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Sample records for baseline xfel undulator

  1. MaRIE Undulator & XFEL Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-03-23

    The 22 slides in this presentation treat the subject under the following headings: MaRIE XFEL Performance Parameters, Input Electron Beam Parameters, Undulator Design, Genesis Simulations, Risks, and Summary It is concluded that time-dependent Genesis simulations show the MaRIE XFEL can deliver the number of photons within the required bandwidth, provided a number of assumptions are met; the highest risks are associated with the electron beam driving the XFEL undulator; and risks associated with the undulator and/or distributed seeding technique may be evaluated or retired by performing early validation experiments.

  2. Proposal to generate 10 TW level femtosecond X-ray pulses from a baseline undulator in conventional SASE regime at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Output characteristics of the European XFEL have been previously studied assuming an operation point at 5 kA peak current. In this paper we explore the possibility to go well beyond such nominal peak current level. In order to illustrate the potential of the European XFEL accelerator complex we consider a bunch with 0.25 nC charge, compressed up to a peak current of 45 kA. An advantage of operating at such high peak current is the increase of the X-ray output peak power without any modification to the baseline design. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that such high peak current, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in a peak power in the conventional SASE regime, compared to the nominal mode of operation. In particular, we find that 10 TW-power level, femtosecond x-ray pulses can be generated in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 5 keV, which is optimal for single biomolecule imaging. Our simulations are based on the exploitation of all the 21 cells foreseen for the SASE3 undulator beamline, and indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 15 mJ (corresponding to about 3.10{sup 13} photons) in pulses of about 3 fs, in the case of a 100 nm focus at the photon energy of 3.5 keV.

  3. Proposal to generate 10 TW level femtosecond X-ray pulses from a baseline undulator in conventional SASE regime at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca

    2013-08-01

    Output characteristics of the European XFEL have been previously studied assuming an operation point at 5 kA peak current. In this paper we explore the possibility to go well beyond such nominal peak current level. In order to illustrate the potential of the European XFEL accelerator complex we consider a bunch with 0.25 nC charge, compressed up to a peak current of 45 kA. An advantage of operating at such high peak current is the increase of the X-ray output peak power without any modification to the baseline design. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that such high peak current, combined with undulator tapering, allows one to achieve up to a 100-fold increase in a peak power in the conventional SASE regime, compared to the nominal mode of operation. In particular, we find that 10 TW-power level, femtosecond x-ray pulses can be generated in the photon energy range between 3 keV and 5 keV, which is optimal for single biomolecule imaging. Our simulations are based on the exploitation of all the 21 cells foreseen for the SASE3 undulator beamline, and indicate that one can achieve diffraction to the desired resolution with 15 mJ (corresponding to about 3.10 13 photons) in pulses of about 3 fs, in the case of a 100 nm focus at the photon energy of 3.5 keV.

  4. Magnetic design of an Apple-X afterburner for the SASE3 undulator of the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wei, Tao; Li, Yuhui; Pflueger, Joachim

    2017-10-01

    In its startup configuration the SASE3 beamline of the European XFEL provides only soft X-ray radiation, linearly polarized in the horizontal plane. In order to enhance capabilities of this beamline an afterburner scheme is proposed. It will be used as a coherent radiator using the micro-bunched electron beam of the linear SASE3 system. Radiation with variable polarization, which covers the full SASE3 wavelength range can be generated. For the radiator a new type of undulator design called Apple-X will be used. In this paper the design is described and magnet parameters, which are compatible with the SASE3 afterburner are determined using RADIA simulations. The end structure of such a device is optimized for minimum 1st field integrals.

  5. Longitudinal impedance and wake from XFEL undulators. Impact on current-enhanced SASE schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-06-15

    In this article we derive longitudinal impedance and wake function for an undulator setup with arbitrary undulator parameter, taking into account a finite transverse size of the electron bunch. Earlier studies considered a line density-distribution of electrons instead. We focus our attention on the long-wavelength asymptote (compared with resonance wavelength), at large distance of the electron bunch from the undulator entrance compared to the overtaking length, and for large vacuumchamber size compared to the typical transverse size of the field. These restrictions define a parameter region of interest for practical applications. We calculate a closed expression for impedance and wake function that may be evaluated numerically in the most general case. Such expression allows us to derive an analytical solution for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of current-enhanced SASE schemes (ESASE) recently proposed for LCLS, that fall well-within our approximations. Numerical estimations presented in this paper indicate that impedance-induced energy spread is sufficient to seriously degrade the FEL performance. Our conclusion is in contrast with results in literature, where wake calculations for the LCLS case are given in free-space, as if the presence of the undulator were negligible. (orig.)

  6. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. The self-seeding scheme with the wake monochromator is extremely compact, and takes almost no cost and time to be implemented. The upgrade proposed in this paper could take place during the commissioning stage of the European XFEL, opening a vast new range of applications from the very beginning of operations.We present feasibility study and examplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  7. Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-03-01

    The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion since many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R and D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Aangstrom FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with the energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in sub-Aangstrom regime. As an option for generation of brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

  8. Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E.A., E-mail: evgeny.schneidmiller@desy.de; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-12-21

    The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion for many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R and D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Ångström FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with electron energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in the sub-Ångström regime. As an option for generating brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

  9. Microwave undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1986-03-01

    The theory of a microwave undulator utilizing a plane rectangular waveguide operating in the TE/sub 10n/ mode and other higher order modes is presented. Based on this, a possible undulator configuration is analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the microwave undulator represents a viable option for undulator wavelength down to about 1 cm where peak voltage and available microwave power considerations limit effectiveness. 4 refs., 4 figs

  10. Circular polarization control for the European XFEL in the soft X-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-06-01

    The possibility of producing X-ray radiation with high degree of circular polarization is an important asset at XFEL facilities. Polarization control is most important in the soft X-ray region.However, the baseline of the European XFEL, including the soft X-ray SASE3 line, foresees planar undulators only, yielding linearly-polarized radiation. It is clear that the lowest-risk strategy for implementing polarization control at SASE3 involves adding an APPLE II-type undulator at the end of the planar undulator, in order to exploit the micro bunching from the baseline FEL. Detailed experience is available in synchrotron radiation laboratories concerning the manufacturing of 5 m-long APPLE II undulators. However, the choice of a short helical radiator leads to the problem of background suppression. The driving idea of our proposal is that the background radiation can be suppressed by spatial filtering. This operation can be performed by inserting slits behind the APPLE II radiator, where the linearly-polarized radiation spot size is about 30 times larger than the radiation spot size from the helical radiator. The last 7 cells of the SASE3 undulator are left with an open gap in order to provide a total 42 m drift section for electron beam and radiation. Due to the presence of the drift the linearly-polarized radiation spot size increases, and the linearly polarized background radiation can be suppressed by the slits. At the same time, the microbunch structure is easily preserved, so that intense (100 GW) coherent radiation is emitted in the helical radiator. We propose a filtering setup consisting of a pair of water cooled slits for X-ray beam filtering and of a 5 m-long magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for slit installation immediately behind the helical radiator. Electrons and X-rays are separated before the slits by the magnetic chicane, so that the electron beam can pass by the filtering setup without perturbations. Based on start-to-end simulations we

  11. Scheme for femtosecond-resolution pump-probe experiments at XFELs with two-color ten GW-level X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for pump-probe experiments that can be performed at LCLS and at the European XFEL and determines what additional hardware development will be required to bring these experiments to fruition. It is proposed to derive both pump and probe pulses from the same electron bunch, but from different parts of the tunable-gap baseline undulator. This eliminates the need for synchronization and cancels jitter problems. The method has the further advantage to make a wide frequency range accessible at high peak-power and high repetition-rate. An important feature of the proposed scheme is that the hardware requirement is minimal. Our technique is based in essence on the ''fresh'' bunch technique. For its implementation it is sufficient to substitute a single undulator module with short magnetic delay line, i.e. a weak magnetic chicane, which delays the electron bunch with respect to the SASE pulse of half of the bunch length in the linear stage of amplification. This installation does not perturb the baseline mode of operation. We present a feasibility study and we make exemplifications with the parameters of the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  12. PAL Linac Upgrade for a 1-3 XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, J O

    2004-01-01

    With the successful SASE FEL saturation at 80 nm wavelength at TTF1, TTF2 will begin re-commissioning in the fall of 2004 as an FEL user facility to 6 nm with 1 GeV beams. The high gain harmonic generation is also confirmed by the DUV-FEL experiments at 266 nm with seeding wavelength at 800 nm. In order to realize a hard X-ray SASE FEL (SASE XFEL) with a lower energy beams, we need a long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator and a GeV-scale FEL driving linac that can supply an extremely low slice emittance, a high peak current, and an extremely low slice energy spread. PAL is operating a 2.5 GeV electron linac as a full-energy injector to the PLS storage ring. By adding an RF photo-cathode gun, two bunch compressors, and a 0.5 GeV S-band injector linac to the existing PLS linac, and by installing a 60 m long in-vacuum undulator, the PLS linac can be converted to a SASE XFEL facility (PAL XFEL) which supplies coherent X-ray down to 0.3 nm wavelength. The third harmonic enhancement technique can supply coherent hard X-...

  13. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  14. Scheme for generating and transporting THz radiation to the X-ray experimental hall at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decking, Winfried; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The design of a THz edge radiation source for the European XFEL is presented.We consider generation of THz radiation from the spent electron beam downstream of the SASE2 undulator in the electron beam dump area. In this way, the THz output must propagate at least for 250 meters through the photon beam tunnel to the experimental hall to reach the SASE2 X-ray hutches. We propose to use an open beam waveguide such as an iris guide as transmission line. In order to efficiently couple radiation into the iris transmission line, generation of the THz radiation pulse can be performed directly within the iris guide. The line transporting the THz radiation to the SASE2 X-ray hutches introduces a path delay of about 20 m. Since THz pump/X-ray probe experiments should be enabled, we propose to exploit the European XFEL baseline multi-bunch mode of operation, with 222 ns electron bunch separation, in order to cope with the delay between THz and X-ray pulses. We present start-to-end simulations for 1 nC bunch operation-parameters, optimized for THz pump/X-ray probe experiments.Detailed characterization of the THz and SASE X-ray radiation pulses is performed. Highly focused THz beams will approach the high field limit of 1 V/atomic size. (orig.)

  15. Undulators to FELs: Nanometers, Femtoseconds, Coherence and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attwood, David [University of California Berkeley

    2011-11-30

    For scientists in many fields, from material science to the life sciences and archeology, synchrotron radiation, and in particular undulator radiation, has provide an intense source of x-rays which are tunable to the absorption edges of particular elements of interest, often permitting studies at high spatial and spectral resolution. Now a close cousin to the undulator, the x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) has emerged with improved spatial coherence and, perhaps more importantly, femtosecond pulse durations which permit dynamical studies. In the future attosecond x-ray capabilities are anticipated. In this colloqium we will describe some state of the art undulator studies, how undulators work, the evolution to FELs, their pulse and coherence properties, and the types of experiments envisioned.

  16. Extension of self-seeding to hard X-rays >10 keV as a way to increase user access at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-11-01

    We propose to use the self-seeding scheme with single crystal monochromator at the European X-ray FEL to produce monochromatic, high-power radiation at 16 keV. Based on start to end simulations we show that the FEL power of the transform-limited pulses can reach about 100 GW by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulator. The combination of high photon energy, high peak power, and very narrow bandwidth opens a vast new range of applications, and includes the possibility to considerably increase the user capacity and fully exploit the high repetition rate of the European XFEL. In fact, dealing with monochromatic hard X-ray radiation one may use crystals as deflectors with minimum beam loss. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed for future study and possible extension of the baseline facility. They can be repeated a number of times to forman almost complete (one meter scale) ring with an angle of 20 degrees between two neighboring lines. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezo-electric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders at synchrotron radiation facilities. It is then possible to distribute monochromatic hard X-rays among 10 independent instruments, thereby enabling 10 users to work in parallel. The unmatched repetition rate of the European XFEL would be therefore fully exploited. (orig.)

  17. High harmonics focusing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Hairetdinov, A.H.; Smirnov, A.V.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    It was shown in our previous work that there exist a possibility to enhance significantly the {open_quote}natural{close_quote} focusing properties of the hybrid undulator. Here we analyze the actual undulator configurations which could provide such field structure. Numerical simulations using 2D code PANDIRA were carried out and the enhanced focusing properties of the undulator were demonstrated. The obtained results provide the solution for the beam transport in a very long (short wavelength) undulator schemes.

  18. Commissioning and first cooldown of XFEL linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhko, Y.; Escherich, K.; Jensch, K.; Petersen, B.; Schnautz, T.; Sellmann, D.

    2017-12-01

    Beam commissioning of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (European XFEL project) is ongoing. Commissioning the XFEL cryogenic system has started by cooling down the XFEL injector section in December 2015. The stationary operation was continued until August 2016. After intermediate warming up of the complete XFEL cryogenic system, the commissioning of remaining components including the 1.5 km long superconducting XFEL linear accelerator (linac) has commenced and was completed in beginning of December 2016. After conclusive pressure and leak tests, and flushing the cooldown started on 11 December 2016. Stable 4.5 K operation both for the linac and injector was established on 28 December. In this paper the XFEL cryogenic system is introduced and the first cooldown of the XFEL linac is reported. The cooldown sequences are described and the measured cooldown evolution is presented. Thermal losses of single circuits are given. Preliminary conclusions with the review of critical points are drawn.

  19. LCLS undulator production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtenberg, E.; Barsz, T.; Lawrence, G.; Sasaki, S.; Vasserman, I.; White, M.; Goldfarb, G.; Lagonsky, S.; Sorsher, S.; Becker, T.; Dufresne, S.; Schuermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    Design and construction of the undulators for the linac coherent light source (LCLS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is the responsibility of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). A full-scale prototype undulator was constructed in-house and extensively tested at Argonne's advanced photon source (APS). The device was tunable to well within the LCLS requirements and was stable for five years. Experience constructing the prototype undulator led us to conclude that with appropriate engineering design and detailed assembly procedures, precision undulators can be constructed by highly-qualified industrial vendors without undulator-construction experience. Argonne's detailed technological knowledge and experience were transferred to the successful bidders who produced outstanding undulators. Our production concept for the 3.4-m-long, fixed-gap, planar-hybrid undulators with a 30-mm period is discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and acceptance testing details are also presented.

  20. Undulator Transportation Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    A test was performed to determine whether transporting and handling the undulators makes any changes to their properties. This note documents the test. No significant changes to the test undulator were observed. After the LCLS undulators are tuned and fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF), they must be transported to storage buildings and transported to the tunnel. It has been established that the undulators are sensitive to temperature. We wish to know whether the undulators are also sensitive to the vibrations and shocks of transportation. To study this issue, we performed a test in which an undulator was measured in the MMF, transported to the tunnel, brought back to the MMF, and re-measured. This note documents the test and the results.

  1. Magnetic force study for the helical afterburner for the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wei, Tao; Li, Yuhui; Pflueger, Joachim

    2017-05-01

    At present the SASE3 undulator line at the European XFEL is using a planar undulator producing linear polarized soft Xray radiation only. In order to satisfy the demand for circular polarized radiation a helical undulator system, the so-called afterburner is in construction. It will be operated as a radiator using the pre-bunched beam of the SASE3 undulator system. Among several options for the magnetic structure the Apple-X geometry was chosen. This is a pure permanent magnet undulator using NdFeB material. Four magnet arrays are arranged symmetrically the beam axis. Polarization can be changed by adjusting the phase shift (PS) between the two orthogonal structures. The field strength can be adjusted either by gap adjustment or alternatively by the amplitude shift (AS) scheme. For an engineering design the maximum values of forces and torques on each of the components under worst case operational conditions are important. The superposition principle is used to reduce calculation time. It is found that the maximum forces Fx, Fy and Fz for a 2m long Apple-X undulator are 1.8*104N, 2.4*104N and 2.3*104N, respectively. More results are presented in this paper.

  2. XFEL/Short Pulse Science

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    X-rays are a most powerful tool for 3 dimensional imaging of matter on length scales from mm to nanometer. They allow for highly accurate determination of the position of atoms and their correlated motion in samples with complex structure under extreme temperature or pressure condi-tions, they probe either bulk or surface properties including order-disorder phenomena. With high resolution spectro-microscopy electronic properties of inhomogeneous novel materials are studied in great detail. So far equilibrium states are investigated. The logical next step is to extend our methodology to include the investigation of non-equilibrium, of new states of matter with atomic resolution in space and time. The XFELs provide the necessary very intense flashes of X-rays with wave-lengths down to 0.1 nm with pulse durations of 10 or 100 femtoseconds. Examples of the sug-gested applications of XFELs will be presented. Strategies for performing experiments at LINAC driven light sources will be discussed with emphasis on the ...

  3. Numerical Modeling of Shoreline Undulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg

    on the wave conditions and the coastal profile: undulations with no spits, undulations with flying spits and undulations with reconnecting spits. It is further shown that the evolution of the shoreline undulations is governed mainly by the angle between the shoreline and the incoming waves and the curvature...... that this shoreline is right at the limit between a stable and an unstable shoreline....

  4. LCLS Undulator Fiducialization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This note presents the LCLS undulator fiducialization plan. The undulators will be fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at SLAC. The note begins by summarizing the requirements for the fiducialization. A brief discussion of the measurement equipment is presented, followed by the methods used to perform the fiducialization and check the results. This is followed by the detailed fiducialization plan in which each step is enumerated. Finally, the measurement results and data storage format are presented.

  5. LCLS Undulator Tuning And Fiducialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Zachary; Kaplounenko, Vsevolod; Levashov, Yury; Weidemann, Achim

    2007-01-01

    The LCLS project at SLAC requires 40 undulators: 33 in the beam line, 6 spares, and one reference undulator. A new facility was constructed at SLAC for tuning and fiducializing the undulators. The throughput of the facility must be approximately one undulator per week. The undulator tuning has been partially automated. Fiducialization techniques have been devised. The new facility, the tuning techniques, and the fiducialization techniques will be discussed

  6. Machine protection for FLASH and the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Lars

    2009-05-01

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) are sources of brilliant extremeultraviolet and X-ray radiation pulses. Both facilities are based on superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) that can produce and transport electron beams of high average power. With up to 90 kW or up to 600 kW of power, respectively, these beams hold a serious potential to damage accelerator components. This thesis discusses several passive and active machine protection measures needed to ensure safe operation. At FLASH, dark current from the rf gun electron source has activated several accelerator components to unacceptable radiation levels. Its transport through the linac is investigated with detailed tracking simulations using a parallelized and enhanced version of the tracking code Astra; possible remedies are evaluated. Beam losses can lead to the demagnetization of permanent magnet insertion devices. A number of beam loss scenarios typical for FLASH are investigated with shower simulations. A shielding setup is designed and its efficiency is evaluated. For the design parameters of FLASH, it is concluded that the average relative beam loss in the undulators must be controlled to a level of about 10 -8 . FLASH is equipped with an active machine protection system (MPS) comprising more than 80 photomultiplier-based beam loss monitors and several subsystems. The maximum response time to beam losses is less than 4 μs. Setup procedures and calibration algorithms for MPS subsystems and components are introduced and operational problems are addressed. Finally, an architecture for a fully programmable machine protection system for the XFEL is presented. Several options for the topology of this system are reviewed, with the result that an availability goal of at least 0.999 for the MPS is achievable with moderate hardware requirements. (orig.)

  7. Machine protection for FLASH and the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Lars

    2009-05-15

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) are sources of brilliant extremeultraviolet and X-ray radiation pulses. Both facilities are based on superconducting linear accelerators (linacs) that can produce and transport electron beams of high average power. With up to 90 kW or up to 600 kW of power, respectively, these beams hold a serious potential to damage accelerator components. This thesis discusses several passive and active machine protection measures needed to ensure safe operation. At FLASH, dark current from the rf gun electron source has activated several accelerator components to unacceptable radiation levels. Its transport through the linac is investigated with detailed tracking simulations using a parallelized and enhanced version of the tracking code Astra; possible remedies are evaluated. Beam losses can lead to the demagnetization of permanent magnet insertion devices. A number of beam loss scenarios typical for FLASH are investigated with shower simulations. A shielding setup is designed and its efficiency is evaluated. For the design parameters of FLASH, it is concluded that the average relative beam loss in the undulators must be controlled to a level of about 10{sup -8}. FLASH is equipped with an active machine protection system (MPS) comprising more than 80 photomultiplier-based beam loss monitors and several subsystems. The maximum response time to beam losses is less than 4 {mu}s. Setup procedures and calibration algorithms for MPS subsystems and components are introduced and operational problems are addressed. Finally, an architecture for a fully programmable machine protection system for the XFEL is presented. Several options for the topology of this system are reviewed, with the result that an availability goal of at least 0.999 for the MPS is achievable with moderate hardware requirements. (orig.)

  8. Laser undulator radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoshiyuki E-mail: y-kawa@fit.ac.jp; Li, Dianjun; Ruschin, Shlomo; Tanabe, Toshiya; Toyoda, Koichi

    2000-05-01

    Various characteristics such as the number of photons, the wavelength, and the solid angle of the laser undulator radiation have been measured quantitatively. It was performed in the visible wavelength region using the interaction between a high-power pulsed CO{sub 2} laser and a high-quality electron beam having an energy of 0.65-0.85 MeV. The experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. A criterion to determine the limitation to the number of periods of the laser undulator was also proposed.

  9. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-01-01

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm 2 Co 17 or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  10. Investigation of a free electron laser oscillator in the X-ray wavelength regime for the European XFEL; Untersuchungen zu einem Freie-Elektronen-Laser-Oszillator im Roentgen-Wellenlaengenbereich fuer den European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemella, Johann Christian Uwe

    2013-09-15

    In this thesis an X-ray free electron laser oscillator for the European XFEL is described. Such an oscillator consists of at least two Bragg deflecting crystals, in this content two or four Diamond crystals, focussing mirrors and an undulator. The advantage of Diamond is caused by the high reflectivity and the high thermal conductivity, which is necessary for dissipate the absorbed energy out of the center of the crystal. In context of this thesis the principle layout of an XFELO for the European XFEL and the FEL process is presented. Effects on the FEL process due to the disturbances of the electron beam or the XFELO cavity are discussed. As second aspect the thermal evolution in the crystal under absorbed XFELO-pulses is investigated. An experiment for the investigation of the thermal evolution of crystals under simulated XFELO conditions is presented.

  11. Large-bandwidth data acquisition network for XFEL facility, SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, T.; Joti, Y.; Ohata, T.; Tanaka, R.; Yamaga, M.; Hatsui, T.

    2012-01-01

    The SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser) facility consists of an accelerator building, an undulator building and an experimental facility. SACLA is designed to produce X-ray with a wavelength as short as 0.06 nm and with a repetition rate of 60 Hz. X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) experiments demands large bandwidth network for data acquisition (DAQ). At SACLA the experimental data rate is to be up to 5.8 Giga bit per second (Gbps). Some of the experiments demands preprocessing and on-line analysis by high-performance computers. In order to fulfill these requirements, a dedicated network system for DAQ and data analysis has been developed. A DAQ network consists of a dedicated 10 Gbps Ethernet (10 GbE) physical layer to secure the data bandwidth and a 1 GbE layer for instrument controls. The DAQ network is connected to a primary storage and indirectly to a PC cluster for data preprocessing. A fire-wall system with virtual private network (VPN) features is also implemented in order to secure remote access from off-site institutes. The use of a large-bandwidth data transfer technique allows the efficient transfer of pre-processed data from SACLA to an off-site supercomputer

  12. A Novel Diagnostics of Ultrashort Electron Bunches Based on Detection of Coherent Radiation from Bunched Electron Beam in an Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, Evgeny L; Yurkov, Mikhail V

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new method for measurements of the longitudinal profile of 100 femtosecond electron bunches for X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs). The method is based on detection of coherent undulator radiation produced by modulated electron beam. Seed optical quantum laser is used to produce exact optical replica of ultrashort electron bunches. The replica is generated in apparatus which consists of an input undulator (energy modulator), and output undulator (radiator) separated by a dispersion section. The radiation in the output undulator is excited by the electron bunch modulated at the optical wavelength and rapidly reaches a hundred-MW-level power. We then use the now-standard method of ultrashort laser pulse-shape measurement, a tandem combination of autocorrelator and spectrum (FROG -- frequency resolved optical gating) providing real-time single-shot measurements of the electron bunch structure. The big advantage of proposed technique is that it can be used to determine the slice energy spread and emi...

  13. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J.

    1994-07-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10 -11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10 -10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  14. Small area detectors at the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcato, M.; Gessler, P.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Meyer, M.; Nordgren, J.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Youngman, C.

    2014-05-01

    The detectors to be used at the European XFEL have to deal with the unique time structure of the machine, delivering up to 2700 pulses, with a repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, ten times per second, the very high photon flux and the need to combine single-photon sensitivity and a large dynamic range. This represents a challenge not only for the large-area 2D imaging detectors but also for the smaller-area detectors and makes the use of standard commercial devices impossible. Dedicated solutions are therefore envisaged for small imaging- or strip-detectors. In this contribution the focus is put on two particular small-area detector solutions which are planned to be used at the European XFEL, a strip detector for hard X-rays (with energy 3 < E < 25 keV) and an imaging detector for soft X-rays (0.25 < E < 3 keV). Hard X-rays photon-beam diagnostics as well as hard X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy at the European XFEL make use of strip detectors as detectors for beam spectrometers or as energy-dispersive detectors in combination with an energy-dispersive element. The European XFEL is establishing cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen to develop a new version of the Gotthard detector best suited to the European XFEL needs. The use case and the required detector specifications are illustrated. Starting from the present detector version, the modifications planned to adapt it to the European XFEL running conditions are described. These include the capability of running at an increased rate and to provide a veto signal to the large 2D imaging detectors, in order to be able to remove non-interesting images already at early stages of the DAQ system. In another particular application, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, a Micro-Channel Plate detector matched to a delay-line readout is foreseen to be used. In this case the European XFEL is aiming for a highly customized solution provided by the German company Surface Concept. The use case is described

  15. Some new ideas about undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1985-11-01

    There are still no helical undulators that satisfy all major requirements. A new helical undulator is described that has at least some of the properties that were not obtainable until now. It can be used in a synchrotron storage ring, is completely accessible from both sides, light with both helicities can be produced, the helical field can be made quite strong, and the period length can be adjusted over a small range. Similarly, there have been some efforts lately to develop undulators with very short periods. It is shown how a hybrid undulator with a period of the order 1 mm can be constructed

  16. Alignment of the VISA Undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the R and D program towards a fourth generation light source, a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) demonstration is being prepared. The Visible-Infrared SASE Amplifier (VISA) undulator is being installed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The VISA undulator is an in-vacuum, 4-meter long, 1.8 cm period, pure-permanent magnet device, with a novel, strong focusing, permanent magnet FODO array included within the fixed, 6 mm undulator gap. The undulator is constructed of 99 cm long segments. To attain maximum SASE gain requires establishing overlap of electron and photon beams to within 50 pm rms. This imposes challenging tolerances on mechanical fabrication and magnetic field quality, and necessitates use of laser straightness interferometry for calibration and alignment of the magnetic axes of the undulator segments. This paper describes the magnetic centerline determination, and the fiducialization and alignment processes, which were performed to meet the tolerance goal

  17. Use of PROFIBUS for cryogenic instrumentation at XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, T.; Bolte, J.; Bozhko, Y.; Clausen, M.; Escherich, K.; Korth, O.; Penning, J.; Rickens, H.; Schnautz, T.; Schoeneburg, B.; Zhirnov, A.

    2017-12-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) is a research facility and since December 2016 under commissioning at DESY in Hamburg. The XFEL superconducting accelerator is 1.5 km long and contains 96 superconducting accelerator modules. The control system EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is used to control and operate the XFEL cryogenic system consisting of the XFEL refrigerator, cryogenic distribution systems and the XFEL accelerator. The PROFIBUS fieldbus technology is the key technology of the cryogenic instrumentation and the link to the control system. More than 650 PROFIBUS nodes are implemented in the different parts of the XFEL cryogenic facilities. The presentation will give an overview of PROFIBUS installation in these facilities regarding engineering, possibilities of diagnostics, commissioning and the first operating experience.

  18. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    'Project Title: Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Photons' DOE Contract Number: FG02-04ER41355 Principal Investigator: Prof. Kirk McDonald Period of Performance: 09/10/2004 thru 08/31/2006 This award was to fund Princeton's activity on SLAC experiment E166, 'Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons' which was performed at SLAC during June and September 2005. Princeton U. fabricated a magnetic spectrometer for this experiment, and participated in the commissioning, operation, and analysis of the experiment, for which Prof. McDonald was a co-spokesperson. The experiment demonstrated that an intense positron beam with 80% longitudinal polarization could be generated by conversion of MeVenergy circularly polarized photons in a thin target, which photons were generated by passage of high-energy electrons through a helical undulator. This technique has since been adopted as the baseline for the polarized positron source of the proposed International Linear Collider. Results of the experiment have been published in Physical Review Letters, vol 100, p 210801 (2008) (see attached .pdf file), and a longer paper is in preparation.

  19. A flexible and testable software architecture: applying presenter first to a device server for the DOOCS accelerator control system of the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, A.; Karabekyan, S.; Pflüger, J.

    2012-01-01

    Presenter First (PF) uses a variant of Model View Presenter design pattern to add implementation flexibility and to improve testability of complex event-driven applications. It has been introduced in the context of GUI applications, but can easily be adapted to server applications. This paper describes how Presenter First methodology is used to develop a device server for the Programmable Logic Controls (PLC) of the European XFEL undulator systems, which are Windows PCs running PLC software from Beckhoff. The server implements a ZeroMQ message interface to the PLC allowing the DOOCS accelerator control system of the European XFEL to exchange data with the PLC by sending messages over the network. Our challenge is to develop a well-tested device server with a flexible architecture that allows integrating the server into other accelerator control systems like EPICS. (author)

  20. Numerical modeling of tapered undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, B.I.; Bunker, G.; Lee, J.M.; Morrison, T.I.

    1994-01-01

    Tapered-undulator radiation will be used in at least one of the third generation synchrotron sources. While the spectral and angular characteristics of the radiation have been calculated for some specific configurations, the effects of tapering on the spectrum are still not well characterized. In this paper we have used an FFT-based method to calculate the spectral and angular distributions of the radiation from a tapered undulator with vertically-polarized magnetic field. The effect of tapering on the horizontal symmetry of the angular distribution of the radiation is investigated. A simple expression for the presence or absence of horizontal reflection symmetry as a function of the undulator parameters is derived. We have shown that for APS-type undulators and energies as high as 25 keV the radiation may be expected to exhibit horizontal reflection symmetry for observation angles up to 200 μrad. Our calculations are in agreement with recent measurements of the on-axis brightness of the prototype APS-CHESS undulator operated in the tapered configuration, and with results from well-established non-FFT programs. (orig.)

  1. Optimized Bunch Compression System for the European XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Limberg, Torsten; Brinkmann, Reinhard; Decking, Winfried; Dohlus, Martin; Flöettmann, Klaus; Kim, Yujong; Schneidmiller, Evgeny

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL bunch compressor system has been optimized for greater flexibility in parameter space. Operation beyond the XFEL design parameters is discussed in two directions: achieving the uppermost number of photons in a single pulse on one hand and reaching the necessary peak current for lasing with a pulse as short as possible on the other. Results of start-to-end calculations including 3D-CSR effects, space charge forces and the impact on wake fields demonstrate the potential of the XFEL for further improvement or, respectively, its safety margin for operation at design values.

  2. Stabilized Optical Fiber Links for the XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Axel; Grawert, Felix J; Ilday, Fatih O; Kaertner, Franz X; Kim, Jung-Won; Schlarb, Holger; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    The timing synchronization scheme for the European X-Ray free electron laser facility (XFEL) is based on the generation and distribution of sub-picosecond laser pulses with actively stabilized repetition rate which are used to synchronize local RF oscillators. An integral part of the scheme is the distribution of the optical pulse stream to parts of the facility via optical fiber links. The optical path length of the fiber has to be stabilized against short-term and long-term timing jitter due to environmental effects, such as temperature drifts and acoustic vibrations, to better than 10 fs for distances ranging from tens of meters to several kilometers. In this paper, we present first experimental results for signal transmission through a km-long fiber link with femtosecond stability.

  3. A Bright Future for Serial Femtosecond Crystallography with XFELs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Linda C; Stauch, Benjamin; Ishchenko, Andrii; Cherezov, Vadim

    2017-09-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) have the potential to revolutionize macromolecular structural biology due to the unique combination of spatial coherence, extreme peak brilliance, and short duration of X-ray pulses. A recently emerged serial femtosecond (fs) crystallography (SFX) approach using XFEL radiation overcomes some of the biggest hurdles of traditional crystallography related to radiation damage through the diffraction-before-destruction principle. Intense fs XFEL pulses enable high-resolution room-temperature structure determination of difficult-to-crystallize biological macromolecules, while simultaneously opening a new era of time-resolved structural studies. Here, we review the latest developments in instrumentation, sample delivery, data analysis, crystallization methods, and applications of SFX to important biological questions, and conclude with brief insights into the bright future of structural biology using XFELs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Undulator radiation in a waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-03-01

    We propose an analytical approach to characterize undulator radiation near resonance, when the presence of the vacuum-pipe considerably affects radiation properties. This is the case of the far-infrared undulator beamline at the Free-electron LASer (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH), that will be capable of delivering pulses in the TeraHertz (THz) range. This undulator will allow pump-probe experiments where THz pulses are naturally synchronized to the VUV pulse from the FEL, as well as the development of novel electron-beam diagnostics techniques. Since the THz radiation diffraction-size exceeds the vacuum-chamber dimensions, characterization of infrared radiation must be performed accounting for the presence of a waveguide.We developed a theory of undulator radiation in a waveguide based on paraxial and resonance approximation. We solved the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, and extracted figure of merits describing in a simple way the influence of the vacuum-pipe on the radiation pulse as a function of the problem parameters. Our theory, that makes consistent use of dimensionless analysis, allows treatment and physical understanding of many asymptotes of the parameter space, together with their region of applicability. (orig.)

  5. Grating monochromator for soft X-ray self-seeding the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth of XFELs to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. The implementation of this method in the soft X-ray wavelength range necessarily involves gratings as dispersive elements. We study a very compact self-seeding scheme with a grating monochromator originally designed at SLAC, which can be straightforwardly installed in the SASE3 type undulator beamline at the European XFEL. The monochromator design is based on a toroidal VLS grating working at a fixed incidence angle mounting without entrance slit. It covers the spectral range from 300 eV to 1000 eV. The optical system was studied using wave optics method (in comparison with ray tracing) to evaluate the performance of the self-seeding scheme. Our wave optics analysis takes into account the actual beam wavefront of the radiation from the coherent FEL source, third order aberrations, and errors from each optical element. Wave optics is the only method available, in combination with FEL simulations, for the design of a self-seeding monochromator without exit slit. We show that, without exit slit, the self-seeding scheme is distinguished by the much needed experimental simplicity, and can practically give the same resolving power (about 7000) as with an exit slit. Wave optics is also naturally applicable to calculations of the self-seeding scheme efficiency, which include the monochromator transmittance and the effect of the mismatching between seed beam and electron beam. Simulations show that the FEL power reaches 1 TW and that the spectral density for a TW pulse is about two orders of magnitude higher than that for the SASE pulse at saturation.

  6. Normal planar undulators doubling as transverse gradient undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qika Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The transverse gradient undulator (TGU has important application in the short-wavelength high-gain free electron lasers (FELs driven by laser-plasma accelerators. However, the usual transversely tapered TGUs need special design and manufacture, and the transverse gradient cannot be tuned arbitrarily. In this paper we explore a new and simple method of using the natural transverse gradient of a normal planar undulator to compensate the beam energy spread effect. In this method, a vertical dispersion on the electron beam is introduced, then the dispersed beam passes through a normal undulator with a vertical off-axis orbit where the vertical field gradient is selected properly related to the dispersion strength and the beam energy spread. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs based on laser plasma accelerators are presented, and indicate that this method can greatly reduce the effect of the beam energy spread, leading to a similar enhancement on FEL performance as the usual transversely tapered TGU, but with the advantages of economy, tunable transverse gradient and no demand of extra field for correcting the orbit deflection induced by the field gradient.

  7. Observational constraints on undulant cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena Requejo, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    In an undulant universe, cosmic expansion is characterized by alternating periods of acceleration and deceleration. We examine cosmologies in which the dark-energy equation of state varies periodically with the number of e-foldings of the scale factor of the universe, and use observations to constrain the frequency of oscillation. We find a tension between a forceful response to the cosmic coincidence problem and the standard treatment of structure formation.

  8. Coherent radiation in an undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yong Ho.

    1990-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the synchrotron radiation from an undulating electron beam in a rectangular waveguide. The analysis is based on the dyadic Green's function approach to solve Maxwell's equations in terms of the vector potential. It is shown analytically and numerically that the radiated energy spectrum may differ significantly from the free space results when the undulator length divided by the Lorentz factor of the electron beam is larger than the transverse size of the waveguide. Then, the appearance of the spectrum is changed into a small number of sharp peaks, each corresponding to an excited waveguide mode. The undulator radiation is identified with the wake field in beam instabilities. The concepts of wake function and impedance are introduced to formulate the present problem in the same manner as the beam instability problem, so that the accumulated techniques of the latter can be applied. It is shown that the obtained impedances satisfy the Panofsky-Wenzel theorem and other properties inevitable for wake fields. 4 refs., 2 figs

  9. Commissioning for the European XFEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölle, D.

    2017-06-01

    The European XFEL is a 4th generation light source based on the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) FreeElectron-Laser concept. It is currently being commissioned in North- Germany. The core installation is a 17.5 GeV superconducting accelerator driving 3 SASE lines with photon energies from 1 to beyond 20 keV range with a maximum of 27.000 pulses per second. The international facility is organized as a limited liability company with shareholders from the contributing countries. DESY has taken over the leadership of the accelerator construction consortium, and will be in charge of the operation of the accelerator complex. The facility was set up with contributions from the 11 shareholder countries, either being hardware systems and/or staff or cash contributions. The construction is almost complete, and the commissioning phase has started by the end of 2015. This contribution will report the status of the accelerator complex with emphasis on the commissioning of the accelerator and an outlook to the commissioning of the SASE 1 FEL line.

  10. Detector Development for the European XFEL: Requirements and Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Andreas; Kuster, Markus; Sztuk-Dambietz, Jolanta; Turcato, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The variety of applications and especially the unique European XFEL time structure will require adequate instrumentation to be developed to exploit the full potential of the light source. Two-dimensional integrating X-ray detectors with ultra-fast read out up to 4.5 MHz for 1024 × 1024 pixel images are under development for a variety of imaging applications. The actual status of the European XFEL detector development projects is presented. Furthermore, an outlook will be given with respect to detector research and development, performance optimization, integration, and commissioning.

  11. Vacuum chamber for an undulator straight section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Wehrle, R.; Genens, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype aluminum extruded vacuum chamber for an undulator straight section of the Advanced Photon Source is described. The 52.-m long vacuum system is designed so that the undulator gap variation does not interfere with it. The chamber is gripped in a stiff close toleranced mounting structure to insure dimensional tolerance of the chamber height

  12. Vacuum systems for the ILC helical undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Malyshev, O B; Clarke, J A; Bailey, I R; Dainton, J B; Malysheva, L I; Barber, D P; Cooke, P; Baynham, E; Bradshaw, T; Brummitt, A; Carr, S; Ivanyushenkov, Y; Rochford, J; Moortgat-Pick, G A

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source uses a helical undulator to generate polarized photons of ∼10MeV∼10MeV at the first harmonic. Unlike many undulators used in synchrotron radiation sources, the ILC helical undulator vacuum chamber will be bombarded by photons, generated by the undulator, with energies mostly below that of the first harmonic. Achieving the vacuum specification of ∼100nTorr∼100nTorr in a narrow chamber of 4–6mm4–6mm inner diameter, with a long length of 100–200m100–200m, makes the design of the vacuum system challenging. This article describes the vacuum specifications and calculations of the flux and energy of photons irradiating the undulator vacuum chamber and considers possible vacuum system design solutions for two cases: cryogenic and room temperature.

  13. Impact of a Vertically Polarized Undulator on LCLS Hard X-ray Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The LCLS-II project will install two variable gap, horizontally polarized undulators into the LCLS undulator hall. One undulator is designed to produce soft x-rays spanning an energy range of 200-1250 eV (SXU) while the other is designed for the hard spectral range of 1-25 keV (HXU). The hard x-ray LCLS instruments (X-ray Pump- Probe [XPP], X-ray correlation Spectroscopy [XCS], Coherent X-ray Imaging [CXI], Matter in Extreme Conditions [MEC]) will be repurposed to operate on the HXU line while two new soft x-ray beamlines will be created for the SXU line. An alternate HXU undulator design is being considered that could provide advantages over the present design choice. In particular, the project team is collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory to develop a vertically polarized undulator (VPU). A 1-m prototype VPU device was successfully constructed this year and a full size prototype is in process. A decision to alter the project baseline, which is the construction of a horizontally polarized device, must be made in the coming weeks to not impact the present project schedule. Please note that a change to the soft x-ray undulator is not under discussion at the moment.

  14. Solid state modulator for klystron power supply XFEL TDS INJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Zybin, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.; Shemarykin, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    The transverse deflecting system XFEL TDS INJ for European X-ray Free Electron Laser includes power supply for the CPI VKS-8262HS klystron. It has been designed for pulse high-voltage, cathode heating, solenoid and klystron ion pump. The klystron power supply includes solid state modulator, pulse transformer, controlled power supply for cathode heating and commercial power supplies for solenoid and ion pump. Main parameters of the modulator are 110 kV of peak voltage, 72 A peak current, and pulse length up to 6 μs. The klystron power supply has been developed, designed, manufactured, tuned, tested and installed in the XFEL building. All designed parameters are satisfied.

  15. EIROforum welcomes the European XFEL as a new member

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The European research facility XFEL has become the eighth member of EIROforum. Just as political and economic interests have become unified within Europe, scientific research is benefiting from a similar alliance.   Massimo Altarelli, Chairman of the XFEL Management Board (left) and Francesco Romanelli, Chairman of the EIROforum (right). In the back (left to right): Francesco Sette (ESRF), Felicitas Pauss (CERN), Iain Mattaj (EMBL), Richard Wagner (ILL), Rowena Sirey (ESO) and David Southwood (ESA). In this day and age, scientific research is oriented towards large-scale projects, which require the involvement of a large number of partners – meaning funding institutes or national governments – and, obviously, the cooperation of the leading experts in a variety of related fields. For these reasons, it is essential to encourage synergies on an international level, combining resources, facilities and expertise. This is the quest of EIROforum, which brings together research organ...

  16. Numerical Simulations of X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL)

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2014-11-04

    We study a nonlinear Schrödinger equation which arises as an effective single particle model in X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). This equation appears as a first principles model for the beam-matter interactions that would take place in an XFEL molecular imaging experiment in [A. Fratalocchi and G. Ruocco, Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011), 105504]. Since XFEL are more powerful by several orders of magnitude than more conventional lasers, the systematic investigation of many of the standard assumptions and approximations has attracted increased attention. In this model the electrons move under a rapidly oscillating electromagnetic field, and the convergence of the problem to an effective time-averaged one is examined. We use an operator splitting pseudospectral method to investigate numerically the behavior of the model versus that of its time-averaged version in complex situations, namely the energy subcritical/mass supercritical case and in the presence of a periodic lattice. We find the time-averaged model to be an effective approximation, even close to blowup, for fast enough oscillations of the external field. This work extends previous analytical results for simpler cases [P. Antonelli, A. Athanassoulis, H. Hajaiej, and P. Markowich, Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal., 211 (2014), pp. 711--732].

  17. The Potential for the Development of the X-ray Free Electron Laser Multi-User Photon Distribution System for XFEL Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, Evgeny L; Yurkov, Mikhail V

    2004-01-01

    X-ray photon beam from a SASE FEL undulator is in principle a single user tool, just like an optical laser. Therefore, the operation and amortization cost cannot be easily spread over many simultaneous experiments. To avoid prohibitive cost for each experiment, a new XFEL laboratory scheme is proposed. A photon beam distribution system based on movable multilayer X-ray mirrors can provide an efficient way to generate a multi-user facility. Distribution of photons is achieved on the basis of pulse trains and it is possible to partition the photon beam among a few tens independent beamlines thereby obtaining many users working in parallel. The second way to increase the number of simultaneous experiments is based on the working with a series of perfect crystals in transmission (Laue) geometry. The later concept is the basic idea of the Troika beamline at ESRF. In principle, a hundred of photon beamlines with different experiments can be served by a single XFEL source.

  18. A new PLS-II in-vacuum undulator and characterization of undulator radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.-E.; Lee, H.-H.; Park, K.-H.; Seo, H.-S.; Ha, T.; Jeong, Y.-G.; Han, H.-S.; Lee, W. W.; Huang, J.-Y.; Nam, S.; Kim, K.-R.; Shin, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the result of overall studies from development to characterization of undulator radiation. After three years of upgrading, PLS-II has been operating successfully since 21 st March 2012. During the upgrade, we developed and installed an in-vacuum undulator (IVU) that generates brilliant X-ray beam. The IVU with a 3 GeV electron beam generates undulator radiation up to ~ 21 keV by using 11 th higher harmonic. The characterizations of the undulator radiation at an X-ray beam line in PLS-II agreed well with the simulation. Based on this performance demonstration, the in-vacuum undulator is successfully operating at PLS-II.

  19. Undulators as sources of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinsky, S.

    1983-01-01

    At the present time the first generation of facilities having electron storage rings designed for and dedicated to synchrotron radiation research are beginning operations in the US, Europe and Japan. The use of wigglers and undulators as enhanced sources of synchrotron radiation plays an important role at all these facilities. Moreover, recently there has been much activity in the design of the next generation machines, which will place even greater, and perhaps exclusive, emphasis on the use of wigglers and undulators. The operation of these insertion devices has been made even more attractive by advances in the design and construction of permanent magnet wigglers and undulators. This reliable and economical technology eliminates the need for more complex superconducting magnets, except to achieve very high magnetic fields for the production of hard photons from relatively low energy rings. We review the spectral properties of the radiation, emphasizing the complementary aspects of time- and frequency-domain analyses. We next study the brightness of the undulator source. Finally, we consider some limitations associated with operating an undulator in a storage ring.

