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Sample records for baseline interferometry radio

  1. Very Long Baseline Interferometry Experiment on Giant Radio Pulses of Crab Pulsar toward Fast Radio Burst Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Takefuji, K; Kondo, T; Mikami, R; Takeuchi, H; Misawa, H; Tsuchiya, F; Kita, H; Sekido, M

    2016-01-01

    We report on a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment on giant radio pulses (GPs) from the Crab pulsar in the radio 1.4 to 1.7 GHz range to demonstrate a VLBI technique for searching for fast radio bursts (FRBs). We carried out the experiment on 26 July 2014 using the Kashima 34 m and Usuda 64 m radio telescopes of the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) with a baseline of about 200 km. During the approximately 1 h observation, we could detect 35 GPs by high-time-resolution VLBI. Moreover, we determined the dispersion measure (DM) to be 56.7585 +/- 0.0025 on the basis of the mean DM of the 35 GPs detected by VLBI. We confirmed that the sensitivity of a detection of GPs using our technique is superior to that of a single-dish mode detection using the same telescope.

  2. Very Long Baseline Interferometry Experiment on Giant Radio Pulses of Crab Pulsar toward Fast Radio Burst Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takefuji, K.; Terasawa, T.; Kondo, T.; Mikami, R.; Takeuchi, H.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kita, H.; Sekido, M.

    2016-08-01

    We report on a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment on giant radio pulses (GPs) from the Crab pulsar in the radio 1.4–1.7 GHz range to demonstrate a VLBI technique for searching for fast radio bursts (FRBs). We carried out the experiment on 2014 July 26 using the Kashima 34 m and Usuda 64 m radio telescopes of the Japanese VLBI Network (JVN) with a baseline of about 200 km. During the approximately 1 hr observation, we could detect 35 GPs by high-time-resolution VLBI. Moreover, we determined the dispersion measure (DM) to be 56.7585 ± 0.0025 on the basis of the mean DM of the 35 GPs detected by VLBI. We confirmed that the sensitivity of a detection of GPs using our technique is superior to that of a single-dish mode detection using the same telescope.

  3. VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 6240: RESOLVING THE DOUBLE NUCLEI AND RADIO SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network was used at two epochs in 2003 and 2009 to obtain multi-frequency high-resolution images of the merger galaxy NGC 6240 in order to study the radio properties of all compact high-brightness components in the galaxy. Our observations at milliarcsecond resolution detected the northern and southern nuclei and two radio components, which we interpret as long-lived luminous supernovae associated with circumnuclear starburst activity in the southern nucleus. The new VLBI data support the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) together with starburst activity in the southern nucleus and provide some evidence for an AGN in the northern nucleus. Both nuclei display an inverted spectrum at lower GHz frequencies. The spectrum of the southern nucleus indicates thermal free-free absorption on parsec scales, consistent with the presence of an AGN.

  4. Possible links between BL Lacertae objects and quasars from very long baseline interferometry radio data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabuzda, D C

    1995-01-01

    Systematic differences in the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio polarization structure and average VLBI component speeds of BL Lacertae objects and quasars support the view that the observational distinction between these classes, based in large part on the strength of their optical line emission, is meaningful; in other words, this distinction reflects significant differences in the physical conditions in these sources. Possible models providing a link between the optical and VLBI properties of BL Lacertae objects and quasars are discussed. Most VLBI polarization observations to date have been global observations made at 6 cm; recent results suggest that the VLBI polarization structure of some sources may change dramatically on scales smaller than those probed by these 6-cm observations. PMID:11607606

  5. Very long baseline interferometry detection of an Infrared-Faint Radio Source

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Ray P.; Tingay, Steven; Phillips, Chris; Middelberg, Enno; Deller, Adam; Appleton, Philip N.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources represent a new and unexpected class of object which is bright at radio wavelengths but unusually faint at infrared wavelengths. If, like most mJy radio sources, they were either conventional active or star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, we would expect them to be detectable at infrared wavelengths, and so their non-detection by the Spitzer Space Telescope is surprising. Here, we report the detection of one of these sources using very long baseline interf...

  6. A Radio Detection Survey of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies using Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry at 22 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Akihiro; Kono, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Aya; Suzuki, Syunsaku; Matsumoto, Naoko; Tazaki, Fumie

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a high-sensitivity radio detection survey for forty narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) at 22 GHz through phase-referencing long-time integration and using a newly developing recorder with a data rate of 8 Gbps, which is a candidate of the next generation VLBI data recording systems for the Japanese VLBI Network. The baseline sensitivity was typically a few mJy. The observations resulted in a detection rate of 12/40 for our radio-selected NLS1 sample; 11 out of the detected 12 NLS1s showed inverted radio spectra between 1.4 and 22 GHz on the basis of the Very Large Array flux densities and the VLBI detections. These high fractions suggest that a compact radio core with a high brightness temperature is frequently associated with NLS1 nuclei. On the other hand, at least half of the sample indicated apparently steep spectra even with the limited VLBI sensitivity. Both the inverted and steep spectrum radio sources are included in the NLS1 population.

  7. Using baseline-dependent window functions for data compression and field-of-interest shaping in radio interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Atemkeng, M T; Tasse, C; Foster, G; Jonas, J

    2016-01-01

    In radio interferometry, observed visibilities are intrinsically sampled at some interval in time and frequency. Modern interferometers are capable of producing data at very high time and frequency resolution; practical limits on storage and computation costs require that some form of data compression be imposed. The traditional form of compression is a simple averaging of the visibilities over coarser time and frequency bins. This has an undesired side effect: the resulting averaged visibilities "decorrelate", and do so differently depending on the baseline length and averaging interval. This translates into a non-trivial signature in the image domain known as "smearing", which manifests itself as an attenuation in amplitude towards off-centre sources. With the increasing fields of view and/or longer baselines employed in modern and future instruments, the trade-off between data rate and smearing becomes increasingly unfavourable. In this work we investigate alternative approaches to low-loss data compressio...

  8. Solar gravitational deflection of radio waves measured by very-long-baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Kent, S. M.; Knight, C. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Clark, T. A.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing a four-antenna technique, simultaneous observations were made, at each end of an 845-km baseline, of the radio sources 3C279 and 3C273B, which are 10 deg apart in the sky. Differences in interferometric phases at 3.7-cm wavelength monitored near the time of the 1972 occultation of 3C279 by the sun, yielded a gravitational deflection of 0.99 plus or minus 0.03 times the value predicted by general relativity, corresponding to gamma = 0.98 plus or minus 0.06 (standard error).

  9. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources: Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Andreas; Norris, Ray P; Spitler, Lee R; Deller, Adam T; Collier, Jordan D; Parker, Quentin A

    2015-01-01

    Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z >~ 2). Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginal...

  10. ARISE - Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Linfield, R. P.; Wannier, P. G.; Preston, R. A.; Hirabayashi, H.; Zensus, J. A.; Veal, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    A mission is described called ARISE, Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth. ARISE will will provide affordable very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) using second- generation VLBI and one or more inflatable space radio telescopes.

  11. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources. Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Deller, A. T.; Collier, J. D.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z ≳ 2). Aims: Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. Methods: We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Results: Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginally higher VLBI detection fraction than randomly selected sources with mJy flux densities at arcsec-scales. Moreover, our data provide a positive correlation between compactness - defined as the ratio of milliarcsec- to arcsec-scale flux density - and redshift for IFRS, but suggest a decreasing mean compactness with increasing arcsec-scale radio flux density. Based on these findings, we suggest that IFRS tend to contain young AGNs whose jets have not formed yet or have not expanded, equivalent to very compact objects. We found two IFRS that are resolved into two components. The two components are spatially separated by a few hundred milliarcseconds in both cases. They might be components of one AGN, a binary black hole, or the result of gravitational lensing.

  12. The radio structure of 3C 309.1 determined by multi-baseline interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid maps are presented of the radio structure of the QSO 3C 309.1 at 1666 MHz from observations with the European VLBI network and with radio-linked interferometers at Jodrell Bank. The maps reveal that 3C 309.1 has a triple structure with a dominant compact self-absorbed core, extended in pa 1620 +- 20, and symmetrically disposed on either side of this are two relatively extended outer lobes defining an overall pa of approximately 900. This dramatic change in position angle from milliarcsec to the arcsec scale is also seen in many of the asymmetric, core-dominated (D2) quasars, and thus 3C 309.1 appears to be intermediate in its properties between the symmetric (D1) and the D2 classes. It may in fact be a D1 quasar observed nearly end-on, with a relativistically enhanced nuclear core. (author)

  13. MARBLE (Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometry for Baseline Length Evaluation): Development of a Compact VLBI System for Calibrating GNSS and Electronic Distance Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, R.; Ishii, A.; Takiguchi, H.; Kimura, M.; Sekido, M.; Takefuji, K.; Ujihara, H.; Hanado, Y.; Koyama, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Kawabata, R.; Nozawa, K.; Mukai, Y.; Kuroda, J.; Ishihara, M.; Matsuzaka, S.

    2012-12-01

    We are developing a compact VLBI system with a 1.6-m diameter aperture dish in order to provide reference baseline lengths for calibration. The reference baselines are used to validate surveying instruments such as GPS and EDM and is maintained by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). The compact VLBI system will be installed at both ends of the reference baseline. Since the system is not sensitive enough to detect fringes between the two small dishes, we have designed a new observation concept including one large dish station. We can detect two group delays between each compact VLBI system and the large dish station based on conventional VLBI measurement. A group delay between the two compact dishes can be indirectly calculated using a simple equation. We named the idea "Multiple Antenna Radio-interferometry for Baseline Length Evaluation", or MARBLE system. The compact VLBI system is easy transportable and consists of the compact dish, a new wide-band front-end system, azimuth and elevation drive units, an IF down-converter unit, an antenna control unit (ACU), a counterweight, and a monument pillar. Each drive unit is equipped with a zero-backlash harmonic drive gearing component. A monument pillar is designed to mount typical geodetic GNSS antennas easily and an offset between the GNSS antenna reference point. The location of the azimuth-elevation crossing point of the VLBI system is precisely determined with an uncertainty of less than 0.2 mm. We have carried out seven geodetic VLBI experiments on the Kashima-Tsukuba baseline (about 54 km) using the two prototypes of the compact VLBI system between December 2009 and December 2010. The average baseline length and repeatability of the experiments is 54184874.0 ± 2.4 mm. The results are well consistent with those obtained by GPS measurements. In addition, we are now planning to use the compact VLBI system for precise time and frequency comparison between separated locations.

  14. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  15. Lorentz symmetry and Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; lambert, S

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model extension (SME). Recently, post-fit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars lead to an upper limit at the $10^{-4}$ level on the time-time coefficient $\\bar s^{TT}$ of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then we implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of $\\bar s^{TT}$ and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and with analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on $\\bar s^{TT}=(-5\\pm 8)\\times 10^{-5}$, directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor 5 pr...

  16. Very-long-baseline radio interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray blazars: results from millimeter-VLBI observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichbaum, T P; Britzen, S; Standke, K J; Witzel, A; Schalinski, C J; Zensus, J A

    1995-12-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely gamma-bright blazar PKS 0528+134 at 8, 22, 43, and 86 GHz reveal a strongly bent one-sided-core jet structure with at least three moving and two apparently stationary jet components. At the highest observing frequencies the brightest and most compact jet component (the VLBI core) is unresolved with an upper limit to its size of approximately 50 microarcsec corresponding to approximately 0.2 parsec [H0 = 100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 (megaparsec-1), q0 = 0.5, where H0 is Hubble constant and q0 is the deceleration parameter]. Two 86-GHz VLBI observations performed in 1993.3 and 1994.0 reveal a new jet component emerging with superluminal speed from the core. Linear back-extrapolation of its motion yields strong evidence that the ejection of this component is related to an outburst in the millimeter regime and a preceding intense flare of the gamma-flux density observed in early 1993. This and the radio/optical "light curves" and VLBI data for two other sources (S5 0836+710 and 3C 454.3) suggest that the observed gamma-radiation might be Doppler-boosted and perhaps is closely related to the physical processes acting near the "base" of the highly relativistic jets observed in quasars. PMID:11607602

  17. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  18. The ionosphere and radio interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Th. Spoelstra

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the effects of the ionosphere on radio astronomjcal observations, what we can learn about the ionosphere from radio interferometry, and a procedure to correct for these effects. This study analyzes the results obtained from observations of celestial point soUl.ces with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, WSRT, in the Netherlands from the period 1970-1991. The main conc1usions are: 1 A1though seasona1 effects are c1ear, the occurrence and "strength" of ionospheric irregu1arities show no dependence on solar activity. 2 Assuming that the frequency of occurrence of ionospheric disturbances in Spring and Autumn are similar, Ihe "ionospheric" Winter starts on day 348 ± 3 and ali seasons last for three months. 3 Travelling ionospheric disturbances, TIDs, occur most frequently during daytime in Winter periods. 4 The propagation parameters of these travelling ionospheric irregularities and their periods indicate that these belong main1y to the c1ass of medium sca]e TIDs. 5 Radio interferometry is a powerful tool to locate irregularities causing scintillation and to determine their dimensions. 6 The occurrence of non-periodic irregu1arities is, however, not a function of time of day. 7 The daily variation in the amplitude and frequency of occurrence of the TIDs suggest that the generation of gravity waves may be caused by winds and tides in the lower thermosphere/mesosphere. On the basis of the availab1e data, a definition of a "disturbance measure" indicating to what extent the ionosphere is "quiet" is proposed. Procedures to correct for ionospheric effects and an eva1uation of the different methods to obtain information on the ionospheric e1ectron content are reviewed in sections 8 and 9, respectively.

  19. International data transfer for space very long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercigroch, Alexandria B.

    1994-11-01

    Space very long baseline interferometry (SVLBI) experiments using a TDRSS satellite have successfully demonstrated the capability of using spacecraft to extend the effective baseline length of VLBI observations beyond the diameter of the Earth, thereby improving the resolution for imaging of active galactic nuclei at centimeter wavelengths. As a result, two spacecraft dedicated to SVLBI, VSOP (Japan) and RadioAstron (Russia), are scheduled to be launched into high Earth orbit in 1996 and 1997. The success of these missions depends on the cooperation of the international community in providing support from ground tracking stations, ground radio telescopes, and correlation facilities. The timely exchange and monitoring of data among the participants requires a well-designed and automated international data transfer system. In this paper, we will discuss the design requirements, data types and flows, and the operational responsibilities associated with the SVLBI data transfer system.

  20. The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network:The Ghana Antenna Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Copley, C. J.; Thondikulam, V.; Loots, A.; Bangani, S.; Cloete, K.; Combrinck, L.; Gioio, S.; Ludick, J.; Nicolson, G.; Pollak, A. W.; P. Pretorius; Quick, J. F. H.; Taylor, G.; Ebrahim, F.; Humphreys, C

    2016-01-01

    The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN) is a pan-African project that will develop Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observing capability in several countries across the African continent, either by conversion of existing telecommunications antennas into radio telescopes, or by building new ones. This paper focuses on the conversion of the Nkutunse satellite communication station (near Accra, Ghana), specifically the early mechanical and infrastructure upgrades, tog...

