjC domain-containing, respectively. We also examined the expression of JmjC domain-containing proteins and compared them to human JmjC counterparts for potential enzymatic activity. The spatial expression patterns of the Arabidopsis JmjC domaincontaining genes revealed that they are all actively transcribed genes. These active plant JmjC domain-containing genes could possibly function in epigenetic regulation to antagonize the activity of the large number of putative SET domaincontaining histone methyltransferase activity to dynamically regulate histone methylation homeostasis.

  14. Diminished social reward anticipation in the broad autism phenotype as revealed by event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anthony; Kohls, Gregor; Naples, Adam J; Mukerji, Cora E; Coffman, Marika C; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; McPartland, James C

    2015-10-01

    Diminished responsivity to reward incentives is a key contributor to the social-communication problems seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Social motivation theories suggest that individuals with ASD do not experience social interactions as rewarding, leading to negative consequences for the development of brain circuitry subserving social information. In this study, we examined neural responses to social and non-social reward anticipation in 35 typically developing young adults, examining modulation of reward sensitivity by level of autistic traits. Using an Event-related potential incentive-delay task incorporating novel, more ecologically valid forms of reward, higher expression of autistic traits was associated with an attenuated P3 response to the anticipation of social (simulated real-time video feedback from an observer), but not non-social (candy), rewards. Exploratory analyses revealed that this was unrelated to mentalizing ability. The P3 component reflects motivated attention to reward signals, suggesting attenuated motivation allocation specific to social incentives. The study extends prior findings of atypical reward anticipation in ASD, demonstrating that attenuated social reward responsiveness extends to autistic traits in the range of typical functioning. Results support the development of innovative paradigms for investigating social and non-social reward responsiveness. Insight into vulnerabilities in reward processing is critical for understanding social function in ASD.

  15. Deep sequencing of Lotus corniculatus L. reveals key enzymes and potential transcription factors related to the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Hua, Wenping; Wang, Jian; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Xu, Ziqin; Wang, Zhezhi

    2013-04-01

    Lotus corniculatus L. is used worldwide as a forage crop due to its abundance of secondary metabolites and its ability to grow in severe environments. Although the entire genome of L. corniculatus var. japonicus R. is being sequenced, the differences in morphology and production of secondary metabolites between these two related species have led us to investigate this variability at the genetic level, in particular the differences in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our goal is to use the resulting information to develop more valuable forage crops and medicinal materials. Here, we conducted Illumina/Solexa sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. corniculatus. We produced 26,492,952 short reads that corresponded to 2.38 gigabytes of total nucleotides. These reads were then assembled into 45,698 unigenes, of which a large number associated with secondary metabolism were annotated. In addition, we identified 2,998 unigenes based on homology with L. japonicus transcription factors (TFs) and grouped them into 55 families. Meanwhile, a comparison of four tag-based digital gene expression libraries, built from the flowers, pods, leaves, and roots, revealed distinct patterns of spatial expression of candidate unigenes in flavonoid biosynthesis. Based on these results, we identified many key enzymes from L. corniculatus which were different from reference genes of L. japonicus, and five TFs that are potential enhancers in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results provide initial genetics resources that will be valuable in efforts to manipulate the flavonoid metabolic pathway in plants.

  16. Assessment of the Bacteriocinogenic Potential of Marine Bacteria Reveals Lichenicidin Production by Seaweed-Derived Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian E. Gardiner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (1 to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2 to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3 to determine if they are unique to the marine environment and/or novel. Fifteen Bacillus licheniformis or pumilus isolates with antimicrobial activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria used were recovered. Some, at least, of the antimicrobials produced were bacteriocins, as they were proteinaceous and the producers displayed immunity. Screening with PCR primers for known Bacillus bacteriocins revealed that three seaweed-derived Bacillus licheniformis harbored the bli04127 gene which encodes one of the peptides of the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin. Production of both lichenicidin peptides was then confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the first definitive proof of bacteriocin production by seaweed-derived bacteria. The authors acknowledge that the bacteriocin produced has previously been discovered and is not unique to the marine environment. However, the other marine isolates likely produce novel bacteriocins, as none harboured genes for known Bacillus bacteriocins.

  17. In silico serine β-lactamases analysis reveals a huge potential resistome in environmental and pathogenic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christian; Braun, Sascha D.; Stein, Claudia; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf; Pletz, Mathias W.; Makarewicz, Oliwia

    2017-01-01

    The secretion of antimicrobial compounds is an ancient mechanism with clear survival benefits for microbes competing with other microorganisms. Consequently, mechanisms that confer resistance are also ancient and may represent an underestimated reservoir in environmental bacteria. In this context, β-lactamases (BLs) are of great interest due to their long-term presence and diversification in the hospital environment, leading to the emergence of Gram-negative pathogens that are resistant to cephalosporins (extended spectrum BLs = ESBLs) and carbapenems (carbapenemases). In the current study, protein sequence databases were used to analyze BLs, and the results revealed a substantial number of unknown and functionally uncharacterized BLs in a multitude of environmental and pathogenic species. Together, these BLs represent an uncharacterized reservoir of potentially transferable resistance genes. Considering all available data, in silico approaches appear to more adequately reflect a given resistome than analyses of limited datasets. This approach leads to a more precise definition of BL clades and conserved motifs. Moreover, it may support the prediction of new resistance determinants and improve the tailored development of robust molecular diagnostics. PMID:28233789

  18. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  19. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  20. LncRNAs expression in preeclampsia placenta reveals the potential role of LncRNAs contributing to preeclampsia pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoju He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are an important class of pervasive genes involved in a variety of biological functions. They are aberrantly expressed in many types of diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia has been observed in patients with molar pregnancy where a fetus is absent, which demonstrate that the placenta is sufficient to cause this condition. Thus, we analyzed the lncRNA profiles in preeclampsia placentas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we described the lncRNA profiles in six preeclampsia placentas (T and five normal pregnancy placentas (N using microarray. With abundant and varied probes accounting for 33,045 LncRNAs in our microarray, 28,443 lncRNAs that were expressed at a specific level were detected. From the data, we found 738 lncRNAs that were differentially expressed (≥ 1.5-fold-change among preeclampsia placentas compared with controls. Coding-non-coding gene co-expression networks (CNC network were constructed based on the correlation analysis between the differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs. According to the CNC network and GO analysis of differentially expressed lncRNAs/mRNAs, we selected three lncRNAs to analyze the relationship between lncRNAs and preeclampsia. LOC391533, LOC284100, and CEACAMP8 were evaluated using qPCR in 40 preeclampsia placentas and 40 controls. These results revealed that three lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in preeclampsia placentas compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first study to determine the genome-wide lncRNAs expression patterns in preeclampsia placenta using microarray. These results revealed that clusters of lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed in preeclampsia placenta compared with controls, which indicated that lncRNAs differentially expressed in preeclampsia placenta might play a partial or key role in preeclampsia development. Misregulation of LOC391533, LOC

  1. Systems Perturbation Analysis of a Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates for Cancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Allen, Laura; Hochfelder, Colleen; Majumder, Mahbubul; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model’s components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components based on the magnitude of their influence on the rest of the system. Based on the premise that the most influential components might serve as better drug targets, we characterized them for biological functions, housekeeping genes, essential genes, and druggable proteins. The most influential components under all environmental conditions were enriched with several biological processes. The inositol pathway was found as most influential under inactivating perturbations, whereas the kinase and small lung cancer pathways were identified as the most influential under activating perturbations. The most influential components were enriched with essential genes and druggable proteins. Moreover, known cancer drug targets were also classified in influential components based on the affected components in the network. Additionally, the systemic perturbation analysis of the model revealed a network motif of most influential components which affect each other. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel combinations of cancer drug targets with various effects on other most influential components. We found that the combinatorial perturbation consisting of PI3K inactivation and overactivation of IP3R1 can lead to increased activity levels of apoptosis

  2. Potential language and attentional networks revealed through factor analysis of rCBF data measured with SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, T; Steinberg, B; Christensen, B

    1992-01-01

    We used changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to disclose regions involved in central auditory and language processing in the normal brain. rCBF was quantified with a fast-rotating, single-photon emission computerized tomograph (SPECT) and inhalation of 133Xe. rCBF data were obtained......'s area (left hemisphere), when subjects listened to narrative speech, compared to white noise (baseline). No significant rCBF differences were detected with this test during dichotic stimulation vs. white noise. A more sophisticated statistical method (factor analysis) disclosed patterns of functionally...... intercorrelated regions. The factor analysis reduced the highly intercorrelated rCBF measures from 28 regions of interest to a set of three independent factors. These factors accounted for 77% of the total variation in rCBF values. These three factors appeared to represent statistical analogues of independent...

  3. Baseline and ongoing PET-derived factors predict detrimental effect or potential utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG-PET/CT) performed for surveillance in asymptomatic lymphoma patients in first remission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia; Capitanio, Selene; Bongioanni, Francesca; Verardi, Maria Teresa; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Fiz, Francesco; Pomposelli, Elena; Sambuceti, Gianmario [IRCCS AOU San Martino - IST, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Genoa (Italy); De Carli, Fabrizio; Marini, Cecilia [Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, CNR, Genoa-Milan (Italy); De Astis, Enrico; Miglino, Maurizio [IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    To identify both clinical and FDG PET/CT-derived factors predicting the occurrence of relapse, or conversely, the likelihood of false positive findings in surveillance FDG-PET/CT studies (PETsv). The study included 149 asymptomatic patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) (n = 55) or diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (n = 94) in first remission. PETSv studies were performed 12, 18, 24 and 36 months thereafter. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify clinical and imaging-derived predictors of either PET-detected relapse or false-positive (FP) results. Tested clinical variables were:(1) age, (2) HL vs. DLBCL, (3) stage of disease, (4) bulky disease, (5) previous radiotherapy. PET/CT-derived variables were: (1) maximum standardized uptake value at baseline, (2) size-incorporated maximum standardized uptake value (SIMaxSUV) at baseline, (3) positive interim PET(PET-2), (4) presence of hot spots likely to be unrelated to the disease in final PET, (5) residual non-FDG avid mass. Accuracy was 88 % for PETsv1, 95 % for PETsv2, 95 % for PETsv3 and 91 % for PETsv4. However, PPV was relatively low in all PETsv. Best predictors of relapse were result of interim PET, HL versus NHL type, SIMaxSUV, age ≥ 60. Best predictors of FP were previous radiotherapy and hot spots unrelated to the disease in final PET. The present study confirms the need of restricting the use of surveillance PET/CT to patients at high risk of relapse. Information derived from PET/CT performed at baseline (metabolic disease burden), in the course (PET2) and at the end of therapy (unrelated hot spots) can help to select high-risk patients and also to identify patients more likely to present equivocal findings at PETsv. (orig.)

  4. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC...Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electra y Electronica Universidad Publica de Navarra Pamplona, Spain Performing Organization Report

  5. Baseline and benchmark model development for hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Edward T., Jr.

    The hotel industry currently faces rising energy costs and requires the tools to maximize energy efficiency. In order to achieve this goal a clear definition of the current methods used to measure and monitor energy consumption is made. Uncovering the limitations to the most common practiced analysis strategies and presenting methods that can potentially overcome those limitations is the main purpose. Techniques presented can be used for measurement and verification of energy efficiency plans and retrofits. Also, modern energy modeling tool are introduced to demonstrate how they can be utilized for benchmarking and baseline models. This will provide the ability to obtain energy saving recommendations and parametric analysis to explore energy savings potential. These same energy models can be used in design decisions for new construction. An energy model is created of a resort style hotel that over one million square feet and has over one thousand rooms. A simulation and detailed analysis is performed on a hotel room. The planning process for creating the model and acquiring data from the hotel room to calibrate and verify the simulation will be explained. An explanation as to how this type of modeling can potentially be beneficial for future baseline and benchmarking strategies for the hotel industry. Ultimately the conclusion will address some common obstacles the hotel industry has in reaching their full potential of energy efficiency and how these techniques can best serve them.

  6. Comparative genomic analysis ofLactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 reveals its genetic adaptation and potential probiotic profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xuan LI; Qing GU; Xiu-yu LOU; Xiao-mei ZHANG; Da-feng SONG; Chen ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    题目:比较基因组学揭示植物乳杆菌ZJ316的生境适应性及潜在益生特性目的:前期研究发现植物乳杆菌ZJ316能显著抑制病原菌,促进仔猪生长,提高猪肉质量等,本研究拟在ZJ316全基因组测序的基础上,运用比较基因组学手段揭示与其生境适应性及益生特性相关基因。创新点:首次从基因水平上分析与植物乳杆菌ZJ316的生境适应性、抑菌活性及益生特性等相关的基因,为进一步揭示其生理功能打下基础。方法:运用BLASTN、Mauve和MUMmer等将植物乳杆菌ZJ316全基因组序列与已测序的8个植物乳杆菌全基因组序列进行比对及分析;用CRISPRFinder寻找CRISPR重复序列。结论:植物乳杆菌ZJ316包含碳水化合物的运输和代谢、蛋白水解酶系统和氨基酸的生物合成等相关基因,具有CRISPR、应激反应、耐胆盐、粘附宿主肠壁、胞外多糖、生物合成和细菌素生物合成等相关基因。这些基因的功能是其作为益生菌的重要特征和基础。%Objective: In previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 showed probiotic properties, such as an-timicrobial activity against various pathogens and the capacity to significantly improve pig growth and pork quality. The purpose of this study was to reveal the genes potentialy related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles based on comparative genomic analysis. Methods: The genome sequence ofL. plantarumZJ316 was compared with those of eightL. plantarum strains deposited in GenBank. BLASTN, Mauve, and MUMmer programs were used for genome alignment and comparison. CRISPRFinder was applied for searching the clustered regularly interspaced short palin-dromic repeats (CRISPRs). Results: We identified genes that encode proteins related to genetic adaptation and pro-biotic profiles, including carbohydrate transport and metabolism, proteolytic enzyme systems and amino acid bio-synthesis, CRISPR adaptive

  7. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  8. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  9. Interaction of baseline synaptic noise and Ia EPSPs: evidence for appreciable negative correlation under physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I; Collins, W F; Mendell, L M; Rudomin, P

    1991-04-01

    1. In the anesthetized cat, simultaneous intracellular recordings from pairs of spinal motoneurons were undertaken to see whether the amplitude of single-fiber excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in both cells fluctuated in a coordinated manner that would indicate correlative mechanisms at either pre- or post-synaptic level. Although these recordings revealed correlated fluctuations in the baseline, the single-fiber Ia/EPSPs recorded with the spike-triggered averaging technique exhibited no correlated fluctuations and, unexpectedly, virtually no increase in baseline variance associated with the EPSP. However, the fact that these experiments were carried out under conditions of high baseline synaptic noise (i.e., with muscle stretch) may have influenced the outcome because of interaction between EPSP and synaptic noise, and this possibility was evaluated explicitly. 2. A given connection was studied under low noise by electrically stimulating a single Ia fiber in the absence of muscle stretch. The same connection was analyzed under conditions of high noise by activating the fiber and all other stretch receptor afferents with muscle stretch and by using spike-triggered averaging to extract the EPSP. The differences in mean EPSP amplitude at a given connection under conditions of low noise and high noise were minimal. 3. Fluctuations in EPSP amplitude were then determined to see whether these were influenced by presence of baseline synaptic noise and whether the interaction was nonlinear. Two methods were used to measure EPSP fluctuations: measurement of the variance associated with the EPSP, and determination by the use of deconvolution methods of the discrete amplitude components associated with the EPSP. 4. An increase in baseline variance was observed during the EPSP evoked under low noise conditions at all six connections studied in this way. This increase disappeared at two of these connections when examined under high noise. This may help to explain the

  10. Trinocular Stereo Matching Based on Correlations Between Baselines and Disparities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYepeng; GUWeikang

    2004-01-01

    Gray correlation technique is utilized to take the multi-peak feature points with gray correlation coefficients less than a certain range of maximal correlation coefficient as a potential candidate matching set. There exists the maximal correlation between the correct disparities and their corresponding baselines. A trinocular stereo matching algorithm is proposed based on correlations between the baselines and disparities. After computing the correlations between the baselines and disparities, the unique matches can be determined by maximal correlation coefficient. It is proved that the algorithm proposed is valid and credible by 3-D reconstruction on two pairs of actual natural stereo images.

  11. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  12. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  13. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  14. Crystal structure of human importin-α1 (Rch1, revealing a potential autoinhibition mode involving homodimerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Miyatake

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the crystal structure of N-terminal importin-β-binding domain (IBB-truncated human importin-α1 (ΔIBB-h-importin-α1 at 2.63 Å resolution. The crystal structure of ΔIBB-h-importin-α1 reveals a novel closed homodimer. The homodimer exists in an autoinhibited state in which both the major and minor nuclear localization signal (NLS binding sites are completely buried in the homodimerization interface, an arrangement that restricts NLS binding. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies revealed that ΔIBB-h-importin-α1 is in equilibrium between monomers and dimers and that NLS peptides shifted the equilibrium toward the monomer side. This finding suggests that the NLS binding sites are also involved in the dimer interface in solution. These results show that when the IBB domain dissociates from the internal NLS binding sites, e.g., by binding to importin-β, homodimerization possibly occurs as an autoinhibition state.

  15. High-Bandwidth Atomic Force Microscopy Reveals A Mechanical spike Accompanying the Action Potential in mammalian Nerve Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberg, Brian M.

    2008-03-01

    Information transfer from neuron to neuron within nervous systems occurs when the action potential arrives at a nerve terminal and initiates the release of a chemical messenger (neurotransmitter). In the mammalian neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary), large and rapid changes in light scattering accompany secretion of transmitter-like neuropeptides. In the mouse, these intrinsic optical signals are intimately related to the arrival of the action potential (E-wave) and the release of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin (S-wave). We have used a high bandwidth (20 kHz) atomic force microscope (AFM) to demonstrate that these light scattering signals are associated with changes in nerve terminal volume, detected as nanometer-scale movements of a cantilever positioned on top of the neurohypophysis. The most rapid mechanical response, the ``spike'', has duration comparable to that of the action potential (˜2 ms) and probably reflects an increase in terminal volume due to H2O movement associated with Na^+-influx. Elementary calculations suggest that two H2O molecules accompanying each Na^+-ion could account for the ˜0.5-1.0 å increase in the diameter of each terminal during the action potential. Distinguishable from the mechanical ``spike'', a slower mechanical event, the ``dip'', represents a decrease in nerve terminal volume, depends upon Ca^2+-entry, as well as on intra-terminal Ca^2+-transients, and appears to monitor events associated with secretion. A simple hypothesis is that this ``dip'' reflects the extrusion of the dense core granule that comprises the secretory products. These dynamic high bandwidth AFM recordings are the first to monitor mechanical events in nervous systems and may provide novel insights into the mechanism(s) by which excitation is coupled to secretion at nerve terminals.

  16. DNA methylome profiling of maternal peripheral blood and placentas reveal potential fetal DNA markers for non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuqian; Zhang, Junyu; Li, Qiaoli; Zhou, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Xu, Mingqing; Xia, Shihui; Xing, Qinghe; Wang, Lei; He, Lin; Zhao, Xinzhi

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing epigenetic (DNA methylation) differences to differentiate between maternal peripheral blood (PBL) and fetal (placental) DNA has been a promising strategy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) have yet to be fully ascertained. In the present study, we performed genome-wide comparative methylome analysis between maternal PBL and placental DNA from pregnancies of first trimester by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. A total of 36 931 DMRs and 45 804 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) covering the whole genome, exclusive of the Y chromosome, were identified via MeDIP-Seq and Infinium 450k array, respectively, of which 3759 sites in 2188 regions were confirmed by both methods. Not only did we find the previously reported potential fetal DNA markers in our identified DMRs/DMSs but also we verified fully the identified DMRs/DMSs in the validation round by MassARRAY EpiTYPER. The screened potential fetal DNA markers may be used for NIPT on aneuploidies and other chromosomal diseases, such as cri du chat syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In addition, these potential markers may have application in the early diagnosis of placental dysfunction, such as pre-eclampsia.

  17. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  18. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition reveals a potential mechanism to promote neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashanth Komirishetty; Aparna Areti; Ranadeep Gogoi; Ramakrishna Sistla; Ashutosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is triggered by the lesions to peripheral nerves which alter their structure and function. Neuroprotective approaches that limit the pathological changes and improve the behavioral outcome have been well explained in different experimental models of neuropathy but translation of such strategies to clinics has been disappointing. Experimental evidences revealed the role of free radicals, especially per-oxynitrite atfer the nerve injury. hTey provoke oxidative DNA damage and consequent over-activation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) upregulates pro-inlfammatory pathways, causing bioenergetic crisis and neuronal death. Along with these changes, it causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to neu-ronal apoptosis. In related preclinical studies agents that neutralize the free radicals and pharmacological inhibitors of PARP have shown beneifts in treating experimental neuropathy. hTis article reviews the in-volvement of PARP over-activation in trauma induced neuropathy and therapeutic signiifcance of PARP inhibitors in the experimental neuropathy and neuropathic pain.

  19. Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibition reveals a potential mechanism to promote neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Komirishetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain is triggered by the lesions to peripheral nerves which alter their structure and function. Neuroprotective approaches that limit the pathological changes and improve the behavioral outcome have been well explained in different experimental models of neuropathy but translation of such strategies to clinics has been disappointing. Experimental evidences revealed the role of free radicals, especially peroxynitrite after the nerve injury. They provoke oxidative DNA damage and consequent over-activation of the poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP upregulates pro-inflammatory pathways, causing bioenergetic crisis and neuronal death. Along with these changes, it causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to neuronal apoptosis. In related preclinical studies agents that neutralize the free radicals and pharmacological inhibitors of PARP have shown benefits in treating experimental neuropathy. This article reviews the involvement of PARP over-activation in trauma induced neuropathy and therapeutic significance of PARP inhibitors in the experimental neuropathy and neuropathic pain.

  20. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition reveals a potential mechanism to promote neuroprotection and treat neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komirishetty, Prashanth; Areti, Aparna; Gogoi, Ranadeep; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    Neuropathic pain is triggered by the lesions to peripheral nerves which alter their structure and function. Neuroprotective approaches that limit the pathological changes and improve the behavioral outcome have been well explained in different experimental models of neuropathy but translation of such strategies to clinics has been disappointing. Experimental evidences revealed the role of free radicals, especially peroxynitrite after the nerve injury. They provoke oxidative DNA damage and consequent over-activation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) upregulates pro-inflammatory pathways, causing bioenergetic crisis and neuronal death. Along with these changes, it causes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to neuronal apoptosis. In related preclinical studies agents that neutralize the free radicals and pharmacological inhibitors of PARP have shown benefits in treating experimental neuropathy. This article reviews the involvement of PARP over-activation in trauma induced neuropathy and therapeutic significance of PARP inhibitors in the experimental neuropathy and neuropathic pain.

  1. The functional potential of high Arctic permafrost revealed by metagenomic sequencing, qPCR and microarray analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergeau, Etienne; Hogues, Hervé; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2010-09-01

    The fate of the carbon stocked in permafrost following global warming and permafrost thaw is of major concern in view of the potential for increased CH(4) and CO(2) emissions from these soils. Complex carbon compound degradation and greenhouse gas emissions are due to soil microbial communities, but no comprehensive study has yet addressed their composition and functional potential in permafrost. Here, a 2-m deep permafrost sample and its overlying active layer soil were subjected to metagenomic sequencing, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and microarray analyses. The active layer soil and the 2-m permafrost microbial community structures were very similar, with Actinobacteria being the dominant phylum. The two samples also possessed a highly similar spectrum of functional genes, especially when compared with other already published metagenomes. Key genes related to methane generation, methane oxidation and organic matter degradation were highly diverse for both samples in the metagenomic libraries and some (for example, pmoA) showed relatively high abundance in qPCR assays. Genes related to nitrogen fixation and ammonia oxidation, which could have important roles following climatic change in these nitrogen-limited environments, showed low diversity but high abundance. The 2-m permafrost showed lower abundance and diversity for all the assessed genes and taxa. Experimental biases were also evaluated using qPCR and showed that the whole-community genome amplification technique used caused representational biases in the metagenomic libraries by increasing the abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreasing the abundance of Actinobacteria. This study describes for the first time the detailed functional potential of permafrost-affected soils.

  2. Functional genes reveal the intrinsic PAH biodegradation potential in creosote-contaminated groundwater following in situ biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyyssönen, Mari; Kapanen, Anu; Piskonen, Reetta; Lukkari, Tuomas; Itävaara, Merja

    2009-08-01

    A small-scale functional gene array containing 15 functional gene probes targeting aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways was used to investigate the effect of a pilot-scale air sparging and nutrient infiltration treatment on hydrocarbon biodegradation in creosote-contaminated groundwater. Genes involved in the different phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biodegradation were detected with the functional gene array in the contaminant plume, thus indicating the presence of intrinsic biodegradation potential. However, the low aerobic fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA genes closely similar to sulphate-reducing and denitrifying bacteria and the negligible decrease in contaminant concentrations showed that aerobic PAH biodegradation was limited in the anoxic groundwater. Increased abundance of PAH biodegradation genes was detected by functional gene array in the monitoring well located at the rear end of the biostimulated area, which indicated that air sparging and nutrient infiltration enhanced the intrinsic, aerobic PAH biodegradation. Furthermore, ten times higher naphthalene dioxygenase gene copy numbers were detected by real-time PCR in the biostimulated area, which was in good agreement with the functional gene array data. As a result, functional gene array analysis was demonstrated to provide a potential tool for evaluating the efficiency of the bioremediation treatment for enhancing hydrocarbon biodegradation in field-scale applications.

  3. Comparative analyses reveal potential uses of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for cold stress responses in temperate grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the potential of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for low temperature stress responses in Pooideae. The ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP genes, fructosyltransferase (FST genes, and many C-repeat binding factor (CBF genes are Pooideae specific and important in low temperature responses. Here we used comparative analyses to study conservation and evolution of these gene families in B. distachyon to better understand its potential as a model species for agriculturally important temperate grasses. Results Brachypodium distachyon contains cold responsive IRIP genes which have evolved through Brachypodium specific gene family expansions. A large cold responsive CBF3 subfamily was identified in B. distachyon, while CBF4 homologs are absent from the genome. No B. distachyon FST gene homologs encode typical core Pooideae FST-motifs and low temperature induced fructan accumulation was dramatically different in B. distachyon compared to core Pooideae species. Conclusions We conclude that B. distachyon can serve as an interesting model for specific molecular mechanisms involved in low temperature responses in core Pooideae species. However, the evolutionary history of key genes involved in low temperature responses has been different in Brachypodium and core Pooideae species. These differences limit the use of B. distachyon as a model for holistic studies relevant for agricultural core Pooideae species.

  4. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  5. Virtual and In Vitro Screens Reveal a Potential Pharmacophore that Avoids the Fibrillization of Aβ1–42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Maricarmen; Correa-Basurto, José; Nicolás-Vázquez, María Inés; Miranda-Ruvalcaba, René; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia Guadalupe; Reséndiz-Albor, Aldo Arturo; Méndez-Méndez, Juan Vicente; Rosales-Hernández, Martha C.

    2015-01-01

    Among the multiple factors that induce Alzheimer’s disease, aggregation of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is considered the most important due to the ability of the 42-amino acid Aβ peptides (Aβ1–42) to form oligomers and fibrils, which constitute Aβ pathological aggregates. For this reason, the development of inhibitors of Aβ1–42 pathological aggregation represents a field of research interest. Several Aβ1–42 fibrillization inhibitors possess tertiary amine and aromatic moieties. In the present study, we selected 26 compounds containing tertiary amine and aromatic moieties with or without substituents and performed theoretical studies that allowed us to select four compounds according to their free energy values for Aβ1–42 in α-helix (Aβ-α), random coil (Aβ-RC) and β-sheet (Aβ-β) conformations. Docking studies revealed that compound 5 had a higher affinity for Aβ-α and Aβ-RC than the other compounds. In vitro, this compound was able to abolish Thioflavin T fluorescence and favored an RC conformation of Aβ1–42 in circular dichroism studies, resulting in the formation of amorphous aggregates as shown by atomic force microscopy. The results obtained from quantum studies allowed us to identify a possible pharmacophore that can be used to design Aβ1–42 aggregation inhibitors. In conclusion, compounds with higher affinity for Aβ-α and Aβ-RC prevented the formation of oligomeric species. PMID:26172152

  6. Gorilla gorilla gorilla gut: a potential reservoir of pathogenic bacteria as revealed using culturomics and molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Fadi; Keita, Mamadou B; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier

    2014-11-24

    Wild apes are considered to be the most serious reservoir and source of zoonoses. However, little data are available about the gut microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in gorillas. For this propose, a total of 48 fecal samples obtained from 21 Gorilla gorilla gorilla individuals (as revealed via microsatellite analysis) were screened for human bacterial pathogens using culturomics and molecular techniques. By applying culturomics to one index gorilla and using specific media supplemented by plants, we tested 12,800 colonies and identified 147 different bacterial species, including 5 new species. Many opportunistic pathogens were isolated, including 8 frequently associated with human diseases; Mycobacterium bolletii, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum. The genus Treponema accounted for 27.4% of the total reads identified at the genus level via 454 pyrosequencing. Using specific real-time PCR on 48 gorilla fecal samples, in addition to classical human pathogens, we also observed the fastidious bacteria Bartonella spp. Borrelia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Tropheryma whipplei in the gorilla population. We estimated that the prevalence of these pathogens vary between 4.76% and 85.7%. Therefore, gorillas share many bacterial pathogens with humans suggesting that they could be a reservoir for their emergence.

  7. Virtual and In Vitro Screens Reveal a Potential Pharmacophore that Avoids the Fibrillization of Aβ1-42.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricarmen Hernández-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Among the multiple factors that induce Alzheimer's disease, aggregation of the amyloid β peptide (Aβ is considered the most important due to the ability of the 42-amino acid Aβ peptides (Aβ1-42 to form oligomers and fibrils, which constitute Aβ pathological aggregates. For this reason, the development of inhibitors of Aβ1-42 pathological aggregation represents a field of research interest. Several Aβ1-42 fibrillization inhibitors possess tertiary amine and aromatic moieties. In the present study, we selected 26 compounds containing tertiary amine and aromatic moieties with or without substituents and performed theoretical studies that allowed us to select four compounds according to their free energy values for Aβ1-42 in α-helix (Aβ-α, random coil (Aβ-RC and β-sheet (Aβ-β conformations. Docking studies revealed that compound 5 had a higher affinity for Aβ-α and Aβ-RC than the other compounds. In vitro, this compound was able to abolish Thioflavin T fluorescence and favored an RC conformation of Aβ1-42 in circular dichroism studies, resulting in the formation of amorphous aggregates as shown by atomic force microscopy. The results obtained from quantum studies allowed us to identify a possible pharmacophore that can be used to design Aβ1-42 aggregation inhibitors. In conclusion, compounds with higher affinity for Aβ-α and Aβ-RC prevented the formation of oligomeric species.

  8. Barcoding Turkish Culex mosquitoes to facilitate arbovirus vector incrimination studies reveals hidden diversity and new potential vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Filiz; Alten, Bulent; Simsek, Fatih; Aldemir, Adnan; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2015-03-01

    As a precursor to planned arboviral vector incrimination studies, an integrated systematics approach was adopted using morphology and DNA barcoding to examine the Culex fauna present in Turkey. The mitochondrial COI gene (658bp) were sequenced from 185 specimens collected across 11 Turkish provinces, as well as from colony material. Although by morphology only 9 species were recognised, DNA barcoding recovered 13 distinct species including: Cx. (Barraudius) modestus, Cx. (Culex) laticinctus, Cx. (Cux.) mimeticus, Cx. (Cux.) perexiguus, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens, Cx. (Cux.) pipiens form molestus, Cx. (Cux.) quinquefasciatus, Cx. (Cux.) theileri, Cx. (Cux.) torrentium, Cx. (Cux.) tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. (Maillotia) hortensis. The taxon formerly identified as Cx. (Neoculex) territans was shown to comprise two distinct species, neither of which correspond to Cx. territans s.s. These include Cx. (Neo.) impudicus and another uncertain species, which may be Cx. (Neo.) europaeus or Cx. (Neo.) martinii (herein=Cx. (Neo.) sp. 1). Detailed examination of the Pipiens Group revealed Cx. pipiens, Cx. pipiens f. molestus and the widespread presence of the highly efficient West Nile virus vector Cx. quinquefasciatus for the first time. Four new country records are reported, increasing the Culex of Turkey to 15 recognised species and Cx. pipiens f. molestus. A new taxonomic checklist is provided, annotated with respective vector competencies for transmission of arboviruses.

  9. Comparative exoprotein profiling of different Staphylococcus epidermidis strains reveals potential link between nonclassical protein export and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljamäki, Pia; Varmanen, Pekka; Kankainen, Matti; Sukura, Antti; Savijoki, Kirsi; Nyman, Tuula A

    2014-07-03

    Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE) includes commensal and pathogenic strains capable of infecting humans and animals. This study reports global exoproteome profiling of bovine mastitis strain PM221 and two human strains, commensal-type ATCC12228 and sepsis-associated RP62A. We identified 451, 395, and 518 proteins from culture supernatants of PM221, ATCC12228, and RP62A, respectively. Comparison of the identified exoproteomes revealed several strain-specific differences related to secreted antigens and adhesins, higher virulence capability for RP62A, and similarities between the PM221 and RP62A exoproteomes. The majority of the identified proteins (∼80%) were predicted to be cytoplasmic, including proteins known to be associated in membrane vesicles (MVs) in Staphylococcus aureus and immunogenic/adhesive moonlighting proteins. Enrichment of MV fractions from culture supernatants and analysis of their protein composition indicated that this nonclassical protein secretion pathway was being exploited under the conditions used and that there are strain-specific differences in nonclassical protein export. In addition, several predicted cell-surface proteins were identified in the culture media. In summary, the present study is the first in-depth exoproteome analysis of SE highlighting strain-specific factors able to contribute to virulence and adaptation.

  10. Differentially expressed androgen-regulated genes in androgen-sensitive tissues reveal potential biomarkers of early prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogus Murat Altintas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several data favor androgen receptor implication in prostate cancer initiation through the induction of several gene activation programs. The aim of the study is to identify potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa among androgen-regulated genes (ARG and to evaluate comparative expression of these genes in normal prostate and normal prostate-related androgen-sensitive tissues that do not (or rarely give rise to cancer. METHODS: ARG were selected in non-neoplastic adult human prostatic epithelial RWPE-1 cells stably expressing an exogenous human androgen receptor, using RNA-microarrays and validation by qRT-PCR. Expression of 48 preselected genes was quantified in tissue samples (seminal vesicles, prostate transitional zones and prostate cancers, benign prostatic hypertrophy obtained from surgical specimens using TaqMan® low-density arrays. The diagnostic performances of these potential biomarkers were compared to that of genes known to be associated with PCa (i.e. PCA3 and DLX1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: By crossing expression studies in 26 matched PCa and normal prostate transitional zone samples, and 35 matched seminal vesicle and PCa samples, 14 genes were identified. Similarly, 9 genes were overexpressed in 15 benign prostatic hypertrophy samples, as compared to PCa samples. Overall, we selected 8 genes of interest to evaluate their diagnostic performances in comparison with that of PCA3 and DLX1. Among them, 3 genes: CRYAB, KCNMA1 and SDPR, were overexpressed in all 3 reference non-cancerous tissues. The areas under ROC curves of these genes reached those of PCA3 (0.91 and DLX1 (0.94. CONCLUSIONS: We identified ARG with reduced expression in PCa and with significant diagnostic values for discriminating between cancerous and non-cancerous prostatic tissues, similar that of PCA3. Given their expression pattern, they could be considered as potentially protective against prostate cancer. Moreover, they could

  11. Proteome profiling of neuroblastoma-derived exosomes reveal the expression of proteins potentially involved in tumor progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Marimpietri

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, with grim prognosis in a half of patients. Exosomes are nanometer-sized membrane vesicles derived from the multivesicular bodies (MVBs of the endocytic pathway and released by normal and neoplastic cells. Tumor-derived exosomes have been shown in different model systems to carry molecules that promote cancer growth and dissemination. In this respect, we have here performed the first characterization and proteomic analysis of exosomes isolated from human NB cell lines by filtration and ultracentrifugation. Electron microscopy demonstrated that NB-derived exosomes exhibited the characteristic cup-shaped morphology. Dynamic light scattering studies showed a bell-shaped curve and a polydispersity factor consistent with those of exosomes. Zeta potential values suggested a good nanoparticle stability. We performed proteomic analysis of NB-derived exosomes by two dimension liquid chromatography separation and mass spectrometry analyses using the multidimensional protein identification technology strategy. We found that the large majority of the proteins identified in NB derived exosomes are present in Exocarta database including tetraspanins, fibronectin, heat shock proteins, MVB proteins, cytoskeleton-related proteins, prominin-1 (CD133, basigin (CD147 and B7-H3 (CD276. Expression of the CD9, CD63 and CD81 tetraspanins, fibronectin, CD133, CD147 and CD276 was validated by flow cytometry. Noteworthy, flow cytometric analysis showed that NB-derived exosomes expressed the GD2 disialoganglioside, the most specific marker of NB. In conclusion, this study shows that NB-derived exosomes express a discrete set of molecules involved in defense response, cell differentiation, cell proliferation and regulation of other important biological process. Thus, NB-derived exosomes may play an important role in the modulation of tumor microenvironment and represent potential tumor biomarkers.