  20. Experience with small-gap undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefan, P.; Krinsky, S.

    1996-01-01

    Small-gap undulators offer enhanced performance as synchrotron radiation sources, by providing extended tuning range and the possibility of higher photon energies via short-period, small-gap devices. Challenges associated with the operation of small-gap undulators arise from their requirement for small beam apertures and the resulting possibility of lifetime degradation, beam instabilities, and radiation hazards. To investigate these fundamental limitations, we have constructed an R ampersand D small-gap undulator for the X13 straight section of the NSLS 2.584 GeV X-ray Ring and have tested it during studies shifts and normal user shifts during the last year. This device, the NSLS prototype small-gap undulator (PSGU), consists of a variable-aperture vacuum chamber and a 16-mm-period pure-permanent-magnet undulator, both mounted to a common elevator base stage. The design output spectrum of 2.5 keV in the fundamental (and 7.5 keV in the third harmonic) was obtained with a magnet gap of 5.6 mm and an electron beam aperture of 2.5 mm. The partial lifetime contribution for these parameters was observed to be about 40 hr. Details of the synchrotron radiation output spectrum, lifetime dependence on aperture, and bremsstrahlung radiation production will be presented. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Undulator Hall Air Temperature Fault Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experience indicates that the LCLS undulator segments must not, at any time following tuning, be allowed to change temperature by more than about ±2.5 C or the magnetic center will irreversibly shift outside of acceptable tolerances. This vulnerability raises a concern that under fault conditions the ambient temperature in the Undulator Hall might go outside of the safe range and potentially could require removal and retuning of all the segments. In this note we estimate changes that can be expected in the Undulator Hall air temperature for three fault scenarios: (1) System-wide power failure; (2) Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system shutdown; and (3) HVAC system temperature regulation fault. We find that for either a system-wide power failure or an HVAC system shutdown (with the technical equipment left on), the short-term temperature changes of the air would be modest due to the ability of the walls and floor to act as a heat ballast. No action would be needed to protect the undulator system in the event of a system-wide power failure. Some action to adjust the heat balance, in the case of the HVAC power failure with the equipment left on, might be desirable but is not required. On the other hand, a temperature regulation failure of the HVAC system can quickly cause large excursions in air temperature and prompt action would be required to avoid damage to the undulator system.

  2. Cost-effective way to enhance the capabilities of the LCLS baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses the potential for enhancing the LCLS hard X-ray FEL capabilities. In the hard X-ray regime, a high longitudinal coherence will be the key to such performance upgrade. The method considered here to obtain high longitudinal coherence is based on a novel single-bunch self-seeding scheme exploiting a single crystal monochromator, which is extremely compact and can be straightforwardly installed in the LCLS baseline undulator. We present simulation results dealing with the LCLS hard X-ray FEL, and show that this method can produce fully-coherent X-ray pulses at 100 GW power level. With the radiation beam monochromatized down to the Fourier transform limit, a variety of very different techniques leading to further improvements of the LCLS performance become feasible. In particular, we describe an efficient way for obtaining full polarization control at the LCLS hard X-ray FEL. We also propose to exploit crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry as movable deflectors for the LCLS X-ray transport systems. The hard X-ray beam can be deflected of an angle of order of a radian without perturbations. The monochromatization of the output radiation constitutes the key for reaching such result. Finally, we describe a newoptical pump - hard X-ray probe technique which will allow time-resolved studies at the LCLS baseline on the femtosecond time scale. The principle of operation of the proposed scheme is essentially based on the use of the time jitter between pump and probe pulses. This eliminates the need for timing XFELs to high-power conventional lasers with femtosecond accuracy. (orig.)

  3. Strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Klaus

    1988-01-01

    This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles.

  4. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  5. Canonical particle tracking in undulator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestefeld, G.; Bahrdt, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new algebraic mapping routine for particle tracking across wiggler and undulator fields in presented. It is based on a power series expansion of the generating function to guarantee fully canonical transformations. This method is 10 to 100 times faster than integration routines, applied in tracking codes like BETA or RACETRACK. The tracking method presented is not restricted to wigglers and undulators, it can be applied to other magnetic fields as well such as fringing fields of quadrupoles or dipoles if the suggested expansion converges

  6. RF system modeling and controller design for the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Christian

    2011-06-01

    The European XFEL is being constructed at the Deutsche Elektronen Synchrotron DESY to generate intense, ultrashort pulses of highly coherent and monochromatic X-Rays for material science research. X-ray flashes are generated by accelerating electron bunches within superconducting cavities with radio frequency (RF) fields to energies up to 17.5 GeV. The digital control of these fields requires extremely high quality in order to achieve the physical processes of photon generation. DESY offers with FLASH a pilot test facility, allowing to test and develop most necessary components, even before the XFEL is conducted. Current field control is based on a proportional feedback controller in addition to a constant feedforward drive, which do not meet the high requirements of the XFEL. This thesis shows that a model based controller design can achieve the necessary field regulation requirements. A linear, time invariant ''black box model'' is estimated, which characterizes the essential dynamic behavior. This model is not based on physical assumptions, but describes exclusively the transfer behavior of the plant. The acceleration modules are operated in a pulsed mode, in which the RF field must be kept constant for a finite period. The character of the disturbances and variations from pulse-to-pulse, together with the properties of the system, require a combination of controlled feedforward drive and feedback. Generally unpredictable, low frequency pulse-to-pulse variations are suppressed by the feedback controller. The structural design of the complex multivariable feedback controller is given, which constrains the model based design approach to assign the controller parameters only. Estimation of the parameters, which can not be tuned manually, is done by the method of H loop shaping which is often applied in modern control theory. However, disturbances within a pulse are in a high frequency range concerning the short pulse duration. They are not sufficiently suppressed

  7. RF system modeling and controller design for the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Christian

    2011-06-15

    The European XFEL is being constructed at the Deutsche Elektronen Synchrotron DESY to generate intense, ultrashort pulses of highly coherent and monochromatic X-Rays for material science research. X-ray flashes are generated by accelerating electron bunches within superconducting cavities with radio frequency (RF) fields to energies up to 17.5 GeV. The digital control of these fields requires extremely high quality in order to achieve the physical processes of photon generation. DESY offers with FLASH a pilot test facility, allowing to test and develop most necessary components, even before the XFEL is conducted. Current field control is based on a proportional feedback controller in addition to a constant feedforward drive, which do not meet the high requirements of the XFEL. This thesis shows that a model based controller design can achieve the necessary field regulation requirements. A linear, time invariant ''black box model'' is estimated, which characterizes the essential dynamic behavior. This model is not based on physical assumptions, but describes exclusively the transfer behavior of the plant. The acceleration modules are operated in a pulsed mode, in which the RF field must be kept constant for a finite period. The character of the disturbances and variations from pulse-to-pulse, together with the properties of the system, require a combination of controlled feedforward drive and feedback. Generally unpredictable, low frequency pulse-to-pulse variations are suppressed by the feedback controller. The structural design of the complex multivariable feedback controller is given, which constrains the model based design approach to assign the controller parameters only. Estimation of the parameters, which can not be tuned manually, is done by the method of H{sub {infinity}} loop shaping which is often applied in modern control theory. However, disturbances within a pulse are in a high frequency range concerning the short pulse duration

  8. Helical undulator based on partial redistribution of uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Balal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new type of helical undulator based on redistribution of magnetic field of a solenoid by ferromagnetic helix has been proposed and studied both in theory and experiment. Such undulators are very simple and efficient for promising sources of coherent spontaneous THz undulator radiation from dense electron bunches formed in laser-driven photo-injectors.

  9. Helical undulator based on partial redistribution of uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, N.; Bandurkin, I. V.; Bratman, V. L.; Fedotov, A. E.

    2017-12-01

    A new type of helical undulator based on redistribution of magnetic field of a solenoid by ferromagnetic helix has been proposed and studied both in theory and experiment. Such undulators are very simple and efficient for promising sources of coherent spontaneous THz undulator radiation from dense electron bunches formed in laser-driven photo-injectors.

  10. A comparison of geoid undulations for west central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, D.R.; Csatho, B.; Jezek, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    -derived geoid undulations were compared to independently determined undulations found by differencing the elevations from Global Positioning System controlled airborne laser altimetry and optical levelling surveys. Differences between the two sets of undulations were less than +/-6 cm RMS. The comparison...

  11. Undulator Radiation Damage Experience at LCLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuhn, H. D.; Field, C.; Mao, S.; Levashov, Y.; Santana, M.; Welch, J. N.; Wolf, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has been running the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first x-ray Free Electron Laser since 2009. Undulator magnet damage from radiation, produced by the electron beam traveling through the 133-m long straight vacuum tube, has been and is a concern. A damage measurement experiment has been performed in 2007 in order to obtain dose versus damage calibrations. Radiation reduction and detection devices have been integrated into the LCLS undulator system. The accumulated radiation dose rate was continuously monitored and recorded. In addition, undulator segments have been routinely removed from the beamline to be checked for magnetic (50 ppm, rms) and mechanic (about 0.25 µm, rms) changes. A reduction in strength of the undulator segments is being observed, at a level, which is now clearly above the noise. Recently, potential sources for the observed integrated radiation levels have been investigated. The paper discusses the results of these investigation as well as comparison between observed damage and measured dose accumulations and discusses, briefly, strategies for the new LCLS-II upgrade, which will be operating at more than 300 times larger beam rate.

  12. Superconducting Undulator with Variably Polarized Light

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ching Shiang; Ching Fan, Tai; Li, W P; Lin, P H

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates planar in-vacuo superconducting undulators with periodic length of 5 cm (IVSU5) producing linearly and circularly polarized infrared rays or xrays source. The vertically wound racetrack coil is selected for the coil and pole fabrication of the IVSU5. When the up and down magnetic pole arrays with alternative directions rotated wires in the horizontal plane, a helical field radiates circularly polarized light in the electron storage ring, the free electron laser (FEL), and the energy recovery linac (ERL) facilities. Meanwhile, an un-rotated wire is constructed together with the rotated wire on the same undulator is used to switch the linear horizontal and vertical, the right- and left-circular polarization radiation. Given a periodic length of 5 cm and a gap of 23 mm, the maximum magnetic flux density in the helical undulator are Bz = 1.5 T and Bx = 0.5 T when the wires rotated by 20°. This article describes the main factors of the planar and helical undulator design for FEL and...

  13. KIAE-1.5-3 undulator performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenko, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Hybrid type undulator with 60 periods of {lambda}{sub w} = 1.5 cm and tunable gap in wide range has been designed and manufactured. Additional side magnet arrays provide high magnetic field (near Halbach limit) along with transverse field profiles for e.b. focusing.

  14. Status of PPI (Pohang Photo-Injector) for PAL XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung-Ju; Oh, Jong-Seok; Park, Chong-Do; Park Jang Ho; Soo Ko In; Wang, Xijie; Woon Parc, Yong

    2005-01-01

    A X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) project based on the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) is under progress at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL). One of the critical R&D for the PAL XFEL* is to develop the Pohang Photo-Injector (PPI) which is required to deliver electron beams with normalized emittance < 1.5 mm-mrad. In order to achieve the required beam quality with high stability and reliability, we will use photocathode with quantum efficiency > 0.1 % and long lifetime. This will greatly lessen the laser energy requirement for producing flat-top UV pulses, and open the possibility of using only regenerative amplifiers (RGAs) to drive the photocathode RF gun. The RGAs can produce mJs output with much better stability than multi-pass amplifiers. Both the Cs2Te and Mg are under consideration for the possible photo-cathode. To demonstrate the suitability of the Mg and Cs2Te for the future 4th generation light source application, an improved BNL-type S-band RF gun with a high-pe...

  15. HOM characterization for beam diagnostics at the european XFEL injector

    CERN Document Server

    Baboi, Nicoletta; Shi, Liangliang; Wamsat, Thomas, DESY; Jones, Roger M; Joshi, Nirav

    2017-01-01

    Higher Order Modes (HOM) excited by bunched electron beams in accelerating cavities carry information about the beam position and phase. This principle is used at the FLASH facility, at DESY, for beam position monitoring in 1.3 and 3.9 GHz cavities. Dipole modes, which depend on the beam offset, are used. Similar monitors are now under design for the European XFEL. In addition to beam position, the beam phase with respect to the accelerating RF will be monitored using monopole modes from the first higher order monopole band. The HOM signals are available from two couplers installed on each cavity. Their monitoring will allow the on-line tracking of the phase stability over time, and we anticipate that it will improve the stability of the facility. As part of the monitor designing, the HOM spectra in the cavities of the 1.3 and 3.9 GHz cryo-modules installed in the European XFEL injector have been measured. This paper will present their dependence on the beam position. The variation in the modal distribution f...

  16. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Undulators and free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Luchini, P

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reference text for all those working in free-electron laser research as well as being a learning aid for physicists and graduate students who wish an introduction to this field. Only a basic understanding of relativistic mechanics and electromagnetism is presupposed. After an overview of early developments and general principles of operation, the different models that can be used to describe free-electron lasers are presented, organized according to their range of applicability. The relevent conceptual and mathematical constructs are built up from first principles with attention to obtaining the practically important results in a simple but rigorous way. Interaction of the undulator with the driving electron accelerator and the laser cavity and design of undulator magnets are treated and an overview is given of some typical experiments.

  18. Advanced Analysis in Nanospace Research with the XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Dosch, H

    2004-01-01

    Little happens in industrialised countries without the use of high-tech materials which are the building blocks of all modern technologies ranging from information, communication, health, energy and environment to transport. In the last decades the development of novel materials has progressed at a breathtaking rate. This has become possible through our microscopic insight into the atomistic structure of condensed matter which finally enabled us to assemble new material systems atom-by-atom. These days, we are facing a revolution in the investigation of nanospace: Through new concepts in accelerator physics, electrons can be forced to emit short-pulsed x-ray laser radiation. Such a futuristic European x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) laboratory is currently being constructed and will allow mankind to finally get holographic snapshots of the motion of atoms and electrons in materials. Ultimate insights into matter, as the realtime-observation of the formation and the breaking of molecular bonds, sound like sci...

  19. In vacuum undulator task force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, J.B.; Kao, C.C.; Stefan, P. [and others

    1998-06-01

    Historically the NSLS has been active in R&D for state-of-the-art electron beams, photon beams and x-ray optics. One of the available straight sections has therefore been dedicated to insertion device R&D. Over the past five to seven years a program aimed at exploiting the very small vertical {beta} function in the straight sections has yielded first a prototype small gap undulator (PSGU) and then an in-vacuum undulator (IVUN). The IVUN sources attain a brightness similar to the existing hybrid wigglers in X21 and X25. They radiate significantly lower total power than the wigglers but produce higher power densities. They provide undulator rather than wiggler spectra. Because of the small gaps and small periods there is not much tunability in these devices and they will have to be purpose-built for a specific scientific program. The original IVUN parameters were chosen for in-elastic x-ray scattering, similar to the scientific program on X21. This put the fundamental at 4.6 keV and the third harmonic at 13.8 keV. The question that this new possible insertion device poses is what science programs can best take advantage of this new insertion device source? To answer this, a task force was formed by M. Hart, NSLS Department Chair and charged with identifying viable scientific programs that could seek outside funding to construct IVUN beamlines. The task force concentrated on experimental programs that are presently being pursued on new insertion devices worldwide. For example, x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, which takes advantage of the large coherent flux from undulator sources, was considered. However, this program was not considered as the highest priority. The general area of protein crystallography, however, is ideal for the IVUN source. The unique electron beam optics that makes the IVUN possible in the first place also makes the IVUN ideal as a source for microdiffraction.

  20. Delta undulator for Cornell energy recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Temnykh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In anticipation of a new era of synchrotron radiation sources based on energy recovery linac techniques, we designed, built, and tested a short undulator magnet prototype whose features make optimum use of the unique conditions expected in these facilities. The prototype has pure permanent magnet (PPM structure with 24 mm period, 5 mm diameter round gap, and is 30 cm long. In comparison with conventional undulator magnets it has the following: (i full x-ray polarization control.—It may generate varying linear polarized as well as left and right circular polarized x rays with photon flux much higher than existing Apple-II–type devices. (ii 40% stronger magnetic field in linear and approximately 2 times stronger in circular polarization modes. This advantage translates into higher x-ray flux. (iii Compactness.—The prototype can be enclosed in a ∼20  cm diameter cylindrical vacuum vessel. These advantages were achieved through a number of unconventional approaches. Among them is control of the magnetic field strength via longitudinal motion of the magnet arrays. The moving mechanism is also used for x-ray polarization control. The compactness is achieved using a recently developed permanent magnet soldering technique for fastening PM blocks. We call this device a “Delta” undulator after the shape of its PM blocks. The presented article describes the design study, various aspects of the construction, and presents some test results.

  1. Undulator A diagnostics at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinski, P.

    1998-01-01

    Diagnostics of Undulator A number-sign 2 (UA2) radiation was performed during the October 1997 mn at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The UA2 undulator is a standard 3.3-cm-period APS Undulator A, which was positioned downstream from the center of the straight section at Sector 8. The diagnostics included the angular-spectral measurements of the undulator radiation to determine the undulator radiation absolute spectral flux and the particle beam divergence. The results of the absolute spectral flux measurements are compared to the undulator spectrum calculated from measured undulator magnetic field. The particle's energy spread was determined from spectra comparison. Previously, the authors reported the first measurements made on Undulator A at the APS. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the results of the diagnostics performed on the Sector 8 undulator at the request of the IMM-CAT staff, and to present a more general discussion of undulator radiation sources at the APS and details of their diagnostics

  2. First operation of the XFEL linac with the 2 K cryogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetzold, T.; Petersen, B.; Schnautz, T.; Ueresin, C.; Zajac, J.

    2017-12-01

    The RF operation of the about 800 superconducting 1.3 GHz 9-cell cavities of the XFEL linac requires helium II bath cooling at 2 K, corresponding to a vapor pressure of 3100 Pa. After the first cool-down of the XFEL linac to 4 K in December, 27th 2016 the operation of the 2 K cryogenic system was started in January, 2nd 2017. The 2 K cryogenic system consist of a 4-stage set of cold compressors to compress helium vapor at a mass flow of up to 100 g/s from 2400 Pa to about 110 kPa and a full flow bypass with an arrangement of heat exchangers and control valves. This paper describes the XFEL refrigerating plant, especially the 2 K cryogenic system, the tuning of the cold compressor regulation to adapt to the XFEL linac static and dynamic heat loads and experience of about 6 months of operation.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction for coherent diffraction patterns obtained by XFEL

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Miki; Miyashita, Osamu; Jonic, Slavica; Song, Changyong; Nam, Daewoong; Joti, Yasumasa; Tama, Florence

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of single particles using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) is a new structural biology technique that enables observations of molecules that are difficult to crystallize, such as flexible biomolecular complexes and living tissue in the state close to physiological conditions. In order to restore the 3D structure from the diffraction patterns obtained by the XFEL, computational algorithms are necessary as the orientation of the incident beam wi...

  4. Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 1: Constant wave climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the non-linear development of alongshore undulations up to fully developed quasi-steady equilibrium. A numerical model which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines is applied, based on a spectral wave model, a depth...... integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model.First the length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a stability analysis. Next the further evolution from the linear to the fully non-linear regime is described....... In the fully non-linear regime down-drift spits and migrating shoreline undulations are described.Three different shoreline shapes are found depending on the wave conditions: undulations with no spits, undulations with shore parallel spit and undulations with reconnecting spits. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V....

  5. A comparison of geoid undulations for west central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, D.R.; Csatho, B.; Jezek, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    -derived geoid undulations were compared to independently determined undulations found by differencing the elevations from Global Positioning System controlled airborne laser altimetry and optical levelling surveys. Differences between the two sets of undulations were less than +/-6 cm RMS. The comparison...... improved (+/-5 cm RMS) when GEOID94A undulations were adjusted by local gravity observations also acquired at the site. Our comparisons demonstrate that GEOID94A adequately models the long to intermediate wavelengths of the gravity field. We conclude that GEOID94A constitutes a reliable reference model...

  6. Instrumentation for a new undulator at SRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisognano, J.; Severson, M. E-mail: severson@src.wisc.edu; Green, M.A.; Rogers, G.; Fisher, M.; Kubala, T.; Bissen, M

    2001-07-21

    A new permanent magnet undulator will soon be installed in long straight section two (LSS2) of the Aladdin storage ring. We report on design characteristics of the undulator and beamlines that will utilize the first through ninth harmonics to cover the energy range from 7.8 to 500 eV. The instrumentation design is to provide high flux with moderate resolution throughout this range through the installation of two monochromators, as well as support a EUV experimental lithography exposure station. The first monochromator will be a Wadsworth design covering the energy range from 7.8 to 50 eV with <10 meV resolution. The second will be a grazing incidence monochromator covering the energy range from 50 to 500 eV with <80 meV resolution up to 400 eV. Both of these monochromators will deliver high flux into a small spot size at the sample position. Diverting mirrors will allow users to select the proper beam path for each monochromator or EUV exposure station thus matching the wavelength region to the intended experiment.

  7. Development of an undulator-based polarized positron source for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    at KEK [1a], Compton backscattering is used [2], the E166 experiment uses a helical undulator to produce polarized photons. An undulator-based positron source for the ILC has been proposed in [3,4]. The proposed scheme for an ILC positron source is illustrated in figure 1. In this scheme, a 150 GeV electron beam passes.

  8. Intensification of Harmonic Spontaneous Radiation with a Novel Undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.C.; Shao, Yichen; Parsa, Zohreh

    1998-01-01

    We have calculated the on-axis spectrum of spontaneous radiation emitted by an electron moving along a planar undulator that has a magnetic profile along the axis that approximates a square wave. (This could be obtained in practice by driving a ferromagnetic undulator into saturation by excessive current in the windings.) We find considerable enhancement of the harmonic radiation spectrum. We compare the harmonic power emitted by an electron moving through an undulator having a sine-wave field profile with the radiation emitted from an undulator having a square-wave profile; the latter is approximated by the first three Fourier components of the undulator magnetic field profile along the axial direction. Examples are computed for 40MeV electrons taking K 1 is greatly enhanced for the approximate square-wave magnetic profile: the ratio of the power emitted at f=5 by the square-wave undulator to that of the sine-wave undulator is about 15 (whereas the corresponding ratio at f=1 is only 1.5). While this enhancement might be expected because of the appreciable n=1 and n=5 Fourier components of the undulator field, higher odd harmonics are enhanced even more (e.g., x1000 at f=11). FEL gain at the harmonics should be enhanced by similar factors

  9. Microbunch preserving in-line system for an APPLE II helical radiator at the LCLS baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-05-01

    In a previous work we proposed a scheme for polarization control at the LCLS baseline, which exploited the microbunching from the planar undulator. After the baseline undulator, the electron beam is transported through a drift by a FODO focusing system, and through a short helical radiator. The microbunching structure can be preserved, and intense coherent radiation is emitted in the helical undulator at fundamental harmonic. The driving idea of this proposal is that the background linearly-polarized radiation from the baseline undulator is suppressed by spatial filtering. Filtering is achieved by letting radiation and electron beam through Be slits upstream of the helical radiator, where the radiation spot size is about ten times larger than the electron beam transverse size. Several changes considered in the present paper were made to improve the previous design. Slits are now placed immediately behind the helical radiator. The advantage is that the electron beam can be spoiled by the slits, and narrower slits width can be used for spatial filtering. Due to this fundamental reason, the present setup is shorter than the previous one. The helical radiator is now placed immediately behind the SHAB undulator. It is thus sufficient to use the existing FODO focusing system of the SHAB undulator for transporting themodulated electron beam. This paper presents complete GENESIS code calculations for the new design, starting from the baseline undulator entrance up to the helical radiator exit including the modulated electron beam transport by the SHAB FODO focusing system. (orig.)

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction for coherent diffraction patterns obtained by XFEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Miki; Miyashita, Osamu; Jonic, Slavica; Song, Changyong; Nam, Daewoong; Joti, Yasumasa; Tama, Florence

    2017-07-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of single particles using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) is a new structural biology technique that enables observations of molecules that are difficult to crystallize, such as flexible biomolecular complexes and living tissue in the state close to physiological conditions. In order to restore the 3D structure from the diffraction patterns obtained by the XFEL, computational algorithms are necessary as the orientation of the incident beam with respect to the sample needs to be estimated. A program package for XFEL single-particle analysis based on the Xmipp software package, that is commonly used for image processing in 3D cryo-electron microscopy, has been developed. The reconstruction program has been tested using diffraction patterns of an aerosol nanoparticle obtained by tomographic coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  11. Spontaneous emission spectra from a staggered-array undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shigeki; Okada, Kouji; Masuda, Kai; Sobajima, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Ohnishi, Masami; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Toku, Hisayuki

    1997-01-01

    A staggered-array undulator set inside the superconducting solenoid coils is shown to be able to provide high undulator fields larger than the longitudinal magnetic fields, a small undulator period, easy tunability through the solenoid coil current, and compact and easy fabrication. The overall performance characteristics of this undulator were studied mainly with respect to iron and aluminum disk widths, and spontaneous emission spectra through the numerical calculations. The maximum undulator field is found to be obtained for the ratio of the aluminum disk width to the undulator period of 0.45. The line widths (FWHM) of the spontaneous emission spectra, however, do not show N w -1 dependence on the number of the undulator period N w for practical beams with a Gaussian distribution, compared with for a single electron. The energy spread among various parameters is seen to play an important role in reducing the FWHM with increase of N w . The large tunability of the wavelength is proved to cover 6-10 mm by changing the solenoid magnetic field from 0.4 T to 1.6 T. (author)

  12. Analysis of the cool down related cavity performance of the European XFEL vertical acceptance tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenskat, Marc; Schaffran, J.

    2017-09-15

    For the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) cavity production, the cold radio-frequency (RF) test of the cavities at 2 K after delivery from the two vendors was the mandatory acceptance test. It has been previously reported, that the cool down dynamics of a cavity across T{sub c} has a significant influence on the observed intrinsic quality factor Q{sub 0}, which is a measure of the losses on the inner cavity surface. A total number of 367 cool downs is used to analyze this correlation and we show that such a correlation is not observed during the European XFEL cavity production.

  13. Synchrotron radiation from magnetic undulators as a prospective diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.; Ginnessi, L.

    1989-01-01

    The brightness of the radiation emitted by an ultrarelativistic e-beam passing through a magnetic undulator is sensitive to the beam quality (namely, energy spread and emittances) and to the undulator characteristics (i.e., possible random errors both in intensity and direction of magnetization, etc.) The spectrum distortion induced by the above effects and the possibility of using the undulator radiation as a diagnostic tool is discussed. Finally the importance of near-field effects when the radiation is detectedunfocussed off-axis and how they can combine with the effects induced by the beam emittances to produced a larger on-axis inhomogeneous broadening

  14. An Undulator based Polarized Positron Source for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wanming; Rinolfi, Louis; Sheppard, John

    2010-01-01

    A viable positron source scheme is proposed that uses circularly polarized gamma rays generated from the main 250 GeV electron beam. The beam passes through a helical superconducting undulator with a magnetic field of ~ 1 Tesla and a period of 1.15 cm. The gamma-rays produced in the undulator in the energy range between ~ 3 MeV – 100 MeV will be directed to a titanium target and produce polarized positrons. The positrons are then captured, accelerated and transported to a Pre-Damping Ring (PDR). Detailed parameter studies of this scheme including positron yield, and undulator parameter dependence are presented. Effects on the 250 GeV CLIC main beam, including emittance growth and energy loss from the beam passing through the undulator are also discussed

  15. Undulation Instabilities in the Meniscus of Smectic Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudet, J. C.; Dolganov, P. V.; Patrício, P.; Saadaoui, H.; Cluzeau, P.

    2011-03-01

    Using optical microscopy, phase shifting interferometry, and atomic force microscopy, we characterize the undulated structures which appear in the meniscus of freestanding ferroelectric smectic-C* films. We demonstrate that these periodic structures correspond to undulations of the smectic-air interface. The resulting striped pattern disappears in the untilted smectic-A phase. The modulation amplitude and wavelength of the instability both depend on meniscus thickness. We study the temperature evolution and propose a model that qualitatively accounts for the observations.

  16. Highlights from e-EPS: New milestone reached for the European XFEL construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Jorge Rivero González

    2013-01-01

    e-EPS News is an addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   In June 2013 an important milestone was reached for the European X-ray free-electron laser [XFEL] with the completion of its underground portion. Located in the Hamburg area (Germany), the European XFEL is one of the largest and most ambitious European projects to date. Starting full operations in 2016, the European XFEL is expected to generate intensive, ultrashort X-ray flashes that will open up entirely new areas of research with X-rays that are currently inaccessible. Organisations from 12 European countries, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland are members of the European XFEL consortium, with the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron [DESY] as the main shareholder. The total length of the facility will be 3.4km and ...

  17. Imaging the propagation of shock waves with both high temporal and high spatial resolution using XFELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schropp, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    The emergence of x-ray sources of the fourth generation, so called x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), comes along with completely new research opportunities in various scientific fields. During the last year we developed an x-ray microscope based on beryllium compound refractive lenses (Be-CRLs), which is especially optimized for the XFEL environment and provides focusing capabilities down to 100nm and even below. Based on magnified x-ray phase contrast imaging, this new setup enables us to pursue high-resolution x-ray imaging experiments with single XFEL-pulses. In a first experiment, carried out at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation of the LCLS, the performance of the instrument was investigated by direct imaging of shock waves in different materials. The shock wave was induced by an intense 150 ps optical laser pulse. The evolution of the shock wave was then monitored with the XFEL-beam. In this contribution we report on first analysis results of phase contrast imaging of shock waves in matter. In collaboration with Brice Arnold, Eric Galtier, Hae Ja Lee, Bob Nagler, Jerome Hastings, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA; Damian Hicks, Yuan Ping, Gilbert Collins, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551, USA; and Robert Hoppe, Vivienne Meier, Jens Patommel, Frank Seiboth, Christian Schroer, Institute of Structural Physics, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.

  18. Polarization characteristics of radiation in both 'light' and conventional undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kolchuzhkin, A. M.; Strokov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    As a rule, an intensity spectrum of undulator radiation (UR) is calculated by using the classical approach, even for electron energy higher than 10 GeV. Such a spectrum is determined by an electron trajectory in an undulator while neglecting radiation loss. Using Planck's law, the UR photon spectrum can be calculated from the obtained intensity spectrum, for both linear and nonlinear regimes. The electron radiation process in a field of strong electromagnetic waves is considered within the quantum electrodynamics framework, using the Compton scattering process or radiation in a 'light' undulator. A comparison was made of the results from using these two approaches, for UR spectra generated by 250-GeV electrons in an undulator with a 11.5-mm period; this comparison shows that they coincide with high accuracy. The characteristics of the collimated UR beam (i.e. spectrum and circular polarization) were simulated while taking into account the discrete process of photon emission along an electron trajectory in both undulator types. Both spectral photon distributions and polarization dependence on photon energy are 'smoothed', in comparison to that expected for a long undulator-the latter of which considers the ILC positron source (ILC Technical Design Report).

  19. First undulators for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J.

    1993-05-01

    The first three undulators, each 4.6 m in length, for the Advanced Light source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), are near completion and are undergoing qualification tests before installation into the storage ring. Two devices have 5.0-cm period lengths, 89 periods, and achieve an effective field of 0.85 T at the 14 mm minimum magnetic gap. The other device has a period length of 8.0 cm, 55 periods, and an effective field of 1.2 T at the minimum 14 mm gap. Measurements on the first 5 cm period device show the uncorrelated field errors to be 0.23%, which is less than the required 0.25%. Measurements of gap control show reproducibility of ±5 microns or better. The first vacuum chamber, 5.0 m long, is flat to within 0.53 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure section and a 4 x 10 -11 Torr pressure was achieved during vacuum tests. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  20. Status of the laboratory infrastructure for detector calibration and characterization at the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, N.; Ballak, K.-E.; Dietze, T.; Ekmedzič, M.; Hauf, S.; Januschek, F.; Kaukher, A.; Kuster, M.; Lang, P. M.; Münnich, A.; Schmitt, R.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Turcato, M.

    2016-12-01

    The European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL.EU) will provide unprecedented peak brilliance and ultra-short and spatially coherent X-ray pulses in an energy range of 0.25 to 25 keV . The pulse timing structure is unique with a burst of 2700 pulses of 100 fs length at a temporal distance of 220 ns followed by a 99.4 ms gap. To make optimal use of this timing structure and energy range a great variety of detectors are being developed for use at XFEL.EU, including 2D X-ray imaging cameras that are able to detect images at a rate of 4.5 MHz, provide dynamic ranges up to 105 photons per pulse per pixel under different operating conditions and covering a large range of angular resolution \\cite{requirements,Markus}. In order to characterize, commission and calibrate this variety of detectors and for testing of detector prototypes the XFEL.EU detector group is building up an X-ray test laboratory that allows testing of detectors with X-ray photons under conditions that are as similar to the future beam line conditions at the XFEL.EU as is possible with laboratory sources [1]. A total of four test environments provide the infrastructure for detector tests and calibration: two portable setups that utilize low power X-ray sources and radioactive isotopes, a test environment where a commercial high power X-ray generator is in use, and a pulsed X-ray/electron source which will provide pulses as short as 25 ns in XFEL.EU burst mode combined with target anodes of different materials. The status of the test environments, three of which are already in use while one is in commissioning phase, will be presented as well as first results from performance tests and characterization of the sources.

  1. Development of a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator at the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitegi, Ch.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, at SPring-8, Toru Hara proposed a new concept of undulator with a short period and a high field: the Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). The purpose of this concept is to cool Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnets at 150 K. This cooling allows magnets which have a higher remanence to be used, up to 40% higher than that of the magnets traditionally used in undulators. In order to assess the technological possibility of producing such undulator, a 2 m long undulator with a 18 mm period has been proposed at the ESRF. This piece of work presents the design and the construction of this CPMU at the ESRF. First a magnetic model of the CPMU is introduced; it is based on measurements of the magnetization curve at cryogenic temperature performed at the Louis Neel Laboratory. This model forecasts an increase of the peak field of 8% and of the field integral of 0.2 Gm at around 150 K. A unique magnetic measurement bench has been developed at the ESRF. This bench allows both the in vacuum local field and field integral to be measured. Its design and construction are presented. Finally we have reviewed the measurements at room and cryogenic temperature. These measurements are in agreement with the magnetic model. (author)

  2. Investigation of electron beam transport in a helical undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.U.; Lee, B.C.; Kim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Lossless transport of electrons through the undulator is essential for CW operation of the FELs driven by recirculating electrostatic accelerators. We calculate the transport ratio of an electron beam in a helical undulator by using a 3-D simulation code and compare the results with the experimental results. The energy and the current of the electron beam are 400 keV and 2 A, respectively. The 3-D distribution of the magnetic field of a practical permanent-magnet helical undulator is measured and is used in the calculations. The major parameters of the undutlator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, number of periods in adiabatic region = 3.5, magnetic field strength = 1.3 kG. The transport ratio is very sensitive to the injection condition of the electron beam such as the emittance, the diameter, the divergence, etc.. The injection motion is varied in the experiments by changing the e-gun voltage or the field strength of the focusing magnet located at the entrance of the undulator. It is confirmed experimentally and with simulations that most of the beam loss occurs at the adiabatic region of the undulator regardless of the length of the adiabatic region The effect of axial guiding magnetic field on the beam finish is investigated. According to the simulations, the increase of the strength of axial magnetic field from 0 to 1 kG results in the increase of the transport ratio from 15 % to 95%.

  3. Tolerance Studies of a Seeded REVOLVER-Undulator FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Meseck, A

    2005-01-01

    Wide-range wavelength-tunability is one of the key aspects of proposed FEL facilities. Once the electron beam energy and undulator period length is given, the span of the available K-values determines the achievable wavelength range, according to the resonance condition. As the usable range of the K-values is limited by technical considerations like minimum acceptable gap or permanent magnet technology etc, alternatives to enlarge the output wavelength range are of high interest. Using revolver-undulator design, different magnetic structures can be incorporated in the same undulator segment. Thus it is possible to switch between different undulator periods, covering a wider wavelength range at a given FEL-line. Because of the transverse-positions dependency of the magnetic field, the alignment reproducibility of the revolver-undulators is of concern, in particular for the APPEL type devices. Simulation studies have been performed taking the BESSY FEL-lines as examples to investigate the alignment tolerances o...

  4. Aerodynamics and Aerothermodynamics of undulated re-entry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushikh, K.; Arunvinthan, S.; Pillai, S. Nadaraja

    2018-01-01

    Aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analysis is a fundamental basis for the design of a hypersonic vehicle. In this work, aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic analyses of a blunt body vehicle with undulations on its after-body are studied with the help of numerical simulations. A crew exploration vehicle (CEV) is taken for initial analysis and undulations with varying amplitude and wavelength are introduced on CEV's after-body. Numerical simulations were carried out for CEV and for CEV with undulations at Mach 3.0 and 7.0 for angles of attack ranging from -20° to +20° with increments of +5°. The results show that introduction of undulations did not have a significant impact on mono stability and lift-drag characteristics of the vehicle. It was also observed that introduction of undulations improved the aerothermodynamic characteristics of CEV. A reduction of about 36% in maximum heat flux at Mach 3.0 and about 21% at Mach 7.0 compared to the maximum heat flux for CEV was observed.

  5. Permanent-magnet helical undulator for a millimeter-wave free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongmin; Jeong, Young-Uk; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Sun-Kook; Cho, Sung-Oh

    1995-01-01

    Permanent-magnet helical undulator for a millimeter-wave free-electron laser was designed and constructed. The configuration of the undulator is based on bifilar-type permanent-magnet helical undulator and Halbach-type planar undulator. This new configuration shows enhanced magnetic field and low field error. Period, total length and peak magnetic-field amplitude of the undulator is 36 mm, 900 mm and 1.44 kG, respectively. Adiabatic tapering of the magnetic field in end sides of the undulator was achieved using stepped soft-iron tubes. (author)

  6. Development of a 10-m wedged-pole undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.E.; Gottschalk, S.C.; James, F.E.; Quimby, D.C.; Slater, J.M.; Valla, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    A 10-m rare earth permanent magnet hybrid undulator called a near infrared scalable undulator system (NISUS) is under construction at Spectra Technology for use in the Boeing FEL program series. The design was optimized for operation at a 1-μm wavelength with the Boeing accelerator parameters. A remotely adjustable compound taper is utilized to achieve optimum startup gain and high saturated extraction. A summary of the relevant design parameters is listed. A major goal was to build NISUS from modules which would allow easy scaling to longer lengths without redesign. Prototype tests for verification of field strength and quality are complete as well as the delivery and installation of the initial 5 m. Improvements relative to the technology used in the earlier tapered hybrid undulator (THUNDER) are highlighted. The wedged-pole configuration is employed for a major increase in field strength while operating the poles farther from saturation

  7. Commissioning of the Delta Polarizing Undulator at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter

    2015-09-25

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) generates linearly polarized, intense, high-brightness x-ray pulses from planar fixed-gap undulators. While the fixed-gap design supports a very successful and tightly controlled alignment concept, it provides only limited taper capability (up to 1% through canted pole and horizontal position adjustability) and lacks polarization control. The latter is of great importance for soft x-ray experiments. A new 3.2-m-long compact undulator (based on the Cornell University Delta design) has been developed and installed in place of the last LCLS undulator segment (U33) in October 2014. This undulator provides full control of the polarization degree and K value. Used on its own, it produces fully polarized radiation in the selected state (linear, circular or elliptical) but at low intensity. To increase the output power by orders of magnitude, the electron beam is micro-bunched by several (~10) of the upstream LCLS undulator segments operated in the linear FEL regime. As unavoidable by-product, this microbunching process produces moderate amounts of horizontally linear polarized radiation which mixes with the radiation produced by the Delta undulator. This unwanted radiation component has been greatly reduced by the reverse taper configuration, as suggested by E. Schneidmiller and M. Yurkov. Full elimination of the linear polarized component was achieved through spatial separation combined with transverse collimation. The paper describes these and other methods tested during commissioning. It also presents results of polarization measurements showing high degrees of circular polarization in the soft x-ray wavelength range (500 eV - 1500 eV).

  8. Coherent harmonic production using a two-section undulator FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroszynski, D.A. [Commissariat a l`Energie, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Prazeres, R.; Glotin, F. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We present measurements and a theoretical analysis of a new method of generating harmonic radiation in a free-electron laser oscillator with a two section undulator in a single optical cavity. To produce coherent harmonic radiation the undulator is arranged so that the downstream undulator section resonance frequency matches a harmonic of the upstream undulator. Both the fundamental and the harmonic optical fields evolve in the same optical cavity and are coupled out with different extraction fractions using a hole in one of the cavity mirrors. We present measurements that show that the optical power at the second and third harmonic can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude in this fundamental/harmonic configuration. We compare the production of harmonic radiation of a two sectioned fundamental/harmonic undulator with that produced from a FEL operating at its highest efficiency with a step-tapered undulator, where the bunching at the end of the first section is very large. We examine, the dependence of the harmonic power on the intracavity power by adjusting the optical cavity desynchronism, {delta}L. We also examine the evolution of the fundamental and harmonic powers as a function of cavity roundtrip number to evaluate the importance of the small signal gain at the harmonic. We compare our measurements with predictions of a multi-electron numerical model that follows the evolution of fundamental and harmonic power to saturation. This fundamental/harmonic mode, of operation of the FEL may have useful applications in the production of coherent X-ray and VUV radiation, a spectral range where high reflectivity optical cavity mirrors are difficult or impossible to manufacture.

  9. Resource Letter on Stimulated Inelastic X-ray Scattering at an XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Bruce D.; /SLAC

    2010-09-02

    At sufficient X-ray intensity, stimulated effects in inelastic scattering will become important. These coherent, non-linear optical phenomena may be used to impulsively produce a high degree of collective excitation in, for example, correlated electron materials, suitable for performing ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. This Resource Letter collects information on fundamental aspects of stimulated X-ray scattering and evaluates the prospect for successful experiments at a present or future X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facility.

  10. Eigenmode simulations of third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities for FLASH and the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    The third harmonic nine-cell cavity (3.9 GHz) for FLASH and the European XFEL has been investigated using simulations performed with the computer code CST Microwave Studio registered. The band structure of monopole, dipole, quadrupole and sextupole modes for an ideal cavity has been studied. The higher order modes for the nine-cell structure are compared with that of the cavity mid-cell. The R/Q of these eigenmodes are calculated.

  11. Singular value decomposition as a tool for background corrections in time-resolved XFEL scattering data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    The development of new X-ray light sources, XFELs, with unprecedented time and brilliance characteristics has led to the availability of very large datasets with high time resolution and superior signal strength. The chaotic nature of the emission processes in such sources as well as entirely nov...... on singular-value decomposition of no-signal subsets of acquired datasets in combination with model inputs and appears generally applicable to time-resolved X-ray diffuse scattering experiments....

  12. Research on the Undulator Used for PKU-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Huihua; Dai, Jianping; Li, Yanan; Shi, Caitu; Yang Yu Feng; Zhuang, Jiejia

    2004-01-01

    A 5m-long combined function undulator used for the Peking University Infrared SASE FEL facility (PKU-FEL) is currently under construction at IHEP, and a 10 period prototype has already been developed. This paper describes the design study of the undulator, which is a hybrid planar magnet structure with extra focusing. The results of magnetic measurements performed on the prototype are also reported and discussed, and it demonstrates that the proposed combined function magnet structure is very promising for the use in the SASE FEL at Peking University.

  13. A strong permanent magnet-assisted electromagnetic undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, K.

    1987-01-30

    This invention discloses an improved undulator comprising a plurality of electromagnet poles located along opposite sides of a particle beam axis with alternate north and south poles on each side of the beam to cause the beam to wiggle or undulate as it travels generally along the beam axis and permanent magnets spaced adjacent the electromagnetic poles on each side of the axis of said particle beam in an orientation sufficient to reduce the saturation of the electromagnet poles whereby the field strength of the electromagnet poles can be increased beyond the normal saturation levels of the electromagnetic poles. 4 figs.

  14. U10.0 Undulator conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.

    1994-06-01

    The U10.0 Undulator described here is a 43 period, 10 cm period, 4.5 meter long insertion device. Designed for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This insertion device will provide high brightness, quasi-monochromatic radiation in the 5-950 eV energy range. This conceptual design report includes sections on: parameter development, spectral performance, and accelerator requirements, physics specifications and the detailed conceptual design of the magnetic structure, the support/drive systems, the insertion device control system, the vacuum system, and installation for the U10.0 Undulator

  15. Online & Offline data storage and data processing at the European XFEL facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasthuber, Martin; Dietrich, Stefan; Malka, Janusz; Kuhn, Manuela; Ensslin, Uwe; Wrona, Krzysztof; Szuba, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    For the upcoming experiments at the European XFEL light source facility, a new online and offline data processing and storage infrastructure is currently being built and verified. Based on the experience of the system being developed for the Petra III light source at DESY, presented at the last CHEP conference, we further develop the system to cope with the much higher volumes and rates ( 50GB/sec) together with a more complex data analysis and infrastructure conditions (i.e. long range InfiniBand connections). This work will be carried out in collaboration of DESY/IT, European XFEL and technology support from IBM/Research. This presentation will shortly wrap up the experience of 1 year runtime of the PetraIII ([3]) system, continue with a short description of the challenges for the European XFEL ([2]) experiments and the main section, showing the proposed system for online and offline with initial result from real implementation (HW & SW). This will cover the selected cluster filesystem GPFS ([5]) including Quality of Service (QOS), extensive use of flash based subsystems and other new and unique features this architecture will benefit from.

  16. X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography of metalloenzymes at XFELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The ultra-bright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of biological and inorganic systems beyond what is possible at synchrotron sources. Although the structure and chemistry at the catalytic sites have been studied intensively in both biological and inorganic systems, a full understanding of the atomic-scale chemistry requires new approaches beyond the steady state X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. Following the dynamic changes in the geometric and electronic structure at ambient conditions, while overcoming X-ray damage to the redox active catalytic center, is key for deriving reaction mechanisms. Such studies become possible by using the intense and ultra-short femtosecond X-ray pulses from an XFEL, where sample is probed before it is damaged. We have developed methodology for simultaneously collecting crystallography data and X-ray emission spectra, using an energy dispersive spectrometer at ambient conditions. In addition, we have developed a way to collect metal L-edge data of dilute samples using soft X-rays at XFELs. The advantages and challenges of these methods will be described in this review. (author)

  17. Atomistic Simulations of High-intensity XFEL Pulses on Diffractive Imaging of Nano-sized Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phay; Knight, Christopher; Young, Linda; Tegze, Miklos; Faigel, Gyula

    We have developed a large-scale atomistic computational method based on a combined Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics (MC/MD) method to simulate XFEL-induced radiation damage dynamics of complex materials. The MD algorithm is used to propagate the trajectories of electrons, ions and atoms forward in time and the quantum nature of interactions with an XFEL pulse is accounted for by a MC method to calculate probabilities of electronic transitions. Our code has good scalability with MPI/OpenMP parallelization, and it has been run on Mira, a petascale system at the Argonne Leardership Computing Facility, with particle number >50 million. Using this code, we have examined the impact of high-intensity 8-keV XFEL pulses on the x-ray diffraction patterns of argon clusters. The obtained patterns show strong pulse parameter dependence, providing evidence of significant lattice rearrangement and diffuse scattering. Real-space electronic reconstruction was performed using phase retrieval methods. We found that the structure of the argon cluster can be recovered with atomic resolution even in the presence of considerable radiation damage. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  18. Simulation of electromagnetic scattering through the E-XFEL third harmonic cavity module

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N.Y; Shiliang, L; Baboi, N

    2017-01-01

    The European XFEL (E-XFEL) is being fabricated in Hamburg to serve as an X-ray Free Electron Laser light source. The electron beam will be accelerated through linacs consisting of 1.3GHz superconducting cavities along a length of 2.1km. In addition, third harmonic cavities will improve the quality of the beam by line arising the field profile and hence reducing the energy spread. There are eight 3.9GHz cavities within a single module AH1 of E-XFEL. The beam-excited electromagnetic(EM) field in these cavities can be decomposed into a series of eigenmodes. These modes are, in general, not cut-off between one cavity and the next, as they are able to couple to each other through out the module. Here for the first time, we evaluate components of the scattering matrix for module AH1. This is a computation ally expensive system, and hence we employ a Generalized Scattering Matrix(GSM)technique to allow rapid computation with reduced memory requirements. Verification is provided on reduced structures, which are...