  1. Advances in Astrometry and Geophysics Made Possible by Radio Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    Radio Interferometry has had a tremendous impact on the development of astrometry and geodesy. Barry Clark has played a leading role in developing the technology of radio interferometry through his work on connected-element interferometry, i.e., the Green Bank Interferometer and Very Large Array; and VLBI, i.e., the Mark I and II VLBI systems and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). These efforts resulted in an increase in astrometric accuracy of four orders of magnitude. Stellar positions at radio wavelengths now can be measured with a precision of 0.1 milliarcseconds (mas). Earth orientation parameters such as UT1 and polar motion are now measured with precisions of 10 microarcseconds (micronas). The precession constants and models for nutation need revision to precisions at the microarcsecond level. Tectonic plate motion was directly measured in the 1980s. These were and are exciting times for research in these fields and Barry's scientific career parallels them especially in astrometry.

  2. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Mark J.; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  3. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragi, Z.; Godfrey, L.; Reynolds, C.; Rioja, M. J.; Deller, A.; Zhang, B.; Gurvits, L.; Bietenholz, M.; Szomoru, A.; Bignall, H. E.; Boven, P.; Charlot, P.; Dodson, R.; Frey, S.; Garrett, M. A.; Imai, H.; Lobanov, A.; Reid, M. J.; Ros, E.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Zensus, A. J.; Zheng, X. W.; Alberdi, A.; Agudo, I.; An, T.; Argo, M.; Beswick, R.; Biggs, A.; Brunthaler, A.; Campbell, B.; Cimo, G.; Colomer, F.; Corbel, S.; Conway, J. E.; Cseh, D.; Deane, R.; Falcke, H. D. E.; Gawronski, M.; Gaylard, M.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Goddi, C.; Goedhart, S.; Gómez, J. L.; Gunn, A.; Kharb, P.; Kloeckner, H. R.; Koerding, E.; Kovalev, Y.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Lindqvist, M.; Lister, M.; Mantovani, F.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Mezcua, M.; McKean, J.; Middelberg, E.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Moldon, J.; Muxlow, T.; O'Brien, T.; Perez-Torres, M.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Quick, J.; Rushton, A.; Schilizzi, R.; Smirnov, O.; Sohn, B. W.; Surcis, G.; Taylor, G. B.; Tingay, S.; Tudose, V. M.; van der Horst, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Venturi, T.; Vermeulen, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; de Witt, A.; Wucknitz, O.; Yang, J.; Gabänyi, K.; Jung, T.

    2015-04-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  4. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  5. A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clivati, Cecilia; Costanzo, Giovanni A; Frittelli, Matteo; Levi, Filippo; Mura, Alberto; Zucco, Massimo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bortolotti, Claudio; Perini, Federico; Roma, Mauro; Calonico, Davide

    2015-11-01

    We realize a coherent fiber link for application in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) for radio astronomy and geodesy. A 550-km optical fiber connects the Italian National Metrological Institute (INRIM) to a radio telescope in Italy and is used for the primary Cs fountain clock stability and accuracy dissemination. We use an ultrastable laser frequency- referenced to the primary standard as a transfer oscillator; at the radio telescope, an RF signal is generated from the laser by using an optical frequency comb. This scheme now provides the traceability of the local maser to the SI second, realized by the Cs fountain at the 1.7 × 10(-16) accuracy. The fiber link never limits the experiment and is robust enough to sustain radio astronomical campaigns. This experiment opens the possibility of replacing the local hydrogen masers at the VLBI sites with optically-synthesized RF signals. This could improve VLBI resolution by providing more accurate and stable frequency references and, in perspective, by enabling common- clock VLBI based on a network of telescopes connected by fiber links. PMID:26559621

  6. The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network:The Ghana Antenna Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Copley, C J; Loots, A; Bangani, S; Cloete, K; Combrinck, L; Gioio, S; Ludick, J; Nicolson, G; Pollak, A W; Pretorius, P; Quick, J F H; Taylor, G; Ebrahim, F; Humphreys, C; Maake, K; Maganane, R; Majinjiva, R; Mapunda, A; Manzini, M; Mogakwe, N; Moseki, A; Qwabe, N; Royi, N; Rosie, K; Smith, J; Schietekat, S; Toruvanda, O; Tong, C; van Niekerk, B; Walbrugh, W; Zeeman, W

    2016-01-01

    The African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (AVN) is a pan-African project that will develop Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observing capability in several countries across the African continent, either by conversion of existing telecommunications antennas into radio telescopes, or by building new ones. This paper focuses on the conversion of the Nkutunse satellite communication station (near Accra, Ghana), specifically the early mechanical and infrastructure upgrades, together with the development of a custom ambient receiver and digital backend. The paper concludes with what remains to be done, before the station can be commissioned as an operational VLBI station.

  7. Radio interferometry and satellite tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Kawase, Seiichiro

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide growth of space communications has caused a rapid increase in the number of satellites operating in geostationary orbits, causing overcrowded orbits. This practical resource is designed to help professionals overcome this problem. This timely book provides a solid understanding of the use of radio interferometers for tracking and monitoring satellites in overcrowded environments. Practitioners learn the fundamentals of radio interferometer hardware, including antennas, receiving equipment, signal processing and phase detection, and measurement accuracies. This in-depth volume describ

  8. Improved geodetic European very-long-baseline interferometry solution using models of antenna gravitational deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Abbondanza; Pierguido Sarti; Monia Negusini

    2010-01-01

    Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) is used for establishing global geodetic networks where the coordinates attain a 1-mm level of precision. Technique-dependent bias can degrade the VLBI positioning accuracy if it is present and unaccounted for. Among the potential bias, gravitational flexure of VLBI telescopes can vary the path traveled by the incoming radio signal and induce a bias in the height component of the station position. We process here more than 100 European VLBI sessions sp...

  9. High-Performance Image Synthesis for Radio Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Muscat, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A radio interferometer indirectly measures the intensity distribution of the sky over the celestial sphere. Since measurements are made over an irregularly sampled Fourier plane, synthesising an intensity image from interferometric measurements requires substantial processing. Furthermore there are distortions that have to be corrected. In this thesis, a new high-performance image synthesis tool (imaging tool) for radio interferometry is developed. Implemented in C++ and CUDA, the imaging tool achieves unprecedented performance by means of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The imaging tool is divided into several components, and the back-end handling numerical calculations is generalised in a new framework. A new feature termed compression arbitrarily increases the performance of an already highly efficient GPU-based implementation of the w-projection algorithm. Compression takes advantage of the behaviour of oversampled convolution functions and the baseline trajectories. A CPU-based component prepares data ...

  10. Radio-frequency low-coherence interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R; Mora, José; Maestre, Haroldo; Corral, Pablo

    2014-06-15

    A method for retrieving low-coherence interferograms, based on the use of a microwave photonics filter, is proposed and demonstrated. The method is equivalent to the double-interferometer technique, with the scanning interferometer replaced by an analog fiber-optics link and the visibility recorded as the amplitude of its radio-frequency (RF) response. As a low-coherence interferometry system, it shows a decrease of resolution induced by the fiber's third-order dispersion (β3). As a displacement sensor, it provides highly linear and slope-scalable readouts of the interferometer's optical path difference in terms of RF, even in the presence of third-order dispersion. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate 20-μm displacement readouts using C-band EDFA sources and standard single-mode fiber. PMID:24978555

  11. Range Surveillance Using Radio Interferometry and TDOA Techniques Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize a small network of remote sensors (Figure 2.1) to perform Radio Interferometry (RI) and Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA)...

  12. Range Surveillance Using Radio Interferometry and TDOA Techniques Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation will utilize a small network of remote sensors to perform Radio Interferometry (RI) and Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) techniques to...

  13. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  14. Astrometry and geodesy with radio interferometry: experiments, models, results

    OpenAIRE

    Sovers, Ojars J.; Fanselow, John L.; Jacobs, Christopher S.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes current status of radio interferometry at radio frequencies between Earth-based receivers, for astrometric and geodetic applications. Emphasizes theoretical models of VLBI observables that are required to extract results at the present accuracy levels of 1 cm and 1 nanoradian. Highlights the achievements of VLBI during the past two decades in reference frames, Earth orientation, atmospheric effects on microwave propagation, and relativity.

  15. Adapting a Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Doeleman, Sheperd; Rogers, Alan; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael; Nand, Nitin; 10.1086/660156

    2011-01-01

    Extension of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to observing wavelengths shorter than 1.3mm provides exceptional angular resolution (~20 micro arcsec) and access to new spectral regimes for the study of astrophysical phenomena. To maintain phase coherence across a global VLBI array at these wavelengths requires that ultrastable frequency references be used for the heterodyne receivers at all participating telescopes. Hydrogen masers have traditionally been used as VLBI references, but atmospheric turbulence typically limits (sub) millimeter VLBI coherence times to ~1-30 s. Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators (CSO) have better stability than Hydrogen masers on these time scale and are potential alternatives to masers as VLBI references. Here, We describe the design, implementation and tests of a system to produce a 10 MHz VLBI frequency standard from the microwave (11.2 GHz) output of a CSO. To improve long-term stability of the new reference, the CSO was locked to the timing signal from the Global Positionin...

  16. A graphical tool for demonstrating the techniques of radio interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a graphical interface designed to demonstrate the techniques of radio interferometry used by telescopes like ALMA, e-Merlin, the JVLA and SKA, in a manner accessible to the general public. Interferometry is an observational technique used by astronomers to combine the signal from a few to tens to hundreds of individual small antennas to achieve high resolution images at radio and millimetre wavelengths. This graphical interface demonstrates how the number of antenna, their position relative to one another and the rotation of the Earth allow astronomers to create highly detailed images at long wavelengths. (paper)

  17. Very long baseline interferometry applied to polar motion, relativity, and geodesy. Ph.D. thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The causes and effects of diurnal polar motion are described. An algorithm was developed for modeling the effects on very long baseline interferometry observables. A selection was made between two three-station networks for monitoring polar motion. The effects of scheduling and the number of sources observed on estimated baseline errors are discussed. New hardware and software techniques in very long baseline interferometry are described

  18. Search for the primordial gravitational waves with Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Titov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Some models of the expanding Universe predict that the astrometric proper motion of distant radio sources embedded in space-time are non-zero as the radial distance from observer to the source grows. Systematic proper motion effects would produce a predictable quadrupole pattern on the sky that could be detected using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. This quadrupole pattern can be interpreted either as an anisotropic Hubble expansion, or as a signature of the primordial gravitational waves in the early Universe. We present our analysis of a large set of geodetic VLBI data spanning 1979--2015 to estimate the dipole and quadrupole harmonics in the expansion of the vector field of the proper motions of quasars in the sky. The analysis is repeated for different redshift zones.

  19. Distributed multi-frequency image reconstruction for radio-interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Deguignet, Jérémy; Mary, David; Ferrari, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The advent of enhanced technologies in radio interferometry and the perspective of the SKA telescope bring new challenges in image reconstruction. One of these challenges is the spatio-spectral reconstruction of large (Terabytes) data cubes with high fidelity. This contribution proposes an alternative implementation of one such 3D prototype algorithm, MUFFIN (MUlti-Frequency image reconstruction For radio INterferometry), which combines spatial and spectral analysis priors. Using a recently proposed primal dual algorithm, this new version of MUFFIN allows a parallel implementation where computationally intensive steps are split by spectral channels. This parallelization allows to implement computationally demanding translation invariant wavelet transforms (IUWT), as opposed to the union of bases used previously. This alternative implementation is important as it opens the possibility of comparing these efficient dictionaries, and others, in spatio-spectral reconstruction. Numerical results show that the IUWT-...

  20. Non-linear Kalman filters for calibration in radio interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tasse, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    We present a new calibration scheme based on a non-linear version of Kalman filter that aims at estimating the physical terms appearing in the Radio Interferometry Measurement Equation (RIME). We enrich the filter's structure with a tunable data representation model, together with an augmented measurement model for regularization. We show using simulations that it can properly estimate the physical effects appearing in the RIME. We found that this approach is particularly useful in the most extreme cases such as when ionospheric and clock effects are simultaneously present. Combined with the ability to provide prior knowledge on the expected structure of the physical instrumental effects (expected physical state and dynamics), we obtain a fairly cheap algorithm that we believe to be robust, especially in low signal-to-noise regime. Potentially the use of filters and other similar methods can represent an improvement for calibration in radio interferometry, under the condition that the effects corrupting visib...

  1. Radio and IR interferometry of SiO maser stars

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkowski, M.; Boboltz, D. A.; Gray, M. D.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Karovicova, I.; Scholz, M.

    2012-01-01

    Radio and infrared interferometry of SiO maser stars provide complementary information on the atmosphere and circumstellar environment at comparable spatial resolution. Here, we present the latest results on the atmospheric structure and the dust condensation region of AGB stars based on our recent infrared spectro-interferometric observations, which represent the environment of SiO masers. We discuss, as an example, new results from simultaneous VLTI and VLBA observations of the Mira variabl...

  2. Vectorial Radio Interferometry with LOPES 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, D; Arteaga, J C; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gemmeke, H; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K H; Kang, D; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Link, K; Łuczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Schieler, H; Schmid, A; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Wommer, M; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    One successful detection technique for high-energy cosmic rays is based on the radio signal emitted by the charged particles in an air shower. The LOPES experiment at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, has made major contributions to the evolution of this technique. LOPES was reconfigured several times to improve and further develop the radio detection technique. In the latest setup LOPES consisted of 10 tripole antennas. With this, LOPES 3D was the first cosmic ray experiment measuring all three vectorial field components at once and thereby gaining the full information about the electric field vector. We present an analysis based on the data taken with special focus on the benefits of a direct measurement of the vertical polarization component. We demonstrate that by measuring all polarization components the detection and reconstruction efficiency is increased and noisy single channel data can be reconstructed by utilising the information from the other two channels of one antenna station.

  3. Numerical simulation of solar wind density fluctuations and their effects on VLF radio interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mission consisting of an array of small satellites has been proposed to investigate radio sources at frequencies from approximately 2 to 20 MHz, a range unobservable from the ground because of ionospheric absorption and aberrations. Such a mission seems feasible and relatively inexpensive, but further investigation is still necessary. The solar wind is a major concern because it contains turbulence-induced random density variations that cause a fluctuating phase shift in any electromagnetic signal passing through, sometimes making radio source imaging by interferometry impossible. A numerical simulation has been developed which attempts to accurately characterize solar wind density fluctuations. Results have allowed more concrete conclusions to be drawn about observing constraints and have shown that interferometric imaging at radio frequencies below 10 MHz with baselines up to 100 km is possible at solar elongation angles of about 90 deg or more. 18 refs

  4. Scintillation noise in widefield radio interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantham, H. K.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we consider random phase fluctuations imposed during wave propagation through a turbulent plasma (e.g. ionosphere) as a source of additional noise in interferometric visibilities. We derive expressions for visibility variance for the wide field of view case (FOV ˜10°) by computing the statistics of Fresnel diffraction from a stochastic plasma, and provide an intuitive understanding. For typical ionospheric conditions (diffractive scale ˜5-20 km at 150 MHz), we show that the resulting ionospheric `scintillation noise' can be a dominant source of uncertainty at low frequencies (ν ≲ 200 MHz). Consequently, low-frequency widefield radio interferometers must take this source of uncertainty into account in their sensitivity analysis. We also discuss the spatial, temporal, and spectral coherence properties of scintillation noise that determine its magnitude in deep integrations, and influence prospects for its mitigation via calibration or filtering.