  12. Proteomics analysis of human obesity reveals the epigenetic factor HDAC4 as a potential target for obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu-Farha

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake are prominent contributors to obesity; a major risk factors for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these chronic conditions is of relevant importance as it might lead to the identification of novel anti-obesity targets. The purpose of the current study is to investigate differentially expressed proteins between lean and obese subjects through a shot-gun quantitative proteomics approach using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs extracts as well as potential modulation of those proteins by physical exercise. Using this approach, a total of 47 proteins showed at least 1.5 fold change between lean and obese subjects. In obese, the proteomic profiling before and after 3 months of physical exercise showed differential expression of 38 proteins. Thrombospondin 1 (TSP1 was among the proteins that were upregulated in obese subjects and then decreased by physical exercise. Conversely, the histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4 was downregulated in obese subjects and then induced by physical exercise. The proteomic data was further validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in both PBMCs and adipose tissue. We also showed that HDAC4 levels correlated positively with maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 Max but negatively with body mass index, percent body fat, and the inflammatory chemokine RANTES. In functional assays, our data indicated that ectopic expression of HDAC4 significantly impaired TNF-α-dependent activation of NF-κB, establishing thus a link between HDAC4 and regulation of the immune system. Together, the expression pattern of HDAC4 in obese subjects before and after physical exercise, its correlation with various physical, clinical and metabolic parameters along with its inhibitory effect on NF-κB are suggestive of a protective role of HDAC4 against obesity. HDAC4 could therefore represent

  13. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G A Whitehill

    Full Text Available The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp. that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica, which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER, and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  14. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  15. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  16. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  17. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  18. Putatively novel serotypes and the potential for reduced vaccine effectiveness: capsular locus diversity revealed among 5405 pneumococcal genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tonder, Andries J.; Bray, James E.; Quirk, Sigríður J.; Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Hoffmann, Steen; Bentley, Stephen D.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Brueggemann, Angela B.

    2017-01-01

    The pneumococcus is a leading global pathogen and a key virulence factor possessed by the majority of pneumococci is an antigenic polysaccharide capsule (‘serotype’), which is encoded by the capsular (cps) locus. Approximately 100 different serotypes are known, but the extent of sequence diversity within the cps loci of individual serotypes is not well understood. Investigating serotype-specific sequence variation is crucial to the design of sequence-based serotyping methodology, understanding pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) effectiveness and the design of future PCVs. The availability of large genome datasets makes it possible to assess population-level variation among pneumococcal serotypes and in this study 5405 pneumococcal genomes were used to investigate cps locus diversity among 49 different serotypes. Pneumococci had been recovered between 1916 and 2014 from people of all ages living in 51 countries. Serotypes were deduced bioinformatically, cps locus sequences were extracted and variation was assessed within the cps locus, in the context of pneumococcal genetic lineages. Overall, cps locus sequence diversity varied markedly: low to moderate diversity was revealed among serogroups/types 1, 3, 7, 9, 11 and 22; whereas serogroups/types 6, 19, 23, 14, 15, 18, 33 and 35 displayed high diversity. Putative novel and/or hybrid cps loci were identified among all serogroups/types apart from 1, 3 and 9. This study demonstrated that cps locus sequence diversity varied widely between serogroups/types. Investigation of the biochemical structure of the polysaccharide capsule of major variants, particularly PCV-related serotypes and those that appear to be novel or hybrids, is warranted. PMID:28133541

  19. Genomic analysis reveals a potential role for cell cycle perturbation in HCV-mediated apoptosis of cultured hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie-Anne Walters

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of liver injury associated with chronic HCV infection, as well as the individual roles of both viral and host factors, are not clearly defined. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that direct cytopathic effects, in addition to immune-mediated processes, play an important role in liver injury. Gene expression profiling during multiple time-points of acute HCV infection of cultured Huh-7.5 cells was performed to gain insight into the cellular mechanism of HCV-associated cytopathic effect. Maximal induction of cell-death-related genes and appearance of activated caspase-3 in HCV-infected cells coincided with peak viral replication, suggesting a link between viral load and apoptosis. Gene ontology analysis revealed that many of the cell-death genes function to induce apoptosis in response to cell cycle arrest. Labeling of dividing cells in culture followed by flow cytometry also demonstrated the presence of significantly fewer cells in S-phase in HCV-infected relative to mock cultures, suggesting HCV infection is associated with delayed cell cycle progression. Regulation of numerous genes involved in anti-oxidative stress response and TGF-beta1 signaling suggest these as possible causes of delayed cell cycle progression. Significantly, a subset of cell-death genes regulated during in vitro HCV infection was similarly regulated specifically in liver tissue from a cohort of HCV-infected liver transplant patients with rapidly progressive fibrosis. Collectively, these data suggest that HCV mediates direct cytopathic effects through deregulation of the cell cycle and that this process may contribute to liver disease progression. This in vitro system could be utilized to further define the cellular mechanism of this perturbation.

  20. Revealing polychaetes invasion patterns: Identification, reproduction and potential risks of the Korean ragworm, Perinereis linea (Treadwell), in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Richter, Alexandra; Anadón, Nuria; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    An established population of the polychaetous annelid Perinereis linea (Treadwell) is reported for the first time outside its native distribution range (NW Pacific). This exotic worm has reached the Western Mediterranean (Mar Menor lagoon) via importing live fishing-bait as it is commonly used by anglers in Mar Menor lagoon, an area largely used for recreational fishing. To avoid confusion with other related species, and because the scientific name has been in synonymy for many years, P. linea is redescribed and illustrated. We focus on the reproductive biology and ecology of P. linea to help to understand its introduction, naturalization and spread along this coastal lagoon. Comparison between the Mediterranean population with a native population from South Korea revealed that the species exhibits a great reproductive plasticity and adaptability, which depends on the environmental conditions. Perinereis linea can reproduce after acquiring the epitokous form or prior to complete epitokal modification. In the Mar Menor lagoon population females release eggs asynchronically without completing epitokal modifications. However, under particular laboratory conditions females produce eggs synchronically and release them after complete epitokal transformations. Fertilization can occur internally in the female coelom, and females release zygotes and larvae through openings in their body walls; they are then incubated in gelatinous masses attached to the female parapodia. The sperm morphology is of the ent-aquasperm type. The eggs and larvae are attacked by symbiotic ciliate protozoa that feed on their yolk reserves. These foreign ciliates may act as carriers of disease in native beachworms and constitute an important risk for the ecosystem health. Finally, we provide recommendations on the prevention of the adverse effects that this exotic ragworm can cause in receiving ecosystems.

  1. Involvement of potential pathways in malignant transformation from Oral Leukoplakia to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma revealed by proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most common forms of cancer associated with the presence of precancerous oral leukoplakia. Given the poor prognosis associated with oral leukoplakia, and the difficulties in distinguishing it from cancer lesions, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular determinants and critical signal pathways underlying the malignant transformation of precancerous to cancerous tissue, and thus to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic target. Results We have utilized two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE followed by ESI-Q-TOF-LC-MS/MS to identify proteins differentially expressed in six pairs of oral leukoplakia tissues with dysplasia and oral squamous cancer tissues, each pair was collected from a single patient. Approximately 85 differentially and constantly expressed proteins (> two-fold change, P Conclusion Varying levels of differentially expressed proteins were possibly involved in the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. Their expression levels, bioprocess, and interaction networks were analyzed using a bioinformatics approach. This study shows that the three homologs of PA28 may play an important role in malignant transformation and is an example of a systematic biology study, in which functional proteomics were constructed to help to elucidate mechanistic aspects and potential involvement of proteins. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of oral cancer. These differentially expressed proteins may have utility as useful candidate markers of OSCC.

  2. Event-related brain potentials reveal the time-course of language change detection in early bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jan-Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2010-05-01

    Using event-related brain potentials, we investigated the temporal course of language change detection in proficient bilinguals as compared to matched controls. Welsh-English bilingual participants and English controls were presented with a variant of the oddball paradigm involving picture-word pairs. The language of the spoken word was manipulated such that English was the frequent stimulus (75%) and Welsh the infrequent stimulus (25%). We also manipulated semantic relatedness between pictures and words, such that only half of the pictures were followed by a word that corresponded with the identity of the picture. The P2 wave was significantly modulated by language in the bilingual group only, suggesting that this group detected a language change as early as 200 ms after word onset. Monolinguals also reliably detected the language change, but at a later stage of semantic integration (N400 range), since Welsh words were perceived as meaningless. The early detection of a language change in bilinguals triggered stimulus re-evaluation mechanisms reflected by a significant P600 modulation by Welsh words. Furthermore, compared to English unrelated words, English words matching the picture identity elicited significantly greater P2 amplitudes in the bilingual group only, suggesting that proficient bilinguals validate an incoming word against their expectation based on the context. Overall, highly proficient bilinguals appear to detect language changes very early on during speech perception and to consciously monitor language changes when they occur.

  3. The genetic potential for key biogeochemical processes in Arctic frost flowers and young sea ice revealed by metagenomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff S; Berthiaume, Chris T; Armbrust, E Virginia; Deming, Jody W

    2014-08-01

    Newly formed sea ice is a vast and biogeochemically active environment. Recently, we reported an unusual microbial community dominated by members of the Rhizobiales in frost flowers at the surface of Arctic young sea ice based on the presence of 16S gene sequences related to these strains. Here, we use metagenomic analysis of two samples, from a field of frost flowers and the underlying young sea ice, to explore the metabolic potential of this surface ice community. The analysis links genes for key biogeochemical processes to the Rhizobiales, including dimethylsulfide uptake, betaine glycine turnover, and halocarbon production. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation genes characteristic of terrestrial root-nodulating Rhizobiales were generally lacking from these metagenomes. Non-Rhizobiales clades at the ice surface had genes that would enable additional biogeochemical processes, including mercury reduction and dimethylsulfoniopropionate catabolism. Although the ultimate source of the observed microbial community is not known, considerations of the possible role of eolian deposition or transport with particles entrained during ice formation favor a suspended particle source for this microbial community.

  4. Metagenome reveals potential microbial degradation of hydrocarbon coupled with sulfate reduction in an oil-immersed chimney from Guaymas Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eHe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys contain a high diversity of microorganisms, yet the metabolic activity and the ecological functions of the microbial communities remain largely unexplored. In this study, a metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic potential in a Guaymas hydrothermal vent chimney and to conduct comparative genomic analysis among a variety of environments with sequenced metagenomes. Complete clustering of functional gene categories with a comparative metagenomic approach showed that this Guaymas chimney metagenome was clustered most closely with a chimney metagenome from Juan de Fuca. All chimney samples were enriched with genes involved in recombination and repair, chemotaxis and flagellar assembly, highlighting their roles in coping with the fluctuating extreme deep-sea environments. A high proportion of transposases was observed in all the metagenomes from deep-sea chimneys, supporting the previous hypothesis that horizontal gene transfer may be common in the deep-sea vent chimney biosphere. In the Guaymas chimney metagenome, thermophilic sulfate reducing microorganisms including bacteria and archaea were found predominant, and genes coding for the degradation of refractory organic compounds such as cellulose, lipid, pullullan, as well as a few hydrocarbons including toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene were identified. Therefore, this oil-immersed chimney supported a thermophilic microbial community capable of oxidizing a range of hydrocarbons that served as electron donors for sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  5. Crystal structure of the papain-like protease of MERS coronavirus reveals unusual, potentially druggable active-site features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jian; Mesters, Jeroen R; Drosten, Christian; Anemüller, Stefan; Ma, Qingjun; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute pneumonia and renal failure. The MERS-CoV papain-like protease (PL(pro)) is a potential target for the development of antiviral drugs. To facilitate these efforts, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme by X-ray crystallography. The molecule consists of a ubiquitin-like domain and a catalytic core domain. The catalytic domain displays an extended right-hand fold with a zinc ribbon and embraces a solvent-exposed substrate-binding region. The overall structure of the MERS-CoV PL(pro) is similar to that of the corresponding SARS-CoV enzyme, but the architecture of the oxyanion hole and of the S3 as well as the S5 specificity sites differ from the latter. These differences are the likely reason for reduced in vitro peptide hydrolysis and deubiquitinating activities of the MERS-CoV PL(pro), compared to the homologous enzyme from the SARS coronavirus. Introduction of a side-chain capable of oxyanion stabilization through the Leu106Trp mutation greatly enhances the in vitro catalytic activity of the MERS-CoV PL(pro). The unique features observed in the crystal structure of the MERS-CoV PL(pro) should allow the design of antivirals that would not interfere with host ubiquitin-specific proteases.

  6. Megathrust Earthquake Potential of the Manila Subduction Systems Revealed by the Radial Component of Seismic Moment Tensors Mrr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook an investigation of the seismic behavior of large earthquake and estimated the crustal deformation state in the northern Philippine area in terms of the radial component of seismic moment tensors (Mrr distribution. Based upon these two analyses, the seismic potential of the Manila Trench has been assessed. Regarding the seismic characteristics of large earthquakes, results show that both the overriding and the subducting plates are under compressive stress before the main large events but are characterized by an extensional regime after mainshocks. In the northern Manila Trench area, the broad zone of extensional seismic activity along the trench and its neighboring areas shows a stress environment distinct from that of the interseismic environment of large earthquakes, suggesting that the plates are in a relaxed state instead of accumulating tectonic stress. Thus, the coupling between the two plates could be weak. Along the central Manila Trench, even though only few extensional earthquakes occurred near the trench, numerous negative Mrr events in the overriding plate indicate that the crust is affected by a dilatational regime and also suggests a relatively low coupling environment. In the southern Manila Trench, with the exception of a few extensional events that occurred locally in the Central Valley Basin, most earthquakes show compressive mechanisms. We suggest that a relatively high plate coupling exists along this portion of the trench and results in stress accumulation not only along the plate interface but also in its vicinity, within the subducting and overriding plates.

  7. A genome-wide CNV analysis of schizophrenia reveals a potential role for a multiple-hit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Danielle S; Axelsen, Michael; Epping, Eric A; Andreasen, Nancy C; Wassink, Thomas H

    2014-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe psychiatric disorder that is highly heritable. While both common and rare genetic variants contribute to disease risk, many questions still remain about disease etiology. We performed a genome-wide analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) in 166 schizophrenia subjects and 52 psychiatrically healthy controls. First, overall CNV characteristics were compared between cases and controls. The only statistically significant finding was that deletions comprised a greater proportion of CNVs in cases. High interest CNVs were then identified as conservative using the following filtering criteria: (i) known deleterious CNVs; (ii) CNVs > 1 Mb that were novel (not found in a database of control individuals); and (iii) CNVs 1 Mb) or with multiple conservative CNVs. Two case individuals with the highest burden of conservative CNVs also share a recurrent 15q11.2 BP1-2 deletion, indicating a role for a potential multiple-hit CNV model for schizophrenia. In total, we report three 15q11.2 BP1-2 deletion individuals with schizophrenia, adding to a growing body of evidence that this CNV is involved in disease etiology.

  8. Redox potential of the terminal quinone electron acceptor QB in photosystem II reveals the mechanism of electron transfer regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Nagao, Ryo; Noguchi, Takumi

    2016-01-19

    Photosystem II (PSII) extracts electrons from water at a Mn4CaO5 cluster using light energy and then transfers them to two plastoquinones, the primary quinone electron acceptor QA and the secondary quinone electron acceptor QB. This forward electron transfer is an essential process in light energy conversion. Meanwhile, backward electron transfer is also significant in photoprotection of PSII proteins. Modulation of the redox potential (Em) gap of QA and QB mainly regulates the forward and backward electron transfers in PSII. However, the full scheme of electron transfer regulation remains unresolved due to the unknown Em value of QB. Here, for the first time (to our knowledge), the Em value of QB reduction was measured directly using spectroelectrochemistry in combination with light-induced Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. The Em(QB (-)/QB) was determined to be approximately +90 mV and was virtually unaffected by depletion of the Mn4CaO5 cluster. This insensitivity of Em(QB (-)/QB), in combination with the known large upshift of Em(QA (-)/QA), explains the mechanism of PSII photoprotection with an impaired Mn4CaO5 cluster, in which a large decrease in the Em gap between QA and QB promotes rapid charge recombination via QA (-).

  9. Redox potential of the terminal quinone electron acceptor QB in photosystem II reveals the mechanism of electron transfer regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Nagao, Ryo; Noguchi, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) extracts electrons from water at a Mn4CaO5 cluster using light energy and then transfers them to two plastoquinones, the primary quinone electron acceptor QA and the secondary quinone electron acceptor QB. This forward electron transfer is an essential process in light energy conversion. Meanwhile, backward electron transfer is also significant in photoprotection of PSII proteins. Modulation of the redox potential (Em) gap of QA and QB mainly regulates the forward and backward electron transfers in PSII. However, the full scheme of electron transfer regulation remains unresolved due to the unknown Em value of QB. Here, for the first time (to our knowledge), the Em value of QB reduction was measured directly using spectroelectrochemistry in combination with light-induced Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. The Em(QB−/QB) was determined to be approximately +90 mV and was virtually unaffected by depletion of the Mn4CaO5 cluster. This insensitivity of Em(QB−/QB), in combination with the known large upshift of Em(QA−/QA), explains the mechanism of PSII photoprotection with an impaired Mn4CaO5 cluster, in which a large decrease in the Em gap between QA and QB promotes rapid charge recombination via QA−. PMID:26715751

  10. Integrative analysis reveals clinical phenotypes and oncogenic potentials of long non-coding RNAs across 15 cancer types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Stephen R.; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Li, Jun-Hao; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis. However, surprisingly little is known about the comprehensive clinical and genomic characterization of lncRNAs across human cancer. In this study, we conducted comprehensive analyses for the expression profile, clinical outcomes, somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) profile of lncRNAs in ~7000 clinical samples from 15 different cancer types. We identified significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs between tumor and normal tissues from each cancer. Notably, we characterized 47 lncRNAs which were extensively dysregulated in at least 10 cancer types, suggesting a conserved function in cancer development. We also analyzed the associations between lncRNA expressions and patient survival, and identified sets of lncRNAs that possessed significant prognostic values in specific cancer types. Our combined analysis of SCNA data and expression data uncovered 116 dysregulated lncRNAs are strikingly genomic altered across 15 cancer types, indicating their oncogenic potentials. Our study may lay the groundwork for future functional studies of lncRNAs and help facilitate the discovery of novel clinical biomarkers. PMID:27147563

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Excretory-Secretory Products of Mesocestoides corti Metacestodes Reveals Potential Suppressors of Dendritic Cell Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelova, Emilia; Camargo de Lima, Jeferson; Lorenzatto, Karina Rodrigues; Monteiro, Karina Mariante; Mueller, Thomas; Veepaschit, Jyotishman; Grimm, Clemens; Brehm, Klaus; Hrčková, Gabriela; Lutz, Manfred B.; Ferreira, Henrique B.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have assigned a central role to parasite-derived proteins in immunomodulation. Here, we report on the proteomic identification and characterization of immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products from the metacestode larva (tetrathyridium) of the tapeworm Mesocestoides corti (syn. M. vogae). We demonstrate that ES products but not larval homogenates inhibit the stimuli-driven release of the pro-inflammatory, Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12p70 by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Within the ES fraction, we biochemically narrowed down the immunosuppressive activity to glycoproteins since active components were lipid-free, but sensitive to heat- and carbohydrate-treatment. Finally, using bioassay-guided chromatographic analyses assisted by comparative proteomics of active and inactive fractions of the ES products, we defined a comprehensive list of candidate proteins released by M. corti tetrathyridia as potential suppressors of DC functions. Our study provides a comprehensive library of somatic and ES products and highlight some candidate parasite factors that might drive the subversion of DC functions to facilitate the persistence of M. corti tetrathyridia in their hosts. PMID:27736880

  12. Next-Generation Sequencing of Genomic DNA Fragments Bound to a Transcription Factor in Vitro Reveals Its Regulatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Kurihara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several transcription factors (TFs coordinate to regulate expression of specific genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana it is estimated that approximately 10% of all genes encode TFs or TF-like proteins. It is important to identify target genes that are directly regulated by TFs in order to understand the complete picture of a plant’s transcriptome profile. Here, we investigate the role of the LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5 transcription factor that acts as a regulator of photomorphogenesis. We used an in vitro genomic DNA binding assay coupled with immunoprecipitation and next-generation sequencing (gDB-seq instead of the in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-based methods. The results demonstrate that the HY5-binding motif predicted here was similar to the motif reported previously and that in vitro HY5-binding loci largely overlapped with the HY5-targeted candidate genes identified in previous ChIP-chip analysis. By combining these results with microarray analysis, we identified hundreds of HY5-binding genes that were differentially expressed in hy5. We also observed delayed induction of some transcripts of HY5-binding genes in hy5 mutants in response to blue-light exposure after dark treatment. Thus, an in vitro gDNA-binding assay coupled with sequencing is a convenient and powerful method to bridge the gap between identifying TF binding potential and establishing function.

  13. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  14. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  15. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  16. O-GlcNAcomics--Revealing roles of O-GlcNAcylation in disease mechanisms and development of potential diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Ronald J; Han, Guanghui; Hart, Gerald W

    2013-10-01

    O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic PTM of the 3'-hydroxyl groups of serine or threonine residues of nuclear, cytoplasmic, and mitochondrial proteins. The cycling of this modification is regulated in response to nutrients, stress, and other extracellular stimuli by the catalytic activities of O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase. O-GlcNAc is functionally similar to phosphorylation and has been demonstrated to play critical roles in numerous biological processes, including cell signaling, transcription, and disease etiology. Since its discovery nearly 30 years ago, studies have demonstrated that the O-GlcNAc is highly abundant and widespread, like phosphorylation however, the development of methodologies to study O-GlcNAc at the site level has been challenging. Recently, a number of studies have overcome these challenges and describe new tagging, enrichment, and mass spectrometric-based approaches to study O-GlcNAc in terms of its site identification, stoichiometry, and dynamics on proteins. The development of these methods are key for elucidation of O-GlcNAc's functional crosstalk with phosphorylation and other PTMs, and will serve to provide the necessary information for the development of site-specific antibodies, which will aid in the determination of a particular protein's site-specific function. In this review, we describe these methods and summarize results obtained from them demonstrating the roles of O-GlcNAc in diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's, and in learning and memory, while also describing how these new strategies have implicated O-GlcNAc as a potential diagnostic for the screening of patients for prediabetes.

  17. Differences in potential for amino acid change after mutation reveals distinct strategies for kappa and lambda light-chain variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberg, Uri; Shlomchik, Mark J

    2006-10-24

    B cells generate varied yet functional clones under high rates of mutation of their V genes. It has been proposed that as a result of the opposing demands of diversification and preservation of integrity, the V genes of heavy and light chains have evolved to overexpress codons prone to amino acid change in their complementarity determining regions (CDR) compared with the framework (FW) regions. We have analyzed the germ-line V genes of heavy and light chains (both kappa and lambda), comparing codons of CDR and FW of the germ-line V regions both to each other and to control regions. We found that in both germ-line heavy chains and lambda chains, CDR codons are prone to replacement mutations, whereas in the FW, the opposite is true. Furthermore, the difference between CDR and FW in heavy chains and lambda chains is based on codons that are prone to nonconservative changes of amino acid. In contrast, in germ-line kappa chains, the codons in both CDR and FW are more prone to replacement mutations. We also demonstrated that negative selection during immune responses is more sensitive to nonconservative amino acid substitutions than overall amino acid change, demonstrating the applicability of our analysis to real-time process of selection in the immune system. The differences in germ-line kappa and lambda light chains' potential reaction to mutation suggests that via these two differently evolved light-chain types, the B cell repertoire encompasses two different strategies to balance diversity and stability in an immune response.

  18. Different frontal involvement in ALS and PLS revealed by Stroop event-related potentials and reaction times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninfa eAmato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggests a link between cognitive and pathological changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and in frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD. Cognitive deficits have been investigated much less extensively in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS than in ALS. OBJECTIVE: to investigate bioelectrical activity to Stroop test, assessing frontal function, in ALS, PLS and control groups. METHODS: 32 non-demented ALS patients, 10 non-demented PLS patients and 27 healthy subjects were included. Twenty-nine electroencephalography (EEG channels with binaural reference were recorded during covert Stroop task performance, involving mental discrimination of the stimuli and not vocal or motor response. Group effects on event related potentials (ERPs latency were analyzed using statistical multivariate analysis. Topographic analysis was performed using low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA. RESULTS: ALS patients committed more errors in the execution of the task but they were not slower, whereas PLS patients did not show reduced accuracy, despite a slowing of reaction times (RTs. The main ERP components were delayed in ALS, but not in PLS, compared with controls. Moreover, RTs speed but not ERP latency correlated with clinical scores. ALS had decreased frontotemporal activity in the P2, P3 and N4 time windows compared to controls. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a different pattern of psychophysiological involvement in ALS compared with PLS. The former is increasingly recognized to be a multisystems disorder, with a spectrum of executive and behavioural impairments reflecting frontotemporal dysfunction. The latter seems to mainly involve the motor system, with largely spared cognitive functions. Moreover, our results suggest that the covert version of the Stroop task used in the present study, may be useful to assess cognitive state in the very advanced stage of the disease, when other cognitive tasks are not

  19. Integrated gene co-expression network analysis in the growth phase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reveals new potential drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Kulshreshtha, Deepika; Verma, Srikant Prasad; Kumar, Sanjiv; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    We have carried out weighted gene co-expression network analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to gain insights into gene expression architecture during log phase growth. The differentially expressed genes between at least one pair of 11 different M. tuberculosis strains as source of biological variability were used for co-expression network analysis. This data included genes with highest coefficient of variation in expression. Five distinct modules were identified using topological overlap based clustering. All the modules together showed significant enrichment in biological processes: fatty acid biosynthesis, cell membrane, intracellular membrane bound organelle, DNA replication, Quinone biosynthesis, cell shape and peptidoglycan biosynthesis, ribosome and structural constituents of ribosome and transposition. We then extracted the co-expressed connections which were supported either by transcriptional regulatory network or STRING database or high edge weight of topological overlap. The genes trpC, nadC, pitA, Rv3404c, atpA, pknA, Rv0996, purB, Rv2106 and Rv0796 emerged as top hub genes. After overlaying this network on the iNJ661 metabolic network, the reactions catalyzed by 15 highly connected metabolic genes were knocked down in silico and evaluated by Flux Balance Analysis. The results showed that in 12 out of 15 cases, in 11 more than 50% of reactions catalyzed by genes connected through co-expressed connections also had altered fluxes. The modules 'Turquoise', 'Blue' and 'Red' also showed enrichment in essential genes. We could map 152 of the previously known or proposed drug targets in these modules and identified 15 new potential drug targets based on their high degree of co-expressed connections and strong correlation with module eigengenes.

  20. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  1. Suppression subtractive hybridization profiles of radial growth phase and metastatic melanoma cell lines reveal novel potential targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espreafico Enilza M

    2008-01-01

    available expression study databases allowed us to point to a great potential of involvement in tumor progression for several of the genes identified here. A few sequences obtained here may also contribute to extend annotated mRNAs or to the identification of novel transcripts.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Xu

    responsible for the low reproductive efficiency reported in other obese breeds. The ovarian developmental potential was found to be greater in Meishan pigs than in Yorkshire pigs.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Che, Long; Wang, Dingyue; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Xu, Shengyu

    2015-01-01

    the low reproductive efficiency reported in other obese breeds. The ovarian developmental potential was found to be greater in Meishan pigs than in Yorkshire pigs.

  4. Secretome Prediction of Two M. tuberculosis Clinical Isolates Reveals Their High Antigenic Density and Potential Drug Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Granados, Fernanda; Zatarain-Barrón, Zyanya L.; Cantu-Robles, Vito A.; Mendoza-Vargas, Alfredo; Molina-Romero, Camilo; Sánchez, Filiberto; Del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    druggability analysis of the secretomes, we found potential drug targets such as cytochrome P450, thiol peroxidase, the Ag85C, and Ribonucleoside Reductase in the secreted proteins that could be used as drug targets for novel treatments against Tuberculosis. PMID:28223967

  5. Octant degeneracy, CPV phase at Long Baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work by two of us, we have studied, how CP violation discovery potential can be improved at long baseline neutrino experiments (LBNE/DUNE), by combining with its ND (near detector) and reactor experiments. In this work, we discuss how this study can be further analysed to resolve entanglement of the quadrant of CPV phase and Octant of atmospheric mixing angle {\\theta}23, at LBNEs. The study is done for both NH (Normal hierarchy) and IH (Inverted hierarchy). We further show how leptogenesis can enhance this effect of resolving this entanglement. A detailed analytic and numerical study of baryogenesis through leptogenesis is performed in this framework in a model independent way. We then compare our result of the baryon to photon ratio with the the current observational data of the baryon asymmetry.

  6. Questa Baseline and Pre-mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation, 7. A Pictorial Record of Chemical Weathering, Erosional Processes, and Potential Debris-flow Hazards in Scar Areas Developed on Hydrothermally Altered Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ludington, Steve; Vincent, Kirk R.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Livo, K. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Erosional scar areas developed along the lower Red River basin, New Mexico, reveal a complex natural history of mineralizing processes, rapid chemical weathering, and intense physical erosion during periodic outbursts of destructive, storm-induced runoff events. The scar areas are prominent erosional features with craggy headwalls and steep, denuded slopes. The largest scar areas, including, from east to west, Hottentot Creek, Straight Creek, Hansen Creek, Lower Hansen Creek, Sulfur Gulch, and Goat Hill Gulch, head along high east-west trending ridges that form the northern and southern boundaries of the lower Red River basin. Smaller, topographically lower scar areas are developed on ridge noses in the inner Red River valley. Several of the natural scar areas have been modified substantially as a result of large-scale open-pit and underground mining at the Questa Mine; for example, much of the Sulfur Gulch scar was removed by open pit mining, and several scars are now partially or completely covered by mine waste dumps.

  7. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  8. Potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics in revealing livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Chinese humans without occupational livestock contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence type and IEC genes. Of the 1162 participants, 9.3% carried S. aureus, including MRSA (1.4% and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA, 2.8%. The predominant multidrug-resistant pattern among MDRSA isolates was nonsusceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. The most common S. aureus genotypes were ST7, ST6, ST188 and ST59, and the predominant MRSA genotype was ST7. Notably, the livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (IEC-negative CC9, IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC398, and IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC5 were found in people with no occupational livestock contact. These findings reveal a potential relationship between S. aureus CCs and IEC genes and antibiotic resistance patterns in defining livestock-associated S. aureus in humans and support growing concern about the potential livestock-to-human transmission of livestock-associated S. aureus by non-occupational livestock contact.

  9. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayato, Yoshinari [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have been playing important roles in revealing the nature of neutrinos. However, it turned out that the current experiments are not sufficient to study two major remaining problems, the CP violation in the lepton sector and the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. Therefore, several new experiments have been proposed. Among of them, two accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, the J-PARC neutrino beam and Hyper-Kamiokande, and MOMENT, have been proposed in Asia. These two projects are reviewed in this article.

  10. Identification of a gene expression core signature for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) via integrative analysis reveals novel potential compounds for treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ichim-Moreno, Norú

    2010-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy and one of the most prevalent genetic disorders of childhood. DMD is characterized by rapid progression of muscle degeneration, and ultimately death. Currently, glucocorticoids are the only available treatment for DMD, but they have been shown to result in serious side effects. The purpose of this research was to define a core signature of gene expression related to DMD via integrative analysis of mouse and human datasets. This core signature was subsequently used to screen for novel potential compounds that antagonistically affect the expression of signature genes. With this approach we were able to identify compounds that are 1) already used to treat DMD, 2) currently under investigation for treatment, and 3) so far unknown but promising candidates. Our study highlights the potential of meta-analyses through the combination of datasets to unravel previously unrecognized associations and reveal new relationships. © IEEE.

  11. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Imperial County baseline health survey potential impact of geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deane, M.

    1981-06-01

    The survey purpose, methods, and statistical methods are presented. Results are discussed according to: area differences in background variables, area differences in health variables, area differences in annoyance reactions, and comparison of symptom frequencies with age, smoking, and drinking. Included in appendices are tables of data, enumeration forms, the questionnaire, interviewer cards, and interviewer instructions. (MHR)

  13. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus G Jones

    Full Text Available Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c.We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate 'pre-baseline' HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c.Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,p<0.001.The association between pre-baseline and response was similar suggesting the greater response at higher baseline HbA1cs is not mainly due to measurement error and subsequent regression to the mean. In unadjusted analysis in both cohorts, factors associated with baseline HbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations.Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy.

  14. Intramolecular telomeric G-quadruplexes dramatically inhibit DNA synthesis by replicative and translesion polymerases, revealing their potential to lead to genetic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna N Edwards

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that hundreds of thousands of G-rich sequences within the human genome have the potential to form secondary structures known as G-quadruplexes. Telomeric regions, consisting of long arrays of TTAGGG/AATCCC repeats, are among the most likely areas in which these structures might form. Since G-quadruplexes assemble from certain G-rich single-stranded sequences, they might arise when duplex DNA is unwound such as during replication. Coincidentally, these bulky structures when present in the DNA template might also hinder the action of DNA polymerases. In this study, single-stranded telomeric templates with the potential to form G-quadruplexes were examined for their effects on a variety of replicative and translesion DNA polymerases from humans and lower organisms. Our results demonstrate that single-stranded templates containing four telomeric GGG runs fold into intramolecular G-quadruplex structures. These intramolecular G quadruplexes are somewhat dynamic in nature and stabilized by increasing KCl concentrations and decreasing temperatures. Furthermore, the presence of these intramolecular G-quadruplexes in the template dramatically inhibits DNA synthesis by various DNA polymerases, including the human polymerase δ employed during lagging strand replication of G-rich telomeric strands and several human translesion DNA polymerases potentially recruited to sites of replication blockage. Notably, misincorporation of nucleotides is observed when certain translesion polymerases are employed on substrates containing intramolecular G-quadruplexes, as is extension of the resulting mismatched base pairs upon dynamic unfolding of this secondary structure. These findings reveal the potential for blockage of DNA replication and genetic changes related to sequences capable of forming intramolecular G-quadruplexes.

  15. Whole-exome sequencing reveals potential molecular predictors of relapse after discontinuation of the targeted therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnikhina, Svetlana A; Lavrov, Alexander V; Chelysheva, Ekaterina Yu; Adilgereeva, Elmira P; Shukhov, Oleg A; Turkina, Anna; Kutsev, Sergey I

    2016-07-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disease well treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The aim was to identify genes with a predictive value for relapse-free survival after TKI cessation in CML patients. We performed whole-exome sequencing of DNA from six CML patients in long-lasting deep molecular remission. Patients were divided into two groups with relapse (n = 3) and without relapse (n = 3) after TKI discontinuation. We found variants in genes CYP1B1, ALPK2, and IRF1 in group of patients with relapse and one variant in gene PARP9 in group of patients without relapse. We verified prognostic value of the found markers in a small group of patients with TKI discontinuation and demonstrated their high sensitivity (77%), specificity (86%), positive (85%), and negative (79%) predictive values. Thus we revealed genetic variants, which are potential markers of outcome prediction in CML patients after TKI discontinuation.