  19. Intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics in the superconducting accelerators FLASH and European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellert, Thorsten

    2017-11-15

    FLASH and the European XFEL are linear accelerator driven SASE-FELs, operating in a pulsed mode with long bunch-trains. Multi-bunch FEL operation requires longitudinal and transverse stability within the bunch-train. The purpose of this work is to investigate the intra-bunch-train transverse dynamics at FLASH and XFEL. Key relationships of superconducting RF cavity operation, their misalignments and the resulting impact on the intra-bunch-train trajectory variation are described. In this thesis a numerical model is developed and simulations for different accelerating sections at FLASH and XFEL are performed. With the current operational setup significant intra-bunch-train trajectory variation must be considered, hence approaches for their reduction are discussed. The theoretical studies are compared to experimental results at FLASH. The observed trajectory variation during multi-bunch user runs is analyzed and related to causal intra-bunch-train variations of the RF and the following impact on the multi-bunch SASSE performance. Furthermore, HOM-based cavity misalignment measurements are performed and the deduction of misalignments from multi-bunch data is considered.

  20. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  1. Calculations of magnetic field errors caused by mechanical accuracy at infra-red undulator construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyushevskij, E.A.; Morozov, N.A.; Syresin, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    At the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) the electromagnetic undulator with maximal magnetic field 1.2 T and 40 cm period is under development. The computer models for the undulator magnet system were realized on the basis of POISSON and RADIA codes. The undulator magnetic field imperfections due to the design errors were simulated by the models

  2. Effect of wavelength of fish-like undulation of a hydrofoil in a free ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thekkethil Namshad

    Effect of wavelength of fish-like undulation of a hydrofoil in a free-stream ... wavelength is shown to lead to the transition from the undulating motion to pitching motion. The effect of wavelength of undulation is studied numerically at a Reynolds number Re ¼ 4000, maximum amplitude of ..... The border grid points in the fluid.

  3. Measurement, sorting and tuning of LCLS undulator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Vasserman, I B; Dejus, Roger J; Moog, E; Trakhtenberg, E; Vinokurov, N A

    2002-01-01

    Currently, a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) prototype undulator is under construction. The prototype is a 3.4-m-long hybrid-type undulator with fixed gap of 6 mm. The period length is 30 mm and the number of poles is 226. For this undulator, 450 NdFeB magnet blocks are used. This project does not have demanding requirements for multipole component errors, but the field strength at x=0 should be as precise as possible to provide proper particle steering and phase errors. The first set of magnetic blocks has been measured. The strength and direction of magnetization of the magnet blocks are measured using a Helmholtz coil system. In addition to this, Hall probe measurements are performed for magnet blocks while they are mounted in a specially designed cassette with vanadium-permendur poles. The magnet blocks will be sorted using these data to minimize errors. Computer simulations show that magnets may be sorted in decreasing strengths with little or no additional tuning of the undulators.

  4. The E166 experiment: Development of an undulator-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A longitudinal polarized positron beam is foreseen for the international linear collider (ILC). A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed in the final focus test beam at SLAC to demonstrate the production of polarized positrons for implementation at the ILC. The E166 experiment uses a 1 m long helical undulator in a ...

  5. Undulator based scanning microscope at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rarback, H.; Shu, D.; Ade, H.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; McNulty, I.; Rosser, R.

    1986-01-01

    A second generation scanning soft x-ray microscope is under construction, designed to utilize the dramatic increase in source bightness available at the soft x-ray undulator. The new instrument is expected to reduce image acquisition time by a factor of about 100, and to improve resolution, stability, and reproducibility

  6. Test of an undulated vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This picture shows mechanical tests of an undulated vacuum chamber for downstream arms of ISR intersections. This chamber, made of 0.3 mm thick inconel, had inner dimensions of 150 mm by 50 mm. The deflection under vacuum is measured by dial gauges. On the left one sees the large vessel where vacuum chambers were tested at pressures above atmospheric pressure.

  7. Spatial uncertainty of a geoid undulation model in Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicaiza, E. G.; Leiva, C. A.; Arranz, J. J.; Buenańo, X. E.

    2017-06-01

    Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA), trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.

  8. Spatial uncertainty of a geoid undulation model in Guayaquil, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chicaiza E.G.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Geostatistics is a discipline that deals with the statistical analysis of regionalized variables. In this case study, geostatistics is used to estimate geoid undulation in the rural area of Guayaquil town in Ecuador. The geostatistical approach was chosen because the estimation error of prediction map is getting. Open source statistical software R and mainly geoR, gstat and RGeostats libraries were used. Exploratory data analysis (EDA, trend and structural analysis were carried out. An automatic model fitting by Iterative Least Squares and other fitting procedures were employed to fit the variogram. Finally, Kriging using gravity anomaly of Bouguer as external drift and Universal Kriging were used to get a detailed map of geoid undulation. The estimation uncertainty was reached in the interval [-0.5; +0.5] m for errors and a maximum estimation standard deviation of 2 mm in relation with the method of interpolation applied. The error distribution of the geoid undulation map obtained in this study provides a better result than Earth gravitational models publicly available for the study area according the comparison with independent validation points. The main goal of this paper is to confirm the feasibility to use geoid undulations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems and leveling field measurements and geostatistical techniques methods in order to use them in high-accuracy engineering projects.

  9. Beam cooling by using laser-undulator beat wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Tajima, Toshiki; Fisher, D.L.; Mima, Kunioki; Koga, J.

    1995-01-01

    Non-Hamiltonian manipulation of internal structure of phase space of charged particle beams can result in much faster cooling than the conventional stochastic cooling. The longitudinal emittance reduction is accomplished by the ponderomotive force of the beat between the undulator and the laser adjusted appropriate in its broadband spectrum through feedback at each turn. (author)

  10. High Efficiency Electron-Laser Interactions in Tapered Helical Undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph Patrick

    Efficient coupling of relativistic electron beams with high power radiation lies at the heart of advanced accelerator and light source research and development. The inverse free electron laser is a stable accelerator capable of harnessing very high intensity laser electric fields to efficiently transfer large powers from lasers to electron beams. In this dissertation, we first present the theoretical framework to describe the interaction, and then apply our improved understanding of the IFEL to the design and numerical study of meter-long, GeV IFELs for compact light sources. The central experimental work of the dissertation is the UCLA BNL helical inverse free electron laser experiment at the Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven National Laboratory which used a strongly tapered 54cm long, helical, permanent magnet undulator and a several hundred GW CO2 laser to accelerate electrons from 52 to 106MeV, setting new records for inverse free electron laser energy gain (54MeV) and average accelerating gradient (100MeV/m). The undulator design and fabrication as well as experimental diagnostics are presented. In order to improve the stability and quality of the accelerated electron beam, we redesigned the undulator for a slightly reduced output energy by modifying the magnet gap throughout the undulator, and we used this modified undulator to demonstrated capture of >25% of the injected beam without prebunching. In the study of heavily loaded GeV inverse free electron lasers, we show that a majority of the power may be transferred from a laser to the accelerated electron beam. Reversing the process to decelerate high power electron beams, a mechanism we refer to as tapering enhanced stimulated superradiant amplification, offers a clear path to high power light sources. We present studies of radiation production for a wide range of wavelengths (10mum, 13nm, and 0.3nm) using this method and discuss the design for a deceleration experiment using the same undulator used

  11. Magnetic performance of DEVU25.20h undulator at IDDL, DAVV,India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, G.; Gehlot, Mona; Sharma, Geetanjali; Khullar, Roma

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the design development and magnetic performance of a prototype DEVU25.20h, variable gap hybrid undulator at IDD laboratory, DAVV, Indore, India. The undulator is NdFeB based hybrid undulator with twenty five period and 20 mm each period length. Low cost M35 grade cobalt steel is used as the pole material of the undulator. The abc coefficients of the new pole material is prescribed and the measured performance and characteristics of the undulator is evaluated using RADIA. The detailed design parameters and performance indicators are summarized in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively.

  12. APPLE-II type quasi-periodic variably polarizing undulator at HiSOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shigemi; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Goto, Kiminori

    2012-01-01

    A newly constructed quasi-periodic APPLE-II undulator was installed in the HiSOR ring at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University during the summer shutdown period in 2011. This 1.8 m-long undulator has a period length of 78 mm. In this article, the mechanism of magnetic field generation for various polarization modes of APPLE undulator, the principle of quasi-periodic undulator and the performance of HiSOR QP-APPLE-II undulator are described. (author)

  13. Undulator physics and coherent harmonic generation at the MAX-lab electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werin, Sverker.

    1991-01-01

    This work presents the undulator and harmonic generation project at the electron storage ring MAX-lab at University of Lund. The theory of undulator radiation, laser coherent harmonic generation, optical klystron amplifiers and FELs is treated in one uniform way, with complete solutions of the necessary equations. The permanent magnet undulator is described in some detail, along with the installation of the undulator in the storage ring. Details regarding the emitted radiation, the electron beam path in the undulator and other results are analysed. Finally harmonic generation using a Nd:YAG laser and the creation of coherent photons at the third harmonic (355 nm) is described. (author)

  14. Simulation of magnetization process of Pure-type superconductor magnet undulator based on T-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, Yi [Division of Information and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Murorann Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan); Kawaguchi, Hideki, E-mail: kawa@mmm.muroran-it.ac.jp [Division of Information and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Murorann Institute of Technology, 27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan); Tsuchimoto, Masanori [Department of Electrical and Electronic, Hokkaido University of Science, 7-15-4-1 Maeda, Teine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 006-8585 (Japan); Tanaka, Takashi [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Koto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • We developed a simulation code of magnetization process of Pure-type HTSs undulator. • The code is based on T-method with critical state model for HTS magnetization. • A good agreement between the simulations and measurements are obtained. • We applied the code to the Pure-type HTS undulator composed by 10 HTSs. - Abstract: For the next generation Free Electron Laser, Pure-type undulator made of high Tc superconductors (HTSs) was considered to achieve a small size and high intensity magnetic field undulator. In general, it is very difficult to adjust the undulator magnet alignment after the HTS magnetization since the entire undulator is installed inside a cryostat. The appropriate HTS alignment has to be determined in the design stage. This paper presents the development of a numerical simulation code for magnetization process of the Pure-type HTS undulator to assist the design of the optimal size and alignment of the HTS magnets.

  15. Circular polarization with crossed-planar undulators in high-gain FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K J K J

    2000-01-01

    We propose a crossed undulator configuration for a high-gain free-electron laser to allow versatile polarization control. This configuration consists of a long (saturation length) planar undulator, a dispersive section, and a short (a few gain lengths) planar undulator oriented perpendicular to the first one. In the first undulator, a radiation component linearly polarized in the x-direction is amplified to saturation. In the second undulator, the x-polarized component propagates freely, while a new component, polarized in the y-direction, is generated and reaches saturation in a few gain lengths. By adjusting the strength of the dispersive section, the relative phase of two radiation components can be adjusted to obtain a suitable polarization for the total radiation field, including the circular polarization. The operating principle of the high-gain crossed undulator, which is quite different from that of the crossed undulator for spontaneous radiation, is illustrated in terms of 1-D FEL theory.

  16. Mapping the conformational landscape of a dynamic enzyme by multitemperature and XFEL crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keedy, Daniel A.; Kenner, Lillian R.; Warkentin, Matthew; Woldeyes, Rahel A.; Hopkins, Jesse B.; Thompson, Michael C.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Van Benschoten, Andrew H.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.; Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin; McPhillips, Scott E.; Song, Jinhu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Holton, James M.; Weis, William I.; Brunger, Axel T.; Soltis, S. Michael; Lemke, Henrik; Gonzalez, Ana; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Cohen, Aina E.; van den Bedem, Henry; Thorne, Robert E.; Fraser, James S.

    2015-09-30

    Determining the interconverting conformations of dynamic proteins in atomic detail is a major challenge for structural biology. Conformational heterogeneity in the active site of the dynamic enzyme cyclophilin A (CypA) has been previously linked to its catalytic function, but the extent to which the different conformations of these residues are correlated is unclear. Here we compare the conformational ensembles of CypA by multitemperature synchrotron crystallography and fixed-target X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) crystallography. The diffraction-before-destruction nature of XFEL experiments provides a radiation-damage-free view of the functionally important alternative conformations of CypA, confirming earlier synchrotron-based results. We monitored the temperature dependences of these alternative conformations with eight synchrotron datasets spanning 100-310 K. Multiconformer models show that many alternative conformations in CypA are populated only at 240 K and above, yet others remain populated or become populated at 180 K and below. These results point to a complex evolution of conformational heterogeneity between 180-–240 K that involves both thermal deactivation and solvent-driven arrest of protein motions in the crystal. The lack of a single shared conformational response to temperature within the dynamic active-site network provides evidence for a conformation shuffling model, in which exchange between rotamer states of a large aromatic ring in the middle of the network shifts the conformational ensemble for the other residues in the network. Together, our multitemperature analyses and XFEL data motivate a new generation of temperature- and time-resolved experiments to structurally characterize the dynamic underpinnings of protein function.

  17. Development of a High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Synchrotrons and XFELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel Todd

    Advances in synchrotron radiation light source technology have opened new lines of inquiry in material science, biology, and everything in between. However, x-ray detector capabilities must advance in concert with light source technology to fully realize experimental possibilities. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) place particularly large demands on the capabilities of detectors, and developments towards diffraction-limited storage ring sources also necessitate detectors capable of measuring very high flux [1-3]. The detector described herein builds on the Mixed Mode Pixel Array Detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging, and the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) developed for the European XFEL by a collaboration between Deustsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), the Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), the University of Hamburg, and the University of Bonn, led by Heinz Graafsma [4, 5]. The feasibility of combining adaptive gain with charge removal techniques to increase dynamic range in XFEL experiments is assessed by simulating XFEL scatter with a pulsed infrared laser. The strategy is incorporated into pixel prototypes which are evaluated with direct current injection to simulate very high incident x-ray flux. A fully functional 16x16 pixel hybrid integrating x-ray detector featuring several different pixel architectures based on the prototypes was developed. This dissertation describes its operation and characterization. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the front-end amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is thereby shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to that achieved by counting pixel array detectors, but the integrators presented here are designed to tolerate a

  18. Enhanced coherent undulator radiation from bunched electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.; Smith, T.I.

    1996-01-01

    When energetic bunches of electrons traverse an undulator field, they can spontaneously emit radiation both coherently and incoherently. Although it has generally been assumed that undulator radiation is incoherent at wavelengths short compared to the longitudinal size of the electron bunch, several recent observations have proved this assumption false. Furthermore, the appearance of coherent radiation is often accompanied by a significant increase in radiated power. Here we report observations of strongly enhanced coherent spontaneous radiation together with direct measurements, using transition radiation techniques, of the electron distributions responsible for the coherent emission. We also report demonstrated enhancements in the predicted spontaneous radiated power by as much as 6x10 4 using electron bunch compression. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Optimal propulsion of an undulating slender body with anisotropic friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Ibarra, Alejandro; Melo, Francisco

    2018-01-24

    This study investigates theoretically and numerically the propulsive sliding of a slender body. The body sustains a transverse and propagative wave along its main axis, and undergoes anisotropic friction caused by its surface texture sliding on the floor. A model accounting for the anisotropy of frictional forces acting on the body is implemented. This describes the propulsive force and gives the optimal undulating parameters for efficient forward propulsion. The optimal wave characteristics are effectively compared to the undulating motion of a slithering snakes, as well as with the motion of sandfish lizards swimming through the sand. Furthermore, numerical simulations have indicated the existence of certain specialized segments along the body that are highly efficient for propulsion, explaining why snakes lift parts of their body while slithering. Finally, the inefficiency of slithering as a form of locomotion to ascend a slope is discussed.

  20. Magnetic design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlot, Mona, E-mail: mona_gehlot@yahoo.com [Insertion Device Development Laboratory, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452001, MP (India); Mishra, G. [Insertion Device Development Laboratory, School of Physics, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452001, MP (India); Institute of Engineering, UNAM (Mexico); Soleil, Paris (France); Trillaud, Frederic [Institute of Engineering, UNAM (Mexico); Sharma, Geetanjali [Soleil, Paris (France)

    2017-02-21

    In this paper we report the design of a 14 mm period prototype superconducting undulator that is under fabrication at Insertion Device Development Laboratory (IDDL) at Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore, India. The field computations are made in RADIA and results are presented in an analytical form for computation of the on axis field and the field on the surface of the coil. On the basis of the findings, a best fit is presented for the model to calculate the field dependence on the gap and the current density. The fit is compared with Moser-Rossmanith formula proposed earlier to predict the magnetic flux density of a superconducting undulator. The field mapping is used to calculate the field integrals and its dependence on gap and current densities as well.

  1. Reduction of Dynamic Field Errors in Superconductive Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Peiffer, Peter; Burkart, Florian; Ehlers, Sandra; Keilmann, Alexander; Baumbach, Tilo; Rossmanith, Robert; Schoerling, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field in superconductive undulators is changed by varying the current in the superconductive wires. During operation at stable current, the electric current is confined to the resistance-free filaments. During ramping, however, the superconducting wire bundles have an inductive impedance, causing part of the current to penetrate into the iron body if electric insulation leaks between the wire and the iron body are present. If this is the case the leak currents and other eddy currents decay slowly after the ramp. The magnetic field of the undulator changes during this period. It was shown experimentally that an effective electric insulation between the wires and the iron body can minimize the current and the magnetic field drifts. In this paper the results of these experiments and simulations of the described effects are presented

  2. Computation of the brightness of the variably-polarizing undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.; Schettini, G.; Carpanese, M.

    1999-02-01

    Undulators, producing variably polarized radiation, generate magnetic fields which induce different types of electron motion (vertically, horizontally sinusoidal and helical). The properties of the emitted radiation reflect the complexity of the motion and cannot be described with the method based on the conventional Bessel functions expansion. It's shown that the problem can be overcome by exploiting a method which employs generalized forms of Bessel functions. The proposed technique provides an effective tool to analyze the properties of the emitted radiation [it

  3. Degradation Free Vacuum Epoxy Impregnated short REBCO Undulator Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesgin, I.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Welp, U.

    2017-12-01

    The source of high–brilliance, hard x-ray radiation in light sources and free electron lasers are undulator insertion devices. Recently, REBCO-based superconductors have been demonstrated to be a potential candidate to enhance the performance of the undulator insertion devices. Epoxy impregnation remained as one of the steps which is crucial to fully realize this technology. Epoxy impregnation of magnets is required because it prevents the motion of the wire and provides conduction cooling to the winding layers. Up until now, most of the impregnated REBCO coils/magnets showed some degree of degradation after cold cycles. We developed a vacuum impregnation technique that does not degrade the performance of the short REBCO prototype undulator magnets after cold cycles. The results showed that in order to prevent degradation, a bumper layer between the magnet winding stacks and the epoxy/powder mixture is required. Microstructure images of vacuum impregnated coil packs showed homogenously-spaced REBCO winding layers and very thin epoxy fillings between the layers, which is important for the overall performance of the device.

  4. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Pan, Jianyu; Chen, Deke; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats, aged Kunming mice, ultraviolet-exposed rats, and thermally injured rats was investigated. P. undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions, then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP. Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis. The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum and significantly decreased MDA. Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP, while wound healing in skin was promoted. These results suggest that the LMWP from P. undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  5. Development of a superconducting undulator for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y; Abliz, M; Doose, C; Fuerst, J; Hasse, Q; Kasa, M; Trakhtenberg, E; Vasserman, I; Gluskin, E; Lev, V; Mezentsev, N; Syrovatin, V; Tsukanov, V

    2013-01-01

    As the western hemisphere's premier x-ray synchrotron radiation source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS) continues to advance the state of the art in insertion device technology in order to maintain record high brightness, especially in the hard x-ray wavelength region. Due to the unique bunch pattern used for normal APS operations and its ultimate capabilities, the APS has chosen superconducting technology for its future hard x-ray undulator sources. In the last several years, the APS in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics has being developing the technology for planar, small-period superconducting undulators (SCUs). These developments include the design and construction of several prototypes and the construction of the necessary mechanical, vacuum, and cryogenic infrastructure at the APS site. Several prototypes of the SCU magnetic structure have been built and tested. The first SCU is assembled and will be installed in the APS storage ring at the end of 2012. Expected SCU performance in terms of x-ray brightness should noticeably exceed that of existing APS undulators. Immediately after commissioning, the SCU will be used at APS Sector 6 as the radiation source for high-energy x-ray studies.

  6. Off-Axis Undulator Radiation for CLIC Drive Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Jeff, A; Welsch, CP

    2013-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) will use a novel acceleration scheme in which energy extracted from a very intense beam of relatively low-energy electrons (the Drive Beam) is used to accelerate a lower intensity Main Beam to very high energy. The high intensity of the Drive Beam, with pulses of more than 1015 electrons, poses a challenge for conventional profile measurements such as wire scanners. Thus, new non-invasive profile measurements are being investigated. In this paper we propose the use of relatively inexpensive permanent-magnet undulators to generate off-axis visible Synchrotron Radiation from the CLIC Drive Beam. The field strength and period length of the undulator should be designed such that the on-axis undulator wavelength is in the ultra-violet. A smaller but still useable amount of visible light is then generated in a hollow cone. This light can be reflected out of the beam pipe by a ring-shaped mirror placed downstream and imaged on a camera. In this contribution, results of SRW and ZEMA...

  7. XFEL diffraction measurements of shocked Fe and Fe alloys for planetary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygier, Andrew; Harmand, M.; Morard, G.; Nemausat, R.; Fiquet, G.; McBride, E.; Appel, K.; Albertazzi, B.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Koenig, M.; Vinci, T.; Kodama, R.; Miyanishi, K.; Ozaki, N.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Galtier, E.; Lee, H.-J.; Nagler, B.; Svitlyk, V.

    2017-10-01

    Earth's core is composed of Fe mixed with small amounts of light elements like Si, O, and C. Determining the phase relations of Fe and derivative alloys is important for understanding the cores of Earth and terrestrial exoplanets. High pressure and temperature conditions can be achieved with high power lasers, but the states are highly transient and their characterization has been limited by the lack of appropriate platforms. The recent advance of facilities with high-power lasers coupled to XFELs enables characterization of shocked states with the powerful suite of X-ray techniques used by the static community. Here we present results from recent X-ray diffraction measurements of shocked Fe alloys at the coupled XFEL-optical laser at SACLA (EH5) and LCLS (MEC). This work is supported by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche with the ANR IRONFEL 12-PDOC-0011, the ERC PLANETDIVE, and under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Metrology and quality assurance for European XFEL long flat mirrors installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijo Martín, Idoia; Vannoni, Maurizio; Sinn, Harald

    2017-06-01

    The European XFEL is a large-scale user facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent X-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 milliseconds long pulse train at 10Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulses (in the femtoseconds scale) and high average brilliance (1.6x1025 photons / s / mm2 / mrad2/ 0.1% bandwidth)1. Due to the short wavelength and high pulse energies, mirrors need to have a high-quality surface, have to be very long (1 m), and at the same time an effective cooling system has to be implemented. Matching these tight specifications and assessing them with high precision optical measurements is very challenging. The mirrors go through a complicated and long process, starting from classical polishing to deterministic polishing, ending with a special coating and a final metrology assessment inside their mechanical mounts just before the installation. The installation itself is also difficult for such big mirrors and needs special care. In this contribution we will explain how we implemented the installation process, how we used the metrology information to optimize the installation procedure and we will show some preliminary results with the first mirrors installed in the European XFEL beam transport.

  9. Comparison of Powerlifting Performance in Trained Men Using Traditional and Flexible Daily Undulating Periodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Ryan J; Gai, Christopher M; Walters, Jeoffrey; Brannon, Andrew R; Kilpatrick, Marcus W; DʼAgostino, Dominic P; Campbell, Bill I

    2017-02-01

    Colquhoun, RJ, Gai, CM, Walters, J, Brannon, AR, Kilpatrick, MW, D'Agostino, DP, and Campbell, WI. Comparison of powerlifting performance in trained men using traditional and flexible daily undulating periodization. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 283-291, 2017-Daily undulating periodization (DUP) is a growing trend, both in practice and in the scientific literature. A new form of DUP, flexible daily undulating periodization (FDUP), allows for athletes to have some autonomy by choosing the order of their training. The purpose of this study was to compare an FDUP model to a traditional model of DUP on powerlifting performance in resistance-trained men. Twenty-five resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: FDUP (N = 14) or DUP (N = 11). All participants possessed a minimum of 6 months of resistance training experience and were required to squat, bench press, and deadlift 125, 100, and 150% of their body mass, respectively. Dependent variables assessed at baseline and after the 9-week training program included bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), squat 1RM, deadlift 1RM, powerlifting total, Wilks Coefficient, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM). Dependent variables assessed during each individual training session were motivation to train, Session Rating of Perceived Exertion (Session RPE), and satisfaction with training session. After the 9-week training program, no significant differences in intensity or volume were found between groups. Both groups significantly improved bench press 1RM (FDUP: +6.5 kg; DUP: +8.8 kg), squat 1RM (FDUP: +15.6 kg; DUP: +18.0 kg), deadlift 1RM (FDUP: +14.8 kg; DUP: +13.6 kg), powerlifting total (FDUP: +36.8 kg; DUP: +40.4 kg), and Wilks Coefficient (FDUP: +24.8; DUP: +26.0) over the course of study (p = <0.001 for each variable). There was also a significant increase in FFM (FDUP: +0.8 kg; DUP: +0.8 kg) for both groups (p = 0.003). There were no differences in motivation to train, session RPE, or satisfaction with

  10. Focusing X-ray free-electron laser pulses using Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors at the NCI hutch of the PAL-XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Yun; Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Sunam; Rah, Seungyu; Lim, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free-Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) is a recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility that provides intense ultrashort X-ray pulses based on the self-amplified spontaneous emission process. The nano-crystallography and coherent imaging (NCI) hutch with forward-scattering geometry is located at the hard X-ray beamline of the PAL-XFEL and provides opportunities to perform serial femtosecond crystallography and coherent X-ray diffraction imaging. To produce intense high-density XFEL pulses at the interaction positions between the X-rays and various samples, a microfocusing Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) mirror system that includes an ultra-precision manipulator has been developed. In this paper, the design of a KB mirror system that focuses the hard XFEL beam onto a fixed sample point of the NCI hutch, which is positioned along the hard XFEL beamline, is described. The focusing system produces a two-dimensional focusing beam at approximately 2 µm scale across the 2–11 keV photon energy range. XFEL pulses of 9.7 keV energy were successfully focused onto an area of size 1.94 µm × 2.08 µm FWHM. PMID:29271778

  11. Observation of coherent undulator radiation from sub-picosecond electron pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocek, D.; Hernandez, M.; Kung, P.; Lihn, Hung-chi; Settakorn, C.; Wiedemann, H.

    1995-09-01

    The generation and observation of high power, coherent, far-infrared undulator radiation from sub-picosecond electron bunches at the SUNSHINE facility is reported. Coherent undulator radiation tunable from 50 to 200 microns wavelength is demonstrated. Measurements of the energy (up to 1.7 mJ per 1 microsecs macropulse), frequency spectrum, and spatial distribution of the radiation are reported. Apparent exponential growth of the radiated energy as a function of undulator length is observed.

  12. Characterization of the Effect of Fiber Undulation on Strength and Stiffness of Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    laminate (n = 2,4,6) and a 30° undulated ply in a [30n/–60n]s laminate (n = 2,4). Specimens were manufactured with carbon fibers , various amplitudes of...Characterization of the Effect of Fiber Undulation on Strength and Stiffness of Composite Laminates by Todd C Henry, Jaret C Riddick, Ryan P...complex fiber architecture. Undulations consisting of fibers passing over and under each other result from the interweaving process . In the current

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF SHORT UNDULATORS FOR ELECTRON-BEAM-RADIATION INTERACTION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Andorf, M. B. [NICADD, DeKalb; Fagerberg, G. [Northern Illinois U.; Figora, M. [Northern Illinois U.; Sturtz, A. [Northern Illinois U.

    2016-10-19

    Interaction of an electron beam with external field or its own radiation has widespread applications ranging from coherent-radiation generation, phase space cooling or formation of temporally-structured beams. An efficient coupling mechanism between an electron beam and radiation field relies on the use of a magnetic undulator. In this contribution we detail our plans to build short (11-period) undulators with 7-cm period refurbishing parts of the aladdin U3 undulator [1]. Possible use of these undulators at available test facilities to support experiments relevant to cooling techniques and radiation sources are outlined.

  14. Simulation studies of a possible multi-stage XFEL at ELETTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, William M.; Barletta, William A.; Bocchetta, Carlo J.; Bonifacio, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presently there is strong interest in developing a 4th generation light source at VUV and soft x-ray wavelengths at the ELETTRA facility at Trieste. One proposal centers around using the existing linac at 1.0 GeV energy with a new photocathode and bunch compression to achieve an output beam at 600 Amp current, 2-4 mm-mrad normalized emittance, and 0.05 percent instantaneous energy spread. To achieve output radiation in the 10- to 40-nm wavelength region, we consider a multi-stage device which is initiated by a coherent seed laser operating at 200 nm. We present numerical simulations of various undulator/optical-klystron configurations, seeking to optimize the overall output power level while minimizing the total length of undulator sections needed. Our results suggest multi-MW instantaneous powers are possible at 10-nm wavelengths

  15. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-08-04

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of {proportional_to}17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in {proportional_to}70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of {proportional_to}10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  16. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of ∝17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in ∝70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of ∝10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  17. Pectoral fin locomotion in batoid fishes: undulation versus oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, L J

    2001-01-01

    This study explores the dichotomy between undulatory (passing multiple waves down the fin or body) and oscillatory (flapping) locomotion by comparing the kinematics of pectoral fin locomotion in eight species of batoids (Dasyatis americana, D. sabina, D. say, D. violacea, Gymnura micrura, Raja eglanteria, Rhinobatos lentiginosus and Rhinoptera bonasus) that differ in their swimming behavior, phylogenetic position and lifestyle. The goals of this study are to describe and compare the pectoral fin locomotor behavior of the eight batoid species, to clarify how fin movements change with swimming speed for each species and to analyze critically the undulation/oscillation continuum proposed by Breder using batoids as an example. Kinematic data were recorded for each species over a range of swimming velocities (1-3 disc lengths s(-1)). The eight species in this study vary greatly in their swimming modes. Rhinobatos lentiginosus uses a combination of axial-based and pectoral-fin-based undulation to move forward through the water, with primary thrust generated by the tail. The pectoral fins are activated in short undulatory bursts for increasing swimming speed and for maneuvering. Raja eglanteria uses a combination of pectoral and pelvic locomotion, although only pectoral locomotion is analyzed here. The other six species use pectoral locomotion exclusively to propel themselves through the water. Dasyatis sabina and D. say have the most undulatory fins with an average of 1.3 waves per fin length, whereas Rhinoptera bonasus has the most oscillatory fin behavior with 0.4 waves per fin length. The remaining species range between these two extremes in the degree of undulation present on their fins. There is an apparent trade-off between fin-beat frequency and amplitude. Rhinoptera bonasus has the lowest frequency and the highest fin amplitude, whereas Rhinobatos lentiginosus has the highest frequency and the lowest amplitude among the eight species examined. The kinematic

  18. Multiple station beamline at an undulator x-ray source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Freund, A.K.; Grübel, G.

    1994-01-01

    The undulator X-ray source is an ideal source for many applications: the beam is brilliant, highly collimated in all directions, quasi-monochromatic, pulsed and linearly polarized. Such a precious source can feed several independently operated instruments by utilizing a downstream series of X......-ray transparent monochromator crystals. Diamond in particular is an attractive monochromator as it is rather X-ray transparent and can be fabricated to a high degree of crystal perfection. Moreover, it has a very high heat conductivity and a rather small thermal expansion so the beam X-ray heat load problem...

  19. A second-generation superconducting undulator cryostat for the APS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A second-generation cryocooler-based cryostat has been designed and built to support a new helically wound superconducting undulator (SCU) magnet for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design represents an evolution of existing SCU cryostats currently in operation in the APS storage ring. Value engineering and lessons learned have resulted in a smaller, cheaper, and simpler cryostat design compatible with existing planar magnets as well as the new helically wound device. We describe heat load and quench response results, design and operational details, and the “build-to-spec” procurement strategy.

  20. FPGA and optical-network-based LLRF distributed control system for TESLA-XFEL linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Czarski, Tomasz; Giergusiewicz, Wojciech; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Olowski, Krysztof; Perkuszewski, Karol; Zielinski, Jerzy; Simrock, Stefan

    2005-02-01

    The work presents a structural and functional model of a distributed low level radio frequency (LLRF) control system for the TESLA-XFEL accelerator. The design of a system basing on the FPGA chips and multi-gigabit optical network was debated. The system design approach was fully parametric. The major emphasis is put on the methods of the functional and hardware concentration to use fully both: a very big transmission capacity of the optical fiber telemetric channels and very big processing power of the latest series of the, DSP enhanced and optical I/O equipped, FPGA chips. The subject of the work is the design of a universal, laboratory module of the LLRF sub-system. Initial parameters of the system model under the design are presented.

  1. Optical surface properties and their RF limitations of European XFEL cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenskat, Marc

    2017-04-15

    The inner surface of superconducting cavities plays a crucial role to achieve highest accelerating fields and low losses. The industrial fabrication of cavities for the European X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) HiGrade Research Project allowed for an investigation of this interplay. For the serial inspection of the inner surface, the optical inspection robot OBACHT was constructed and to analyze the large amount of data, represented in the images of the inner surface, an image processing and analysis code was developed and new variables to describe the cavity surface were obtained. This quantitative analysis identified vendor specific surface properties which allow to perform a quality control and assurance during the production. In addition, a strong negative correlation of ρ=-0.93 with a significance of 6σ of the integrated grain boundary area ΣA versus the maximal achievable accelerating field E{sub acc,max} has been found.

  2. Undulating fins produce off-axis thrust and flow structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveln, Izaak D; Bale, Rahul; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2014-01-15

    While wake structures of many forms of swimming and flying are well characterized, the wake generated by a freely swimming undulating fin has not yet been analyzed. These elongated fins allow fish to achieve enhanced agility exemplified by the forward, backward and vertical swimming capabilities of knifefish, and also have potential applications in the design of more maneuverable underwater vehicles. We present the flow structure of an undulating robotic fin model using particle image velocimetry to measure fluid velocity fields in the wake. We supplement the experimental robotic work with high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics, simulating the hydrodynamics of both a virtual fish, whose fin kinematics and fin plus body morphology are measured from a freely swimming knifefish, and a virtual rendering of our robot. Our results indicate that a series of linked vortex tubes is shed off the long edge of the fin as the undulatory wave travels lengthwise along the fin. A jet at an oblique angle to the fin is associated with the successive vortex tubes, propelling the fish forward. The vortex structure bears similarity to the linked vortex ring structure trailing the oscillating caudal fin of a carangiform swimmer, though the vortex rings are distorted because of the undulatory kinematics of the elongated fin.

  3. Effect of wavelength of fish-like undulation of a hydrofoil in a free ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thekkethil Namshad

    separately for undulating and pitching fishes/foil. ... the low wavelength case undulating Пk ¼ 0.8ч foil is different from the mechanism for the high wavelength pitching foil. .... where X is the non-dimensional distance from the head and k is the ...

  4. Study for a 6 GeV undulator based synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignola, G.; Barton, M.; Blumberg, R.; Galayda, J.; Krinsky, S.; Luccio, A.; Pellegrini, C.; van Steenbergen, A.; Wang, J.

    1985-01-01

    A partial study for a 6 GeV undulator based synchrotron radiation source for production of high brightness undulator radiation, in the A region, is presented. The basic lattice adopted for the storage ring is a hybrid FODO Chasman-Green lattice, making use of gradient in the dipoles. We discuss also the e beam current limits and the injection parameters

  5. Compact Undulator for the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source: Design and Beam Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temnykh, A; Dale, D; Fontes, E; Li, Y; Lyndaker, A; Revesz, P; Rice, D; Woll, A

    2013-01-01

    We developed, built and beam tested a novel, compact, in-vacuum undulator magnet based on an adjustable phase (AP) scheme. The undulator is 1 m long with a 5mm gap. It has a pure permanent magnet structure with 24.4mm period and 1.1 Tesla maximum peak field. The device consists of two planar magnet arrays mounted on rails inside of a rectangular box-like frame with 156 mm × 146 mm dimensions. The undulator magnet is enclosed in a 273 mm (10.75 ) diameter cylindrical vacuum vessel with a driver mechanism placed outside. In May 2012 the CHESS Compact Undulator (CCU) was installed in Cornell Electron Storage Ring and beam tested. During four weeks of dedicated run we evaluated undulator radiation properties as well as magnetic, mechanical and vacuum properties of the undulator magnet. We also studied the effect of the CCU on storage ring beam. The spectral characteristics and intensity of radiation were found to be in very good agreement with expected. The magnet demonstrated reproducibility of undulator parameter K at 1.4 × 10 −4 level. It was also found that the undulator K. parameter change does not affect electron beam orbit and betatron tunes.

  6. Second crystal cooling on cryogenically cooled undulator and wiggler double crystal monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, G. S.

    1998-01-01

    Simple methods for the cooling of the second crystals of cryogenically cooled undulator and wiggler double crystal monochromators are described. Copper braids between the first and second crystals are used to cool the second crystals of the double crystal monochromators. The method has proved successful for an undulator monochromator and we describe a design for a wiggler monochromator

  7. A method for measuring the FEL radiation power along an undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, S

    2000-01-01

    A highly desirable measurement in Free Electron Laser (FEL) experiments is the dependency of the radiation power along the undulator. Most designs of undulators prohibit detection of the radiation power within the undulator or extracting the electron beam at arbitrary positions. Transport of both, the radiation field and the electron beam, through the entire undulator, and thus an ongoing FEL interaction, is unavoidable. If there are many correction magnets distributed along the beam pipe, one can think of exciting a large orbit distortion downstream from any of these correctors. For a gain length comparable to or larger than the beta function this excitation of a coherent betatron oscillation might degrade the FEL amplification to a level, for which the radiation power does not further grow over the remaining length of the undulator. This paper presents the efficiency of this method for the parameters of the VUV FEL at the TESLA Test Facility.

  8. Study on the Planar Undulator Scheme with Focusing Properties for PKU-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Senlin; Wang, Yugang; Zhao, Kui; Zhuang, Jiejia

    2004-01-01

    An IR range SASE FEL test facility will be built at Peking University. The project is designed to get the SASE FEL at 7 micron driven by a superconducting accelerator. A hybrid planar Nd-Fe-B undulator is employed and the optimization of the external focus system for the undulator is studied. In the PKU-FEL facility, the electron energy is about 30-40 MeV. The combined function undulator with FODO lattice imposes quite stringent tolerances on the strength of the quads. To solve this problem, the weak natural focusing of the undulator in the vertical plane together with horizontally focusing quads, is proposed to supply the focusing in the facility. The combined function undulator of FOFO lattice and FF lattice in the horizontal plane are studied. Compared with the FODO lattice, the FOFO and FF lattice make the saturation a bit longer and the requirements of the field accuracy for the focusing system are much reduced.

  9. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used.

  10. Exploring the undulating plateau: the future of global oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter M; Smith, Leta K

    2014-01-13

    In this paper, we analyse the factors that will influence long-term oil supply and describe the future form of the global oil supply profile as an 'undulating plateau' rather than an irreversible, short-term peak or an ever upward trend of increasing production. The ultimate transition from a world of relatively plentiful and cheap oil to one of tight supply and high cost will be slow and challenging. An understanding of the signposts for the future path of supply and the drivers of that profile will be critical to managing the transition. The ultimate form of the global supply curve may well be dictated by demand evolution rather than a limited resource endowment in the longer term. Several factors will probably control future global oil supply. We believe that the scale of global oil resource will not constitute a physical supply limit for at least the next two or three decades. However, all categories of oil resources are already more expensive to develop than in the past, requiring high oil prices to stimulate supply growth. Lower rates of oil demand growth relative to economic growth, combined with more challenging supply growth, will probably lead to an undulating plateau sometime after 2040, with demand from non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states continuing to dominate. Upstream investment requirements and oil price volatility will increase towards and beyond the undulating production plateau. In this new world, high oil prices will induce demand destruction, fuel substitution and ever increasing energy efficiency. As we discuss below, the fundamental differences between the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates' (IHS CERA) view of the future of oil supply and many peak oil supply models are the timing of the onset of a dramatic slowdown in the rate of growth of supply and the existence or otherwise of a production plateau. We do not dispute that supply will plateau and eventually fall; the question is when, how and at what price

  11. Low-frequency quadrupole impedance of undulators and wigglers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blednykh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical expression of the low-frequency quadrupole impedance for undulators and wigglers is derived and benchmarked against beam-based impedance measurements done at the 3 GeV NSLS-II storage ring. The adopted theoretical model, valid for an arbitrary number of electromagnetic layers with parallel geometry, allows to calculate the quadrupole impedance for arbitrary values of the magnetic permeability μ_{r}. In the comparison of the analytical results with the measurements for variable magnet gaps, two limit cases of the permeability have been studied: the case of perfect magnets (μ_{r}→∞, and the case in which the magnets are fully saturated (μ_{r}=1.

  12. Interfaces modify the undulation spectrum of bicontinuous microemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holderer O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the structure and dynamics of microemulsions adjacent to a planar hydrophilic wall have been characterized using grazing incidence small angle neutron scattering (GISANS and grazing incidence neutron spin echo (GINSES spectroscopy, respectively. It has been found that a bicontinuous microemulsion develops a lamellar structure, and that the relaxation rate is faster for a membrane close to the interface compared to the bulk. A model developed by Seifert was employed to explain the discovered acceleration for the near-surface lamellar ordered membranes. In this contribution we present how confinement of a flat interface influences the elastic properties of surfactant membranes and discuss the effect of locally introduced flat interfaces by clay platelets. This analysis sheds light onto the undulation mode spectrum of the surfactant membrane.

  13. Linac coherent light source (LCLS) undulator RF BPM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, R.; Waldschmidt, G.; Morrison, L.; Smith, S.; Straumann, T; Li, Z.; Johnson, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) when it becomes operational in 2009. The LCLS is currently in the construction phase. The beam position monitor (BPM) system planned for the LCLS undulator will incorporate a high-resolution X-band cavity BPM system described in this paper. The BPM system will provide high-resolution measurements of the electron beam trajectory on a pulse-to-pulse basis and over many shots. The X-band cavity BPM size, simple fabrication, and high resolution make it an ideal choice for LCLS beam position detection. We will discuss the system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

  14. Linac Coherent Light Source Undulator RF BPM System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, R.M.; Morrison, L.H.; Waldschmidt, G.J.; Walters, D.R.; /Argonne; Johnson, R.; Li, Z.; Smith, S.; Straumann, T.; /SLAC

    2007-04-17

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) when it becomes operational in 2009. The LCLS is currently in the construction phase. The beam position monitor (BPM) system planned for the LCLS undulator will incorporate a high-resolution X-band cavity BPM system described in this paper. The BPM system will provide high-resolution measurements of the electron beam trajectory on a pulse-to-pulse basis and over many shots. The X-band cavity BPM size, simple fabrication, and high resolution make it an ideal choice for LCLS beam position detection. We will discuss the system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

  15. Linac Coherent Light Source Undulator RF BPM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, R.M.; Morrison, L.H.; Waldschmidt, G.J.; Walters, D.R.; Argonne; Johnson, R.; Li, Z.; Smith, S.; Straumann, T.; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) when it becomes operational in 2009. The LCLS is currently in the construction phase. The beam position monitor (BPM) system planned for the LCLS undulator will incorporate a high-resolution X-band cavity BPM system described in this paper. The BPM system will provide high-resolution measurements of the electron beam trajectory on a pulse-to-pulse basis and over many shots. The X-band cavity BPM size, simple fabrication, and high resolution make it an ideal choice for LCLS beam position detection. We will discuss the system specifications, design, and prototype test results

  16. Linac coherent light source (LCLS) undulator RF BPM system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lill, R.; Waldschmidt, G.; Morrison, L.; Smith, S.; Straumann, T; Li, Z.; Johnson, R.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) when it becomes operational in 2009. The LCLS is currently in the construction phase. The beam position monitor (BPM) system planned for the LCLS undulator will incorporate a high-resolution X-band cavity BPM system described in this paper. The BPM system will provide high-resolution measurements of the electron beam trajectory on a pulse-to-pulse basis and over many shots. The X-band cavity BPM size, simple fabrication, and high resolution make it an ideal choice for LCLS beam position detection. We will discuss the system specifications, design, and prototype test results.

  17. Atomistic Simulations of High-intensity XFEL Pulses on Diffractive Imaging of Nano-sized System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phay; Knight, Christopher; Bostedt, Christoph; Young, Linda; Tegze, Miklos; Faigel, Gyula

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a large-scale atomistic computational method based on a combined Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics (MC/MD) method to simulate XFEL-induced radiation damage dynamics of complex materials. The MD algorithm is used to propagate the trajectories of electrons, ions and atoms forward in time and the quantum nature of interactions with an XFEL pulse is accounted for by a MC method to calculate probabilities of electronic transitions. Our code has good scalability with MPI/OpenMP parallelization, and it has been run on Mira, a petascale system at the Argonne Leardership Computing Facility, with particle number >50 million. Using this code, we have examined the impact of high-intensity 8-keV XFEL pulses on the x-ray diffraction patterns of argon clusters. The obtained patterns show strong pulse parameter dependence, providing evidence of significant lattice rearrangement and diffuse scattering. Real-space electronic reconstruction was performed using phase retrieval methods. We found that the structure of the argon cluster can be recovered with atomic resolution even in the presence of considerable radiation damage. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division.

  18. An undulator with non-adiabatic tapering for the IFEL project

    CERN Document Server

    Varfolomeev, A A; Yarovoi, T V; Musumeci, P; Pellegrini, C; Rosenzweig, J

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design of a planar undulator with unusually strong tapering, for the inverse FEL experiment to be carried out in Neptune Lab. (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 410 (1998) 437) at UCLA. A powerful TW CO sub 2 laser will be used to accelerate electrons up to 50-60 MeV in 50 cm long undulator. A strong undulator tapering is needed because of the short Rayleigh length of the laser beam. Both the magnetic field and the undulator period are tapered to provide synchronicity of the laser beam interaction with a captured electron bunch along the whole undulator length. The most critical part of the undulator is the region near the laser focus. The main characteristics of the IFEL, such as the percentage of trapped electrons, energy of accelerated electrons and sensitivity to the laser focus transverse position, are given. The general principles of the design of this undulator construction can also be useful for high efficiency FEL amplifiers of intense laser modes.