  5. Imaging the heart of astrophysical objects with optical long-baseline interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, J.-P.; Malbet, F.; Baron, F; Chiavassa, A.; Duvert, G.; Elitzur, M.; Freytag, B.; Gueth, F.; Hönig, S.; Hron, J; Jang-Condell, H.; Bouquin, J. -B. Le; Monin, J.-L.; Monnier, J. D.; PERRIN, G.

    2012-01-01

    The number of publications of aperture-synthesis images based on optical long-baseline interferometry measurements has recently increased due to easier access to visible and infrared interferometers. The interferometry technique has now reached a technical maturity level that opens new avenues for numerous astrophysical topics requiring milli-arcsecond model-independent imaging. In writing this paper our motivation was twofold: 1) review and publicize emblematic excerpts of the impressive cor...

  6. Imaging the heart of astrophysical objects with optical long-baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, J -P; Baron, F; Chiavassa, A; Duvert, G; Elitzur, M; Freytag, B; Gueth, F; Hönig, S; Hron, J; Jang-Condell, H; Bouquin, J -B Le; Monin, J -L; Monnier, J D; Perrin, G; Plez, B; Ratzka, T; Renard, S; Stefl, S; Thiébaut, E; Tristram, K; Verhoelst, T; Wolf, S; Young, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of publications of aperture-synthesis images based on optical long-baseline interferometry measurements has recently increased due to easier access to visible and infrared interferometers. The interferometry technique has now reached a technical maturity level that opens new avenues for numerous astrophysical topics requiring milli-arcsecond model-independent imaging. In writing this paper our motivation was twofold: 1) review and publicize emblematic excerpts of the impressive corpus accumulated in the field of optical interferometry image reconstruction; 2) discuss future prospects for this technique by selecting four representative astrophysical science cases in order to review the potential benefits of using optical long baseline interferometers. For this second goal we have simulated interferometric data from those selected astrophysical environments and used state-of-the-art codes to provide the reconstructed images that are reachable with current or soon-to-be facilities. The image reconstru...

  7. The long period eccentric orbit of the particle accelerator HD167971 revealed by long baseline interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, M.; Sana, H.; Absil, O.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Blomme, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using optical long baseline interferometry, we resolved for the first time the two wide components of HD 167971, a candidate hierarchical triple system known to efficiently accelerate particles. Our multi-epoch Very Large Telescope Interferometer observations provide direct evidence for a gravitational link between the O8 supergiant and the close eclipsing O + O binary. The separation varies from 8 to 15 mas over the 3-year baseline of our observations, suggesting that the components evolve o...

  8. Stellar Astrophysics with SIM and Optical Long Baseline Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; Aufdenberg, J. P.; Boyajian, T.; Gies, D.; Howell, S. B.; Kervella, P.; Merand, A.; Richardson, N.

    2009-01-01

    SIM astrometry can be used in combination with precision ground-based measurements, particularly optical interferometry, and supporting modeling, to address fundamental questions in stellar physics. We will extend an on-going study of Cepheid stars, with emphasis on resolution of possible biases in the use of the P-L relation, aiming for a confidence level of better than 1%. We will determine the radii, Teff, luminosity, and in some cases masses, of massive stars with sufficient accuracy to validate models of their structure and evolution with dramatically improved discrimination. We will determine the orbits of post-Algol systems, to test the hypothesis that they are the precursors to Cataclysmic Variable stars and the wide variety of evolved objects that they produce. We will measure the radii of nearby stars to support asteroseismological studies of the stellar interiors. For all measurements here proposed for SIM, GAIA will not provide a realistic alternative, owing to brightness of the targets, expected errors, and/or required observational cadence.

  9. Relative astrometry of compact flaring structures in Sgr A* with polarimetric very long baseline interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that polarimetric interferometry can be used to extract precise spatial information about compact polarized flares of Sgr A*. We show that, for a faint dynamical component, a single interferometric baseline suffices to determine both its polarization and projected displacement from the quiescent intensity centroid. A second baseline enables two-dimensional reconstruction of the displacement, and additional baselines can self-calibrate using the flare, enhancing synthesis imaging of the quiescent emission. We apply this technique to simulated 1.3 mm wavelength observations of a 'hot spot' embedded in a radiatively inefficient accretion disk around Sgr A*. Our results indicate that, even with current sensitivities, polarimetric interferometry with the Event Horizon Telescope can achieve ∼5 μas relative astrometry of compact flaring structures near Sgr A* on timescales of minutes.

  10. Radio and IR interferometry of SiO maser stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, M; Gray, M D; Humphreys, E M L; Karovicova, I; Scholz, M

    2012-01-01

    Radio and infrared interferometry of SiO maser stars provide complementary information on the atmosphere and circumstellar environment at comparable spatial resolution. Here, we present the latest results on the atmospheric structure and the dust condensation region of AGB stars based on our recent infrared spectro-interferometric observations, which represent the environment of SiO masers. We discuss, as an example, new results from simultaneous VLTI and VLBA observations of the Mira variable AGB star R Cnc, including VLTI near- and mid-infrared interferometry, as well as VLBA observations of the SiO maser emission toward this source. We present preliminary results from a monitoring campaign of high-frequency SiO maser emission toward evolved stars obtained with the APEX telescope, which also serves as a precursor of ALMA images of the SiO emitting region. We speculate that large-scale long-period chaotic motion in the extended molecular atmosphere may be the physical reason for observed deviations from poin...

  11. Three Decades of Very Long Baseline Interferometry Monitoring of the Parsec-Scale Jet in 3C 345

    CERN Document Server

    Schinzel, Frank K; Zensus, J Anton

    2009-01-01

    The 16th magnitude quasar 3C 345 (redshift z=0.5928) shows structural and emission variability on parsec scales around a compact unresolved radio core. For the last three decades it has been closely monitored with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), yielding a wealth of information about the physics of relativistic outflows and dynamics of the central regions in AGN. We present here preliminary results for the long-term jet evolution, based on the 15 GHz monitoring data collected by the MOJAVE survey and various other groups over the last ~14 years and combined with data from earlier VLBI observations of 3C 345 which started in 1979. We discuss the trajectories, kinematics, and flux density evolution of enhanced emission regions embedded in the jet and present evidence for geometrical (e.g. precession) and physical (e.g. relativistic shocks and plasma instability) factors determining the morphology and dynamics of relativistic flows on parsec scales.

  12. Constraints on SME Coefficients from Lunar Laser Ranging, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, and Asteroid Orbital Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; Hees, A; Bouquillon, S; Lambert, S; Francou, G; Angonin, M -C; Bailey, Q G; Hestroffer, D; David, P; Meynadier, F; Wolf, P

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics, called the Standard-Model Extension or SME. We consider in this work only the pure gravitational sector of the minimal SME. We present new constraints on the SME coefficients obtained from lunar laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and planetary motions.

  13. Nonlinear Kalman filters for calibration in radio interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasse, C.

    2014-06-01

    The data produced by the new generation of interferometers are affected by a wide variety of partially unknown complex effects such as pointing errors, phased array beams, ionosphere, troposphere, Faraday rotation, or clock drifts. Most algorithms addressing direction-dependent calibration solve for the effective Jones matrices, and cannot constrain the underlying physical quantities of the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME). A related difficulty is that they lack robustness in the presence of low signal-to-noise ratios, and when solving for moderate to large numbers of parameters they can be subject to ill-conditioning. These effects can have dramatic consequences in the image plane such as source or even thermal noise suppression. The advantage of solvers directly estimating the physical terms appearing in the RIME is that they can potentially reduce the number of free parameters by orders of magnitudes while dramatically increasing the size of usable data, thereby improving conditioning. We present here a new calibration scheme based on a nonlinear version of the Kalman filter that aims at estimating the physical terms appearing in the RIME. We enrich the filter's structure with a tunable data representation model, together with an augmented measurement model for regularization. Using simulations we show that it can properly estimate the physical effects appearing in the RIME. We found that this approach is particularly useful in the most extreme cases such as when ionospheric and clock effects are simultaneously present. Combined with the ability to provide prior knowledge on the expected structure of the physical instrumental effects (expected physical state and dynamics), we obtain a fairly computationally cheap algorithm that we believe to be robust, especially in low signal-to-noise regimes. Potentially, the use of filters and other similar methods can represent an improvement for calibration in radio interferometry, under the condition that

  14. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) for the JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, L. I.; Bocanegra Bahamon, T. M.; Cimò, G.; Duev, D. A.; Molera Calvés, G.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; de Pater, I.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Rosenblatt, P.; Oberst, J.; Charlot, P.; Frey, S.; Tudose, V.

    2013-09-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a multi-disciplinary enhancement of the scientific suite of the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). PRIDE will exploit the technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of spacecraft and natural celestial radio sources by a network of Earth-based radio telescopes (Fig. 1, see [1,2]). The main "measured deliverables" of PRIDE are lateral coordinates of spacecraft in the celestial reference frame. In addition to the lateral coordinates, a by-product of PRIDE is the measurement of the line-ofsight velocity of spacecraft. It is worth to notice the synergistic nature of PRIDE measurements to other key experiments of the JUICE mission, in particular addressing the quest of Icy Moons interior and Jovian system ephemerides. In addition of providing consistency checks of a number of experiments, PRIDE is highly synergistic to a number of other JUICE experiments, in particular radio science and laser ranging ones. Tracking of the spacecraft in the gravity field of Jupiter and its satellites will allow us to not only provide valuable inputs into the determination of the spacecraft trajectory, but also to improve the ephemerides of Jupiter and the Galilean Satellites. VLBI tracking of the spacecraft, in combination with routine observations of background radio sources of the celestial reference frame, will also allow us to firmly tie the Jupiter system into the celestial reference frame. This would represent a major contribution to the Solar System celestial mechanics and the definition of the Solar System reference system. Furthermore, PRIDE will contribute to various aspects of Ganymede's, Callisto's and Europa's science. VLBI positioning and radio occultation data may represent an important and independent reference for the GALA laser altimeter data. The trajectory data during the multiple satellite flybys will help to further constrain the low order gravity field parameters. In

  15. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) for the JUICE mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, L. I.; Bocanegra Bahamon, T. M.; Cimò, G.; Duev, D. A.; Molera Calvés, G.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; de Pater, I.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Rosenblatt, P.; Oberst, J.; Charlot, P.; Frey, S.; Tudose, V.

    2013-09-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a multi-disciplinary enhancement of the scientific suite of the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE). PRIDE will exploit the technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of spacecraft and natural celestial radio sources by a network of Earth-based radio telescopes (Fig. 1, see [1,2]). The main "measured deliverables" of PRIDE are lateral coordinates of spacecraft in the celestial reference frame. In addition to the lateral coordinates, a by-product of PRIDE is the measurement of the line-ofsight velocity of spacecraft. It is worth to notice the synergistic nature of PRIDE measurements to other key experiments of the JUICE mission, in particular addressing the quest of Icy Moons interior and Jovian system ephemerides. In addition of providing consistency checks of a number of experiments, PRIDE is highly synergistic to a number of other JUICE experiments, in particular radio science and laser ranging ones. Tracking of the spacecraft in the gravity field of Jupiter and its satellites will allow us to not only provide valuable inputs into the determination of the spacecraft trajectory, but also to improve the ephemerides of Jupiter and the Galilean Satellites. VLBI tracking of the spacecraft, in combination with routine observations of background radio sources of the celestial reference frame, will also allow us to firmly tie the Jupiter system into the celestial reference frame. This would represent a major contribution to the Solar System celestial mechanics and the definition of the Solar System reference system. Furthermore, PRIDE will contribute to various aspects of Ganymede's, Callisto's and Europa's science. VLBI positioning and radio occultation data may represent an important and independent reference for the GALA laser altimeter data. The trajectory data during the multiple satellite flybys will help to further constrain the low order gravity field parameters. In

  16. The spin-orbit alignment of the Fomalhaut planetary system probed by optical long baseline interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Absil, Olivier; Benisty, M.; Massi, F.; Mérand, A.; Stefl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. We discuss the spin-orbit orientation of the Fomalhaut planetary system composed of a central A4V star, a debris disk, and a recently discovered planetary companion. Methods: We use spectrally resolved, near-IR long baseline interferometry to obtain precise spectro-astrometric measurements across the Br-gamma absorption line. The achieved astrometric accuracy of ±3 muas and the spectral resolution R=1500 from the AMBER/VLTI instrument allow us to spatially and spectrally resolve the rot...

  17. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) technique: A test case of the Mars Express Phobos fly-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duev, D. A.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Cimò, G.; Molera Calvés, G.; Bocanegra Bahamón, T. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Kettenis, M. M.; Kania, J.; Tudose, V.; Rosenblatt, P.; Marty, J.-C.; Lainey, V.; de Vicente, P.; Quick, J.; Nickola, M.; Neidhardt, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; Ploetz, C.; Haas, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Orlati, A.; Ipatov, A. V.; Kharinov, M. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.; Stevens, J.; Gulyaev, S. A.; Natush, T.; Weston, S.; Wang, W. H.; Xia, B.; Yang, W. J.; Hao, L.-F.; Kallunki, J.; Witasse, O.

    2016-09-01

    Context. The closest ever fly-by of the Martian moon Phobos, performed by the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft, gives a unique opportunity to sharpen and test the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) technique in the interest of studying planet-satellite systems. Aims: The aim of this work is to demonstrate a technique of providing high precision positional and Doppler measurements of planetary spacecraft using the Mars Express spacecraft. The technique will be used in the framework of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments in various planetary missions, in particular in fly-by mode. Methods: We advanced a novel approach to spacecraft data processing using the techniques of Doppler and phase-referenced very long baseline interferometry spacecraft tracking. Results: We achieved, on average, mHz precision (30 μm/s at a 10 s integration time) for radial three-way Doppler estimates and sub-nanoradian precision for lateral position measurements, which in a linear measure (at a distance of 1.4 AU) corresponds to ~50 m.

  18. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) technique: A test case of the Mars Express Phobos fly-by

    CERN Document Server

    Duev, Dmitry A; Cimò, Giuseppe; Calvés, Guifré Molera; Bahamón, Tatiana M Bocanegra; Gurvits, Leonid I; Kettenis, Mark M; Kania, Joseph; Tudose, Valeriu; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Marty, Jean-Charles; Lainey, Valery; de Vicente, Pablo; Quick, Jonathan; Nickola, Marisa; Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Haas, Rüdiger; Lindqvist, Michael; Orlati, Andrea; Ipatov, Alexander V; Kharinov, Mikhail A; Mikhailov, Andrey G; Lovell, Jim; McCallum, Jamie; Stevens, Jamie; Gulyaev, Sergei A; Natush, Tim; Weston, Stuart; Wang, Weihua; Xia, Bo; Yang, Wenjun; Hao, Long-Fei; Kallunki, Juha; Witasse, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The closest ever fly-by of the Martian moon Phobos, performed by the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft, gives a unique opportunity to sharpen and test the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) technique in the interest of studying planet - satellite systems. The aim of this work is to demonstrate a technique of providing high precision positional and Doppler measurements of planetary spacecraft using the Mars Express spacecraft. The technique will be used in the framework of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments in various planetary missions, in particular in fly-by mode. We advanced a novel approach to spacecraft data processing using the techniques of Doppler and phase-referenced very long baseline interferometry spacecraft tracking. We achieved, on average, mHz precision (30 {\\mu}m/s at a 10 seconds integration time) for radial three-way Doppler estimates and sub-nanoradian precision for lateral position measurements, which in a linear measure (at a d...