  16. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals potential factors associated with the enhancement of phenazine-1-carboxamide production in Pseudomonas chlororaphis P3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue-Jie; Peng, Hua-Song; Hu, Hong-Bo; Huang, Xian-Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2016-06-07

    Phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), a phenazine derivative, is strongly antagonistic to fungal phytopathogens. Pseudomonas chlororaphis HT66 is a PCN-producing, non-pathogenic biocontrol strain, and we obtained the mutant P. chlororaphis P3, which produces 4.7 times more PCN than the wild-type HT66 strain. To reveal the cause of PCN production enhancement in P3 and find potential factors related to PCN biosynthesis, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis was used to study the expression changes between the two strains. Of the 452 differentially expressed proteins, most were functionally mapped into PCN biosynthesis pathway or other related metabolisms. The upregulation of proteins, including PhzA/B, PhzD, PhzF, PhzG, and PhzH, involved in PCN biosynthesis was in agreement with the efficient production of PCN in P3. A number of proteins that function primarily in energy production, amino acid metabolism, and secondary metabolism played important roles in PCN biosynthesis. Notably, proteins involved in the uptake and conversion of phosphate, inorganic nitrogen sources, and iron improved the PCN production. Furthermore, the type VI secretion system may participate in the secretion or/and indirect biosynthetic regulation of PCN in P. chlororaphis. This study provides valuable clues to better understand the biosynthesis, excretion and regulation of PCN in Pseudomonas and also provides potential gene targets for further engineering high-yield strains.

  17. Identification of Novel Proteins Co-Purifying with Cockayne Syndrome Group B (CSB) Reveals Potential Roles for CSB in RNA Metabolism and Chromatin Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Serena; Filippi, Silvia; Caputo, Manuela; Cipak, Lubos; Gregan, Juraj; Ammerer, Gustav; Frontini, Mattia; Willems, Daniela; Prantera, Giorgio; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Proietti-De-Santis, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The CSB protein, a member of the SWI/SNF ATP dependent chromatin remodeling family of proteins, plays a role in a sub-pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) known as transcription coupled repair (TCR). CSB is frequently mutated in Cockayne syndrome group B, a segmental progeroid human autosomal recessive disease characterized by growth failure and degeneration of multiple organs. Though initially classified as a DNA repair protein, recent studies have demonstrated that the loss of CSB results in pleiotropic effects. Identification of novel proteins belonging to the CSB interactome may be useful not only for predicting the molecular basis for diverse pathological symptoms of CS-B patients but also for unraveling the functions of CSB in addition to its authentic role in DNA repair. In this study, we performed tandem affinity purification (TAP) technology coupled with mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation studies to identify and characterize the proteins that potentially interact with CSB-TAP. Our approach revealed 33 proteins that were not previously known to interact with CSB. These newly identified proteins indicate potential roles for CSB in RNA metabolism involving repression and activation of transcription process and in the maintenance of chromatin dynamics and integrity.

  18. Identification of Novel Proteins Co-Purifying with Cockayne Syndrome Group B (CSB Reveals Potential Roles for CSB in RNA Metabolism and Chromatin Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Nicolai

    Full Text Available The CSB protein, a member of the SWI/SNF ATP dependent chromatin remodeling family of proteins, plays a role in a sub-pathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER known as transcription coupled repair (TCR. CSB is frequently mutated in Cockayne syndrome group B, a segmental progeroid human autosomal recessive disease characterized by growth failure and degeneration of multiple organs. Though initially classified as a DNA repair protein, recent studies have demonstrated that the loss of CSB results in pleiotropic effects. Identification of novel proteins belonging to the CSB interactome may be useful not only for predicting the molecular basis for diverse pathological symptoms of CS-B patients but also for unraveling the functions of CSB in addition to its authentic role in DNA repair. In this study, we performed tandem affinity purification (TAP technology coupled with mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation studies to identify and characterize the proteins that potentially interact with CSB-TAP. Our approach revealed 33 proteins that were not previously known to interact with CSB. These newly identified proteins indicate potential roles for CSB in RNA metabolism involving repression and activation of transcription process and in the maintenance of chromatin dynamics and integrity.

  19. High-resolution GPS tracking reveals habitat selection and the potential for long-distance seed dispersal by Madagascan flying foxes Pteropus rufus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Oleksy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance seed dispersal can be important for the regeneration of forested habitats, especially in regions where deforestation has been severe. Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae have considerable potential for long-distance seed dispersal. We studied the movement patterns and feeding behaviour of the endemic Madagascan flying fox Pteropus rufus, in Berenty Reserve, southeast Madagascar. Between July and September 2012 (the dry season nine males and six females were tagged with customised GPS loggers which recorded fixes every 2.5 min between 18.00 and 06.00 h. The combined home range of all of the tagged bats during 86 nights exceeded 58,000 ha. Females had larger home ranges and core foraging areas and foraged over longer distances (average 28.1 km; median 26.7 km than males (average 15.4 km; median 9.5 km. Because the study was conducted during the gestation period, the increased energy requirements of females may explain their greater mean foraging area. Compositional analysis revealed that bats show strong preferences for overgrown sisal (Agave sisalana plantations (a mix of shrub, trees and sisal plants and remnant riverside forest patches. Sisal nectar and pollen were abundant food sources during the tracking period and this probably contributed to the selective use of overgrown sisal plantations. The bats also ate large quantities of figs (Ficus grevei during the study, and dispersed seeds of this important pioneer species. The bats flew at an average speed of 9.13 m/s, perhaps to optimise gliding performance. The study confirms that P. rufus has the potential to be a long-distance seed disperser, and is able to fly over a large area, often crossing cleared parts of its habitat. It potentially plays an important role in the regeneration of threatened forest habitats in this biodiversity hotspot.

  20. Development Of Regional Climate Mitigation Baseline For A DominantAgro-Ecological Zone Of Karnataka, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudha, P.; Shubhashree, D.; Khan, H.; Hedge, G.T.; Murthy, I.K.; Shreedhara, V.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-06-01

    Setting a baseline for carbon stock changes in forest andland use sector mitigation projects is an essential step for assessingadditionality of the project. There are two approaches for settingbaselines namely, project-specific and regional baseline. This paperpresents the methodology adopted for estimating the land available formitigation, for developing a regional baseline, transaction cost involvedand a comparison of project-specific and regional baseline. The studyshowed that it is possible to estimate the potential land and itssuitability for afforestation and reforestation mitigation projects,using existing maps and data, in the dry zone of Karnataka, southernIndia. The study adopted a three-step approach for developing a regionalbaseline, namely: i) identification of likely baseline options for landuse, ii) estimation of baseline rates of land-use change, and iii)quantification of baseline carbon profile over time. The analysis showedthat carbon stock estimates made for wastelands and fallow lands forproject-specific as well as the regional baseline are comparable. Theratio of wasteland Carbon stocks of a project to regional baseline is1.02, and that of fallow lands in the project to regional baseline is0.97. The cost of conducting field studies for determination of regionalbaseline is about a quarter of the cost of developing a project-specificbaseline on a per hectare basis. The study has shown the reliability,feasibility and cost-effectiveness of adopting regional baseline forforestry sectormitigation projects.

  1. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  2. Crystal structure of the adenosine A 2A receptor bound to an antagonist reveals a potential allosteric pocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Bingfa; Bachhawat, Priti; Chu, Matthew Ling-Hon; Wood, Martyn; Ceska, Tom; Sands, Zara A.; Mercier, Joel; Lebon, Florence; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2017-02-06

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has long been implicated in cardiovascular disorders. As more selective A2AR ligands are being identified, its roles in other disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, are starting to emerge, and A2AR antagonists are important drug candidates for nondopaminergic anti-Parkinson treatment. Here we report the crystal structure of A2A receptor bound to compound 1 (Cmpd-1), a novel A2AR/N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) dual antagonist and potential anti-Parkinson candidate compound, at 3.5 Å resolution. The A2A receptor with a cytochrome b562-RIL (BRIL) fusion (A2AR–BRIL) in the intracellular loop 3 (ICL3) was crystallized in detergent micelles using vapor-phase diffusion. Whereas A2AR–BRIL bound to the antagonist ZM241385 has previously been crystallized in lipidic cubic phase (LCP), structural differences in the Cmpd-1–bound A2AR–BRIL prevented formation of the lattice observed with the ZM241385–bound receptor. The crystals grew with a type II crystal lattice in contrast to the typical type I packing seen from membrane protein structures crystallized in LCP. Cmpd-1 binds in a position that overlaps with the native ligand adenosine, but its methoxyphenyl group extends to an exosite not previously observed in other A2AR structures. Structural analysis revealed that Cmpd-1 binding results in the unique conformations of two tyrosine residues, Tyr91.35 and Tyr2717.36, which are critical for the formation of the exosite. The structure reveals insights into antagonist binding that are not observed in other A2AR structures, highlighting flexibility in the binding pocket that may facilitate the development of A2AR-selective compounds for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

  3. The Crystal Structure of the Ivy delta4-16:0-ACP Desaturase Reveals Structural Details of the Oxidized Active Site and Potential Determinants of Regioselectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guy,J.; Whittle, E.; Kumaran, D.; Lindqvist, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2007-01-01

    The multifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase from Hedera helix (English ivy) catalyzes the {Delta}{sup 4} desaturation of 16:0-ACP and the{Delta}{sup 9} desaturation of 18:0-ACP and further desaturates{Delta}{sup 9}-16:1 or {Delta}{sup 9}-18:1 to the corresponding {Delta}{sup 4,9} dienes. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been solved to 1.95{angstrom} resolution, and both the iron-iron distance of 3.2{angstrom} and the presence of a {mu}-oxo bridge reveal this to be the only reported structure of a desaturase in the oxidized FeIII-FeIII form. Significant differences are seen between the oxidized active site and the reduced active site of the Ricinus communis (castor) desaturase; His{sup 227} coordination to Fe2 is lost, and the side chain of Glu{sup 224}, which bridges the two iron ions in the reduced structure, does not interact with either iron. Although carboxylate shifts have been observed on oxidation of other diiron proteins, this is the first example of the residue moving beyond the coordination range of both iron ions. Comparison of the ivy and castor structures reveal surface amino acids close to the annulus of the substrate-binding cavity and others lining the lower portion of the cavity that are potential determinants of their distinct substrate specificities. We propose a hypothesis that differences in side chain packing explains the apparent paradox that several residues lining the lower portion of the cavity in the ivy desaturase are bulkier than their equivalents in the castor enzyme despite the necessity for the ivy enzyme to accommodate three more carbons beyond the diiron site.

  4. NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  5. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  6. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  7. IL-2 immunotherapy reveals potential for innate beta cell regeneration in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of autoimmune diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Diaz-de-Durana

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes (T1D is an autoimmune disease targeting insulin-producing beta cells, resulting in dependence on exogenous insulin. To date, significant efforts have been invested to develop immune-modulatory therapies for T1D treatment. Previously, IL-2 immunotherapy was demonstrated to prevent and reverse T1D at onset in the non-obese diabetic (NOD mouse model, revealing potential as a therapy in early disease stage in humans. In the NOD model, IL-2 deficiency contributes to a loss of regulatory T cell function. This deficiency can be augmented with IL-2 or antibody bound to IL-2 (Ab/IL-2 therapy, resulting in regulatory T cell expansion and potentiation. However, an understanding of the mechanism by which reconstituted regulatory T cell function allows for reversal of diabetes after onset is not clearly understood. Here, we describe that Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy treatment, given at the time of diabetes onset in NOD mice, not only correlated with reversal of diabetes and expansion of Treg cells, but also demonstrated the ability to significantly increase beta cell proliferation. Proliferation appeared specific to Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy, as anti-CD3 therapy did not have a similar effect. Furthermore, to assess the effect of Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy well after the development of diabetes, we tested the effect of delaying treatment for 4 weeks after diabetes onset, when beta cells were virtually absent. At this late stage after diabetes onset, Ab/IL-2 treatment was not sufficient to reverse hyperglycemia. However, it did promote survival in the absence of exogenous insulin. Proliferation of beta cells could not account for this improvement as few beta cells remained. Rather, abnormal insulin and glucagon dual-expressing cells were the only insulin-expressing cells observed in islets from mice with established disease. Thus, these data suggest that in diabetic NOD mice, beta cells have an innate capacity for regeneration both early and late in disease

  8. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals H2O2 Stress-Associated MicroRNAs and a Potential Regulatory Network in Brachypodium distachyon Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhen, Shoumin; Zhu, Geng-Rui; Bian, Yan-Wei; Chen, Guan-Xing; Han, Cai-Xia; Yu, Zi-Tong; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress in plants can be triggered by many environmental stress factors, such as drought and salinity. Brachypodium distachyon is a model organism for the study of biofuel plants and crops, such as wheat. Although recent studies have found many oxidative stress response-related proteins, the mechanism of microRNA (miRNA)-mediated oxidative stress response is still unclear. Using next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, the small RNAs were sequenced from the model plant B. distachyon 21 (Bd21) under H2O2 stress and normal growth conditions. In total, 144 known B. distachyon miRNAs and 221 potential new miRNAs were identified. Further analysis of potential new miRNAs suggested that 36 could be clustered into known miRNA families, while the remaining 185 were identified as B. distachyon-specific new miRNAs. Differential analysis of miRNAs from the normal and H2O2 stress libraries identified 31 known and 30 new H2O2 stress responsive miRNAs. The expression patterns of seven representative miRNAs were verified by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, which produced results consistent with those of the deep sequencing method. Moreover, we also performed RT-qPCR analysis to verify the expression levels of 13 target genes and the cleavage site of 5 target genes by known or novel miRNAs were validated experimentally by 5′ RACE. Additionally, a miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network for H2O2 stress response was constructed. Our study identifies a set of H2O2-responsive miRNAs and their target genes and reveals the mechanism of oxidative stress response and defense at the post-transcriptional regulatory level.

  9. Potentiation of the bioavailability of blueberry phenolic compounds by co-ingested grape phenolic compounds in mice, revealed by targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Dubé, Pascal; Varin, Thibault V; Calon, Frédéric; Desjardins, Yves

    2016-08-10

    The low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds, resulting from poor absorption and high rates of metabolism and excretion, is a concern as it can limit their potential beneficial effects on health. Targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces of mice supplemented for 15 days with a blueberry extract, a grape extract or their combination revealed significantly increased plasma concentrations (3-5 fold) of blueberry phenolic metabolites in the presence of a co-ingested grape extract, associated with an equivalent decrease in their appearance in feces. Additionally, the repeated daily administration of the blueberry-grape combination significantly increased plasma phenolic concentrations (2-3-fold) compared to animals receiving only a single acute dose, with no such increase being observed with individual extracts. These findings highlight a positive interaction between blueberry and grape constituents, in which the grape extract enhanced the absorption of blueberry phenolic compounds. This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence of such an interaction occurring between co-ingested phenolic compounds from fruit extracts leading to their improved bioavailability.

  10. The oscillatory activities and its synchronization in auditory-visual integration as revealed by event-related potentials to bimodal stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia; Xu, Peng; Yao, Li; Shu, Hua; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2012-03-01

    Neural mechanism of auditory-visual speech integration is always a hot study of multi-modal perception. The articulation conveys speech information that helps detect and disambiguate the auditory speech. As important characteristic of EEG, oscillations and its synchronization have been applied to cognition research more and more. This study analyzed the EEG data acquired by unimodal and bimodal stimuli using time frequency and phase synchrony approach, investigated the oscillatory activities and its synchrony modes behind evoked potential during auditory-visual integration, in order to reveal the inherent neural integration mechanism under these modes. It was found that beta activity and its synchronization differences had relationship with gesture N1-P2, which happened in the earlier stage of speech coding to pronouncing action. Alpha oscillation and its synchronization related with auditory N1-P2 might be mainly responsible for auditory speech process caused by anticipation from gesture to sound feature. The visual gesture changing enhanced the interaction of auditory brain regions. These results provided explanations to the power and connectivity change of event-evoked oscillatory activities which matched ERPs during auditory-visual speech integration.

  11. Treatment decisions based on scalar and functional baseline covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Adam; Petkova, Eva; Ogden, R Todd; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2015-12-01

    The amount and complexity of patient-level data being collected in randomized-controlled trials offer both opportunities and challenges for developing personalized rules for assigning treatment for a given disease or ailment. For example, trials examining treatments for major depressive disorder are not only collecting typical baseline data such as age, gender, or scores on various tests, but also data that measure the structure and function of the brain such as images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), or electroencephalography (EEG). These latter types of data have an inherent structure and may be considered as functional data. We propose an approach that uses baseline covariates, both scalars and functions, to aid in the selection of an optimal treatment. In addition to providing information on which treatment should be selected for a new patient, the estimated regime has the potential to provide insight into the relationship between treatment response and the set of baseline covariates. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of "advantage learning" to include both scalar and functional covariates. We describe our method and how to implement it using existing software. Empirical performance of our method is evaluated with simulated data in a variety of settings and also applied to data arising from a study of patients with major depressive disorder from whom baseline scalar covariates as well as functional data from EEG are available.

  12. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Eleventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.; Wagner, C.E.

    1975-07-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed initial heat balance testing of a baseline engine. An additional 450 hours were run on ceramic regenerators and seals. Seal wear rates are very good, and the elastomeric mounting system was satisfactory. An engine/control oil supply system based on the power steering pump is successfully operating in baseline vehicles. The design of the upgraded engine power turbine nozzle actuator was finalized, and layouts of the inlet guide vane actuator are in process. A lock-up torque converter was installed in the free rotor vehicle. Baseline engine and vehicle testing of water injection and variable inlet guide vanes was completed. A thermal analysis of the gas generator is in process. A steady-state, full power analysis was made. A three-dimensional stress analysis of the compressor cover was made. The power turbine nozzle actuating system layout was completed. The analytical studies of the power turbine rotor bearings were completed. MTI completed the design of the gas generator rotor simulation fixture and is starting to build it. Optimized reduction gears were successfully tested in a baseline engine.

  13. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  14. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant:Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytopthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064 and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7 and 3.66 mg g-1 respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4 and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. Leaf disc bioassay against Phytophthora capsici and Verticillium dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and Allicin aqueous standard (AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating ROS at mild concentrations. However, at higher concentrations, it might cause lipid peroxidation and membrane damage which temper the

  15. Immunohistochemical determination of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant melanoma reveals no prognostic value, while c-Kit (CD117 overexpression exhibits potential therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potti Anil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and c-kit (CD117 onco-protein are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapy in solid tumors, but data on their role in malignant melanoma is currently limited. We studied the prevalence of overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit in 202 patients with malignant melanoma to evaluate a possible prognostic value of these molecular targets in malignant melanoma. Methods Overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit was evaluated using immunohistochemical assays in 202 archival tissue specimens. Results Between 1991 and 2001, 202 subjects (109 males; 54% and 93 females; 46% with malignant melanoma were studied with a mean age of 57 years (age range: 15–101 years. The most common histologic type was amelanotic melanoma (n = 62; 30.7% followed by superficial spreading melanoma (n = 54; 26.7%. The depth of penetration of melanoma (Breslow thickness, pT Stage ranged from 0.4 mm (stage pT1 to 8.0 mm (stage pT4A. Mean thickness was 2.6 mm (stage pT3A. The ECOG performance scores ranged from 0 to 3. Only 2 patients (0.9% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression, whereas 46 (22.8% revealed c-Kit overexpression. Multivariate analysis performed did not show a significant difference in survival between c-Kit positive and negative groups (p = 0.36. Interestingly, not only was c-Kit more likely to be overexpressed in the superficial spreading type, a preliminary association between the presence or absence of c-Kit overexpression and the existence of another second primary tumor was also observed. Conclusions The results of our large study indicate that the HER-2/neu onco-protein neither has a role in melanogenesis nor is a potential target for clinical trials with monoclonal antibody therapy. This indicates there is no role for its testing in patients with malignant melanoma. Although c-Kit, expressed preferentially in the superficial spreading type, may not have prognostic value, it does have significant therapeutic implications as a

  16. Unexpected tolerance of glycosylation by UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase revealed by electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry: carbohydrate as potential protective groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yayoi; Matsushita, Takahiko; Fujitani, Naoki; Takegawa, Yasuhiro; Fujihira, Haruhiko; Naruchi, Kentarou; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Manri, Naomi; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kato, Kentaro; Hinou, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2010-07-20

    UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAcTs, EC 2.4.1.41), a family of key enzymes that initiate posttranslational modification with O-glycans in mucin synthesis by introduction of alpha-GalNAc residues, are structurally composed of a catalytic domain and a lectin domain. It has been known that multiple Ser/Thr residues are assigned in common mucin glycoproteins as potential O-glycosylation sites and more than 20 distinct isoforms of this enzyme family contribute to produce densely O-glycosylated mucin glycoproteins. However, it seems that the functional role of the lectin domain of ppGalNAcTs remains unclear. We considered that electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry (ECD-MS), a promising method for highly selective fragmentation at peptide linkages of glycopeptides to generate unique c and z series of ions, should allow for precise structural characterization to uncover the mechanism in O-glycosylation of mucin peptides by ppGalNAcTs. In the present study, it was demonstrated that a system composed of an electrospray source, a linear RFQ ion trap that isolates precursor ions, the ECD device, and a TOF mass spectrometer is a nice tool to identify the preferential O-glycosylation sites without any decomposition of the carbohydrate moiety. It should be noted that electrons used for ECD are accelerated within a range from 1.75 to 9.75 eV depending on the structures of glycopeptides of interest. We revealed for the first time that additional installation of a alpha-GalNAc residue at potential glycosylation sites by ppGalNAcT2 proceeds smoothly in various unnatural glycopeptides having alpha-Man, alpha-Fuc, and beta-Gal residues as well as alpha-GalNAc residues. The results may suggest that ppGalNAcT2 did not differentiate totally presubstituted sugar residues in terms of configuration of functional groups, d-, l-configuration, and even alpha-, beta-stereochemistry at an anomeric carbon atom when relatively short synthetic

  17. Long Non-coding RNAs Expression Profile in HepG2 Cells Reveals the Potential Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in the Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea has been shown to improve cholesterol metabolism in animal studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this function have not been fully understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs have recently emerged as a major class of regulatory molecules involved in a broad range of biological processes and complex diseases. Our aim was to identify important lncRNAs that might play an important role in contributing to the benefits of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG on cholesterol metabolism. Methods: Microarrays was used to reveal the lncRNA and mRNA profiles in green tea polyphenol(--epigallocatechin gallate in cultured human liver (HepG2 hepatocytes treated with EGCG and bioinformatic analyses of the predicted target genes were performed to identify lncRNA-mRNA targeting relationships. RNA interference was used to investigate the role of lncRNAs in cholesterol metabolism. Results: The expression levels of 15 genes related to cholesterol metabolism and 285 lncRNAs were changed by EGCG treatment. Bioinformatic analysis found five matched lncRNA-mRNA pairs for five differentially expressed lncRNAs and four differentially expressed mRNA. In particular, the lncRNA AT102202 and its potential targets mRNA-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR were identified. Using a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique, we confirmed that EGCG down-regulated mRNA expression level of the HMGCR and up-regulated expression of AT102202. After AT102202 knockdown in HepG2, we observed that the level of HMGCR expression was significantly increased relative to the scrambled small interfering RNA control (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Our results indicated that EGCG improved cholesterol metabolism and meanwhile changed the lncRNAs expression profile in HepG2 cells. LncRNAs may play an important role in the cholesterol metabolism.

  18. Complete genome-wide screening and subtractive genomic approach revealed new virulence factors, potential drug targets against bio-war pathogen Brucella melitensis 16M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Sainath, Sri Bhashyam; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2015-01-01

    Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that infects both animals and humans. It causes a disease known as brucellosis, which is characterized by acute febrile illness in humans and causes abortions in livestock. To prevent and control brucellosis, identification of putative drug targets is crucial. The present study aimed to identify drug targets in B. melitensis 16M by using a subtractive genomic approach. We used available database repositories (Database of Essential Genes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Automatic Annotation Server, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) to identify putative genes that are nonhomologous to humans and essential for pathogen B. melitensis 16M. The results revealed that among 3 Mb genome size of pathogen, 53 putative characterized and 13 uncharacterized hypothetical genes were identified; further, from Basic Local Alignment Search Tool protein analysis, one hypothetical protein showed a close resemblance (50%) to Silicibacter pomeroyi DUF1285 family protein (2RE3). A further homology model of the target was constructed using MODELLER 9.12 and optimized through variable target function method by molecular dynamics optimization with simulating annealing. The stereochemical quality of the restrained model was evaluated by PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D, ERRAT, and WHATIF servers. Furthermore, structure-based virtual screening was carried out against the predicted active site of the respective protein using the glycerol structural analogs from the PubChem database. We identified five best inhibitors with strong affinities, stable interactions, and also with reliable drug-like properties. Hence, these leads might be used as the most effective inhibitors of modeled protein. The outcome of the present work of virtual screening of putative gene targets might facilitate design of potential drugs for better treatment against brucellosis.

  19. Yeast population dynamics reveal a potential 'collaboration' between Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum for the production of reduced alcohol wines during Shiraz fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-02-01

    The wine sector is actively seeking strategies and technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol; however, commercial wine yeasts have very similar ethanol yields. We recently demonstrated that Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 was able to produce wine with reduced alcohol concentration when used in sequential inoculation with a wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, different inoculation regimes were explored to study the effect of yeast population dynamics and potential yeast interactions on the metabolism of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 during fermentation of non-sterile Shiraz must. Of all inoculation regimes tested, only ferments inoculated with M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 showed reduced ethanol concentration. Population dynamics revealed the presence of several indigenous yeast species and one of these, Saccharomyces uvarum (AWRI 2846), was able to produce wine with reduced ethanol concentration in sterile conditions. Both strains however, were inhibited when a combination of three non-Saccharomyces strains, Hanseniaspora uvarum AWRI863, Pichia kluyveri AWRI1896 and Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI2845 were inoculated into must, indicating that the microbial community composition might impact on the growth of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI 2846. Our results indicate that mixed cultures of M. pulcherrima AWRI1149 and S. uvarum AWRI2846 enable an additional reduction of wine ethanol concentration compared to the same must fermented with either strain alone. This work thus provides a foundation to develop inoculation regimes for the successful application of non-cerevisiae yeast to the production of wines with reduced alcohol.

  20. Proteomic analysis in type 2 diabetes patients before and after a very low calorie diet reveals potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Sleddering

    Full Text Available Very low calorie diets (VLCD with and without exercise programs lead to major metabolic improvements in obese type 2 diabetes patients. The mechanisms underlying these improvements have so far not been elucidated fully. To further investigate the mechanisms of a VLCD with or without exercise and to uncover possible biomarkers associated with these interventions, blood samples were collected from 27 obese type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 16-week VLCD (Modifast ∼ 450 kcal/day. Thirteen of these patients followed an exercise program in addition to the VCLD. Plasma was obtained from 27 lean and 27 obese controls as well. Proteomic analysis was performed using mass spectrometry (MS and targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM and a large scale isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ approach. After the 16-week VLCD, there was a significant decrease in body weight and HbA1c in all patients, without differences between the two intervention groups. Targeted MRM analysis revealed differences in several proteins, which could be divided in diabetes-associated (fibrinogen, transthyretin, obesity-associated (complement C3, and diet-associated markers (apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-IV. To further investigate the effects of exercise, large scale iTRAQ analysis was performed. However, no proteins were found showing an exercise effect. Thus, in this study, specific proteins were found to be differentially expressed in type 2 diabetes patients versus controls and before and after a VLCD. These proteins are potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN76920690.

  1. Revealing mechanisms of selective, concentration-dependent potentials of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal to induce apoptosis in cancer cells through inactivation of membrane-associated catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Georg; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-04-01

    Tumor cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and are protected against superoxide anion-mediated intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling by the expression of membrane-associated catalase. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), a versatile second messenger generated during lipid peroxidation, has been shown to induce apoptosis selectively in malignant cells. The findings described in this paper reveal the strong, concentration-dependent potential of 4-HNE to specifically inactivate extracellular catalase of tumor cells both indirectly and directly and to consequently trigger apoptosis in malignant cells through superoxide anion-mediated intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling. Namely, 4-HNE caused apoptosis selectively in NOX1-expressing tumor cells through inactivation of their membrane-associated catalase, thus reactivating subsequent intercellular signaling through the NO/peroxynitrite and HOCl pathways, followed by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Concentrations of 4-HNE of 1.2 µM and higher directly inactivated membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells, whereas at lower concentrations, 4-HNE triggered a complex amplificatory pathway based on initial singlet oxygen formation through H2O2 and peroxynitrite interaction. Singlet-oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8 increased superoxide anion generation by NOX1 and amplification of singlet oxygen generation, which allowed singlet-oxygen-dependent inactivation of catalase. 4-HNE and singlet oxygen cooperate in complex autoamplificatory loops during this process. The finding of these novel anticancer pathways may be useful for understanding the role of 4-HNE in the control of malignant cells and for the optimization of ROS-dependent therapeutic approaches including antioxidant treatments.

  2. Stem cell-like differentiation potentials of endometrial side population cells as revealed by a newly developed in vivo endometrial stem cell assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endometrial stem/progenitor cells contribute to the cyclical regeneration of human endometrium throughout a woman's reproductive life. Although the candidate cell populations have been extensively studied, no consensus exists regarding which endometrial population represents the stem/progenitor cell fraction in terms of in vivo stem cell activity. We have previously reported that human endometrial side population cells (ESP, but not endometrial main population cells (EMP, exhibit stem cell-like properties, including in vivo reconstitution of endometrium-like tissues when xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. The reconstitution efficiency, however, was low presumably because ESP cells alone could not provide a sufficient microenvironment (niche to support their stem cell activity. The objective of this study was to establish a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay employing cell tracking and tissue reconstitution systems and to examine the stem cell properties of ESP through use of this assay. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ESP and EMP cells isolated from whole endometrial cells were infected with lentivirus to express tandem Tomato (TdTom, a red fluorescent protein. They were mixed with unlabeled whole endometrial cells and then transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized immunodeficient mice. These mice were treated with estradiol and progesterone for eight weeks and nephrectomized. All of the grafts reconstituted endometrium-like tissues under the kidney capsules. Immunofluorescence revealed that TdTom-positive cells were significantly more abundant in the glandular, stromal, and endothelial cells of the reconstituted endometrium in mice transplanted with TdTom-labeled ESP cells than those with TdTom-labeled EMP cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo

  3. The potential of Tillandsia dune ecosystems for revealing past and present variations in advective fog along the coastal Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Hidalgo, C.; García, J. L.; Gonzalez, A. L.; Marquet, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal Atacama Desert is home to a complex geo-ecosystem supported by fog with multiple atmospheric and oceanic drivers. Fog collectors in place for the last 17 years reveal that monthly fog intensity and amount are significantly linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO 1+2) with cold (warm) anomalies correlated to increased (decreased) fog (R2 = 0.41). Rainfall, however, can occur during extreme positive ENSO anomalies. Tillandsia landbeckii is an epiarenitic plant common to the coastal Atacama where fog is intercepted by the coastal escarpment between 950-1250 m.a.s.l. These plants possess multiple adaptations to survive exclusively on fog, including the construction of "dune" ecosystems known as "tillandsiales". Buried T. landbeckii layers in such dunes contain a record of past variations of fog over time (dunes can top 3 m in height) and alternating plant and sand layers are readily visible in dune stratigraphy. Stable N isotopes on modern plants and fog indicate that these plants reflect δ15N values of total N dissolved in fog. We measured δ15N values from buried T. landbeckii layers from five different tillandsiales found across c. 50 km the coastal escarpment. The isotope values in these buried plants indicate a prominent c. 8.0 ‰ shift towards more negative δ15N values on average over the last 3,200 years. Based on differences in δ15N between modern and more extensive "paleo" tillandsiales at one of our lowest elevation study sites, we interpret this shift as an increase in available moisture due to increased fog input during the late Holocene. Increased variability in ENSO as well as increased upwelling and southerly winds along the coastal Atacama would explain in part this increase. Clearly, the Atacama tillandsiales have considerable potential for monitoring past and present change of these large-scale ocean-atmosphere systems.

  4. RNA-seq-based metatranscriptomic and microscopic investigation reveals novel metalloproteases of Neobodo sp. as potential virulence factors for soft tunic syndrome in Halocynthia roretzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Bin Jang

    Full Text Available Bodonids and trypanosomatids are derived from a common ancestor with the bodonids being a more primitive lineage. The Neobodonida, one of the three clades of bodonids, can be free-living, commensal or parasitic. Despite the ecological and evolutionary significance of these organisms, however, many of their biological and pathological features are currently unknown. Here, we employed metatranscriptomics using RNA-seq technology combined with field-emission microscopy to reveal the virulence factors of a recently described genus of Neobodonida that is considered to be responsible for ascidian soft tunic syndrome (AsSTS, but whose pathogenesis is unclear. Our microscopic observation of infected tunic tissues suggested putative virulence factors, enabling us to extract novel candidate transcripts; these included cysteine proteases of the families C1 and C2, serine proteases of S51 and S9 families, and metalloproteases grouped into families M1, M3, M8, M14, M16, M17, M24, M41, and M49. Protease activity/inhibition assays and the estimation of expression levels within gene clusters allowed us to identify metalloprotease-like enzymes as potential virulence attributes for AsSTS. Furthermore, a multimarker-based phylogenetic analysis using 1,184 concatenated amino acid sequences clarified the order Neobodo sp. In sum, we herein used metatranscriptomics to elucidate the in situ expression profiles of uncharacterized putative transcripts of Neobodo sp., combined these results with microscopic observation to select candidate genes relevant to pathogenesis, and used empirical screening to define important virulence factors.

  5. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  6. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  7. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Etienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) has applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times of seconds. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 .10-10 m/ s2 with sub-ppb inaccuracy. Operation as a gradiometer will allow to resolve the gravity gradient at a resolution of 5 .10-10 1/ s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of Yb and Rb atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level, with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date. We report on a quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39 K and 87 Rb, reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond.

  8. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  9. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  10. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... using the facility's oxygenated individual baseline fuel parameter values for summer and winter (per... using the oxygenated individual baseline fuel parameter values for summer and winter (per § 80.91... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  12. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  13. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  14. How Valid Are the Portland Baseline Essays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Erich

    1991-01-01

    Portland, Oregon's "African-American Baseline Essays," widely used in creating multicultural curricula, inaccurately depicts ancient Egyptians as black people and Olmec civilization as derived from African influences. The authors advance racial theories long abandoned by mainline Africa scholars, attribute mystical powers to pyramids,…

  15. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  16. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    This publication has been prepared by GBP, IOI, CSIR-NIO and IUCN in order to serve as guidance to those who are planning to carry out a port biological baseline survey, in particular in the context of Ballast Water Management. It has been drafted...

  17. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...

  18. Modeling nonlinear errors in surface electromyography due to baseline noise: a new methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Laura Frey; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Avin, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The surface electromyographic (EMG) signal is often contaminated by some degree of baseline noise. It is customary for scientists to subtract baseline noise from the measured EMG signal prior to further analyses based on the assumption that baseline noise adds linearly to the observed EMG signal. The stochastic nature of both the baseline and EMG signal, however, may invalidate this assumption. Alternately, "true" EMG signals may be either minimally or nonlinearly affected by baseline noise. This information is particularly relevant at low contraction intensities when signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) may be lowest. Thus, the purpose of this simulation study was to investigate the influence of varying levels of baseline noise (approximately 2-40% maximum EMG amplitude) on mean EMG burst amplitude and to assess the best means to account for signal noise. The simulations indicated baseline noise had minimal effects on mean EMG activity for maximum contractions, but increased nonlinearly with increasing noise levels and decreasing signal amplitudes. Thus, the simple baseline noise subtraction resulted in substantial error when estimating mean activity during low intensity EMG bursts. Conversely, correcting EMG signal as a nonlinear function of both baseline and measured signal amplitude provided highly accurate estimates of EMG amplitude. This novel nonlinear error modeling approach has potential implications for EMG signal processing, particularly when assessing co-activation of antagonist muscles or small amplitude contractions where the SNR can be low.