  19. Analysis of the 3D magnetic field and its errors for undulators with iron poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingold, G.; Bahrdt, J.; Gaupp, A. [BESSY GmbH, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The attainable field strength and field quality, such as the optical phase error, the electron beam displacement within the undulator and higher order multipoles of the magnetic field, are discussed. These issues are critical to the design and construction of short period undulators for use in short wavelength FEL or for operation in third generation light sources. We discuss two approaches: (i) For superferric undulators the construction of a full length device would rely on the optimum sorting of precision machined undulator segments. Magnetic data on segments with 20 periods (period length 8.80mm) will be presented. (ii) For hybrid undulators the sorting has to be done on individual poles and magnets. For this approach typical error sources such as machining tolerances, magnetization errors of the permanent magnet material and assembly errors are modeled in 3D and compared to induced errors on an existing hybrid undulator segment. In case of undulators having a full length of hundred periods at least five times as many individual parts have to be characterized. This should be done automatically where both the mechanical and magnetic data before and after the assembly of the magnetic structure are recorded in one step. A CNC programmable measuring device suitable for this task will shortly be presented.

  20. Modeling the Effect of the Earth's Field and an Iron Plate on the LCLS Undulator Trajectory

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, S

    2005-01-01

    Trajectory straightness through the undulator is critical for the success of the LCLS project. Environmental fields, including the earth’s field, will affect the trajectory. The earth’s field works as an external dipole field and, unless it is shielded or corrected, causes a bend in the electron trajectory through an undulator. We investigated the effects of the earth’s field and an iron plate which might be used as part of a girder. Modeling and calculation were performed using the code RADIA. A model with a large solenoid surrounding a seven-period undulator was used for the simulation. According to the calculations, the vertical component of the earth’s field at the undulator axis is enhanced by the undulator poles by a factor of 2.5. The horizontal on-axis component, however, is well shielded by the undulator poles and falls to less than 3% of its original strength. The effect of an iron plate located 200 mm below the undulator axis is negligibly small, so final Hal...

  1. Observation of an optical vortex beam from a helical undulator in the XUV region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Fujimoto, Masaki; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Hosaka, Masahito; Shigemasa, Eiji; Katoh, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    The observation of an optical vortex beam at 60 nm wavelength, produced as the second-harmonic radiation from a helical undulator, is reported. The helical wavefront of the optical vortex beam was verified by measuring the interference pattern between the vortex beam from a helical undulator and a normal beam from another undulator. Although the interference patterns were slightly blurred owing to the relatively large electron beam emittance, it was possible to observe the interference features thanks to the helical wavefront of the vortex beam. The experimental results were well reproduced by simulation.

  2. Mechanical design and fabrication of a prototype undulator for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerabhadhraiah, T.; Sinha, Gautam; Prabhu, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    An Apple II type undulator is proposed for 2.5 GeV SRS. For initial studies of magnetic parameters and manufacturing feasibilities, a 6 periods prototype undulator of period length 72 mm and pole gap 20 mm is under development. Mechanical structure with stringent tolerances is required to achieve the required field quality. Stress analysis has been done to study the deflection under the magnetic forces. The prototype structure along with the magnet block holders has been made and mechanical dimensions and geometric tolerances have been measured. In this paper we present the preliminary mechanical design and assembly of static parts of prototype undulator structure. (author)

  3. Generation of a wakefield undulator in plasma with transverse density gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupakov, G.

    2017-11-01

    We show that a short relativistic electron beam propagating in a plasma with a density gradient perpendicular to the direction of motion generates a wakefield in which a witness bunch experiences a transverse force. A density gradient oscillating along the beam path would create a periodically varying force—an undulator, with an estimated strength of the equivalent magnetic field more than 10 T. This opens an avenue for the creation of a high-strength, short-period undulator, which eventually may lead to all-plasma, free electron lasers where a plasma wakefield acceleration is naturally combined with a plasma undulator in a unifying, compact setup.

  4. Development of uTCA Hardware for BAM system at FLASH and XFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Habib, S B; Szewinski, J; Korolczuk, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a uTCA modular card system suited for conversion, sampling and processing of optical pulses. The system consists of a uTCA carrier card along with a double width FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) with a changeable optical frontend. The cards were designed for the needs of the BAM system of the FLASH and XFEL accelerators at the DESY facility in Hamburg. The carrier board contains a very powerful FPGA, all required uTCA circuits along with digital interfaces. The FMC card mainly contains four 16-bit fast Analog-to-digital converters (up to 250 MSPS), ADC clock generation and distribution modules, two SFP connectors and a specialized dual RS-485 connection. This paper describes such issues as system organization into universal digital circuits and specialized analog and clock circuits to allow high speed real-time analysis of the properties of thehigh-bandwidth optical signals of the BAM system and better control of the accelerator beam.

  5. Simulation Study of the Helical Superconducting Undulator Installation at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajaev, V.; Borland, M.; Sun, Y.; Xiao, A.

    2017-06-25

    A helical superconducting undulator is planned for installation at the APS. Such an installation would be first of its kind – helical devices were never installed in synchrotron light sources before. Due to its reduced horizontal aperture, a lattice modification is required to accommodate for large horizontal oscillations during injection. We describe the lattice change details and show the new lattice experimental test results. To understand the effect of the undulator on single-particle dynamics, first, its kick maps were computed using different methods. We have found that often-used Elleaume formula* for kick maps gives wrong results for this undulator. We then used the kick maps obtained by other methods to simulate the effect of the undulator on injection and lifetime.

  6. A concept of a new undulator that will generate irrational higher harmonics in synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Sasaki, Shigemi

    1994-03-01

    A preliminary consideration has been made on an undulator with magnetic poles quasi-periodically aligned along the path of electron beams to discriminate the rational higher harmonics of radiation that are harmful in some synchrotron radiation experiments. The harmonics with irrational ratios in energy generated by the undulator is never simultaneously reflected by a crystal monochromator in the same orientation. A combination of the new undulator and high-resolution crystal monochromator is expected to be very useful on beamlines of high energy radiation in which X-ray mirrors are useless because of too small critical angles of total reflection. Further, a possibility of manufacturing the new undulator has been discussed. (author)

  7. Start-to-end global imaging as a sunward propagating, SAPS-associated giant undulation event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Donovan, Eric F [U OF CALGARY; Foster, John C [MIT; Mann, Ian R [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Immel, Thomas J [UC/BERKELEY; Mende, Stephen B [UN/BERKELEY; Sigwarth, John B [NASA/GSFC

    2009-01-01

    We present high-time resolution global imaging of a sunward propagating giant undulation event from start to finish. The event occurred on November 24, 2001 during a very disturbed storm interval. The giant undulations began to develop at around 13UT and persisted for approximately 2 hours. The sunward propagation speed was on the order of 0.6 km/s (relative to SM coordinate system). The undulations had a wavelength of {approx} 750 km, amplitudes of {approx} 890 km and produced ULF pulsations on the ground with a period of {approx} 1108s. We show that the undulations were associated with SAPs flows that were caused by the proton plasma sheet penetrating substantially farther Earthward than the electron plasma sheet on the duskside. The observations appear to be consistent with the development of a shear flow and/or ballooning type of instability at the plasmapause driven by intense SAPS-associated shear flows.

  8. Design Study of a Compact Megawatt Class FEL Amplifier Based on the VISA Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, T; Murphy, J B; Pinayev, I P; Rose, J; Shaftan, T V; Skaritka, J; Tanabé, T; Tsang, Thomas; Wang, X J; Yu, L H

    2005-01-01

    The design of a Short Rayleigh Length (SRL) FEL amplifier based on the strong focusing VISA undulator [1] is presented in this study. The SRL FEL amplifier will be operating in the IR (0.8 - 1 μm), and consists of a two-meter VISA undulator with a peak seed laser power of about 1 kW. The FEL power and transverse mode evolution along the undulator were investigated using the three-dimensional numerical code GENESIS1.3. The evolution of the FEL output from the undulator exit to the first downstream optics is also studied. The possibility of using the proposed amplifier for a two-stage cascaded HGHG FEL [2] at the BNL SDL is also explored. The design parameters and the numerical results will be presented.

  9. The APS X-ray undulator photon beam position monitor and tests at CHESS and NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Rodricks, B.; Barraza, J.; Sanchez, T.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The advent of thirs generation synchrotron sources, like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), will provide significant increases in brilliance over existing synchrotron sources. The APS X-ray undulators will increase the brilliance in the 3-40 keV range by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the design of the photon beam position monitor is a challenging engineering task. The beam position monitors must withstand the high thermal load, be able to achieve submicron spatial resolution while maintaining their stability, and be compatible with both undulators and wigglers. A preliminary APS prototype photon beam position monitor consisting of a CVD-diamond-based, tungsten-coated blade was tested on the APS/CHESS undulator at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Radiation Source (CHESS) and on the NSLS X-13 undulator beamline. Results from these tests, as well as the design of this prototype APS photon beam position monitor, will be discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  10. New Implementation of an SX700 Undulator Beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, T.; Andresen, N.; Comins, J.; Kortright, J.B.; McKean, J.P.; Padmore, H.A.; Shuh, D.K.; Stevens, T.; Tyliszczak, T.; Kaznacheyev, K.

    2004-01-01

    A newly engineered implementation of a collimated SX700-style beam line for soft x-rays is described. This facility is operational at the Advanced Light Source and delivers high brightness undulator beams to a scanning zone plate microscope and to an array of end stations for x-ray spectroscopic studies of wet surfaces. Switching between branches is motorized, servo-steering systems maintain throughput and the monochromator works together with the elliptical undulator for a fully automated facility

  11. Compact linac-driven light sources utilizing mm-period RF undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufexis, F.; Dolgashev, V. A.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Tantawi, S. G.

    2017-08-01

    Conventional synchrotron light sources and Free-Electron Lasers (FELs) utilize permanent magnet undulators with periods on the order of a few centimeters, and to generate X-rays they need GeV scale electron beam energies. Such facilities are very large and expensive. Inverse Compton scattering sources use a laser beam as an undulator with micrometer periods and produce X-ray energies on the order of tens of keV. These sources operate with MeV scale beam energies, and therefore they are much more compact. However, their average photon flux is typically small, especially in the EUV and soft X-ray regime. We present a novel compact linac-driven light source, which could produce both incoherent and FEL radiation depending on its configuration. This source is based on a mm-period RF undulator. The RF undulator is a mm-wave cavity resonating at a deflecting mode. The source operates as follows: a train of electron bunches is generated in a thermionic X-band RF injector. These bunches are accelerated in an X-band linac and then interact with the RF undulator. The RF power that feeds the undulator is extracted from the electron beam in a decelerating RF structure, located downstream of the undulator. As an example, a light source with a 91.392 GHz RF undulator and a 129 MeV electron beam can generate incoherent EUV radiation at 13.5 nm. Such a light source could be less than 6 m long, and potentially be used for EUV mask metrology. Similar approach will enable soft X-Ray imaging.

  12. New implementation of an SX700 undulator beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, T.; Andresen, N.; Comins, J.; Kaznacheyev, K.; Kortright, J.B.; McKean, P.J.; Padmore, H.A.; Shuh, D.K.; Stevens, T.; Tyliszczak, T.

    2004-01-01

    A newly engineered implementation of a collimated SX700-style beam line for soft x-rays is described. This facility is operational at the Advanced Light Source and delivers high brightness undulator beams to a scanning zone plate microscope and to an array of end stations for x-ray spectroscopic studies of wet surfaces. Switching between branches is motorized, servo-steering systems maintain throughput and the monochromator works together with the elliptical undulator for a fully automated facility

  13. A simple method of forming a matched input in helical undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Papadichev, V A; Smith, O A

    1999-01-01

    A helical undulator was used in the initial experiment to realize a free electron laser [D.A.G. Deacon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 38 (1977) 892]. Since then it has been widely used in FELs with pulsed electron beams. To inject a beam, an adiabatic input, 5-10 periods long, is generally used. Such a section is also often used at the undulator output. In all, this lengthens the undulator by 30-50%. An alternative method of forming a matched fringe field with a short winding no more than a period long, in accordance with a special law, is effective but difficult to realize. A new, simpler method of matching the undulator input, buttressed by calculations and experimentally realized, is proposed. In this case, the fringe field is formed by means of conductor segments in the form of straight pieces and circumference arcs. This enables one to accurately meet the geometric tolerances. The axial length of this section is about ((1)/(6)) of an undulator period. Experimental results obtained on a 4.8 cm-period undulator ...

  14. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-01

    Complete polarization analysis of the photon beam produced by a dual APPLE-II undulator configuration using a multilayer-based soft X-ray polarimeter is given. The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used.

  15. Investigation of the polarization state of dual APPLE-II undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-01-01

    Complete polarization analysis of the photon beam produced by a dual APPLE-II undulator configuration using a multilayer-based soft X-ray polarimeter is given. The use of an APPLE II undulator is extremely important for providing a high-brilliance X-ray beam with the capability to switch between various photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to systematically investigate the polarization characteristics of the two helical APPLE II undulators installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. A simple data acquisition and processing procedure has been developed to determine the Stokes polarization parameters for light polarized at arbitrary linear angles emitted from a single undulator, and for circularly polarized light emitted from both undulators in conjunction with a single-period undulator phasing unit. The purity of linear polarization is found to deteriorate as the polarization angle moves away from the horizontal and vertical modes. Importantly, a negative correlation between the degree of circular polarization and the photon flux has been found when the phasing unit is used

  16. Geometric Mechanics Reveals Optimal Complex Terrestrial Undulation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaohui; Astley, Henry; Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Travers, Matthew; Goldman, Daniel; Choset, Howie; CMU Team; GT Team

    Geometric mechanics offers useful tools for intuitively analyzing biological and robotic locomotion. However, utility of these tools were previously restricted to systems that have only two internal degrees of freedom and in uniform media. We show kinematics of complex locomotors that make intermittent contacts with substrates can be approximated as a linear combination of two shape bases, and can be represented using two variables. Therefore, the tools of geometric mechanics can be used to analyze motions of locomotors with many degrees of freedom. To demonstrate the proposed technique, we present studies on two different types of snake gaits which utilize combinations of waves in the horizontal and vertical planes: sidewinding (in the sidewinder rattlesnake C. cerastes) and lateral undulation (in the desert specialist snake C. occipitalis). C. cerastes moves by generating posteriorly traveling body waves in the horizontal and vertical directions, with a relative phase offset equal to +/-π/2 while C. occipitalismaintains a π/2 offset of a frequency doubled vertical wave. Geometric analysis reveals these coordination patterns enable optimal movement in the two different styles of undulatory terrestrial locomotion. More broadly, these examples demonstrate the utility of geometric mechanics in analyzing realistic biological and robotic locomotion.

  17. Beam Diagnostics for Laser Undulator Based on Compton Backward Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, R

    2005-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on Compton backward scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser (10ps FWHM) and about 5 MeV high quality electron beam (10ps FWHM) generated from rf gun system. The range of X-ray energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein's coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. To generate the soft X-ray pulse stably, the electron beam diagnostics have been developed such as the emittance measurement using double slit scan technique, the bunch length measurement using two frequency analysis technique. In this confere...

  18. Structures of riboswitch RNA reaction states by mix-and-inject XFEL serial crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagno, J. R.; Liu, Y.; Bhandari, Y. R.; Conrad, C. E.; Panja, S.; Swain, M.; Fan, L.; Nelson, G.; Li, C.; Wendel, D. R.; White, T. A.; Coe, J. D.; Wiedorn, M. O.; Knoska, J.; Oberthuer, D.; Tuckey, R. A.; Yu, P.; Dyba, M.; Tarasov, S. G.; Weierstall, U.; Grant, T. D.; Schwieters, C. D.; Zhang, J.; Ferré-D’Amaré, A. R.; Fromme, P.; Draper, D. E.; Liang, M.; Hunter, M. S.; Boutet, S.; Tan, K.; Zuo, X.; Ji, X.; Barty, A.; Zatsepin, N. A.; Chapman, H. N.; Spence, J. C. H.; Woodson, S. A.; Wang, Y.-X.

    2017-01-01

    Riboswitches are structural RNA elements that are generally located in the 5′ untranslated region of messenger RNA. During regulation of gene expression, ligand binding to the aptamer domain of a riboswitch triggers a signal to the downstream expression platform1–3. A complete understanding of the structural basis of this mechanism requires the ability to study structural changes over time4. Here we use femtosecond X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulses5,6 to obtain structural measurements from crystals so small that diffusion of a ligand can be timed to initiate a reaction before diffraction. We demonstrate this approach by determining four structures of the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain during the course of a reaction, involving two unbound apo structures, one ligand-bound intermediate, and the final ligand-bound conformation. These structures support a reaction mechanism model with at least four states and illustrate the structural basis of signal transmission. The three-way junction and the P1 switch helix of the two apo conformers are notably different from those in the ligand-bound conformation. Our time-resolved crystallographic measurements with a 10-second delay captured the structure of an intermediate with changes in the binding pocket that accommodate the ligand. With at least a 10-minute delay, the RNA molecules were fully converted to the ligand-bound state, in which the substantial conformational changes resulted in conversion of the space group. Such notable changes in crystallo highlight the important opportunities that micro- and nanocrystals may offer in these and similar time-resolved diffraction studies. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of ‘mix-and-inject’ time-resolved serial crystallography to study biochemically important interactions between biomacromolecules and ligands, including those that involve large conformational changes. PMID:27841871

  19. Structures of riboswitch RNA reaction states by mix-and-inject XFEL serial crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagno, J. R.; Liu, Y.; Bhandari, Y. R.; Conrad, C. E.; Panja, S.; Swain, M.; Fan, L.; Nelson, G.; Li, C.; Wendel, D. R.; White, T. A.; Coe, J. D.; Wiedorn, M. O.; Knoska, J.; Oberthuer, D.; Tuckey, R. A.; Yu, P.; Dyba, M.; Tarasov, S. G.; Weierstall, U.; Grant, T. D.; Schwieters, C. D.; Zhang, J.; Ferré-D'Amaré, A. R.; Fromme, P.; Draper, D. E.; Liang, M.; Hunter, M. S.; Boutet, S.; Tan, K.; Zuo, X.; Ji, X.; Barty, A.; Zatsepin, N. A.; Chapman, H. N.; Spence, J. C. H.; Woodson, S. A.; Wang, Y.-X.

    2017-01-01

    Riboswitches are structural RNA elements that are generally located in the 5‧ untranslated region of messenger RNA. During regulation of gene expression, ligand binding to the aptamer domain of a riboswitch triggers a signal to the downstream expression platform. A complete understanding of the structural basis of this mechanism requires the ability to study structural changes over time. Here we use femtosecond X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulses to obtain structural measurements from crystals so small that diffusion of a ligand can be timed to initiate a reaction before diffraction. We demonstrate this approach by determining four structures of the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain during the course of a reaction, involving two unbound apo structures, one ligand-bound intermediate, and the final ligand-bound conformation. These structures support a reaction mechanism model with at least four states and illustrate the structural basis of signal transmission. The three-way junction and the P1 switch helix of the two apo conformers are notably different from those in the ligand-bound conformation. Our time-resolved crystallographic measurements with a 10-second delay captured the structure of an intermediate with changes in the binding pocket that accommodate the ligand. With at least a 10-minute delay, the RNA molecules were fully converted to the ligand-bound state, in which the substantial conformational changes resulted in conversion of the space group. Such notable changes in crystallo highlight the important opportunities that micro- and nanocrystals may offer in these and similar time-resolved diffraction studies. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of ‘mix-and-inject’ time-resolved serial crystallography to study biochemically important interactions between biomacromolecules and ligands, including those that involve large conformational changes.

  20. Fuente de Alimentación para los Imanes Superconductores del Acelerador de Partículas Europeo XFEL

    OpenAIRE

    García, O.; Francés, A.; Fernández, J. M.; Varela, Pablo; Catalanotto, Giuseppe; Alou Cervera, Pedro; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Asensi Orosa, Rafael; Prieto López, Roberto; Uceda Antolín, Javier; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta la fuente de alimentación que se está diseñando para alimentar los imanes superconductores del acelerador de partículas europeo XFEL que se está construyendo en Hamburgo, cuyas características le hacen el más avanzado del mundo. Un imán superconductor es una carga muy inductiva que debe ser controlada en corriente y que presenta una caída de tensión muy baja cuando está en modo superconductor. La fuente debe ser capaz de alimentar esta carga con una alta fiabilida...

  1. Coastline undulations on the West Coast of Denmark: Offshore extent, relation to breaker bars and transported sediment volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Knudsen, Søren B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with field measurements of undulations of the bottom bathymetry along an otherwise straight coast at the Danish West Coast. Two bathymetric datasets and two time series of wave measurements are used in order to determine the following properties: the offshore extent of shoreline...... with undulations on the depth contours between −5m and +2m relative to mean sea level. In the other data set, only undulations on the depth contours between −1m and +1m are well correlated with the shoreline undulations. The main difference in the wave climate between the two locations is the orientation...

  2. Pico-litre Sample Introduction and Acoustic Levitation Systems for Time Resolved Protein Crystallography Experiments at XFELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Docker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The system described in this work is a variant from traditional acoustic levitation first described by, Marzo et al. It uses multiple transducers eliminating the requirement for a mirror surface, allowing for an open geometry as the sound from multiple transducers combines to generate the acoustic trap which is configured to catch pico litres of crystal slurries. These acoustic traps also have the significant benefit of eliminating potential beam attenuation due to support structures or microfluidic devices. Additionally they meet the need to eliminate sample environments when experiments are carried out using an X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS as any sample environment would not survive the exposure to the X-Ray beam. XFELs generate Light a billion times brighter than the sun. The application for this system will be to examine turn over in Beta lactamase proteins which is responsible for bacteria developing antibiotic resistance and therefore of significant importance to future world health. The system will allow for diffraction data to be collected before and after turnover allowing for a better understanding of the underling processes. The authors first described this work at Nanotech 2017.

  3. A hard x-ray split-and-delay unit for the HED instrument at the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roling, Sebastian; Kärcher, Victor; Samoylova, Liubov; Appel, Karen; Braun, Stefan; Gawlitza, Peter; Siewert, Frank; Zastrau, Ulf; Rollnik, Matthias; Wahlert, Frank; Zacharias, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    For the High Energy Density Instrument (HED) at the European XFEL a hard x-ray split-and-delay unit (SDU) is built covering photon energies in the range between 5 keV and 24 keV. This SDU enables time-resolved x-ray pump / x-ray probe experiments as well as sequential diffractive imaging on a femtosecond to picosecond time scale. The set-up is based on wavefront splitting that has successfully been implemented at an autocorrelator at FLASH. The x-ray FEL pulses will be split by a sharp edge of a silicon mirror coated with Mo/B4C and W/B4C multilayers. Both partial beams then pass variable delay lines. For different photon energies the angle of incidence onto the multilayer mirrors is adjusted in order to match the Bragg condition. Hence, maximum delays between +/- 1 ps at 24 keV and up to +/- 23 ps at 5 keV will be possible. Time-dependent wave-optics simulations are performed with Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) software. The XFEL radiation is simulated using the output of the time-dependent SASE code FAST. For the simulations diffraction on the edge of the beam-splitter as well as height and slope errors of all eight mirror surfaces are taken into account. The impact of these effects on the ability to focus the beam by means of compound refractive lenses (CRL) is analyzed.

  4. Challenges of in-vacuum and cryogenic permanent magnet undulator technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Che Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An in-vacuum undulator (IVU provides a means to reach high-brilliance x rays in medium energy storage rings. The development of short period undulators with low phase errors creates the opportunity for an unprecedented brilliant light source in a storage ring. Since the spectral quality from cryogenic permanent magnet undulators (CPMUs has surpassed that of IVUs, NdFeB or PrFeB CPMUs have been proposed for many new advanced storage rings to reach high brilliance x-ray photon beams. In a low emittance ring, not only the performance of the undulator but also the choice of the lattice functions are important design considerations. Optimum betatron functions and a zero-dispersion function shall be provided in the straight sections for IVU/CPMUs. In this paper, relevant factors and design issues for IVUs and CPMUs are discussed together with many technological challenges in short period undulators associated with beam induced–heat load, phase errors, and the deformation of support girders.

  5. Challenges of in-vacuum and cryogenic permanent magnet undulator technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Che; Kitamura, Hideo; Yang, Chin-Kang; Chang, Cheng-Hsing; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Hwang, Ching-Shiang

    2017-06-01

    An in-vacuum undulator (IVU) provides a means to reach high-brilliance x rays in medium energy storage rings. The development of short period undulators with low phase errors creates the opportunity for an unprecedented brilliant light source in a storage ring. Since the spectral quality from cryogenic permanent magnet undulators (CPMUs) has surpassed that of IVUs, NdFeB or PrFeB CPMUs have been proposed for many new advanced storage rings to reach high brilliance x-ray photon beams. In a low emittance ring, not only the performance of the undulator but also the choice of the lattice functions are important design considerations. Optimum betatron functions and a zero-dispersion function shall be provided in the straight sections for IVU/CPMUs. In this paper, relevant factors and design issues for IVUs and CPMUs are discussed together with many technological challenges in short period undulators associated with beam induced-heat load, phase errors, and the deformation of support girders.

  6. Quantitative investigation of linear arbitrary polarization in an APPLE-II undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Matthew; Wang, Hongchang; Maccherozzi, Francesco; Apollonio, Marco; Zhu, Jingtao; Dhesi, Sarnjeet S; Sawhney, Kawal

    2018-03-01

    Insertion devices are utilized at synchrotron radiation facilities around the world for their capability to provide a high-brilliance X-ray beam. APPLE-II type undulators are especially important for their capacity to switch between a variety of photon beam polarization states. A high-precision soft X-ray polarimeter has been used to investigate the polarization calibration of an APPLE-II undulator (period length λ u = 64 mm) installed on beamline I06 at Diamond Light Source. Systematic measurement of the beam polarization state at a range of linear arbitrary angles has been compared with the expected result for a given set of undulator gap and row phase parameters calculated from theory. Determination of the corresponding Stokes-Poincaré parameters from the measured data reveals a discrepancy between the two. The limited number of energy/polarization combinations included in the undulator calibration tables necessitates the use of interpolated values for the missing points which is expected to contribute to the discrepancy. However, by modifying the orbit of the electron beam through the undulator by at least 160 µm it has been found that for certain linear polarizations the discrepancies can be corrected. Overall, it is suggested that complete correction of the Stokes-Poincaré parameters for all linear angles would require alteration of both these aspects.

  7. Commissioning of the soft x-ray undulator beamline at the Siam Photon Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Hideki, E-mail: hideki@slri.or.th; Chaichuay, Sarunyu; Sudmuang, Porntip; Rattanasuporn, Surachet; Jenpiyapong, Watcharapon; Supruangnet, Ratchadaporn; Chanlek, Narong [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Songsiriritthigul, Prayoon [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2016-07-27

    The synchrotron radiation from the first undulator at the Siam Photon Laboratory was characterized with the photon beam position monitors (BPMs) and grating monochromator. The soft x-ray undulator beamline employs a varied line-spacing plane grating monochromator with three interchangeable gratings. Since 2010, the beamline has delivered photons with energy of 40-160 and 220-1040 eV at the resolving power of 10,000 for user services at the two end- stations that utilize the photoemission electron spectroscopy and microscopy techniques. The undulator power-density distributions measured by the 0.05-mm wire-scan BPM were in good agreement with those in simulation. The flux-density distributions were evaluated in the red-shift measurements, which identify the central cone of radiation and its distribution. Since 2014, the operation of the other insertion devices in the storage ring has started, and consequently bought about the increases in the emittance from 41 to 61 nm·rad and the coupling constant from 4 to 11%. The local electron-orbit correction greatly improved the alignment of the electron beam in the undulator section resulting in the improvements of the photon flux and harmonics peaks of the undulator radiation.

  8. Diamond monochromators for APS undulator-A beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasdell, R.C.; Assoufid, L.A.; Mills, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    There has been considerable interest in the use of diamonds in high heat load monochromators (HHLMs) in the last several years. The superb thermal and mechanical properties of single crystal diamonds serve to minimize distortions caused by a given thermal load, while the low x-ray absorption cross-section reduces both the total power deposited in the crystal as well as the peak (volumetric) power density. The primary obstacle for the widespread use of diamonds at present is a lack of ready availability of perfect single crystals of the desired size and orientation. Although it is possible to obtain near-perfect natural diamonds of the size and orientation required for use on an undulator beamline, the selection process is generally one of trial and error. Near perfect synthetic diamonds can currently be obtained in the minimum necessary size (typically 4-5 mm on a side). A collaborative agreement has been made between the staff of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), and the Super Photon Ring-8 GeV (SPring-8) to explore the use of diamonds as high heat load monochromators and is on-going. One of the avenues of research is to push for improved perfection and size of synthetic diamonds. Sumitomo Electric Corporation of Japan has agreed to work with staff from SPring-8 to grow [100] oriented perfect single crystal diamonds of 10 x 10 x 1 mm 3 size by 1996/1997 (from which one could also cut pieces with the large face parallel to the (111) planes). They have taken the first step in producing an essentially perfect 4 x 4 x 1 mm 3 type II diamond with less than 5 μrad (1 arc second) strain (measured over the entire surface). The authors believe progress in the production of synthetic diamonds, as well as improvement in ties with suppliers of natural diamonds, should make available a relatively large number of high quality diamonds of moderate size within the next several years

  9. Ginzburg's invention of undulators and their role in modern synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulipanov, Gennadii N

    2007-01-01

    Undulators - periodic magnetic structures that were originally introduced by Vitalii Ginzburg in 1947 for electromagnetic radiation generation using relativistic electrons - are among the key elements of modern synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers (FELs). In this talk, the history of three generations of storage ring-based synchrotron X-ray sources using wigglers and undulators is briefly traced. Prospects for two types of next-generation space-coherent X-ray sources are discussed, which use long undulators and energy recovery accelerators or, alternatively, employ linear accelerator-based FELs. The recently developed Novosibirsk terahertz FEL facility, currently the world' s most powerful terahertz source, is described. It was the generation of electromagnetic radiation in this range that Ginzburg discussed in his 1947 work. (oral issue of the journal 'uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk')

  10. Radiation-induced magnetization reversal causing a large flux loss in undulator permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizen, Teruhiko; Kinjo, Ryota; Hasegawa, Teruaki; Kagamihata, Akihiro; Kida, Yuichiro; Seike, Takamitsu; Watanabe, Takahiro; Hara, Toru; Itoga, Toshiro; Asano, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-11-29

    We report an unexpectedly large flux loss observed in permanent magnets in one of the undulators operated in SACLA, the x-ray free electron laser facility in Japan. Characterizations of individual magnets extracted from the relevant undulator have revealed that the flux loss was caused by a homogeneous magnetization reversal extending over a wide area, but not by demagnetization of individual magnets damaged by radiation. We show that the estimated flux-loss rate is much higher than what is reported in previous papers, and its distribution is much more localized to the upstream side. Results of numerical and experimental studies carried out to validate the magnetization reversal and quantify the flux loss are presented, together with possible countermeasures against rapid degradation of the undulator performance.

  11. Elementary excitations of biomembranes: Differential geometry of undulations in elastic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmen, J. Leo van [Physik Department, Technical University of Munich, 85747 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: lvh@tum.de; Leibold, Christian [Physik Department, Technical University of Munich, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Biomembrane undulations are elementary excitations in the elastic surfaces of cells and vesicles. As such they can provide surprising insights into the mechanical processes that shape and stabilize biomembranes. We explain how naturally these undulations can be described by classical differential geometry. In particular, we apply the analytical formalism of differential-geometric calculus to the surfaces generated by a cell membrane and underlying cytoskeleton. After a short derivation of the energy due to a membrane's elasticity, we show how undulations arise as elementary excitations originating from the second derivative of an energy functional. Furthermore, we expound the efficiency of classical differential-geometric formalism to understand the effect of differential operators that characterize processes involved in membrane physics. As an introduction to concepts the paper is self-contained and rarely exceeds calculus level.

  12. Elementary excitations of biomembranes: Differential geometry of undulations in elastic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmen, J. Leo van; Leibold, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Biomembrane undulations are elementary excitations in the elastic surfaces of cells and vesicles. As such they can provide surprising insights into the mechanical processes that shape and stabilize biomembranes. We explain how naturally these undulations can be described by classical differential geometry. In particular, we apply the analytical formalism of differential-geometric calculus to the surfaces generated by a cell membrane and underlying cytoskeleton. After a short derivation of the energy due to a membrane's elasticity, we show how undulations arise as elementary excitations originating from the second derivative of an energy functional. Furthermore, we expound the efficiency of classical differential-geometric formalism to understand the effect of differential operators that characterize processes involved in membrane physics. As an introduction to concepts the paper is self-contained and rarely exceeds calculus level

  13. Design and Fabrication of Soft Morphing Ray Propulsor: Undulator and Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Soo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2017-03-01

    A soft morphing ray propulsor capable of generating an undulating motion in its pectoral fins was designed and fabricated. The propulsor used shape memory alloy for actuation, and the body was made with soft polymers. To determine the effects of undulation in the fins, two models that differed in terms of the presence of undulation were fabricated using different polymer materials. The experimental models were tested with a dynamometer to measure and compare thrust tendencies. Thrust measurements were conducted with various fin beat frequencies. Using the experimental data, the concept of an optimized standalone version of the ray robot was suggested and its prototype was fabricated. The fabricated robot was able to swim as fast as 0.26 body length per second and 38% more efficient than other smart material-based ray-like underwater robots.

  14. Undulation amplitude of a fluid membrane surrounded by near-critical binary fluid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitani, Youhei

    2015-04-01

    We consider the thermal undulation, or shape fluctuation, of an almost planar fluid membrane surrounded by the same near-critical binary fluid mixtures on both sides. A weak preferential attraction is assumed between the membrane and one component of the mixture. We use the Gaussian free-energy functional to study the equilibrium average of the undulation amplitude within the linear approximation with respect to the amplitude. According to our result given by a simple analytic formula, the ambient near-criticality tends to suppress the undulation of a membrane, and this suppression effect can overwhelm that of the bending rigidity for small wave numbers. Thus, the ambient near-criticality is suggested to prevent a large membrane from becoming floppy even if the lateral tension vanishes at the equilibrium.

  15. Nearly copropagating sheared laser pulse FEL undulator for soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J E; Yavuz, D; Bisognano, J; Bosch, R A; Chiang, T C; Green, M A; Jacobs, K; Miller, T; Wehlitz, R; York, R C

    2013-01-01

    A conceptual design for a soft x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) using a short-pulsed, high energy near infrared laser undulator and a low-emittance modest-energy (∼170 MeV) electron beam is described. This low-cost design uses the laser undulator beam in a nearly copropagating fashion with respect to the electron beam, instead of the traditional ‘head-on’ fashion. The nearly copropagating geometry reduces the Doppler shift of scattered radiation to yield soft, rather than hard x-rays. To increase the FEL gain a sheared laser pulse from a Ti : sapphire or other broadband laser is used to extend the otherwise short interaction time of the nearly copropagating laser undulator beam with a relativistic electron beam. (paper)

  16. Development of cryogenic undulators with PrFeB magnets at SOLEIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valléau, M., E-mail: valleau@synchrotron-soleil.fr; Benabderrahmane, C.; Briquez, F.; Berteaud, P.; Tavakoli, K.; Zerbib, D.; Chapuis, L.; Marteau, F.; Marcouillé, O.; El Ajjouri, T.; Vétéran, J.; Sharma, G.; Tilmont, M.; Castro, J. Da Silva; N’Guyen, M.-H.; Béchu, N.; Rommeluère, P.; Louvet, M.; Nadji, A.; Herbeaux, C. [Synchrotron-Soleil, L’Orme des Merisisers, 91192 BP 34, Gif Sur Yvette (France); and others

    2016-07-27

    Short period high field undulators are of interest for X-ray brilliance enhancement in synchrotron radiation applications and for compact Free Electron Lasers. Cryogenic in-vacuum undulators [1] are one of the possible solutions. At SOLEIL, PrFeB magnets were directly chosen, even if still under development at that time. Indeed, they enable to avoid the spin transition reorientation phenomenon which occurs with NdFeB magnets [2] and the magnets can be cooled down directly at 77 K. The first selected grade CR53 from Hitachi presents a remanence of 1.35 T at 293 K and 1.57 T at 77 K, with a coercivity of 1355 kA/m at 293 K and 6000 kA/m at 77 K. A 2 m long cryogenic undulator of period 18 mm was first built in-house, with a specific Hall probe bench directly installed in the final vacuum chamber. This first cryogenic undulator has been in operation on the storage ring for 4 years [3]. A second U18 cryo-ready undulator using a slightly different magnet grade with a higher coercivity and modules with magnets surrounded by two half poles for easier magnetic optimization is under construction. A third 3 m long cryo-ready undulator U15 with a period of 15 mm is under development. It will be first used for the LUNEX5 FEL [4, 5] project (COXINEL demonstration of FEL amplification with a laser wakefield acceleration [6]). The measurement bench will include a correction of the Hall probe position and angle, the field integrals will be measured with a stretched wire.

  17. Modeling and designing of variable-period and variable-pole-number undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Davidyuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of permanent-magnet variable-period undulator (VPU was proposed several years ago and has found few implementations so far. The VPUs have some advantages as compared with conventional undulators, e.g., a wider range of radiation wavelength tuning and the option to increase the number of poles for shorter periods. Both these advantages will be realized in the VPU under development now at Budker INP. In this paper, we present the results of 2D and 3D magnetic field simulations and discuss some design features of this VPU.

  18. 2-D simulation of a waveguide free electron laser having a helical undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.K.; Lee, B.C.; Jeong, Y.U. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a 2-D simulation code for the calculation of output power from an FEL oscillator having a helical undulator and a cylindrical waveguide. In the simulation, the current and the energy of the electron beam is 2 A and 400 keV, respectively. The parameters of the permanent-magnet helical undulator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, magnetic field = 1.3 kG. The gain per pass is 10 and the output power is calculated to be higher than 10 kW The results of the 2-D simulation are compared with those of 1-D simulation.

  19. Knot Undulator to Generate Linearly Polarized Photons with Low on-Axis Power Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, S.

    2009-01-01

    Heat load on beamline optics is a serious problem to generate pure linearly polarized photons in the third generation synchrotron radiation facilities. For permanent magnet undulators, this problem can be overcome by a figure-8 operating mode. But there is still no good method to tackle this problem for electromagnetic elliptical undulators. Here, a novel operating mode is suggested, which can generate pure linearly polarized photons with very low on-axis heat load. Also the available minimum photon energy of linearly polarized photons can be extended much by this method.

  20. A new undulator for the extension of the spectral range of the CLIO FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcouille, O.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We built a new undulator in order to extend the lasing range of the CLIO infrared FEL. Presently, CLIO operates in the wavelength range 2 - 17 {mu}m. Beyond 14 {mu}m, the power decreases rapidly, because of the diffraction losses of the vacuum chamber (7 mm height and 2 m long). Thus, lasing at higher wavelengths implies installing a chamber with a height approximately twice. Then the minimum gap is increased and the maximum deflection parameter, K, is reduced from 2 to 1 : the laser tunability is greatly reduced. This is why a new undulator has been built.

  1. High Efficiency Energy Extraction from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Strongly Tapered Undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudar, N.; Musumeci, P.; Duris, J.; Gadjev, I.; Polyanskiy, M.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fedurin, M.; Swinson, C.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Gover, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54-cm-long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30% of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results, supported by simulations of the radiation field evolution, demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  2. Effect of the drift gap between the undulator sections on the operation of the Fusion-FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geer, C. A. J.; Militsyn, B. L.; Bongers, W. A.; Bratman, V. L.; Denisov, G. G.; Manintveld, P.; Savilov, A. V.; Varfolomeev, A. A.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Urbanus, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Fusion-FEM' is a free electron MASER based on an electrostatic accelerator. An electron beam of 12 A, 1.35-2 MeV is injected into a step-tapered undulator to generate 1 MW of radiation in the range 130-250 GHz. The undulator is built from two sections with different field strength

  3. Comparison of different undulator schemes with superimposed alternating gradients for the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflueger, J.; Nikitina, Y.M. [DESY/HASYLAB, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    For the VUV-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility an undulator with a total length of 30 m is needed. In this study three different approaches to realize an undulator with a sinusoidal plus a superimposed quadrupolar field were studied with the 3D code MAFIA.

  4. Development of beam halo monitors for the European XFEL using radiation hard sensors and demonstration of the technology at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, Alexandr

    2015-05-01

    The European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (E-XFEL), currently under construction in Hamburg, Germany, is intended to be an international linear accelerator (linac) based user facility. Its electron beam can carry maximal average power of 600 kW. A beam with such a high power needs to be carefully transmitted through the machine and safely dumped after utilization. This is supported by various diagnostics tools. A Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) based on synthetic diamond and sapphire sensors has been designed. Diamond sensors are developed by the company element6 for the detection of ionizing radiation and used previously elsewhere. Sapphire sensors are in this thesis applied for the first time. The BHM concept has been applied already at the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). A module with four diamond and four sapphire sensors was designed, installed inside the beam pipe, commissioned, calibrated and has been successfully operated for 4 years. The system contributed significantly to safe and efficient operation of FLASH. Both types of the sensors for the BHM were characterized. Measurements of radiation tolerance are done in a 10 MeV electron beam for polycrystalline CVD (pCVD) diamond sensors for the first time up to a dose of 10 MGy and for sapphire sensors up to 5 MGy. The charge collection efficiency (CCE) drops as a function of the absorbed dose, is however still sufficient for application as a BHM. To improve a main sensor characteristic, the charge collection efficiency, for sapphire sensors the impurity concentration was reduced and different growth techniques were compared. Finally, charge collection efficiency of about 5 % for a bias voltage of 500 V was reached. The BHM concept for the XFEL is designed and in the construction phase.

  5. Performance of photon position monitors and stability of undulator beams at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, T.; Andresen, N.; Portmann, G.; Jackson, A.

    1994-01-01

    Position monitors are implemented in three undulator beamlines at the ALS. Their performance has been studied carefully on one of these lines and is reviewed. The monitors work as expected and show the ALS to be an exceptionally stable source of synchrotron radiation

  6. An acoustical research of the undulating wooden ceiling in the Vyborg Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about the Undulating Ceiling at the lecture hall of the Vyborg Library. Alvar Aalto himself claimed the ceiling to be "ninety-nine per cent acoustically perfect" and the sketches showing the acoustical considerations behind the ceiling-design is often reproduced. But how did...

  7. Coherent undulator radiation of electron beam, microbunched for the FEL power outcoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulipanov, G.N.; Sokolov, A.S.; Vinokurov, N.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The spectral intensity of the coherent undulator radiation of electron beam, preliminarily microbunched by the FEL oscillator for the FEL power outcoupling, is approximately calculated by simple analytic considerations, taking into account the transverse emittances and the energy spread of the microbunched electron beams.

  8. Final construction of the C.R.E.O.L. 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesch, P.; Gallagher, J.; Elias, L. [Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The construction of an 8 millimeter period hybrid undulator for the C.R.E.O.L. high power far-infared free electron laser has just been completed. This FEL is expected to come on-line in the fall of 1995 and produce close to a kilowatt of continuous power at wavelengths of 225 - 800 microns. The undulator has extremely precise mechanical tolerances and high field uniformity allowing for high electron beam recovery rates. Almost complete beam recovery is required for DC operation at high currents. A novel method for measuring the magnetic properties of individual magnets and sorting the magnets to reduce magnetic field errors will be reported. The peak field and phase errors of the undulator without the pole pieces are reduced through a magnet ordering procedure. These errors are further reduced by inserting and tuning adjustable pole pieces. The reduction of field errors through these two techniques will be presented. An analysis of the final undulator errors and the results of measurements of the mechanical tolerances will be presented.

  9. Misconception regarding conventional coupling of fields and particles in XFEL codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [Europeam XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Maxwell theory is usually treated in the laboratory frame under the standard time order, that is the usual light-signal clock synchronization. In contrast, particle tracking in the laboratory frame usually treats time as an independent variable. As a result, here we argue that the evolution of electron beams is usually treated according to the absolute time convention i.e. using a different time order defined by a non-standard clock synchronization procedure. This essential point has never received attention in the accelerator community. There are two possible ways of coupling fields and particles in this situation. The first, Lorentz's prerelativistic way, consists in a 'translation' of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the absolute time world-picture. The second, Einstein's way, consists in a 'translation' of particle tracking results to the electromagnetic world-picture, obeying the standard time order. Conventional particle tracking shows that the electron beam direction changes after a transverse kick, while the orientation of the microbunching phase front stays unvaried. Here we show that in the ultrarelativistic asymptotic v → c, the orientation of the planes of simultaneity, i.e. the orientation of the microbunching fronts, is always perpendicular to the electron beam velocity when the evolution of the modulated electron beam is treated under Einstein's time order. This effect allows for the production of coherent undulator radiation from a modulated electron beam in the kicked direction without suppression. We hold a recent FEL study at the LCLS as a direct experimental evidence that the microbunching wavefront indeed readjusts its direction after the electron beam is kicked by a large angle, limited only by the beamline aperture. In a previous paper we quantitatively described this result invoking the aberration of light effect, which corresponds to Lorentz's way of coupling fields and particles. The purpose of

  10. Tuning and characterization of the {open_quotes}Teufel{close_quotes}-undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verschuur, J.W.J.; Ernst, G.J.; Witteman, W.J. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Three important criteria are used to tune the undulator are: reduce longitudinal phase errors, have approximately equal two plane focusing and have a good overlap between the electron beam and the optical beam. Although these criteria are the main design goals it is hard to meet them directly from the assembling. Small errors inevitably appear during the assembly, even when care is taken to keep the tolerances as tight as possible. The magnetic field was constantly monitored during construction using the pulsed wire method. However some kind of tuning mechanism is always needed to improve the performance of the undulator. The undulator we designed and build is of the Hybrid type, i.e. permanent magnets and high permeable poles. The well known method of using small permanent magnets to correct the field errors is nearly impossible due to the presence of iron poles. Hence, as a logical step, we decided to try to correct the various errors with shims in the form of small iron plates. The shims were put on the pole face at the edge of the poles. Different configurations were used to correct the different kind of errors. In the presentation an overview of the various shim configurations will be discussed. Steering errors are quite easy to correct, since only dipole fields are involved. We did put quite some effort in correcting the quadrupole errors. Gradients dBy/dx and dBx/dy were easy to correct with two shims on one side. The other gradients, on the other hand needed extensive shimming to be corrected. The error correction is limited by the presence of sextupole errors. We even found by experience that sextupole errors increased with the number of shims used. The ratio of the focusing strength of the undulator is measured to be 3/2, being slightly stronger in the direction of the wiggle motion. Longitudinal phase errors are introduced by amplitude and wavelength deviations in the undulator.