  19. Observations of atmospheric gravity waves by radio interferometry: are results biased by the observational technique?

    OpenAIRE

    C. Mercier; Jacobson, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a quantitative comparison between a large data base of medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) observed by radio interferometry of transionospheric radio sources and the results of a numerical simulation of the observed effects. The simulation includes: (i) the propagation and dissipation of AGWs up to ionospheric heights and (ii) the calculation of the subsequent slant TEC perturbations integrated along the path to the radio sources. We show that the observed a...

  20. Precision Calibration of Radio Interferometers Using Redundant Baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Adrian; Morrison, Scott; Lutomirski, Andrew; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2010-01-01

    Growing interest in 21 cm tomography has led to the design and construction of broadband radio interferometers with low noise, moderate angular resolution, high spectral resolution, and wide fields of view. With characteristics somewhat different from traditional radio instruments, these interferometers will require new calibration techniques in order to reach their design sensitivities. We propose a calibration method that eliminates the need for calibrator point sources by taking advantage of the fact that many of these new instruments possess a large number of redundant baselines. The method is unbiased and the computational cost of the calibration is much less than that for the standard initial step of computing interferometric correlations. We also develop a general calibration formalism that includes both our method and traditional calibration methods as special cases, and show how slight deviations from perfect redundancy and coplanarity can be taken into account.

  1. Forest Structure Characterization Using Jpl's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  2. Stellar intensity interferometry over kilometer baselines: Laboratory simulation of observations with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2014-01-01

    A long-held astronomical vision is to realize diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometer baselines. This will enable imaging of stellar surfaces and their environments, show their evolution over time, and reveal interactions of stellar winds and gas flows in binary star systems. An opportunity is now opening up with the large telescope arrays primarily erected for measuring Cherenkov light in air induced by gamma rays. With suitable software, such telescopes could be electronically connected and used also for intensity interferometry. With no optical connection between the telescopes, the error budget is set by the electronic time resolution of a few nanoseconds. Corresponding light-travel distances are on the order of one meter, making the method practically insensitive to atmospheric turbulence or optical imperfections, permitting both very long baselines and observing at short optical wavelengths. Theoretical modeling has shown how stellar surface images can be retrieved from such observ...

  3. Long-baseline optical intensity interferometry: Laboratory demonstration of diffraction-limited imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis; Nuñez, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    A long-held vision has been to realize diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometer baselines. This will enable imaging of stellar surfaces and their environments, and reveal interacting gas flows in binary systems. An opportunity is now opening up with the large telescope arrays primarily erected for measuring Cherenkov light in air induced by gamma rays. With suitable software, such telescopes could be electronically connected and also used for intensity interferometry. Second-order spatial coherence of light is obtained by cross correlating intensity fluctuations measured in different pairs of telescopes. With no optical links between them, the error budget is set by the electronic time resolution of a few nanoseconds. Corresponding light-travel distances are approximately one meter, making the method practically immune to atmospheric turbulence or optical imperfections, permitting both very long baselines and observing at short optical wavelengths. Previous theoretical modeling has shown ...

  4. The baseline paradox of optical interferometry. Application to the GRAVITY astrometric error budget

    CERN Document Server

    Lacour, S; Gillessen, S; Pfuhl, O; Woillez, J; Bonnet, H; Perrin, G; Lazareff, B; Rabien, S; Lapeyrere, V; Clenet, Y; Kok, Y

    2014-01-01

    A basic principle of long baseline interferometry is that an optical path difference (OPD) directly translate into an astrometric measurement. In the simplest case, the OPD is equal to the scalar product between the vector linking the two telescopes and the normalized vector pointing toward the star. However, in some circumstances, a too simple approximation interpretation of this scalar product leads to seemingly conflicting results, called here "the baseline paradox". For micro-arcsecond accuracy astrometry, we have to model in full the metrology measurement. It involves a complex system subject to many optical effects: from pure baseline errors to static, quasi-static and high order optical aberrations. The goal of this paper is to present the strategy used by GRAVITY to minimize the biases introduced by these defects. It is possible to give an analytical formula on how the baselines and tip-tilt errors affect the astrometric measurement. This formula depends on the limit-points of three type of baselines:...

  5. HIGH-PRECISION ASTROMETRIC MILLIMETER VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY USING A NEW METHOD FOR ATMOSPHERIC CALIBRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new method which achieves high-precision very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) astrometry in observations at millimeter (mm) wavelengths. It combines fast frequency-switching observations, to correct for the dominant non-dispersive tropospheric fluctuations, with slow source-switching observations, for the remaining ionospheric dispersive terms. We call this method source-frequency phase referencing. Provided that the switching cycles match the properties of the propagation media, one can recover the source astrometry. We present an analytic description of the two-step calibration strategy, along with an error analysis to characterize its performance. Also, we provide observational demonstrations of a successful application with observations using the Very Long Baseline Array at 86 GHz of the pairs of sources 3C274 and 3C273 and 1308+326 and 1308+328 under various conditions. We conclude that this method is widely applicable to mm-VLBI observations of many target sources, and unique in providing bona fide astrometrically registered images and high-precision relative astrometric measurements in mm-VLBI using existing and newly built instruments, including space VLBI.

  6. Hot Exozodiacal Dust Disks, their Detection and Variability, as Measured with Long-Baseline Optical Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas Jon

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared long-baseline optical interferometry has provided the first unambiguous resolved detections of hot dust around main sequence stars (Absil et al. 2006). This showed that an unexpectedly dense population of (sub)micrometer dust grains close exists to their sublimation temperature of approximately 1400K. A later survey (Absil et al. 2013) revealed that these "hot exozodiacal disks" are relatively common around spectral type A-K stars. Current models of circumstellar debris disks suggest that in the inner region, within 1 AU, of the disk the timescale for complete removal of submicron dust is on the order of a few years (Wyatt 2008). The presence of dust close to the star is surprising because most cold debris belts detected are collisionally dominated. Mutual collisions grind the dust down to the size where radiation pressure pushes the dust out before Poynting-Robertson drag has a chance to pull the dust inward. Competing models exist to explain the persistence of this dust; some of which suggest that dust production is a punctuated and chaotic process fueled by asteroid collisions and comet infall that would show variability on timescales of a few years.High precision long-baseline interferometry observations in the K-band with the FLUOR (Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination) beam combiner at the CHARA (Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy) Array provided the data for these exozodiacal dust detections. This original instrument has undergone upgrades as part of JouFLU (Jouvence of FLUOR) project. The new instrument has been used to expand the original survey and to re-observe stars from the previous exozodiacal disk survey to search for predicted variations in the detected disks. We have found evidence that for some systems the amount of circumstellar flux from these previously detected exozodiacal disks, or exozodis, has varied greatly. The flux from some exozodis has increased, others decreased, and for a few the amount has remained

  7. Improved geodetic European very-long-baseline interferometry solution using models of antenna gravitational deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Abbondanza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI is used for establishing global geodetic networks where the coordinates attain a 1-mm level of precision. Technique-dependent bias can degrade the VLBI positioning accuracy if it is present and unaccounted for. Among the potential bias, gravitational flexure of VLBI telescopes can vary the path traveled by the incoming radio signal and induce a bias in the height component of the station position. We process here more than 100 European VLBI sessions spanning 1990-2009 with VLBI time delay/Solve software, as the only VLBI analysis package that can be used to correct signal-path variation (SPV due to gravitational flexure of VLBI telescopes. Currently, SPV models are neglected in VLBI data analysis. To determine the kinematics of the European area over the last 20 years and to assess the effects of telescope gravitational deformation on geodetic VLBI estimates, we perform two VLBI solutions with and without SPV models for telescopes in Medicina (northern Italy and Noto (southern Italy. The two solutions differ by 8.8 mm and 7.2 mm in their height components, with this bias being one order of magnitude larger than the formal errors of the estimated heights. SPV models impact uniquely on the height component of stations where SPVs are modeled. Velocities are not affected by the use of the Medicina and Noto SPV models, and we show that the crustal kinematics derived from VLBI does not suffer from a lack of information with regard to the flexure of other telescopes.

  1. VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY IMAGING OF PARSEC-SCALE JET STRUCTURES IN RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted very long baseline interferometry observations of five radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies in milliarcsecond resolutions at 1.7 GHz (λ18 cm) using the Very Long Baseline Array. Significant parsec (pc) scale structures were revealed for three out of the five sources with high brightness temperature by direct imaging; this is convincing evidence for nonthermal jets. FBQS J1644+2619 with an inverted spectrum showed a prominent one-sided linear structure, indicating Doppler beaming with an intrinsic jet speed of >0.74c. FBQS J1629+4007, also with an inverted spectrum, showed rapid flux variability, indicating Doppler beaming with an intrinsic jet speed of >0.88c. Thus, we found convincing evidence that these two NLS1s can generate at least mildly or highly relativistic jets, which may make them apparently radio loud even if they are intrinsically radio quiet. On the other hand, the other three NLS1s had steep spectra and two of them showed significantly diffuse pc-scale structures, which were unlikely to be strongly beamed. Thus, some NLS1s have the ability to generate jets strong enough to make them intrinsically radio loud without Doppler beaming. NLS1s as a class show a number of extreme properties and radio-loud ones are very rare. We build on these radio results to understand that the central engines of radio-loud NLS1s are essentially the same as that of other radio-loud active galactic nuclei in terms of the formation of nonthermal jets.

  2. Studying Venus' atmosphere and ionosphere with Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra-Bahamon, T. M.; Cimo, G.; Duev, D. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Marty, J. Ch.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a technique that can provide a multi-disciplinary enhancement of the science return of planetary missions. By performing precise Doppler tracking of a spacecraft carrier radio signal, at Earth-based radio telescopes, and VLBI-style processing of these signals in phase-referencing mode, the technique allows the determination of the radial velocity and lateral coordinates of the spacecraft with very high accuracy[1]. Because of the accurate examination of the changes in phase and amplitude of the radio signal propagating from the spacecraft to the multiple stations on Earth, the PRIDE technique can be used for several fields of planetary research. The application of this technique for atmospheric studies has been assessed by observing ESA's Venus Express (VEX) during Venus occultation events in 2012 and 2014, and by participating in one of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE) campaigns in 2012. Both studies are contributing to the characterization efforts of the atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus. During the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE) campaigns VEX's orbit pericenter was lowered into an altitude range of approximately 165 to 175 km in order to probe Venus upper atmosphere above its north pole. The first VExADE campaigns were carried out between 2009-2010 using Doppler tracking data acquired by the VEX radio science experiment (VeRa), which provided the first in situ measurements of the density of Venus' polar thermosphere at solar minimum conditions [2]. In the December 2012 campaign the PRIDE-team participated by tracking VEX with several radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network (EVN) during pericenter passage. A Doppler frequency drop of ∼40 mHz was detected as VEX reached the lowest altitudes at around 170 km. The tracking data for each pericenter pass is fitted for precise orbit determination, from which drag acceleration estimates and the

  3. Statistical Aspects of Baseline Calibration in Earth-Bound Optical Stellar Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mathar, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Baseline calibration of a stellar interferometer is a prerequisite to data reduction of astrometric operations. This technique of astrometry is triangulation of star positions. Since angles are deduced from the baseline and delay side of these triangles, length and pointing direction (in the celestial sphere) of the baseline vector at the time of observation are key input data. We assume that calibration follows from reverse astrometry; a set of calibrator stars with well-known positions is observed and inaccuracies in these positions are leveled by observing many of them for a common best fit. The errors in baseline length and orientation angles drop proportional to the inverse square roots of the number of independent data taken, proportional to the errors in the individual snapshots of the delay, and proportional to the errors in the apparent positions of the calibrators. Scheduling becomes important if the baseline components are reconstructed from the sinusoidal delay of a single calibrator as a function...

  4. Bandwidth smearing in infrared long-baseline interferometry. Application to stellar companion search in fringe-scanning mode

    CERN Document Server

    Lachaume, Régis

    2013-01-01

    In long-baseline interferometry, bandwidth smearing of an extended source occurs at finite bandwidth when its different components produce interference packets that only partially overlap. In this case, traditional model fitting or image reconstruction using standard formulas and tools lead to biased results. We propose and implement a method to overcome this effect by calculating analytically a corrective term for the conventional interferometric observables: the visibility amplitude and closure phase. For that purpose, we model the interferogram taking into account the finite bandwidth and the instrumental differential phase. We obtain generic expressions for the visibility and closure phase in the case of temporally-modulated interferograms, either processed using Fourier analysis or with the ABCD method. The expressions can be used to fit arbitrary models to the data. We then apply our results to the search and characterisation of stellar companions with PIONIER at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer,...

  5. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) for studying the thermosphere of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Bahamón, T. M.; Cimò, G.; Duev, D. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Marty, J. C.; Molera Calvés, G.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Rosenblatt, P.

    2013-09-01

    Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a generic experimental setup of on-board and Earth-based radio devices and facilities, which serves as an enhancement of the science return of planetary missions. The main goal of this technique is to provide precise estimates of the spacecraft state vectors, by performing precise Doppler tracking of the spacecraft carrier signal, at one or more Earth-based radio telescopes, and VLBI-style correlation of these signals in phase referencing mode [1]. By allowing an accurate examination of the changes in phase and amplitude of the radio signal propagating from the spacecraft to the multiple stations on Earth, the PRIDE technique can be used for several fields of research, among them: atmospheric and ionospheric structure of planets and their satellites, planetary gravity fields, planets' shapes, masses and ephemerides, solar plasma and different aspects of the theory of general relativity. The PRIDE-team is participating in the so-called Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VEx-ADE) campaigns by tracking ESA's Venus Express with multiple radio telescopes on Earth. During each campaign, VEX's orbit pericenter is lowered into an altitude range of approximately 165 to 175 km in order to probe Venus upper atmosphere above its north pole. The first VExADE campaigns were carried out between 2009-2010 using Doppler tracking data acquired by the VEX radio science experiment (VeRa), which provided the first in situ measurements of the density of Venus' polar thermosphere at solar minimum conditions [2]. The last campaign was conducted in December 2012, in which the PRIDE-team participated by tracking VEX with several radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network (EVN) during pericenter passage. A Doppler frequency drop of ∼40 mHz was detected as VEX reached the lowest altitudes at around 170 km. The tracking data for each pericenter pass is fitted for precise orbit determination, from which drag

  6. A 2-20 GHz Analog Lag-Correlator for Radio Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Holler, C M; Taylor, A C; Harris, A I; Maas, S A

    2011-01-01

    We present the design and testing of a 2-20 GHz continuum band analog lag correlator with 16 frequency channels for astronomical interferometry. The correlator has been designed for future use with a prototype single-baseline interferometer operating at 185-275 GHz. The design uses a broadband Wilkinson divider tree with integral thin-film resistors implemented on an alumina substrate, and custom-made broadband InGaP/GaAs Gilbert Cell multipliers. The prototype correlator has been fully bench-tested, together with the necessary readout electronics for acquisition of the output signals. The results of these measurements show that the response of the correlator is well behaved over the band. An investigation of the noise behaviour also shows that the signal-to-noise of the system is not limited by the correlator performance.