  19. Complete genome-wide screening and subtractive genomic approach revealed new virulence factors, potential drug targets against bio-war pathogen Brucella melitensis 16M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkiran JA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jangampalli Adi Pradeepkiran,1* Sri Bhashyam Sainath,2,3* Konidala Kranthi Kumar,1 Matcha Bhaskar1 1Division of Animal Biotechnology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India; 2CIMAR/CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, Porto, Portugal, 3Department of Biotechnology, Vikrama Simhapuri University, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that infects both animals and humans. It causes a disease known as brucellosis, which is characterized by acute febrile illness in humans and causes abortions in livestock. To prevent and control brucellosis, identification of putative drug targets is crucial. The present study aimed to identify drug targets in B. melitensis 16M by using a subtractive genomic approach. We used available database repositories (Database of Essential Genes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Automatic Annotation Server, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes to identify putative genes that are nonhomologous to humans and essential for pathogen B. melitensis 16M. The results revealed that among 3 Mb genome size of pathogen, 53 putative characterized and 13 uncharacterized hypothetical genes were identified; further, from Basic Local Alignment Search Tool protein analysis, one hypothetical protein showed a close resemblance (50% to Silicibacter pomeroyi DUF1285 family protein (2RE3. A further homology model of the target was constructed using MODELLER 9.12 and optimized through variable target function method by molecular dynamics optimization with simulating annealing. The stereochemical quality of the restrained model was evaluated by PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D, ERRAT, and WHATIF servers. Furthermore, structure-based virtual screening was carried out against the predicted active site of the respective protein using the

  20. DNA microarray data integration by ortholog gene analysis reveals potential molecular mechanisms of estrogen-dependent growth of human uterine fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou Jianyong

    2007-04-01

    acid (RA synthesis and mobilization by regulating expression of CRABP2 and ALDH1A1. RA has been shown to play a significant role in the development of uterine fibroids in an animal model. Conclusion Integrated analysis of multiple array datasets revealed twelve human and rat ortholog genes that were differentially expressed in human uterine fibroids and transcriptionally responsive to estrogen in the rat uterus. Functional and pathway analysis of these genes suggest multiple potential molecular mechanisms for the poorly understood estrogen-dependent growth of uterine fibroids. Fully understanding the exact molecular interactions among these gene products requires further study to validate their roles in uterine fibroids. This work provides new avenues of study which could influence the future direction of therapeutic intervention for the disease.

  1. Long Non-coding RNAs Expression Profile in HepG2 Cells Reveals the Potential Role of Long Non-coding RNAs in the Cholesterol Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Liu; Xinxin Zheng; Yanlu Xu; Jie Lu; Jingzhou Chen; Xiaohong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Green tea has been shown to improve cholesterol metabolism in animal studies,but the molecular mechanisms underlying this function have not been fully understood.Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have recently emerged as a major class of regulatory molecules involved in a broad range of biological processes and complex diseases.Our aim was to identify important lncRNAs that might play an important role in contributing to the benefits of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on cholesterol metabolism.Methods:Microarrays was used to reveal the lncRNA and mRNA profiles in green tea polyphenol(-)-epigallocatechin gallate in cultured human liver (HepG2) hepatocytes treated with EGCG and bioinformatic analyses of the predicted target genes were performed to identify lncRNA-mRNA targeting relationships.RNA interference was used to investigate the role of lncRNAs in cholesterol metabolism.Results:The expression levels of 15 genes related to cholesterol metabolism and 285 lncRNAs were changed by EGCG treatment.Bioinformatic analysis found five matched lncRNA-mRNA pairs for five differentially expressed lncRNAs and four differentially expressed mRNA.In particular,the lncRNA4 T102202 and its potential targets mRNA-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) were identified.Using a real-time polymerase chain reaction technique,we confirmed that EGCG down-regulated mRNA expression level of the HMGCR and up-regulated expression ofAT102202.After AT102202 knockdown in HepG2,we observed that the level of HMGCR expression was significantly increased relative to the scrambled small interfering RNA control (P < 0.05).Conclusions:Our results indicated that EGCG improved cholesterol metabolism and meanwhile changed the lncRNAs expression profile in HepG2 cells.LncRNAs may play an important role in the cholesterol metabolism.

  2. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  3. Dissipative Effect in Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Roberto L N

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using Lindblad Master Equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the probabilities behavior. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each decoherence parameters change the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using numeric and analytic approach.

  4. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  5. The Gambia Impact Evaluation Baseline Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Government of The Gambia is implementing the Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Results Project (MCNHRP) to increase the utilization of community nutrition and primary maternal and child health services. In collaboration with the Government, the World Bank is conducting an impact evaluation (IE) to assess the impact of the project on key aspects of maternal and child nutrition and health. The baseline survey for the MCNHRP IE took place between November 2014 and February 2015. It c...

  6. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  7. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzak, T. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2015-07-15

    Since about a decade the european physics community interested in neutrino and neutrino-astrophysics develops a plan to conceive the next generation large underground neutrino observatory. Recently, the LAGUNA-LBNO collaboration made the outcome of the FP7 design study public which shows a clear path for the realization of such experiment. In this paper the LAGUNA and LAGUNA-LBNO Design studies, resulting in a proposal for the LBNO experiment, will be discussed. The author will focus on the long baseline neutrino oscillation search, especially on the potential to discover the neutrino mass ordering and the search for CP violation in the lepton sector.

  8. Targeted sequencing reveals TP53 as a potential diagnostic biomarker in the post-treatment surveillance of head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, Joost H.; de Leng, Wendy W J; de Bree, Remco; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) form a large heterogeneous group of tumors and have a relatively poor outcome in advanced cases. Revealing the underlying genetic mutations in HNSCC facilitates the development of diagnostic biomarkers, which might lead to improved diagnosis and post tr

  9. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  10. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    measured in the frequency domain. Therefore, we use the power spectrum (PS), which is the Fourier transform of the ACF, to describe our inter-trial correlations. The decay of the PS yields a straight line on a log-log frequency plot, which we quantify by Beta = - (slope of PS on log-log axes). Hence, Beta is a measure of the strength of inter- trial correlations in the baseline data. Larger Beta values are indicative of longer inter-trial correlations. Experimental Approach: We will begin by performing a retrospective analysis of treadmill-gait adaptation data previously collected by Dr. Bloomberg and colleagues. Specifically, we will quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations in the baseline step cadence and heart rate data and compare it to the locomotor adaptability performance results already described by these investigators. Incorporating these datasets will also allow us to explore the applicability of (and potential limitations surrounding) the use of Beta in forecasting physiological performance. We will also perform a new experiment, in which Beta will be derived from baseline data collected during over-ground (non-treadmill) walking, which will enable us to consider locomotor performance, through the parameter Beta, under the most functionallyrelevant, natural gait condition. This experiment will incorporate two baseline and five post-training over-ground locomotion tests to explore the consistency and potential adaptability of the Beta values themselves. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesize that the strength of baseline inter-trial correlations of step cadence and heart rate will relate to locomotor adaptability. Specifically, we anticipate that individuals who show weaker longer-term inter-trial correlations in baseline step cadence data will be the better adaptors, as step cadence can be modified in real-time (i.e., online corrections are an inherent property of the locomotor system; analogous to results observed in the VOR). Conversely, because heart rate is not

  11. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Étienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-04-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) represents a new class of atom optics experiments with applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to several meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times on the order of seconds, which will implemented in the Hannover Institut für Technologie (HITec) of the Leibniz Universität Hannover. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 ṡ 10-10 m/s2 with an inaccuracy < 10-9 m/s2. Operation as a gravity-gradiometer will allow to resolve the first-order gravity gradient with a resolution of 5 ṡ 10-10 1/s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of ytterbium and rubidium atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level [1], with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date [2]. We report on the first quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39K and 87Rb [3], reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond. References J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011- (2015) S. Schlamminger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 041101- (2008) D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 203002 (2014)

  12. Detection of atmospheric pressure loading using very long baseline interferometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, T. M.; Herring, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    Loading of the Earth by the temporal redistribution of global atmospheric mass is likely to displace the positions of geodetic monuments by tens of millimeters both vertically and horizontally. Estimates of these displacements are determined by convolving National Meteorological Center (NMC) global values of atmospheric surface pressure with Farrell's elastic Green's functions. An analysis of the distances between radio telescopes determined by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) between 1984 and 1992 reveals that in many of the cases studied there is a significant contribution to baseline length change due to atmospheric pressure loading. Our analysis covers intersite distances of between 1000 and 10,000 km and is restricted to those baselines measured more than 100 times. Accounting for the load effects (after first removing a best fit slope) reduces the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length residuals on 11 of the 22 baselines investigated. The slight degradation observed in the WRMS scatter on the remaining baselines is largely consistent with the expected statistical fluctuations when a small correction is applied to a data set having a much larger random noise. The results from all baselines are consistent with approximately 60% of the computed pressure contribution being present in the VLBI length determinations. Site dependent coefficients determined by fitting local pressure to the theoretical radial displacement are found to reproduce the deformation caused by the regional pressure to within 25% for most inland sites. The coefficients are less reliable at near coastal and island stations.

  13. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  14. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; /Oxford U., JAI; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; /Daresbury; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; /Daresbury; Jackson, Frank; /Daresbury; Dalena, Barbara; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  15. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  16. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  17. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  18. Genome-wide association analysis of bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout reveals the potential of a hybrid approach between genomic selection and marker assisted selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) simultaneously incorporates dense SNP marker genotypes with phenotypic data from related animals to predict animal-specific genomic breeding value (GEBV), which circumvents the need to measure the disease phenotype in potential breeders. Marker assisted selection (MAS) involv...

  19. High-throughput Screening of ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell (mESC) Assay Reveals Disruption of Potential Toxicity Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information is available regarding the potential for many commercial chemicals to induce developmental toxicity. The mESC Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytoxicity (ACDC) assay is a high-throughput screen used to close this data gap. Thus, ToxCast™ Phase I chemicals wer...

  20. The Memory That's Right and the Memory That's Left: Event-Related Potentials Reveal Hemispheric Asymmetries in the Encoding and Retention of Verbal Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen M.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the nature and timecourse of hemispheric asymmetries in verbal memory by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in a continuous recognition task. Participants made overt recognition judgments to test words presented in central vision that were either novel (new words) or had been previously presented in the left or right visual…

  1. Report of the US long baseline neutrino experiment study

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Bogert, D; Bromberg, C; Curioni, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M; Dufour, F; Finley, D; Fleming, B T; Gallardo, J; Heim, J; Huber, P; Jung, C K; Kahn, S; Kearns, E; Kirk, H; Kirk, T; Lande, K; Laughton, C; Lee, W Y; Lesko, K; Lewis, C; Litchfield, P J; Mann, A K; Marchionni, A; Marciano, W; Marfatia, D; Marino, A D; Marshak, M; Menary, S; McDonald, K; Messier, M; Pariseau, W; Parsa, Z; Pordes, S; Potenza, R; Rameika, R; Saoulidou, N; Simos, N; Van Berg, R; Viren, B; Whisnant, K; Wilson, R; Winter, W; Yanagisawa, C; Yumiceva, F; Zimmerman, E D; Zwaska, R

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability could be unique compared to anywhere else in the world because of the available beam intensity and baseline distances. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and, as the study evolved, it also provided responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the ...

  2. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  3. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. In silico and experimental methods revealed highly diverse bacteria with quorum sensing and aromatics biodegradation systems--a potential broad application on bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yili; Zeng, Yanhua; Yu, Zhiliang; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Hao; Lin, Xiuchun

    2013-11-01

    Phylogenetic overlaps between aromatics-degrading bacteria and acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHL) or autoinducer (AI) based quorum-sensing (QS) bacteria were evident in literatures; however, the diversity of bacteria with both activities had never been finely described. In-silico searching in NCBI genome database revealed that more than 11% of investigated population harbored both aromatic ring-hydroxylating-dioxygenase (RHD) gene and AHL/AI-synthetase gene. These bacteria were distributed in 10 orders, 15 families, 42 genus and 78 species. Horizontal transfers of both genes were common among them. Using enrichment and culture dependent method, 6 Sphingomonadales and 4 Rhizobiales with phenanthrene- or pyrene-degrading ability and AHL-production were isolated from marine, wetland and soil samples. Thin-layer-chromatography and gas-chromatography-mass-spectrum revealed that these Sphingomonads produced various AHL molecules. This is the first report of highly diverse bacteria that harbored both aromatics-degrading and QS systems. QS regulation may have broad impacts on aromatics biodegradation, and would be a new angle for developing bioremediation technology.

  5. Dynamic energy budget modeling reveals the potential of future growth and calcification for the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in an acidified ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Erik B; Nisbet, Roger M

    2014-06-01

    Ocean acidification is likely to impact the calcification potential of marine organisms. In part due to the covarying nature of the ocean carbonate system components, including pH and CO2 and CO3(2-) levels, it remains largely unclear how each of these components may affect calcification rates quantitatively. We develop a process-based bioenergetic model that explains how several components of the ocean carbonate system collectively affect growth and calcification rates in Emiliania huxleyi, which plays a major role in marine primary production and biogeochemical carbon cycling. The model predicts that under the IPCC A2 emission scenario, its growth and calcification potential will have decreased by the end of the century, although those reductions are relatively modest. We anticipate that our model will be relevant for many other marine calcifying organisms, and that it can be used to improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on marine systems.

  6. Antioxidant assays - consistent findings from FRAP and ORAC reveal a negative impact of organic cultivation on antioxidant potential in spinach but not watercress or rocket leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Adrienne C; Mazzer, Alice; Clarkson, Graham J J; Taylor, Gail

    2013-11-01

    Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum), wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) are commercial crops reported to have high concentrations of antioxidants, possibly contributing to disease prevention following human consumption. Following analysis of supermarket-purchased salad leaves, we report the antioxidant content potential of these species using two comparable techniques assessing the consistency between the assays - by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The leaves were harvested from both conventionally and organically managed crops, to investigate whether organic agriculture results in improved crop quality. Watercress had the highest FRAP and ability to scavenge free radicals, followed by spinach and rocket. For watercress and rocket, there was no significant effect of organic agriculture on FRAP and ORAC, but for spinach, the antioxidant potential was reduced and this was significant at the 5% level of probability for FRAP but not ORAC, although the trend was clear in both tests. We conclude that there is variation in salad crop antioxidant potential and that FRAP and ORAC are useful techniques for measuring antioxidants in these salad crops with similar ranking for each salad crop studied.

  7. Computational modeling of protein mutant stability: analysis and optimization of statistical potentials and structural features reveal insights into prediction model development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinandan Madenhalli

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding and predicting protein stability upon point mutations has wide-spread importance in molecular biology. Several prediction models have been developed in the past with various algorithms. Statistical potentials are one of the widely used algorithms for the prediction of changes in stability upon point mutations. Although the methods provide flexibility and the capability to develop an accurate and reliable prediction model, it can be achieved only by the right selection of the structural factors and optimization of their parameters for the statistical potentials. In this work, we have selected five atom classification systems and compared their efficiency for the development of amino acid atom potentials. Additionally, torsion angle potentials have been optimized to include the orientation of amino acids in such a way that altered backbone conformation in different secondary structural regions can be included for the prediction model. This study also elaborates the importance of classifying the mutations according to their solvent accessibility and secondary structure specificity. The prediction efficiency has been calculated individually for the mutations in different secondary structural regions and compared. Results Results show that, in addition to using an advanced atom description, stepwise regression and selection of atoms are necessary to avoid the redundancy in atom distribution and improve the reliability of the prediction model validation. Comparing to other atom classification models, Melo-Feytmans model shows better prediction efficiency by giving a high correlation of 0.85 between experimental and theoretical ΔΔG with 84.06% of the mutations correctly predicted out of 1538 mutations. The theoretical ΔΔG values for the mutations in partially buried β-strands generated by the structural training dataset from PISCES gave a correlation of 0.84 without performing the Gaussian apodization of the

  8. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  9. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH); (NIID-Japan)

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  10. Proteomic profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AES-1R, PAO1 and PA14 reveals potential virulence determinants associated with a transmissible cystic fibrosis-associated strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hare Nathan J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. While most CF patients are thought to acquire P. aeruginosa from the environment, person-person transmissible strains have been identified in CF clinics worldwide. The molecular basis for transmissibility and colonization of the CF lung remains poorly understood. Results A dual proteomics approach consisting of gel-based and gel-free comparisons were undertaken to analyse protein profiles in a transmissible, early (acute isolate of the Australian epidemic strain 1 (AES-1R, the virulent burns/wound isolate PA14, and the poorly virulent, laboratory-associated strain PAO1. Over 1700 P. aeruginosa proteins were confidently identified. AES-1R protein profiles revealed elevated abundance of proteins associated with virulence and siderophore biosynthesis and acquisition, antibiotic resistance and lipopolysaccharide and fatty acid biosynthesis. The most abundant protein in AES-1R was confirmed as a previously hypothetical protein with sequence similarity to carbohydrate-binding proteins and database search revealed this gene is only found in the CF-associated strain PA2192. The link with CF infection may suggest that transmissible strains have acquired an ability to rapidly interact with host mucosal glycoproteins. Conclusions Our data suggest that AES-1R expresses higher levels of proteins, such as those involved in antibiotic resistance, iron acquisition and virulence that may provide a competitive advantage during early infection in the CF lung. Identification of novel proteins associated with transmissibility and acute infection may aid in deciphering new strategies for intervention to limit P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients.

  11. A novel HMM-based method for detecting enriched transcription factor binding sites reveals RUNX3 as a potential target in pancreatic cancer biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Levkovitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC is one of the most intractable malignancies. In order to search for potential new therapeutic targets, we relied on computational methods aimed at identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs over-represented in the promoter regions of genes differentially expressed in PAC. Though many computational methods have been implemented to accomplish this, none has gained overall acceptance or produced proven novel targets in PAC. To this end we have developed DEMON, a novel method for motif detection. METHODOLOGY: DEMON relies on a hidden Markov model to score the appearance of sequence motifs, taking into account all potential sites in a promoter of potentially varying binding affinities. We demonstrate DEMON's accuracy on simulated and real data sets. Applying DEMON to PAC-related data sets identifies the RUNX family as highly enriched in PAC-related genes. Using a novel experimental paradigm to distinguish between normal and PAC cells, we find that RUNX3 mRNA (but not RUNX1 or RUNX2 mRNAs exhibits time-dependent increases in normal but not in PAC cells. These increases are accompanied by changes in mRNA levels of putative RUNX gene targets. CONCLUSIONS: The integrated application of DEMON and a novel differentiation system led to the identification of a single family member, RUNX3, which together with four of its putative targets showed a robust response to a differentiation stimulus in healthy cells, whereas this regulatory mechanism was absent in PAC cells, emphasizing RUNX3 as a promising target for further studies.

  12. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  13. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  14. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilquet, G.

    2008-05-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure vμ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported.

  15. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  16. Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.

  17. Radio sources - Very, Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.

    1983-03-01

    With resolution of a thousandth of an arcsecond, the radio technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) provides astronomers with their highest-resolution view of the universe. Data taken with widely-separated antennas are combined, with the help of atomic clocks, to form a Michelson interferometer whose size may be as great as the earth's diameter. Extraordinary phenomena, from the birth of stars as signaled by the brilliant flashes of powerful interstellar masers to the 'faster-than-light' expansion of the cores of distant quasars, are being explored with this technique. However, earth-bound VLBI suffers from several restrictions due to the location of the component antennas at fixed places on the earth's surface. The use of one or more antennas in space in concert with ground-based equipment will greatly expand the technical and scientific capabilities of VLBI, leading to a more complete and even higher resolution view of cosmic phenomena.

  18. Proteomics Reveals that Proteins Expressed During the Early Stage of Bacillus anthracis Infection Are Potential Targets for the Development of Vaccines and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming Huang; Craig A. Elmets; De-chu C. Tang; Fuming Li; Nabiha Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    In this review, we advance a new concept in developing vaccines and/or drugs to target specific proteins expressed during the early stage of Bacillus anthracis (an thrax) infection and address existing challenges to this concept. Three proteins (immune inhibitor A, GPR-like spore protease, and alanine racemase) initially identified by proteomics in our laboratory were found to have differential expres sions during anthrax spore germination and early outgrowth. Other studies of different bacillus strains indicate that these three proteins are involved in either germination or cytotoxicity of spores, suggesting that they may serve as potential targets for the design of anti-anthrax vaccines and drugs.

  19. Of monkeys and men: immunomic profiling of sera from humans and non-human primates resistant to schistosomiasis reveals novel potential vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Becker, Luke; Driguez, Patrick; Young, Neil D; Gaze, Soraya; Mendes, Tiago; Li, Xiao-Hong; Doolan, Denise L; Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; McManus, Donald P; Wilson, R Alan; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Nausch, Norman; Mutapi, Francisca; Felgner, Philip L; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium affects more than 100 million people throughout Africa and is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis. The parasite is strongly associated with urothelial cancer in infected individuals and as such is designated a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Using a protein microarray containing schistosome proteins, we sought to identify antigens that were the targets of protective IgG1 immune responses in S. haematobium-exposed individuals that acquire drug-induced resistance (DIR) to schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment. Numerous antigens with known vaccine potential were identified, including calpain (Smp80), tetraspanins, glutathione-S-transferases, and glucose transporters (SGTP1), as well as previously uncharacterized proteins. Reactive IgG1 responses were not elevated in exposed individuals who did not acquire DIR. To complement our human subjects study, we screened for antigen targets of rhesus macaques rendered resistant to S. japonicum by experimental infection followed by self-cure, and discovered a number of new and known vaccine targets, including major targets recognized by our human subjects. This study has further validated the immunomics-based approach to schistosomiasis vaccine antigen discovery and identified numerous novel potential vaccine antigens.

  20. Of monkeys and men: immunomic profiling of sera from humans and non-human primates resistant to schistosomiasis reveals novel potential vaccine candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ePearson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium affects more than 100 million people throughout Africa and is the causative agent of urogenital schistosomiasis. The parasite is strongly associated with urothelial cancer in infected individuals and as such is designated a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Using a protein microarray containing schistosome proteins, we sought to identify antigens that were the targets of protective IgG1 immune responses in S. haematobium-exposed individuals that acquire drug-induced resistance (DIR to schistosomiasis after praziquantel treatment. Numerous antigens with known vaccine potential were identified, including calpain (Smp80, tetraspanins, glutathione-S-transferases and glucose transporters (SGTP1, as well as previously uncharacterized proteins. Reactive IgG1 responses were not elevated in exposed individuals who did not acquire DIR. To complement our human subjects study, we screened for antigen targets of rhesus macaques rendered resistant to Schistosoma japonicum by experimental infection followed by self-cure, and discovered a number of new and known vaccine targets, including major targets recognised by our human subjects. This study has further validated the immunomics-based approach to schistosomiasis vaccine antigen discovery and identified numerous novel potential vaccine antigens.

  1. IMAC fractionation in combination with LC-MS reveals H2B and NIF-1 peptides as potential bladder cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzi, Maria; Zoidakis, Jerome; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Zürbig, Petra; Katafigiotis, Ioannis; Stravodimos, Konstantinos; Lazaris, Andreas; Giannopoulou, Ioanna; Ploumidis, Achilles; Mischak, Harald; Mullen, William; Vlahou, Antonia

    2013-09-06

    Improvement in bladder cancer (BC) management requires more effective diagnosis and prognosis of disease recurrence and progression. Urinary biomarkers attract special interest because of the noninvasive means of urine collection. Proteomic analysis of urine entails the adoption of a fractionation methodology to reduce sample complexity. In this study, we applied immobilized metal affinity chromatography in combination with high-resolution LC-MS/MS for the discovery of native urinary peptides potentially associated with BC aggressiveness. This approach was employed toward urine samples from patients with invasive BC, noninvasive BC, and benign urogenital diseases. A total of 1845 peptides were identified, corresponding to a total of 638 precursor proteins. Specific enrichment for proteins involved in nucleosome assembly and for zinc-finger transcription factors was observed. The differential expression of two candidate biomarkers, histone H2B and NIF-1 (zinc finger 335) in BC, was verified in independent sets of urine samples by ELISA and by immunohistochemical analysis of BC tissue. The results collectively support changes in the expression of both of these proteins with tumor progression, suggesting their potential role as markers for discriminating BC stages. In addition, the data indicate a possible involvement of NIF-1 in BC progression, likely as a suppressor and through interactions with Sox9 and HoxA1.

  2. A novel role for peptidylarginine deiminases in microvesicle release reveals therapeutic potential of PAD inhibition in sensitizing prostate cancer cells to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Kholia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Protein deimination, defined as the post-translational conversion of protein-bound arginine to citrulline, is carried out by a family of 5 calcium-dependent enzymes, the peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs and has been linked to various cancers. Cellular microvesicle (MV release, which is involved in cancer progression, and deimination have not been associated before. We hypothesize that elevated PAD expression, observed in cancers, causes increased MV release in cancer cells and contributes to cancer progression. Background: We have previously reported that inhibition of MV release sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. PAD2 and PAD4, the isozymes expressed in patients with malignant tumours, can be inhibited with the pan-PAD-inhibitor chloramidine (Cl-am. We sought to investigate whether Cl-am can inhibit MV release and whether this pathway could be utilized to further increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to drug-directed treatment. Methods: Prostate cancer cells (PC3 were induced to release high levels of MVs upon BzATP stimulation of P2X7 receptors. Western blotting with the pan-protein deimination antibody F95 was used to detect a range of deiminated proteins in cells stimulated to microvesiculate. Changes in deiminated proteins during microvesiculation were revealed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry identified deiminated target proteins with putative roles in microvesiculation. Conclusion: We report for the first time a novel function of PADs in the biogenesis of MVs in cancer cells. Our results reveal that during the stimulation of prostate cancer cells (PC3 to microvesiculate, PAD2 and PAD4 expression levels and the deimination of cytoskeletal actin are increased. Pharmacological inhibition of PAD enzyme activity using Cl-am significantly reduced MV release and abrogated the deimination of cytoskeletal actin. We demonstrated that combined Cl-am and methotrexate (MTX treatment of

  3. Intra-Section Analysis of Human Coronary Arteries Reveals a Potential Role for Micro-Calcifications in Macrophage Recruitment in the Early Stage of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn L L Chatrou

    in combination with calcification, suggesting a pro-inflammatory effect of micro-calcifications. In vitro, invasion assays revealed chemoattractant properties of cell-culture medium of calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells towards THP-1 cells, which implies pro-inflammatory effect of calcium deposits. Additionally, calcifying hVSMCs revealed a pro-inflammatory profile as compared to non-calcifying hVSMCs.Our data indicate that calcification of VSMCs is one of the earliest events in the genesis of atherosclerosis, which strongly correlates with ucMGP staining. Our findings suggest that loss of calcification inhibitors and/or failure of inhibitory capacity is causative for the early precipitation of calcium, with concomitant increased inflammation followed by osteochondrogenic transdifferentiation of VSMCs.

  4. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  5. Does Baseline Heart Rate Variability Reflect Stable Positive Emotionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Jackson, Bryonna A; Sopko, Rachel S

    2014-11-01

    Several recent studies have found significant correlations, medium in effect size, between baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and measures of positive functioning, such as extraversion, agreeableness, and trait positive affectivity. Other research, however, has suggested an optimal level of HRV and found nonlinear effects. In the present study, a diverse sample of 239 young adults completed a wide range of measures that reflect positive psychological functioning, including personality traits, an array of positive emotions (measured with the Dispositional Positive Emotions Scale), and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (measured with the DASS and CESD). HRV was measured with a 6-minute baseline period and quantified using many common HRV metrics (e.g., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, root mean square of successive differences, and others), and potentially confounding behavioral and lifestyle variables (e.g., BMI, caffeine and nicotine use, sleep quality) were assessed. Neither linear nor non-linear effects were found, and the effect sizes were small and near zero. The findings suggest that the cross-sectional relationship between HRV and positive experience deserves more attention and meta-analytic synthesis.

  6. Probabilistic Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Objectives of River Basin Management Reveals a Potential Flaw in the Goal Setting of the EU Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerppe, Turo; Taskinen, Antti; Kotamäki, Niina; Malve, Olli; Kettunen, Juhani

    2017-04-01

    The biological status of European lakes has not improved as expected despite up-to-date legislation and ecological standards. As a result, the realism of objectives and the attainment of related ecological standards are under doubt. This paper gets to the bottom of a river basin management plan of a eutrophic lake in Finland and presents the ecological and economic impacts of environmental and societal drivers and planned management measures. For these purposes, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of a diffuse nutrient load, lake water quality and cost-benefit models. Simulations were integrated into a Bayesian influence diagram that revealed the basic uncertainties. It turned out that the attainment of good ecological status as qualified in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union is unlikely within given socio-economic constraints. Therefore, management objectives and ecological and economic standards need to be reassessed and reset to provide a realistic goal setting for management. More effort should be put into the evaluation of the total monetary benefits and on the monitoring of lake phosphorus balances to reduce the uncertainties, and the resulting margin of safety and costs and risks of planned management measures.

  7. Human 45,X fibroblast transcriptome reveals distinct differentially expressed genes including long noncoding RNAs potentially associated with the pathophysiology of Turner syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram N Rajpathak

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by the absence of whole or part of the X chromosome in females. This X aneuploidy condition is associated with a diverse set of clinical phenotypes such as gonadal dysfunction, short stature, osteoporosis and Type II diabetes mellitus, among others. These phenotypes differ in their severity and penetrance among the affected individuals. Haploinsufficiency for a few X linked genes has been associated with some of these disease phenotypes. RNA sequencing can provide valuable insights to understand molecular mechanism of disease process. In the current study, we have analysed the transcriptome profiles of human untransformed 45,X and 46,XX fibroblast cells and identified differential expression of genes in these two karyotypes. Functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressing genes are associated with bone differentiation, glucose metabolism and gonadal development pathways. We also report differential expression of lincRNAs in X monosomic cells. Our observations provide a basis for evaluation of cellular and molecular mechanism(s in the establishment of Turner syndrome phenotypes.

  8. ‘Get in Early’; Biofilm and Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella) Models Reveal New Insights into the Therapeutic Potential of Clostridium difficile Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nale, Janet Y.; Chutia, Mahananda; Carr, Philippa; Hickenbotham, Peter T.; Clokie, Martha R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a global health threat associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Conventional antibiotic CDI therapy can result in treatment failure and recurrent infection. C. difficile produces biofilms which contribute to its virulence and impair antimicrobial activity. Some bacteriophages (phages) can penetrate biofilms and thus could be developed to either replace or supplement antibiotics. Here, we determined the impact of a previously optimized 4-phage cocktail on C. difficile ribotype 014/020 biofilms, and additionally as adjunct to vancomycin treatment in Galleria mellonella larva CDI model. The phages were applied before or after biofilm establishment in vitro, and the impact was analyzed according to turbidity, viability counts and topography as observed using scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The infectivity profiles and efficacies of orally administered phages and/or vancomycin were ascertained by monitoring colonization levels and larval survival rates. Phages prevented biofilm formation, and penetrated established biofilms. A single phage application reduced colonization causing extended longevity in the remedial treatment and prevented disease in the prophylaxis group. Multiple phage doses significantly improved the larval remedial regimen, and this treatment is comparable to vancomycin and the combined treatments. Taken together, our data suggest that the phages significantly reduce C. difficile biofilms, and prevent colonization in the G. mellonella model when used alone or in combination with vancomycin. The phages appear to be highly promising therapeutics in the targeted eradication of CDI and the use of these models has revealed that prophylactic use could be a propitious therapeutic option. PMID:27630633

  9. 'Get in Early'; Biofilm and Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella) Models Reveal New Insights into the Therapeutic Potential of Clostridium difficile Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nale, Janet Y; Chutia, Mahananda; Carr, Philippa; Hickenbotham, Peter T; Clokie, Martha R J

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a global health threat associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Conventional antibiotic CDI therapy can result in treatment failure and recurrent infection. C. difficile produces biofilms which contribute to its virulence and impair antimicrobial activity. Some bacteriophages (phages) can penetrate biofilms and thus could be developed to either replace or supplement antibiotics. Here, we determined the impact of a previously optimized 4-phage cocktail on C. difficile ribotype 014/020 biofilms, and additionally as adjunct to vancomycin treatment in Galleria mellonella larva CDI model. The phages were applied before or after biofilm establishment in vitro, and the impact was analyzed according to turbidity, viability counts and topography as observed using scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The infectivity profiles and efficacies of orally administered phages and/or vancomycin were ascertained by monitoring colonization levels and larval survival rates. Phages prevented biofilm formation, and penetrated established biofilms. A single phage application reduced colonization causing extended longevity in the remedial treatment and prevented disease in the prophylaxis group. Multiple phage doses significantly improved the larval remedial regimen, and this treatment is comparable to vancomycin and the combined treatments. Taken together, our data suggest that the phages significantly reduce C. difficile biofilms, and prevent colonization in the G. mellonella model when used alone or in combination with vancomycin. The phages appear to be highly promising therapeutics in the targeted eradication of CDI and the use of these models has revealed that prophylactic use could be a propitious therapeutic option.

  10. Targeted sequencing reveals TP53 as a potential diagnostic biomarker in the post-treatment surveillance of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Joost H; de Leng, Wendy W J; de Bree, Remco; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2016-09-20

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) form a large heterogeneous group of tumors and have a relatively poor outcome in advanced cases. Revealing the underlying genetic mutations in HNSCC facilitates the development of diagnostic biomarkers, which might lead to improved diagnosis and post treatment surveillance. We retrospectively analyzed mutational hotspots using targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 239 HNSCC tumor samples in order to examine the mutational profile of HNSCC. Furthermore, we assessed prevalence, co-occurrence, and synonymy of gene mutations in (matched) tumor samples. TP53 was found mutated the most frequent with mutation rates of up to 83% in all tumors, compared to mutation rates of between 0 and 21% of CDKN2A, PIK3CA, HRAS, CDK4, FBXW7 and RB1. Mutational co-occurrence predominantly existed between TP53 and PIK3CA, TP53 and CDKN2A, and HRAS and PIK3CA. Mutational synonymy between primary tumor and associated metastasis and recurrence was present in respectively 88% and 89%. TP53 mutations were concordantly mutated in 95% of metastases and in 91% of recurrences. This indicates TP53 mutations to be highly prevalent and concordant in primary tumors and associated locoregional metastases and recurrences. In turn, this provides ground for further investigating the use of TP53 mutations as diagnostic biomarkers in HNSCC patients.

  11. Human 45,X Fibroblast Transcriptome Reveals Distinct Differentially Expressed Genes Including Long Noncoding RNAs Potentially Associated with the Pathophysiology of Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Ashok; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Deobagkar, Deepti D.

    2014-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by the absence of whole or part of the X chromosome in females. This X aneuploidy condition is associated with a diverse set of clinical phenotypes such as gonadal dysfunction, short stature, osteoporosis and Type II diabetes mellitus, among others. These phenotypes differ in their severity and penetrance among the affected individuals. Haploinsufficiency for a few X linked genes has been associated with some of these disease phenotypes. RNA sequencing can provide valuable insights to understand molecular mechanism of disease process. In the current study, we have analysed the transcriptome profiles of human untransformed 45,X and 46,XX fibroblast cells and identified differential expression of genes in these two karyotypes. Functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressing genes are associated with bone differentiation, glucose metabolism and gonadal development pathways. We also report differential expression of lincRNAs in X monosomic cells. Our observations provide a basis for evaluation of cellular and molecular mechanism(s) in the establishment of Turner syndrome phenotypes. PMID:24932682

  12. Human 45,X fibroblast transcriptome reveals distinct differentially expressed genes including long noncoding RNAs potentially associated with the pathophysiology of Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpathak, Shriram N; Vellarikkal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Patowary, Ashok; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Deobagkar, Deepti D

    2014-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by the absence of whole or part of the X chromosome in females. This X aneuploidy condition is associated with a diverse set of clinical phenotypes such as gonadal dysfunction, short stature, osteoporosis and Type II diabetes mellitus, among others. These phenotypes differ in their severity and penetrance among the affected individuals. Haploinsufficiency for a few X linked genes has been associated with some of these disease phenotypes. RNA sequencing can provide valuable insights to understand molecular mechanism of disease process. In the current study, we have analysed the transcriptome profiles of human untransformed 45,X and 46,XX fibroblast cells and identified differential expression of genes in these two karyotypes. Functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressing genes are associated with bone differentiation, glucose metabolism and gonadal development pathways. We also report differential expression of lincRNAs in X monosomic cells. Our observations provide a basis for evaluation of cellular and molecular mechanism(s) in the establishment of Turner syndrome phenotypes.