  11. Brilliant radiation sources by laser-plasma accelerators and optical undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debus, Alexander

    2012-09-06

    This thesis investigates the use of high-power lasers for synchrotron radiation sources with high brilliance, from the EUV to the hard X-ray spectral range. Hereby lasers accelerate electrons by laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA), act as optical undulators, or both. Experimental evidence shows for the first time that LWFA electron bunches are shorter than the driving laser and have a length scale comparable to the plasma wavelength. Furthermore, a first proof of principle experiment demonstrates that LWFA electrons can be exploited to generate undulator radiation. Building upon these experimental findings, as well as extensive numerical simulations of Thomson scattering, the theoretical foundations of a novel interaction geometry for laser-matter interaction are developed. This new method is very general and when tailored towards relativistically moving targets not being limited by the focusability (Rayleigh length) of the laser, while it does not require a waveguide. In a theoretical investigation of Thomson scattering, the optical analogue of undulator radiation, the limits of Thomson sources in scaling towards higher peak brilliances are highlighted. This leads to a novel method for generating brilliant, highly tunable X-ray sources, which is highly energy efficient by circumventing the laser Rayleigh limit through a novel traveling-wave Thomson scattering (TWTS) geometry. This new method suggests increases in X-ray photon yields of 2-3 orders of magnitudes using existing lasers and a way towards efficient, optical undulators to drive a free-electron laser. The results presented here extend far beyond the scope of this work. The possibility to use lasers as particle accelerators, as well as optical undulators, leads to very compact and energy efficient synchrotron sources. The resulting monoenergetic radiation of high brilliance in a range from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard X-ray radiation is of fundamental importance for basic research, medical

  12. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  13. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  14. Development and operating experience of a 1.1-m-long superconducting undulator at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Harkay, K.; Borland, M.; Dejus, R.; Dooling, J.; Doose, C.; Emery, L.; Fuerst, J.; Gagliano, J.; Hasse, Q.; Kasa, M.; Kenesei, P.; Sajaev, V.; Schroeder, K.; Sereno, N.; Shastri, S.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Skiadopoulos, D.; Smith, M.; Sun, X.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Xiao, A.; Zholents, A.; Gluskin, E.

    2017-10-01

    Development of superconducting undulators continues at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Two years after successful installation and commissioning of the first relatively short superconducting undulator "SCU0" in Sector 6 of the APS storage ring, the second 1.1-m-long superconducting undulator "SCU1" was installed in Sector 1 of the APS. The device has been in user operation since its commissioning in May 2015. This paper describes the magnetic and cryogenic design of the SCU1 together with the results of stand-alone cold tests. The SCU1's magnetic and cryogenic performance as well as its operating experience in the APS storage ring are also presented.

  15. Design of front end electronics and a full scale 4k pixel readout ASIC for the DSSC X-ray detector at the European XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdinger, Florian

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to design a large scale readout ASIC for the 1-Mega pixel DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression (DSSC) detector system which is being developed by an international collaboration for the European XFEL (EuXFEL). Requirements for the DSSC detector include single photon detection down to 0.5 keV combined with a large dynamic range of up to 10000 photons at frame rates of up to 4.5 MHz. The detector core concepts include full parallel readout, signal compression on the sensor or ASIC level, filtering, immediate digitization and local storage within the pixel. The DSSC is a hybrid pixel detector, each sensor pixel mates to a dedicated ASIC pixel, which includes the entire specified signal processing chain along with auxiliary circuits. One ASIC comprises 4096 pixels and a full periphery including biasing and digital control. This thesis presents the design of the ASIC, its components and integration are described in detail. Emphasis is put on the design of the analog front-end. The first full format ASIC (F1) has been fabricated within the scope of this thesis along with numerous test chips. Furthermore, the EuXFEL and the DSSC detector system are presented to create the context for the ASIC, which is the core topic of this thesis.

  16. An Experimental Study of the Beam-Steering Effect on the FEL Gain at LEUTL's Segmented Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Chae, Yong Chul; Lewellen, John W; Lumpkin, Alex H; Milton, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The electron trajectories at the LEUTL, a SASE FEL facility at Argonne, were routinely corrected during the user run in order to deliver maximum radiation power to the user. Even though we knew from experience that SASE gain at the segmented undulators was dependent on the trajectory, the quantitative understanding of steering effects associated with the specific trajectory was lacking. Recently Tanaka et al. proposed an analytical model for the single-kick error (SKE) effect. Since LEUTL has eight segmented undulators, we performed the first measurement of SKE on the FEL gain. In the experiments we varied the corrector strength up to the critical angle, and the gain over the undulator was measured for each corrector setting. The results were compared with the analytical model and GENESIS simulations. We also measured the e-beam positions and SASE intensities over the undulators. The experimental data were analyzed and their results were reproduced by GENESIS simulation. The simulation condition, including th...

  17. Radiation emission at channeling of electrons in a strained layer Si1-xGex undulator crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, H.; Krambrich, D.; Lauth, W.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments have been performed at the Mainz Microtron MAMI to explore the radiation emission spectra from a crystalline undulator at electron beam energies of 270 and 855 MeV. The epitaxially grown graded composition strained layer Si1-xGex undulator had 4-period with a period length View the Math......ML source. Spectra taken at the beam energy of 270 MeV at channeling in the undulating (110) planes exhibit a broad excess yield around the theoretically expected photon energies of 0.069 MeV, as compared with a flat silicon reference crystal. Model calculations on the basis of synchrotron-like radiation...... emission from finite single arc elements, taking into account also coherence effects, suggest that evidence for a weak undulator effect has been observed for the first time for electrons....

  18. Status of the Development of Superconducting Undulators for Storage Rings and Free Electron Lasers at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Doose, C.; Fuerst, J.; Harkay, K.; Hasse, Q.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y.; Skiadopoulos, D.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Gluskin, E.; Emma, P.

    2017-06-01

    Development of superconducting undulator (SCU) technology continues at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The experience of building and successful operating the first short-length, 16-mm period length superconducting undulator SCU0 paved the way for a 1-m long, 18-mm period device— SCU18-1— which has been in operation since May 2015. The APS SCU team has also built and tested a 1.5-m long, 21-mm period length undulator as a part of the LCLS SCU R&D program, aimed at demonstration of SCU technology availability for free electron lasers. This undulator successfully achieved all the requirements including a phase error of 5° RMS. Our team has recently completed one more 1-m long, 18-mm period length undulator— SCU18-2— that is replacing the SCU0. We are also working on a helical SCU for the APS. The status of these projects will be presented.

  19. Ice Velocity Mapping of Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica by Matching Surface Undulations Measured by Icesat Laser Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon-Ki; Han, Shin-Chan; Yu, Jaehyung; Scambos, Ted A.; Seo, Ki-Weon

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel method for estimating the surface horizontal velocity on ice shelves using laser altimetrydata from the Ice Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat; 20032009). The method matches undulations measured at crossover points between successive campaigns.

  20. Thermal Modeling and Cryogenic Design of a Helical Superconducting Undulator Cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroyanagi, Y.; Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.

    2017-06-01

    A conceptual design for a helical superconducting undulator (HSCU) for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been completed. The device differs sufficiently from the existing APS planar superconducting undulator (SCU) design to warrant development of a new cryostat based on value engineering and lessons learned from the existing planar SCU. Changes include optimization of the existing cryocooler-based refrigeration system and thermal shield as well as cost reduction through the use of standard vacuum hardware. The end result is a design that provides significantly larger 4.2 K refrigeration margin in a smaller package for greater installation flexibility in the APS storage ring. This paper presents ANSYS-based thermal analysis of the cryostat, including estimated static and dynamic

  1. Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 2: Varying wave climate and comparison with observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The present work applies the shoreline model from part 1 to a real environment. In part 1, a numerical shoreline model which could handle the development of arbitrarily shaped shorelines was applied to consider the development of shoreline undulations on an unstable shoreline exposed to incoming...... waves with a directional spreading. In this paper, these findings are extended to firstly include the effect of a varying wave climate on the shoreline morphology and secondly, to tune the model to two naturally occurring shorelines. It is found that the effect of a variable wave climate is to slow down...... the development of the morphology and in some cases to inhibit the formation of shore-parallel spits at the crest of the undulations. On one of the natural shorelines, the west coast of Namibia, the shore is exposed to very obliquely waves from one main direction. Here, the shoreline model is able to describe...

  2. Effect of undulator harmonics field on free-electron laser harmonic generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qika Jia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The harmonics field effect of a planar undulator on free-electron laser (FEL harmonic generation has been analyzed. For both the linear case and the nonlinear case, the harmonic fraction of the radiation can be characterized by the coupling coefficients. The modification of the coupling coefficients is given when the third harmonics magnetic field component exists, thus the enhancement of the harmonic radiation can be predicted. The numerical results show that with the third harmonics magnetic field component that has the opposite sign to the fundamental, the intensity of third-harmonic radiation can be increased distinctly for both the small signal gain and the nonlinear harmonic generation. The increase is larger for the smaller undulator deflecting parameter.

  3. An ultrashort pulse ultra-violet radiation undulator source driven by a laser plasma wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anania, M. P. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Brunetti, E.; Wiggins, S. M.; Grant, D. W.; Welsh, G. H.; Issac, R. C.; Cipiccia, S.; Shanks, R. P.; Manahan, G. G.; Aniculaesei, C.; Jaroszynski, D. A., E-mail: d.a.jaroszynski@strath.ac.uk [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Geer, S. B. van der; Loos, M. J. de [Pulsar Physics, Burghstraat 47, 5614 BC Eindhoven (Netherlands); Poole, M. W.; Shepherd, B. J. A.; Clarke, J. A. [ASTeC, STFC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Gillespie, W. A. [SUPA, School of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); MacLeod, A. M. [School of Computing and Creative Technologies, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee DD1 1HG (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-30

    Narrow band undulator radiation tuneable over the wavelength range of 150–260 nm has been produced by short electron bunches from a 2 mm long laser plasma wakefield accelerator based on a 20 TW femtosecond laser system. The number of photons measured is up to 9 × 10{sup 6} per shot for a 100 period undulator, with a mean peak brilliance of 1 × 10{sup 18} photons/s/mrad{sup 2}/mm{sup 2}/0.1% bandwidth. Simulations estimate that the driving electron bunch r.m.s. duration is as short as 3 fs when the electron beam has energy of 120–130 MeV with the radiation pulse duration in the range of 50–100 fs.

  4. A hybrid type undulator for far-infrared FELs at FELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zako, A.; Miyauchi, Y.; Koga, A. [Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two FEL facilities of the FELI are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20 {mu}m. A 3.2-m hybrid type undulator ({lambda}{sub u}=80mm, N=40) has been designed for far-infrared FELs and will be installed in December. It can cover the wavelength of 20-60 {mu}m by changing K-value from 1 to 2.7 for a 28.0-MeV electron beam. It is composed of ferrite magnetic poles and Sm-Co permanent magnets. Commonly wound coils induce alternating magnetic field in ferrite poles. Combination of the induced field and the permanent magnet field can controls the magnetic field between the undulator gap.

  5. Sagittal crystal focusing of undulator radiation with high heat load inclined crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Sparks, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Sagittal focusing of undulator radiation is shown to be compatible with the proposed inclined double-crystal monochromator geometry for heat load reduction. The focusing aberrations are found to be negligible for typical undulator-beam divergences over a range of magnifications from 1:2 to 6:1 and energies from 3 to 40 keV. The inclined geometry reduces the required signal sagittal curvature of the focusing crystal compared to focusing with conventional symmetric crystals; hence, focusing is possible at higher X-ray energies and with less anticlastic bending. In addition, anticlastic stiffening ribs project a smaller footprint to the beam so that the achievable focal spot size is potentially better than with conventional symmetrically cut crystals. 16 refs

  6. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  7. Undulative induction electron accelerator for the waste and natural water purification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kulish, Victor V; Gubanov, I V

    2001-01-01

    The project analysis of Undulative Induction Accelerator (EH - accelerator) for the waste and natural water purification systems is accomplished. It is shown that the use of the four-channel design of induction block and the standard set of auxiliary equipment (developed earlier for the Linear Induction Accelerators - LINACs) allow to construct commercially promising purification systems. A quality analysis of the accelerator is done and the optimal parameters are chosen taking into account the specific sphere of its usage.

  8. Influence of higher harmonics of the undulator in X-ray polarimetry and crystal monochromator design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Glowna, Berit; Schulze, Kai S; Uschmann, Ingo; Kämpfer, Tino; Weber, Günter; Hahn, Christoph; Wille, Hans Christian; Schlage, Kai; Röhlsberger, Ralf; Förster, Eckhart; Stöhlker, Thomas; Paulus, Gerhard G

    2015-09-01

    The spectrum of the undulator radiation of beamline P01 at Petra III has been measured after passing a multiple reflection channel-cut polarimeter. Odd and even harmonics up to the 15th order, as well as Compton peaks which were produced by the high harmonics in the spectrum, could been measured. These additional contributions can have a tremendous influence on the performance of the polarimeter and have to be taken into account for further polarimeter designs.

  9. Fabrication of mm-wave undulator cavities using deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, J.; Feinerman, A.; Kang, Y.; Kustom, R.; Lai, B.; Nassiri, A.; White, V.; Well, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of fabricating mm-wave radio frequency cavities (100 endash 300 GHz) using deep x-ray lithography (DXRL) is being investigated. The fabrication process includes manufacture of precision x-ray masks, exposure of positive resist by x-ray through the mask, resist development, and electroforming of the final microstructure. Highly precise, two-dimensional features can be machined onto wafers using DXRL. Major challenges are: fabrication of the wafers into three-dimensional rf structures; alignment and overlay accuracy of structures; adhesion of the PMMA on the copper substrate; and selection of a developer to obtain high resolution. Rectangular cavity geometry is best suited to this fabrication technique. A 30- or 84-cell 108-GHz mm-wave structure can serve as an electromagnetic undulator. A mm-wave undulator, which will be discussed later, may have special features compared to the conventional undulator. First harmonic undulator radiation at 5.2 keV would be possible using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac system, which provides a low-emittance electron beam by using an rf thermionic gun with an energy as high as 750 MeV. More detailed rf simulation, heat extraction analysis, beam dynamics using a mm-wave structure, and measurements on 10x larger scale models can be found in these proceedings [Y.W. Kang et al., open-quote open-quote Design and Construction of Planar mm-wave Accelerating Cavity Structures close-quote close-quote] copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Magnetic field measurements of the harmonic generation FEL superconducting undulator at BNL-NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, L.; Graves, W.S.; Lehrman, I.

    1994-01-01

    A three stage superconducting undulator (modulator, dispersive section, and radiator) is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Sections of the radiator, consisting of 25cm long steel yokes, each with 18mm period, 0.54 Tesla field, and 8.6mm gap are under test. The magnetic measurements and operational characteristics of the magnet are discussed. Measurement results and analysis are presented, with emphasis on the integrated field quality. The magnet winding and the effects of the various trims are discussed

  11. A Helical Undulator Wave-guide Inverse Free-Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.; Bodzin, N.; Frigola, P.; Musumeci, P.; Pellegrini, C.; Travish, G.; Joshi, C.; Tochitsky, S.

    2004-01-01

    With recent success in high gradient, high-energy gain IFEL experiments at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory, future experiments are now being contemplated. The Neptune IFEL was designed to use a tightly focused, highly diffracting, near-TW peak power 10 micron laser. This choice of laser focusing, driven by power-handling limitations of the optics near the interaction region, led to design and use of a very complex undulator, and to sensitivity to both laser misalignment and focusing errors. As these effects limited the performance of the IFEL experiment, a next generation experiment at Neptune has been studied which avoids the use of a highly diffractive laser beam through use of a waveguide. We discuss here the choice of low-loss waveguide, guided mode characteristics and likely power limitations. We also examine a preferred undulator design, which is chosen to be helical in order to maximize the acceleration achieved for a given power. With the limitations of these laser and undulator choices in mind, we show the expected performance of the IFEL using 1D simulations. Three-dimensional effects are examined, in the context of use of a solenoid for focusing and acceleration enhancement

  12. Control software of a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE type) for SX beamline in the SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Shimada, Taihei; Miyahara, Yoshikazu

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes the control software of a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE Type) that was installed at the SX beamline (cell number 23) in the SPring-8 storage ring in February, 1998. This undulator produces a polarized radiation in the energy range of soft X-ray by changing the gap distance between two pairs of permanent magnet arrays (gap movement). The main characteristic of the undulator is a capability to generate right and left circular polarization alternately at a period of 2 sec (0.5 Hz) by high speed phase-shifting (periodic phase movement). The developed software makes a fast correction of the closed orbit distortion (COD) of an electron beam by exciting steering magnets at a rate of time interval of 24 msec (42 Hz) during the movement of magnet arrays. Also, the software is capable to put these magnet arrays into a constant periodic phase movement with an error less than 0.1% for the period of 2 sec. The software was developed in accordance with the directions of SPring-8 standard for software development. (author)

  13. Multi-Objective Optimization for Pure Permanent-Magnet Undulator Magnets Ordering Using Modified Simulated Annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Nian; Li, Ge

    2004-01-01

    Undulator field errors influence the electron beam trajectories and lower the radiation quality. Angular deflection of electron beam is determined by first field integral, orbital displacement of electron beam is determined by second field integral and radiation quality can be evaluated by rms field error or phase error. Appropriate ordering of magnets can greatly reduce the errors. We apply a modified simulated annealing algorithm to this multi-objective optimization problem, taking first field integral, second field integral and rms field error as objective functions. Undulator with small field errors can be designed by this method within a reasonable calculation time even for the case of hundreds of magnets (first field integral reduced to 10-6T·m, second integral to 10-6T·m2 and rms field error to 0.01%). Thus, the field correction after assembling of undulator will be greatly simplified. This paper gives the optimizing process in detail and puts forward a new method to quickly calculate the rms field e...

  14. X-ray lithography using wiggler and undulator synchrotron-radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neureuther, A.R.; Kim, K.J.; Thompson, A.C.; Hoyer, E.

    1983-08-01

    A systems design approach is used to identify feasible options for wiggler and undulator beam lines for x-ray lithography in the 0.5 to 0.2 μm linewidth region over 5 cm by 5 cm fields. Typical parameters from the Wiggler and Undulator in the Advanced Light Source designed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are used as examples. Moving from the conventional wavelengths of 4 to 9 A to very soft wavelengths around 15 A is shown to be very promising. The mask absorber thickness can be reduced a factor of three so that 0.2 μm features can be made with a 1:1 mask aspect ratio. The mask heating limited exposure time is also reduced a factor of three to 3 sec/cm 2 . However, extremely thin beam line windows (1/4 mil Be) and mask supports (1 μm Si) must be used. A wiggler beam line design using a small slit window at a scanning mirror appears feasible. A unconventional, windowless differentially pumped beam line with dual deflecting mirrors could be used with an undulator source

  15. First spectral measurements of a cryogenic high-field short-period undulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Holy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Further development of synchrotron light sources and new concepts for free electron lasers require undulators with short periods and high magnetic fields. A promising approach is the cryogenic permanent magnet undulator concept based on an advanced magnet material. This new rare earth alloy (Pr,Nd_{2}Fe_{14}B, shows an increasing remanent field of up to 1.7 T without the limits of spin reorientation transition. This work presents first spectral measurements of a prototype cryogenic permanent magnet undulator, consisting of 20 periods of 9 mm in length, cooled by a closed cycle cryo-cooler to temperatures below 30 K. The K parameter of 0.837 at RT is increased by more than 15% to 0.966, and an increase of the third harmonics photon flux of up to 66% was achieved. A possible degradation of the on-axis field quality due to thermally induced magnetic field errors, deduced from the measured bandwidth of the spectrum, is below the limits of the detector resolution of 2%.

  16. Proposed particle-beam characterizations for the APS undulator test line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Borland, M.; Milton, S.

    1993-09-01

    A research and development effort is underway at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to use an rf gun as a low-emittance electron source for injection into the 100- to 650-MeV linac subsystem and subsequently to an undulator test area. This configuration would combine the acceleration capability of the 200-MeV S-band electron linac and the in-line 450-MeV positron linac that normally provide positrons to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). A transport line that bypasses the PAR will bring the electrons to the undulator test area. Characterization techniques will be discussed for the electron beam with a normalized, rms emittance of <10 {pi} mm mrad (1{sigma}) at micropulse charges of up to 350 pC and micropulse durations of {approximately}5 ps (FWHM). Tests proposed include measurement of particle beam transport effects (at one-tenth the storage ring beam rigidity) caused by small undulator field errors as well as operations intended to produce coherent, short wavelength radiation (<200 nm).

  17. In situ correction of field errors induced by temperature gradient in cryogenic undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technique of undulator field correction for cryogenic permanent magnet undulators (CPMUs is proposed to correct the phase error induced by temperature gradient. This technique takes advantage of two important instruments: one is the in-vacuum self-aligned field analyzer with laser instrumentation system to precisely measure the distribution of the magnetic field generated by the permanent magnet arrays placed in vacuum, and the other is the differential adjuster to correct the local variation of the magnet gap. The details of the two instruments are described together with the method of how to analyze the field measurement data and deduce the gap variation along the undulator axis. The correction technique was applied to the CPMU with a length of 1.7 m and a magnetic period of 14 mm. It was found that the phase error induced during the cooling process was attributable to local gap variations of around 30  μm, which were then corrected by the differential adjuster.

  18. Performance of an undulator for visible and UV FELs at FELI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyauchi, Y.; Zako, A.; Koga, A. [Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Two infrared free electron lasers (FELs) of the FELI project are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20{mu}m. A 2.68-m undulator has been constructed for visible and UV FELs covering the wavelength of 1-0.2{mu}m for 100-165 MeV electron beams. It generates alternating, horizontal magnetic field, and wiggles electron beam on a vertical plane. The undulator length and period are 2.68m and 40mm, respectively. The gap of undulator magnets can be changed remotely by using servomotors with an accuracy of 1 {mu}m from the control room. The maximum K-value and related magnetic field strength are 1.9 and 0.5T, respectively, when its gap is set to the minimum value of 16mm. In order to minimize magnetic field reduction due to radiation damage, Sm-Co permanent magnet was adopted. Its structure and the results of magnetic field measurement will be reported.

  19. Initial studies of Bremsstrahlung energy deposition in small-bore superconducting undulator structures in linac environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, T.; Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the more promising technologies for developing minimal-length insertion devices for linac-driven, single-pass Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the x-ray range is based on the use of superconducting (SC) materials. In recent FEL simulations, for example, a bifilar helical SC device with a 2 cm period and 1.8 T field was found to require a 30 m saturation length for operation at 1.5{Angstrom} on a 15 GeV linac, more than 40% shorter than an alternative hybrid/permanent magnet (hybrid/PM) undulator. AT the same time, however, SC technology is known to present characteristic difficulties for insertion device design, both in engineering detail and in operation. Perhaps the most critical problem, as observed, e.g., by Madey and co-workers in their initial FEL experiments, was the frequent quenching induced by scattered electrons upstream of their (bifilar) device. Postulating that this quenching was precipitated by directly-scattered or bremsstrahlung-induced particle energy deposited into the SC material or into material contiguous with it, the importance of numerical and experimental characterizations of this phenomenon for linac-based, user-facility SC undulator design becomes evident. In this paper we discuss selected prior experimental results and report on initial EGS4 code studies of scattered and bremsstrahlung induced particle energy deposition into SC structures with geometries comparable to a small-bore bifilar helical undulator.

  20. Liquid X-ray scattering with a pink-spectrum undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratos, S; Leicknam, J-Cl; Wulff, M; Khakhulin, D

    2014-01-01

    X-ray scattering from a liquid using the spectrum from the undulator fundamental is examined as a function of the bandwidth of the spectrum. The synchrotron-generated X-ray spectrum from an undulator is 'pink', i.e. quasi-monochromatic but having a saw-tooth-shaped spectrum with a bandwidth from 1 to 15%. It is shown that features in S(q) are slightly shifted and dampened compared with strictly monochromatic data. In return, the gain in intensity is 250-500 which makes pink beams very important for time-resolved experiments. The undulator spectrum is described by a single exponential with a low-energy tail. The tail shifts features in the scattering function towards high angles and generates a small reduction in amplitude. The theoretical conclusions are compared with experiments. The r-resolved Fourier transformed signals are discussed next. Passing from q- to r-space requires a sin-Fourier transform. The Warren convergence factor is introduced in this calculation to suppress oscillatory artifacts from the finite qM in the data. It is shown that the deformation of r-resolved signals from the pink spectrum is small compared with that due to the Warren factor. The q-resolved and the r-resolved pink signals thus behave very differently.

  1. Image tuning techniques for enhancing the performance of pure permanent magnet undulators with small gap/period ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The on-axis field of a small-gap undulator constricted out of pure permanent magnet (PM) blocks arranged in an alternating-dipole (i.e., 2 dipoles/period) array can be substantially varied by positioning monolithic permeable plates above and below the undulator jaws. This simple technique, which can be used to control the 1st harmonic energy in conventional synchrotron radiation (SR) or Free Electron Laser (FEL) applications requiring sub-octave tuning, can also be shown to suppress magnetic inhomogeneities that can contribute to the undulator`s on-axis field errors. If a standard 4 block/period Halbach undulator, composed of PM blocks with square cross sections, is rearranged into an alternating-dipole array with the same period, the peak field that can be generated with superimposed image plates can substantially exceed that of the pure-PM Halbach array. This design technique, which can be viewed as intermediate between the {open_quotes}pure-PM{close_quotes} and standard {open_quotes}hybrid/PM{close_quotes} configurations, provides a potentially cost-effective method of enhancing the performance of small-gap, pure-PM insertion devices. In this paper we report on the analysis and recent characterization of pure-PM undulator structures with superimposed image plates, and discuss possible applications to FEL research.

  2. Development of Control System for Fast Frequency Tuners of Superconducting Resonant Cavities for FLASH and XFEL Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Przygoda, K

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation covers the recent research and development (R&D) activities of control systems for the fast frequency tuners of TESLA cavities and predicts the implications foreseen for large scale machines such as the FLASH and the planned XFEL. In particular, the framework of the presented activities is the effort toward the: 1. R&D of the driving circuit, 2. R&D of the control algorithm, 3. R&D of the control system. The main result of these activities is the permanent installation of the target piezo control system and its commissioning for 40 cavities divided into 5 accelerating modules at the DESY FLASH facility. The author’s contribution was the study of possible designs of high-voltage, high-current power amplifiers, used for driving the fast frequency tuners, shows that several parameters of such a device needs to be considered. The most important parameter is the input and output power estimation. This arises from the fact that the estimation is the most crucial issue for both po...

  3. Bunch arrival time monitors; Concepts towards improving the sensitivity for low charge operation for FLASH II and XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penirschke, Andreas; Angelovski, Aleksandar; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik, Merckstr. 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany); Sydlo, Cezary; Bousonville, Michael; Czwalinna, Marie Kristin; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kuhl, Alexander [University of Hamburg, Physics Department, Accelerator Physics Group (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2013-07-01

    High gain Free-Electron Lasers can generate ultra short X-ray pulses in the femtosecond range. For a stable operation of the FEL, the precise knowledge of the bunch arrival time is crucial. A novel high bandwidth Bunch Arrival time Monitor was recently installed at FLASH to allow a low charge operation mode with a sub-10 fs resolution for bunch charges of 20 pC or more. The BAM is equipped with cone shaped pickups for the precise measurement of both, the high and low bunch charge operation mode. For the extension of FLASH facility to FLASH II new pickups for the high bandwidth BAMs need to be developed. The new BAM needs to maximize the voltage level of the beam induced signal for low charge operation mode in order to provide sufficient signal strength for the subsequent electronics. In this talk, we present concepts to improve the signal strength at the electro-optic modulators for low charge operation at FLASH II and XFEL.

  4. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  5. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  6. Canted Undulator Upgrade for GeoSoilEnviroCARS Sector 13 at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Stephen

    2013-02-02

    Support for the beamline component of the canted undulator upgrade of Sector 13 (GeoSoilEnviroCARS; managed and operated by the University of Chicago) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS; Argonne National Laboratory) was received from three agencies (equally divided): NASA-SRLIDAP (now LARS), NSF-EAR-IF (ARRA) and DOE-Single Investigator Small Group (SISGR). The associated accelerator components (undulators, canted front end) were provided by the APS using DOE-ARRA funding. The intellectual merit of the research enabled by the upgrade lies in advancing our knowledge of the composition, structure and properties of earth materials; the processes they control; and the processes that produce them. The upgrade will facilitate scientific advances in the following areas: high pressure mineral physics and chemistry, non-crystalline and nano-crystalline materials at high pressure, chemistry of hydrothermal fluids, reactions at mineral-water interfaces, biogeochemistry, oxidation states of magmas, flow dynamics of fluids and solids, and cosmochemistry. The upgrade, allowing the microprobe to operate 100% of the time and the high pressure and surface scattering and spectroscopy instruments to receive beam time increases, will facilitate much more efficient use of the substantial investment in these instruments. The broad scientific community will benefit by the increase in the number of scientists who conduct cutting-edge research at GSECARS. The user program in stations 13ID-C (interface scattering) and 13ID-D (laser heated diamond anvil cell and large volume press) recommenced in June 2012. The operation of the 13ID-E microprobe station began in the Fall 2012 cycle (Oct.-Dec 2012). The upgraded canted beamlines double the amount of undulator beam time at Sector 13 and provide new capabilities including extended operations of the X-ray microprobe down to the sulfur K edge and enhanced brightness at high energy. The availability of the upgraded beamlines will advance the

  7. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  8. Coupling impedance of an in-vacuum undulator: Measurement, simulation, and analytical estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Smaluk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the important issues of the in-vacuum undulator design is the coupling impedance of the vacuum chamber, which includes tapered transitions with variable gap size. To get complete and reliable information on the impedance, analytical estimate, numerical simulations and beam-based measurements have been performed at Diamond Light Source, a forthcoming upgrade of which includes introducing additional insertion device (ID straights. The impedance of an already existing ID vessel geometrically similar to the new one has been measured using the orbit bump method. The measurement results in comparison with analytical estimations and numerical simulations are discussed in this paper.

  9. Coupling impedance of an in-vacuum undulator: Measurement, simulation, and analytical estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaluk, Victor; Fielder, Richard; Blednykh, Alexei; Rehm, Guenther; Bartolini, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    One of the important issues of the in-vacuum undulator design is the coupling impedance of the vacuum chamber, which includes tapered transitions with variable gap size. To get complete and reliable information on the impedance, analytical estimate, numerical simulations and beam-based measurements have been performed at Diamond Light Source, a forthcoming upgrade of which includes introducing additional insertion device (ID) straights. The impedance of an already existing ID vessel geometrically similar to the new one has been measured using the orbit bump method. The measurement results in comparison with analytical estimations and numerical simulations are discussed in this paper.

  10. Observation of undulation motion of lipid bilayers by neutron spin echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Norifumi L.; Seto, Hideki; Hishida, Mafumi

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of synthesized phospholipids have been well investigated as model biomembranes. These lipids usually self-assemble into regular stacks of bilayers with a characteristic repeat distance on the order of nm, whereas real biomembrane exist as single bilayers. The key phenomenon in understanding the formation of single isolated bilayers in 'unbinding' of lipid bilayers, in which the inter-bilayer distance of lipid bilayers diverges by the steric interaction due to the membrane undulation. In this paper, we show some results of neutron spin-echo (NSE) experiments to investigate the effect of the steric interaction on unbinding and related phenomena. (author)

  11. Performance of a high resolution, high flux density SGM undulator beamline at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, T.; Heimann, P.; Mossessian, D.; McKinney, W.; Padmore, H.

    1994-01-01

    The performance of ALS beamline 7.0 is described. This is an integrated system for delivering radiation from a 5cm period undulator to spectroscopy and microscopy experiments across the range of photon energies from 60eV to 1200eV. The beamline is engineered to deliver the highest possible flux, with negligible deformation of the optic surfaces due to heating. Two experiment stations are served with rapid interchangeability. We report on the measured operational parameters, the resolution and flux delivered, and the refocus of the light into a small spot at the experiment

  12. Controlling the morphology of carbon nanotube arrays: from spinnable forests to undulating foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zou, Guifu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hawley, Marilyn E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheehan, Chris J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhu, Yuntain [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doorn, Stephen K [NCSU; Htoon, Han [NCSU

    2009-01-01

    By controlling catalyst pretreatment conditions, we demonstrate that the degree of spinnability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is closely related to the morphology of CNT arrays. Shortest catalyst pretreatment time led to CNT arrays with the best spinnability, while prolonged pretreatment resulted in coarsening of catalyst particles and non-spinnable CNTs. We further demonstrate the growth of undulating CNT arrays with uniform and tunable waviness by controlling the coalescence of catalyst particles. The CNT arrays can be tuned from well-aligned, spinnable forests to uniformly wavy, foam-like films by controlling catalyst pretreatment conditions.

  13. Undulating tubular liposomes through incorporation of a synthetic skin ceramide into phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Tan, Grace; Zhou, Jia; He, Jibao; Lawson, Louise B; McPherson, Gary L; John, Vijay T

    2009-09-15

    Nonspherical liposomes were prepared by doping L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (PC) with ceramide VI (a skin lipid). Cryo-transmission electron microscopy shows the liposome shape changing from spherical to an undulating tubular morphology, when the amount of ceramide VI is increased. The formation of tubular liposomes is energetically favorable and is attributed to the association of ceramide VI with PC creating regions of lower curvature. Since ceramides are the major component of skin lipids in the stratum corneum, tubular liposomes containing ceramide may potentially serve as self-enhanced nanocarriers for transdermal delivery.

  14. Characterization of the Support and Drive System of the PETRA III APPLE Undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrdt, J.; Baecker, H.-J.; Frentrup, W.; Gaupp, A.; Gottschlich, S.; Kuhn, C.; Scheer, M.; Schulz, B.; Gast, M.; Englisch, U.; Schoeps, A.; Tischer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Helmholtzzentrum Berlin has built an APPLE II undulator for the storage ring PETRA III. The device has a total length of 5m and a minimum gap of 11mm. The high magnetic forces in particular in the inclined mode have been analyzed by means of finite element methods (FEM). Specific mechanic components such as flexible joints have been optimized to cope with the gap- and shift-dependent 3D-forces and a sophisticated control and drive system has been implemented. After completion of the device, detailed laser interferometer measurements for all operation modes have been performed. The data are compared to the FEM simulations.

  15. Ultra-wide-band accumulation of coherent undulator synchrotron radiation in a resonating cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Seo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavity accumulation of coherent undulator synchrotron radiation emitted by a train of periodic electron bunches is investigated. Phase-matching conditions for accumulation of radiation emitted by successive bunches are analyzed and numerically confirmed. While the coherent emission of a single bunch is optimal at grazing resonance, the accumulated radiation targeted at the upper resonant frequency of the waveguide mode is found to have much broader bandwidth and higher efficiency as the resonance steps away from the grazing condition. Numerical results confirm that stimulated superradiance is responsible for the accumulated radiation.

  16. Simulation and measurement of the electrostatic beam kicker in the low-energy undulator test line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldschmidt, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    An electrostatic kicker has been constructed for use in the Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The function of the kicker is to limit the amount of beam current to be accelerated by the APS linac. Two electrodes within the kicker create an electric field that adjusts the trajectory of the beam. This paper will explore the static fields that are set up between the offset electrode plates and determine the reaction of the beam to this field. The kicker was numerically simulated using the electromagnetic solver package MAFIA [1

  17. Dynamical behaviour of FEL devices operating with two undulators having opposite circular polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Bucci, L.

    2000-01-01

    Optical-Klystron FELs operating with undulators having opposite circular polarizations are characterized by a spontaneous emission spectrum which does not exhibit the characteristic interference pattern. The use of the Madey theorem may allow the conclusion that, for such configuration, the dispersive section does not provide any gain enhancement. In this paper it has been analyzed the problem from a dynamical point of view and clarify how the optical field evolve, what is the role of the bunching and how the consequences of the Madey theorem should be correctly understood [it

  18. Undulant Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  19. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  20. Combined electromagnetic and permanent magnet undulator to achieve higher field and easier field variation without mechanical movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogachenkov, V.A.; Papadichev, V.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Hybrid or pure permanent magnet undulators (PMU) are widely used because they have high field quality, allow easy field correction and do not consume power. Their main drawback is the necessity of moving one half of the magnet relative to the other to change field value, which requires a high precision, remotely controlled (and thus costly) driving system On the other hand, electromagnetic undulatory (EMU) have no problem with field variation, but consume too much power (100 - 400 kW) for high fields. Adding permanent magnets to EMU results in a considerable decrease of power consumption, while retaining the advantage of easily changing field level. A model of a CW combined EM+PM plane undulator having a 4.8 cm period and 8 periods long is described. It is simple in design and cheap in manufacturing: magnet yokes are made of soft steel rings in which 1.6 cm air gaps were cut to form pole faces. Odd yokes are placed to one side of the undulator axis and even yokes to the other with the air gaps on the axis. Each set of yokes is excited by its own separate winding of simple racetrack shape. Undulator deflection parameter K = 1.1 (B = 2.4 kG) can be reached at a 0.78kW power level, i.e., less than 100 W per period, while without PM only a maximum K = 0.8 can be obtained and requires 4 kW power. No water cooling is needed, which greatly simplifies undulator design. The undulator was not optimized relative to the axial-air-gap to ring-width ratio: one might expect some increase in field level for thinner rings. Field amplitude depends also on relative transverse position of odd and even pole faces.

  1. A Design Report for the Optical Transition Radiation Imager for the LCLS Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bingxin

    2010-12-13

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a free-electron x-ray laser, is under design and construction. Its high-intensity electron beam, 3400 A in peak current and 46 TW in peak power, is concentrated in a small area (37 micrometer in rms radius) inside its undulator. Ten optical transition radiation (OTR) imagers are planned between the undulator segments for characterizing the transverse profiles of the electron beam. In this note, we report on the optical and mechanical design of the OTR imager. Through a unique optical arrangement, using a near-normal-incidence screen and a multi-layer coated mirror, this imager will achieve a fine resolution (12 micrometer or better) over the entire field of view (8 mm x 5 mm), with a high efficiency for single-shot imaging. A digital camera will be used to read out the beam images in a programmable region (5 mm x 0.5 mm) at the full beam repetition rate (120 Hz), or over the entire field at a lower rate (10 Hz). Its built-in programmable amplifier will be used as an electronic intensity control.

  2. First Type of Ferroelectricity Generated by Undulated-Prototypic to Ferroic Transition. II. f=2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizu, Kêichiro

    1996-08-01

    Before this paper, ferroelectricity generated by undulated-prototypic to ferroic transition was abbreviated as U-ferroelectricity. This paper deals with U-ferroelectricity of type I and of f=2 (f denotes faintness index). A case study is made. The prototypic phase when homogeneous is assumed tetragonal. The order parameters are two real variables, Qα and Qβ. The free energy function can be expanded into a power series in electric field, as Ψ=Φ-EΦ‧-(1/2)E2Φ‧‧-…, which defines Φ, Φ‧, etc. A theory is given; it clarifies that the combination of the following term within Φ (not Φ‧) and the following δ undulation is responsible for the generation of U-ferroelectricity:Term [Qβ(∂xx2-∂yy2)Qα-Qα(∂xx2-∂yy2)Qβ]and δ =U\\cos (\\hat{h}x+\\hatθ)+U\\prime\\cos (\\hat{h}y+\\hatθ\\prime).

  3. Preliminary study of EEHG-based superradiant undulator radiation at the HLS-II storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei-Wei; Li, He-Ting; Wang, Lin

    2017-07-01

    We investigate storage ring-based Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) superradiant undulator radiation as a possible scheme to obtain shorter wavelengths at the HLS-II (Hefei Light Source-II) storage ring. In this paper we give the designation of the storage ring based EEHG up to the 26th harmonic, where 31 nm vacuum ultraviolet light is radiated from an 800 nm seeded laser. The novelty of our design is that both the two dispersion sections of EEHG are realized by the storage ring’s own magnet structure. In particular, the whole ring is used as the first dispersion section, and two modulators of the traditional EEHG can be done with the same undulator. These two dispersion sections are realized by changing the superperiod of the present lattice structure, and more precisely by changing the focusing strengths of the present structure. Since no additional magnets and chicanes are used, the beam circulates around the storage ring repeatedly, and thus this storage ring-based EEHG can have a higher repetition rate than a linac-based EEHG. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305170)

  4. Design, Implementation and Control of a Fish Robot with Undulating Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Siahmansouri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic robots can potentially perform better than conventional robots in underwater vehicle designing. This paper describes the design of the propulsion system and depth control of a robotic fish. In this study, inspired by knife fish, we have designed and implemented an undulating fin to produce propulsive force. This undulating fin is a segmental anal fin that produces sinusoidal wave to propel the robot. The relationship between the individual fin segment and phase angles with the overall fin trajectory has also been discussed. This propulsive force can be adjusted and directed for fish robot manoeuvre by a mechanical system with two servomotors. These servomotors regulate the direction and depth of swimming. A wireless remote control system is designed to adjust the servomotors which enables us to control revolution, speed and phase differences of neighbor servomotors of fins. Finally, Field trials are conducted in an outdoor pool to demonstrate the relationship between robotic fish speed and fin parameters like phase difference, the number of phase and undulatory amplitude.

  5. Design, development, installation and commissioning of water-cooled pre-masks for undulator front-ends of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuvanshi, V.K.; Prasad, Vijendra; Garg, S.R.; Jain, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Recently two undulators U1 and U2 are installed in Indus-2 storage ring at RRCAT, Indore. When U1 and U2 are put in operation, a bright synchrotron radiation (SR) is produced which is transmitted through the zero degree port of the dipole vacuum chamber. In addition, a part of SR beam from the bending magnets, at the upstream and downstream of the undulator, is also overlapped with the undulator SR beam and transmitted in to the front-end through the same port. The front-end is a long ultra high vacuum (UHV) assembly consisting of water-cooled pre-mask, water-cooled shutters, UHV valves, diagnostic devices, safety shutter, vacuum pumps etc which acts as an interface between Indus-2 ring and beamline. Water-cooled pre- masks have been designed to cut a part of unwanted SR beam from the bending magnets. The pre-mask is a first active component in the undulator front-end which is also capable of absorbing high thermal load due to mis-steering of the SR beam from the undulator in the worst case scenario. The watercooled pre-mask consists of a copper block which has fixed aperture with slant faces to distribute the heat flux over a large surface area. The cooling channels are made on outer periphery of the block. The copper block is vacuum brazed with two conflat flanges of stainless steel at the two ends. The pre-mask is designed to absorb thermal load of 3 kW of synchrotron beam from undulator U1 and 2 kW of synchrotron beam from undulator U2. The thermal analysis of the pre-masks was carried out with the help of ANSYS® and the design was optimized with different cooling configurations. The main design criteria was to limit the maximum temperature of the mask less than 60 °C. This is to avoid substantial thermal outgassing from the heated portion which may deteriorate the ultra high vacuum. Pre-masks have been successfully tested, installed and commissioned with synchrotron beam in the undulator front-ends and are operating under vacuum of 5x10 -10 mbar. (author)

  6. Channeling and Radiation of Electrons in Silicon Single Crystals and Si1−xGex Crystalline Undulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, H.; Krambrich, D.; Lauth, W.

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of channeling and the basic features of channeling radiation emission are introduced in a pedestrian way. Both, radiation spectra as well as dechanneling length measurements at electron beam energies between 195 and 855 MeV feature quantum state phenomena for the (110) planar...... potential of the silicon single crystals. Radiation from a crystalline undulator, produced at the Aarhus University (UAAR), has been investigated at the Mainz Microtron electron accelerator facility MAMI. The 4-period epitaxially grown strained layer Si1−xGex undulator had a period length λu = 9.9 μm...

  7. Potential beneficial effects of electron-hole plasmas created in silicon sensors by XFEL-like high intensity pulses for detector development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Joel T.; Becker, Julian; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    There is a compelling need for a high frame rate imaging detector with a wide dynamic range, from single x-rays/pixel/pulse to >10{sup 6} x-rays/pixel/pulse, that is capable of operating at both x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) and 3rd generation sources with sustained fluxes of > 10{sup 11} x-rays/pixel/s [1, 2, 3]. We propose to meet these requirements with the High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector (HDR-PAD) by (a) increasing the speed of charge removal strategies [4], (b) increasing integrator range by implementing adaptive gain [5], and (c) exploiting the extended charge collection times of electron-hole pair plasma clouds that form when a sufficiently large number of x-rays are absorbed in a detector sensor in a short period of time [6]. We have developed a measurement platform similar to the one used in [6] to study the effects of high electron-hole densities in silicon sensors using optical lasers to emulate the conditions found at XFELs. Characterizations of the employed tunable wavelength laser with picosecond pulse duration have shown Gaussian focal spots sizes of 6 ± 1 µm rms over the relevant spectrum and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude increase in available intensity compared to previous measurements presented in [6]. Results from measurements on a typical pixelated silicon diode intended for use with the HDR-PAD (150 µm pixel size, 500 µm thick sensor) are presented.

  8. X-ray radiation damage studies and design of a silicon pixel sensor for science at the XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiaguo

    2013-06-15

    Experiments at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) require silicon pixel sensors which can withstand X-ray doses up to 1 GGy. For the investigation of Xray radiation damage up to these high doses, MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes built on high resistivity n-doped silicon with crystal orientations left angle 100 right angle and left angle 111 right angle produced by four vendors, CiS, Hamamatsu, Canberra and Sintef have been irradiated with 12 keV X-rays at the DESY DORIS III synchrotron-light source. Using capacitance/ conductance-voltage, current-voltage and thermal dielectric relaxation current measurements, the densities of oxide charges and interface traps at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, and the surface-current densities have been determined as function of dose. Results indicate that the dose dependence of the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density depend on the crystal orientation and producer. In addition, the influence of the voltage applied to the gates of the MOS capacitor and the gate-controlled diode during X-ray irradiation on the oxide-charge density, the interface-trap density and the surface-current density has been investigated at doses of 100 kGy and 100 MGy. It is found that both strongly depend on the gate voltage if the electric field in the oxide points from the surface of the SiO{sub 2} to the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface. To verify the long-term stability of irradiated silicon sensors, annealing studies have been performed at 60 C and 80 C on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes irradiated to 5 MGy as well, and the annealing kinetics of oxide charges and surface current were determined. Moreover, the macroscopic electrical properties of segmented sensors have slao been investigated as function of dose. It is found that the defects introduced by X-rays increase the full depletion voltage, the surface leakage current and the inter-electrode capacitance of the segmented sensor. An

  9. Radiological considerations in the operation of the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, H.J.

    1998-11-11

    The Low-Energy Undulator Test Line (LEUTL) is a facility that uses the existing APS linac to accelerate electrons up to an energy of 700 MeV. These electrons are transported through the Pm into a portion of the booster synchrotrons and on into the LEUTL main enclosure (MIL 97). Figure 1 shows the layout of the LEUTL building, which consists of an earth-benned concrete enclosure and an end-station building. The concrete enclosure houses the electron beamline, test undulator, and beam dump. This facility is about 51 m long and 3.66 m wide. Technical components and diagnostics for characterizing the undulator light are found in the end station. This building has about 111 m{sup 2} of floor space. This note deals with the radiological considerations of operations using electrons up to 700 MeV and at power levels up to the safety envelope of 1 kW. Previous radiological considerations for electron and positron operations in the linac, PAR, and synchrotrons have been addressed else-where (MOE 93a, 93b, and 93c). Much of the methodology discussed in the previous writeups, as well as in MOE 94, has been used in the computations in this note. The radiological aspects that are addressed include the following: prompt secondary radiation (bremsstrahlung, giant resonance neutrons, medium- and high-energy neutrons) produced by electrons interacting in a beam stop or in component structures; skyshine radiation, which produces a radiation field in nearby areas and at the nearest off-site location; radioactive gases produced by neutron irradiation of air in the vicinity of a particle loss site; noxious gases (ozone and others) produced in air by the escaping bremsstrahlung radiation that results from absorbing particles in the components; activation of the LEUTL components that results in a residual radiation field in the vicinity of these materials following shutdown; potential activation of water used for cooling the magnets and other purposes in the tunnel; and evaluation of the

  10. A Comparative Numerical Study on the Performances and Vortical Patterns of Two Bioinspired Oscillatory Mechanisms: Undulating and Pure Heaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ebrahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics and energetics of bioinspired oscillating mechanisms have received significant attentions by engineers and biologists to develop the underwater and air vehicles. Undulating and pure heaving (or plunging motions are two significant mechanisms which are utilized in nature to provide propulsive, maneuvering, and stabilization forces. This study aims to elucidate and compare the propulsive vortical signature and performance of these two important natural mechanisms through a systematic numerical study. Navier-Stokes equations are solved, by a pressure-based finite volume method solver, in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE framework domain containing a 2D NACA0012 foil moving with prescribed kinematics. Some of the important findings are (1 the thrust production of the heaving foil begins at lower St and has a greater growing slope with respect to the St; (2 the undulating mechanism has some limitations to produce high thrust forces; (3 the undulating foil shows a lower power consumption and higher efficiency; (4 changing the Reynolds number (Re in a constant St affects the performance of the oscillations; and (5 there is a distinguishable appearance of leading edge vortices in the wake of the heaving foil without observable ones in the wake of the undulating foil, especially at higher St.