  7. Parasitic Interference in Long Baseline Optical Interferometry: Requirements for Hot Jupiter-like Planet Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Matter, Alexis; Lagarde, Stéphane; Danchi, William C; Robbe-Dubois, Sylvie; Petrov, Romain G; Navarro, Ramon; 10.1088/0004-637X/706/2/1299

    2010-01-01

    The observable quantities in optical interferometry, which are the modulus and the phase of the complex visibility, may be corrupted by parasitic fringes superimposed on the genuine fringe pattern. These fringes are due to an interference phenomenon occurring from straylight effects inside an interferometric instrument. We developed an analytical approach to better understand this phenomenon when straylight causes crosstalk between beams. We deduced that the parasitic interference significantly affects the interferometric phase and thus the associated observables including the differential phase and the closure phase. The amount of parasitic flux coupled to the piston between beams appears to be very influential in this degradation. For instance, considering a point-like source and a piston ranging from $\\lambda/500$ to $\\lambda/5$ in L band ($\\lambda=3.5\\:\\mu$m), a parasitic flux of about 1\\% of the total flux produces a parasitic phase reaching at most one third of the intrinsic phase. The piston, which can...

  8. THE FIRST VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY IMAGE OF A 44 GHz METHANOL MASER WITH THE KVN AND VERA ARRAY (KaVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out the first very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging of a 44 GHz class I methanol maser (70-61 A +) associated with a millimeter core MM2 in a massive star-forming region IRAS 18151–1208 with KaVA (KVN and VERA Array), which is a newly combined array of KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). We have succeeded in imaging compact maser features with a synthesized beam size of 2.7 milliarcseconds × 1.5 milliarcseconds (mas). These features are detected at a limited number of baselines within the length of shorter than ≈ 650 km corresponding to 100 Mλ in the uv-coverage. The central velocity and the velocity width of the 44 GHz methanol maser are consistent with those of the quiescent gas rather than the outflow traced by the SiO thermal line. The minimum component size among the maser features is ∼5 mas × 2 mas, which corresponds to the linear size of ∼15 AU × 6 AU assuming a distance of 3 kpc. The brightness temperatures of these features range from ∼3.5 × 108 to 1.0 × 1010 K, which are higher than the estimated lower limit from a previous Very Large Array observation with the highest spatial resolution of ∼50 mas. The 44 GHz class I methanol maser in IRAS 18151–1208 is found to be associated with the MM2 core, which is thought to be less evolved than another millimeter core MM1 associated with the 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser

  9. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE QUASAR 3C 279 MEASURED WITH 1.3 mm VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of ∼1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127° ± 3°), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of ∼8 × 1010 K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 μas (5-7 light months) resolution.

  10. Fine-scale Structure of the Quasar 3C 279 Measured with 1.3 mm Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ru-Sen; Fish, Vincent L.; Akiyama, Kazunori; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Algaba, Juan C.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Chamberlin, Richard; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J.; Dexter, Matt; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gurwell, Mark A.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Loinard, Laurent; MacMahon, David; Marrone, Daniel P.; Marscher, Alan P.; Moran, James M.; Plambeck, Richard; Pradel, Nicolas; Primiani, Rurik; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Titus, Michael; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H.; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2013-07-01

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of ~1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127° ± 3°), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of ~8 × 1010 K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 μas (5-7 light months) resolution.

  11. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE QUASAR 3C 279 MEASURED WITH 1.3 mm VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Akiyama, Kazunori; Honma, Mareki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Algaba, Juan C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Bower, Geoffrey C.; Dexter, Matt [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Brinkerink, Christiaan [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Chamberlin, Richard [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Freund, Robert [Arizona Radio Observatory, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Friberg, Per [James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Gurwell, Mark A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jorstad, Svetlana G. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Krichbaum, Thomas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent, E-mail: rslu@haystack.mit.edu [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); and others

    2013-07-20

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of {approx}1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127 Degree-Sign {+-} 3 Degree-Sign ), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of {approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 {mu}as (5-7 light months) resolution.

  12. Geodesy by radio interferometry - Water vapor radiometry for estimation of the wet delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgered, G.; Davis, J. L.; Herring, T. A.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1991-01-01

    An important source of error in VLBI estimates of baseline length is unmodeled variations of the refractivity of the neutral atmosphere along the propagation path of the radio signals. This paper presents and discusses the method of using data from a water vapor radiomete (WVR) to correct for the propagation delay caused by atmospheric water vapor, the major cause of these variations. Data from different WVRs are compared with estimated propagation delays obtained by Kalman filtering of the VLBI data themselves. The consequences of using either WVR data or Kalman filtering to correct for atmospheric propagation delay at the Onsala VLBI site are investigated by studying the repeatability of estimated baseline lengths from Onsala to several other sites. The repeatability obtained for baseline length estimates shows that the methods of water vapor radiometry and Kalman filtering offer comparable accuracies when applied to VLBI observations obtained in the climate of the Swedish west coast. For the most frequently measured baseline in this study, the use of WVR data yielded a 13 percent smaller weighted-root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length estimates compared to the use of a Kalman filter. It is also clear that the 'best' minimum elevationi angle for VLBI observations depends on the accuracy of the determinations of the total propagation delay to be used, since the error in this delay increases with increasing air mass.

  13. Stellar intensity interferometry over kilometer baselines: Laboratory simulation of observations with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Dravins, Dainis; Lagadec, Tiphaine

    2014-01-01

    A long-held astronomical vision is to realize diffraction-limited optical aperture synthesis over kilometer baselines. This will enable imaging of stellar surfaces and their environments, show their evolution over time, and reveal interactions of stellar winds and gas flows in binary star systems. An opportunity is now opening up with the large telescope arrays primarily erected for measuring Cherenkov light in air induced by gamma rays. With suitable software, such telescopes could be electr...

  14. A generalised Measurement Equation and van Cittert-Zernike theorem for wide-field radio astronomical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Carozzi, T D

    2008-01-01

    We derive a generalised van Cittert-Zernike (vC-Z) theorem for radio astronomy that is valid for partially polarized sources over an arbitrarily wide field-of-view (FoV). The classical vC-Z theorem is the theoretical foundation of radio astronomical interferometry, and its application is the basis of interferometric imaging. Existing generalised vC-Z theorems in radio astronomy assume, however, either paraxiality (narrow FoV) or scalar (unpolarized) sources. Our theorem uses neither of these assumptions, which are seldom fulfilled in practice in radio astronomy, and treats the full electromagnetic field in any state of polarization and for arbitrary angles of incidence. To handle wide, partially polarized fields, we extend the two-dimensional electric field (Jones vector) formalism of the standard "Measurement Equation" of radio astronomical interferometry to the full three-dimensional formalism developed in optical coherence theory. The resulting vC-Z theorem enables all-sky imaging in a single telescope poi...

  15. PARASITIC INTERFERENCE IN LONG BASELINE OPTICAL INTERFEROMETRY: REQUIREMENTS FOR HOT JUPITER-LIKE PLANET DETECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observable quantities in optical interferometry, which are the modulus and the phase of the complex visibility, may be corrupted by parasitic fringes superimposed on the genuine fringe pattern. These fringes are due to an interference phenomenon occurring from stray light effects inside an interferometric instrument. We developed an analytical approach to better understand this phenomenon when stray light causes cross talk between beams. We deduced that the parasitic interference significantly affects the interferometric phase and thus the associated observables including the differential phase and the closure phase. The amount of parasitic flux coupled to the piston between beams appears to be very influential in this degradation. For instance, considering a point-like source and a piston ranging from λ/500 to λ/5 in the L band (λ = 3.5 μm), a parasitic flux of about 1% of the total flux produces a parasitic phase reaching at most one-third of the intrinsic phase. The piston, which can have different origins (instrumental stability, atmospheric perturbations, etc.), thus amplifies the effect of parasitic interference. According to the specifications of piston correction in space or at ground level (respectively λ/500 ∼ 2 nm and λ/30 ∼ 100 nm), the detection of hot Jupiter-like planets, one of the most challenging aims for current ground-based interferometers, limits parasitic radiation to about 5% of the incident intensity. This was evaluated by considering different types of hot Jupiter synthetic spectra. Otherwise, if no fringe tracking is used, the detection of a typical hot Jupiter-like system with a solar-like star would admit a maximum level of parasitic intensity of 0.01% for piston errors equal to λ/15. If the fringe tracking specifications are not precisely observed, it thus appears that the allowed level of parasitic intensity dramatically decreases and may prevent the detection. In parallel, the calibration of the parasitic phase by a

  16. Alternative approach to precision narrow-angle astrometry for Antarctic long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Y; Rizzuto, A C; Tuthill, P G; Robertson, J G; Warrington, B A; Tango, W J

    2014-01-01

    The conventional approach to high-precision narrow-angle astrometry using a long baseline interferometer is to directly measure the fringe packet separation of a target and a nearby reference star. This is done by means of a technique known as phase-referencing which requires a network of dual beam combiners and laser metrology systems. Using an alternative approach that does not rely on phase-referencing, the narrow-angle astrometry of several closed binary stars (with separation less than 2$"$), as described in this paper, was carried out by observing the fringe packet crossing event of the binary systems. Such an event occurs twice every sidereal day when the line joining the two stars of the binary is is perpendicular to the projected baseline of the interferometer. Observation of these events is well suited for an interferometer in Antarctica. Proof of concept observations were carried out at the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) with targets selected according to its geographical location....

  17. Geodesy by radio interferometry - The application of Kalman filtering to the analysis of very long baseline interferometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Thomas A.; Davis, James L.; Shapiro, Irwin I.

    1990-01-01

    The application of Kalman filtering techniques to the analysis of VLBI data is discussed. The VLBI observables are geometrically related to the geodetic and astrometric parameters which can be determined from them. However, contributions to the observables from the clocks at, and the atmospheres above, the VLBI sites must be accounted for if reliable estimates of geodetic and astrometric parameters are to be obtained. Here, an implementation of a Kalman filter to account for stochastic behavior on those parameters which vary during the course of a VLBI experiment is discussed. Both the nature of the stochastic processes which should be used in the model for the VLBI data and the implementation of the Kalman filter estimator are considered. It is concluded that the Kalman filter is appropriate for analyzing VLBI data.

  18. Surface deformation detected by the space-observed small baseline SAR interferometry over permafrost environment in Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of permafrost and the active layer is highly related to climate change because of its feedback effects involving water and carbon storage. In this study, we firstly examined the relationship of regional water balance, geomorphological process and anthropogenic activities by means of Small Baseline Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (SB-InSAR to monitor the surface movements overlaid on the permafrost of Tibet Plateau (TP, China, using 3.5-yr observation span of L-band ALOS PALSAR data (June, 2007 to December, 2010. The estimated displacements (primarily in the range of −30 mm yr−1 to 30 mm yr−1 and time-series implied evolutions of the active layer and permafrost beneath. The motion trend along slopes was complicated, and thus interdisciplinary interpretations were required. Water level variations of inland lakes were then detected, although further investigations were required for validation. Anthropogenic influences on this frail permafrost environment were significant, proved by the remarkable surface settlement along the embankment of Qinghai-Tibet Railway. Consequently, it is crucial and necessary to monitor this arid and cold plateau owing to the combination of climate change, geo-hazards prediction as well as the regional sustainable development.

  19. TerraSAR-X Small Baseline interferometry of Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw van Dalfsen, Elske; Walter, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Popocatepetl is an active 5426 m high stratovolcano, with a steep-walled, 400 by 600 m wide crater. It is located 70 km southeast of Mexico city, and its activity potentially influences up to 25 million people. More than 15 major eruptions occurred in historic times, the last one in 1947. The year 2012 has been a highly active one, with numerous ash plumes in mid-April, and explosions during July-October. We have acquired TerraSAR-X images of Popocatepetl, and the surrounding area, using strip and spot mode, covering this period. We have created small baseline interferograms from TerraSAR-X strip mode images, using the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) software. Of the resulting interferograms, several show medium to good coherence on the lower and upper flanks of the volcano and some are even coherent in the crater area. We further analysed the data that cover the time period from 27 march 2012 to 22 october 2012. During this time period the volcano has been very active, displaying on and off: gas and ash plumes, explosions injecting incandescent fragments up to 1 km from the crater and even ashfall in municipalities up to 50 km away. The short revisit time of TerraSAR-X of 11 days increases the chances of a coherent image during such active periods. We present the preliminary results from this unique data set.

  20. Very long baseline interferometry observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum system HR 5110 at 8.4 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutel, R. L.; Preston, R. A.; Scheid, J. A.; Phillips, R. B.; Lestrade, J.-F.

    1984-01-01

    The RS CVn binary system HR 5110 was observed with a well-calibrated four-element VLBI array at a frequency of 8.4 GHz. The total flux density, which was nearly constant at 32 + or - 2 mJy, was monitored throughout the experiment with a 20 km baseline interferometer allowing accurate visibilities to be calculated. The observed visibilities are consistent with a source unresolved on all the baselines. The maximum size of the equivalent Gaussian source is 1.4 milli-arcsec (FWHM), corresponding to a linear size of 1.1 x 10 to the 12th cm at 52 pc. This maximum size is comparable with the overall size of the binary system. The inferred lower limit of the brightness temperature is 4 x 10 to the 8th K, which is higher than the coronal temperature of 10 to the 7th K measured in a soft X-ray survey. This is consistent with a nonthermal mechanism for the radiation process of the moderate radio outburst observed.

  1. Some characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed by radio-interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Mercier

    Full Text Available Observations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs are considered through their effect on the horizontal gradient G of the slant total electron content (slant TEC, which can be directly obtained from two-dimensional radio-interferometric observations of cosmic radio-sources with the Nançay radioheligraph (2.2°E, 47.3°N. Azimuths of propagation can be deduced (modulo 180°. The total database amounts to about 800 h of observations at various elevations, local time and seasons. The main results are:

    a AGWs are partially directive, confirming our previous results.

    b The propagation azimuths considered globally are widely scattered with a preference towards the south.

    c They show a bimodal time distribution with preferential directions towards the SE during daytime and towards the SW during night-time (rather than a clockwise rotation as reported by previous authors.

    d The periods are scattered but are larger during night-time than during daytime by about 60%.

    e The effects observed with the solar radio-sources are significantly stronger than with other radio-sources (particularly at higher elevations, showing the role of the geometry in line of sight-integrated observations.