  13. Probabilistic Evaluation of Ecological and Economic Objectives of River Basin Management Reveals a Potential Flaw in the Goal Setting of the EU Water Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerppe, Turo; Taskinen, Antti; Kotamäki, Niina; Malve, Olli; Kettunen, Juhani

    2017-04-01

    The biological status of European lakes has not improved as expected despite up-to-date legislation and ecological standards. As a result, the realism of objectives and the attainment of related ecological standards are under doubt. This paper gets to the bottom of a river basin management plan of a eutrophic lake in Finland and presents the ecological and economic impacts of environmental and societal drivers and planned management measures. For these purposes, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation of a diffuse nutrient load, lake water quality and cost-benefit models. Simulations were integrated into a Bayesian influence diagram that revealed the basic uncertainties. It turned out that the attainment of good ecological status as qualified in the Water Framework Directive of the European Union is unlikely within given socio-economic constraints. Therefore, management objectives and ecological and economic standards need to be reassessed and reset to provide a realistic goal setting for management. More effort should be put into the evaluation of the total monetary benefits and on the monitoring of lake phosphorus balances to reduce the uncertainties, and the resulting margin of safety and costs and risks of planned management measures.

  14. Advanced fiber information systems seed coat neps baseline response from diverse mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive literature search has revealed that no papers have been published regarding selectivity calculation of the AFIS seed coat neps (SCN) determination over interfering material in cotton. A prerequisite to selectivity measurements is to identify suitable fiber medium(s) that give baseline ...

  15. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...

  16. Lattice dynamical analogies and differences between SrTiO3 and EuTiO3 revealed by phonon-dispersion relations and double-well potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Jerry L.; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Köhler, Jürgen; Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Bishop, A. R.

    2011-11-01

    A comparative analysis of the structural phase transitions of EuTiO3 and SrTiO3 (at TS = 282 and 105 K, respectively) is made on the basis of phonon-dispersion and density functional calculations. The phase transition of EuTiO3 is predicted to arise from the softening of a transverse acoustic zone boundary mode caused by the rotations of the TiO6 octahedra, as also found for the phase transition of SrTiO3. Although the temperature dependence of the soft mode is similar in both compounds, their elastic properties differ drastically because of a large difference in the double-well potentials associated with the soft zone boundary acoustic mode.

  17. Mapping the genome of Plasmodium falciparum on the drug-like chemical space reveals novel anti-malarial targets and potential drug leads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper; Plichta, Damian Rafal; Panagiotou, Gianni;

    2012-01-01

    The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the main agent responsible for malaria. In this study, we exploited a recently published chemical library from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) that had previously been confirmed to inhibit parasite growth of the wild type (3D7) and the multi-drug resistance (D2d) strains......, in order to uncover the weak links in the proteome of the parasite. We predicted 293 proteins of P. falciparum, including the six out of the seven verified targets for P. falciparum malaria treatment, as targets of 4645 GSK active compounds. Furthermore, we prioritized druggable targets, based on a number...... on integration of available chemical-protein and protein-protein interaction data. Our work suggests that a large number of the P. falciparum proteome is potentially druggable and could therefore serve as novel drug targets in the fight against malaria. At the same time, prioritized compounds from the GSK...

  18. Parasite-based screening and proteome profiling reveal orlistat, an FDA-approved drug, as a potential anti Trypanosoma brucei agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Yu; Wang, Min; Liu, Kai; Ngai, Mun Hong; Sheriff, Omar; Lear, Martin J; Sze, Siu Kwan; He, Cynthia Y; Yao, Shao Q

    2012-07-02

    Trypanosoma brucei is a parasite that causes African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock and is transmitted by the tsetse fly. There is an urgent need for the development of new drugs against African trypanosomiasis due to the lack of vaccines and effective drugs. Orlistat (also called tetrahydrolipstatin or THL) is an FDA-approved antiobesity drug targeting primarily the pancreatic and gastric lipases within the gastrointestinal tract. It shows potential activities against tumors, mycobacteria, and parasites. Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of an expanded set of orlistat-like compounds, some of which showed highly potent trypanocidal activities in both the bloodstream form (BSF) and the procyclic form (PCF) of T. brucei. Subsequent in situ parasite-based proteome profiling was carried out to elucidate potential cellular targets of the drug in both forms. Some newly identified targets were further validated by the labeling of recombinantly expressed enzymes in Escherichia coli lysates. Bioimaging experiments with a selected compound were carried out to study the cellular uptake of the drug in T. brucei. Results indicated that orlistat is much more efficiently taken up by the BSF than the PCF of T. brucei and has clear effects on the morphology of mitochondria, glycosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum in both BSF and PCF cells. These results support specific effects of orlistat on these organelles and correlate well with our in situ proteome profiling. Given the economic challenges of de novo drug development for neglected diseases, we hope that our findings will stimulate further research towards the conversion of orlistat-like compounds into new trypanocidal drugs.

  19. Event-related potentials reveal task-dependence and inter-individual differences in negation processing during silent listening and explicit truth-value evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, C; Kissler, J

    2014-09-26

    In sentences such as dogs cannot fly/bark, evaluation of the truth-value of the sentence is assumed to appear after the negation has been integrated into the sentence structure. Moreover negation processing and truth-value processing are considered effortful processes, whereas processing of the semantic relatedness of the words within sentences is thought to occur automatically. In the present study, modulation of event-related brain potentials (N400 and late positive potential, LPP) was investigated during an implicit task (silent listening) and active truth-value evaluation to test these theoretical assumptions and determine if truth-value evaluation will be modulated by the way participants processed the negated information implicitly prior to truth-value verification. Participants first listened to negated sentences and then evaluated these sentences for their truth-value in an active evaluation task. During passive listening, the LPP was generally more pronounced for targets in false negative (FN) than true negative (TN) sentences, indicating enhanced attention allocation to semantically-related but false targets. N400 modulation by truth-value (FN>TN) was observed in 11 out of 24 participants. However, during active evaluation, processing of semantically-unrelated but true targets (TN) elicited larger N400 and LPP amplitudes as well as a pronounced frontal negativity. This pattern was particularly prominent in those 11 individuals, whose N400 modulation during silent listening indicated that they were more sensitive to violations of the truth-value than to semantic priming effects. The results provide evidence for implicit truth-value processing during silent listening of negated sentences and for task dependence related to inter-individual differences in implicit negation processing.

  20. Molecular Targeted Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging of Flk1 Reveals Diagnosis and Prognosis Potential in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Prostate Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Xuan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging techniques used to detect the initiation of disease have the potential to provide the best opportunity for early treatment and cure. This report aimed at testing the possibility that Flk1+ (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, a crucial angiogenesis factor of most tumor cells, could be a molecular targeted imaging marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. We performed Flk1-targeted microbubble-enhanced ultrasound (US imaging of prostate cancer in a genetically engineered mouse model with normal-appearing intact US (negative prostates and with three different tumor sizes (small, medium, and large. Higher levels of Flk1+ molecular signals were identified in the intact US (negative prostate group by US-targeted imaging and immunohistochemical analysis. The increase in Flk1+ expression occurred prior to the angiogenesis switch-on phase and vascularity peak. After this peak accumulation stage of Flk1+ molecules, lower and stabilized levels of Flk1+ signals were maintained together with tumor growth from small, to medium, to large size. In a longitudinal observation in a subset (n = 5 of mice with established tumors, elevated Flk1+ signals were observed in tissues surrounding the prostate cancer, for example, the ipsilateral boundary zones between two developing tumor lobes, new tumor blood vessel recruits, the urethra border, and the pelvic node basin. The potential of Flk1-targeted US imaging as a predictive imaging tool was confirmed by correlation studies of three-dimensional US B-mode imaging, gross pathology, and histology analyses. The results of the application in a genetically engineered mouse model with prostate cancer of molecular Flk1-targeted US imaging support the contention that Flk1 can be used as a molecular imaging marker for small tumors undetectable by microimaging and as a molecular diagnostic and prognosis marker for tumor metastasis and progression.

  1. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, William C. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  2. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-01

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the νμ → νe appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  3. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriguer Ramón C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Results Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya, which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey" of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. Conclusions In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.

  4. A Multiple Interaction Analysis Reveals ADRB3 as a Potential Candidate for Gallbladder Cancer Predisposition via a Complex Interaction with Other Candidate Gene Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Rai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer is the most common and a highly aggressive biliary tract malignancy with a dismal outcome. The pathogenesis of the disease is multifactorial, comprising the combined effect of multiple genetic variations of mild consequence along with numerous dietary and environmental risk factors. Previously, we demonstrated the association of several candidate gene variations with GBC risk. In this study, we aimed to identify the combination of gene variants and their possible interactions contributing towards genetic susceptibility of GBC. Here, we performed Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CRT to investigate the gene–gene interactions and the combined effect of 14 SNPs in nine genes (DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634; FAS (rs2234767; FASL (rs763110; DCC (rs2229080, rs4078288, rs7504990, rs714; PSCA (rs2294008, rs2978974; ADRA2A (rs1801253; ADRB1 (rs1800544; ADRB3 (rs4994; CYP17 (rs2486758 involved in various signaling pathways. Genotyping was accomplished by PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assays. SPSS software version 16.0 and MDR software version 2.0 were used for all the statistical analysis. Single locus investigation demonstrated significant association of DR4 (rs20576, rs6557634, DCC (rs714, rs2229080, rs4078288 and ADRB3 (rs4994 polymorphisms with GBC risk. MDR analysis revealed ADRB3 (rs4994 to be crucial candidate in GBC susceptibility that may act either alone (p < 0.0001, CVC = 10/10 or in combination with DCC (rs714 and rs2229080, p < 0.0001, CVC = 9/10. Our CRT results are in agreement with the above findings. Further, in-silico results of studied SNPs advocated their role in splicing, transcriptional and/or protein coding regulation. Overall, our result suggested complex interactions amongst the studied SNPs and ADRB3 rs4994 as candidate influencing GBC susceptibility.

  5. Remote video bioassays reveal the potential feeding impact of the rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus (f: Siganidae) on an inner-shelf reef of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. J.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2008-09-01

    Herbivores are widely acknowledged as key elements maintaining the health and resilience of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Understanding and quantifying the impact of herbivores in ecosystems are fundamental to our ability to manage these systems. The traditional method of quantifying the impact of herbivorous fishes on coral reefs has been to use transplanted pieces of seagrass or algae as “bioassays”. However, these experiments leave a key question unanswered, namely: Which species are responsible for the impact being quantified? This study revisits the use of bioassays and tested the assumption that the visual abundance of species reflects their role in the removal of assay material. Using remote video cameras to film removal of assay material on an inner-shelf reef of the Great Barrier Reef, the species responsible for assay-based herbivory were identified. The video footage revealed that Siganus canaliculatus, a species not previously recorded at the study site, was primarily responsible for removal of macroalgal biomass. The average percentage decrease in thallus length of whole plants of Sargassum at the reef crest was 54 ± 8.9% (mean ± SE), and 50.4 ± 9.8% for individually presented Sargassum strands (for a 4.5-h deployment). Of the 14,656 bites taken from Sargassum plants and strands across all reef zones, nearly half (6,784 bites or 46%) were taken by S. canaliculatus, with the majority of the remainder attributable to Siganus doliatus. However, multiple regression analysis demonstrated that only the bites of S. canaliculatus were removing macroalgal biomass. The results indicate that, even with detailed observations, the species of herbivore that may be responsible for maintaining benthic community structure can go unnoticed. Some of our fundamental ideas of the relative importance of individual species in ecosystem processes may be in need of re-evaluation.

  6. ‘Get in early’; biofilm and wax moth (Galleria mellonella models reveal new insights into the therapeutic potential of Clostridium difficile bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Yakubu Nale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a global health threat associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Conventional antibiotic CDI therapy can result in treatment failure and recurrent infection. C. difficile produces biofilms which contribute to its virulence and impair antimicrobial activity. Some bacteriophages (phages can penetrate biofilms and thus could be developed to either replace or supplement antibiotics. Here, we determined the impact of a previously optimized 4-phage cocktail on C. difficile ribotype 014/020 biofilms, and additionally as adjunct to vancomycin treatment in Galleria mellonella larva CDI model. The phages were applied before or after biofilm establishment in vitro, and the impact was analyzed according to turbidity, viability counts and topography as observed using scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The infectivity profiles and efficacies of orally administered phages and/or vancomycin were ascertained by monitoring colonization levels and larval survival rates. Phages prevented biofilm formation, and penetrated established biofilms. A single phage application reduced colonization causing extended longevity in the remedial treatment and prevented disease in the prophylaxis group. Multiple phage doses significantly improved the larval remedial regimen, and this treatment is comparable to vancomycin and the combined treatments. Taken together, our data suggest that the phages significantly reduce C. difficile biofilms, and prevent colonization in the G. mellonella model when used alone or in combination with vancomycin. The phages appear to be highly promising therapeutics in the targeted eradication of CDI and the use of these models has revealed that prophylactic use could be a propitious therapeutic option.

  7. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  8. The spatial epidemiology of trauma: the potential of geographic information science to organize data and reveal patterns of injury and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Nadine; Hameed, S Morad; Fiedler, Robert; Bell, Nathaniel; Simons, Richard K

    2008-10-01

    Despite important advances in the prevention and treatment of trauma, preventable injuries continue to impact the lives of millions of people. Motor vehicle collisions and violence claim close to 3 million lives each year worldwide. Public health agencies have promoted the need for systematic and ongoing surveillance as a foundation for successful injury control. Surveillance has been used to quantify the incidence of injury for the prioritization of further research, monitor trends over time, identify new injury patterns, and plan and evaluate prevention and intervention efforts. Advances in capability to handle spatial data and substantial increases in computing power have positioned geographic information science (GIS) as a potentially important tool for health surveillance and the spatial organization of health care, and for informing prevention and acute care interventions. Two themes emerge in the trauma literature with respect to GIS theory and techniques: identifying determinants associated with the risk of trauma to guide injury prevention efforts and evaluating the spatial organization and accessibility of acute trauma care systems. We review the current literature on trauma and GIS research and provide examples of the importance of accounting for spatial scale when using spatial analysis for surveillance. The examples illustrate the effect of scale on incident analysis, the geographic variation of major injury across British Columbia's health service delivery areas (HSDAs) and the rates of variation of injury within individual HSDAs.

  9. The synthesis and characterisation of MDMA derived from a catalytic oxidation of material isolated from black pepper reveals potential route specific impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Christopher M; Breadon, Thomas W; Pearson, James R; Jones, Oliver A H

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the chemical synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) from piperonal prepared via a catalytic ruthenium tetroxide oxidation of piperine extracted from black pepper. A variety of oxidation conditions were experimented with including different solvent systems and co-oxidants. A sample of prepared piperonal was successfully converted into MDMA via 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-nitropropene (MDP2NP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) and the impurities within each product characterised by GC-MS to give a contaminant profile of the synthetic pathway. Interestingly, it was discovered that a chlorinated analogue of piperonal (6-chloropiperonal) was created during the oxidation process by an as yet unknown mechanism. This impurity reacted alongside piperonal to give chlorinated analogues of each precursor, ultimately yielding 2-chloro-4,5-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (6-Cl-MDMA) as an impurity within the MDMA sample. The methodology developed is a simple way to synthesise a substantial amount of precursor material with easy to obtain reagents. The results also show that chlorinated MDMA analogues, previously thought to be deliberately included adulterants, may in fact be route specific impurities with potential application in determining the origin and synthesis method of seized illicit drugs.

  10. Activation and application of an obligatory phonotactic constraint in German during automatic speech processing is revealed by human event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Johanna; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    In auditory speech processing, implicit linguistic knowledge is activated and applied on phonetic and segment-related phonological processing level even if the perceived sound sequence is outside the focus of attention. In this study, the effects of language-specific phonotactic restrictions on pre-attentive auditory speech processing were investigated, using the Mismatch Negativity component of the human event-related brain potential. In German grammar, the distribution of the velar and the palatal dorsal fricative is limited by an obligatory phonotactic constraint, Dorsal Fricative Assimilation, which demands that a vowel and a following dorsal fricative must have the same specifications for articulatory backness. For passive oddball stimulation, we used three phonotactically correct VC syllables and one incorrect VC syllable, composed of the vowels [epsilon] and [open o] and the fricatives [ç] and []. Stimuli were contrasted pairwise in experimental oddball blocks in a way that they differed in regard to their respective vowel but shared the fricative. Additionally to the usual Mismatch Negativity which is attributable to the change of the initial vowel and which was elicited by all deviants, we observed a second negative deflection in the deviant ERP elicited by the phonotactically ill-formed syllable only. This negativity cannot be attributed to any acoustical or phonemic difference between standard and deviant, it rather reflects the effect of a phonotactic evaluation process after both sounds of the syllable were identified. Our finding suggests that implicit phonotactic knowledge is activated and applied even outside the focus of the participants' attention.

  11. High Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Northeastern China from 2013 to 2015 Reveals Potential Epidemic Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingze; Xie, Guangyao; Liu, Xinxin; Ai, Lili; Chen, Yanyu; Meng, Xin; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Jianjun; Sun, Yuzhang; Stoeger, Tobias; Ding, Zhuang; Yin, Renfu

    2015-12-28

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by the virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of the most important viral diseases of birds globally, but little is currently known regarding enzootic trends of NDV in northeastern China, especially for class I viruses. Thus, we performed a surveillance study for NDV in northeastern China from 2013 to 2015. A total 755 samples from wild and domestic birds in wetlands and live bird markets (LBMs) were collected, and 10 isolates of NDV were identified. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that five isolates from LBMs belong to class I subgenotype 1b, two (one from wild birds and one from LBMs) belong to the vaccine-like class II genotype II, and three (all from wild birds) belong to class II subgenotype Ib. Interestingly, the five class I isolates had epidemiological connections with viruses from southern, eastern, and southeastern China. Our findings, together with recent prevalence trends of class I and virulent class II NDV in China, suggest possible virus transmission between wild and domestic birds and the potential for an NDV epidemic in the future.

  12. The phenome analysis of mutant alleles in Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase genes in rice reveals new potential targets for stress tolerant cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dievart, Anne; Perin, Christophe; Hirsch, Judith; Bettembourg, Mathilde; Lanau, Nadège; Artus, Florence; Bureau, Charlotte; Noel, Nicolas; Droc, Gaétan; Peyramard, Matthieu; Pereira, Serge; Courtois, Brigitte; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses that reduce their fitness and performance. At the molecular level, the perception of extracellular stimuli and the subsequent activation of defense responses require a complex interplay of signaling cascades, in which protein phosphorylation plays a central role. Several studies have shown that some members of the Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) family are involved in stress and developmental pathways. We report here a systematic analysis of the role of the members of this gene family by mutant phenotyping in the monocotyledon model plant rice, Oryza sativa. We have then targeted 176 of the ∼320 LRR-RLK genes (55.7%) and genotyped 288 mutant lines. Position of the insertion was confirmed in 128 lines corresponding to 100 LRR-RLK genes (31.6% of the entire family). All mutant lines harboring homozygous insertions have been screened for phenotypes under normal conditions and under various abiotic stresses. Mutant plants have been observed at several stages of growth, from seedlings in Petri dishes to flowering and grain filling under greenhouse conditions. Our results show that 37 of the LRR-RLK rice genes are potential targets for improvement especially in the generation of abiotic stress tolerant cereals.

  13. Evaluation of current and new biomarkers in severe preeclampsia: a microarray approach reveals the VSIG4 gene as a potential blood biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textoris, Julien; Ivorra, Delphine; Ben Amara, Amira; Sabatier, Florence; Ménard, Jean-Pierre; Heckenroth, Hélène; Bretelle, Florence; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a placental disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women, and it is associated with a high maternal and neonatal morbidity. However, circulating biomarkers that are able to predict the prognosis of preeclampsia are lacking. Thirty-eight women were included in the current study. They consisted of 19 patients with preeclampsia (13 with severe preeclampsia and 6 with non-severe preeclampsia) and 19 gestational age-matched women with normal pregnancies as controls. We measured circulating factors that are associated with the coagulation pathway (including fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor VIII, antithrombin, protein S and protein C), endothelial activation (such as soluble endoglin and CD146), and the release of total and platelet-derived microparticles. These markers enabled us to discriminate the preeclampsia condition from a normal pregnancy but were not sufficient to distinguish severe from non-severe preeclampsia. We then used a microarray to study the transcriptional signature of blood samples. Preeclampsia patients exhibited a specific transcriptional program distinct from that of the control group of women. Interestingly, we also identified a severity-related transcriptional signature. Functional annotation of the upmodulated signature in severe preeclampsia highlighted two main functions related to "ribosome" and "complement". Finally, we identified 8 genes that were specifically upmodulated in severe preeclampsia compared with non-severe preeclampsia and the normotensive controls. Among these genes, we identified VSIG4 as a potential diagnostic marker of severe preeclampsia. The determination of this gene may improve the prognostic assessment of severe preeclampsia.

  14. Evaluation of current and new biomarkers in severe preeclampsia: a microarray approach reveals the VSIG4 gene as a potential blood biomarker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Textoris

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a placental disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria in pregnant women, and it is associated with a high maternal and neonatal morbidity. However, circulating biomarkers that are able to predict the prognosis of preeclampsia are lacking. Thirty-eight women were included in the current study. They consisted of 19 patients with preeclampsia (13 with severe preeclampsia and 6 with non-severe preeclampsia and 19 gestational age-matched women with normal pregnancies as controls. We measured circulating factors that are associated with the coagulation pathway (including fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor VIII, antithrombin, protein S and protein C, endothelial activation (such as soluble endoglin and CD146, and the release of total and platelet-derived microparticles. These markers enabled us to discriminate the preeclampsia condition from a normal pregnancy but were not sufficient to distinguish severe from non-severe preeclampsia. We then used a microarray to study the transcriptional signature of blood samples. Preeclampsia patients exhibited a specific transcriptional program distinct from that of the control group of women. Interestingly, we also identified a severity-related transcriptional signature. Functional annotation of the upmodulated signature in severe preeclampsia highlighted two main functions related to "ribosome" and "complement". Finally, we identified 8 genes that were specifically upmodulated in severe preeclampsia compared with non-severe preeclampsia and the normotensive controls. Among these genes, we identified VSIG4 as a potential diagnostic marker of severe preeclampsia. The determination of this gene may improve the prognostic assessment of severe preeclampsia.

  15. Revealing Cultural Ecosystem Services through Instagram Images: The Potential of Social Media Volunteered Geographic Information for Urban Green Infrastructure Planning and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the prevalence of smartphones, new ways of engaging citizens and stakeholders in urban planning and governance are emerging. The technologies in smartphones allow citizens to act as sensors of their environment, producing and sharing rich spatial data useful for new types of collaborative governance set-ups. Data derived from Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI can support accessible, transparent, democratic, inclusive, and locally-based governance situations of interest to planners, citizens, politicians, and scientists. However, there are still uncertainties about how to actually conduct this in practice. This study explores how social media VGI can be used to document spatial tendencies regarding citizens’ uses and perceptions of urban nature with relevance for urban green space governance. Via the hashtag #sharingcph, created by the City of Copenhagen in 2014, VGI data consisting of geo-referenced images were collected from Instagram, categorised according to their content and analysed according to their spatial distribution patterns. The results show specific spatial distributions of the images and main hotspots. Many possibilities and much potential of using VGI for generating, sharing, visualising and communicating knowledge about citizens’ spatial uses and preferences exist, but as a tool to support scientific and democratic interaction, VGI data is challenged by practical, technical and ethical concerns. More research is needed in order to better understand the usefulness and application of this rich data source to governance.

  16. Spatially resolved physical conditions of molecular gas and potential star formation tracers in M83, revealed by the Herschel SPIRE FTS

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ronin; Galliano, Frédéric; Wilson, Christine D; Kamenetzky, Julia; Lee, Min-Young; Schirm, Maximilien; Hony, Sacha; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Spinoglio, Luigi; Cormier, Diane; Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Philip R; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rémy-Ruyer, Aurélie; Baes, Martin; Boselli, Alexandro; Bournaud, Frédéric; De Looze, Ilse; Hughes, Thomas M; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Rangwala, Naseem

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory, our understanding about the photo-dissociation regions (PDR) has taken a step forward. In the bandwidth of the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) on board Herschel, ten CO rotational transitions, including J=4-3 to J=13-12, and three fine structure lines, including [CI] 609, [CI] 370, and [NII] 250 micron, are covered. In this paper, I present our findings from the FTS observations at the nuclear region of M83, based on the spatially resolved physical parameters derived from the CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) map and the comparisons with the dust properties and star-formation tracers. I will discuss (1) the potential of using [NII] 250 and [CI] 370 micron as star-formation tracers; (2) the reliability of tracing molecular gas with CO; (3) the excitation mechanisms of warm CO; (4) the possibility of studying stellar feedback by tracing the thermal pressure of molecular gas in the nuclear ...

  17. Combined morphological and molecular data unveils relationships of Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida and reveals higher diversity of this intriguing group of fan worms in Australia, including potentially introduced species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Capa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida is a small and heterogeneous group of fan worms found in shallow marine environments and is generally associated with hard substrates. The delineation and composition of this genus is problematic since it has been defined only by plesiomorphic characters that are widely distributed among other sabellids. In this study we have combined morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences data to evaluate species diversity in Australia and assess the phylogenetic relationships of these and other related sabellids. Unlike morphological data alone, molecular data and combined datasets suggest monophyly of Pseudobranchiomma. In this study, a new species of Pseudobranchiomma is described and three others are considered as potential unintentional introductions to Australian waters, one of them reported for the first time for the continent. Pseudobranchiomma pallida sp. n. bears 4–6 serrations along the radiolar flanges, lacks radiolar eyes and has uncini with three transverse rows of teeth over the main fang. In the new species the colour pattern as well is characteristic and species specific.

  18. First study on gene expression of cement proteins and potential adhesion-related genes of a membranous-based barnacle as revealed from Next-Generation Sequencing technology

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Hsiu Chin

    2013-12-12

    This is the first study applying Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology to survey the kinds, expression location, and pattern of adhesion-related genes in a membranous-based barnacle. A total of 77,528,326 and 59,244,468 raw sequence reads of total RNA were generated from the prosoma and the basis of Tetraclita japonica formosana, respectively. In addition, 55,441 and 67,774 genes were further assembled and analyzed. The combined sequence data from both body parts generates a total of 79,833 genes of which 47.7% were shared. Homologues of barnacle cement proteins - CP-19K, -52K, and -100K - were found and all were dominantly expressed at the basis where the cement gland complex is located. This is the main area where transcripts of cement proteins and other potential adhesion-related genes were detected. The absence of another common barnacle cement protein, CP-20K, in the adult transcriptome suggested a possible life-stage restricted gene function and/or a different mechanism in adhesion between membranous-based and calcareous-based barnacles. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  19. An Immunocompetent Mouse Model for MLL/AF9 Leukemia Reveals the Potential of Spontaneous Cytotoxic T-Cell Response to an Antigen Expressed in Leukemia Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Leukemia differs substantially with respect to stromal milieu from tumors that progress locally as solid masses, and the physiological importance of immunosurveillance in leukemia remains unclear. However, currently available mouse leukemia models have critical limitations in the context of analyzing immunological regulation of leukemia development. In this study, we transferred mouse MLL/AF9 leukemia-initiating cells into immunocompetent recipient mice without any pre-conditioning such as irradiation, and then analyzed the spontaneous T cell response to an immunogenic antigen expressed in leukemia cells. When the minimum numbers of leukemia-initiating cells for engraftment were transferred, leukemia cells were eradicated by the adaptive immune response in most, if not all, wild-type mice, but not in Rag2-/- recipient mice, which lack adaptive immunity. By contrast, mice transplanted with larger numbers of leukemia cells always developed leukemia. In mice with advanced leukemia, antigen-specific CTLs were also expanded, but were unresponsive to antigen stimulation and expressed high levels of PD-1 and LAG-3. These results provide the first clear demonstration that the spontaneous CTL response to a tumor-cell antigen has the potential to eradicate leukemia, whereas antigen-specific CTLs are exhausted in animals with advanced leukemia. This immunocompetent mouse leukemia model provides a useful platform for developing effective immunotherapies against leukemia.

  20. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  1. Single-cell analysis reveals IGF-1 potentiation of inhibition of the TGF-β/Smad pathway of fibrosis in human keratocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarenac, Tomislav; Trapecar, Martin; Gradisnik, Lidija; Rupnik, Marjan Slak; Pahor, Dusica

    2016-01-01

    Corneal wound healing is often affected by TGF-β–mediated fibrosis and scar formation. Guided fibrosis with IGF-1 and antifibrotic substances might maintain corneal transparency. Primary human corneal keratocytes under serum-free conditions were used as a model of corneal stromal wounding, with markers of corneal fibrosis and opacity studied under TGF-β2 stimulation. Single-cell imaging flow cytometry was used to determine nuclearization of Smad3, and intracellular fluorescence intensity of Smad7 and the corneal crystallin aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1. Extracellular matrix proteoglycans keratocan and biglycan were quantified using ELISAs. On the TGF-β2 background, the keratocytes were treated with IGF-1, and suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA) or halofuginone ± IGF-1. IGF-1 alone decreased Smad3 nuclearization and increased aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 expression, with favorable extracellular matrix proteoglycan composition. SAHA induced higher Smad7 levels and inhibited translocation of Smad3 to the nucleus, also when combined with IGF-1. Immunofluorescence showed that myofibroblast transdifferentiation is attenuated and appearance of fibroblasts is favored by IGF-1 alone and in combination with the antifibrotic substances. The TGF-β/Smad pathway of fibrosis and opacity was inhibited by IGF-1, and further with SAHA in particular, and with halofuginone. IGF-1 is thus a valid aid to antifibrotic treatment, with potential for effective and transparent corneal wound healing. PMID:27687492

  2. Temporal Variation in Honey Production by the Stingless Bee Melipona subnitida (Hymenoptera: Apidae): Long-Term Management Reveals its Potential as a Commercial Species in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffler, Sheina; Menezes, Cristiano; Menezes, Paulo Roberto; Kleinert, Astrid de Matos Peixoto; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo

    2015-06-01

    Even though stingless beekeeping has a great potential as a sustainable development tool, the activity remains essentially informal, technical knowledge is scarce, and management practices lack the sophistication and standardization found in apiculture. Here, we contributed to the further development of stingless beekeeping by investigating the long-term impact of management and climate on honey production and colony survival in the stingless bee Melipona subnitida Ducke (1910). We analyzed a 10-yr record of 155 M. subnitida colonies kept by a commercial honey producer of northeastern Brazil. This constitutes the longest and most accurate record available for a stingless bee. We modeled honey production in relation to time (years), age, management practices (colony division and food supplementation), and climatic factors (temperature and precipitation), and used a model selection approach to identify which factors best explained honey production. We also modeled colony mortality in relation to climatic factors. Although the amount of honey produced by each colony decreased over time, we found that the probability of producing honey increased over the years. Colony divisions decreased honey production, but did not affect honey presence, while supplementary feeding positively affected honey production. In warmer years, the probability of producing honey decreased and the amount of honey produced was lower. In years with lower precipitation, fewer colonies produced honey. In contrast, colony mortality was not affected by climatic factors, and some colonies lived up to nine years, enduring extreme climatic conditions. Our findings provide useful guidelines to improve management and honey production in stingless bees.

  3. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fibre in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAbdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fibre-rich diets is associated with favourable impacts on type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD, two of the most costly ailments worldwide, however the economic value of altered fibre intakes remains poorly understood. Methods: A cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of adults expected to consume fibre-rich diets in Canada, estimate fibre intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reductions, and assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs with reductions in rates of these two epidemics. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8-$1,295.7 million in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fibre was used to increase current intakes of dietary fibre to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fibre consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6-$51.1 and $4.6-$92.1 million savings for T2D and CVD, respectively. Conclusions: Strategies to increase consumers’ knowledge of the recommended dietary fibre intakes, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

  4. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Kaustav; Uluçay, Orhan; Şakiroğlu, Muhammet; Udvardi, Michael K.; Verdier, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination. PMID:27618017

  5. MicroRNA profiling analysis throughout tomato fruit development and ripening reveals potential regulatory role of RIN on microRNAs accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Ju, Zheng; Cao, Dongyan; Zhai, Baiqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Zhu, Hongliang; Fu, Daqi; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2015-04-01

    The development and ripening of tomato fruit are complex processes involving many gene regulatory pathways at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Ripening inhibitor (RIN) is a vital transcription factor, which targets numerous ripening-related genes at the transcriptional level during tomato fruit ripening. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. To elucidate the potential regulatory relationship between rin and miRNAs during fruit development and ripening, we identified known miRNAs and profiled their expression in wild-type tomato and rin mutant using a deep sequencing approach combined with quantitative RT-PCR. A total of 33 known miRNA families were identified, of which 14 miRNA families were differently accumulated. Subsequent promoter analysis showed that possible RIN-binding motifs (CArG-box) tended to occur frequently in the promoter regions of partial differently expressed miRNAs. In addition, ethylene may participate in the regulation of miRNAs accumulation during tomato fruit ripening. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the direct binding of RIN to the promoter of MIR172a. Collectively, these results showed a close correlation between miRNA expression and RIN as well as ethylene, which further elucidated the regulatory roles of miRNAs during fruit development and ripening and enriched the regulatory network of RIN in tomato fruit.

  6. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes in fecal samples reveals high diversity of hindgut microflora in horses and potential links to chronic laminitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steelman Samantha M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nutrition and health of horses is closely tied to their gastrointestinal microflora. Gut bacteria break down plant structural carbohydrates and produce volatile fatty acids, which are a major source of energy for horses. Bacterial communities are also essential for maintaining gut homeostasis and have been hypothesized to contribute to various diseases including laminitis. We performed pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA bacterial genes isolated from fecal material to characterize hindgut bacterial communities in healthy horses and those with chronic laminitis. Results Fecal samples were collected from 10 normal horses and 8 horses with chronic laminitis. Genomic DNA was extracted and the V4-V5 segment of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced on the 454 platform generating a mean of 2,425 reads per sample after quality trimming. The bacterial communities were dominated by Firmicutes (69.21% control, 56.72% laminitis and Verrucomicrobia (18.13% control, 27.63% laminitis, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes. We observed more OTUs per individual in the laminitis group than the control group (419.6 and 355.2, respectively, P = 0.019 along with a difference in the abundance of two unassigned Clostridiales genera (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01. The most abundant bacteria were Streptococcus spp., Clostridium spp., and Treponema spp.; along with unassigned genera from Subdivision 5 of Verrucomicrobia, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae, which together constituted ~ 80% of all OTUs. There was a high level of individual variation across all taxonomic ranks. Conclusions Our exploration of the equine fecal microflora revealed higher bacterial diversity in horses with chronic laminitis and identification of two Clostridiales genera that differed in abundance from control horses. There was large individual variation in bacterial communities that was not explained in our study. The core hindgut microflora was

  7. Adapting a Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Doeleman, Sheperd; Rogers, Alan; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael; Nand, Nitin; 10.1086/660156

    2011-01-01

    Extension of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to observing wavelengths shorter than 1.3mm provides exceptional angular resolution (~20 micro arcsec) and access to new spectral regimes for the study of astrophysical phenomena. To maintain phase coherence across a global VLBI array at these wavelengths requires that ultrastable frequency references be used for the heterodyne receivers at all participating telescopes. Hydrogen masers have traditionally been used as VLBI references, but atmospheric turbulence typically limits (sub) millimeter VLBI coherence times to ~1-30 s. Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators (CSO) have better stability than Hydrogen masers on these time scale and are potential alternatives to masers as VLBI references. Here, We describe the design, implementation and tests of a system to produce a 10 MHz VLBI frequency standard from the microwave (11.2 GHz) output of a CSO. To improve long-term stability of the new reference, the CSO was locked to the timing signal from the Global Positionin...

  8. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  10. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  11. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  12. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Alvarez, David A.; Taylor, Julia A.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrationspresent in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  13. Connexin 43 mimetic peptide Gap27 reveals potential differences in the role of Cx43 in wound repair between diabetic and non-diabetic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollok, Simone; Pfeiffer, Ann-Catherine; Lobmann, Ralf; Wright, Catherine S; Moll, Ingrid; Martin, Patricia E M; Brandner, Johanna M

    2011-04-01

    During early wound healing (WH) events Connexin 43 (Cx43) is down-regulated at wound margins. In chronic wound margins, including diabetic wounds, Cx43 expression is enhanced suggesting that down-regulation is important for WH. We previously reported that the Cx43 mimetic peptide Gap27 blocks Cx43 mediated intercellular communication and promotes skin cell migration of infant cells in vitro. In the present work we further investigated the molecular mechanism of Gap27 action and its therapeutic potential to improve WH in skin tissue and diabetic and non-diabetic cells. Ex vivo skin, organotypic models and human keratinocytes/fibroblasts of young and old donors and of diabetic and non-diabetic origin were used to assess the impact of Gap27 on cell migration, proliferation, Cx43 expression, localization, phosphorylation and hemichannel function. Exposure of ex vivo WH models to Gap27 decreased dye spread, accelerated WH and elevated cell proliferation. In non-diabetic cell cultures Gap27 decreased dye uptake through Cx hemichannels and after scratch wounding cells showed enhanced migration and proliferation. Cells of diabetic origin were less susceptible to Gap27 during early passages. In late passages these cells showed responses comparable to non-diabetic cells. The cause of the discrepancy between diabetic and non-diabetic cells correlated with decreased Cx hemichannel activity in diabetic cells but excluded differences in Cx43 expression, localization and Ser368-phosphorylation. These data emphasize the importance of Cx43 in WH and support the concept that Gap27 could be a beneficial therapeutic to accelerate normal WH. However, its use in diabetic WH may be restricted and our results highlight differences in the role of Cx43 in skin cells of different origin.