  11. A table-top x-ray FEL based on a laser wakefield accelerator-undulator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, K.; Kawakubo, T.; Nakanishi, H. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Ultrahigh-gradient electron acceleration has been confirmed owing to the laser wakefield acceleration mechanism driven by an intense short laser wakefield acceleration mechanism driven by an intense short laser pulse in an underdense plasma. The laser wakefield acceleration makes it possible to build a compact electron linac capable of producing an ultra-short bunched electron beam. While the accelerator is attributed to longitudinal wakefields, transverse wakefields simultaneously generated by a short laser pulse can serve as a plasma undulator with a very short wavelength equal to a half of the plasma wavelength. We propose a new FEL concept for X-rays based on a laser wakefield accelerator-undulator system driven by intense short laser pulses delivered from table-top terawatt lasers. The system is composed of the accelerator stage and the undulator stage in a table-top size. A low energy electron beam is accelerated an bunched into microbunches due to laser wakefields in the accelerator stage. A micro-bunched beam travelling to the opposite direction of driving laser pulses produces coherent X-ray radiation in the undulator stage. A practical configuration and its analyses are presented.

  12. Undulations in salt-free charged lamellar phases detected by small angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamat, G.; Vries, de R.; Kaler, E.W.; Satija, S.; Sung, L.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron reflectivity of lamellar phases containing pentaethylene glycol n-dodecyl ether, sodium decylsulfonate, and D2O is measured at the solid-liquid interface. The scattering length density profiles deduced from fits to the reflectivity data show that undulations of the mixed surfactant bilayers

  13. Membrane undulations in a structured fluid: Universal dynamics at intermediate length and time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Rony; Diamant, Haim

    2018-01-05

    The dynamics of membrane undulations inside a viscous solvent is governed by distinctive, anomalous, power laws. Inside a viscoelastic continuous medium these universal behaviors are modified by the specific bulk viscoelastic spectrum. Yet, in structured fluids the continuum limit is reached only beyond a characteristic correlation length. We study the crossover to this asymptotic bulk dynamics. The analysis relies on a recent generalization of the hydrodynamic interaction in structured fluids, which shows a slow spatial decay of the interaction toward the bulk limit. For membranes which are weakly coupled to the structured medium we find a wide crossover regime characterized by different, universal, dynamic power laws. We discuss various systems for which this behavior is relevant, and delineate the time regime over which it may be observed.

  14. CHESS upgrade with compact undulator magnets: Operating experience and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temnykh, A., E-mail: abt6@cornell.edu; Dale, D.; Fontes, E.; Lyndaker, A.; Li, Y.; Ruff, J.; Revesz, P.; Woll, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (United States)

    2016-07-27

    In November 2014 two in-air 1.5 m CHESS Compact Undulator (CCU) magnets built by KYMA S.R.l. were installed in Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) in canted arrangement and after few days of commissioning their regular operation started. CCU magnets are compact, lightweight and cost efficient devices. They have very stable magnetic field integrals independent of deflection parameter value. This feature greatly simplifies the storage ring operation. The CCU concept was developed at Cornell in 2011 and the first 1 m in-vacuum CCU magnet was beam-tested in 2012. The article presents CCU concept and some details of the design. It describes also the layout of CCUs installation in CESR, their performance and characteristics. The current status of operation and future plans are discussed as well. Presently, at CHESS two CCU magnets provide radiation for 5 out of 11 experimental stations.

  15. Optical evaluation of the wave filtering properties of graded undulated lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainiti, G.; Rimoli, J. J.; Ruzzene, M.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate and experimentally demonstrate the elastic wave filtering properties of graded undulated lattices. Square reticulates composed of curved beams are characterized by graded mechanical properties which result from the spatial modulation of the curvature parameter. Among such properties, the progressive formation of frequency bandgaps leads to strong wave attenuation over a broad frequency range. The experimental investigation of wave transmission and the detection of full wavefields effectively illustrate this behavior. Transmission measurements are conducted using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer, while a dedicated digital image correlation procedure is implemented to capture in-plane wave motion at selected frequencies. The presented results illustrate the broadband attenuation characteristics resulting from spatial grading of the lattice curvature, whose in-depth investigation is enabled by the presented experimental procedures.

  16. 3 m off-plane Eagle monochromator at the helical undulator beamline of HiSOR

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, T; Shimada, K; Arita, M; Senba, S; Yoshida, H; Shirasawa, K; Morita, M; Hiraya, A; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M

    2001-01-01

    The helical/linear undulator based beamline (BL9) with 3 m off-plane Eagle monochromator for the VUV region (4-40 eV) has been installed on a compact storage ring, HiSOR. The Rydberg series of Ar 3s3p sup 6 np sup 1 P sub 1 up to n=25 has been measured. The resolving power was estimated to be >12,000 at 40 nm with the photon flux approx 9x10 sup 9 photons/s. The ultimate resolving power was obtained from the measurements of the O sub 2 Schumann-Runge bands. The resolution derived from the deconvolution for the Voigt profile was 0.0061 nm (lambda/DELTA lambda approx 30,000) in the 180 nm wavelength range.

  17. Towards an exact relativistic theory of Earth's geoid undulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeikin, Sergei M., E-mail: kopeikins@missouri.edu [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Siberian State Geodetic Academy, 10 Plakhotny St., Novosibirsk 630108 (Russian Federation); Mazurova, Elena M., E-mail: e_mazurova@mail.ru [Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, 4 Gorokhovsky Alley, Moscow 105064 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Geodetic Academy, 10 Plakhotny St., Novosibirsk 630108 (Russian Federation); Karpik, Alexander P., E-mail: rector@ssga.ru [Siberian State Geodetic Academy, 10 Plakhotny St., Novosibirsk 630108 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-14

    The present paper extends the Newtonian concept of the geoid in classic geodesy towards the realm of general relativity by utilizing the covariant geometric methods of the perturbation theory of curved manifolds. It yields a covariant definition of the anomalous (disturbing) gravity potential and formulates differential equation for it in the form of a covariant Laplace equation. The paper also derives the Bruns equation for calculation of geoid's height with full account for relativistic effects beyond the Newtonian approximation. A brief discussion of the relativistic Bruns formula is provided. - Highlights: • We apply general relativity to define the exact concept of relativistic geoid. • We derive relativistic equation of geoid and the reference level surface. • We employ the manifold perturbation theory to discuss geoid's undulation.

  18. A water-cooled x-ray monochromator for using off-axis undulator beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.; Maser, J.

    2000-01-01

    Undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons x-ray sources are designed to use the high-brilliance radiation that is contained in the central cone of the generated x-ray beams. The rest of the x-ray beam is often unused. Moreover, in some cases, such as in the zone-plate-based microfocusing beamlines, only a small part of the central radiation cone around the optical axis is used. In this paper, a side-station branch line at the Advanced Photon Source that takes advantage of some of the unused off-axis photons in a microfocusing x-ray beamline is described. Detailed information on the design and analysis of a high-heat-load water-cooled monochromator developed for this beamline is provided

  19. Soft x-ray spectroscopy undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, K.J.; Xu, Z.; Moore, J.F.; Gluskin, E.

    1997-09-01

    Construction of the high-resolution soft x ray spectroscopy undulator beamline, 2ID-C, at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been completed. The beamline, one of two soft x ray beamlines at the APS, will cover the photon energy range from 500 to 3,000 eV, with a maximum resolving power between 7,000 and 14,000. The optical design is based on a spherical grating monochromator (SGM) giving both high resolution and high flux throughput. Photon flux is calculated to be approximately 10{sup 12}--10{sup 13} photons per second with a beam size of approximately 1 x 1 mm{sup 2} at the sample.

  20. CHESS upgrade with compact undulator magnets: Operating experience and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temnykh, A.; Dale, D.; Fontes, E.; Lyndaker, A.; Li, Y.; Ruff, J.; Revesz, P.; Woll, A.

    2016-01-01

    In November 2014 two in-air 1.5 m CHESS Compact Undulator (CCU) magnets built by KYMA S.R.l. were installed in Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) in canted arrangement and after few days of commissioning their regular operation started. CCU magnets are compact, lightweight and cost efficient devices. They have very stable magnetic field integrals independent of deflection parameter value. This feature greatly simplifies the storage ring operation. The CCU concept was developed at Cornell in 2011 and the first 1 m in-vacuum CCU magnet was beam-tested in 2012. The article presents CCU concept and some details of the design. It describes also the layout of CCUs installation in CESR, their performance and characteristics. The current status of operation and future plans are discussed as well. Presently, at CHESS two CCU magnets provide radiation for 5 out of 11 experimental stations.

  1. Trace element analysis on Si wafer surfaces by TXRF at the ID32 ESRF undulator beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, L; Comin, F; Formoso, V; Stierle, A

    1998-05-01

    Synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) has been applied to the impurity analysis of Si wafers using a third-generation synchrotron radiation undulator source. A lower limit of detectability (LLD) for Ni atoms of 17 fg (1.7 x 10(8) atoms cm(-2)) has been achieved with an optical set-up based on an Si(111) double-crystal monochromator and a horizontal sample geometry. These first results are very promising for synchrotron radiation trace element analysis since we estimate that it is possible to lower the LLD by a factor of about 25 by employing appropriate optics and detectors. The use of a crystal monochromator opens new possibilities to perform absorption and scattering experiments (NEXAFS and X-ray standing-wave methods) for chemical and structural analysis of ultratrace elements.

  2. European XFEL (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    European X-Ray FEL – free electron laser is under construction in DESY Hamburg. It is scheduled to be operational at 2015/16 at a cost more than 1 billion Euro. The laser uses SASE method to generate x-ray light. It is propelled by an electron linac of 17,5GeV energy and more than 2km in length. The linac uses superconducting SRF TESLA technology working at 1,3 GHz in frequency. The prototype of EXFEL is FLASH Laser (200 m in length), where the “proof of principle” was checked, and from the technologies were transferred to the bigger machine. The project was stared in the nineties by building a TTF Laboratory -Tesla Test Facility. The EXFEL laser is a child of a much bigger teraelectronovolt collider project TESLA (now abandoned in Germany but undertaken by international community in a form the ILC). A number of experts and young researchers from Poland participate in the design, construction and research of the FLASH and EXFEL lasers.

  3. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  4. Double Emittance Exchanger as a Bunch Compressor for the MaRIE XFEL electron beam line at 1GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyzhenkov, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Yampolsky, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carlsten, Bruce Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    We demonstrate an alternative realization of a bunch compressor (specifically the second bunch compressor for the MaRIE XFEL beamline, 1GeV electron energy) using a double emittance exchanger (EEX) and a telescope in the transverse phase space.We compare our results with a traditional bunch compressor realized via chicane, taking into account the nonlinear dynamics, Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) and Space Charge (SC) effects. In particular, we use the Elegant code for tracking particles through the beam line and analyze the eigen-emittances evolution to separate the influence of the CSR/SC effects from the nonlinear dynamics effects. We optimize the scheme parameters to reach a desirable compression factor and minimize the emittance growth. We observe dominant CSR-effects in our scheme resulting in critical emittance growth and introduce alternative version of an emittance exchanger with a reduced number of bending magnets to minimize the impact of CSR effects.

  5. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  6. Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for approving initial issues of and changes to the technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management documents developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This procedure implements the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan and DOE Order 4700.1, Chg 1. It streamlines the change control process to enhance integration, accountability, and traceability of Level 0 and Level I decisions through standardized Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) forms to be used by the Level 0, 1, 2, and 3 Baseline Change Control Boards (BCCBs) and to be tracked in the OCRWM-wide Configuration Information System (CIS) Database.This procedure applies to all technical, cost, and schedule baselines controlled by the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) BCCB (Level 0) and, OCRWM Program Baseline Control Board (PBCCB) (Level 1). All baseline BCPs initiated by Level 2 or lower BCCBs, which require approval from ESAAB or PBCCB, shall be processed in accordance with this procedure. This procedure also applies to all Program-level management documents controlled by the OCRWM PBCCB

  7. Refurbishment of a used in-vacuum undulator from the National Synchrotron Light Source for the National Synchrotron Light Source-II ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Bassan, Harmanpreet; Broadbent, Andrew; Cappadoro, Peter; Escallier, John; Harder, David; Hetzel, Charles; Hidas, Dean; Kitegi, Charles; Kosciuk, Bernard; Musardo, Marco; Kirkland, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) ceased operation in September 2014 and was succeeded by NSLS-II. There were four in-vacuum undulators (IVUs) in operation at NSLS. The most recently constructed IVU for NSLS was the mini-gap undulator (MGU-X25, to be renamed IVU18 for NSLS-II), which was constructed in 2006. This device was selected to be reused for the New York Structural Biology Consortium Microdiffraction beamline at NSLS-II. At the time of construction, IVU18 was a state-of-the-art undulator designed to be operated as a cryogenic permanent-magnet undulator. Due to the more stringent field quality and impedance requirements of the NSLS-II ring, the transition region was redesigned. The control system was also updated to NSLS-II specifications. This paper reports the details of the IVU18 refurbishment activities including additional magnetic measurement and tuning.

  8. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  9. High-field strong-focusing undulator designs for X-ray Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.; Schlueter, R.; Tatchyn, R.

    1995-01-01

    Linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Lasers (e.g., Linac Coherent Light Sources (LCLSs)), operating on the principle of single-pass saturation in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime typically require multi-GeV beam energies and undulator lengths in excess of tens of meters to attain sufficient gain in the 1 angstrom--0.1 angstrom range. In this parameter regime, the undulator structure must provide: (1) field amplitudes B 0 in excess of 1T within periods of 4cm or less, (2) peak on-axis focusing gradients on the order of 30T/m, and (3) field quality in the 0.1%--0.3% range. In this paper the authors report on designs under consideration for a 4.5--1.5 angstrom LCLS based on superconducting (SC), hybrid/PM, and pulsed-Cu technologies

  10. Research on the effects of geometrical and material uncertainties on the band gap of the undulated beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanlong

    2017-09-01

    Considering uncertain geometrical and material parameters, the lower and upper bounds of the band gap of an undulated beam with periodically arched shape are studied by the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) and interval analysis based on the Taylor series. Given the random variations of the overall uncertain variables, scatter plots from the MCS are used to analyze the qualitative sensitivities of the band gap respect to these uncertainties. We find that the influence of uncertainty of the geometrical parameter on the band gap of the undulated beam is stronger than that of the material parameter. And this conclusion is also proved by the interval analysis based on the Taylor series. Our methodology can give a strategy to reduce the errors between the design and practical values of the band gaps by improving the accuracy of the specially selected uncertain design variables of the periodical structures.

  11. Sm2Co17 magnet blocks for the in-vacuum undulators (IVU20) at the SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yongzhou; Zhou Qiaogen; Zhang Jidong

    2011-01-01

    The design and development status of Sm 2 Co 17 magnet blocks for two in-vacuum undulators (IVU20) at the SSRF with the same hybrid design has been described. By the technological improvement of some processes and comparison with the experimental Sm 2 Co 17 magnet blocks for the IVU25A, magnetic properties such as the intrinsic coercive force H ci and the average magnetic moment M are increased, the bend point magnetic field H k value and pass rate are significantly increased, and the magnetic field uniformity of the magnet blocks are significantly improved. The basic developmental method of high uniformity Sm 2 Co 17 magnet blocks for IVU20 is presented. The magnetic field qualities of the magnet blocks, including the magnetic property, the magnetic moment distribution, the magnetization deviation angle and the magnetic field uniformity, basically satisfy the specifications of the two IVU20 in-vacuum undulators. (authors)

  12. Baseline restoration using current conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, A.M.L.S.; Simoes, J.B.; Correia, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    A good performance of high resolution nuclear spectrometry systems, at high pulse rates, demands restoration of baseline between pulses, in order to remove rate dependent baseline shifts. This restoration is performed by circuits named baseline restorers (BLRs) which also remove low frequency noise, such as power supply hum and detector microphonics. This paper presents simple circuits for baseline restoration based on a commercial current conveyor (CCII01). Tests were performed, on two circuits, with periodic trapezoidal shaped pulses in order to measure the baseline restoration for several pulse rates and restorer duty cycles. For the current conveyor based Robinson restorer, the peak shift was less than 10 mV, for duty cycles up to 60%, at high pulse rates. Duty cycles up to 80% were also tested, being the maximum peak shift 21 mV. The peak shift for the current conveyor based Grubic restorer was also measured. The maximum value found was 30 mV at 82% duty cycle. Keeping the duty cycle below 60% improves greatly the restorer performance. The ability of both baseline restorer architectures to reject low frequency modulation is also measured, with good results on both circuits

  13. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons, A Proposal for the 50-GeV Beam in the FFTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, G

    2004-03-25

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of future linear colliders such as the JLC, NLC, and TESLA will require the development of polarized positron beams. In the proposed scheme of Balakin and Mikhailichenko [1] a helical undulator is employed to generate photons of several MeV with circular polarization which are then converted in a relatively thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons. This experiment, E-166, proposes to test this scheme to determine whether such a technique can produce polarized positron beams of sufficient quality for use in future linear colliders. The experiment will install a meter-long, short-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. A low-emittance 50-GeV electron beam passing through this undulator will generate circularly polarized photons with energies up to 10 MeV. These polarized photons are then converted to polarized positrons via pair production in thin targets. Titanium and tungsten targets, which are both candidates for use in linear colliders, will be tested. The experiment will measure the flux and polarization of the undulator photons, and the spectrum and polarization of the positrons produced in the conversion target, and compare the measurement results to simulations. Thus the proposed experiment directly tests for the first time the validity of the simulation programs used for the physics of polarized pair production in finite matter, in particular the effects of multiple scattering on polarization. Successful comparison of the experimental results to the simulations will lead to greater confidence in the proposed designs of polarized positrons sources for the next generation of linear colliders. This experiment requests six-weeks of time in the FFTB beam line: three weeks for installation and setup and three weeks of beam for data taking. A 50-GeV beam with about twice the SLC emittance at a repetition rate of 30 Hz is required.

  14. Undulator-Based Production of Polarized Positrons, A Proposal for the 50-GeV Beam in the FFTB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Alexander; P. Anthony; V. Bharadwaj; Yu.K. Batygin; T. Behnke; S. Berridge; G.R. Bower; W. Bugg; R. Carr; E. Chudakov; J.E. Clendenin; F.J. Decker; Yu. Efremenko; T. Fieguth; K. Flottmann; M. Fukuda; V. Gharibyan; T. Handler; T. Hirose; R.H. Iverson; Yu. Kamyshkov; H. Kolanoski; T. Lohse; Chang-guo Lu; K.T. McDonald; N. Meyners; R. Michaels; A.A. Mikhailichenko; K. Monig; G. Moortgat-Pick; M. Olson; T. Omori; D. Onoprienko; N. Pavel; R. Pitthan; M. Purohit; L. Rinolfi; K.P. Schuler; J.C. Sheppard; S. Spanier; A. Stahl; Z.M. Szalata; J. Turner; D. Walz; A. Weidemann; J. Weisend

    2003-06-01

    The full exploitation of the physics potential of future linear colliders such as the JLC, NLC, and TESLA will require the development of polarized positron beams. In the proposed scheme of Balakin and Mikhailichenko [1] a helical undulator is employed to generate photons of several MeV with circular polarization which are then converted in a relatively thin target to generate longitudinally polarized positrons. This experiment, E-166, proposes to test this scheme to determine whether such a technique can produce polarized positron beams of sufficient quality for use in future linear colliders. The experiment will install a meter-long, short-period, pulsed helical undulator in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. A low-emittance 50-GeV electron beam passing through this undulator will generate circularly polarized photons with energies up to 10 MeV. These polarized photons are then converted to polarized positrons via pair production in thin targets. Titanium and tungsten targets, which are both candidates for use in linear colliders, will be tested. The experiment will measure the flux and polarization of the undulator photons, and the spectrum and polarization of the positrons produced in the conversion target, and compare the measurement results to simulations. Thus the proposed experiment directly tests for the first time the validity of the simulation programs used for the physics of polarized pair production in finite matter, in particular the effects of multiple scattering on polarization. Successful comparison of the experimental results to the simulations will lead to greater confidence in the proposed designs of polarized positrons sources for the next generation of linear colliders. This experiment requests six-weeks of time in the FFTB beam line: three weeks for installation and setup and three weeks of beam for data taking. A 50-GeV beam with about twice the SLC emittance at a repetition rate of 30 Hz is required.

  15. Magnetic field calculation of variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-type) for SX beamline in the SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Sasaki, Shigemi; Shimada, Taihei; Takao, Masaru; Yokoya, Akinori; Miyahara, Yoshikazu

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-type) to be installed in soft X-ray beamline in the SPring-8 facility. The magnetic field distribution and radiation spectrum expected from this undulator were calculated. The magnetic field strength is varied by changing the gap distance of upper and lower jaws, so it changes the photon energy in soft X-ray range. By moving the relative position of pairs of magnet rows (phase shift), the polarization of radiation is varied circularly, elliptically and linearly in the horizontal and vertical direction. We expect that right and left handed circular polarizations are obtained alternately at a rate of 1 Hz by high speed phase shifting. The repulsive and attractive magnetic force working on the magnet rows were calculated which interfere in phase shifting at high speed. The magnetic force changes with gap distance and phase shift position, and the magnetic force working on a row in the direction of phase shift becomes up to 500 kgf. The construction of this undulator is started in 1996, that will be inserted in the storage ring in 1997. (author)

  16. Surface-micromachined magnetic undulator with period length between 10μm and 1 mm for advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jere; Joshi, Abhijeet; Lake, Jonathan; Candler, Rob; Musumeci, Pietro

    2012-07-01

    A technological gap exists between the μm-scale wiggling periods achieved using electromagnetic waves of high intensity laser pulses and the mm scale of permanent-magnet and superconducting undulators. In the sub-mm range, surface-micromachined soft-magnetic micro-electro-mechanical system inductors with integrated solenoidal coils have already experimentally demonstrated 100 to 500 mT field amplitude across air gaps as large as 15μm. Simulations indicate that magnetic fields as large as 1.5 T across 50μm inductor gaps are feasible. A simple rearranging of the yoke and pole geometry allows for fabrication of 10+ cm long undulator structures with period lengths between 12.5μm and 1 mm. Such undulators find application both in high average power spontaneous emission sources and, if used in combination with ultrahigh-brightness electron beams, could lead to the realization of low energy compact free-electron lasers. Challenges include electron energy broadening due to wakefields and Joule heating in the electromagnet.

  17. Magnetic field calculation of variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-type) for SX beamline in the SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Sasaki, Shigemi; Shimada, Taihei; Takao, Masaru; Yokoya, Akinori; Miyahara, Yoshikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a variably polarizing undulator (APPLE-type) to be installed in soft X-ray beamline in the SPring-8 facility. The magnetic field distribution and radiation spectrum expected from this undulator were calculated. The magnetic field strength is varied by changing the gap distance of upper and lower jaws, so it changes the photon energy in soft X-ray range. By moving the relative position of pairs of magnet rows (phase shift), the polarization of radiation is varied circularly, elliptically and linearly in the horizontal and vertical direction. We expect that right and left handed circular polarizations are obtained alternately at a rate of 1 Hz by high speed phase shifting. The repulsive and attractive magnetic force working on the magnet rows were calculated which interfere in phase shifting at high speed. The magnetic force changes with gap distance and phase shift position, and the magnetic force working on a row in the direction of phase shift becomes up to 500 kgf. The construction of this undulator is started in 1996, that will be inserted in the storage ring in 1997. (author).

  18. Development and operation of a Pr_{2}Fe_{14}B based cryogenic permanent magnet undulator for a high spatial resolution x-ray beam line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Benabderrahmane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Short period, high field undulators are used to produce hard x-rays on synchrotron radiation based storage ring facilities of intermediate energy and enable short wavelength free electron laser. Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators take benefit from improved magnetic properties of RE_{2}Fe_{14}B (Rare Earth based magnets at low temperatures for achieving short period, high magnetic field and high coercivity. Using Pr_{2}Fe_{14}B instead of Nd_{2}Fe_{14}B, which is generally employed for undulators, avoids the limitation caused by the spin reorientation transition phenomenon, and simplifies the cooling system by allowing the working temperature of the undulator to be directly at the liquid nitrogen one (77 K. We describe here the development of a full scale (2 m, 18 mm period Pr_{2}Fe_{14}B cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (U18. The design, construction and optimization, as well as magnetic measurements and shimming at low temperature are presented. The commissioning and operation of the undulator with the electron beam and spectrum measurement using the Nanoscopmium beamline at SOLEIL are also reported.

  19. Mechanical design of a plane grating monochromator for the new undulator at Aladdin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, M.V.; Kubala, T.; Severson, M.; Reininger, R. [Synchrotron Radiation Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, WI 53589 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A nearly stigmatic plane grating monochromator under construction for the new undulator beamline at Aladdin will provide a resolving power {approx_gt}10000 as it scans from 8 to 240 eV with a single grating. Scanning requires the precise, simultaneous movements of both a plane mirror and a plane grating in close proximity to one another inside a UHV chamber. The mirror, which absorbs up to 16.5 watts, is internally water cooled to minimize thermally induced slope errors. The radiatively cooled grating absorbs less than a watt. Careful examination of the focusing requirements revealed that the monochromator could be scanned either in the conventional mode of rotating-translating the mirror and rotating the grating or in a modified mode of rotating the mirror and rotating-translating the grating. The latter mode was chosen for simplicity of design. The mirror and grating rotate nearly 30 and 40 degrees, respectively, with subarcsec resolution. Both utilize a stepping-motor lead-screw piezoelectric actuator scan drive that is controlled with a feedback loop using a laser interferometer to measure the actual rotation of the optics. The grating mechanism translates nearly 200 mm along a granite surface plate with a positional accuracy and vertical stability of a few micrometers. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH BEAM ABORT SYSTEM FOR SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATOR QUENCH MITIGATION*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkay, Katherine C.; Dooling, Jeffrey C.; Sajaev, Vadim; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-25

    A beam abort system has been implemented in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring. The abort system works in tandem with the existing machine protection system (MPS), and its purpose is to control the beam loss location and, thereby, minimize beam loss-induced quenches at the two superconducting undulators (SCUs). The abort system consists of a dedicated horizontal kicker designed to kick out all the bunches in a few turns after being triggered by MPS. The abort system concept was developed on the basis of single- and multi-particle tracking simulations using elegant and bench measurements of the kicker pulse. Performance of the abort system—kick amplitudes and loss distributions of all bunches—was analyzed using beam position monitor (BPM) turn histories, and agrees reasonably well with the model. Beam loss locations indicated by the BPMs are consistent with the fast fiber-optic beam loss monitor (BLM) diagnostics described elsewhere [1,2]. Operational experience with the abort system, various issues that were encountered, limitations of the system, and quench statistics are described.

  1. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, E C; Bencok, P; Dobrynin, A; Rial, E C M; Rose, A; Steadman, P; Thompson, C; Thomson, A; Wang, H

    2013-01-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  2. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  3. Fiber diffraction using the BioCAT undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    CERN Document Server

    Irving, T C; Rosenbaum, G; Bunker, G B

    2000-01-01

    The BioCAT undulator-based beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne IL, USA is designed to be a state-of-the-art instrument for biological non-crystalline diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The optics consist of double crystal monochromators with sagitally focussing second crystals followed by a vertically focussing mirror which allow independent focussing of the beam in the vertical and horizontal directions virtually anywhere along the length of the 12 m experimental enclosure. When configured for a 2 m fiber diffraction camera, a focal spot of less than 40x200 mu m (FWHM) has been observed which contained essentially all of the 1.5-2.5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ph/s delivered by the cryogenically-cooled Si(1 1 1) double crystal monochromator. This combination of highly demagnifying optics and the very low divergence of the very small source have yielded excellent quality patterns from various muscle specimens and collagen-containing tissues. Detectors available include a Fuji BAS2500 image plate sc...

  4. Downsizing of Johansson spectrometer for X-ray fluorescence trace analysis with brilliant undulator source

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, K; Inoue, K; Yagi, N

    2001-01-01

    The downsizing of a Johansson-type X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer has been examined as a way of enhancing detection efficiency with a tolerable loss of energy resolution. A compact spectrometer equipped with a Ge(2 2 0) analyzing crystal with a Rowland radius of 120 mm has been tested with a highly brilliant helical undulator source at BL40XU, SPring-8. The energy resolution obtained for cobalt K alpha sub 1 (6930.32 eV) was 8.8 eV, which is 10-20 times better than that obtained using a Si(Li) detector, and effectively improved the signal-to-background ratio for XRF spectra. The combination of the present spectrometer and a third generation synchrotron source could provide new opportunities for trace analytical applications, which have been difficult so far by conventional synchrotron XRF experiments based on a Si(Li) detector system. The detection limit obtained for solid bulk samples has reached a level of several tens of ppb.

  5. Correlation of magnetic and lithologic features of soils and Quaternary sediments from the Undulating Pampa, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabel, P. E.; Morrás, H. J. M.; Petersen, N.; Zech, W.

    1999-11-01

    A lithological and mineral magnetic study of three soil and underlying sedimentary sections located at different topographic positions in the Undulating Pampa was performed. On the basis of grain size analyses, clay, silt and sand mineralogy, and total Ti/Zr relationship three different sedimentary units were recognised in the profiles under study suggesting that the area has been influenced by three different sources of sediments. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) appears to be related to lithology, allowing the identification of some material and lithologic discontinuities. In the studied cases the maximum values of MS appear in both the B horizons of the present zonal soils as well as in the primary or reworked loess levels. In contrast, minimum values are associated with calcrete, paleosol, and hydromorphic horizons. Although magnetic susceptibility appears to be an effective means for identifying different materials and pedological features in this area, due to the superposition of effects on the magnetic signal a thorough interpretation of MS requires that a composite analysis should be made.

  6. Development and fabrication of the vacuum systems for an elliptically polarized undulator at Taiwan Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Chun, E-mail: chinchun@nsrrc.org.tw; Chan, Che-Kai; Wu, Ling-Hui; Shueh, Chin; Shen, I.-Ching; Cheng, Chia-Mu; Yang, I.-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Three sets of a vacuum system were developed and fabricated for elliptically polarized undulators (EPU) of a 3-GeV synchrotron facility. These chambers were shaped with low roughness extrusion and oil-free machining; the design combines aluminium and stainless steel. The use of a bimetallic material to connect the EPU to the vacuum system achieves the vacuum sealing and to resolve the leakage issue due to bake process induced thermal expansion difference. The interior of the EPU chamber consists of a non-evaporable-getter strip pump in a narrow space to absorb photon-stimulated desorption and to provide a RF bridge design to decrease impedance effect in the two ends of EPU chamber. To fabricate these chambers and to evaluate the related performance, we performed a computer simulation to optimize the structure. During the machining and welding, the least deformation was achieved, less than 0.1 mm near 4 m. In the installation, the linear slider can provide a stable and precision moved along parallel the electron beam direction smoothly for the EPU chamber to decrease the twist issue during baking process. The pressure of the EPU chamber attained less than 2×10{sup −8} Pa through baking. These vacuum systems of the EPU magnet have been installed in the electron storage ring of Taiwan Photon Source in 2015 May and have normally operated at 300 mA continuously since, and to keep beam life time achieved over than 12 h.

  7. Development of Compact Soft X-ray Source Based on Laser Undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Minamiguchi, S; Saitô, T; Ueyama, D; Washio, Masakazu

    2004-01-01

    A compact soft X-ray source is required in various research fields such as material and biological science. The laser undulator based on backward Compton scattering has been developed as a compact soft X-ray source for the biological observation at Waseda University. It is performed in a water window region (250eV - 500 eV) using the interaction between 1047 nm Nd:YLF laser and 4 MeV high quality electron beam generated from rf gun system. The range of energy in the water window region has K-shell absorption edges of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen, which mainly constitute of living body. Since the absorption coefficient of water is much smaller than the protein’s coefficient in this range, a dehydration of the specimens is not necessary. As a preliminary experiment, about 300 eV X-ray generation was carried out. As next step, soft X-ray optics with zone plate was proposed for Soft X-ray microscopy. In this conference, we will report details and results of the experiment.

  8. Reversible beam heater for suppression of microbunching instability by transverse gradient undulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Qin, Weilun; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhirong

    2017-08-01

    The microbunching instability driven by beam collective effects in a linear accelerator of a free-electron laser (FEL) facility significantly degrades the electron beam quality and FEL performance. A conventional method to suppress this instability is to introduce an additional uncorrelated energy spread by laser-electron interaction, which has been successfully operated in the Linac Coherent Light Source and Fermi@Elettra, etc. Some other ideas are recently proposed to suppress the instability without increasing energy spread, which could benefit the seeded FEL schemes. In this paper, we propose a reversible electron beam heater using two transverse gradient undulators to suppress the microbunching instability. This scheme introduces both an energy spread increase and a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space coupling, which suppress the microbunching instabilities driven by both longitudinal space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation before and within the system. Finally the induced energy spread increase and emittance growth are reversed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are presented to verify the feasibility of the scheme and indicate the capability to improve the seeded FEL radiation performance.

  9. Dynamical behaviour of FEL devices operating with two undulators having opposite circular polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy); Ottaviani, P.L. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche, Bologna (Italy); Bucci, L. [ENEA, Guest Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Optical-Klystron FELs operating with undulators having opposite circular polarizations are characterized by a spontaneous emission spectrum which does not exhibit the characteristic interference pattern. The use of the Madey theorem may allow the conclusion that, for such configuration, the dispersive section does not provide any gain enhancement. In this paper it has been analyzed the problem from a dynamical point of view and clarify how the optical field evolve, what is the role of the bunching and how the consequences of the Madey theorem should be correctly understood. [Italian] Klystron ottici operanti con ondulatori aventi polarizzazione elicoidali opposte, sono caratterizzati da uno spettro di emissione spontanea senza il termine interferenziale dovuto alla sezione dispersiva. L'uso del teorema di Madey indurrebbe alla conclusione che, per una tale configurazione, la sezione dispersiva non induce nessun aumento del guadagno. In questo lavoro analizziamo il problema da un punto di vista dinamico che chiarisce l'evoluzione del campo ottico, quale e' il ruolo del bunching e come le conseguenze del teorema di Madey debbano essere interpretate.

  10. A Design Report of the Baseline for PEP-X: an Ultra-Low Emittance Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl; Bertsche, Kirk; Cai, Yunhai; Chao, Alex; Corbett, Willian; Fox, John; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Xiaobiao; Huang, Zhirong; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nosochkov, Yuri; Novokhatski, Sasha; Radedeau, Thomas; Raubenheimer, Tor; Rivetta, Claudio; Safranek, James; Seeman, John; Stohr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; Wang, Lanfa; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2010-06-02

    Over the past year, we have worked out a baseline design for PEP-X, as an ultra-low emittance storage ring that could reside in the existing 2.2-km PEPII tunnel. The design features a hybrid lattice with double bend achromat (DBA) cells in two arcs and theoretical minimum emittance (TME) cells in the remaining four arcs. Damping wigglers are used to reduce the horizontal emittance to 86 pm-rad at zero current for a 4.5 GeV electron beam. At a design current of 1.5 A, the horizontal emittance increases, due to intrabeam scattering, to 164 pm-rad when the vertical emittance is maintained at a diffraction limited 8 pm-rad. The baseline design will produce photon beams achieving a brightness of 10{sup 22} (ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW) at 10 keV in a 3.5-m conventional planar undulator. Our study shows that an optimized lattice has adequate dynamic aperture, while accommodating a conventional off-axis injection system. In this report, we present the results of study, including the lattice properties, nonlinear dynamics, intra-beam scattering and Touschek lifetime, RF system, and collective instabilities. Finally, we discuss the possibility of partial lasing at soft X-ray wavelengths using a long undulator in a straight section.

  11. A simple method for controlling the line width of SASE X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes a novel single-bunch self-seeding scheme for generating highly monochromatic X-rays from a baseline XFEL undulator. A self-seeded XFEL consists of two undulators with an X-ray monochromator located between them. Previous self-seeding schemes made use of a four-crystal fixed-exit monochromator in Bragg geometry. In such monochromator the X-ray pulse acquires a cm-long path delay, which must be compensated. For a single-bunch self-seeding scheme this requires a long electron beam bypass, implying modifications of the baseline undulator configuration. To avoid this problem, a double bunch self-seeding scheme based on a special photoinjector setup was recently proposed. At variance, here we propose a new time-domain method of monochromatization exploiting a single crystal in the transmission direction, thus avoiding the problem of extra-path delay for the X-ray pulse. The method can be realized using a temporal windowing technique, requiring a magnetic delay for the electron bunch only. When the incident X-ray beam satisfies the Bragg diffraction condition, multiple scattering takes place and the transmittance spectrum in the crystal exhibits an absorption resonance with a narrow linewidth. Then, the temporal waveform of the transmitted radiation pulse is characterized by a long monochromatic wake. The radiation power within this wake is much larger than the shot noise power. At the entrance of the second undulator, the monochromatic wake of the radiation pulse is combined with the delayed electron bunch, and amplified up to saturation level. The proposed setup is extremely simple and composed of as few as two simple elements. These are the crystal and the short magnetic chicane, which accomplishes three tasks by itself. It creates an offset for crystal installation, it removes the electron micro-bunching produced in the first undulator, and it acts as a delay line for temporal windowing. Using a single crystal installed within a short magnetic

  12. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy.

    1995-01-01

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses

  13. The potential for extending the spectral range accessible to the european X-ray free electron laser in the direction of longer wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    2004-01-01

    The baseline specifications of European XFEL give a range of wavelengths between 0.1 nm and 2 nm. This wavelength range at fixed electron beam energy 17.5 GeV can be covered by operating the SASE FEL with three undulators which have different period and tunable gap. A study of the potential for the extending the spectral range accessible to the XFEL in the direction of longer wavelengths is presented. The extension of the wavelength range to 6 nm would be cover the water window in the VUV region, opening the facility to a new class of experiments. There are at least two possible sources of VUV radiation associated with the X-ray FEL; the "low (2.5 GeV) energy electron beam dedicated" and the " 17.5 GeV spent beam parasitic" (or "after-burner") source modes. The second alternative, "after-burner undulator" is the one we regard as most favorable. It is possible to place an undulator as long as 80 meters after 2 nm undulator. Ultimately, VUV undulator would be able to deliver output power approaching 100 GW. A b...

  14. The European X-ray free-electron laser. Technical design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, Massimo; Brinkmann, Reinhard; Chergui, Majed

    2007-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: TTF/FLASH in the XFEL context, general layout of the XFEL facility, the XFEL accelerator, undulators for SAES and spontaneous emission, photon beamlines and scientific instruments, infrastructure and auxiliary systems, commissioning and operation, project management and organization, cost and time schedule. (HSI)

  15. The European X-ray free-electron laser. Technical design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarelli, Massimo; Brinkmann, Reinhard; Chergui, Majed (and others)

    2007-07-15

    The following topics are dealt with: TTF/FLASH in the XFEL context, general layout of the XFEL facility, the XFEL accelerator, undulators for SAES and spontaneous emission, photon beamlines and scientific instruments, infrastructure and auxiliary systems, commissioning and operation, project management and organization, cost and time schedule. (HSI)

  16. Baseline Report on HB2320

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Staff provides this baseline report as a summary of its preliminary considerations and initial research in fulfillment of the requirements of HB2320 from the 2015 session of the General Assembly. Codified as § 23-7.4:7, this legislation compels the Education Secretary and the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) Director, in…

  17. Prototyping of the ILC Baseline Positron Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronberg, J; Brooksby, C; Piggott, T; Abbott, R; Javedani, J; Cook, E

    2012-02-29

    The ILC positron system uses novel helical undulators to create a powerful photon beam from the main electron beam. This beam is passed through a titanium target to convert it into electron-positron pairs. The target is constructed as a 1 m diameter wheel spinning at 2000 RPM to smear the 1 ms ILC pulse train over 10 cm. A pulsed flux concentrating magnet is used to increase the positron capture efficiency. It is cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures to maximize the flatness of the magnetic field over the 1 ms ILC pulse train. We report on prototyping effort on this system.

  18. Resistive wall heating due to image current on the beam chamber for a superconducting undulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H. (Accelerator Systems Division (APS))

    2012-03-27

    The image-current heating on the resistive beam chamber of a superconducting undulator (SCU) was calculated based on the normal and anomalous skin effects. Using the bulk resistivity of copper for the beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated for the residual resistivity ratios (RRRs) of unity at room temperature to 100 K at a cryogenic temperature as the reference. Then, using the resistivity of the specific aluminum alloy 6053-T5, which will be used for the SCU beam chamber, the heat loads were calculated. An electron beam stored in a storage ring induces an image current on the inner conducting wall, mainly within a skin depth, of the beam chamber. The image current, with opposite charge to the electron beam, travels along the chamber wall in the same direction as the electron beam. The average current in the storage ring consists of a number of bunches. When the pattern of the bunched beam is repeated according to the rf frequency, the beam current may be expressed in terms of a Fourier series. The time structure of the image current is assumed to be the same as that of the beam current. For a given resistivity of the chamber inner wall, the application ofthe normal or anomalous skin effect will depend on the harmonic numbers of the Fourier series of the beam current and the temperature of the chamber. For a round beam chamber with a ratius r, much larger than the beam size, one can assume that the image current density as well as the density square, may be uniform around the perimeter 2{pi}r. For the SCU beam chamber, which has a relatively narrow vertical gap compared to the width, the effective perimeter was estimated since the heat load should be proportional to the inverse of the perimeter.

  19. Predicting path from undulations for C. elegans using linear and nonlinear resistive force theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveny, Eric E.; Brown, André E. X.

    2017-04-01

    A basic issue in the physics of behaviour is the mechanical relationship between an animal and its surroundings. The model nematode C. elegans provides an excellent platform to explore this relationship due to its anatomical simplicity. Nonetheless, the physics of nematode crawling, in which the worm undulates its body to move on a wet surface, is not completely understood and the mathematical models often used to describe this phenomenon are empirical. We confirm that linear resistive force theory, one such empirical model, is effective at predicting a worm’s path from its sequence of body postures for forward crawling, reversing, and turning and for a broad range of different behavioural phenotypes observed in mutant worms. Worms recently isolated from the wild have a higher effective drag anisotropy than the laboratory-adapted strain N2 and most mutant strains. This means the wild isolates crawl with less surface slip, perhaps reflecting more efficient gaits. The drag anisotropies required to fit the observed locomotion data (70  ±  28 for the wild isolates) are significantly larger than the values measured by directly dragging worms along agar surfaces (3-10 in Rabets et al (2014 Biophys. J. 107 1980-7)). A proposed nonlinear extension of the resistive force theory model also provides accurate predictions, but does not resolve the discrepancy between the parameters required to achieve good path prediction and the experimentally measured parameters. We confirm that linear resistive force theory provides a good effective model of worm crawling that can be used in applications such as whole-animal simulations and advanced tracking algorithms, but that the nature of the physical interaction between worms and their most commonly studied laboratory substrate remains unresolved.

  20. Gliotransmission modulates baseline mechanical nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Jeannine C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain is a physiological and adaptive process which occurs to protect organisms from tissue damage and extended injury. Pain sensation beyond injury, however, is a pathological process which is poorly understood. Experimental models of neuropathic pain demonstrate that reactive astrocytes contribute to reduced nociceptive thresholds. Astrocytes release "gliotransmitters" such as D-serine, glutamate, and ATP, which is extracellularly hydrolyzed to adenosine. Adenosine 1 receptor activation in the spinal cord has anti-nociceptive effects on baseline pain threshold, but the source of the endogenous ligand (adenosine in the spinal cord is unknown. In this study we used a transgenic mouse model in which SNARE-mediated gliotransmission was selectively attenuated (called dnSNARE mice to investigate the role of astrocytes in mediating baseline nociception and the development of neuropathic pain. Under baseline conditions, immunostaining in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord showed astrocyte-specific transgene expression in dnSNARE mice, and no difference in expression levels of the astrocyte marker GFAP and the microglia marker Iba1 relative to wild-type mice. The Von Frey filament test was used to probe sensitivity to baseline mechanical pain thresholds and allodynia following the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. DnSNARE mice exhibit a reduced nociceptive threshold in response to mechanical stimulation compared to wild-type mice under baseline conditions, but nociceptive thresholds following spared nerve injury were similar between dnSNARE and wild-types. This study is the first to provide evidence that gliotransmission contributes to basal mechanical nociception.

  1. Methods for calibrating the gain and offset of the DSSC detector for the European XFEL using X-ray line sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, S.; Weidenspointner, G.; Moch, D.; Kuster, M.; Porro, M.

    2016-01-01

    The DSSC (DEPFET Sensor with Signal Compression) will be a silicon based, 2d 1 Mpx imaging detector for the European X-ray Free Electron Laser Facility (XFEL.EU) in Hamburg, Germany. The DSSC is foreseen for soft X-radiation from 0.5 keV up to 6 keV . Driven by its scientific requirements, the design goals of the detector system are single photon detection, high dynamic range and a high frame rate of up to 4.5 MHz. Signal compression and amplification will be performed in the silicon sensor pixels yielding a low signal noise. Utilizing an in-pixel active filtering stage and an 8/9-bit ADC, the detector will provide parallel read-out of all pixels. In order to calibrate offset and gain, the procedure currently under investigation relies on determining peak positions in measurements with calibration line sources such as 55Fe. Here the status of studies of the stability and performance of a parameterized fit function designed for this task will be presented.