  2. EXPLORATION OF SOURCE FREQUENCY PHASE REFERENCING TECHNIQUES FOR ASTROMETRY AND OBSERVATIONS OF WEAK SOURCES WITH HIGH FREQUENCY SPACE VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space very long baseline interferometry (S-VLBI) observations at high frequencies hold the prospect of achieving the highest angular resolutions and astrometric accuracies, resulting from the long baselines between ground and satellite telescopes. Nevertheless, space-specific issues, such as limited accuracy in the satellite orbit reconstruction and constraints on the satellite antenna pointing operations, limit the application of conventional phase referencing. We investigate the feasibility of an alternative technique, source frequency phase referencing (SFPR), to the S-VLBI domain. With these investigations we aim to contribute to the design of the next generation of S-VLBI missions. We have used both analytical and simulation studies to characterize the performance of SFPR in S-VLBI observations, applied to astrometry and increased coherence time, and compared these to results obtained using conventional phase referencing. The observing configurations use the specifications of the ASTRO-G mission for their starting point. Our results show that the SFPR technique enables astrometry at 43 GHz, using alternating observations with 22 GHz, regardless of the orbit errors, for most weathers and under a wide variety of conditions. The same applies to the increased coherence time for the detection of weak sources. Our studies show that the capability to carry out simultaneous dual frequency observations enables application to higher frequencies, and a general improvement of the performance in all cases, hence we recommend its consideration for S-VLBI programs.

  3. Motivation and possibilities of affordable low-frequency radio interferometry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Janhunen, P; Karlsson, R; Griessmeier, J M

    2003-01-01

    The motivation to build spaceborne interferometric arrays for low-frequency radio astronomy is widely recognised because frequencies below the ionospheric cutoff are inaccessible for ground-based radio telescopes. We discuss the theoretical possibilities to use low-frequency spacecraft arrays to detect signals from magnetized extrasolar planets, including earthlike ones. A major uncertainty that prohibits us from knowing if it is possible to detect exoplanet cyclotron maser signals is the incomplete knowledge of the properties of the interstellar plasma. We also present some ideas of how to construct efficient and affordable space-based radio telescopes. We discuss two possibilities, a log-periodic antenna in the spin plane and a two-spacecraft concept where one spacecraft holds a large parabolic wire mesh reflector and the other one contains the receiver. In the latter case, the effective area could be of the order of 1 km$^2$. The purpose of the paper is to stress once more the importance of spaceborne low-...

  4. Intrinsic advantages of the w component and spherical imaging for wide-field radio interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating wide-field considerations in interferometric imaging is of increasing importance for next-generation radio telescopes. Compressed sensing techniques for interferometric imaging have been extended to wide fields recently, recovering images in the spherical coordinate space in which they naturally live. We review these techniques, highlighting: (i) how the effectiveness of the spread spectrum phenomenon, due to the w component inducing an increase of measurement incoherence, is enhanced when going to wide fields; and (ii) how sparsity is reduced by recovering images directly on the sphere. Both of these properties act to improve the quality of reconstructed images.

  5. Automating Range Surveillance Through Radio Interferometry and Field Strength Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Space vehicle launches are often delayed because of the challenge of verifying that the range is clear, and such delays are likely to become more prevalent as more and more new spaceports are built. Range surveillance is one of the primary focuses of Range Safety for launches and often drives costs and schedules. As NASA's primary launch operation center, Kennedy Space Center is very interested in new technologies that increase the responsiveness of radio frequency (RF) surveillance systems. These systems help Range Safety personnel clear the range by identifying, pinpointing, and resolving any unknown sources of RF emissions prior to each launch.

  6. VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY MULTI-FREQUENCY POLARIMETRIC IMAGING OF RADIO-LOUD BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted the first multi-frequency polarimetric imaging of four broad absorption line (BAL) quasars using the Very Long Baseline Array at milliarcsecond resolutions to investigate the inclination of the nonthermal jet and test the hypothesis that radio sources in BAL quasars are still young. Among these four sources, J0928+446, J1018+0530, and J1405+4056 show one-sided structures in parsec scales and polarized emission detected in the core. These characteristics are consistent with those of blazars. We set constraints on viewing angles to <66° for these jets in the framework of a Doppler beaming effect. J1159+0112 exhibits an unpolarized gigahertz-peaked spectrum component and several discrete blobs with steep spectra on both sides of the central component across ∼1 kpc. These properties are consistent with those of young radio sources. We discuss the structures of jets and active galactic nucleus wind.

  7. AN ASTROMETRIC SEARCH FOR A SUB-STELLAR COMPANION OF THE M8.5 DWARF TVLM 513–46546 USING VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted multi-epoch very long baseline interferometry observations to search for astrometric reflex motion that would be caused by a sub-stellar companion of the M8.5 dwarf TVLM 513–46546. The observations yield an absolute parallax corresponding to a distance of 10.762 ± 0.027 pc and a proper motion of 78.09 ± 0.17 mas yr–1. The averaged flux density per epoch varies by a factor of at least three. From the absence of significant residual motion, we place an upper limit on any reflex motion caused by a companion, extending the parameter space covered by previous near-infrared direct-imaging searches. The data exclude a phase space of companion masses and orbital periods ranging from 3.8 MJup with an orbital radius of ∼0.05 AU (and an orbital period of 16 days) to 0.3 MJup with an orbital radius of ∼0.7 AU (and an orbital period of 710 days)

  8. RadioAstron Studies of the Nearby, Turbulent Interstellar Plasma With the Longest Space-Ground Interferometer Baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, T V; Popov, M V; Gwinn, C R; Anderson, J M; Andrianov, A S; Bartel, N; Deller, A; Johnson, M D; Joshi, B C; Kardashev, N S; Karuppusamy, R; Kovalev, Y Y; Kramer, M; Soglasnov, V A; Zensus, J A; Zhuravlev, V I

    2014-01-01

    RadioAstron space-ground VLBI observations of the pulsar B0950+08, conducted with the 10-m space radio telescope in conjunction with the Arecibo 300-m telescope and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope at a frequency of 324 MHz, were analyzed in order to investigate plasma inhomogeneities in the direction of this nearby pulsar. The observations were conducted at a spacecraft distance of 330,000 km, resulting in a projected baseline of 220,000 km, providing the greatest angular resolution ever achieved at meter wavelengths. Our analysis is based on fundamental behavior of structure and coherence functions. We find that the pulsar shows scintillation on two frequency scales, both much less than the observing frequency; but modulation is less than 100%. We infer that the scattering is weak, but a refracting wedge disperses the scintillation pattern. The refraction angle of this "cosmic prism" is measured as theta_0=1.1 - 4.4 mas, with the refraction direction being approximately perpendicular to the observer vel...

  9. Detection of fast radio transients with multiple stations: a case study using the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, David R; Brisken, Walter; Deller, Adam T; Majid, Walid A; Tingay, Steven J; Wayth, Randall B

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations reveal an important new class of transient radio phenomena that occur on sub-millisecond timescales. Often transient surveys' data volumes are too large to archive exhaustively. Instead, an on-line automatic system must excise impulsive interference and detect candidate events in real-time. This work presents a case study using data from multiple geographically distributed stations to perform simultaneous interference excision and transient detection. We present several algorithms that incorporate dedispersed data from multiple sites, and report experiments with a commensal real-time transient detection system on the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We test the system using observations of pulsar B0329+54. The multiple-station algorithms enhanced sensitivity for detection of individual pulses. These strategies could improve detection performance for a future generation of geographically distributed arrays such as the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder and the Square Kilometre A...

  10. Milky Way Scattering Properties and Intrinsic Sizes of AGN Cores Probed by VLBI Surveys of Compact Extragalactic Radio Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Pushkarev, A B

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the angular sizes of radio cores of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and analyzed their sky distributions and frequency dependencies to study synchrotron opacity in AGN jets and the strength of angular broadening in the interstellar medium. We have used archival very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data of more than 3000 compact extragalactic radio sources observed at frequencies, $\

  11. PSR B0329+54: Substructure in the scatter-broadened image discovered with RadioAstron on baselines of up to 235,000 km

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, M V; Bartel, N; Gwinn, C R; Johnson, M D; Joshi, B C; Kardashev, N S; Karuppusamy, R; Kovalev, Y Y; Kramer, M; Rudnitskii, A G; Safutdinov, E R; Shishov, V I; Smirnova, T V; Soglasnov, V A; Zensus, J A; Zhuravlev, V I

    2015-01-01

    We studied scattering properties of the pulsar PSR B0329+54 with a ground-space radio interferometer RadioAstron which included the 10-m Space Radio Telescope, the 110-m Green Bank Telescope, the 14x25-m Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and the 64-m Kalyazin Radio Telescope. The observations were performed at 324 MHz on baselines of up to 235,000 km in November 2012 and January 2014. At short ground-space baselines of less than about 20,000 km, the visibility amplitude decreases with the projected baseline length, providing a direct measurement of the diameter of the scattering disk of 4.7$\\pm$0.9 mas. The size of the diffraction spot near Earth is 15,000$\\pm$3,000 km. At longer baselines of up to 235,000 km, where no interferometric detection of the scattering disk would be expected, significant visibilities were observed with amplitudes scattered around a constant value. These detections result in a discovery of a substructure in the completely resolved scatter-broadened image of the pointlike source, ...

  12. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    OpenAIRE

    Torben Schüler; Gerhard Kronschnabl; Christian Plötz; Alexander Neidhardt; Alessandra Bertarini; Simone Bernhart; Laura la Porta; Sebastian Halsig; Axel Nothnagel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must ...

  13. PSR B0329+54: Substructure in the scatter-broadened image discovered with RadioAstron on baselines up to 330,000 km

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, M V; Gwinn, C R; Johnson, M D; Andrianov, A; Fadeev, E; Joshi, B C; Kardashev, N S; Karuppusamy, R; Kovalev, Y Y; Kramer, M; Rudnitskiy, A; Shishov, V I; Smirnova, T V; Soglasnov, V A; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We have resolved the scatter-broadened image of PSR B0329+54 and detected substructure within it. These results are not influenced by any extended structure of a source but instead are directly attributed to the interstellar medium. We obtained these results at 324 MHz with the ground-space interferometer RadioAstron which included the space radio telescope (SRT), ground-based Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and 64-m Kalyazin Radio Telescope on baseline projections up to 330,000 km in 2013 November 22 and 2014 January 1 to 2. At short 15,000 to 35,000 km ground-space baseline projections the visibility amplitude decreases with baseline length providing a direct measurement of the size of the scattering disk of 4.8$\\pm$0.8 mas. At longer baselines no visibility detections from the scattering disk would be expected. However, significant detections were obtained with visibility amplitudes of 3 to 5% of the maximum scattered around a mean and approximately constant up to 330,000 km. These visibilities reflec...

  14. PSR B0329+54: Statistics of Substructure Discovered within the Scattering Disk on RadioAstron Baselines of up to 235,000 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, C. R.; Popov, M. V.; Bartel, N.; Andrianov, A. S.; Johnson, M. D.; Joshi, B. C.; Kardashev, N. S.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kramer, M.; Rudnitskii, A. G.; Safutdinov, E. R.; Shishov, V. I.; Smirnova, T. V.; Soglasnov, V. A.; Steinmassl, S. F.; Zensus, J. A.; Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    We discovered fine-scale structure within the scattering disk of PSR B0329+54 in observations with the RadioAstron ground–space radio interferometer. Here we describe this phenomenon, characterize it with averages and correlation functions, and interpret it as the result of decorrelation of the impulse-response function of interstellar scattering between the widely separated antennas. This instrument included the 10 m Space Radio Telescope, the 110 m Green Bank Telescope, the 14 × 25 m Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, and the 64 m Kalyazin Radio Telescope. The observations were performed at 324 MHz on baselines of up to 235,000 km in 2012 November and 2014 January. In the delay domain, on long baselines the interferometric visibility consists of many discrete spikes within a limited range of delays. On short baselines it consists of a sharp spike surrounded by lower spikes. The average envelope of correlations of the visibility function shows two exponential scales, with characteristic delays of {τ }1=4.1+/- 0.3 μ {{s}} and {τ }2=23+/- 3 μ {{s}}, indicating the presence of two scales of scattering in the interstellar medium. These two scales are present in the pulse-broadening function. The longer scale contains 0.38 times the scattered power of the shorter one. We suggest that the longer tail arises from highly scattered paths, possibly from anisotropic scattering or from substructure at large angles.

  15. A new geodetic research data management system at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzer, Glenda L.; Botha, Roelf C.; Combrinck, W. Ludwig; Fourie, Stoffel C.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) hosts two research programmes: radio astronomy and space geodesy. The Space Geodesy programme has four main co-located space geodetic techniques, making HartRAO a true fiducial site. These techniques are Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS). Only GNSS data are stored on-si...

  16. Satellite emission radio interferometric earth surveying series - GPS geodetic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    A concept called SERIES (satellite emissions radio interferometric earth surveying) which makes use of GPS (global positioning system) radio transmissions without any satellite modifications, is described. Through the use of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and its calibration methods, 0.5 to 3 cm three dimensional baseline accuracy can be achieved over distances of 2 to 200 km respectively, with only 2 hours of on-site data acquisition. Attention is given to such areas as: the radio flux equivalent of GPS transmissions, synthesized delay precision, transmission and frequency subsystem requirements, tropospheric and ionospheric errors. Applications covered include geodesy and seismic tectonics.

  17. Acceleration of Compact Radio Jets on Sub-parsec Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Zensus, J. Anton

    2016-01-01

    Jets of compact radio sources are highly relativistic and Doppler boosted, making studies of their intrinsic properties difficult. Observed brightness temperatures can be used to study the intrinsic physical properties of the relativistic jets, and constrain models of jet formation in the inner jet region. We aim to observationally test such inner jet models. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) cores of compact radio sources are optically thick at a given frequency. The distance of t...

  18. Forest parameters retrieval with dual-baseline polarimetric SAR interferometry based on clustering analysis%双基线极化干涉 SAR 植被参数反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢红喜; 李东霖; 刘宏伟; 索志勇; 宋文青; 保铮

    2015-01-01

    Forest parameters inversion is an important application of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry ( PolInSAR ) . To resolve the volume decorrelation coefficient ambiguity of single‐baseline PolInSAR , a new dual‐baseline PolInSAR approach is proposed in this paper . The correlation of dual‐baseline data is fully investigated to resolve the ambiguity problem effectively , and the performance of the proposed approach is proved to be of great robustness in a very small baseline ratio system . Finally , experimental results with ESA dual‐baseline PolInSAR simulated data validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach .%植被参数反演是极化干涉合成孔径雷达的重要应用,然而单基线极化干涉合成孔径雷达技术无法解决体散射去相干估计的模糊问题。提出了一种新的双基线极化干涉合成孔径雷达技术,充分利用了双基线观测数据的相关性,能够有效地解决体散射去相干估计的模糊问题,并对基线比例较小的情况仍具有较好的鲁棒性。利用欧空局发布的 PolSARPro 软件仿真验证了该方法的有效性和稳健性。

  19. THE COMPACT RADIO STRUCTURE OF RADIO-LOUD NARROW LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the compact radio structure of three radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies from the Very Long Baseline Array archive data at 2.3, 5, and 8.4 GHz. In RXS J16290+4007, the radio structure is mostly unresolved. The combination of compact radio structure, high brightness temperature, and inverted spectrum between simultaneous 2.3 and 8.4 GHz strongly favors jet relativistic beaming. Combined with the very long baseline interferometry data at 1.6 and 8.4 GHz from the literature, we argue that RXS J16333+4718 also may harbor a relativistic jet, with resolved core-jet structure in 5 GHz. B3 1702+457 is clearly resolved with a well-defined jet component. The overall radio steep spectrum indicates that B3 1702+457 is likely a source optically defined as NLS1 with radio definition of compact steep spectrum sources. From these three sources, we found that radio loud NLS1s can be either intrinsically radio loud (e.g., B3 1702+457) or apparently radio loud due to jet beaming effects (e.g., RXS J16290+4007 and RXS J16333+4718).