  14. Potentiation of motor sub-networks for motor control but not working memory: Interaction of dACC and SMA revealed by resting-state directed functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Asemi, Avisa; Burgess, Ashley; Chowdury, Asadur; Bressler, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task. We applied directed functional connectivity analysis to these two task paradigms, and also to the rest condition of each paradigm, in which rest blocks were interspersed with task blocks. We report here that the previously known asymmetric interaction between dACC and SMA, with dACC→SMA dominating, was significantly larger in the motor coordination task than the memory task. Moreover the asymmetry between dACC and SMA was reversed during the rest condition of the motor coordination task, but not of the working memory task. In sum, the dACC→SMA influence was significantly greater in the motor task than the memory task condition, and the SMA→dACC influence was significantly greater in the motor rest than the memory rest condition. We interpret these results as suggesting that the potentiation of motor sub-networks during the motor rest condition supports the motor control of SMA by dACC during the active motor task condition. PMID:28278267

  15. Characterization of Missouri surface waters near point sources of pollution reveals potential novel atmospheric route of exposure for bisphenol A and wastewater hormonal activity pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Alvarez, David A; Taylor, Julia A; vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E

    2015-08-15

    Surface water contamination by chemical pollutants increasingly threatens water quality around the world. Among the many contaminants found in surface water, there is growing concern regarding endocrine disrupting chemicals, based on their ability to interfere with some aspect of hormone action in exposed organisms, including humans. This study assessed water quality at several sites across Missouri (near wastewater treatment plants and airborne release sites of bisphenol A) based on hormone receptor activation potencies and chemical concentrations present in the surface water. We hypothesized that bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol would be greater in water near permitted airborne release sites and wastewater treatment plant inputs, respectively, and that these two compounds would be responsible for the majority of activities in receptor-based assays conducted with water collected near these sites. Concentrations of bisphenol A and ethinylestradiol were compared to observed receptor activities using authentic standards to assess contribution to total activities, and quantitation of a comprehensive set of wastewater compounds was performed to better characterize each site. Bisphenol A concentrations were found to be elevated in surface water near permitted airborne release sites, raising questions that airborne releases of BPA may influence nearby surface water contamination and may represent a previously underestimated source to the environment and potential for human exposure. Estrogen and androgen receptor activities of surface water samples were predictive of wastewater input, although the lower sensitivity of the ethinylestradiol ELISA relative to the very high sensitivity of the bioassay approaches did not allow a direct comparison. Wastewater-influenced sites also had elevated anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic equivalence, while sites without wastewater discharges exhibited no antagonist activities.

  16. STOP-EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS FROM INTRACRANIAL ELECTRODES REVEAL A KEY ROLE OF PREMOTOR AND MOTOR CORTICES IN STOPPING ONGOING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eMattia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the ability to withhold manual motor responses seems to rely on a right-lateralized frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network, including the pre-supplementary motor area and the inferior frontal gyrus. These areas should drive subthalamic nuclei to implement movement inhibition via the hyperdirect pathway. The output of this network is expected to influence those cortical areas underlying limb movement preparation and initiation, i.e. premotor (PMA and primary motor (M1 cortices. Electroencephalographic (EEG studies have shown an enhancement of the N200/P300 complex in the event-related potentials (ERPs when a planned reaching movement is successfully stopped after the presentation of an infrequent stop-signal. PMA and M1 have been suggested as possible neural sources of this ERP complex but, due to the limited spatial resolution of scalp EEG, it is not yet clear which cortical areas contribute to its generation. To elucidate the role of motor cortices, we recorded epicortical ERPs from the lateral surface of the fronto-temporal lobes of five pharmacoresistant epileptic patients performing a reaching version of the countermanding task while undergoing presurgical monitoring. We consistently found a stereotyped ERP complex on a single-trial level when a movement was successfully cancelled. These ERPs were selectively expressed in M1, PMA and Brodmann's area (BA 9 and their onsets preceded the end of the stop process, suggesting a causal involvement in this executive function. Such ERPs also occurred in unsuccessful-stop trials, that is, when subjects moved despite the occurrence of a stop-signal, mostly when they had long reaction times. These findings support the hypothesis that motor cortices are the final target of the inhibitory command elaborated by the frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network.

  17. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895

  18. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  19. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  20. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    CERN Document Server

    Moldón, J; Wucknitz, O; Jackson, N; Drabent, A; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Kapińska, A D; McKean, P; Morabito, L; Varenius, E; Zarka, P; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Offringa, A R; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; White, S; Wise, M W; Yatawatta, S; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for International LOFAR is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods. We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full International LOFAR array. Sources were pre-selected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results. Over 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to sho...

  1. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  2. Lorentz symmetry and Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; lambert, S

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model extension (SME). Recently, post-fit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars lead to an upper limit at the $10^{-4}$ level on the time-time coefficient $\\bar s^{TT}$ of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then we implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of $\\bar s^{TT}$ and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and with analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on $\\bar s^{TT}=(-5\\pm 8)\\times 10^{-5}$, directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor 5 pr...

  3. Differential responses of dinitrogen fixation, diazotrophic cyanobacteria and ammonia oxidation reveal a potential warming-induced imbalance of the N-cycle in biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Smith, Hilda J.; Giraldo Silva, Ana; Belnap, Jayne; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2017-01-01

    N2 fixation and ammonia oxidation (AO) are the two most important processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle of biological soil crusts (BSCs). We studied the short-term response of acetylene reduction assay (ARA) rates, an indicator of potential N2 fixation, and AO rates to temperature (T, -5°C to 35°C) in BSC of different successional stages along the BSC ecological succession and geographic origin (hot Chihuahuan and cooler Great Basin deserts). ARA in all BSCs increased with T until saturation occurred between 15 and 20°C, and declined at 30–35°C. Culture studies using cyanobacteria isolated from these crusts indicated that the saturating effect was traceable to their inability to grow well diazotrophically within the high temperature range. Below saturation, temperature response was exponential, with Q10 significantly different in the two areas (~ 5 for Great Basin BSCs; 2–3 for Chihuahuan BSCs), but similar between the two successional stages. However, in contrast to ARA, AO showed a steady increase to 30–35°C in Great Basin, and Chihuhuan BSCs showed no inhibition at any tested temperature. The T response of AO also differed significantly between Great Basin (Q10 of 4.5–4.8) and Chihuahuan (Q10 of 2.4–2.6) BSCs, but not between successional stages. Response of ARA rates to T did not differ from that of AO in either desert. Thus, while both processes scaled to T in unison until 20°C, they separated to an increasing degree at higher temperature. As future warming is likely to occur in the regions where BSCs are often the dominant living cover, this predicted decoupling is expected to result in higher proportion of nitrates in soil relative to ammonium. As nitrate is more easily lost as leachate or to be reduced to gaseous forms, this could mean a depletion of soil N over large landscapes globally.

  4. SMARTS revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasavage, John P.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Smith, R. Christopher; Henry, Todd J.; Walter, Frederick M.; Buxton, Michelle M.

    2010-07-01

    The Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS)* consists of four telescopes atop Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO): the 0.9m, 1.0m, 1.3m, and 1.5m. A consortium of twelve institutions and universities began funding operations in February 2003. Time allocation for these facilities is as follows: ~65% to consortium members, ~25% to the general community, and 10% to Chilean researchers. Thus, resources remain available to the community while providing a unique opportunity for consortium members; the possibility of high temporal cadence monitoring coupled with long time baseline monitoring. Indeed, a number of member programs have benefited from such a schema. Furthermore, two of the four telescopes are scheduled in a queue mode in which observations are collected by service observers. Queue mode investigators have access to spectroscopic observations (both RC and echelle) as well as direct imaging (both optical and near-IR simultaneously). Of the remaining two telescopes, the 1.0m is almost exclusively operated in user mode and contains a 20'×20' FOV optical imager, and the 0.9m is operated both in user and service mode in equal allotments and also has a dedicated optical imager. The latter facilities are frequently used for hands-on student training under the superb sky conditions afforded at CTIO. Currently, three of the partner universities are responsible for managing telescope scheduling and data handling, while one additional university is responsible for some of the instruments. In return, these universities receive additional telescope time. Operations are largely run by a handful of people, with six personnel from the four support universities and seven dedicated personnel in Chile (five observers, one observer support engineer, and one postdoctoral appointee). Thus far, this model has proven to be both an efficient and an effective method for operating the small telescopes at CTIO.

  5. Baseline identification in stable -isotope studies of temperate lotic systems and implications for calculated trophic positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Brinkmann; Riis, Tenna; Dylmer, Hans Erik;

    2016-01-01

    of two common fish species (three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and brown trout Salmo trutta) differed markedly depending on the baseline chosen. The estimated trophic position was lowest when based on Baetidae and highest when using Simuliidae. The trophic position of Gasterosteus...... in the catchment and had a slope deviating from zero for both fish species, despite gut content analysis revealed no such trophic level dependency of land use. This suggests that Baetidae are not good baseline indicators of trophic position, perhaps because their main food item (periphyton) may include nitrogen...

  6. Appearance-Disappearance Relation in 3+$N_{s}$ Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Giunti, C

    2015-01-01

    We derive the relation between the amplitudes of short-baseline appearance and disappearance oscillations in 3+$N_{s}$ neutrino mixing schemes which is the origin of the appearance-disappearance tension that is found from the analysis of the existing data in any 3+$N_{s}$ neutrino mixing scheme. We illustrate the power of the relation to reveal the appearance-disappearance tension in the cases of 3+1 and 3+2 mixing using the results of a global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data.

  7. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S.K.; Aittola, M.; Alekou, A.; Andrieu, B.; Antoniou, F.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Autiero, D.; Besida, O.; Balik, A.; Ballett, P.; Bandac, I.; Banerjee, D.; Bartmann, W.; Bay, F.; Biskup, B.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Borriello, E.; Brancus, I.; Bravar, A.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calviani, M.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Cata-Danil, G.; Chakraborty, S.; Charitonidis, N.; Chaussard, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Chipesiu, F.; Crivelli, P.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Delbart, A.; Di Luise, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eliseev, A.; Emery, S.; Enqvist, T.; Enqvist, K.; Epprecht, L.; Erykalov, A.N.; Esanu, T.; Franco, D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gendotti, A.; Giganti, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Gomoiu, C.M.; Gornushkin, Y.A.; Gorodetzky, P.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Horikawa, S.; Huitu, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jipa, A.; Kainulainen, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kopylov, A.N.; Korzenev, A.; Kosyanenko, S.; Kryn, D.; Kudenko, Y.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lazanu, I.; Lazaridis, C.; Levy, J.M.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Mari, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Mirizzi, A.; Mitrica, B.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Narita, S.; Nesterenko, D.A.; Nguyen, K.; Nikolics, K.; Noah, E.; Novikov, Yu.; Oprima, A.; Osborne, J.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Pectu, M.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Popov, B.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Resnati, F.; Ristea, O.; Robert, A.; Rubbia, A.; Rummukainen, K.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez-Galan, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Saviano, N.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Slupecki, M.; Smargianaki, D.; Stanca, D.; Steerenberg, R.; Sterian, A.R.; Sterian, P.; Stoica, S.; Strabel, C.; Suhonen, J.; Suvorov, V.; Toma, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsenov, R.; Tuominen, K.; Valram, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Velotti, F.; Velten, P.; Venturi, V.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vincke, H.; Vorobyev, A.; Weber, A.; Wu, S.; Yershov, N.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  8. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program seventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.

    1974-07-30

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. All of the baseline vehicles are now operational and are performing Program tests. Vehicle tests completed in this quarter include noise reduction, heater, air conditioning, and underhood temperature evaluations. Testing was completed on the original endurance engine. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) has commenced. Vendor A and Vendor B ceramic regenerator cores were rig tested with an improved elastomeric drive. Vendor A cores with the elastomeric drive are being engine tested. Ceramic regenerator seal wear test rig results are showing promise of achieving a low friction, non-nickel-oxide rubbing surface. The first preprototype integrated control system was delivered and placed in operation on a baseline engine in a test cell. Six ribbed compressor turbine wheels made of IN 792/Hf by the AiResearch Airefrac process were received. Rig testing of the variable inlet guide Vanes was completed and engine testing initiated. Vehicle evaluations of the torque converter lock-up were completed . Specifications for the Upgraded Engine aerodymanic components were made. A subcontract is currently being arranged with Mechanical Technology Inc. (MTI) for design and development of the upgraded engine gas generator bearings and shaft system. An initial feasibility study for gas bearings was completed. Analytical design of the upgraded engine power turbine reduction gears and bearings has commenced. Engine and vehicle accessory drive studies for the upgraded engine are well underway.

  9. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program eighth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1974-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Major preparations for engine heat balance tests by NASA were completed. EPA laboratories completed Baseline vehicle emissions, noise, and odor tests. Assembly of the program endurance engine is nearing completion. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) verified steady state emissions to be extremely low. Initial engine tests of Vendor A ceramic regenerator cores with an elastomeric drive verified performance predictions. Efforts towards developing a non-nickel oxide regenerator seal show extreme sensitivity to porosity differences between cores of different suppliers. All three preprototype integrated control systems were built. Modifications are being worked out to achieve a stable low speed operation. Two prototype compressor turbine wheels made from the reuseable pattern process are being inspected and processed for testing. The engine housing modified for operation at higher cycle temperatures and pressures was received. The baseline engine converted to free rotor is completing test cell check out. The modified vehicle is ready for engine installation. The upgraded engine characterization was updated to include the latest information on V.I.G.V., rotors, and bearings. The upgraded engine housing is being modeled physically and analytically for design and stress studies. An accessory drive system for the upgraded engine was selected, and a final layout is in process.

  10. Estimating complicated baselines in analytical signals using the iterative training of Bayesian regularized artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Kanginejad, Atefeh; Gilany, Kambiz; Valadkhani, Abolfazl

    2016-10-12

    The present work deals with the development of a new baseline correction method based on the comparative learning capabilities of artificial neural networks. The developed method uses the Bayes probability theorem for prevention of the occurrence of the over-fitting and finding a generalized baseline. The developed method has been applied on simulated and real metabolomic gas-chromatography (GC) and Raman data sets. The results revealed that the proposed method can be used to handle different types of baselines with cave, convex, curvelinear, triangular and sinusoidal patterns. For further evaluation of the performances of this method, it has been compared with benchmarking baseline correction methods such as corner-cutting (CC), morphological weighted penalized least squares (MPLS), adaptive iteratively-reweighted penalized least squares (airPLS) and iterative polynomial fitting (iPF). In order to compare the methods, the projected difference resolution (PDR) criterion has been calculated for the data before and after the baseline correction procedure. The calculated values of PDR after the baseline correction using iBRANN, airPLS, MPLS, iPF and CC algorithms for the GC metabolomic data were 4.18, 3.64, 3.88, 1.88 and 3.08, respectively. The obtained results in this work demonstrated that the developed iterative Bayesian regularized neural network (iBRANN) method in this work thoroughly detects the baselines and is superior over the CC, MPLS, airPLS and iPF techniques. A graphical user interface has been developed for the suggested algorithm and can be used for easy implementation of the iBRANN algorithm for the correction of different chromatography, NMR and Raman data sets.

  11. Long baseline neutrino physics: From Fermilab to Kamioka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJongh, Fritz

    2002-03-01

    We have investigated the physics potential of very long baseline experiments designed to measure nu_mu to nu_e oscillation probabilities. The principles of our design are to tune the beam spectrum to the resonance energy for the matter effect, and to have the spectrum cut off rapidly above this energy. The matter effect amplifies the signal, and the cut-off suppresses backgrounds which feed-down from higher energy. The signal-to-noise ratio is potentially better than for any other conventional nu_mu beam experiment. We find that a beam from Fermilab aimed at the Super-K detector has excellent sensitivity to sin^2(2theta_13) and the sign of Delta M^2. If the mass hierarchy is inverted, the beam can be run in antineutrino mode with a similar signal-to-noise ratio, and event rate 55% as high as for the neutrino mode. Combining the Fermilab beam with the JHF-Kamioka proposal adds very complementary information. We find good sensitivity to maximal CP violation for values of sin^2(2theta_13) ranging from 0.001 to 0.05.

  12. Baseline Hearing Measurements in Alaskan Belugas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Marine mammal research permit #14245), Alaska Department of Fish and Game, the Georgia Aquarium and the Alaska Sealife Center. The work involved...restrained animals using auditory evoked potential (AEP) methods (Fig 1). Representatives from NMML, ADF&G, Georgia Aquarium and others were simultaneously...PROJECTS 1) Beluga tagging Health Assessment- NMML/ Georgia Aquarium . Collaborators: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Alaska Sealife Center

  13. Precision Neutrino Oscillation Physics with an Intermediate Baseline Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S; Piai, M; Choubey, Sandhya

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the physics potential of intermediate $L \\sim 20 \\div 30$ km baseline experiments at reactor facilities, assuming that the solar neutrino oscillation parameters $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ and $\\theta_{\\odot}$ lie in the high-LMA solution region. We show that such an intermediate baseline reactor experiment can determine both $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ and $\\theta_{\\odot}$ with a remarkably high precision. We perform also a detailed study of the sensitivity of the indicated experiment to $\\Delta m^2_{\\rm atm}$, which drives the dominant atmospheric $\

  14. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  15. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  16. Baseline arsenic levels in marine and terrestrial resources from a pristine environment: Isabel Island, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinham, Alistair; Kvennefors, Charlotte; Fisher, Paul L; Gibbes, Badin; Albert, Simon

    2014-11-15

    Baseline records are crucial in understanding how chemicals of concern impact on the receiving environment. We analysed terrestrial and marine resources from a pristine site on Isabel Island, Solomon Islands, to provide environmental baseline levels for total arsenic and arsenic species composition for commonly consumed marine resources. Our data show that levels of the more toxic inorganic arsenic species were very low or below detectable limits, with the exception of the seaweed Sargassum sp. that contained pentavalent inorganic arsenic levels of 4.63 μg g(-1). Total arsenic concentrations in the majority of marine and terrestrial samples collected were below 2 μg g(-1). The less toxic arsenobetaine was the predominant arsenic species present in all marine fauna samples analysed. This work highlights the need for arsenic speciation analysis to accurately assess potential toxicity of marine resources and provides a crucial baseline to assess the impact of future development within this region.

  17. Comparison between summing-up algorithms to determine areas of small peaks on high baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Quanlin; Zhang, Jiamei; Chang, Yongfu; Qian, Shaojun

    2005-12-01

    It is found that the minimum detectable activity (MDA) has a same tendency as the relative standard deviation (RSD) and a particular application is characteristic of the ratio of the peak area to the baseline height. Different applications need different algorithms to reduce the RSD of peak areas or the MDA of potential peaks. A model of Gaussian peaks superposed on linear baselines is established to simulate the multichannel spectrum and summing-up algorithms such as total peak area (TPA), and Covell and Sterlinski are compared to find the most appropriate algorithm for different applications. The results show that optimal Covell and Sterlinski algorithms will yield MDA or RSD half lower than TPA when the areas of small peaks on high baselines are to be determined. The conclusion is proved by experiment.

  18. Revealing Event Saliency in Unconstrained Video Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingwen; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Senmao; Chang, Xiaojun

    2017-04-01

    Recent progresses in multimedia event detection have enabled us to find videos about a predefined event from a large-scale video collection. Research towards more intrinsic unsupervised video understanding is an interesting but understudied field. Specifically, given a collection of videos sharing a common event of interest, the goal is to discover the salient fragments, i.e., the curt video fragments that can concisely portray the underlying event of interest, from each video. To explore this novel direction, this paper proposes an unsupervised event saliency revealing framework. It first extracts features from multiple modalities to represent each shot in the given video collection. Then, these shots are clustered to build the cluster-level event saliency revealing framework, which explores useful information cues (i.e., the intra-cluster prior, inter-cluster discriminability, and inter-cluster smoothness) by a concise optimization model. Compared with the existing methods, our approach could highlight the intrinsic stimulus of the unseen event within a video in an unsupervised fashion. Thus, it could potentially benefit to a wide range of multimedia tasks like video browsing, understanding, and search. To quantitatively verify the proposed method, we systematically compare the method to a number of baseline methods on the TRECVID benchmarks. Experimental results have demonstrated its effectiveness and efficiency.

  19. Change Analysis in Structural Laser Scanning Point Clouds: The Baseline Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yueqian; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Wang, Jinhu

    2016-12-24

    A method is introduced for detecting changes from point clouds that avoids registration. For many applications, changes are detected between two scans of the same scene obtained at different times. Traditionally, these scans are aligned to a common coordinate system having the disadvantage that this registration step introduces additional errors. In addition, registration requires stable targets or features. To avoid these issues, we propose a change detection method based on so-called baselines. Baselines connect feature points within one scan. To analyze changes, baselines connecting corresponding points in two scans are compared. As feature points either targets or virtual points corresponding to some reconstructable feature in the scene are used. The new method is implemented on two scans sampling a masonry laboratory building before and after seismic testing, that resulted in damages in the order of several centimeters. The centres of the bricks of the laboratory building are automatically extracted to serve as virtual points. Baselines connecting virtual points and/or target points are extracted and compared with respect to a suitable structural coordinate system. Changes detected from the baseline analysis are compared to a traditional cloud to cloud change analysis demonstrating the potential of the new method for structural analysis.

  20. Using Baseline Studies in the Investigation of Test Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horak, Tania

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of "baseline studies" in investigations of test impact and to illustrate the type of thinking underlying the design and implementation of such studies by reference to a recent study relating to a high-stakes test of English language proficiency. Baseline studies are used to describe an educational…

  1. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline points are used by the BOEM to...

  2. Searching for neutrino oscillation parameters in long baseline experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vihonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Developing neutrino astronomy requires a good understanding of the neutrino oscillations mechanism. The European strategy for neutrino oscillation physics sets a high priority on future long baseline neutrino experiments with the aim to measure the intrinsic parameters that govern the neutrino oscillations. In this work we take a look at the next generation of long baseline experiments and discuss their prospects in future research.

  3. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALMA Partnership, [Unknown; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cox, P.; Amestica, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cotton, W.; Hales, A. S.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kern, J.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Marcelino, N.; Marson, R.; Mignano, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Nikolic, B.; Perez, J. E.; Pérez, L. M.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Butler, B.; Cortes, J.; Cortes, P.; Dhawan, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Mangum, J.; Marconi, G.; Nagai, H.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Gueth, F.; Tatematsu, K.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Karim, A.; Krips, M.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Martin, S.; Maud, L.; Morales, F.; Pietu, V.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Whyborn, N.; Alves, F.; Andreani, P.; Avison, A.; Barta, M.; Bedosti, F.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Bethermin, M.; Biggs, A.; Boissier, J.; Brand, J.; Burkutean, S.; Casasola, V.; Conway, J.; Cortese, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Davis, T. A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Fontani, F.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Fuller, G.; Galvan Madrid, R.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Graves, S. F.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hogerheijde, M.; Jachym, P.; Jimenez Serra, I.; Karlicky, M.; Klaasen, P.; Kraus, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lagos, C.; Longmore, S.; Leurini, S.; Maercker, M.; Magnelli, B.; Marti Vidal, I.; Massardi, M.; Maury, A.; Muehle, S.; Muller, S.; Muxlow, T.; O’Gorman, E.; Paladino, R.; Petry, D.; Pineda, J.; Randall, S.; Richer, J. S.; Rossetti, A.; Rushton, A.; Rygl, K.; Sanchez Monge, A.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Stanke, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Stoehr, F.; Urban, S.; van Kampen, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wang, K.; Wild, W.; Yang, Y.; Iguchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Saito, M.; Inatani, J.; Mizuno, N.; Asayama, S.; Kosugi, G.; Morita, K.-I.; Chiba, K.; Kawashima, S.; Okumura, S. K.; Ohashi, N.; Ogasawara, R.; Sakamoto, S.; Noguchi, T.; Huang, Y.-D.; Liu, S.-Y.; Kemper, F.; Koch, P. M.; Chen, M.-T.; Chikada, Y.; Hiramatsu, M.; Iono, D.; Shimojo, M.; Komugi, S.; Kim, J.; Lyo, A.-R.; Muller, E.; Herrera, C.; Miura, R. E.; Ueda, J.; Chibueze, J.; Su, Y.-N.; Trejo-Cruz, A.; Wang, K.-S.; Kiuchi, H.; Ukita, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Kawabe, R.; Hayashi, M.; Miyama, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kaifu, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Beasley, A. J.; Bhatnagar, S.; Braatz, J. A., III; Brisbin, D. G.; Brunetti, N.; Carilli, C.; Crossley, J. H.; D’Addario, L.; Donovan Meyer, J. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Evans, A. S.; Fisher, P.; Golap, K.; Griffith, D. M.; Hale, A. E.; Halstead, D.; Hardy, E. J.; Hatz, M. C.; Holdaway, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Jewell, P. R.; Kepley, A. A.; Kim, D.-C.; Lacy, M. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Liszt, H. S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Matthews, B.; McKinnon, M.; Mason, B. S.; Moellenbrock, G.; Moullet, A.; Myers, S. T.; Ott, J.; Peck, A. B.; Pisano, J.; Radford, S. J. E.; Randolph, W. T.; Rao Venkata, U.; Rawlings, M. G.; Rosen, R.; Schnee, S. L.; Scott, K. S.; Sharp, N. K.; Sheth, K.; Simon, R. S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried

  4. Adapting the M3 Surveillance Metrics for an Unknown Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abes, Jeff I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaramillo, Brandon Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The original M3 surveillance metrics assume that the baseline is known. In this article, adapted M3 metrics are presented when the baseline is not known and estimated by available data. Deciding on how much available data is enough is also discussed.

  5. 77 FR 26535 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 26, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions...

  6. 77 FR 31841 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  7. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling, Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  8. Updated baseline for a staged Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Boland, M J; Giansiracusa, P J; Lucas, T G; Rassool, R P; Balazs, C; Charles, T K; Afanaciev, K; Emeliantchik, I; Ignatenko, A; Makarenko, V; Shumeiko, N; Patapenka, A; Zhuk, I; Abusleme Hoffman, A C; Diaz Gutierrez, M A; Gonzalez, M Vogel; Chi, Y; He, X; Pei, G; Pei, S; Shu, G; Wang, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, F; Zhou, Z; Chen, H; Gao, Y; Huang, W; Kuang, Y P; Li, B; Li, Y; Shao, J; Shi, J; Tang, C; Wu, X; Ma, L; Han, Y; Fang, W; Gu, Q; Huang, D; Huang, X; Tan, J; Wang, Z; Zhao, Z; Laštovička, T; Uggerhoj, U; Wistisen, T N; Aabloo, A; Eimre, K; Kuppart, K; Vigonski, S; Zadin, V; Aicheler, M; Baibuz, E; Brücken, E; Djurabekova, F; Eerola, P; Garcia, F; Haeggström, E; Huitu, K; Jansson, V; Karimaki, V; Kassamakov, I; Kyritsakis, A; Lehti, S; Meriläinen, A; Montonen, R; Niinikoski, T; Nordlund, K; Österberg, K; Parekh, M; Törnqvist, N A; Väinölä, J; Veske, M; Farabolini, W; Mollard, A; Napoly, O; Peauger, F; Plouin, J; Bambade, P; Chaikovska, I; Chehab, R; Davier, M; Kaabi, W; Kou, E; LeDiberder, F; Pöschl, R; Zerwas, D; Aimard, B; Balik, G; Baud, J-P; Blaising, J-J; Brunetti, L; Chefdeville, M; Drancourt, C; Geoffroy, N; Jacquemier, J; Jeremie, A; Karyotakis, Y; Nappa, J M; Vilalte, S; Vouters, G; Bernard, A; Peric, I; Gabriel, M; Simon, F; Szalay, M; van der Kolk, N; Alexopoulos, T; Gazis, E N; Gazis, N; Ikarios, E; Kostopoulos, V; Kourkoulis, S; Gupta, P D; Shrivastava, P; Arfaei, H; Dayyani, M K; Ghasem, H; Hajari, S S; Shaker, H; Ashkenazy, Y; Abramowicz, H; Benhammou, Y; Borysov, O; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Levy, I; Rosenblat, O; D'Auria, G; Di Mitri, S; Abe, T; Aryshev, A; Higo, T; Makida, Y; Matsumoto, S; Shidara, T; Takatomi, T; Takubo, Y; Tauchi, T; Toge, N; Ueno, K; Urakawa, J; Yamamoto, A; Yamanaka, M; Raboanary, R; Hart, R; van der Graaf, H; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Adli, E; Lillestøl, R; Malina, L; Pfingstner, J; Sjobak, K N; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Hoorani, H; Bugiel, S; Dasgupta, R; Firlej, M; Fiutowski, T A; Idzik, M; Kopec, M; Kuczynska, M; Moron, J; Swientek, K P; Daniluk, W; Krupa, B; Kucharczyk, M; Lesiak, T; Moszczynski, A; Pawlik, B; Sopicki, P; Wojtoń, T; Zawiejski, L; Kalinowski, J; Krawczyk, M; Żarnecki, A F; Firu, E; Ghenescu, V; Neagu, A T; Preda, T; Zgura, I-S; Aloev, A; Azaryan, N; Budagov, J; Chizhov, M; Filippova, M; Glagolev, V; Gongadze, A; Grigoryan, S; Gudkov, D; Karjavine, V; Lyablin, M; Olyunin, A; Samochkine, A; Sapronov, A; Shirkov, G; Soldatov, V; Solodko, A; Solodko, E; Trubnikov, G; Tyapkin, I; Uzhinsky, V; Vorozhtov, A; Levichev, E; Mezentsev, N; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Zolotarev, K; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Kacarevic, G; Lukic, S; Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, G; Pandurovic, M; Iriso, U; Perez, F; Pont, M; Trenado, J; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Calero, J; Garcia-Tabares, L; Gavela, D; Gutierrez, J L; Lopez, D; Toral, F; Moya, D; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Vila, I; Argyropoulos, T; Blanch Gutierrez, C; Boronat, M; Esperante, D; Faus-Golfe, A; Fuster, J; Fuster Martinez, N; Galindo Muñoz, N; García, I; Giner Navarro, J; Ros, E; Vos, M; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T; Jacewicz, M; Ögren, J; Olvegård, M; Ruber, R; Ziemann, V; Aguglia, D; Alipour Tehrani, N; Aloev, A; Andersson, A; Andrianala, F; Antoniou, F; Artoos, K; Atieh, S; Ballabriga Sune, R; Barnes, M J; Barranco Garcia, J; Bartosik, H; Belver-Aguilar, C; Benot Morell, A; Bett, D R; Bettoni, S; Blanchot, G; Blanco Garcia, O; Bonnin, X A; Brunner, O; Burkhardt, H; Calatroni, S; Campbell, M; Catalan Lasheras, N; Cerqueira Bastos, M; Cherif, A; Chevallay, E; Constance, B; Corsini, R; Cure, B; Curt, S; Dalena, B; Dannheim, D; De Michele, G; De Oliveira, L; Deelen, N; Delahaye, J P; Dobers, T; Doebert, S; Draper, M; Duarte Ramos, F; Dubrovskiy, A; Elsener, K; Esberg, J; Esposito, M; Fedosseev, V; Ferracin, P; Fiergolski, A; Foraz, K; Fowler, A; Friebel, F; Fuchs, J-F; Fuentes Rojas, C A; Gaddi, A; Garcia Fajardo, L; Garcia Morales, H; Garion, C; Gatignon, L; Gayde, J-C; Gerwig, H; Goldblatt, A N; Grefe, C; Grudiev, A; Guillot-Vignot, F G; Gutt-Mostowy, M L; Hauschild, M; Hessler, C; Holma, J K; Holzer, E; Hourican, M; Hynds, D; Inntjore Levinsen, Y; Jeanneret, B; Jensen, E; Jonker, M; Kastriotou, M; Kemppinen, J M K; Kieffer, R B; Klempt, W; Kononenko, O; Korsback, A; Koukovini Platia, E; Kovermann, J W; Kozsar, C-I; Kremastiotis, I; Kulis, S; Latina, A; Leaux, F; Lebrun, P; Lefevre, T; Linssen, L; Llopart Cudie, X; Maier, A A; Mainaud Durand, H; Manosperti, E; Marelli, C; Marin Lacoma, E; Martin, R; Mazzoni, S; Mcmonagle, G; Mete, O; Mether, L M; Modena, M; Münker, R M; Muranaka, T; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nikiforou, N; Nisbet, D; Nonglaton, J-M; Nuiry, F X; Nürnberg, A; Olvegard, M; Osborne, J; Papadopoulou, S; Papaphilippou, Y; Passarelli, A; Patecki, M; Pazdera, L; Pellegrini, D; Pepitone, K; Perez, F; Perez Codina, E; Perez Fontenla, A; Persson, T H B; Petrič, M; Pitters, F; Pittet, S; Plassard, F; Rajamak, R; Redford, S; Renier, Y; Rey, S F; Riddone, G; Rinolfi, L; Rodriguez Castro, E; Roloff, P; Rossi, C; Rude, V; Rumolo, G; Sailer, A; Santin, E; Schlatter, D; Schmickler, H; Schulte, D; Shipman, N; Sicking, E; Simoniello, R; Skowronski, P K; Sobrino Mompean, P; Soby, L; Sosin, M P; Sroka, S; Stapnes, S; Sterbini, G; Ström, R; Syratchev, I; Tecker, F; Thonet, P A; Timeo, L; Timko, H; Tomas Garcia, R; Valerio, P; Vamvakas, A L; Vivoli, A; Weber, M A; Wegner, R; Wendt, M; Woolley, B; Wuensch, W; Uythoven, J; Zha, H; Zisopoulos, P; Benoit, M; Vicente Barreto Pinto, M; Bopp, M; Braun, H H; Csatari Divall, M; Dehler, M; Garvey, T; Raguin, J Y; Rivkin, L; Zennaro, R; Aksoy, A; Nergiz, Z; Pilicer, E; Tapan, I; Yavas, O; Baturin, V; Kholodov, R; Lebedynskyi, S; Miroshnichenko, V; Mordyk, S; Profatilova, I; Storizhko, V; Watson, N; Winter, A; Goldstein, J; Green, S; Marshall, J S; Thomson, M A; Xu, B; Gillespie, W A; Pan, R; Tyrk, M A; Protopopescu, D; Robson, A; Apsimon, R; Bailey, I; Burt, G; Constable, D; Dexter, A; Karimian, S; Lingwood, C; Buckland, M D; Casse, G; Vossebeld, J; Bosco, A; Karataev, P; Kruchinin, K; Lekomtsev, K; Nevay, L; Snuverink, J; Yamakawa, E; Boisvert, V; Boogert, S; Boorman, G; Gibson, S; Lyapin, A; Shields, W; Teixeira-Dias, P; West, S; Jones, R; Joshi, N; Bodenstein, R; Burrows, P N; Christian, G B; Gamba, D; Perry, C; Roberts, J; Clarke, J A; Collomb, N A; Jamison, S P; Shepherd, B J A; Walsh, D; Demarteau, M; Repond, J; Weerts, H; Xia, L; Wells, J D; Adolphsen, C; Barklow, T; Breidenbach, M; Graf, N; Hewett, J; Markiewicz, T; McCormick, D; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Oriunno, M; Phinney, N; Rizzo, T; Tantawi, S; Wang, F; Wang, J; White, G; Woodley, M

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV high-luminosity linear e+e- collider under development. For an optimal exploitation of its physics potential, CLIC is foreseen to be built and operated in a staged approach with three centre-of-mass energy stages ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The first stage will focus on precision Standard Model physics, in particular Higgs and top-quark measurements. Subsequent stages will focus on measurements of rare Higgs processes, as well as searches for new physics processes and precision measurements of new states, e.g. states previously discovered at LHC or at CLIC itself. In the 2012 CLIC Conceptual Design Report, a fully optimised 3 TeV collider was presented, while the proposed lower energy stages were not studied to the same level of detail. This report presents an updated baseline staging scenario for CLIC. The scenario is the result of a comprehensive study addressing the performance, cost and power of the CLIC accelerator complex as a function of...