  2. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electra y Electronica Universidad Publica de Navarra Pamplona, Spain Performing Organization Report...Ingeniería Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain 2Servicio de Neurofisiología Clínica, Hospital Virgen del Camino...a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC

  3. Design features of a planar hybrid/permanent magnet strong-focusing undulator for Free Electron Laser (FEL) and Synchrotron Radiation (SR) applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatchyn, Roman

    1997-05-01

    Insertion devices for Angstrom-wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) amplifiers driven by multi-GeV electron beams generally require distributed focusing substantially stronger than their natural focusing fields(C. Pellegrini, "A 4 to 0.1 nm FEL Based on the SLAC Linac," in Proc. Workshop on 4th Generation Light Sources, M.Cornacchia and H. Winick, eds., SSRL, Feb. 1992. p. 364 ff.)(R. Tatchyn, "Optimal Insertion Device Parameters for SASE FEL Operation," ibid., p. 605 ff.). Over the last several years a wide variety of focusing schemes and configurations have been proposed for undulators of this class, ranging from conventional current-driven quadrupoles external to the undulator magnets(R. Tatchyn, R. Boyce, K. Halbach, H.-D. Nuhn, J. Seeman, H. Winick, and C. Pellegrini, "Design Considerations for a 60 Meter Pure Permanent Magnet Undulator for the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)," in Proceedings of the 1993 Particle Accelerator Conference, IEEE Catalog No. 93CH3279-7, 1608(1993).) to permanent magnet (PM) lattices inserted into the insertion device gap(R. Tatchyn, "Selected applications of planar permanent magnet multipoles in FEL insertion device design," NIM A341, 449(1994).)(A. A. Varfolomeev, A. H. Hairetdinov, "Advanced hybrid undulator schemes providing enhanced transverse e-beam focusing," ibid., p. 462.)(G. Travish, J. Rosenzweig, "Strong sextupole focussing in planar undulators," NIM A345, 585(1994).). In this paper we present design studies of a flexible hybrid/PM undulator with superimposed planar PM focusing proposed for a 1.5 Angstrom Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) undulator(S. Caspi, R. Schlueter, R. Tatchyn, "High-Field Strong-Focusing Undulator Designs for X-Ray Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Applications," Proc. IEEE PAC95, Dallas, TX, May 1-5, 1995, SLAC-PUB-95-6885.)(R. Tatchyn, "Permanent Magnet Edge-Field Quadrupole," US Patent 5,596,304.) driven by an electron beam with a 1 mm-mr normalized emittance(R. Tatchyn et al, NIM A

  4. Volumetric PIV of multiple free-swimming maneuvers generated by the KnifeBot: a biomimetic vessel propelled by an undulating fin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanlin; Troolin, Daniel; Hortensius, Ruben; Pothos, Stamatios; Curet, Oscar

    2017-11-01

    An undulating fin represents a remarkable propulsion model for underwater vehicles due to its high propulsive efficiency and considerable locomotor capabilities. In this work, we used a bio-inspired vessel, the KnifeBot to demonstrate the maneuverability of undulating fin propulsion, including forward-backward swimming, station keeping and vertical swimming. This self-contained robotic system uses an undulating ventral fin as the propulsor and features a slender 3D-printed hull with 16 motors, 2 batteries and electronic boards encapsulated inside. We tested the robot in a water-filled tank and used volumetric particle image velocimetry (V3V PIV) to investigate the three-dimensional flow features and vortex structures generated by the undulating ribbon fin in free-swimming maneuvers. Our results indicate that in the forward swimming, a series of vortex tubes are shed off the fin edge. A streamwise jet at an oblique angle to the fin is generated in association with the vortex tubes propelling the robot forward as well as pitching it up. For the hovering maneuver with inward counter-propagating waves. The streamlines develop vertically downward with the tip vortex shed from the fin edge. This downward jet provides substantial heave force for the robot to swim upward or perform station keeping. Our findings will be useful for understanding the mechanical basis of undulating fin propulsion and facilitate the development of bio-inspired vehicles using undulatory propellers. Office of Naval Research under Award Number N00014-16-1-2505.

  5. Results of stretched wire field integral measurements on the mini-undulator magnet - comparison of results obtained from circular and translational motion of the integrating wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, L.

    1998-05-01

    Measurements of the multipole content of the Mini-Undulator magnet have been made with two different integrating wire techniques. Both measurements used 43 strand Litz wire stretched along the length of the magnet within the magnet gap. In the first technique, the wire motion was purely translational, while in the second technique the wire was moved along a circular path. The induced voltage in the Litz wire was input into a Walker integrator, and the integrator output was analyzed as a function of wire position for determination of the multipole content of the magnetic field. The mini-undulator magnet is a 10 period, 80 mm per period hybrid insertion device. For all the data contained herein the magnet gap was set at 49 mm. In the mini-undulator magnet, the iron poles are 18mm x 32mm x 86 mm, and the Samarium Cobalt permanent magnet blocks are 22mm x 21mm x 110mm. For this magnet, which is a shortened prototype for the NSLS Soft X-Ray Undulator Magnet, the undulator parameter K = 0.934 B (Tesla)λ(cm), and B(tesla) = 0.534/sinh(πGap/λ). At a gap of 49 mm, the magnetic field is 1590 Gauss

  6. Natural circular dichroism of amino acid films observed in soft X-ray and VUV region using polarizing undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, K.; Kaneko, F.; Ohta, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Kitada, T.; Agui, A.; Fujii, F.; Yokoya, A.; Yagi-Watanabe, K.; Yamada, T.

    2005-01-01

    We observed the natural circular dichroism NCD of amino acid films in the soft X-ray region for the first time [M. Tanaka, K. Nakagawa, A. Agui, K. Fujii, A. Yokoya, Physica Scripta, in press]. Based on the success, a new generation of detection system is now under preparation. Vacuum ultraviolet NCD of amino acid films was measured successfully using a polarizing undulator [H. Onuki, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 246 (1986) 94] installed at the TERAS electron storage ring at AIST, Tsukuba, Japan. A result of NCD measurement for alanine films is described in detail

  7. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Terrell, Stefanie M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts.

  8. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  9. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  10. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  11. A non-destructive electron beam diagnostic for a SASE FEL using coherent off-axis undulator radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, C.P.; Ponds, M.L.; Barnett, G.A.; Madey, J.M.J.; O'Shea, P.G.

    1999-01-01

    We show that by observing coherent off-axis undulator radiation (COUR) from a short diagnostic wiggler, it may be possible to determine the length and structure of a short electron bunch. Typically the on-axis undulator radiation is incoherent, but at angles of a few degrees, the wavelength of the emitted radiation may be comparable to the length of a short electron bunch, and thus coherence effects emerge. Due to such coherence effects, the intensity of the emitted radiation may change by up to a factor of 10 9 as the angle of observation is increased. The radiation becomes coherent in a way which depends on the length and structure of the electron bunch. Observing COUR disturbs the electron bunch negligibly. Thus, COUR can be used as a non-destructive diagnostic which would allow for optimization of FEL performance while an FEL is operating. Such a diagnostic could be used for proposed SASE FELs, which use short electron bunches. We present two methods to describe the theory for COUR, and we use these methods to calculate the expected outcome of a COUR experiment. We propose an experiment to demonstrate COUR effects and their applications to SASE FELs

  12. Experimental investigation of efficient locomotion of underwater snake robots for lateral undulation and eel-like motion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelasidi, Eleni; Liljebäck, Pål; Pettersen, Kristin Y; Gravdahl, Jan T

    2015-01-01

    Underwater snake robots offer many interesting capabilities for underwater operations. The long and slender structure of such robots provide superior capabilities for access through narrow openings and within confined areas. This is interesting for inspection and monitoring operations, for instance within the subsea oil and gas industry and within marine archeology. In addition, underwater snake robots can provide both inspection and intervention capabilities and are thus interesting candidates for the next generation inspection and intervention AUVs. Furthermore, bioinspired locomotion through oscillatory gaits, like lateral undulation and eel-like motion, is interesting from an energy efficiency point of view. Increasing the motion efficiency in terms of the achieved forward speed by improving the method of propulsion is a key issue for underwater robots. Moreover, energy efficiency is one of the main challenges for long-term autonomy of these systems. In this study, we will consider both these two aspects of efficiency. This paper considers the energy efficiency of swimming snake robots by presenting and experimentally investigating fundamental properties of the velocity and the power consumption of an underwater snake robot for both lateral undulation and eel-like motion patterns. In particular, we investigate the relationship between the parameters of the gait patterns, the forward velocity and the energy consumption for different motion patterns. The simulation and experimental results are seen to support the theoretical findings.

  13. 327 Building hazard baseline document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEFFEN, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the hazards in the 327 Building at the time that a facility walk through was performed during FY99, presents a PHA of stabilization and deactivation activities, and provides a basis for the hazard evaluation and accident analysis that will be developed in the 327 Building Basis for Interim Operation (BIO). Activities addressed in this hazard baseline document include: (1) Stabilization and deactivation activities in preparation for eventual decommissioning of the 327 Building and the routine handling, processing, and shipment of waste to support these activities. (2) 324/327 Building Minimum Safe Project engineering and maintenance activities to maintain the building and systems viable--especially the Safety SSCs--to allow stabilization, deactivation, and waste handling activities with a minimum of risk to workers, the public, and the environment

  14. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  15. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  16. Hydrogeology baseline study Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  17. The California Baseline Methane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Rafiq, T.; Bue, B. D.; Prasad, K.; Mccubbin, I.; Miller, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The California Baseline Methane Survey is the first systematic, statewide assessment of methane point source emissions. The objectives are to reduce uncertainty in the state's methane budget and to identify emission mitigation priorities for state and local agencies, utilities and facility owners. The project combines remote sensing of large areas with airborne imaging spectroscopy and spatially resolved bottom-up data sets to detect, quantify and attribute emissions from diverse sectors including agriculture, waste management, oil and gas production and the natural gas supply chain. Phase 1 of the project surveyed nearly 180,000 individual facilities and infrastructure components across California in 2016 - achieving completeness rates ranging from 20% to 100% per emission sector at < 5 meters spatial resolution. Additionally, intensive studies of key areas and sectors were performed to assess source persistence and variability at times scales ranging from minutes to months. Phase 2 of the project continues with additional data collection in Spring and Fall 2017. We describe the survey design and measurement, modeling and analysis methods. We present initial findings regarding the spatial, temporal and sectoral distribution of methane point source emissions in California and their estimated contribution to the state's total methane budget. We provide case-studies and lessons learned about key sectors including examples where super-emitters were identified and mitigated. We summarize challenges and recommendations for future methane research, inventories and mitigation guidance within and beyond California.

  18. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  19. Fabrication and Test of a Nb3Sn Model Magnet With Ceramic Insulation for the Next Generation Undulator of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, N; Dalexandro, N; Giloux, C; Bordini, B; Maccaferri, R

    2010-01-01

    The future run of the Large Hadron Collider with lead ions will require important modifications in the synchrotron radiation profile monitor system, which at present comprises two superconducting undulators wound from Nb-Ti conductor, delivering 5 T in a 60 mm gap, and with a period of 280 mm. Whilst the gap and the nominal field of the future undulators will remain the same, the period shall be 140 mm, which translates to a peak field of over 8 T in the coils and hence requires the use of Nb3Sn technology. In this paper the electromagnetic design of the undulator is summarized. We describe the fabrication of a race-track coil wound with a 0.8 mm diameter Nb3Sn strand with ceramic insulation. Finally, the results of successful tests made at 4.3 K and 1.9 K in a mirror configuration are presented. 10 T at 4.3 K and 11.5 T at 1.9 K were measured in the yoke gap, thus validating this concept for the future undulator.

  20. Modular filter design for the white-beam undulator/wiggler beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brite, C.; Shu, D.; Nian, T.; Wang, Z.; Haeffner, D.; Alp, E.; Kuzay, T.

    1994-01-01

    A new filter has been designed at Argonne National Laboratory that is intended for the use in undulator/wiggler beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source. The water-cooled frame allows up to four individual filter foil banks simultaneously in the beam path. Additionally, the bottom of each frame holds two thin (20 μm) uncooled carbon filters in tandem for low-energy filtering. Therefore, a maximum of 625 filter selection combinations is theoretically possible. The design is intelligent, compact and modular, with great flexibility for the users. To prevent accidental movement of the filter, effort has been taken to provide a mechanically locked, fail-safe actuator system. Programming aspects are under development as part of our general personnel and equipment protection system. Aspects of the design and operational principles of the filter are presented in this paper

  1. Start-to-end simulation of self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron lasers from the gun through the undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Borland, M M; Emma, P; Lewellen, J W; Bharadwaj, V K; Fawley, W M; Krejcik, P; Limborg, C; Milton, S V; Nuhn, H D; Soliday, R; Woodley, M

    2002-01-01

    It is widely appreciated that the performance of self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron lasers (FELs) depends critically on the properties of the drive beam. In view of this, a multi-laboratory collaboration has explored methods and software tools for integrated simulation of the photoinjector, linear accelerator, bunch compressor, and FEL. Rather than create a single code to handle such a system, our goal has been a robust, generic solution wherein pre-existing simulation codes are used sequentially. We have standardized on the use of Argonne National Laboratory's Self-Describing Data Sets file protocol for transfer of data among codes. The simulation codes used are PARMELA, elegant, and GENESIS. We describe the software methodology and its advantages, then provide examples involving Argonne's Low-Energy Undulator Test Line and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's Linac Coherent Light Source. We also indicate possible future direction of this work.

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of diluted system by undulator photon source and multi-element solid-state detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tanida, H

    2001-01-01

    In order to measure the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectrum of an ultra-diluted system, an optics and detector control system for a synchrotron radiation beamline is developed. The undulator gap width is continuously tuned to obtain the maximum X-ray photon flux during the energy scan for the EXAFS measurement. A piezoelectric translator optimizes the parallelism of the double crystal in a monochromator at each measurement point to compensate for mechanical errors of the monochromator, resulting in a smooth and intense X-ray photon flux during the measurement. For a detection of a weak fluorescence signal from diluted samples, a 19-element solid-state detector and digital signal processor are used. A K-edge EXAFS spectrum of iron in a myoglobin aqueous solution with a concentration of 5.58 parts per million was obtained by this system.

  3. Start-to-end simulation of self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron lasers from the gun through the undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borland, M.M.; Chae, Y.C.; Emma, P.; Lewellen, J.W.; Bharadwaj, V.; Fawley, W.M.; Krejcik, P.; Limborg, C.; Milton, S.V.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Soliday, R.; Woodley, M.

    2002-01-01

    It is widely appreciated that the performance of self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron lasers (FELs) depends critically on the properties of the drive beam. In view of this, a multi-laboratory collaboration has explored methods and software tools for integrated simulation of the photoinjector, linear accelerator, bunch compressor, and FEL. Rather than create a single code to handle such a system, our goal has been a robust, generic solution wherein pre-existing simulation codes are used sequentially. We have standardized on the use of Argonne National Laboratory's Self-Describing Data Sets file protocol for transfer of data among codes. The simulation codes used are PARMELA, elegant, and GENESIS. We describe the software methodology and its advantages, then provide examples involving Argonne's Low-Energy Undulator Test Line and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's Linac Coherent Light Source. We also indicate possible future direction of this work

  4. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, R.J.; Cooper, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building. A total of 85 technical (100 square centimeter (cm 2 )) smears were collected from the Room 147 hoods, the Shielded Materials Facility (SMF), and the Radiochemical Engineering Cells (REC). Exposure rate readings (window open and window closed) were taken at a distance of 2.5 centimeters (cm) and 30 cm from the surface of each smear. Gross beta-gamma and alpha counts of each smear were also performed. The smear samples were analyzed by gamma energy analysis (GEA). Alpha energy analysis (AEA) and strontium-90 analysis were also performed on selected smears. GEA results for one or more samples reported the presence of manganese-54, cobalt-60, silver-108m antimony-125, cesium-134, cesium-137, europium-154, europium-155, and americium-241. AEA results reported the presence of plutonium-239/240, plutonium-238/ 241 Am, curium-243/244, curium-242, and americium-243. Tables 5 through 9 present a summary by location of the estimated maximum removable and total contamination levels in the Room 147 hoods, the SMF, and the REC. The smear sample survey data and laboratory analytical results are presented in tabular form by sample in Appendix A. The Appendix A tables combine survey data documented in radiological survey reports found in Appendix B and laboratory analytical results reported in the 324 Building Physical and Radiological Characterization Study (Berk, Hill, and Landsman 1998), supplemented by the laboratory analytical results found in Appendix C.

  5. Statistical baseline assessment in cardiotocography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinelli, Angela; Braccili, Eleonora; Marchegiani, Enrico; Rosati, Riccardo; Sbrollini, Agnese; Burattini, Luca; Morettini, Micaela; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) is the most common non-invasive diagnostic technique to evaluate fetal well-being. It consists in the recording of fetal heart rate (FHR; bpm) and maternal uterine contractions. Among the main parameters characterizing FHR, baseline (BL) is fundamental to determine fetal hypoxia and distress. In computerized applications, BL is typically computed as mean FHR±ΔFHR, with ΔFHR=8 bpm or ΔFHR=10 bpm, both values being experimentally fixed. In this context, the present work aims: to propose a statistical procedure for ΔFHR assessment; to quantitatively determine ΔFHR value by applying such procedure to clinical data; and to compare the statistically-determined ΔFHR value against the experimentally-determined ΔFHR values. To these aims, the 552 recordings of the "CTU-UHB intrapartum CTG database" from Physionet were submitted to an automatic procedure, which consisted in a FHR preprocessing phase and a statistical BL assessment. During preprocessing, FHR time series were divided into 20-min sliding windows, in which missing data were removed by linear interpolation. Only windows with a correction rate lower than 10% were further processed for BL assessment, according to which ΔFHR was computed as FHR standard deviation. Total number of accepted windows was 1192 (38.5%) over 383 recordings (69.4%) with at least an accepted window. Statistically-determined ΔFHR value was 9.7 bpm. Such value was statistically different from 8 bpm (P<;10 -19 ) but not from 10 bpm (P=0.16). Thus, ΔFHR=10 bpm is preferable over 8 bpm because both experimentally and statistically validated.

  6. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  7. High resolution X-ray diffraction of muscle using undulator radiation from the Tristan main ring at KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Katsuzo [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science; Yagi, Naoto

    1997-04-01

    Results are reported of static and time-resolved X-ray diffraction studies on muscle fibers using a hard X-ray undulator installed in the Tristan main ring at KEK, as an innovative source of synchrotron radiation more intense and better collimated than that available with the Photon Factory bending-magnet beamline. The low divergence of the source made it possible to obtain high-quality diffraction patterns from static state of muscles, clearly resolving, with an angular resolution of ca. 700 nm, closely spaced diffraction peaks arising from the two symmetrical halves of the thick filaments centered on the M lines in a sarcomere. The detailed analysis of the meridional pattern lead to a more precise modeling of the complicated molecular packing of myosin molecules and C-proteins in the thick filaments. Time-resolved experiments using a focusing mirror aimed to prove crossbridge behaviors in muscle fibers by collecting X-ray diffraction data at a 185 {mu}s time resolution. When sinusoidal length changes at 500 Hz with an amplitude of 0.3% of the muscle length were applied to a bundle of several single fibers during active contraction, the intensity of the 14.5 nm meridional reflection changed out of phase with the tension change during the oscillating length change, contrasting to the response in the rigor muscle. The high time-resolved experiments provided an important insight to the molecular mechanism of force generation in muscle. These studies yield a preview of the expected gains for muscle studies from the more widespread use of undulator radiation at third-generation synchrotron source. (author)

  8. 40 CFR 1042.825 - Baseline determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Baseline determination. 1042.825... Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.825 Baseline determination. (a) For the purpose of this... not valid. (f) Use good engineering judgment for all aspects of the baseline determination. We may...

  9. Erosão real e estimada através da RUSLE em estradas florestais, em relevo ondulado a fortemente ondulado Real and estimative erosion through RUSLE from forest roads in undulated at heavily undulated relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Camargo Correa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as perdas de solo provenientes de trechos de estradas de uso florestal inseridas na região de Itaiópolis, Santa Catarina, que apresenta relevo ondulado a fortemente ondulado em dois tipos de solo: Cambissolo Húmico Distrófico típico e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distrófico típico. A erosividade da chuva foi calculada através de pluviogramas e de dados de pluviosidade da empresa Rigesa - Soluções em Embalagens MeadWestvaco; a erosividade do solo foi calculada em função dos resultados de análises, a declividade e comprimento de rampa foram medidos em campo e os fatores C e P, estipulados através da literatura. A hipótese de similaridade entre os valores reais monitorados pelo período de um ano e os valores estimados pela RUSLE foi evidenciada através de análise estatística, que apresentou alta correlação nos tratamentos avaliados e se manteve dentro do limite crítico proposto pela análise, validando, portanto, essa hipótese.The objective of this work was to evaluate the soil losses from a portion of forest roads located in a region with undulated to heavily undulated relief in two types of soil: Humic Cambissoil, typical Dystrophic and Red-Yellow Argissoil, typical Dystrophic. The rainfall erosivity was calculated using rainfall data through the Rigesa Company, the soil erodibility was calculated based on the results of the analyses, the declivity and the slope length were measured in the field, and Factors C and P were estimated from literature. The similarity hypothesis between the real values monitored over a one year period and the estimated values using the RUSLE were evidenced via statistical analyses that presented high correlations in the evaluated treatments, remaining inside the critical limit considered for the analyses, therefore validating the hypothesis.

  10. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  11. Integrated planning: A baseline development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, L.; Chang, D.

    1994-01-01

    The FEMP Baseline establishes the basis for integrating environmental activity technical requirements with their cost and schedule elements. The result is a path forward to successfully achieving the FERMCO mission. Specific to cost management, the FEMP Baseline has been incorporate into the FERMCO Project Control System (PCS) to provide a time-phased budget plan against which contractor performance is measured with an earned value management system. The result is the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), an important tool for keeping cost under control

  12. IPCC Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset consists of population, human development, economic, water resources, land...

  13. Physics research opportunities with XFEL's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    The advent of x-ray Free Electron Lasers will present a number of unique new scientific opportunities. These arise from their special characteristics which include intensely brilliant pulses of x-rays delivered in very short times, complete transverse coherence, and high photon quantum degeneracy, amongst other things. While clearly much thought needs to be given to a detailed quantitative assessment of the feasibility of various experiments using such sources, including methods of dealing with heat loads on beamline optics and radiation damage to samples, there are a number of areas in which one can see new opportunities, and other exciting possibilities about which one might speculate. In this talk the author briefly reviews some of these areas, such as x-ray holography, pump-probe type experiments, correlation spectroscopy and quantum optics experiments with x-rays

  14. A zone plate soft x-ray microscope using monochromatized undulator radiation at the beamline NE1B of the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Kagoshima, Y.; Miyahara, T.; Ando, M.; Aoki, S.; Anderson, E.; Attwood, D.; Kern, D.

    1995-01-01

    A soft x-ray microscope has been developed at the beamline NE1B of the 6.5-GeV TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR). It makes use of undulator radiation as its source and a zone plate with the outermost zone width of 50 nm as its imaging element. It has two main features. First, the undulator radiation is monochromatized by a grazing incidence grating monochromator to match to the monochromaticity requirement of the zone plate. Second, a visible light prefocus unit consisting of two objectives has been designed and installed in the x-ray microscope. The x-ray optical system of the microscope can be adjusted easily, quickly, and precisely by using this unit. The microscope can resolve 55-nm lines and spaces in a zone plate test pattern

  15. DIELECTRICALLY-LOADED WAVEGUIDE AS A MICROWAVE UNDULATOR FOR HIGH BRILLANCE X-RAYS AT 45 – 90 KeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustom, R. L.; Waldschmidt, G.; Nassiri, A.

    2017-06-01

    The HEM12 mode in a cylindrical, dielectrically-loaded waveguide provides E and H fields on the central axis that are significantly higher than the fields on the conducting walls. This structure, operating near the cutoff frequency of the HEM12 mode, spans a frequency range where the wavelength and phase velocity vary significantly. This property can be exploited to generate undulator action with short periods for the generation of high brightness xrays. The frequency range of interest would be from 18 to 34.5-GHz. The goal would be to generate x-rays on the fundamental mode over a range of 45 to 90-keV.The tunability would be achieved by changing the source frequency while maintaining a constant on-axis equivalent undulator field strength of 0.5-T.

  16. Surface-micromachined magnetic undulator with period length between 10  μm and 1 mm for advanced light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Harrison

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A technological gap exists between the μm-scale wiggling periods achieved using electromagnetic waves of high intensity laser pulses and the mm scale of permanent-magnet and superconducting undulators. In the sub-mm range, surface-micromachined soft-magnetic micro-electro-mechanical system inductors with integrated solenoidal coils have already experimentally demonstrated 100 to 500 mT field amplitude across air gaps as large as 15  μm. Simulations indicate that magnetic fields as large as 1.5 T across 50  μm inductor gaps are feasible. A simple rearranging of the yoke and pole geometry allows for fabrication of 10+ cm long undulator structures with period lengths between 12.5  μm and 1 mm. Such undulators find application both in high average power spontaneous emission sources and, if used in combination with ultrahigh-brightness electron beams, could lead to the realization of low energy compact free-electron lasers. Challenges include electron energy broadening due to wakefields and Joule heating in the electromagnet.

  17. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH FAST FIBER-OPTIC BEAM LOSS MONITORS FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE STORAGE RING SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, J.; Harkay, K.; Sajaev, V.; Shang, H.

    2017-06-25

    Fast fiber-optic (FFO) beam loss monitors (BLMs) installed with the first two superconducting undulators (SCUs) in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring have proven to be a useful diagnostic for measuring deposited charge (energy) during rapid beam loss events. The first set of FFOBLMs were installed outside the cryostat of the short SCU, a 0.33-m long device, above and below the beam centerline. The second set are mounted with the first 1.1-mlong SCU within the cryostat, on the outboard and inboard sides of the vacuum chamber. The next 1.1-m-long SCU is scheduled to replace the short SCU later in 2016 and will be fitted with FFOBLMs in a manner similar to original 1.1-m device. The FFOBLMs were employed to set timing and voltage for the abort kicker (AK) system. The AK helps to prevent quenching of the SCUs during beam dumps [1] by directing the beam away from the SC magnet windings. The AK is triggered by the Machine Protection System (MPS). In cases when the AK fails to prevent quenching, the FFOBLMs show that losses often begin before detection by the MPS.

  18. TWRS technical baseline database manager definition document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acree, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a guide for using the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management Systems Engineering (SE) support tool in performing SE activities for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This document will provide a consistent interpretation of the relationships between the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management software and the present TWRS SE practices. The Database Manager currently utilized is the RDD-1000 System manufactured by the Ascent Logic Corporation. In other documents, the term RDD-1000 may be used interchangeably with TWRS Technical Baseline Database Manager

  19. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.

  20. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  1. Program cost and schedule baseline; Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to establish quantitative expressions of proposed costs and schedule to serve as a basis for measurement of the Radioactive Waste Management Program performance. It identifies the components of the Program Cost and Schedule Baseline (PCSB) that will be subject to change control by the Executive Level (Level 0) and Program (Level 1) Change Control Boards (CCBs) and establishes their baseline values. This document also details PCSB reporting, monitoring, and corrective action requirements. The Program technical baseline contained in the Waste Management System Description (WMSD) and the Waste Management System Requirements (WMSR) documents provides the technical basis for the PCSB. The PCSB establishes baseline values for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project cost and schedule through submittal of the license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  2. High-heat-load studies of silicon and diamond monochromators using the APS/CHESS prototype undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.; Lee, W.K.; Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the latest high-heat-load studies made on the APS/CHESS prototype undulator are summarized. Four different crystals were tested: two slotted, symmetrically cut silicon crystals and a core-drilled, asymmetrically cut silicon crystal and a diamond crystal that was jet cooled using water. The purpose of the silicon crystal tests was to reevaluate the surface power loading at which appreciable degradation of the diffraction efficiency was observed. The diamond tests, allotted only a brief period of time during the testing period, were our first attempt at using diamonds for high-heat-flux x-ray monochromators and were performed primarily to gain first-hand experience with diamond monochromators. Measurements with the silicon crystal at 5 keV reconfirmed our previous measurements of performance degradation at around 4-6 watts/mm 2 using liquid gallium with slotted coolant channels. A value of only 2 watts/mm 2 was observed to cause a degradation of the diffraction performance at 15 keV with the same crystals due to the increased sensitivity to strain because of the reduced Darwin widths. The performance of the asymmetric crystal, with its core-drilled coolant channels, was not found to be as good as that of the slotted crystals. This was probably due to poorer heat transfer properties of the core-drilled geometry in combination with the narrowing of the rocking curves because of the asymmetric cut. Fabrication issues for construction of the gallium-cooled crystals is also discussed. Although the diamonds were only successfully tested at low total power the results were very encouraging and motivated us to accelerate our program on the use of diamonds for high-heat-load monochromators

  3. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.K.; Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-01

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  4. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  5. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  6. Planar undulator motion excited by a fixed traveling wave. Quasiperiodic averaging normal forms and the FEL pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics; Vogt, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Gooden, Matthew [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-15

    We present a mathematical analysis of planar motion of energetic electrons moving through a planar dipole undulator, excited by a fixed planar polarized plane wave Maxwell field in the X-Ray FEL regime. Our starting point is the 6D Lorentz system, which allows planar motions, and we examine this dynamical system as the wave length {lambda} of the traveling wave varies. By scalings and transformations the 6D system is reduced, without approximation, to a 2D system in a form for a rigorous asymptotic analysis using the Method of Averaging (MoA), a long time perturbation theory. The two dependent variables are a scaled energy deviation and a generalization of the so- called ponderomotive phase. As {lambda} varies the system passes through resonant and nonresonant (NR) zones and we develop NR and near-to-resonant (NtoR) MoA normal form approximations. The NtoR normal forms contain a parameter which measures the distance from a resonance. For a special initial condition, for the planar motion and on resonance, the NtoR normal form reduces to the well known FEL pendulum system. We then state and prove NR and NtoR first-order averaging theorems which give explicit error bounds for the normal form approximations. We prove the theorems in great detail, giving the interested reader a tutorial on mathematically rigorous perturbation theory in a context where the proofs are easily understood. The proofs are novel in that they do not use a near identity transformation and they use a system of differential inequalities. The NR case is an example of quasiperiodic averaging where the small divisor problem enters in the simplest possible way. To our knowledge the planar prob- lem has not been analyzed with the generality we aspire to here nor has the standard FEL pendulum system been derived with associated error bounds as we do here. We briefly discuss the low gain theory in light of our NtoR normal form. Our mathematical treatment of the noncollective FEL beam dynamics problem in

  7. Waste management project technical baseline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project

  8. On Internal Validity in Multiple Baseline Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-case designs are a class of research designs for evaluating intervention effects on individual cases. The designs are widely applied in certain fields, including special education, school psychology, clinical psychology, social work, and applied behavior analysis. The multiple baseline design (MBD) is the most frequently used single-case…

  9. Temporal distribution of baseline characteristics and association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first six months of HIV care and treatment are very important for long-term outcome. Early mortality (within 6 months of care initiation) undermines care and treatment goals. This study assessed the temporal distribution in baseline characteristics and early mortality among HIV patients at the University College Hospital, ...

  10. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  11. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  12. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  13. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tack, Filip M.G.; Vanhaesebroeck, Thomas; Verloo, Marc G.; Van Rompaey, Kurt; Ranst, Eric van

    2005-01-01

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For the current study, observations were extended over two more provinces, West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen. Ranges of soil Hg contents were distinctly higher in the province Oost-Vlaanderen (interquartile range from 0.09 to 0.43 mg/kg) than in the other provinces (interquartile ranges from 0.7 to 0.13 and 0.7 to 0.15 mg/kg for West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen, respectively). The standard threshold method was applied to separate soils containing baseline levels of Hg from the data. Baseline concentrations for Hg were characterised by a median of 0.10 mg Hg/kg dry soil, an interquartile range from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/kg and a 90% percentile value of 0.30 mg/kg. The influence of soil properties such as clay and organic carbon contents, and pH on baseline Hg concentrations was not important. Maps of the spatial distribution of Hg levels showed that the province Oost-Vlaanderen exhibited zones with systematically higher Hg soil contents. This may be related to the former presence of many small-scale industries employing mercury in that region. - Increased mercury levels may reflect human activity

  14. Monte Carlo studies of the radiation fields in the linac coherent light source undulators and of the corresponding signals in the Cerenkov beam loss monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana Leitner, Mario; Fasso, Alberto; Fisher, Alan S.; Nuhn, Heinz D.; Dooling, Jeffrey C.; Berg, William; Yang, Bin. X.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009 the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Center started free electron laser (FEL) operation. In order to continue to produce the bright and short-pulsed x-ray laser demanded by FEL scientists, this pioneer hard x-ray FEL requires a perfectly tailored magnetic field at the undulators, so that the photons generated at the electron wiggling path interact at the right phase with the electron beam. In such a precise system, small (>0.01%) radiation-induced alterations of the magnetic field in the permanent magnets could affect FEL performance. This paper describes the simulation studies of radiation fields in permanent magnets and the expected signal in the detectors. The transport of particles from the radiation sources (i.e. diagnostic insert) to the undulator magnets and to the beam loss monitors (BLM) was simulated with the intra nuclear cascade codes FLUKA and MARS15. In order to accurately reproduce the optics of LCLS, lattice capabilities and magnetic fields were enabled in FLUKA and betatron oscillations were validated against reference data. All electron events entering the BLMs were printed in data files. The paper also introduces the Radioactive Ion Beam Optimizer (RIBO) Monte Carlo 3-D code, which was used to read from the event files, to compute Cerenkov production and then to simulate the optical coupling of the BLM detectors, accounting for the transmission of light through the quartz. (author)

  15. Comparison of Achievable Magnetic Fields with Superconducting and Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators – A Comprehensive Study of Computed and Measured Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moog, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dejus, R. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sasaki, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic modeling was performed to estimate achievable magnetic field strengths of superconducting undulators (SCUs) and to compare them with those of cryogenically cooled permanent magnet undulators (CPMUs). Starting with vacuum (beam stay-clear) gaps of 4.0 and 6.0 mm, realistic allowances for beam chambers (in the SCU case) and beam liners (in the CPMU case) were added. (A 6.0-mm vacuum gap is planned for the upgraded APS). The CPMU magnetic models consider both CPMUs that use NdFeB magnets at ~150 K and PrFeB magnets at 77 K. Parameters of the magnetic models are presented along with fitted coefficients of a Halbach-type expression for the field dependence on the gap-to-period ratio. Field strengths for SCUs are estimated using a scaling law for planar SCUs; an equation for that is given. The SCUs provide higher magnetic fields than the highest-field CPMUs – those using PrFeB at 77 K – for period lengths longer than ~14 mm for NbTi-based SCUs and ~10 mm for Nb3Sn-based SCUs. To show that the model calculations and scaling law results are realistic, they are compared to CPMUs that have been built and NbTi-based SCUs that have been built. Brightness tuning curves of CPMUs (PrFeB) and SCUs (NbTi) for the upgraded APS lattice are also provided for realistic period lengths.

  16. Electronic states of the θ' phase in Cu-Al alloys as compared to C16-CuAl2: Cu Lα emission excited directly by undulator radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallera, C.; de Michelis, B.; Puppin, E.; Braicovich, L.; Brookes, N. B.

    1996-01-01

    The electronic states of the θ' phase formed by thermal aging in the Al-Cu (0.5 at. %) alloy are compared with those in C16-CuAl2, which is the final phase separated at equilibrium. This is done by means of Cu Lα fluorescence spectroscopy. The high brilliance of undulator radiation used as an excitation source is exploited. The spectra are taken using the first harmonic of the undulator at 1.7 keV, with a full width half maximum of ~250 eV. A narrowing of around 0.5 eV of the Cu Lα spectra in the θ' phase is found. This is explained in terms of the differences in the Cu 3d-Cu 3d interaction in the two phases and of the hybridization between Cu 3d and the nearly free-electron-like electrons. The results demonstrate the future possibilities of fluorescence spectroscopy of minority species in inhomogeneous systems.

  17. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  18. Baseline composition of solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1985-01-01

    We analyze all existing spacecraft observations of the highly variable heavy element composition of solar energetic particles (SEP) during non- 3 He-rich events. All data show the imprint of an ever-present basic composition pattern (dubbed ''mass-unbiased baseline'' SEP composition) that differs from the photospheric composition by a simple bias related to first ionization potential (FIP). In each particular observation, this mass-unbiased baseline composition is being distorted by an additional bias, which is always a monotonic function of mass (or Z). This latter bias varies in amplitude and even sign from observation to observation. To first order, it seems related to differences in the A/Z* ratio between elements (Z* = mean effective charge)

  19. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  20. Predicting Baseline for Analysis of Electricity Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Choi, J. [Ulsan National Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Spurlock, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-03

    To understand the impact of new pricing structure on residential electricity demands, we need a baseline model that captures every factor other than the new price. The standard baseline is a randomized control group, however, a good control group is hard to design. This motivates us to devlop data-driven approaches. We explored many techniques and designed a strategy, named LTAP, that could predict the hourly usage years ahead. The key challenge in this process is that the daily cycle of electricity demand peaks a few hours after the temperature reaching its peak. Existing methods rely on the lagged variables of recent past usages to enforce this daily cycle. These methods have trouble making predictions years ahead. LTAP avoids this trouble by assuming the daily usage profile is determined by temperature and other factors. In a comparison against a well-designed control group, LTAP is found to produce accurate predictions.

  1. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  2. OCRWM baseline management procedure for document identifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This procedure establishes a uniform numbering system (document identifier) for all Program and project technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management and procurement documents developed for and controlled by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The document identifier defined in this procedure is structured to ensure that the relational integrity between configuration items (CIs) and their associated documentation and software is maintained, traceable, categorical, and retrievable for the life of the program

  3. Base-line studies for DAE establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy has establishments located in various regions of the country and they include front-end fuel cycle facilities, nuclear power stations, back-end fuel cycle facilities and facilities for research and societal applications. These facilities handle naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and a variety of man-made radionuclides. These radionuclides are handled with utmost care so that they do not affect adversely the occupational workers or the members of public residing nearby. There is safety culture of the highest standard existing in all DAE establishments and it matches with the international standards. In addition, there is a perpetual environmental monitoring program carried out by the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) located at all DAE establishments. The environmental data generated by such program is studied regularly by experts to ensure compliance with the regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements in the country are of international standards and ensure adequate protection of workers and members of public. In addition to such continued monitoring program and studies being carried out for the ongoing projects, base-line studies are carried out for all the new projects of the DAE. The purpose of the base-line studies is to establish a detailed base-line data set for a new DAE location well before the foundation stone is laid, so that the data collected when there is no departmental activity can be compared with the data generated later by the ESL. The data so generated is site specific and it varies from place to place depending upon the location of the site, e.g., inland or coastal, the presence of water bodies and pattern of irrigation, the geological characteristics of the location, the local culture and habits of the people, population density and urban or rural background. The data to be recorded as base-line data is generated over a period of at least one year covering all the seasons

  4. Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

    2003-07-01

    The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

  5. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  6. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  7. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  8. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...... sector, water distribution in drought periods). We introduce (and characterize) a natural class of allocation methods for this model. Any method within the class is associated with a rule in the standard rationing model, and we show that if the latter obeys some focal properties, the former obeys them...

  9. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  10. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Baseline Estimation and Outlier Identification for Halocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Schuck, T.; Engel, A.; Gallman, F.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to build a baseline model for halocarbons and to statistically identify the outliers under specific conditions. In this paper, time series of regional CFC-11 and Chloromethane measurements was discussed, which taken over the last 4 years at two locations, including a monitoring station at northwest of Frankfurt am Main (Germany) and Mace Head station (Ireland). In addition to analyzing time series of CFC-11 and Chloromethane, more importantly, a statistical approach of outlier identification is also introduced in this paper in order to make a better estimation of baseline. A second-order polynomial plus harmonics are fitted to CFC-11 and chloromethane mixing ratios data. Measurements with large distance to the fitting curve are regard as outliers and flagged. Under specific requirement, the routine is iteratively adopted without the flagged measurements until no additional outliers are found. Both model fitting and the proposed outlier identification method are realized with the help of a programming language, Python. During the period, CFC-11 shows a gradual downward trend. And there is a slightly upward trend in the mixing ratios of Chloromethane. The concentration of chloromethane also has a strong seasonal variation, mostly due to the seasonal cycle of OH. The usage of this statistical method has a considerable effect on the results. This method efficiently identifies a series of outliers according to the standard deviation requirements. After removing the outliers, the fitting curves and trend estimates are more reliable.

  12. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Investigating excitation-dependent and fringe-field effects of electromagnet and permanent-magnet phase shifters for a crossed undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ting-Yi, E-mail: chung.albert@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Yang, Chih-Sheng; Chu, Yun-Liang; Lin, Fu-Yuan; Jan, Jyh-Chyuan [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Ching-Shiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)

    2017-04-01

    To enhance the flux density or to control polarization, a phase shifter was designed and used to modulate the phase matching between segmented undulators. A larger hysteresis loop causes, however, a repeatability issue in the phase matching; the fringe field of the phase shifter creates an extra magnetic-field error. The design of the phase shifter must therefore minimize the hysteresis loop and fringe field to maintain the phases exact and to ignore the crosstalk effect. Two critical issues are the hysteresis-loop problem and the fringe-field effect, which determine the radiation performance and the stability of the ring. To investigate these issues, a phase shifter was constructed to operate in accordance with electromagnetic- and permanent-type magnets; the results from the field measurements and shims are discussed here. The shimming algorithm and a compact permanent-magnet phase shifter that eliminates the issues are also presented.

  14. Mujeres en accion: design and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G

    2011-10-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women.

  15. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilquet, G

    2008-01-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure v μ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported

  16. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  17. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  18. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  19. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John

    2008-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  20. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  1. An automated approach to configuration baseline documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, G.D.; Khan, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) automated approach to configuration base-line documentation (CBD) for Salem units 1 and 2 and Hope Creek. The CBD project is a proactive project, similar to what is commonly termed a design basis documentation program in the nuclear utility industry. The data information management system (DIMS) element of the CBD project is expected to automate the CBD development, review/approval, control, maintenance, and distribution of CBD and the subsequent integration of the CBD into the day-to-day design processes of PSE and G's nuclear engineering department. The DIMS project scope emphasizes streamlined, swift, and accurate design information retrieval system hardware and software; proper and controlled screening of stored design information; legible storage of design information; and more efficient and user-friendly information handling. This paper discusses the selection and implementation of an integrated optical imaging and textual search technology

  2. 40 CFR 80.915 - How are the baseline toxics value and baseline toxics volume determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... baseline toxics value if it can determine an applicable toxics value for every batch of gasoline produced... of gasoline batch i produced or imported between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. i = Individual batch of gasoline produced or imported between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2000, inclusive. n...

  3. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  4. On baseline corrections and uncertainty in response spectrafor baseline variations commonly encountered in digital accelerograph records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkar, Sinan; Boore, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Most digital accelerograph recordings are plagued by long-period drifts, best seen in the velocity and displacement time series obtained from integration of the acceleration time series. These drifts often result in velocity values that are nonzero near the end of the record. This is clearly unphysical and can lead to inaccurate estimates of peak ground displacement and long-period spectral response. The source of the long-period noise seems to be variations in the acceleration baseline in many cases. These variations could be due to true ground motion (tilting and rotation, as well as local permanent ground deformation), instrumental effects, or analog-to-digital conversion. Very often the trends in velocity are well approximated by a linear trend after the strong shaking subsides. The linearity of the trend in velocity implies that no variations in the baseline could have occurred after the onset of linearity in the velocity time series. This observation, combined with the lack of any trends in the pre-event motion, allows us to compute the time interval in which any baseline variations could occur. We then use several models of the variations in a Monte Carlo procedure to derive a suite of baseline-corrected accelerations for each noise model using records from the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and several earthquakes in Turkey. Comparisons of the mean values of the peak ground displacements, spectral displacements, and residual displacements computed from these corrected accelerations for the different noise models can be used as a guide to the accuracy of the baseline corrections. For many of the records considered here the mean values are similar for each noise model, giving confidence in the estimation of the mean values. The dispersion of the ground-motion measures increases with period and is noise-model dependent. The dispersion of inelastic spectra is greater than the elastic spectra at short periods but approaches that of the elastic spectra at longer periods

  5. Shifting environmental baselines in the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A R G; Ghazi, S J; Tkaczynski, P J; Venkatachalam, A J; Santillan, A; Pancho, T; Metcalfe, R; Saunders, J

    2014-01-15

    The Red Sea is among the world's top marine biodiversity hotspots. We re-examined coastal ecosystems at sites surveyed during the 1980s using the same methodology. Coral cover increased significantly towards the north, mirroring the reverse pattern for mangroves and other sedimentary ecosystems. Latitudinal patterns are broadly consistent across both surveys and with results from independent studies. Coral cover showed greatest change, declining significantly from a median score of 4 (1000-9999 m(2)) to 2 (10-99m(2)) per quadrat in 2010/11. This may partly reflect impact from coastal construction, which was evident at 40% of sites and has significantly increased in magnitude over 30 years. Beach oil has significantly declined, but shore debris has increased significantly. Although substantial, levels are lower than at some remote ocean atolls. While earlier reports have suggested that the Red Sea is generally healthy, shifting environmental baselines are evident from the current study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  7. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  8. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration

  9. FAIR - Baseline technical report. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Augustin, I.; Eickhoff, H.; Gross, K.D.; Henning, W.F.; Kraemer, D.; Walter, G.

    2006-09-01

    This document presents the Executive Summary, the first of six volumes comprising the 2006 Baseline Technical Report (BTR) for the international FAIR project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research). The BTR provides the technical description, cost, schedule, and assessments of risk for the proposed new facility. The purpose of the BTR is to provide a reliable basis for the construction, commissioning and operation of FAIR. The BTR is one of the central documents requested by the FAIR International Steering Committee (ISC) and its working groups, in order to prepare the legal process and the decisions on the construction and operation of FAIR in an international framework. It provides the technical basis for legal contracts on contributions to be made by, so far, 13 countries within the international FAIR Consortium. The BTR begins with this extended Executive Summary as Volume 1, which is also intended for use as a stand-alone document. The Executive Summary provides brief summaries of the accelerator facilities, the scientific programs and experimental stations, civil construction and safety, and of the workproject structure, costs and schedule. (orig.)

  10. Cryogenics Testbed Laboratory Flange Baseline Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Marie Lei Ysabel D.

    2013-01-01

    As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), I was involved in research for the Fluids and Propulsion Division of the NASA Engineering (NE) Directorate. I was immersed in the Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project for the majority of my time at KSC, primarily with the Ground Operations Demonstration Unit Liquid Oxygen (GODU L02) branch of IGODU. This project was established to develop advancements in cryogenic systems as a part of KSC's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. The vision of AES is to develop new approaches for human exploration, and operations in and beyond low Earth orbit. Advanced cryogenic systems are crucial to minimize the consumable losses of cryogenic propellants, develop higher performance launch vehicles, and decrease operations cost for future launch programs. During my internship, I conducted a flange torque tracking study that established a baseline configuration for the flanges in the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) at the KSC Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL) - the testing environment for GODU L02.