  20. Are the hosts of VLBI-selected radio-AGN different to those of radio-loud AGN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, G. A.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Herrera-Ruiz, N.; Middelberg, E.

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have found that radio-AGN selected by radio-loudness show little difference in terms of their host galaxy properties when compared to non-AGN galaxies of similar stellar mass and redshift. Using new 1.4 GHz very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the Cosmological Evolution Survey field, we find that approximately 49 ± 8 per cent of high-mass (M > 1010.5 M⊙), high-luminosity (L1.4 > 1024 W Hz-1) radio-AGN possess a VLBI-detected counterpart. These objects show no discernible bias towards specific stellar masses, redshifts or host properties other than what is shown by the radio-AGN population in general. Radio-AGN that are detected in VLBI observations are not special, but form a representative sample of the radio-loud AGN population.

  1. Slope Superficial Displacement Monitoring by Small Baseline SAR Interferometry Using Data from L-band ALOS PALSAR and X-band TerraSAR: A Case Study of Hong Kong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulong Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR platforms, and in particular the increase in the availability of multi-source (multi-band and multi-resolution data, it is now feasible to design a surface displacement monitoring application using multi-temporal SAR interferometry (MT-InSAR. Landslides have high socio-economic impacts in many countries because of potential geo-hazards and heavy casualties. In this study, taking into account the merits of ALOS PALSAR (L-band, good coherence preservation and TerraSAR (X-band, high resolution and short revisit times data, we applied an improved small baseline InSAR (SB-InSAR with 3-D phase unwrapping approach, to monitor slope superficial displacement in Hong Kong, China, a mountainous subtropical zone city influenced by over-urbanization and heavy monsoonal rains. Results revealed that the synergistic use of PALSAR and TerraSAR data produces different outcomes in relation to data reliability and spatial-temporal resolution, and hence could be of significant value for a comprehensive understanding and monitoring of unstable slopes.

  2. THE INVERSION OF VEGETATION STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS USING DUAL-BASELINE POLARIMETRIC SAR INTERFEROMETRY%极化干涉SAR反演植被垂直结构剖面研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曦; 张红; 王超

    2009-01-01

    植被的高度和垂直结构剖面都是森林生物量和森林碳循环模型中的关键输入参数,极化干涉SAR的出现使定量获取植被结构参数成为可能.首先,将改进的两次拟合法估计的植被高度作为进一步反演植被垂直结构剖面的先验知识;然后,通过勒让德多项式展开以及双基线极化干涉数据提取植被的垂直结构剖面;最后,利用仿真以及真实极化干涉SAR数据进行方法验证和结果定性分析.研究表明,利用不同极化状态下的干涉相干性变化提取植被结构参数是可行且有效的.%Vegetation height and vertical structural profile constitute the critical parameters for the forest biomass and carbon cycle model, and the polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) technique makes quantitative vegetation structural parameter inversion possible. In this paper, a dual-baseline twice-fitting method was used to extract the vegetation height and then, as prior information, a vegetation vertical structural profile was further estimated by expanding the polynomial of the vertical structural function. Finally, the simulated data and real data were used to validate this dual-baseline technique. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the forest vertical structural profile inversion using interferometric coherence variation under different polarization conditions.

  3. Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

    2013-12-01

    We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

  4. Water vapor as an error source in microwave geodetic systems: Background and survey of calibration techniques. [very long base interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claflin, E. S.; Resch, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Water vapor as an error source in radio interferometry systems is briefly examined. At microwave frequencies, the delay imposed by tropospheric water vapor becomes a limiting error source for high accuracy geodetic systems. The mapping of tropospheric induced errors into 'solved-for' parameters depends upon baseline length and observing strategy. Simulation analysis (and experience) indicates that in some cases, errors in estimating tropospheric delay can be magnified in their effect on baseline components. The various techniques by which tropospheric water can be estimated or measured are surveyed with particular consideration to their possible use as a calibration technique in support to very long baseline interferometry experiments. The method of remote sensing using a microwave radiometer seems to be the most effective way to provide an accurate estimate of water vapor delay.

  5. High-contrast Nulling Interferometry Techniques Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We are developing rotating-baseline nulling-interferometry techniques and algorithms on the single-aperture Hale and Keck telescopes at near-infrared wavelengths,...

  6. The First Very Long Baseline Interferometric SETI Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.

    2012-08-01

    The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hr at 1230-1544 MHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The data set was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW Hz-1 on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI including follow-up observations. The techniques presented are equally applicable to next-generation interferometers, such as the long baselines of the Square Kilometre Array.

  7. Radio-optical scrutiny of the central engine in compact AGN

    OpenAIRE

    T. G. Arshakian; V. H. Chavushyan; Ros, E.; Kadler, M.; Zensus, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    We combine Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data for $\\sim100$ active galactic nuclei (AGN) available from the Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA) 2 cm imaging survey and optical spectroscopy to investigate the relationships in the emission-line region--central engine--radio jet system. Here, we present the diversity of spectral types among the brightest AGN in our sample. We also discuss correlations between the mass of the central engine and properties of the parsec-scale radio jet for...

  8. VLBI detection of an Infrared-Faint Radio Source

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P; Phillips, Chris; Middelberg, Enno; Deller, Adam; Appleton, Philip N

    2007-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources represent a new and unexpected class of object which is bright at radio wavelengths but unusually faint at infrared wavelengths. If, like most mJy radio sources, they were either conventional active or star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, we would expect them to be detectable at infrared wavelengths, and so their non-detection by the Spitzer Space Telescope is surprising. Here we report the detection of one of these sources using Very Long Baseline Interferometry, from which we conclude that the sources are driven by Active Galactic Nuclei. We suggest that these sources are either normal radio-loud quasars at high redshift or abnormally obscured radio galaxies.

  9. Geodetic radio interferometric surveying - Applications and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Robertson, D. S.; Mackay, J. R.

    1985-05-01

    A National Geodetic Survey (NGS) review of candidate technologies in 1977 came to the conclusion that very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) using the MARK III system was suited for developing a modern polar motion and UT1 monitoring service. Project POLARIS (Polar-Motion Analysis by Radio Interferometric Surveying) was implemented jointly by the NGS, NASA, and the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO). Three permanent geodetic VLBI observatories were developed in the U.S., while West Germany constructed a dedicated geodetic VLBI observatory in Wettzell, Bavaria. Agencies in the two countries jointly initiated project IRIS (International Radio Interferometric Surveying) in 1982 with the objective to exploit the improved capabilities of the combined POLARIS/Wettzell network. Attention is given to aspects of VLBI, polar motion and UT1 time series, baseline length measurements, source coordinates, nutation, frequency standard evaluation, and relativistic deflection.

  10. A Michelson-type Radio Interferometer for University Education

    CERN Document Server

    Koda, Jin; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Masahiko; Shafto, Gene; Slechta, Jeff; Metchev, Stanimir

    2016-01-01

    We report development of a simple and affordable radio interferometer suitable as an educational laboratory experiment. With the increasing importance of interferometry in astronomy, the lack of educational interferometers is an obstacle to training the future generation of astronomers. This interferometer provides the hands-on experience needed to fully understand the basic concepts of interferometry. The design of this interferometer is based on the Michelson & Pease stellar optical interferometer, but operates at a radio wavelength (~11 GHz; ~2.7cm); thus the requirement for optical accuracy is much less stringent. We utilize a commercial broadcast satellite dish and feedhorn. Two flat side mirrors slide on a ladder, providing baseline coverage. This interferometer resolves and measures the diameter of the Sun, a nice daytime experiment which can be carried out even in marginal weather (i.e., partial cloud cover). Commercial broadcast satellites provide convenient point sources for comparison to the Su...

  11. Optical Multi-Channel Intensity Interferometry - or: How To Resolve O-Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha; Lee, Bangwon; Choi, Changsu; Oh, Junghwan; Lee, Taeseok; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Im, Myungshin; Park, Yong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Intensity interferometry, based on the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, is a simple and inexpensive method for optical interferometry at microarcsecond angular resolutions; its use in astronomy was abandoned in the 1970s because of low sensitivity. Motivated by recent technical developments, we argue that the sensitivity of large modern intensity interferometers can be improved by factors up to approximately 25,000, corresponding to 11 photometric magnitudes, compared to the pioneering Narrabri Stellar Interferometer. This is made possible by (i) using avalanche photodiodes (APD) as light detectors, (ii) distributing the light received from the source over multiple independent spectral channels, and (iii) use of arrays composed of multiple large light collectors. Our approach permits the construction of large (with baselines ranging from few kilometers to intercontinental distances) optical interferometers at the cost of (very) long-baseline radio interferometers. Realistic intensity interferometer designs are abl...

  12. The First Very Long Baseline Interferometric SETI Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rampadarath, H; Tingay, S J; Trott, C M

    2012-01-01

    The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hours at 1230-1544 with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The dataset was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques, were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW/Hz on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system, within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI, including...

  13. Discovery of a wandering radio jet base after a large X-ray flare in the blazar Markarian 421

    CERN Document Server

    Niinuma, K; Doi, A; Hada, K; Nagai, H; Koyama, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the location of the radio jet bases ("radio cores") of blazars in radio images, and their stationarity by means of dense very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In order to measure the position of a radio core, we conducted 12 epoch astrometric observation of the blazar Markarian 421 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry at 22 GHz immediately after a large X-ray flare, which occurred in the middle of 2011 September. For the first time, we find that the radio core is not stationary but rather changes its location toward 0.5 mas downstream. This angular scale corresponds to the de-projected length of a scale of $10^5$ Schwarzschild radii (Rs) at the distance of Markarian~421. This radio-core wandering may be a new type of manifestation associated with the phenomena of large X-ray flares.

  14. Performance of a Quad-Ridged Feed in a Wideband Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, William A.; Akgiray, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    A new quad-ridged, flared horn achieving nearly constant beamwidth and excellent return loss over a 6:1 frequency bandwidth is described. The system performance in two Radio Telescopes: 1) A 12-meter symmetric dual shaped reflector system intended for geodetic very long baseline interferometry and 2) A 15-meter offset dual shaped reflector intended for the SKA is presented showing it to be excellent wideband feed choice.

  15. Acceleration of Compact Radio Jets on Sub-parsec Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Zensus, J Anton

    2016-01-01

    Jets of compact radio sources are highly relativistic and Doppler boosted, making studies of their intrinsic properties difficult. Observed brightness temperatures can be used to study the intrinsic physical properties of the relativistic jets, and constrain models of jet formation in the inner jet region. We aim to observationally test such inner jet models. The very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) cores of compact radio sources are optically thick at a given frequency. The distance of the core from the central engine is inversely proportional to the frequency. Under the equipartition condition between the magnetic field energy and particle energy densities, the absolute distance of the VLBI core can be predicted. We compiled the brightness temperatures of VLBI cores at various radio frequencies of 2, 8, 15, and 86~GHz. We derive the brightness temperature on sub-parsec scales in the rest frame of the compact radio sources. We find that the brightness temperature increases with increasing distance from t...

  16. Atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We will first present a development of the fundamental principles of atom interferometers. Next we will discuss a few of the various methods now available to split and recombine atomic De Broglie waves, with special emphasis on atom interferometers based on optical pulses. We will also be particularly concerned with high precision interferometers with long measurement times such those made with atomic fountains. The application of atom interferometry to the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity will be detailed. We will also develop the atom interferometry based on adiabatic transfer and we will apply it to the measurement of the photon recoil in the case of the Doppler shift of an atomic resonance caused by the momentum recoil from an absorbed photon. Finally the outlook of future developments will be given. (A.C.)

  17. Expanding radio astronomy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

  18. Unveiling the origin of the radio emission in radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Noelia Herrera; Norris, Ray P; Maini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the radio emission in radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) has been a matter of debate for a long time. It is not well understood whether the emission is caused by star formation in the host galaxy or by black hole activity of the active galactic nuclei (AGN). We shed some light on these questions using the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique to search for RQQs in the field of the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS). The extensive multi-wavelength coverage of the field (from radio to X-rays) was used to classify RQQs, and the milli-arcsecond resolution of VLBI provides a direct way to identify AGNs. In a sample of 18 RQQs we detected 3 using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 1.4 GHz. In this letter we report for the first time on a sample of RQQs with a measured lower limit on the fraction of radio emission coming from the AGN, thus demonstrating that the radio emission of at least some RQQs is dominated by an AGN.

  19. A comprehensive radio view of the extremely bright gamma-ray burst 130427A

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, van der, C.M.A.M.; Paragi, Z.; Bruyn, de, A.G.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Starling, R. L. C.; Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Anderson, G. A.; Fender, R. P.; Yang, J.; Strom, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    GRB 130427A was extremely bright as a result of occurring at low redshift whilst the energetics were more typical of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We collected well-sampled light curves at 1.4 and 4.8 GHz of GRB 130427A with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT); and we obtained its most accurate position with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN). Our flux density measurements are combined with all the data available at radio, optical and X-ray frequ...

  20. A Comprehensive Radio View of the Extremely Bright Gamma-Ray Burst 130427A

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, A. J.; Paragi, Z.; De Bruyn, A. G.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Starling, R. L. C.; Curran, P. A.; Wijers, RAMJ; Rowlinson, A.; Anderson, G. A.; Fender, R. P.; Yang, Jun; Strom, R. G.

    2014-01-01

    GRB 130427A was extremely bright as a result of occurring at low redshift whilst the energetics were more typical of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We collected well-sampled light curves at 1.4 and 4.8 GHz of GRB 130427A with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT); and we obtained its most accurate position with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN). Our flux density measurements are combined with all the data available at radio, optical and X-ray frequ...

  1. Rejection of RFI by means of interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using radio interferometry to reduce the levels of RF interference (RFI) encountered in the NASA Targeted Search SETI program is discussed. It is shown that a radio interferometer will be much less sensitive to RFI than a single antenna system. However, the use of an interferometer would entail a reduction in the noise-limited sensitivity of the system as well as some additional costs due to added complexity.

  2. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Schüler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1, the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate.

  3. Deep wideband single pointings and mosaics in radio interferometry - How accurately do we reconstruct intensities and spectral indices of faint sources?