  9. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program ninth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1975-01-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed the first phase of their baseline engine heat balance tests, and an upgraded engine compressor is being scaled for test. EPA completed their report on vehicle tests including emissions and vehicle performance, and a new endurance engine is on test. Significant development progress was made on both fixed and variable geometry combustors. After 45 hours of engine operation with Vendor A ceramic regenerator, no significant deterioration of the matrix, seals, or elastomeric mount was encountered. Ceramic regenerator stress analysis has commenced. Additional developments in non-nickel oxide regenerator rubbing seals are encouraging. The first preprototype integrated control system is in vehicle operation. Control adaptation for variable inlet guide vanes and water injection is progressing. AiRefrac turbine wheels were verified dimensionally and are being processed for engine testing. Water injection tests with a four nozzle system were run, and additional performance documentation of variable inlet guide vanes was obtained. Linerless insulation is on test in the free rotor engine, the new endurance engine, and a performance engine. The free rotor engine completed test cell checkout and was installed in a vehicle. Vehicle checkout, including a preprototype integrated control, is underway. Detailed specifications of the upgraded engine were written.

  10. The MINK methodology: background and baseline. [USA - Midwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Crosson, P.R.; Frederick, K.D.; Easterling, W.E. III; McKenney, M.S.; Bowes, M.D.; Sedjo, R.A.; Darmstadter, J.; Katz, L.A.; Lemon, K.M. (Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-06-01

    A four step methodology has been developed for study of the regional impacts of climate change and the possible responses thereto. First the region's climate sensitive sectors and total economy are described (Task A, current baseline). Next a scenario of climate change is imposed on the current baseline (Task B, current baseline with climate change). A new baseline describing the climate sensitive sectors and total regional economy is projected for some time in the future (Task C, future baseline, year 2030) in the absence of climate change. Finally, the climate change scenario is reimposed on the future baseline (Task D, future baseline with climate change). Impacts of the climate change scenario on the current and future regional economies are determined by means of simulation models and other appropriate techniques. These techniques are also used to assess the impacts of an elevated CO[sub 2] concentration (450 ppm) and of various forms of adjustments and adaptations. The region chosen for the first test of the methodology is composed of the four U.S. states of Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska and Kansas. The climate change scenario is the actual weather of the 1930s decade in the MINK region. 'Current' climate is the actual weather of the period 1951-1980. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Neutrino oscillations: what is magic about the "magic" baseline?

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    Physics interpretation of the ``magic'' baseline that can play important role in future oscillation experiments is given. The ``magic'' baseline coincides with the refraction length, $l_0$. The latter, in turn, approximately equals the oscillation length in matter at high energies. Therefore at the baseline $L = l_0$ the oscillation phase is $2\\pi$, and consequently, the ``solar'' amplitude of oscillations driven by the mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ and mass splitting $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ vanishes. As a result, in the lowest order (i) the interference of amplitudes in the $\

  12. Assessment of the relationships between myocardial contractility and infarct tissue revealed by serial magnetic resonance imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Christie; Carrick, David; McClure, John D; Woodward, Rosemary; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Foster, John E; Berry, Colin

    2015-08-01

    Imaging changes in left ventricular (LV) volumes during the cardiac cycle and LV ejection fraction do not provide information on regional contractility. Displacement ENcoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) is a strain-encoded cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) technique that measures strain directly. We investigated the relationships between strain revealed by DENSE and the presence and extent of infarction in patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI). 50 male subjects were invited to undergo serial CMR within 7 days of MI (baseline) and after 6 months (follow-up; n = 47). DENSE and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images were acquired to enable localised regional quantification of peak circumferential strain (Ecc) and the extent of infarction, respectively. We assessed: (1) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for the classification of LGE, (2) strain differences according to LGE status (remote, adjacent, infarcted) and (3) changes in strain revealed between baseline and follow-up. 300 and 258 myocardial segments were available for analysis at baseline and follow-up respectively. LGE was present in 130/300 (43%) and 97/258 (38%) segments, respectively. ROC analysis revealed moderately high values for peak Ecc at baseline [threshold 12.8%; area-under-curve (AUC) 0.88, sensitivity 84%, specificity 78%] and at follow-up (threshold 15.8%; AUC 0.76, sensitivity 85%, specificity 64%). Differences were observed between remote, adjacent and infarcted segments. Between baseline and follow-up, increases in peak Ecc were observed in infarcted segments (median difference of 5.6%) and in adjacent segments (1.5%). Peak Ecc at baseline was indicative of the change in LGE status between baseline and follow-up. Strain-encoded CMR with DENSE has the potential to provide clinically useful information on contractility and its recovery over time in patients with MI.

  13. Baseline inventory data recommendations for National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team recommends that each refuge have available abiotic “data layers” for topography, aerial photography, hydrography, soils, boundaries, and...

  14. Baseline inventory data users guide to abiotic GIS layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team was chartered by the Fulfilling the Promises Implementation Team to recommend minimum abiotic and biotic inventories for the National...

  15. Sterile Neutrino Fits to Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Conrad

    2013-01-01

    (3 + 2 and (3 + 3 fits, rather than (3 + 1 fits, for future neutrino oscillation phenomenology. These results motivate the pursuit of further short-baseline experiments, such as those reviewed in this paper.

  16. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  17. Baseline vegetation mapping : Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for the baseline vegetation mapping project on Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge. This project aims to create a vegetation map showing the...

  18. Butler Hollow Glades : Baseline assessment and vegetation monitoring establishment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several sampling and documentation protocols were implemented to establish baseline vegetation data. These data will provide a comparison point for future...

  19. 40 CFR 80.93 - Individual baseline submission and approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: (i) Refinery block flow diagram, showing principal refining units; (ii) Principal refining unit... parameter for which a baseline value is required, per § 80.91: (i) Narrative of the development of...

  20. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  1. Seier NWR second year baseline CCP preparation surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for a project to collect baseline biological information on John W. And Louise Seier National Wildlife Refuge, to aid in preparation of 2014...

  2. LBCS: The LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N.; Tagore, A.; Deller, A.; Moldón, J.; Varenius, E.; Morabito, L.; Wucknitz, O.; Carozzi, T.; Conway, J.; Drabent, A.; Kapinska, A.; Orrù, E.; Brentjens, M.; Blaauw, R.; Kuper, G.; Sluman, J.; Schaap, J.; Vermaas, N.; Iacobelli, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Shulevski, A.; ter Veen, S.; Fallows, R.; Pizzo, R.; Sipior, M.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, G. M.; Maat, P.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D. J.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wise, M. W.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2016-11-01

    We outline the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey (LBCS), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (≳ 50 - 100 mJy) at frequencies around 110-190 MHz on scales of a few hundred milliarcseconds. At least for the 200-300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas - typically a few degrees - around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200-600 km, with good calibrators on the longest baselines appearing only at the rate of 0.5 per sq. deg. Coherence times decrease from 1-3 min on 200-km baselines to about 1 min on 600-km baselines, suggesting that ionospheric phase variations contain components with scales of a few hundred kilometres. The longest median coherence time, at just over 3 min, is seen on the DE609 baseline, which at 227 km is close to being the shortest. We see median coherence times of between 80 and 110 s on the four longest baselines (580-600 km), and about 2 min for the other baselines. The success of phase transfer from calibrator to target is shown to be influenced by distance, in a manner that suggests a coherence patch at 150-MHz of the order of 1 deg. Although source structures cannot be measured in these observations, we deduce that phase transfer is affected if the calibrator source structure is not known. We give suggestions for calibration strategies and choice of calibrator sources, and describe the access to

  3. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arnay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle.

  4. Study of space shuttle orbiter system management computer function. Volume 1: Analysis, baseline design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A system analysis of the shuttle orbiter baseline system management (SM) computer function is performed. This analysis results in an alternative SM design which is also described. The alternative design exhibits several improvements over the baseline, some of which are increased crew usability, improved flexibility, and improved growth potential. The analysis consists of two parts: an application assessment and an implementation assessment. The former is concerned with the SM user needs and design functional aspects. The latter is concerned with design flexibility, reliability, growth potential, and technical risk. The system analysis is supported by several topical investigations. These include: treatment of false alarms, treatment of off-line items, significant interface parameters, and a design evaluation checklist. An in-depth formulation of techniques, concepts, and guidelines for design of automated performance verification is discussed.

  5. MALDI-TOF Baseline Drift Removal Using Stochastic Bernstein Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic Bernstein (SB approximation can tackle the problem of baseline drift correction of instrumentation data. This is demonstrated for spectral data: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF data. Two SB schemes for removing the baseline drift are presented: iterative and direct. Following an explanation of the origin of the MALDI-TOF baseline drift that sheds light on the inherent difficulty of its removal by chemical means, SB baseline drift removal is illustrated for both proteomics and genomics MALDI-TOF data sets. SB is an elegant signal processing method to obtain a numerically straightforward baseline shift removal method as it includes a free parameter that can be optimized for different baseline drift removal applications. Therefore, research that determines putative biomarkers from the spectral data might benefit from a sensitivity analysis to the underlying spectral measurement that is made possible by varying the SB free parameter. This can be manually tuned (for constant or tuned with evolutionary computation (for .

  6. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  7. Revised CDM baseline study on fuel use and manure management at household level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buysman, E.; Bryan, S.; Pino, M.

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters. In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP's 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang. The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene. The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.

  8. Photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency: setting a baseline for gauging future improvements in important food and biofuel crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Rebecca A; Ort, Donald R

    2015-06-01

    The conversion efficiency (ε(c)) of absorbed radiation into biomass (MJ of dry matter per MJ of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) is a component of yield potential that has been estimated at less than half the theoretical maximum. Various strategies have been proposed to improve ε(c), but a statistical analysis to establish baseline ε(c) levels across different crop functional types is lacking. Data from 164 published ε(c) studies conducted in relatively unstressed growth conditions were used to determine the means, greatest contributors to variation, and genetic trends in ε(c )across important food and biofuel crop species. ε(c) was greatest in biofuel crops (0.049-0.066), followed by C4 food crops (0.046-0.049), C3 nonlegumes (0.036-0.041), and finally C3 legumes (0.028-0.035). Despite confining our analysis to relatively unstressed growth conditions, total incident solar radiation and average growing season temperature most often accounted for the largest portion of ε(c) variability. Genetic improvements in ε(c), when present, were less than 0.7% per year, revealing the unrealized potential of improving ε(c) as a promising contributing strategy to meet projected future agricultural demand.

  9. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  10. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic

  11. Baseline and Lifetime Assessments for DC745U Elastomeric Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, R S; Chinn, S C; Herberg, J; Harvey, C; Alviso, C; Vance, A; Cohenour, R; Wilson, M; Solyom, D

    2004-12-20

    The silicone elastomer Dow Corning DC 745U is used in two major components in the W80. We have investigated a number of issues concerning this material. Our studies have accomplished a baseline study of the chemical composition of DC745 and LLNL now has a good understanding of the chemical composition of this material. DC745 crystallizes within the system STS. Two potential means identified to mitigate the risk associated with this phenomenon are to (1) change material formulation and (2) predose the parts to {approx} 25 MRad {gamma}-radiation. A candidate material identified by Gordon Spellman has been studied for composition and the lack of crystallization within the STS has been verified. A sensitivity study of the effects of relevant aging mechanisms also has been performed. The extent of aging due to radiation exposure or elevated temperatures is minimal over the expected course of the LEP. In addition, since the DC745 parts are expected to be replaced at rebuild, the aging clock is essentially being reset. No significant aging issues seem likely to develop for these parts. DC745 parts are also subject to permanent deformation in service. Our studies have shown that the deformation is likely due to incomplete mixing of the raw gum stock and the curing agent at production. This results in areas of low crosslink density that are subject to a higher degree of compression set in service. We have identified two production diagnostic tools based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to prescreen the parts at production at KCP. These studies are concluded with specific recommendation for changes to core surveillance for this part based on the chemical knowledge we have gained from this study.

  12. PCANet: A Simple Deep Learning Baseline for Image Classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tsung-Han; Jia, Kui; Gao, Shenghua; Lu, Jiwen; Zeng, Zinan; Ma, Yi

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a very simple deep learning network for image classification that is based on very basic data processing components: 1) cascaded principal component analysis (PCA); 2) binary hashing; and 3) blockwise histograms. In the proposed architecture, the PCA is employed to learn multistage filter banks. This is followed by simple binary hashing and block histograms for indexing and pooling. This architecture is thus called the PCA network (PCANet) and can be extremely easily and efficiently designed and learned. For comparison and to provide a better understanding, we also introduce and study two simple variations of PCANet: 1) RandNet and 2) LDANet. They share the same topology as PCANet, but their cascaded filters are either randomly selected or learned from linear discriminant analysis. We have extensively tested these basic networks on many benchmark visual data sets for different tasks, including Labeled Faces in the Wild (LFW) for face verification; the MultiPIE, Extended Yale B, AR, Facial Recognition Technology (FERET) data sets for face recognition; and MNIST for hand-written digit recognition. Surprisingly, for all tasks, such a seemingly naive PCANet model is on par with the state-of-the-art features either prefixed, highly hand-crafted, or carefully learned [by deep neural networks (DNNs)]. Even more surprisingly, the model sets new records for many classification tasks on the Extended Yale B, AR, and FERET data sets and on MNIST variations. Additional experiments on other public data sets also demonstrate the potential of PCANet to serve as a simple but highly competitive baseline for texture classification and object recognition.

  13. Long-baseline optical intensity interferometry: Laboratory demonstration of diffraction-limited imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    A long-held vision has been to realize diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometer baselines. This will enable imaging of stellar surfaces and their environments, and reveal interacting gas flows in binary systems. An opportunity is now opening up with the large telescope arrays primarily erected for measuring Cherenkov light in air induced by gamma rays. With suitable software, such telescopes could be electronically connected and also used for intensity interferometry. Second-order spatial coherence of light is obtained by cross correlating intensity fluctuations measured in different pairs of telescopes. With no optical links between them, the error budget is set by the electronic time resolution of a few nanoseconds. Corresponding light-travel distances are approximately one meter, making the method practically immune to atmospheric turbulence or optical imperfections, permitting both very long baselines and observing at short optical wavelengths. Previous theoretical modeling has shown ...

  14. Stellar intensity interferometry over kilometer baselines: Laboratory simulation of observations with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2014-01-01

    A long-held astronomical vision is to realize diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometer baselines. This will enable imaging of stellar surfaces and their environments, show their evolution over time, and reveal interactions of stellar winds and gas flows in binary star systems. An opportunity is now opening up with the large telescope arrays primarily erected for measuring Cherenkov light in air induced by gamma rays. With suitable software, such telescopes could be electronically connected and used also for intensity interferometry. With no optical connection between the telescopes, the error budget is set by the electronic time resolution of a few nanoseconds. Corresponding light-travel distances are on the order of one meter, making the method practically insensitive to atmospheric turbulence or optical imperfections, permitting both very long baselines and observing at short optical wavelengths. Theoretical modeling has shown how stellar surface images can be retrieved from such observ...

  15. Geosynchronous platform definition study. Volume 4, Part 1: Traffic analysis and system requirements for the baseline traffic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The traffic analyses and system requirements data generated in the study resulted in the development of two traffic models; the baseline traffic model and the new traffic model. The baseline traffic model provides traceability between the numbers and types of geosynchronous missions considered in the study and the entire spectrum of missions foreseen in the total national space program. The information presented pertaining to the baseline traffic model includes: (1) definition of the baseline traffic model, including identification of specific geosynchronous missions and their payload delivery schedules through 1990; (2) Satellite location criteria, including the resulting distribution of the satellite population; (3) Geosynchronous orbit saturation analyses, including the effects of satellite physical proximity and potential electromagnetic interference; and (4) Platform system requirements analyses, including satellite and mission equipment descriptions, the options and limitations in grouping satellites, and on-orbit servicing criteria (both remotely controlled and man-attended).

  16. Baseline Correction of Diffuse Reflection Near-Infrared Spectra Using Searching Region Standard Normal Variate (SRSNV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkawa, Takuma; Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Kato, Hideaki; Ishikawa, Daitaro; Murayama, Kodai; Komiyama, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2015-12-01

    An alternative baseline correction method for diffuse reflection near-infrared (NIR) spectra, searching region standard normal variate (SRSNV), was proposed. Standard normal variate (SNV) is an effective pretreatment method for baseline correction of diffuse reflection NIR spectra of powder and granular samples; however, its baseline correction performance depends on the NIR region used for SNV calculation. To search for an optimal NIR region for baseline correction using SNV, SRSNV employs moving window partial least squares regression (MWPLSR), and an optimal NIR region is identified based on the root mean square error (RMSE) of cross-validation of the partial least squares regression (PLSR) models with the first latent variable (LV). The performance of SRSNV was evaluated using diffuse reflection NIR spectra of mixture samples consisting of wheat flour and granular glucose (0-100% glucose at 5% intervals). From the obtained NIR spectra of the mixture in the 10 000-4000 cm(-1) region at 4 cm intervals (1501 spectral channels), a series of spectral windows consisting of 80 spectral channels was constructed, and then SNV spectra were calculated for each spectral window. Using these SNV spectra, a series of PLSR models with the first LV for glucose concentration was built. A plot of RMSE versus the spectral window position obtained using the PLSR models revealed that the 8680–8364 cm(-1) region was optimal for baseline correction using SNV. In the SNV spectra calculated using the 8680–8364 cm(-1) region (SRSNV spectra), a remarkable relative intensity change between a band due to wheat flour at 8500 cm(-1) and that due to glucose at 8364 cm(-1) was observed owing to successful baseline correction using SNV. A PLSR model with the first LV based on the SRSNV spectra yielded a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.999 and an RMSE of 0.70%, while a PLSR model with three LVs based on SNV spectra calculated in the full spectral region gave an R2 of 0.995 and an RMSE of

  17. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  18. Detection of abrupt baseline length changes using cumulative sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Volker

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic processes are usually monitored by collecting a time series of observations, which is then analysed in order to detect any motion or non-standard behaviour. Geodetic examples include the monitoring of dams, bridges, high-rise buildings, landslides, volcanoes and tectonic motion. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) test is recognised as a popular means to detect changes in the mean and/or the standard deviation of a time series and has been applied to various monitoring tasks. This paper briefly describes the CUSUM technique and how it can be utilised for the detection of small baseline length changes by differencing two perpendicular baselines sharing a common site. A simulation is carried out in order to investigate the expected behaviour of the resulting CUSUM charts for a variety of typical deformation monitoring scenarios. This simulation shows that using first differences (between successive epochs) as input, rather than the original baseline lengths, produces clear peaks or jumps in the differenced CUSUM time series when a sudden change in baseline length occurs. These findings are validated by analysing several GPS baseline pairs of a network deployed to monitor the propagation of an active ice shelf rift on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica.

  19. Combined GPS + BDS for short to long baseline RTK positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odolinski, R.; Teunissen, P. J. G.; Odijk, D.

    2015-04-01

    The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has become fully operational in the Asia-Pacific region and it is of importance to evaluate what BDS brings when combined with the Global Positioning System (GPS). In this contribution we will look at the short, medium and long single-baseline real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning performance. Short baseline refers to when the distance between the two receivers is at most a few kilometers so that the relative slant ionospheric and tropospheric delays can be assumed absent, whereas with medium baseline we refer to when the uncertainty of these ionospheric delays can reliably be modeled as a function of the baseline length. With long baseline we refer to the necessity to parameterize the ionospheric delays and (wet) Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) as completely unknown. The GNSS real data are collected in Perth, Australia. It will be shown that combining the two systems allows for the use of higher than customary elevation cut-off angles. This can be of particular benefit in environments with restricted satellite visibility such as in open pit mines or urban canyons.

  20. LBCS: the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, N; Deller, A; Moldón, J; Varenius, E; Morabito, L; Wucknitz, O; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Drabent, A; Kapinska, A; Orrù, E; Brentjens, M; Blaauw, R; Kuper, G; Sluman, J; Schaap, J; Vermaas, N; Iacobelli, M; Cerrigone, L; Shulevski, A; ter Veen, S; Fallows, R; Pizzo, R; Sipior, M; Anderson, J; Avruch, M; Bell, M; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brouw, W; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Garrett, M; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A; van Haarlem, M; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Intema, H; Juette, E; Kuniyoshi, M; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, G; Maat, P; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J; Mulcahy, D; Munk, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Polatidis, A; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A; Schwarz, D; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R; Wise, M; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2016-01-01

    (abridged). We outline LBCS (the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (50-100mJy) at frequencies around 110--190~MHz on scales of a few hundred mas. At least for the 200--300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas -- typically a few degrees -- around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200--600~km, with good calibrators on the longest...

  1. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  2. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  3. Subtracting Technique of Baselines for Capillary Electrophoresis Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; MO Jin-yuan; CHEN Zuan-guang; GAO Yan

    2004-01-01

    The drifting baselines of capillary electrophoresis affect the veracity of analysis greatly. This paper presents Threshold Fitting Technique(TFT) so as to subtract the baselines from the original signals and emendate the signals. In TFT, wav elet and curve fitting technique are applied synthetically, thresholds are decided by the computer automatically. Many experiments of signal processing indicate that TFT is simple for being used, there are few man-induced factors, and the results are satisfactory. TFT can be applied for noisy signals without any pre-processing.

  4. EQUIVALENT BASELINE AND INTERFEROMETRIC PHASE OF CLUSTER SATELLITE SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Min; Zhang Chuanwu; Huang Shunji

    2005-01-01

    The change of the equivalent baseline and interferometric phase of cluster SAR satellites is analyzed when the constellation circles around the Earth and the satellites rotate around the center at the same time. The letter provides assessment of baseline error and phase error which influence the precision of height measurement in the across-track interferometric mode. The mathematical model of cluster satellite movement is built, simulation analyses and the curve of height error are presented. The simulation results show that height measurement error can be compensated by the formulae derived in this letter, therefore, the Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) are recovered accurately.

  5. Intermediate baseline appearance experiments and three-neutrino mixing schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Cardall, C Y; Cline, D; Cardall, Christian Y.; Fuller, George M.; Cline, David

    1997-01-01

    Three-neutrino mixing schemes suggested by Cardall \\& Fuller and Acker \\& Pakvasa are compared and contrasted. Both of these schemes seek to solve the solar and atmospheric neutrino problems {\\em and} to account for the possible neutrino oscillation signal in the LSND experiment. These neutrino oscillation schemes have different atmospheric and solar neutrino signatures that will be discriminated by Super-Kamiokande and SNO. They will also have different signatures in proposed long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments. In particular, both of these schemes would give dramatic (and dramatically different) signals in an ``intermediate baseline'' experiment, such as the proposed ICARUS detector in the Jura mountains 17 km from CERN.

  6. Hepatitis C treatment response kinetics and impact of baseline predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, M; Arnholm, B; Eilard, A

    2011-01-01

    Summary. The optimal duration of treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is highly variable but critical for achieving cure (sustained virological response, SVR). We prospectively investigated the impact of age, fibrosis, baseline viraemia and genotype on the early viral kinetics...... above 400 000 IU/mL were strongly associated with slower second phase declines of HCV RNA. Genotype 2/3 infections responded more rapidly than genotype 1, reaching week 4 negativity (RVR) in 59%vs 22%. We conclude that baseline response predictors such as age, fibrosis and viral load were well reflected...

  7. Solar central electric power generation - A baseline design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the conceptual technical baseline design of a solar electric power plant using the central receiver concept, and derives credible cost estimates from the baseline design. The major components of the plant - heliostats, tower, receiver, tower piping, and thermal storage - are discussed in terms of technical and cost information. The assumed peak plant output is 215 MW(e), over 4000 daylight hours. The contribution of total capital investment to energy cost is estimated to be about 55 mills per kwh in mid-1974 dollars.

  8. Detecting dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Pei-Hong; BI Xiao-Jun; FENG Bo; YOUNG Bing-Lin; ZHANG Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a possibility of studying properties of dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We consider two types of models of neutrino dark energy. For one type of models the scalar field is taken to be quintessence-like and for the other phantom-like. In these models the scalar fields couple to the neutrinos to give rise to spatially varying neutrino masses. We will show that the two types of models predict different behaviors of the spatial variation of the neutrino masses inside the Earth and consequently result in different signals in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  9. The 2010 Interim Report of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment Collaboration Physics Working Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Akiri, T; Andrews, M; Arisaka, K; Arrieta-Diaz, E; Artuso, M; Bai, X; Balantekin, B; Baller, B; Barletta, W; Barr, G; Bass, M; Beck, A; Becker, B; Bellini, V; Benhar, O; Berger, B; Bergevin, M; Berman, E; Berns, H; Bernstein, A; Beroz, F; Bhatnagar, V; Bhuyan, B; Bionta, R; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Blaufuss, E; Bleakley, B; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Boehnlein, D; Bolton, T; Brack, J; Bradford, R; Breedon, R; Bromberg, C; Brown, R; Buchanan, N; Camilleri, L; Campbell, M; Carr, R; Carminati, G; Chen, A; Chen, H; Cherdack, D; Chi, C; Childress, S; Choudhary, B; Church, E; Cline, D; Coleman, S; Corey, R; D'Agostino, M; Davies, G; Dazeley, S; De Jong, J; DeMaat, B; Demuth, D; Dighe, A; Djurcic, Z; Dolph, J; Drake, G; Drozhdin, A; Duan, H; Duyang, H; Dye, S; Dykhuis, T; Edmunds, D; Elliott, S; Enomoto, S; Escobar, C; Felde, J; Feyzi, F; Fleming, B; Fowler, J; Fox, W; Friedland, A; Fujikawa, B; Gallagher, H; Garilli, G; Garvey, G; Gehman, V; Geronimo, G; Gill, R; Goodman, M; Goon, J; Gorbunov, D; Gran, R; Guarino, V; Guarnaccia, E; Guenette, R; Gupta, P; Habig, A; Hackenberg, R; Hahn, A; Hahn, R; Haines, T; Hans, S; Harton, J; Hays, S; Hazen, E; He, Q; Heavey, A; Heeger, K; Hellauer, R; Himmel, A; Horton-Smith, G; Howell, J; Huber, P; Hurh, P; Huston, J; Hylen, J; Insler, J; Jaffe, D; James, C; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnson, R; Johnson, W; Johnston, W; Johnstone, J; Jones, B; Jostlein, H; Junk, T; Junnarkar, S; Kadel, R; Kafka, T; Kaminski, D; Karagiorgi, G; Karle, A; Kaspar, J; Katori, T; Kayser, B; Kearns, E; Kettell, S; Khanam, F; Klein, J; Kneller, J; Koizumi, G; Kopp, J; Kopp, S; Kropp, W; Kudryavtsev, V; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kutter, T; Lackowski, T; Lande, K; Lane, C; Lang, K; Lanni, F; Lanza, R; Latorre, T; Learned, J; Lee, D; Lee, K; Li, Y; Linden, S; Ling, J; Link, J; Littenberg, L; Loiacono, L; Liu, T; Losecco, J; Louis, W; Lucas, P; Lunardini, C; Lundberg, B; Lundin, T; Makowiecki, D; Malys, S; Mandal, S; Mann, A; Mann, A; Mantsch, P; Marciano, W; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Marino, A; Marshak, M; Maruyama, R; Mathews, J; Matsuno, S; Mauger, C; McCluskey, E; McDonald, K; McFarland, K; McKeown, R; McTaggart, R; Mehdiyev, R; Melnitchouk, W; Meng, Y; Mercurio, B; Messier, M; Metcalf, W; Milincic, R; Miller, W; Mills, G; Mishra, S; MoedSher, S; Mohapatra, D; Mokhov, N; Moore, C; Morfin, J; Morse, W; Moss, A; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Napolitano, J; Newcomer, M; Norris, B; Ouedraogo, S; Page, B; Pakvasa, S; Paley, J; Paolone, V; Papadimitriou, V; Parsa, Z; Partyka, K; Pavlovic, Z; Pearson, C; Perasso, S; Petti, R; Plunkett, R; Polly, C; Pordes, S; Potenza, R; Prakash, A; Prokofiev, O; Qian, X; Raaf, J; Radeka, V; Raghavan, R; Rameika, R; Rebel, B; Rescia, S; Reitzner, D; Richardson, M; Riesselman, K; Robinson, M; Rosen, M; Rosenfeld, C; Rucinski, R; Russo, T; Sahijpal, S; Salon, S; Samios, N; Sanchez, M; Schmitt, R; Schmitz, D; Schneps, J; Scholberg, K; Seibert, S; Sergiampietri, F; Shaevitz, M; Shanahan, P; Shaposhnikov, M; Sharma, R; Simos, N; Singh, V; Sinnis, G; Sippach, W; Skwarnicki, T; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Soderberg, M; Sondericker, J; Sondheim, W; Spitz, J; Spooner, N; Stancari, M; Stancu, I; Stewart, J; Stoler, P; Stone, J; Stone, S; Strait, J; Straszheim, T; Striganov, S; Sullivan, G; Svoboda, R; Szczerbinska, B; Szelc, A; Talaga, R; Tanaka, H; Tayloe, R; Taylor, D; Thomas, J; Thompson, L; Thomson, M; Thorn, C; Tian, X; Toki, W; Tolich, N; Tripathi, M; Trovato, M; Tseung, H; Tzanov, M; Urheim, J; Usman, S; Vagins, M; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R; Varner, G; Vaziri, K; Velev, G; Viren, B; Wachala, T; Walter, C; Wang, H; Wang, Z; Warner, D; Webber, D; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wendt, C; Wetstein, M; White, H; White, S; Whitehead, L; Willis, W; Wilson, R J; Winslow, L; Ye, J; Yeh, M; Yu, B; Zeller, G; Zhang, C; Zimmerman, E; Zwaska, R

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) science collaboration initiated a study to investigate the physics potential of the experiment with a broad set of different beam, near- and far-detector configurations. Nine initial topics were identified as scientific areas that motivate construction of a long-baseline neutrino experiment with a very large far detector. We summarize the scientific justification for each topic and the estimated performance for a set of far detector reference configurations. We report also on a study of optimized beam parameters and the physics capability of proposed Near Detector configurations. This document was presented to the collaboration in fall 2010 and updated with minor modifications in early 2011.

  10. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  11. Minimal sufficient balance-a new strategy to balance baseline covariates and preserve randomness of treatment allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle; Hill, Michael D; Palesch, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    In many clinical trials, baseline covariates could affect the primary outcome. Commonly used strategies to balance baseline covariates include stratified constrained randomization and minimization. Stratification is limited to few categorical covariates. Minimization lacks the randomness of treatment allocation. Both apply only to categorical covariates. As a result, serious imbalances could occur in important baseline covariates not included in the randomization algorithm. Furthermore, randomness of treatment allocation could be significantly compromised because of the high proportion of deterministic assignments associated with stratified block randomization and minimization, potentially resulting in selection bias. Serious baseline covariate imbalances and selection biases often contribute to controversial interpretation of the trial results. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial and the Captopril Prevention Project are two examples. In this article, we propose a new randomization strategy, termed the minimal sufficient balance randomization, which will dually prevent serious imbalances in all important baseline covariates, including both categorical and continuous types, and preserve the randomness of treatment allocation. Computer simulations are conducted using the data from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial. Serious imbalances in four continuous and one categorical covariate are prevented with a small cost in treatment allocation randomness. A scenario of simultaneously balancing 11 baseline covariates is explored with similar promising results. The proposed minimal sufficient balance randomization algorithm can be easily implemented in computerized central randomization systems for large multicenter trials.

  12. Characterizing baseline concentrations, proportions, and processes controlling deposition of river-transported bitumen-associated polycyclic aromatic compounds at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Matthew C; Wiklund, Johan A; Van Opstal, Stacey R; Wolfe, Brent B; Hall, Roland I

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate knowledge of baseline conditions challenges ability for monitoring programs to detect pollution in rivers, especially where there are natural sources of contaminants. Here, we use paleolimnological data from a flood-prone lake ("SD2", informal name) in the Slave River Delta (SRD, Canada), ∼ 500 km downstream of the Alberta oil sands development and the bitumen-rich McMurray Formation to identify baseline concentrations and proportions of "river-transported bitumen-associated indicator polycyclic aromatic compounds" (indicator PACs; Hall et al. 2012) and processes responsible for their deposition. Results show that indicator PACs are deposited in SD2 by Slave River floodwaters in concentrations that are 45 % lower than those in sediments of "PAD31compounds", a lake upstream in the Athabasca Delta that receives Athabasca River floodwaters. Lower concentrations at SD2 are likely a consequence of sediment retention upstream as well as dilution by sediment influx from the Peace River. In addition, relations with organic matter content reveal that flood events dilute concentrations of indicator PACs in SD2 because the lake receives high-energy floods and the lake sediments are predominantly inorganic. This contrasts with PAD31 where floodwaters increase indicator PAC concentrations in the lake sediments, and concentrations are diluted during low flood influence intervals due to increased deposition of lacustrine organic matter. Results also show no significant differences in concentrations and proportions of indicator PACs between pre- (1967) and post- (1980s and 1990 s) oil sands development high flood influence intervals (t = 1.188, P = 0.279, d.f. = 6.136), signifying that they are delivered to the SRD by natural processes. Although we cannot assess potential changes in indicator PACs during the past decade, baseline concentrations and proportions can be used to enhance ongoing monitoring efforts.

  13. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  14. An Overview of the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Vlahakis, C; Corder, S; Remijan, A; Barkats, D; Lucas, R; Hunter, T R; Brogan, C L; Asaki, Y; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Hills, R E; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Cox, P; Amestica, R; Broguiere, D; Cotton, W; Hales, A S; Hiriart, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kern, J; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Marcelino, N; Marson, R; Mignano, A; Nakanishi, K; Nikolic, B; Perez, J E; Pérez, L M; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Butler, B; Cortes, J; Cortes, P; Dhawan, V; Di Francesco, J; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Mangum, J; Marconi, G; Nagai, H; Nyman, L -A; Perley, R; Radiszcz, M; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; van Kempen, T; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Gueth, F; Tatematsu, K; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Chapillon, E; Dumas, G; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hibbard, J E; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Martin, S; Maud, L; Morales, F; Pietu, V; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Whyborn, N; Zwaan, M A; Alves, F; Andreani, P; Avison, A; Barta, M; Bedosti, F; Bendo, G J; Bertoldi, F; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A; Boissier, J; Brand, J; Burkutean, S; Casasola, V; Conway, J; Cortese, L; Dabrowski, B; Davis, T A; Trigo, M Diaz; Fontani, F; Franco-Hernandez, R; Fuller, G; Madrid, R Galvan; Giannetti, A; Ginsburg, A; Graves, S F; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hogerheijde, M; Jachym, P; Serra, I Jimenez; Karlicky, M; Klaasen, P; Kraus, M; Kunneriath, D; Lagos, C; Longmore, S; Leurini, S; Maercker, M; Magnelli, B; Vidal, I Marti; Massardi, M; Maury, A; Muehle, S; Muller, S; Muxlow, T; O'Gorman, E; Paladino, R; Petry, D; Pineda, J; Randall, S; Richer, J S; Rossetti, A; Rushton, A; Rygl, K; Monge, A Sanchez; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Stanke, T; Schmalzl, M; Stoehr, F; Urban, S; van Kampen, E; Vlemmings, W; Wang, K; Wild, W; Yang, Y; Iguchi, S; Hasegawa, T; Saito, M; Inatani, J; Mizuno, N; Asayama, S; Kosugi, G; Morita, K -I; Chiba, K; Kawashima, S; Okumura, S K; Ohashi, N; Ogasawara, R; Sakamoto, S; Noguchi, T; Huang, Y -D; Liu, S -Y; Kemper, F; Koch, P M; Chen, M -T; Chikada, Y; Hiramatsu, M; Iono, D; Shimojo, M; Komugi, S; Kim, J; Lyo, A -R; Muller, E; Herrera, C; Miura, R E; Ueda, J; Chibueze, J; Su, Y -N; Trejo-Cruz, A; Wang, K -S; Kiuchi, H; Ukita, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawabe, R; Hayashi, M; Miyama, S; Ho, P T P; Kaifu, N; Ishiguro, M; Beasley, A J; Bhatnagar, S; Braatz, J A; Brisbin, D G; Brunetti, N; Carilli, C; Crossley, J H; D'Addario, L; Meyer, J L Donovan; Emerson, D T; Evans, A S; Fisher, P; Golap, K; Griffith, D M; Hale, A E; Halstead, D; Hardy, E J; Hatz, M C; Holdaway, M; Indebetouw, R; Jewell, P R; Kepley, A A; Kim, D -C; Lacy, M D; Leroy, A K; Liszt, H S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, B; McKinnon, M; Mason, B S; Moellenbrock, G; Moullet, A; Myers, S T; Ott, J; Peck, A B; Pisano, J; Radford, S J E; Randolph, W T; Venkata, U Rao; Rawlings, M; Rosen, R; Schnee, S L; Scott, K S; Sharp, N K; Sheth, K J; Simon, R S; Tsutsumi, T; Wood, S J

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long...