  11. Beyond Baselines: Rethinking Priorities for Ocean Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Campbell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1995, Daniel Pauly identified a "shifting baselines syndrome" (SBS. Pauly was concerned that scientists measure ecosystem change against their personal recollections of the past and, based on this decidedly short-term view, mismanage fish stocks because they tolerate gradual and incremental elimination of species and set inappropriate recovery goals. As a concept, SBS is simple to grasp and its logic is compelling. Much current work in marine historical ecology is rationalized in part as a means of combating SBS, and the term has also resonated outside of the academy with environmental advocacy groups. Although we recognize both conceptual and operational merit in SBS, we believe that the ultimate impact of SBS on ocean management will be limited by some underlying and interrelated problematic assumptions about ecology and human-environment relations, and the prescriptions that these assumptions support. In this paper, we trace both assumptions and prescriptions through key works in the SBS literature and interrogate them via ecological and social science theory and research. We argue that an expanded discussion of SBS is needed, one that engages a broader range of social scientists, ecologists, and resource users, and that explicitly recognizes the value judgments inherent in deciding both what past ecosystems looked like and whether or not and how we might reconstruct them.

  12. 100-D Area technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This document is prepared in support of the 100 Area Environmental Restoration activity at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of waste sites located at the 100-D Area. The report is based on an environmental investigation undertaken by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) History Office in support of the Environmental Restoration Engineering Function and on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings, and photographs, supplemented by site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigation or sampling was conducted. All Hanford coordinate locations are approximate locations taken from several different maps and drawings of the 100-D Area. Every effort was made to derive coordinate locations for the center of each facility or waste site, except where noted, using standard measuring devices. Units of measure are shown as they appear in reference documents. The 100-D Area is made up of three operable units: 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, and 100-DR-3. All three are addressed in this report. These operable units include liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, the 100-D and 100-DR Reactors. A fourth operable unit, 100-HR-3, is concerned with groundwater and is not addressed here. This report describes waste sites which include cribs, trenches, pits, french drains, retention basins, solid waste burial grounds, septic tanks, and drain fields. Each waste site is described separately and photographs are provided where available. A complete list of photographs can be found in Appendix A. A comprehensive environmental summary is not provided here but may be found in Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act Characterization (Cushing 1988), which describes the geology and soils, meteorology, hydrology, land use, population, and air quality of the area

  13. Baseline Architecture of ITER Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, A.; Di Maio, F.; Journeaux, J.-Y.; Klotz, W.-D.; Makijarvi, P.; Yonekawa, I.

    2011-08-01

    The control system of ITER consists of thousands of computers processing hundreds of thousands of signals. The control system, being the primary tool for operating the machine, shall integrate, control and coordinate all these computers and signals and allow a limited number of staff to operate the machine from a central location with minimum human intervention. The primary functions of the ITER control system are plant control, supervision and coordination, both during experimental pulses and 24/7 continuous operation. The former can be split in three phases; preparation of the experiment by defining all parameters; executing the experiment including distributed feed-back control and finally collecting, archiving, analyzing and presenting all data produced by the experiment. We define the control system as a set of hardware and software components with well defined characteristics. The architecture addresses the organization of these components and their relationship to each other. We distinguish between physical and functional architecture, where the former defines the physical connections and the latter the data flow between components. In this paper, we identify the ITER control system based on the plant breakdown structure. Then, the control system is partitioned into a workable set of bounded subsystems. This partition considers at the same time the completeness and the integration of the subsystems. The components making up subsystems are identified and defined, a naming convention is introduced and the physical networks defined. Special attention is given to timing and real-time communication for distributed control. Finally we discuss baseline technologies for implementing the proposed architecture based on analysis, market surveys, prototyping and benchmarking carried out during the last year.

  14. 1993 baseline solid waste management system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armacost, L.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Konynenbelt, H.S.

    1994-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has prepared this report under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company. The report provides an integrated description of the system planned for managing Hanford's solid low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, transuranic waste, and transuranic mixed waste. The primary purpose of this document is to illustrate a collective view of the key functions planned at the Hanford Site to handle existing waste inventories, as well as solid wastes that will be generated in the future. By viewing this system as a whole rather than as individual projects, key facility interactions and requirements are identified and a better understanding of the overall system may be gained. The system is described so as to form a basis for modeling the system at various levels of detail. Model results provide insight into issues such as facility capacity requirements, alternative system operating strategies, and impacts of system changes (ie., startup dates). This description of the planned Hanford solid waste processing system: defines a baseline system configuration; identifies the entering waste streams to be managed within the system; identifies basic system functions and waste flows; and highlights system constraints. This system description will evolve and be revised as issues are resolved, planning decisions are made, additional data are collected, and assumptions are tested and changed. Out of necessity, this document will also be revised and updated so that a documented system description, which reflects current system planning, is always available for use by engineers and managers. It does not provide any results generated from the many alternatives that will be modeled in the course of analyzing solid waste disposal options; such results will be provided in separate documents

  15. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S.K.; Aittola, M.; Alekou, A.; Andrieu, B.; Antoniou, F.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Autiero, D.; Besida, O.; Balik, A.; Ballett, P.; Bandac, I.; Banerjee, D.; Bartmann, W.; Bay, F.; Biskup, B.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Borriello, E.; Brancus, I.; Bravar, A.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calviani, M.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Cata-Danil, G.; Chakraborty, S.; Charitonidis, N.; Chaussard, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Chipesiu, F.; Crivelli, P.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Delbart, A.; Di Luise, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eliseev, A.; Emery, S.; Enqvist, T.; Enqvist, K.; Epprecht, L.; Erykalov, A.N.; Esanu, T.; Franco, D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gendotti, A.; Giganti, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Gomoiu, C.M.; Gornushkin, Y.A.; Gorodetzky, P.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Horikawa, S.; Huitu, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jipa, A.; Kainulainen, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kopylov, A.N.; Korzenev, A.; Kosyanenko, S.; Kryn, D.; Kudenko, Y.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lazanu, I.; Lazaridis, C.; Levy, J.M.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Mari, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Mirizzi, A.; Mitrica, B.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Narita, S.; Nesterenko, D.A.; Nguyen, K.; Nikolics, K.; Noah, E.; Novikov, Yu.; Oprima, A.; Osborne, J.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Pectu, M.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Popov, B.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Resnati, F.; Ristea, O.; Robert, A.; Rubbia, A.; Rummukainen, K.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez-Galan, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Saviano, N.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Slupecki, M.; Smargianaki, D.; Stanca, D.; Steerenberg, R.; Sterian, A.R.; Sterian, P.; Stoica, S.; Strabel, C.; Suhonen, J.; Suvorov, V.; Toma, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsenov, R.; Tuominen, K.; Valram, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Velotti, F.; Velten, P.; Venturi, V.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vincke, H.; Vorobyev, A.; Weber, A.; Wu, S.; Yershov, N.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  16. An undulator based high flux and high resolution beamline for atomic, molecular and optical science (AMOS) research at INDUS-2 synchrotron radiation source (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Asim Kumar; Rajasekhar, B.N.; Sahoo, N.K.

    2014-08-01

    A dedicated UV-VUV and soft X-ray beamline to provide several new research opportunities in Photon induced processes in the energy range of 6-250 eV for Atomic Molecular and Optical Science (AMOS) research, a domain still less explored both at national as well international level, has been proposed by Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC. This beamline will use a planar permanent magnet (PPM) undulator based on Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), a 2.5 GeV third generation electron storage ring at RRCAT, Indore, India and is expected to offer a variety of opportunities for more advanced and sustained investigations for AMOS research. A plane mirror and a toroidal mirror are used as the pre-focusing optics of the AMOS beamline. A varied line spacing plane grating monochromator (VLSPGM) in a converging beam, constant included angle mode containing one toroidal focusing mirror and four interchangeable gratings is to be used to cover the energy range of 6 to 250 eV and obtain resolving powers ∼10 4 and intensity ∼10 12 ph/s at the sample position. A toroidal mirror is used to focus the diverging monochromatic light from the monochromator at a distance of 150 cm with a 1:1 magnification. As the first step towards the beamline optics design, the evaluation of the PPM undulator radiation characteristics relevant to beamline design has been performed using the Indus-2 SRS parameters in the long straight section of the ring, PPM undulator parameters, and the empirical expressions available in literature. The software resources such as XOPS, ESRF, France and SPECTRA, Photon factory, Japan have been used for detailed modelling and verification of the empirical computations. Beamline layout preparation, optimization, imaging performance evaluation, and resolving power calculations for ideal beamline optics are carried out using SHADOWVUI, an extension of XOPS software resource. A new mounting of the optical components in the monochromator has been proposed

  17. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview workers...

  18. Production of transform-limited X-ray pulses through self-seeding at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2011-09-01

    An important goal for any advanced X-ray FEL is an option for providing Fourier-limited X-ray pulses. In this way, no monochromator is needed in the experimental hall. Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. These are important for many experiments including 3D diffraction imaging.We discuss the implementation of a single-crystal self-seeding scheme in the hard X-ray lines of the European XFEL. For this facility, transform-limited pulses are particularly valuable since they naturally support the extraction of more FEL power than at saturation by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulators. Tapering consists of a stepwise change of the undulator gap from segment to segment. Based on start-to-end simulations dealing with the up-to-date parameters of the European XFEL, we show that the FEL power reaches about 400 GW, or one order of magnitude higher power than the SASE saturation level (20 GW). This analysis indicates that our self-seeding scheme is not significantly affected by non-ideal electron phase-space distribution, and yields about the same performance as in the case for an electron beam with ideal parameters. The self-seeding scheme with a single crystal monochromator is extremely compact (about 5 m long), and cost estimations are low enough to consider adding it to the European XFEL capabilities from the very beginning of the operation phase. (orig.)

  19. Production of transform-limited X-ray pulses through self-seeding at the European X-ray FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    An important goal for any advanced X-ray FEL is an option for providing Fourier-limited X-ray pulses. In this way, no monochromator is needed in the experimental hall. Self-seeding is a promising approach to significantly narrow the SASE bandwidth to produce nearly transform-limited pulses. These are important for many experiments including 3D diffraction imaging.We discuss the implementation of a single-crystal self-seeding scheme in the hard X-ray lines of the European XFEL. For this facility, transform-limited pulses are particularly valuable since they naturally support the extraction of more FEL power than at saturation by exploiting tapering in the tunable-gap baseline undulators. Tapering consists of a stepwise change of the undulator gap from segment to segment. Based on start-to-end simulations dealing with the up-to-date parameters of the European XFEL, we show that the FEL power reaches about 400 GW, or one order of magnitude higher power than the SASE saturation level (20 GW). This analysis indicates that our self-seeding scheme is not significantly affected by non-ideal electron phase-space distribution, and yields about the same performance as in the case for an electron beam with ideal parameters. The self-seeding scheme with a single crystal monochromator is extremely compact (about 5 m long), and cost estimations are low enough to consider adding it to the European XFEL capabilities from the very beginning of the operation phase. (orig.)

  20. Multi-phase arrival tracking using tetrahedral cells within a 3D layered titled transversely isotropic anisotropic model involving undulating topography and irregular interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Wang; Bai, Chao-Ying; Yue, Xiao-Peng; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2018-02-01

    To overcome a major problem in current ray tracing methods, which are only capable of tracing first arrivals, and occasionally primary reflections (or mode conversions) in regular cell models, we extend in this paper the multistage triangular shortest-path method (SPM) into 3D titled transversely isotropic (TTI) anisotropic media. The proposed method is capable of tracking multi-phase arrivals composed of any kind of combinations of transmissions, mode conversions and reflections. In model parameterization, five elastic parameters, plus two angles defining the titled axis of symmetry of TTI media are sampled at the primary nodes of the tetrahedral cell, and velocity value at secondary node positions are linked by a tri-linear velocity interpolation function to the primary node velocity value of that of a tetrahedral cell, from which the group velocities of the three wave modes (qP, qSV and qSH) are computed. The multistage triangular SPM is used to track multi-phase arrivals. The uniform anisotropic test indicates that the numerical solution agrees well with the analytic solution, thus verifying the accuracy of the methodology. Several simulations and comparison results for heterogeneous models show that the proposed algorithm is able to efficiently and accurately approximate undulating surface topography and irregular subsurface velocity discontinuities. It is suitable for any combination of multi-phase arrival tracking in arbitrary tilt angle TTI media and can accommodate any magnitude of anisotropy.

  1. Comparison of TXRF detection limits for low Z elements in different beam geometries at the PTB monochromator beamline for undulator radiation at Bessy II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckhoff, B.; Ulm, G.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Fabry, L.; Pahlke, S.

    2000-01-01

    A set of initial TXRF experiments were conducted at the PTB plane grating monochromator beamline for undulator radiation at the electron storage ring BESSY II allowing for exciting energies between 0.1 keV and 1.9 keV. Here, the lower limits of detection of TXRF analysis investigated for some low Z elements such as C, N, 0, Al, Mg and Na in two different detection geometries for various excitation modes. Compared to ordinary XRF geometries involving large incident angles, the TXRF variant offers also at low excitation energies drastically reduced background contributions due to the small penetration depth caused by the total reflection of the incident beam at the polished surface of a flat specimen carrier such as a silicon wafer. For the sake of an application-oriented TXRF approach, droplet samples on Si wafer surfaces were prepared by Wacker Siltronic and investigated in the TXRF irradiation chamber of the Atominstitut offering a semiconductor detector with a thin entrance window that was only 300 nm thick. (author)

  2. Numerical Study of Winter Diurnal Convection Over the City of Krasnoyarsk: Effects of Non-freezing River, Undulating Fog and Steam Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrebtov, M.; Hanjalić, K.

    2017-06-01

    We performed a numerical simulation of penetrative convection of an inversion-topped weakly stratified atmospheric boundary layer over urban terrain with a strong localized source of heat and moisture. With some simplifications, the case mimics the real environment of the Krasnoyarsk region in Russia where the non-freezing river Yenisei acts as a thermal and humidity source during winter, generating an undulating fog pattern along the river accompanied with scattered `steam devils'. An idealized full diurnal cycle was simulated using an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) three-equation algebraic flux model and the novel buoyancy-accounting functions for treating the ground boundary conditions. The results show a significant effect of the river on the net temperature and moisture distribution. The localized heat and moisture source leads to strong horizontal convection and marked non-uniformity of humidity concentration in the air. An interplay of several distinct large-scale vortex systems leads to a wavy pattern of moisture plumes over the river. The simulations deal with rare natural phenomena and show the capability of the RANS turbulence closure to capture the main features of flow and scalar fields on an affordable, relatively coarse, computational grid.

  3. Efficient generation of short and high-power x-ray free-electron-laser pulses based on superradiance with a transversely tilted beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Prat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs are innovative research tools able to produce high-power and short radiation pulses for multiple scientific applications. We present a new method to produce XFEL radiation with much higher power and shorter pulse lengths than the ones obtained at standard XFEL facilities. This will enable new kinds of experiments in scientific fields such as nonlinear optics and bioimaging. The scheme is based on introducing a transverse tilt to the electron beam, thus limiting the fraction of the bunch able to produce XFEL radiation. In the first part of the undulator beam line only the tail of the electron bunch lases. Then, by properly delaying and correcting the trajectory of the electron beam between some undulator modules, all the electrons can contribute to the amplification of a very short XFEL pulse. Apart from being efficient, our method is flexible since by tuning the tilt amplitude one can obtain shorter or more energetic XFEL pulses. The scheme can readily be applied since, besides the standard components of an XFEL facility, it only needs small chicanes between certain undulator modules. We have confirmed the validity of our proposal with numerical simulations done for the SwissFEL case.

  4. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    OpenAIRE

    Jump, David

    2014-01-01

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing...

  5. Site Outcomes Baseline Multi Year Work Plan Volume 1, River Corridor Restoration Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintczak, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The River Corridor Restoration volume is a compilation of Hanford Site scope, which excludes the approximately 194 km 2 Central Plateau. The River Corridor scope is currently contractually assigned to Fluor Hanford, Bechtel Hanford, inc., DynCorp, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and others. The purpose of this project specification is to provide an overall scoping document for the River Corridor Restoration volume, and to provide a link with the overall Hanford Site River Corridor scope. Additionally, this specification provides an integrated and consolidated source of information for the various scopes, by current contract, for the River Corridor Restoration Baseline. It identifies the vision, mission, and goals, as well as the operational history of the Hanford Site, along with environmental setting and hazards

  6. Baseline inventory data recommendations for National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team recommends that each refuge have available abiotic “data layers” for topography, aerial photography, hydrography, soils, boundaries, and...

  7. Tank waste remediation system technical baseline summary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission work as depicted in the included figure. This Technical Baseline Summary Description document is the top-level tool for management of the Technical Baseline for waste storage operations

  8. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALMA Partnership, [Unknown; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cox, P.; Amestica, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cotton, W.; Hales, A. S.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kern, J.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Marcelino, N.; Marson, R.; Mignano, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Nikolic, B.; Perez, J. E.; Pérez, L. M.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Butler, B.; Cortes, J.; Cortes, P.; Dhawan, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Mangum, J.; Marconi, G.; Nagai, H.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Gueth, F.; Tatematsu, K.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Karim, A.; Krips, M.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Martin, S.; Maud, L.; Morales, F.; Pietu, V.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Whyborn, N.; Alves, F.; Andreani, P.; Avison, A.; Barta, M.; Bedosti, F.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Bethermin, M.; Biggs, A.; Boissier, J.; Brand, J.; Burkutean, S.; Casasola, V.; Conway, J.; Cortese, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Davis, T. A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Fontani, F.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Fuller, G.; Galvan Madrid, R.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Graves, S. F.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hogerheijde, M.; Jachym, P.; Jimenez Serra, I.; Karlicky, M.; Klaasen, P.; Kraus, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lagos, C.; Longmore, S.; Leurini, S.; Maercker, M.; Magnelli, B.; Marti Vidal, I.; Massardi, M.; Maury, A.; Muehle, S.; Muller, S.; Muxlow, T.; O’Gorman, E.; Paladino, R.; Petry, D.; Pineda, J.; Randall, S.; Richer, J. S.; Rossetti, A.; Rushton, A.; Rygl, K.; Sanchez Monge, A.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Stanke, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Stoehr, F.; Urban, S.; van Kampen, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wang, K.; Wild, W.; Yang, Y.; Iguchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Saito, M.; Inatani, J.; Mizuno, N.; Asayama, S.; Kosugi, G.; Morita, K.-I.; Chiba, K.; Kawashima, S.; Okumura, S. K.; Ohashi, N.; Ogasawara, R.; Sakamoto, S.; Noguchi, T.; Huang, Y.-D.; Liu, S.-Y.; Kemper, F.; Koch, P. M.; Chen, M.-T.; Chikada, Y.; Hiramatsu, M.; Iono, D.; Shimojo, M.; Komugi, S.; Kim, J.; Lyo, A.-R.; Muller, E.; Herrera, C.; Miura, R. E.; Ueda, J.; Chibueze, J.; Su, Y.-N.; Trejo-Cruz, A.; Wang, K.-S.; Kiuchi, H.; Ukita, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Kawabe, R.; Hayashi, M.; Miyama, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kaifu, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Beasley, A. J.; Bhatnagar, S.; Braatz, J. A., III; Brisbin, D. G.; Brunetti, N.; Carilli, C.; Crossley, J. H.; D’Addario, L.; Donovan Meyer, J. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Evans, A. S.; Fisher, P.; Golap, K.; Griffith, D. M.; Hale, A. E.; Halstead, D.; Hardy, E. J.; Hatz, M. C.; Holdaway, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Jewell, P. R.; Kepley, A. A.; Kim, D.-C.; Lacy, M. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Liszt, H. S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Matthews, B.; McKinnon, M.; Mason, B. S.; Moellenbrock, G.; Moullet, A.; Myers, S. T.; Ott, J.; Peck, A. B.; Pisano, J.; Radford, S. J. E.; Randolph, W. T.; Rao Venkata, U.; Rawlings, M. G.; Rosen, R.; Schnee, S. L.; Scott, K. S.; Sharp, N. K.; Sheth, K.; Simon, R. S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried

  9. Extracting Baseline Electricity Usage Using Gradient Tree Boosting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehoon [Ulsan Nat. Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Ulsan (South Korea); Lee, Dongeun [Ulsan Nat. Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Ulsan (South Korea); Choi, Jaesik [Ulsan Nat. Inst. of Sci. & Tech., Ulsan (South Korea); Spurlock, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sim, Alex [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    To understand how specific interventions affect a process observed over time, we need to control for the other factors that influence outcomes. Such a model that captures all factors other than the one of interest is generally known as a baseline. In our study of how different pricing schemes affect residential electricity consumption, the baseline would need to capture the impact of outdoor temperature along with many other factors. In this work, we examine a number of different data mining techniques and demonstrate Gradient Tree Boosting (GTB) to be an effective method to build the baseline. We train GTB on data prior to the introduction of new pricing schemes, and apply the known temperature following the introduction of new pricing schemes to predict electricity usage with the expected temperature correction. Our experiments and analyses show that the baseline models generated by GTB capture the core characteristics over the two years with the new pricing schemes. In contrast to the majority of regression based techniques which fail to capture the lag between the peak of daily temperature and the peak of electricity usage, the GTB generated baselines are able to correctly capture the delay between the temperature peak and the electricity peak. Furthermore, subtracting this temperature-adjusted baseline from the observed electricity usage, we find that the resulting values are more amenable to interpretation, which demonstrates that the temperature-adjusted baseline is indeed effective.

  10. Dynamic baseline detection method for power data network service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic baseline Traffic detection Method which is based on the historical traffic data for the Power data network. The method uses Cisco's NetFlow acquisition tool to collect the original historical traffic data from network element at fixed intervals. This method uses three dimensions information including the communication port, time, traffic (number of bytes or number of packets) t. By filtering, removing the deviation value, calculating the dynamic baseline value, comparing the actual value with the baseline value, the method can detect whether the current network traffic is abnormal.

  11. CryoSat SAR/SARin Level1b products: assessment of BaselineC and improvements towards BaselineD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2017-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. Cryosat carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL), that transmits pulses at a high pulse repetition frequency thus making the received echoes phase coherent and suitable for azimuth processing. This allows to reach a significantly improved along track resolution with respect to traditional pulse-width limited altimeters. CryoSat is the first altimetry mission operating in SAR mode and continuous improvements in the Level1 Instrument Processing Facility (IPF1) are being identified, tested and validated in order to improve the quality of the Level1b products. The current IPF, Baseline C, was released in operation in April 2015 and the second CryoSat reprocessing campaign was jointly initiated, taking benefit of the upgrade implemented in the IPF1 processing chain but also of some specific configurations for the calibration corrections. In particular, the CryoSat Level1b BaselineC products generated in the framework of the second reprocessing campaign include refined information for what concerns the mispointing angles and the calibration corrections. This poster will thus detail thus the evolutions that are currently planned for the CryoSat BaselineD SAR/SARin Level1b products and the corresponding quality improvements that are expected.

  12. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  13. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  14. Continuous baseline growth and monitoring for guided wave SHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkis, Osvaldas; Croxford, Anthony J.

    2013-05-01

    It has been shown by many authors that temperature effect compensation is a necessity for the realization of a reliable structural health monitoring (SHM) system. However, there exist practical issues related to the acquisition of baseline signals, required for temperature compensation methods to work effectively, such as degenerate baseline signals recorded at the same temperature and a long acquisition period before monitoring is started. An alternative approach for the acquisition of baseline signals is presented in this paper. The algorithm makes the acquisition an evolutionary process, integrated in the damage detection procedures. The algorithm is shown to be successful in generating a concise set of baselines that guarantees efficient performance of temperature compensation methods, leading to computation time and computer memory savings. Its capabilities in detecting simulated abrupt and slowly evolving damages have also been tested.

  15. Human Dimensions Baseline Assessment of the 75th Ranger Regiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Britt, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of a baseline assessment of the 75th Ranger Regiment on the human dimensions of work environment, sources of stress, horizontal and vertical cohesion, and the outcome variables...

  16. Parametric estimation of time varying baselines in airborne interferometric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1996-01-01

    A method for estimation of time varying spatial baselines in airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is described. The range and azimuth distortions between two images acquired with a non-linear baseline are derived. A parametric model of the baseline is then, in a least square...... sense, estimated from image shifts obtained by cross correlation of numerous small patches throughout the image. The method has been applied to airborne EMISAR imagery from the 1995 campaign over the Storstrommen Glacier in North East Greenland conducted by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing. This has...... reduced the baseline uncertainties from several meters to the centimeter level in a 36 km scene. Though developed for airborne SAR the method can easily be adopted to satellite data...

  17. MALDI-TOF Baseline Drift Removal Using Stochastic Bernstein Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic Bernstein (SB approximation can tackle the problem of baseline drift correction of instrumentation data. This is demonstrated for spectral data: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF data. Two SB schemes for removing the baseline drift are presented: iterative and direct. Following an explanation of the origin of the MALDI-TOF baseline drift that sheds light on the inherent difficulty of its removal by chemical means, SB baseline drift removal is illustrated for both proteomics and genomics MALDI-TOF data sets. SB is an elegant signal processing method to obtain a numerically straightforward baseline shift removal method as it includes a free parameter that can be optimized for different baseline drift removal applications. Therefore, research that determines putative biomarkers from the spectral data might benefit from a sensitivity analysis to the underlying spectral measurement that is made possible by varying the SB free parameter. This can be manually tuned (for constant or tuned with evolutionary computation (for .

  18. Robust baseline subtraction for ultrasonic full wavefield analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguri, K. Supreet; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Harley, Joel B.

    2017-02-01

    Full wavefield analysis is used to study and characterize the interaction between waves and structural damage. Yet, as wavefields are measured and as damage evolves in a structure, environmental and operational variations can significantly affect wave propagation. Several approaches, including time-stretching and optimal baseline selection methods, can reduce variations, but these methods are often limited to specific effects, are ineffective for large environmental variations, or require an impractical number of prior baseline measurements. This paper presents a robust methodology for subtracting wavefields and isolating wave-damage interactions. The method is based on dictionary learning. It is robust to multiple types of environmental and operational variations and requires only one initial baseline. We learn the dictionary, which describes wave propagation for a particular wavefield, based on multiple frequencies of a baseline wavefield. We then use the dictionary and sparse regression to create new baselines for measurements with different environmental and operational conditions. The new baseline is then subtracted from the new wavefield to isolate damage wavefield.

  19. A Fully Customized Baseline Removal Framework for Spectroscopic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Stephen; Boucher, Thomas; Carey, C J; Mahadevan, Sridhar; Dyar, M Darby

    2017-07-01

    The task of proper baseline or continuum removal is common to nearly all types of spectroscopy. Its goal is to remove any portion of a signal that is irrelevant to features of interest while preserving any predictive information. Despite the importance of baseline removal, median or guessed default parameters are commonly employed, often using commercially available software supplied with instruments. Several published baseline removal algorithms have been shown to be useful for particular spectroscopic applications but their generalizability is ambiguous. The new Custom Baseline Removal (Custom BLR) method presented here generalizes the problem of baseline removal by combining operations from previously proposed methods to synthesize new correction algorithms. It creates novel methods for each technique, application, and training set, discovering new algorithms that maximize the predictive accuracy of the resulting spectroscopic models. In most cases, these learned methods either match or improve on the performance of the best alternative. Examples of these advantages are shown for three different scenarios: quantification of components in near-infrared spectra of corn and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data of rocks, and classification/matching of minerals using Raman spectroscopy. Software to implement this optimization is available from the authors. By removing subjectivity from this commonly encountered task, Custom BLR is a significant step toward completely automatic and general baseline removal in spectroscopic and other applications.

  20. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  1. An experimental superconducting helical undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspi, S.; Taylor, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in the technology of superconducting magnets for high energy physics and recent advancements in SC materials with the artificial pinning centers (APC){sup 2}, have made a bifilar helical SC device an attractive candidate for a single-pass free electron laser (FEL){sup 3}. Initial studies have suggested that a 6.5 mm inner diameter helical device, with a 27 mm period, can generate a central field of 2-2.5 Tesla. Additional studies have also suggested that with a stored energy of 300 J/m, such a device can be made self-protecting in the event of a quench. However, since the most critical area associated with high current density SC magnets is connected with quenching and training, a short experimental device will have to be built and tested. In this paper we discuss technical issues relevant to the construction of such a device, including a conceptual design, fields, and forces.

  2. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  3. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  4. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  5. Optimization of a high efficiency FEL amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-10-01

    The problem of an efficiency increase of an FEL amplifier is now of great practical importance. Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing X-ray FELs LCLS and SACLA, and is planned for use at the European XFEL, Swiss FEL, and PAL XFEL. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. In this paper we perform detailed analysis of the tapering strategies for high power seeded FEL amplifiers. Application of similarity techniques allows us to derive universal law of the undulator tapering.

  6. Evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome in ethnobotanical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazaki, Natalia; Herbst, Dannieli Firme; Marques, Mel Simionato; Vandebroek, Ina

    2013-11-14

    The shifting baseline syndrome is a concept from ecology that can be analyzed in the context of ethnobotanical research. Evidence of shifting baseline syndrome can be found in studies dealing with intracultural variation of knowledge, when knowledge from different generations is compared and combined with information about changes in the environment and/or natural resources. We reviewed 84 studies published between 1993 and 2012 that made comparisons of ethnobotanical knowledge according to different age classes. After analyzing these studies for evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome (lower knowledge levels in younger generations and mention of declining abundance of local natural resources), we searched within these studies for the use of the expressions "cultural erosion", "loss of knowledge", or "acculturation". The studies focused on different groups of plants (e.g. medicinal plants, foods, plants used for general purposes, or the uses of specific important species). More than half of all 84 studies (57%) mentioned a concern towards cultural erosion or knowledge loss; 54% of the studies showed evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome; and 37% of the studies did not provide any evidence of shifting baselines (intergenerational knowledge differences but no information available about the abundance of natural resources). The general perception of knowledge loss among young people when comparing ethnobotanical repertoires among different age groups should be analyzed with caution. Changes in the landscape or in the abundance of plant resources may be associated with changes in ethnobotanical repertoires held by people of different age groups. Also, the relationship between the availability of resources and current plant use practices rely on a complexity of factors. Fluctuations in these variables can cause changes in the reference (baseline) of different generations and consequently be responsible for differences in intergenerational knowledge. Unraveling

  7. Addendum to the 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This report serves as an addendum to the report 2015 Eastern Interconnect Baselining and Analysis Report (Amidan, Follum, and Freeman, 2015). This addendum report investigates the following: the impact of shorter record lengths and of adding a daily regularization term to the date/time models for angle pair measurements, additional development of a method to monitor the trend in phase angle pairs, the effect of changing the length of time to determine a baseline, when calculating atypical events, and a comparison between quantitatively discovered atypical events and actual events.

  8. Abstract: Notes from the Field: Establishing Baseline Data for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of resource limitations and short-staffing, these results are quite positive. Once baseline data is established with further study, the ICU will be able to evaluate the efficacy of future nursing practice changes designed to reduce pressure ulcer incidence and severity in the ICU setting. Key words: pressure ulcer, ICU, ...

  9. Baseline survey for the implementation of insecticide treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baseline survey for the implementation of insecticide treated mosquito nets in Malaria control in Ethiopia. Daddi Jima, Gezagegn Tasfaye, Wakgari Deressa, Adugna Woyessa, Daniel Kebede, Desta Alamirew. Abstract. No Abstract Available Ethiop.J.Health Dev. Vol.19 (1) 2005: 16-23. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  10. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  11. Baseline values of immunologic parameters in the lizard Salvator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the aim of established baseline values for four immunologic biomarkers widely used, 36 tegu lizards were evaluated tacking into account different age classes and both sexes. Total leukocyte counts were not different between age classes. Of the leucocytes count, eosinophils levels were higher in neonates compared ...

  12. Baseline predictors of missed visits in the Look AHEAD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To identify baseline attributes associated with consecutively missed data collection visits during the first 48 months of Look AHEAD—a randomized, controlled trial in 5,145 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes designed to determine the long-term health benefits of weight loss achi...

  13. Energy baseline for monitoring vulnerability of the energy sector to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change is thought to be one of the factors causing the decline in water levels in the lakes. A study to establish an energy baseline that will save as a reference for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of measures being implemented to reduce vulnerability of the Rwanda's hydro dams due to the impacts of ...

  14. Baseline and follow-up laboratory monitoring of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjia, Jennifer; Fischer, Shira H; Raebel, Marsha A; Peterson, Daniel; Zhao, Yanfang; Gagne, Shawn J; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Field, Terry S

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory monitoring of medications is typically used to establish safety prior to drug initiation and to detect drug-related injury following initiation. It is unclear whether black box warnings (BBWs) as well as evidence- and consensus-based clinical guidelines increase the likelihood of appropriate monitoring. To determine the proportion of patients newly initiated on selected cardiovascular medications with baseline assessment and follow-up laboratory monitoring and compare the prevalence of laboratory testing for drugs with and without BBWs and guidelines. This cross-sectional study included patients aged 18 years or older from a large multispecialty group practice who were prescribed a cardiovascular medication (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, amiodarone, digoxin, lipid-lowering agents, diuretics, and potassium supplements) between January 1 and July 31, 2008. The primary outcome measure was laboratory test ordering for baseline assessment and follow-up monitoring of newly initiated cardiovascular medications. The number of new users of each study drug ranged from 49 to 1757 during the study period. Baseline laboratory test ordering across study drugs ranged from 37.4% to 94.8%, and follow-up laboratory test ordering ranged from 20.0% to 77.2%. Laboratory tests for drugs with baseline laboratory assessment recommendations in BBWs were more commonly ordered than for drugs without BBWs (86.4% vs 78.0%, p BBW recommendations may improve monitoring.

  15. Baseline information on using fermented crude extracts from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-pesticides, when used as a post-planting pesticide, are limited by their potential ability to suppress the pest and their degree of phytotoxicity. Baseline information on the suitability of fermented crude extracts (FCE) of Cucumis africanus fruit as a post-planting bio-nematicide was determined on Meloidogyne incognita ...

  16. Effect of computer game playing on baseline laparoscopic simulator skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Fredrik H; Cvancarova, Milada; Fosse, Erik; Mjåland, Odd

    2013-08-01

    Studies examining the possible association between computer game playing and laparoscopic performance in general have yielded conflicting results and neither has a relationship between computer game playing and baseline performance on laparoscopic simulators been established. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between previous and present computer game playing and baseline performance on a virtual reality laparoscopic performance in a sample of potential future medical students. The participating students completed a questionnaire covering the weekly amount and type of computer game playing activity during the previous year and 3 years ago. They then performed 2 repetitions of 2 tasks ("gallbladder dissection" and "traverse tube") on a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator. Performance on the simulator were then analyzed for association to their computer game experience. Local high school, Norway. Forty-eight students from 2 high school classes volunteered to participate in the study. No association between prior and present computer game playing and baseline performance was found. The results were similar both for prior and present action game playing and prior and present computer game playing in general. Our results indicate that prior and present computer game playing may not affect baseline performance in a virtual reality simulator.

  17. The Dutch CAFE baseline: In or out of line?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink BA; Folkert RJM; Thomas R; Beck JP; Eerdt MM van; Elzenga HE; Hoek KW van der; Hoen A; Peek CJ; LED; KMD; NMD; LVM; RIM; LDL

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is constructing a strategy on air pollution within the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. This strategy will be based on assessments using the RAINS model for different policy ambitions where the CAFE baseline scenario and control strategies are employed. The Netherlands

  18. 48 CFR 34.202 - Integrated Baseline Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or contractor, and the Government, of the— (1) Ability of the project's technical plan to achieve the... successfully achieve the project schedule objectives; (3) Ability of the Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 34.202...

  19. Baseline design of an OTEC pilot plantship. Volume C. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosten, L. R.; Bringloe, Thomas; Soracco, Dave; Fenstermacher, Earl; Magura, Donald; Sander, Olof; Richards, Dennis; Seward, Jerry

    1979-05-01

    Volume C is part of a three-volume report that presents a baseline engineering design of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plantship. This volume provides the specifications for the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers.

  20. Development of a Soil Organic Carbon Baseline for Otjozondjupa, Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijbroek, R.; Kempen, B.; Mutua, J.; Soderstrom, M.; Piikki, K.; Hengari, S.; Andreas, A.

    2017-01-01

    Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) has been piloted in 14 countries and will be scaled up to over 120 countries. As a LDN pilot country, Namibia developed sub-national LDN baselines in Otjozondjupa Region. In addition to the three LDN indicators (soil organic carbon, land productivity and land cover

  1. Baseline Radioactivity Measurements In The Vicinity Of A Gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Region, Ghana) to obtain baseline radioactivity data prior to the installation of Cs-137 nuclear density gauges for quality control measure-ment of the density of slurry in the pipelines at the plant. A survey meter, gamma spectrometry and ...

  2. The relationship between baseline pupil size and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Jason S; Harrison, Tyler L; Engle, Randall W

    2016-12-01

    Pupil dilations of the eye are known to correspond to central cognitive processes. However, the relationship between pupil size and individual differences in cognitive ability is not as well studied. A peculiar finding that has cropped up in this research is that those high on cognitive ability have a larger pupil size, even during a passive baseline condition. Yet these findings were incidental and lacked a clear explanation. Therefore, in the present series of studies we systematically investigated whether pupil size during a passive baseline is associated with individual differences in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. Across three studies we consistently found that baseline pupil size is, in fact, related to cognitive ability. We showed that this relationship could not be explained by differences in mental effort, and that the effect of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence on pupil size persisted even after 23 sessions and taking into account the effect of novelty or familiarity with the environment. We also accounted for potential confounding variables such as; age, ethnicity, and drug substances. Lastly, we found that it is fluid intelligence, more so than working memory capacity, which is related to baseline pupil size. In order to provide an explanation and suggestions for future research, we also consider our findings in the context of the underlying neural mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  4. Comparison of baseline drinking practices, knowledge, and attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of baseline drinking practices, knowledge, and attitudes of adult s residing in communities taking part in the FAS prevention study in South Africa. CDH Parry, JP Gossage, A-S Marais, R Barnard, M de Vries, J Blankenship, S Seedat, PA May ...

  5. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  6. Shifted Baselines Reduce Willingness to Pay for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren McClenachan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A loss of memory of past environmental degradation has resulted in shifted baselines, which may result in conservation and restoration goals that are less ambitious than if stakeholders had a full knowledge of ecosystem potential. However, the link between perception of baseline states and support for conservation planning has not been tested empirically. Here, we investigate how perceptions of change in coral reef ecosystems affect stakeholders' willingness to pay (WTP for the establishment of protected areas. Coral reefs are experiencing rapid, global change that is observable by the public, and therefore provide an ideal ecosystem to test links between beliefs about baseline states and willingness to support conservation. Our survey respondents perceived change to coral reef communities across six variables: coral abundance, fish abundance, fish diversity, fish size, sedimentation, and water pollution. Respondants who accurately perceived declines in reef health had significantly higher WTP for protected areas (US $256.80 vs. $102.50 per year, suggesting that shifted baselines may reduce engagement with conservation efforts. If WTP translates to engagement, this suggests that goals for restoration and recovery are likely to be more ambitious if the public is aware of long term change. Therefore, communicating the scope and depth of environmental problems is essential in engaging the public in conservation.

  7. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies, developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. This technical baseline is revised on an annual basis to reflect changes in the DOE Mixed Waste Management strategies, changes in the MWFA technical baseline development process, and MWFA accomplishments. This report presents the first revision to the technical baseline and the resulting prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. This report also reflects a higher level of stakeholder involvement in the prioritization of the deficiencies. This document summarizes the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs

  8. Hepatitis C treatment response kinetics and impact of baseline predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, M; Arnholm, B; Eilard, A

    2011-01-01

    Summary. The optimal duration of treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections is highly variable but critical for achieving cure (sustained virological response, SVR). We prospectively investigated the impact of age, fibrosis, baseline viraemia and genotype on the early viral kinetics and tre...

  9. Ecotaxonmic baseline evaluation of the plant species in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey of the flora composition of an ecosystem is important in several environmental baseline studies. An ecotaxonomic assessment was carried out in Ase-Ndoni proposed Rivgas Refinery project site in other to find out the plant species of medicinal and other economic values. The investigation was carried out to ...

  10. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER ampersand WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements

  11. Baselining PMU Data to Find Patterns and Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Follum, James D.; Freeman, Kimberly A.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2016-10-25

    This paper looks at the application of situational awareness methodologies with respect to power grid data. These methodologies establish baselines that look for typical patterns and atypical behavior in the data. The objectives of the baselining analyses are to provide: real-time analytics, the capability to look at historical trends and events, and reliable predictions of the near future state of the grid. Multivariate algorithms were created to establish normal baseline behavior and then score each moment in time according to its variance from the baseline. Detailed multivariate analytical techniques are described in this paper that produced ways to identify typical patterns and atypical behavior. In this case, atypical behavior is behavior that is unenvisioned. Visualizations were also produced to help explain the behavior that was identified mathematically. Examples are shown to help describe how to read and interpret the analyses and visualizations. Preliminary work has been performed on PMU data sets from BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) and EI (Eastern Interconnect). Actual results are not fully shown here because of confidentiality issues. Comparisons between atypical events found mathematically and actual events showed that many of the actual events are also atypical events; however there are many atypical events that do not correlate to any actual events. Additional work needs to be done to help classify the atypical events into actual events, so that the importance of the events can be better understood.

  12. Baseline series fragrance markers fail to predict contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jack; McFadden, John P; White, Jonathan M L; White, Ian R; Banerjee, Piu

    2014-05-01

    Negative patch test results with fragrance allergy markers in the European baseline series do not always predict a negative reaction to individual fragrance substances. To determine the frequencies of positive test reactions to the 26 fragrance substances for which labelling is mandatory in the EU, and how effectively reactions to fragrance markers in the baseline series predict positive reactions to the fragrance substances that are labelled. The records of 1951 eczema patients, routinely tested with the labelled fragrance substances and with an extended European baseline series in 2011 and 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and eighty-one (14.4%) (71.2% females) reacted to one or more allergens from the labelled-fragrance substance series and/or a fragrance marker from the European baseline series. The allergens that were positive with the greatest frequencies were cinnamyl alcohol (48; 2.46%), Evernia furfuracea (44; 2.26%), and isoeugenol (40; 2.05%). Of the 203 patients who reacted to any of the 26 fragrances in the labelled-fragrance substance series, only 117 (57.6%) also reacted to a fragrance marker in the baseline series. One hundred and seven (52.7%) reacted to either fragrance mix I or fragrance mix II, 28 (13.8%) reacted to Myroxylon pereirae, and 13 (6.4%) reacted to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. These findings confirm that the standard fragrance markers fail to identify patients with contact allergies to the 26 fragrances. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky has contracted with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build and operate a first-of-its-kind plant demonstrating the economic, environmental, socioeconomic and technical feasibility of the direct coal liquefaction process known as SRC-I. ICRC has made a massive commitment of time and expertise to design processes, plan and formulate policy, schedules, costs and technical drawings for all plant systems. These fully integrated plans comprise the Project Baseline and are the basis for all future detailed engineering, plant construction, operation, and other work set forth in the contract between ICRC and the DOE. Volumes I and II of the accompanying documents constitute the updated Project Baseline for the SRC-I two-stage liquefaction plant. International Coal Refining Company believes this versatile plant design incorporates the most advanced coal liquefaction system available in the synthetic fuels field. SRC-I two-stage liquefaction, as developed by ICRC, is the way of the future in coal liquefaction because of its product slate flexibility, high process thermal efficiency, and low consumption of hydrogen. The SRC-I Project Baseline design also has made important state-of-the-art advances in areas such as environmental control systems. Because of a lack of funding, the DOE has curtailed the total project effort without specifying a definite renewal date. This precludes the development of revised accurate and meaningful schedules and, hence, escalated project costs. ICRC has revised and updated the original Design Baseline to include in the technical documentation all of the approved but previously non-incorporated Category B and C and new Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals.

  14. Longitudinal change instead of baseline testosterone predicts depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kische, Hanna; Pieper, Lars; Venz, John; Klotsche, Jens; März, Winfried; Koch-Gromus, Uwe; Pittrow, David; Lehnert, Hendrik; Silber, Sigmund; Stalla, G K; Zeiher, Andreas M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Haring, Robin

    2018-03-01

    The association between total testosterone (T) and depression mostly relies on single sex hormone assessment and remains inconclusive. Thus, we investigated the comparative predictive performance of baseline T and change in T with development of depressive symptoms and incident depressive episodes. We used data from 6493 primary care patients (2653 men and 3840 women) of the DETECT study (Diabetes Cardiovascular Risk-Evaluation: Targets and Essential Data for Commitment of Treatment), including four-year follow-up, repeated immunoassay-based measurement of serum T and depressive symptoms assessed by the Depression Screening Questionnaire (DSQ). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of baseline T and one-year change in T with prevalent and incident depression were investigated using age- and multivariable-adjusted regression models. Baseline T showed no association with prevalent or incident depressive symptoms and episodes in both sexes. In men, a positive change in T (higher T at one-year follow-up compared to baseline) was associated with a lower burden of depressive symptoms (β-coefficient per unit change in T: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.31 to -0.04) and lower risk of incident depressive symptoms (odds ratio per unit change in T: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72-0.98) at four-year follow-up. In women, the association of T change with incident depressive episodes was rendered non-significant after multivariable adjustment. The present study observed a sex-specific inverse association of T change, but not baseline T, with increased depressive symptom burden in men. Future studies should assess longitudinal changes in sex hormone status as predictor of adverse health outcomes related to low T. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Fermilab Short-Baseline Program: MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment is the first of three detectors of the Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program that started operation in the Booster Neutrino Beamline in October 2015 [1]. When completed, the three-detector lineup will explore short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will be sensitive to sterile neutrino scenarios. MicroBooNE in itself is now starting its own physics program, with the measurement of neutrino-argon cross sections in the ~1GeV range being one of its main physics goals. These proceedings describe the status of the detector, the start of operation, and the automated reconstruction of the first neutrino events observed with MicroBooNE. Prospects for upcoming cross section measurements are also given.

  16. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document

  17. Overview of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility cryogenic system

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, David; Bremer, Johan; Delaney, Michael; Aurelien, Diaz; Doubnik, Roza; Haaf, Kevin; Hentschel, Steve; Norris, Barry; Voirin, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration is developing a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located one mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, detectors will be located inside four cryostats filled with a total of 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon, at the level of impurities lower than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) is developing the conventional facilities and cryogenics infrastructure supporting this experiment. The cryogenics system is composed of several sub-systems: External/Infrastructure, Proximity, and Internal cryogenics. It will be engineered, manufactured, commissioned, and qualified by an international engineering team. This contribution highlights the main features of the LBNF cryogenic system. It presents its performance, functional requirements and modes of operations. It also details the status of the design, ...

  18. U-10Mo Baseline Fuel Fabrication Process Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Lance R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arendt, Christina L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dye, Daniel F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Christopher K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lerchen, Megan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lombardo, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zacher, Alan H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    This document provides a description of the U.S. High Power Research Reactor (USHPRR) low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication process. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with the baseline process flow diagram (PFD) presented in Appendix A. The baseline PFD is used to document the fabrication process, communicate gaps in technology or manufacturing capabilities, convey alternatives under consideration, and as the basis for a dynamic simulation model of the fabrication process. The simulation model allows for the assessment of production rates, costs, and manufacturing requirements (manpower, fabrication space, numbers and types of equipment, etc.) throughout the lifecycle of the USHPRR program. This document, along with the accompanying PFD, is updated regularly

  19. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  20. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.