  15. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  16. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  17. Attendance at Health Promotion Programs: Baseline Predictors and Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Catherine J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    As part of a family cardiovascular health promotion project, 111 Mexican-American and 95 Anglo-American families with fifth or sixth grade children were assigned to either a primary prevention program involving 18 sessions or to a control condition. Correlates of attendance were low baseline scores on physical activity and cardiovascular fitness…

  18. ECG baseline wander reduction using linear phase filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsté, van J.A.; Eck, van W.; Hermann, O.E.

    1986-01-01

    The continuous real time reduction of baseline wander is a considerable problem in electrocardiography during exercises. Our solution consists of spectral filtering. The legitimacy of high-pass filtering of the ECG by means of digital linear phase filters with a low cut-off frequency as high as the

  19. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  20. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  1. Baseline design of an OTEC pilot plantship. Volume C. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosten, L. R.; Bringloe, Thomas; Soracco, Dave; Fenstermacher, Earl; Magura, Donald; Sander, Olof; Richards, Dennis; Seward, Jerry

    1979-05-01

    Volume C is part of a three-volume report that presents a baseline engineering design of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plantship. This volume provides the specifications for the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers.

  2. Delta Healthy Sprouts: Participants' Diet and Food Environment at Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Local food environments influence the nutrition and health of area residents. This baseline analysis focuses on the food environments of women who participated in the Delta Healthy Sprouts project, a randomized, controlled, comparative trial designed to test the efficacy of two Maternal, Infant, an...

  3. The Dutch CAFE baseline: In or out of line?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink BA; Folkert RJM; Thomas R; Beck JP; Eerdt MM van; Elzenga HE; Hoek KW van der; Hoen A; Peek CJ; LED; KMD; NMD; LVM; RIM; LDL

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is constructing a strategy on air pollution within the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. This strategy will be based on assessments using the RAINS model for different policy ambitions where the CAFE baseline scenario and control strategies are employed. The Netherlands

  4. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  5. Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Radionuclide Content in Palm Date Fruit of the United Arab Emirates: A Baseline Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubina; Solodov, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to a wider effort of establishing an environmental radiation baseline for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) before the startup of the country's first nuclear reactor in 2017. An investigation of gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations in palm dates grown in the UAE was performed. Palm date samples of 10 varieties originating from several local commercial date palm farms of the UAE were collected and analyzed. The study targeted the naturally occurring radionuclides, such as U, Th, and K, in addition to any potential anthropogenic radionuclides, such as Cs and others. Gamma spectrometry revealed measured activity concentrations for U (Ra), Th (Ra), and K that ranged from 0.61 to 0.80 Bq kg, 0.10 to 0.23 Bq kg, and 191 to 362 Bq kg, respectively, on a dry-weight basis, and calculated activity concentrations on a wet basis ranged from 0.52 to 0.69 Bq kg, 0.09 to 0.22 Bq kg, and 168 to 297 Bq kg, respectively. No Cs or other anthropogenic radionuclides could be detected in this study. All measurements were performed using a coaxial HPGe detector with 40% relative efficiency quoted by the manufacturer. Efficiency calibration correction factors were calculated using Angle software.

  6. Testing a simple and low-cost method for long-term (baseline) CO2 monitoring in the shallow subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasbeek, H.; Goldberg, T.; Koenen, M.; Visser, W.; Wildenborg, T.; Steeghs, P.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of geological CO2 storage requires monitoring for potential leakage, with an essential part being establishment of baseline CO2 in soil gas. CO2 concentrations and weather parameters were monitored for ∼2 years at three locations in the Netherlands. CO2 concentrations in soil ranged f

  7. ALMA Long Baseline Campaigns: Phase Characteristics of Atmosphere at Long Baselines in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Fomalont, Edward B.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Barkats, Denis; Hills, Richard E.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maud, Luke T.; Nikolic, Bojan; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Vlahakis, Catherine; Whyborn, Nicholas D.

    2017-03-01

    We present millimeter- and submillimeter-wave phase characteristics measured between 2012 and 2014 of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array long baseline campaigns. This paper presents the first detailed investigation of the characteristics of phase fluctuation and phase correction methods obtained with baseline lengths up to ∼15 km. The basic phase fluctuation characteristics can be expressed with the spatial structure function (SSF). Most of the SSFs show that the phase fluctuation increases as a function of baseline length, with a power-law slope of ∼0.6. In many cases, we find that the slope becomes shallower (average of ∼0.2–0.3) at baseline lengths longer than ∼1 km, namely showing a turn-over in SSF. These power law slopes do not change with the amount of precipitable water vapor (PWV), but the fitted constants have a weak correlation with PWV, so that the phase fluctuation at a baseline length of 10 km also increases as a function of PWV. The phase correction method using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) works well, especially for the cases where PWV > 1 {mm}, which reduces the degree of phase fluctuations by a factor of two in many cases. However, phase fluctuations still remain after the WVR phase correction, suggesting the existence of other turbulent constituent that cause the phase fluctuation. This is supported by occasional SSFs that do not exhibit any turn-over; these are only seen when the PWV is low (i.e., when the WVR phase correction works less effectively) or after WVR phase correction. This means that the phase fluctuation caused by this turbulent constituent is inherently smaller than that caused by water vapor. Since in these rare cases there is no turn-over in the SSF up to the maximum baseline length of ∼15 km, this turbulent constituent must have scale height of 10 km or more, and thus cannot be water vapor, whose scale height is around 1 km. Based on the characteristics, this large scale height turbulent constituent is

  8. Studying the physics potential of long-baseline experiments in terms of new sensitivity parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Mandip

    2016-01-01

    We investigate physics opportunities to constraint leptonic CP-violation phase $\\delta_{CP}$ through numerical analysis of working neutrino oscillation probability parameters, in the context of long base line experiments. Numerical analysis of two parameters, the " transition probability $\\delta_{CP}$ phase sensitivity parameter ($A^M$) " and " CP-violation probability $\\delta_{CP}$ phase sensitivity parameter ($A^{CP}$) ", as function of beam energy and/or base line has been preferably carried out. It is an elegant technique to broadly analyze different experiments to constraint $\\delta_{CP}$ phase and also to investigate mass hierarchy in the leptonic sector. The positive and negative values of parameter $A^{CP}$ corresponding to either of hierarchy in the specific beam energy ranges, could be a very promising way to explore mass hierarchy and $\\delta_{CP}$ phase. The keys to more robust bounds on $\\delta_{CP}$ phase are improvements of the involved detection techniques to explore bit low energy and relativ...

  9. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  10. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, as a predictor of individual adaptive capabilities.

  11. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter­-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate. Therefore it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, and adaptability in two oculomotor systems (see Preliminary Results). We now propose an analogous predictive mechanisms in the locomotor system.

  12. Statistical Mechanics of Node-perturbation Learning with Noisy Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato

    2017-02-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. It estimates the gradient of an objective function by using the change in the object function in response to the perturbation. The value of the objective function for an unperturbed output is called a baseline. Cho et al. proposed node-perturbation learning with a noisy baseline. In this paper, we report on building the statistical mechanics of Cho's model and on deriving coupled differential equations of order parameters that depict learning dynamics. We also show how to derive the generalization error by solving the differential equations of order parameters. On the basis of the results, we show that Cho's results are also apply in general cases and show some general performances of Cho's model.

  13. Implementing wide baseline matching algorithms on a graphics processing unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Larson, Kurt W.; Gonzales, Antonio Ignacio; Myers, Daniel S.

    2007-10-01

    Wide baseline matching is the state of the art for object recognition and image registration problems in computer vision. Though effective, the computational expense of these algorithms limits their application to many real-world problems. The performance of wide baseline matching algorithms may be improved by using a graphical processing unit as a fast multithreaded co-processor. In this paper, we present an implementation of the difference of Gaussian feature extractor, based on the CUDA system of GPU programming developed by NVIDIA, and implemented on their hardware. For a 2000x2000 pixel image, the GPU-based method executes nearly thirteen times faster than a comparable CPU-based method, with no significant loss of accuracy.

  14. Configurations of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, Vernon; Chatterjee, Animesh; Gandhi, Raj; Marfatia, Danny; Masud, Mehedi

    2014-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the ability of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) to answer outstanding questions in the neutrino sector. We consider the sensitivities to the mass hierarchy, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and to CP violation using data from beam and atmospheric neutrinos. We evaluate the dependencies on the precision with which $\\theta_{13}$ will be measured by reactor experiments, on the detector size, beam power and exposure time, on detector magnetization, and on the systematic uncertainties achievable with and without a near detector. We find that a 35 kt LBNE with a near detector will resolve the eight-fold degeneracy that is intrinsic to long baseline experiments and will meet the primary goals of oscillation physics that it is designed for.

  15. Long-Baseline Neutrino Physics in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Sacha E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NO{nu}A experiment will search for the transition {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented.

  16. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  17. Coral reef baselines: how much macroalgae is natural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F; Precht, William F; Vroom, Peter S; Aronson, Richard B

    2014-03-15

    Identifying the baseline or natural state of an ecosystem is a critical step in effective conservation and restoration. Like most marine ecosystems, coral reefs are being degraded by human activities: corals and fish have declined in abundance and seaweeds, or macroalgae, have become more prevalent. The challenge for resource managers is to reverse these trends, but by how much? Based on surveys of Caribbean reefs in the 1970s, some reef scientists believe that the average cover of seaweed was very low in the natural state: perhaps less than 3%. On the other hand, evidence from remote Pacific reefs, ecological theory, and impacts of over-harvesting in other systems all suggest that, historically, macroalgal biomass may have been higher than assumed. Uncertainties about the natural state of coral reefs illustrate the difficulty of determining the baseline condition of even well studied systems.

  18. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  19. The Fermilab Short-Baseline Program: MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment is the first of three detectors of the Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program that started operation in the Booster Neutrino Beamline in October 2015 [1]. When completed, the three-detector lineup will explore short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will be sensitive to sterile neutrino scenarios. MicroBooNE in itself is now starting its own physics program, with the measurement of neutrino-argon cross sections in the ~1GeV range being one of its main physics goals. These proceedings describe the status of the detector, the start of operation, and the automated reconstruction of the first neutrino events observed with MicroBooNE. Prospects for upcoming cross section measurements are also given.

  20. Sparse learning and stability selection for predicting MCI to AD conversion using baseline ADNI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jieping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI are at high risk of progression to Alzheimer’s dementia. Identifying MCI individuals with high likelihood of conversion to dementia and the associated biosignatures has recently received increasing attention in AD research. Different biosignatures for AD (neuroimaging, demographic, genetic and cognitive measures may contain complementary information for diagnosis and prognosis of AD. Methods We have conducted a comprehensive study using a large number of samples from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI to test the power of integrating various baseline data for predicting the conversion from MCI to probable AD and identifying a small subset of biosignatures for the prediction and assess the relative importance of different modalities in predicting MCI to AD conversion. We have employed sparse logistic regression with stability selection for the integration and selection of potential predictors. Our study differs from many of the other ones in three important respects: (1 we use a large cohort of MCI samples that are unbiased with respect to age or education status between case and controls (2 we integrate and test various types of baseline data available in ADNI including MRI, demographic, genetic and cognitive measures and (3 we apply sparse logistic regression with stability selection to ADNI data for robust feature selection. Results We have used 319 MCI subjects from ADNI that had MRI measurements at the baseline and passed quality control, including 177 MCI Non-converters and 142 MCI Converters. Conversion was considered over the course of a 4-year follow-up period. A combination of 15 features (predictors including those from MRI scans, APOE genotyping, and cognitive measures achieves the best prediction with an AUC score of 0.8587. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the power of integrating various baseline data for prediction of the conversion from MCI

  1. Degeneracies in long-baseline neutrino experiments from nonstandard interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jiajun; Whisnant, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We study parameter degeneracies that can occur in long-baseline neutrino appearance experiments due to nonstandard interactions (NSI). For a single off-diagonal NSI parameter, and neutrino and antineutrino measurements at a single L/E, there exists a continuous four-fold degeneracy (related to the mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{23}$ octant) that renders the mass hierarchy, octant, and CP phase unknowable. Even with a combination of NO$\

  2. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  3. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  4. Logistics Operations Management Center: Maintenance Support Baseline (LOMC-MSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurrus, R.; Stump, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Logistics Operations Management Center Maintenance Support Baseline is defined. A historical record of systems, applied to and deleted from, designs in support of future management and/or technical analysis is provided. All Flight elements, Ground Support Equipment, Facility Systems and Equipment and Test Support Equipment for which LOMC has responsibilities at Kennedy Space Center and other locations are listed. International Space Station Alpha Program documentation is supplemented. The responsibility of the Space Station Launch Site Support Office is established.

  5. GPS dynamic cycle slip detection and correction with baseline constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenkun; Huang Ahunji

    2009-01-01

    When the cycle slips take place in the attitude determination of a moving platform, the precision of the attitude will be impaired badly. A method of cycle slip detection and correction is proposed, which is suitable to the dynamic measurement using GPS carrier phase: the cycle slips detection is first achieved by triple difference observables, then the cycle slips correction is performed with baseline length constraint. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective to the dynamic cycle slips problem.

  6. Linking solar and long baseline terrestrial neutrino experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, E K; Branco, G C; Rebelo, M N

    2000-04-17

    We show that, in the framework of three light neutrino species with hierarchical masses and assuming no fine tuning between the entries of the neutrino mass matrix, one can use the solar neutrino data to obtain information on the element U(e3) of the lepton mixing matrix. Conversely, a measurement of U(e3) in atmospheric or long baseline accelerator or reactor neutrino experiments would help discriminate between possible oscillation solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  7. Re-Creating Missing Population Baselines for Pacific Reef Sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Marc O Nadon; Julia K. Baum; Ivor D Williams; Mcpherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Richards, Benjamin L.; Schroeder, Robert E.; Russell E Brainard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Abstract Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between ree...

  8. Challenges of collecting baseline data in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schlecht

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the humanitarian community acknowledgesthe need for good quality data in programme design andmonitoring, the challenges and demands of field settingshave too often led to the argument that “we just don’thave time” or “it is too difficult”. Yet without the allocationof time and resources to the collection of baseline andmonitoring data, project activities cannot be groundedin strong evidence from programme evaluation.

  9. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: User guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States); Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.; Wood, B.M.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This User Guide explains how to start and use the IBS Program, which is designed to help civilian emergency management personnel to plan for and support their responses to a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. The intended audience for this document is all users of the IBS, especially emergency management planners and analysts.

  10. Optimized Two-Baseline Beta-Beam Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, Sandhya; Donini, Andrea; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    We propose a realistic Beta-Beam experiment with four source ions and two baselines for the best possible sensitivity to theta_{13}, CP violation and mass hierarchy. Neutrinos from 18Ne and 6He with Lorentz boost gamma=350 are detected in a 500 kton water Cerenkov detector at a distance L=650 km (first oscillation peak) from the source. Neutrinos from 8B and 8Li are detected in a 50 kton magnetized iron detector at a distance L=7000 km (magic baseline) from the source. Since the decay ring requires a tilt angle of 34.5 degrees to send the beam to the magic baseline, the far end of the ring has a maximum depth of d=2132 m for magnetic field strength of 8.3 T, if one demands that the fraction of ions that decay along the straight sections of the racetrack geometry decay ring (called livetime) is 0.3. We alleviate this problem by proposing to trade reduction of the livetime of the decay ring with the increase in the boost factor of the ions, such that the number of events at the detector remains almost the same....

  11. COMSATCOM service technical baseline strategy development approach using PPBW concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to develop a Commercial Satellite Communications (COMSATCOM) service Technical Baseline (TB) and associated Program Baseline (PB) strategy using Portable Pool Bandwidth (PPBW) concept. The concept involves trading of the purchased commercial transponders' Bandwidths (BWs) with existing commercial satellites' bandwidths participated in a "designated pool bandwidth"3 according to agreed terms and conditions. Space Missile Systems Center (SMC) has been implementing the Better Buying Power (BBP 3.0) directive4 and recommending the System Program Offices (SPO) to own the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) [1, 2] for the development of flexible acquisition strategy and achieving affordability and increased in competition. This paper defines and describes the critical PTB parameters and associated requirements that are important to the government SPO for "owning" an affordable COMSATCOM services contract using PPBW trading concept. The paper describes a step-by-step approach to optimally perform the PPBW trading to meet DoD and its stakeholders (i) affordability requirement, and (ii) fixed and variable bandwidth requirements by optimizing communications performance, cost and PPBW accessibility in terms of Quality of Services (QoS), Bandwidth Sharing Ratio (BSR), Committed Information Rate (CIR), Burstable Information Rate (BIR), Transponder equivalent bandwidth (TPE) and transponder Net Presence Value (NPV). The affordable optimal solution that meets variable bandwidth requirements will consider the operating and trading terms and conditions described in the Fair Access Policy (FAP).

  12. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  13. MeV-scale sterile neutrino decays at the Fermilab Short-Baseline Neutrino program

    CERN Document Server

    Ballett, Peter; Ross-Lonergan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Nearly-sterile neutrinos with masses in the MeV range and below would be produced in the beam of the Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) program at Fermilab. In this article, we study the potential for SBN to discover these particles through their subsequent decays in its detectors. We discuss the decays which will be visible at SBN in a minimal and non-minimal extension of the Standard Model, and perform simulations to compute the parameter space constraints which could be placed in the absence of a signal. We demonstrate that the SBN program can extend existing bounds on well constrained channels such as $N \\rightarrow \

  14. Formation and Sustainment of ITPs in ITER with the Baseline Heating Mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesca M. Poli and Charles Kessel

    2012-12-03

    Plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) are a potential and attractive route to steady-state operation in ITER. These plasmas exhibit radially localized regions of improved con nement with steep pressure gradients in the plasma core, which drive large bootstrap current and generate hollow current pro les and negative shear. This work examines the formation and sustainment of ITBs in ITER with electron cyclotron heating and current drive. It is shown that, with a trade-o of the power delivered to the equatorial and to the upper launcher, the sustainment of steady-state ITBs can be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating con guration.

  15. Baseline and longitudinal grey matter changes in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: ICICLE-PD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Elijah; Su, Li; Williams, Guy B; Firbank, Michael J; Lawson, Rachael A; Yarnall, Alison J; Duncan, Gordon W; Owen, Adrian M; Khoo, Tien K; Brooks, David J; Rowe, James B; Barker, Roger A; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T

    2015-10-01

    Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease is associated with progression to dementia (Parkinson's disease dementia) in a majority of patients. Determining structural imaging biomarkers associated with prodromal Parkinson's disease dementia may allow for the earlier identification of those at risk, and allow for targeted disease modifying therapies. One hundred and five non-demented subjects with newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 37 healthy matched controls had serial 3 T structural magnetic resonance imaging scans with clinical and neuropsychological assessments at baseline, which were repeated after 18 months. The Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria were used to classify the Parkinson's disease subjects into Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (n = 39) and Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment (n = 66). Freesurfer image processing software was used to measure cortical thickness and subcortical volumes at baseline and follow-up. We compared regional percentage change of cortical thinning and subcortical atrophy over 18 months. At baseline, cases with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated widespread cortical thinning relative to controls and atrophy of the nucleus accumbens compared to both controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment. Regional cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with global cognition in the combined Parkinson's disease cohort. Over 18 months, patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment demonstrated more severe cortical thinning in frontal and temporo-parietal cortices, including hippocampal atrophy, relative to those with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment and healthy controls, whereas subjects with Parkinson's disease and no cognitive impairment showed more severe frontal cortical thinning compared to healthy controls. At baseline, Parkinson's disease with no cognitive impairment

  16. Baseline oxygenation in the brain: Correlation between respiratory-calibration and susceptibility methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Audrey P; Schäfer, Andreas; Huber, Laurentius; Lampe, Leonie; von Smuda, Steffen; Möller, Harald E; Villringer, Arno; Gauthier, Claudine J

    2016-01-15

    New MRI methods for noninvasive imaging of baseline oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in the brain show great promise. Quantitative O2 imaging (QUO2) applies a biophysical model to measure OEF in tissue from BOLD, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and end-tidal O2 (ETO2) signals acquired during two or more gas manipulations. Alternatively, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) maps baseline OEF along cerebral vessels based on the deoxyhemoblogin (dHb) susceptibility shift between veins and water. However, these approaches have not been carefully compared to each other or to known physiological signals. The aims of this study were to compare OEF values by QUO2 and QSM; and to see if baseline OEF relates to BOLD and CBF changes during a visual task. Simultaneous BOLD and arterial spin labeling (ASL) scans were acquired at 7T in 11 healthy subjects continuously during hypercapnia (5% CO2, 21% O2), hyperoxia (100% O2), and carbogen (5% CO2, 95% O2) for QUO2 analysis. Separate BOLD-ASL scans were acquired during a checkerboard stimulus to identify functional changes in the visual cortex. Gradient echo phase images were also collected at rest for QSM reconstruction of OEF along cerebral veins draining the visual cortex. Mean baseline OEF was (43.5±14)% for QUO2 with two gases, (42.3±17)% for QUO2 with three gases, and (29.4±3)% for QSM across volunteers. Three-gas QUO2 values of OEF correlated with QSM values of OEF (P=0.03). However, Bland-Altman analysis revealed that QUO2 tended to measure higher baseline OEF with respect to QSM, which likely results from underestimation of the hyperoxic BOLD signal and low signal-to-noise ratio of the ASL acquisitions. Across subjects, the percent CBF change during the visual task correlated with OEF measured by 3-gas QUO2 (P<0.04); and by QSM (P=0.035), providing evidence that the new methods measure true variations in brain physiology across subjects.

  17. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  18. Baseline levels of influenza-specific CD4 memory T-cells affect T-cell responses to influenza vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Song He

    . SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that assessment of baseline biomarkers may predict immunologic outcome of influenza vaccination and may reveal some of the mechanisms responsible for variable immune responses following vaccination and natural infection.

  19. Annual Report on Environmental Monitoring Activities for FY 1995 (Baseline Year) at Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This report describes baseline contaminant release conditions for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sampling approach and data analysis methods used to establish baseline conditions were presented in ``Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (EMP).`` As outlined in the EMP, the purpose of the baseline monitoring year at WAG 6 was to determine the annual contaminant releases from the site during fiscal year 1995 (FY95) against which any potential changes in releases over time could be compared. The baseline year data set provides a comprehensive understanding of release conditions from all major waste units in the WAG through each major contaminant transport pathway. Due to a mandate to reduce all monitoring work, WAG 6 monitoring was scaled back and reporting efforts on the baseline year results are being minimized. This report presents the quantified baseline year contaminant flux conditions for the site and briefly summarizes other findings. All baseline data cited in this report will reside in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information system (OREIS) database, and will be available for use in future years as the need arises to identify potential release changes.

  20. Literature Review for the Baseline Knowledge Assessment of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.

    2003-12-10

    The purpose of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Baseline Knowledge Assessment is to measure the current level of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and the hydrogen economy. This information will be an asset to the HFCIT program in formulating an overall education plan. It will also provide a baseline for comparison with future knowledge and opinion surveys. To assess the current understanding and establish the baseline, the HFCIT program plans to conduct scientific surveys of four target audience groups--the general public, the educational community, governmental agencies, and potential large users. The purpose of the literature review is to examine the literature and summarize the results of surveys that have been conducted in the recent past concerning the existing knowledge and attitudes toward hydrogen. This literature review covers both scientific and, to a lesser extent, non-scientific polls. Seven primary data sources were reviewed, two of which were studies based in Europe. Studies involved both closed-end and open-end questions; surveys varied in length from three questions to multi-page interviews. Populations involved in the studies were primarily adults, although one study involved students. The number of participants ranged from 13 to over 16,000 per study. In addition to the primary surveys, additional related studies were mined for pertinent information. The primary conclusions of the surveys reviewed are that the public knows very little about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies but is generally accepting of the potential for hydrogen use. In general, respondents consider themselves as environmentally conscious. The public considers safety as the primary issue surrounding hydrogen as a fuel. Price, performance, and convenience are also considerations that will have major impacts on purchase decisions.

  1. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  2. Revisiting the relationship between baseline risk and risk under treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nony Patrice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In medical practice, it is generally accepted that the 'effect model' describing the relationship between baseline risk and risk under treatment is linear, i.e. 'relative risk' is constant. Absolute benefit is then proportional to a patient's baseline risk and the treatment is most effective among high-risk patients. Alternatively, the 'effect model' becomes curvilinear when 'odds ratio' is considered to be constant. However these two models are based on purely empirical considerations, and there is still no theoretical approach to support either the linear or the non-linear relation. Presentation of the hypothesis From logistic and sigmoidal Emax (Hill models, we derived a phenomenological model which includes the possibility of integrating both beneficial and harmful effects. Instead of a linear relation, our model suggests that the relationship is curvilinear i.e. the moderate-risk patients gain most from the treatment in opposition to those with low or high risk. Testing the hypothesis Two approaches can be proposed to investigate in practice such a model. The retrospective one is to perform a meta-analysis of clinical trials with subgroups of patients including a great range of baseline risks. The prospective one is to perform a large clinical trial in which patients are recruited according to several prestratified diverse and high risk groups. Implications of the hypothesis For the quantification of the treatment effect and considering such a model, the discrepancy between odds ratio and relative risk may be related not only to the level of risk under control conditions, but also to the characteristics of the dose-effect relation and the amount of dose administered. In the proposed approach, OR may be considered as constant in the whole range of Rc, and depending only on the intrinsic characteristics of the treatment. Therefore, OR should be preferred rather than RR to summarize information on treatment efficacy.

  3. A baseline algorithm for face detection and tracking in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Vasant; Soundararajan, Padmanabhan; Korzhova, Valentina; Boonstra, Matthew; Goldgof, Dmitry; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-10-01

    Establishing benchmark datasets, performance metrics and baseline algorithms have considerable research significance in gauging the progress in any application domain. These primarily allow both users and developers to compare the performance of various algorithms on a common platform. In our earlier works, we focused on developing performance metrics and establishing a substantial dataset with ground truth for object detection and tracking tasks (text and face) in two video domains -- broadcast news and meetings. In this paper, we present the results of a face detection and tracking algorithm on broadcast news videos with the objective of establishing a baseline performance for this task-domain pair. The detection algorithm uses a statistical approach that was originally developed by Viola and Jones and later extended by Lienhart. The algorithm uses a feature set that is Haar-like and a cascade of boosted decision tree classifiers as a statistical model. In this work, we used the Intel Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) implementation of the Haar face detection algorithm. The optimal values for the tunable parameters of this implementation were found through an experimental design strategy commonly used in statistical analyses of industrial processes. Tracking was accomplished as continuous detection with the detected objects in two frames mapped using a greedy algorithm based on the distances between the centroids of bounding boxes. Results on the evaluation set containing 50 sequences (~ 2.5 mins.) using the developed performance metrics show good performance of the algorithm reflecting the state-of-the-art which makes it an appropriate choice as the baseline algorithm for the problem.

  4. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; McPherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-06-01

    Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (sharks observed in towed-diver surveys and human population in models that accounted for the influence of oceanic primary productivity, sea surface temperature, reef area, and reef physical complexity. We used these models to estimate the density of sharks in the absence of humans. Densities of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), whitetip reef sharks (Triaenodon obesus), and the group "all reef sharks" increased substantially as human population decreased and as primary productivity and minimum sea surface temperature (or reef area, which was highly correlated with temperature) increased. Simulated baseline densities of reef sharks under the absence of humans were 1.1-2.4/ha for the main Hawaiian Islands, 1.2-2.4/ha for inhabited islands of American Samoa, and 0.9-2.1/ha for inhabited islands in the Mariana Archipelago, which suggests that density of reef sharks has declined to 3-10% of baseline levels in these areas.

  5. Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O`Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as

  6. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 1.03: Utilities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Pottier, M.C.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Utilities Guide explains how to operate utility programs that are supplied as a part of the IBS. These utility programs are chiefly for managing and manipulating various kinds of IBS data and system administration files. Many of the utilities are for creating, editing, converting, or displaying map data and other data that are related to geographic location.

  7. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

  8. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  9. Long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2000-01-01

    A nu /sub mu / disappearance effect has been seen in atmospheric neutrino experiments. This has led to the "evidence for neutrino oscillations". The next problem in neutrino physics is to perform the right experiment(s) to elucidate in a comprehensive way the pattern of neutrino masses and mixings. The long baseline experiments will play a fundamental role at settling definitively the question of flavor oscillation and at measuring with good precision the oscillation parameters. The CERN-NGS beam coupled with the proposed ICANOE and OPERA detectors is the only programme capable of sensitive tau and electron appearance searches. (14 refs).

  10. Project W-320 thermal hydraulic model benchmarking and baselining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyanarayana, K.

    1998-09-28

    Project W-320 will be retrieving waste from Tank 241-C-106 and transferring the waste to Tank 241-AY-102. Waste in both tanks must be maintained below applicable thermal limits during and following the waste transfer. Thermal hydraulic process control models will be used for process control of the thermal limits. This report documents the process control models and presents a benchmarking of the models with data from Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102. Revision 1 of this report will provide a baselining of the models in preparation for the initiation of sluicing.

  11. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  12. A FPGA Implementation of JPEG Baseline Encoder for Wearable Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuecheng; Jia, Wenyan; Luan, Bo; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an efficient field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of the JPEG baseline image compression encoder is presented for wearable devices in health and wellness applications. In order to gain flexibility in developing FPGA-specific software and balance between real-time performance and resources utilization, A High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool is utilized in our system design. An optimized dataflow configuration with a padding scheme simplifies the timing control for data transfer. Our experiments with a system-on-chip multi-sensor system have verified our FPGA implementation with respect to real-time performance, computational efficiency, and FPGA resource utilization.

  13. Implications of 3+1 short-baseline neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunti, Carlo, E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Laveder, Marco, E-mail: laveder@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-12-06

    We present an upgrade of the 3+1 global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data obtained with the addition of KARMEN and LSND {nu}{sub e}+{sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}N{sub g.s.}+e{sup -} scattering data. We discuss the implications for the measurements of the effective neutrino mass in {beta}-decay and neutrinoless double-{beta}-decay experiments. We find respective predicted ranges of about 0.1-0.7 eV and 0.01-0.1 eV.

  14. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  15. Status of the nuSTORM Facility and a Possible Extension for Long-Baseline $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bross, Alan D. [Fermilab; Liu, Ao [Fermilab; Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste [Imperial Coll., London; Pasternak, Jaroslaw [Imperial Coll., London

    2015-11-03

    Neutrino beams produced from the decay of muons in a racetrack-like decay ring (the so called Neutrino Factory) provide a powerful way to study neutrino oscillation physics and, in addition, provide unique beams for neutrino interaction studies. The Neutrinos from STORed Muons (nuSTORM) facility uses a neutrino factory-like design. Due to the particular nature of nuSTORM, it can also provide an intense, very pure, muon neutrino beam from pion decay. This so-called “Neo-conventional" muon neutrino beam from nuSTORM makes nuSTORM a hybrid neutrino factory. In this paper we describe the facility and give a detailed description of the neutrino beam fluxes that are available and the precision to which these fluxes can be determined. We then present sensitivity plots that indicated how well the facility can perform for short-baseline oscillation searches and show its potential for a neutrino interaction physics program. Finally, we comment on the performance potential of the "Neo-conventional" muon neutrino beam optimized for long- baseline neutrino-oscillation physics.

  16. Multiplicity of Galactic Cepheids from long-baseline interferometry. II. The Companion of AX Circini revealed with VLTI/PIONIER

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Kervella, P; Breitfelder, J; Bouquin, J -B Le; Monnier, J D; Gieren, W; Pilecki, B; Pietrzyński, G

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We aim at detecting and characterizing the main-sequence companion of the Cepheid AX Cir ($P_\\mathrm{orb} \\sim $ 18 yrs). The long-term objective is to estimate the mass of both components and the distance to the system. Methods: We used the PIONIER combiner at the VLT Interferometer to obtain the first interferometric measurements of the short-period Cepheid AX Cir and its orbiting component. Results: The companion is resolved by PIONIER at a projected separation $\\rho = 29.2 \\pm 0.2$ mas and projection angle $PA = 167.6 \\pm 0.3^{\\circ}$. We measured $H$-band flux ratios between the companion and the Cepheid of $0.90 \\pm 0.10$ % and $0.75 \\pm 0.17$ %, respectively at a pulsation phase for the Cepheid $\\phi = 0.24$ and 0.48. The lower contrast at $\\phi = 0.48$ is due to increased brightness of the Cepheid compared to the $\\phi = 0.24$. This gives an average apparent magnitude $m\\mathrm{_H (comp)} = 9.06 \\pm 0.24$ mag. The limb-darkened angular diameter of the Cepheid at the two pulsation phases was meas...

  17. Airborne infection control in India: Baseline assessment of health facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malik M.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Rade, Kiran; Ghedia, Mayank; Bansal, Avi; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Willis, Matthew D.; Misquitta, Dyson P.; Nair, Sreenivas A.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Dewan, Puneet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis transmission in health care settings represents a major public health problem. In 2010, national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines were adopted in India. These guidelines included specific policies for TB prevention and control in health care settings. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of these guidelines have not been assessed in routine practice. This study aimed to conduct baseline assessments of AIC policies and practices within a convenience sample of 35 health care settings across 3 states in India and to assess the level of implementation at each facility after one year. Method A multi-agency, multidisciplinary panel of experts performed site visits using a standardized risk assessment tool to document current practices and review resource capacity. At the conclusion of each assessment, facility-specific recommendations were provided to improve AIC performance to align with national guidelines. Result Upon initial assessment, AIC systems were found to be poorly developed and implemented. Administrative controls were not commonly practiced and many departments needed renovation to achieve minimum environmental standards. One year after the baseline assessments, there were substantial improvements in both policy and practice. Conclusion A package of capacity building and systems development that followed national guidelines substantially improved implementation of AIC policies and practice. PMID:26970461

  18. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Wang, Xueqiu; Reeder, Shaun; Demetriades, Alecos

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines, operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry (IAGC), has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth’s surface or near-surface environment. The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified. In order to accomplish this long-term goal, the activities of the Task Group include: (1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies; (2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses; (3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community; (4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database; (5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization; (6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects; and (7) preparing, ultimately, a global geochemical database. This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  19. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.Smith; Shaun Reeder; Alecos Demetriades

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines,operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences(IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry(IAGC),has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's surface or near-surface environment.The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified.In order to accomplish this long-term goal,the activities of the Task Group include:(1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies;(2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses;(3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community;(4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database;(5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization;(6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects;and(7) preparing,ultimately,a global geochemical database.This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  20. EMD-based GPS baseline solution and validation test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jing-xiang; WANG Jin-ling; XU Chang-hui

    2008-01-01

    A GPS baseline solution model is presented, based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), which has the advantage of eliminating the error effects outside the model. The EMD technique is a new signal processing method for non-linear time series, which decomposes a time series into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The decomposition procedure is adaptive and data-driven which is suitable for non-linear data series analysis. A multi-scale decomposition and reconstruction architecture is defined on the basis of the EMD theory and the error mitigation model is demonstrated as well. A standard of the scale selection for the elimination of errors, outside the model, was given in terms of the mean of the accumulated standardized modes. Thereafter, the scheme of the GPS baseline solution based on the EMD is suggested. The float solution residuals of the Double-Difference (DD) observation equation are used to extract the errors outside the model applied to modify the GPS DD measurements. Then the float solution was given again and the fixed solution was obtained by a Lambda algorithm. Three schemes are designed to test the proposed model and the experimental results show that the proposed model dramatically improves the relia- bility of ambiguity resolution after the elimination of errors outside the model.