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, Urvashi; Owen, Frazer N

    2016-01-01

    Many deep wide-band wide-field radio interferometric surveys are being designed to accurately measure intensities, spectral indices and polarization properties of faint source populations. In this paper we compare various wideband imaging methods to evaluate the accuracy to which intensities and spectral indices of sources close to the confusion limit can be reconstructed. We simulated a wideband single-pointing (C-array, L-Band (1-2GHz)) and 46-pointing mosaic(D-array, C-Band (4-8GHz)) JVLA observation using realistic brightness distribution ranging from $1\\mu$Jy to $100m$Jy and time-,frequency-, polarization- and direction-dependent instrumental effects. The main results from these comparisons are (a) errors in the reconstructed intensities and spectral indices are larger for weaker sources even in the absence of simulated noise, (b) errors are systematically lower for joint reconstruction methods (such as MT-MFS) along with A-Projection for accurate primary beam correction, and (c) use of MT-MFS for image ...

  4. Long baseline experiments with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Wucknitz, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    I present first results of LOFAR observations with international baselines. An important cornerstone was the detection of the first long-baseline fringes. Their analysis turns out to be extremely useful to investigate and solve a number of technical issues of the instrument. Crude maps of the sky are created from single-baseline delay/fringe-rate spectra and compared with a short-baseline synthesis map. First long-baseline LBA images are shown of the source 3C196, a bright quasar whose sub-components can only be resolved with the long baselines. The corresponding sub-arcsec HBA image does not show the same amount of details yet, but HBA results are expected to improve significantly very soon. The LBA long-baseline image of 3C196 comprises the highest-resolution radio map ever produced at this low frequency.

  5. Inner radio jet of 3C273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zensus, J.A.; Cohen, M.H.; Baaaath, L.B.; Nicolson, G.D.

    1988-08-04

    Radio maps of 3C273 obtained with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) have been limited by low dynamic range and poor north-south resolution resulting from the low declination of this quasar. Dramatic improvement can now be achieved using larger arrays and antennas in the Southern Hemisphere. A new VLBI map, made at 5 GHz with angular resolution and dynamic range unsurpassed at this frequency for this source, shows a narrow jet extending to a projected distance lsub(proj) approx. 125 h/sup -1/ parsecs from the core. Superluminal motion exists out to at least lsub(proj) ''approx ='' 46 h/sup -1/ parsecs. Successive superluminal components emerge from the core and appear to move on a fixed curved path with similar speeds of about 1 milliarcseconds per year.

  6. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  7. Direct photon interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Peressounko, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider recent developments in the theory of the two-photon interferometry in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions with emphasis on the difference between photon and hadron interferometry. We review the available experimental results and discuss possibilities of measurement of the photon Bose-Einstein correlations in ongoing and future experiments.

  8. New measurement of solar gravitational deflection of radio signals using VLBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio observations using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) can measure the deflection of electromagnetic radiation by the Sun's gravitational field with an accuracy of better than q milliarcsecond, and can thus be used to test General Relativity. Our analysis of ten years of VLBI data, including observations of objects in the range 2.5oo, yields an estimate γ = 1.0002 with a formal standard error of 0.0096 and an estimated standard error of 0.002. This determination is comparable in accuracy and in good agreement with the determination from Mars-Viking time-delay measurements. (author)

  9. Speckle noise in widefield radio-interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Vedantham, Harish

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider random phase fluctuations imposed during wave propagation through a turbulent plasma (e.g. ionosphere) as a source of additional noise in interferometric visibilities. We derive expressions for visibility variance for the wide field-of-view case (FOV$\\sim10$ deg) by computing the statistics of Fresnel-diffraction from a stochastic plasma, and provide an intuitive understanding. For typical ionospheric conditions (diffractive scale $\\sim 5-20$ km at $150$ MHz), we show that the resulting ionospheric `speckle noise' can be a dominant source of uncertainty at low-frequencies ($\

  10. An evolutionary sequence of young radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, J. D.; Norris, R. P.; Filipović, M. D.; Tothill, N. F. H.

    2016-02-01

    We have observed the faintest sample of Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources to date, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We test the hypothesis that GPS and CSS sources are the youngest radio galaxies, place them into an evolutionary sequence along with a number of other young active galactic nuclei (AGN) candidates, and search for evidence of the evolving accretion mode and its relationship to star formation. GPS/CSS sources have very small radio jets that have been recently launched from the central supermassive black hole and grow in linear size as they evolve, which means that the linear size of the jets is an excellent indicator of the evolutionary stage of the AGN. We use high-resolution radio observations to determine the linear size of GPS/CSS sources, resolve their jets and observe their small-scale morphologies. We combine this with other multi-wavelength age indicators, including the spectral age, colours, optical spectra, and spectral energy distribution of the host galaxy, in an attempt to assemble all age indicators into a self-consistent model. We observe the most compact sources with Very Large Baseline Interferometry, which reveals their parsec-scale structures, giving us a range of source sizes and allowing us to test what fraction of GPS/CSS sources are young and evolving.

  11. Optical interferometry in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here I review the current state of the field of optical stellar interferometry, concentrating on ground-based work although a brief report of space interferometry missions is included. We pause both to reflect on decades of immense progress in the field as well as to prepare for a new generation of large interferometers just now being commissioned (most notably, the CHARA, Keck and VLT Interferometers). First, this review summarizes the basic principles behind stellar interferometry needed by the lay-physicist and general astronomer to understand the scientific potential as well as technical challenges of interferometry. Next, the basic design principles of practical interferometers are discussed, using the experience of past and existing facilities to illustrate important points. Here there is significant discussion of current trends in the field, including the new facilities under construction and advanced technologies being debuted. This decade has seen the influence of stellar interferometry extend beyond classical regimes of stellar diameters and binary orbits to new areas such as mapping the accretion discs around young stars, novel calibration of the cepheid period-luminosity relation, and imaging of stellar surfaces. The third section is devoted to the major scientific results from interferometry, grouped into natural categories reflecting these current developments. Lastly, I consider the future of interferometry, highlighting the kinds of new science promised by the interferometers coming on-line in the next few years. I also discuss the longer-term future of optical interferometry, including the prospects for space interferometry and the possibilities of large-scale ground-based projects. Critical technological developments are still needed to make these projects attractive and affordable

  12. COLA. III. RADIO DETECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IN COMPACT MODERATE LUMINOSITY INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from 4.8 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) and global very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the northern half of the moderate FIR luminosity (median LIR = 1011.01 Lsun) COLA sample of star-forming galaxies. VLBI sources are detected in a high fraction (20/90) of the galaxies observed. The radio luminosities of these cores (∼1021 W Hz-1) are too large to be explained by radio supernovae or supernova remnants and we argue that they are instead powered by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These sub-parsec scale radio cores are preferentially detected toward galaxies whose VLA maps show bright 100-500 parsec scale nuclear radio components. Since these latter structures tightly follow the FIR to radio-continuum correlation for star formation, we conclude that the AGN-powered VLBI sources are associated with compact nuclear starburst environments. The implications for possible starburst-AGN connections are discussed. The detected VLBI sources have a relatively narrow range of radio luminosity consistent with models in which intense compact Eddington-limited starbursts regulate the gas supply onto a central supermassive black hole. The high incidence of AGN radio cores in compact starbursts suggests little or no delay between the starburst phase and the onset of AGN activity.

  13. Binary Cepheids from optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Mérand, A; Monnier, J D; Pietrzyński, J Breitfelder G; Gieren, W

    2013-01-01

    Classical Cepheid stars have been considered since more than a century as reliable tools to estimate distances in the universe thanks to their Period-Luminosity (P-L) relationship. Moreover, they are also powerful astrophysical laboratories, providing fundamental clues for studying the pulsation and evolution of intermediate-mass stars. When in binary systems, we can investigate the age and evolution of the Cepheid, estimate the mass and distance, and constrain theoretical models. However, most of the companions are located too close to the Cepheid (1-40 mas) to be spatially resolved with a 10-meter class telescope. The only way to spatially resolve such systems is to use long-baseline interferometry. Recently, we have started a unique and long-term interferometric program that aims at detecting and characterizing physical parameters of the Cepheid companions, with as main objectives the determination of accurate masses and geometric distances.

  14. A Michelson-type radio interferometer for university education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Jin; Barrett, James; Shafto, Gene; Slechta, Jeff; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Masahiko; Metchev, Stanimir

    2016-04-01

    We report development of a simple and affordable radio interferometer suitable as an educational laboratory experiment. The design of this interferometer is based on the Michelson and Pease stellar optical interferometer, but instead operates at the radio wavelength of ˜11 GHz (˜2.7 cm), requiring much less stringent optical accuracy in its design and use. We utilize a commercial broadcast satellite dish and feedhorn with two flat side mirrors that slide on a ladder, providing baseline coverage. This interferometer can resolve and measure the diameter of the Sun, even on a day with marginal weather. Commercial broadcast satellites provide convenient point sources for comparison to the Sun's extended disk. The mathematical background of an adding interferometer is presented, as is its design and development, including the receiver system, and sample measurements of the Sun. Results from a student laboratory report are shown. With the increasing importance of interferometry in astronomy, the lack of educational interferometers is an obstacle to training the future generation of astronomers. This interferometer provides the hands-on experience needed to fully understand the basic concepts of interferometry.

  15. TANAMI - Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Cornelia; Ojha, Roopesh; Boeck, M; Booth, R; Dutka, M S; Edwardsk, P; Fey, A L; Fuhrmann, L; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; Jauncey, D L; Johnston, K J; Katz, U; Lister, M; Lovell, J E J; Ploetz, C; Quick, J F H; Ros, E; Taylor, G B; Thompson, D J; Tingay, S J; Tosti, G; Tzioumisk, A K; Wilms, J; Zensus, J A

    2009-01-01

    We present a summary of the observation strategy of TANAMI (Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry), a monitoring program to study the parsec-scale structure and dynamics of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the Southern Hemisphere with the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and the trans-oceanic antennas Hartebeesthoek, TIGO, and O'Higgins. TANAMI is focusing on extragalactic sources south of -30 degrees declination with observations at 8.4 GHz and 22 GHz every ~2 months at milliarcsecond resolution. The initial TANAMI sample of 43 sources has been defined before the launch of the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope to include the most promising candidates for bright gamma-ray emission to be detected with its Large Area Telescope (LAT). Since November 2008, we have been adding new sources to the sample, which now includes all known radio- and gamma-ray bright AGN of the Southern Hemisphere. The combination of VLBI and gamma-ray observations is crucial to u...

  16. Holograph and Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a method to create holograms for use in different interferometry techniques. Students utilize these techniques in experiments to study the structural integrity of a clarinet reed and the effects of temperature on objects. (MDH)

  17. Astronomical Optical Interferometry. I. Methods and Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankov, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous decade has seen an achievement of large interferometricprojects including 8-10m telescopes and 100m class baselines. Modern computerand control technology has enabled the interferometric combination of lightfrom separate telescopes also in the visible and infrared regimes. Imagingwith milli-arcsecond (mas resolution and astrometry with micro-arcsecond($mu$as precision have thus become reality. Here, I review the methods andinstrumentation corresponding to the current state in the field ofastronomical optical interferometry. First, this review summarizes thedevelopment from the pioneering works of Fizeau and Michelson. Next, thefundamental observables are described, followed by the discussion of the basicdesign principles of modern interferometers. The basic interferometrictechniques such as speckle and aperture masking interferometry, aperture synthesisand nulling interferometry are disscused as well. Using the experience ofpast and existing facilities to illustrate important points, I considerparticularly the new generation of large interferometers that has beenrecently commissioned (most notably, the CHARA, Keck, VLT and LBTInterferometers. Finally, I discuss the longer-term future of opticalinterferometry, including the possibilities of new large-scale ground-based projects and prospects for space interferometry.

  18. THE CATALOG OF POSITIONS OF OPTICALLY BRIGHT EXTRAGALACTIC RADIO SOURCES OBRS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that the European Space Agency mission Gaia will make it possible to determine coordinates in the optical domain of more than 500,000 quasars. In 2006, a radio astrometry project was launched with the overall goal of making comparisons between coordinate systems derived from future space-born astrometry instruments and the coordinate system constructed from analysis of global very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) more robust. Investigation of the rotation, zonal errors, and non-alignment of the radio and optical positions caused by both radio and optical structures is needed to validate both techniques. In order to support these studies, the densification of the list of compact extragalactic objects that are bright in both radio and optical ranges is desirable. A set of 105 objects from the list of 398 compact extragalactic radio sources with decl. >-100 was observed with the Very Long Baseline Array and European VLBI Network (EVN) with the primary goal of producing images with milliarcsecond resolution. These sources are brighter than 18 mag in the V band, and they were previously detected by the EVN. In this paper, coordinates of observed sources have been derived with milliarcsecond accuracies from analysis of these VLBI observations using an absolute astrometry method. The catalog of positions for 105 target sources is presented. The accuracies of source coordinates are in the range of 0.3-7 mas, with a median of 1.1 mas.

  19. Radio-loud AGN-jet morphology and polarization: the role of ultra-high resolution radio surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Agudo, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A review of the current challenges for the understanding of the physics of extragalactic radio jets from supermassive black holes is presented. Also, a prospect is given about how both very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and polarimetric observations help us to understand their physics and the ones of their magnetic fields. This paper focuses on the impact that previous ultra-high resolution polarimetric surveys have had on our current knowledge on radio loud AGN. It first concentrates on the expectations about the improvement that the Square Kilometer Array, used as a super-sensitive VLBI station on existing and future very long baseline interferometric arrays, will provide in terms of access to new source classes, and in terms of a deeper portion of the Universe than currently accessible. A series of key new radio loud AGN science fields, to be opened by the Square Kilometer Array, are outlined together with a collection of preliminary ideas about possible programs of interest to deep in such fields. T...

  20. Morphology of high-luminosity compact radio sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zensus, J A; Krichbaum, T P; Lobanov, A P

    1995-12-01

    High-dynamic range imaging and monitoring with very-long-baseline interferometry reveal a rich morphology of luminous flat-spectrum radio sources. One-sided core-jet structures abound, and superluminal motion is frequently measured. In a few cases, both distinct moving features and diffuse underlying jet emission can be detected. Superluminal motion seen in such sources is typically complex, on curved trajectories or ridge lines, and with variable component velocities, including stationary features. The curved trajectories seen can be modeled by helical motion within the underlying jet flow. The very-long-baseline interferometry properties of the superluminal features in the jet of 3C 345 and other similar sources can be explained by models invoking the emission from shocks, at least within the vicinity of the compact core. Inverse-Compton calculations, constrained by x-ray observations, yield realistic estimates for the physical conditions in the parsec-scale jet. There is evidence for a transition region in this source beyond which other factors (e.g., plasma interactions and nonsynchrotron radiation processes) may become prominent. Multifrequency and polarization imaging (especially at high frequencies) are emerging as critical tools in testing model predictions. PMID:11607595

  1. FIRST VLBI DETECTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: EVIDENCE FOR SMALL-SCALE FEATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed analysis of the first very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) detection of the radio remnant of supernova 1987A. The VLBI data taken in 2007 and 2008 at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz, respectively, provide images sensitive to angular scales from 0.''1 to 0.''7, the highest resolution to date at radio frequencies. The results reveal two extended lobes with an overall morphology consistent with observations at lower resolutions. We find evidence of small-scale features in the radio shell, which possibly consist of compact clumps near the inner surface of the shell. These features have angular extent smaller than 0.''2 and contribute less than 13% of the total remnant flux density. No central source is detected in the VLBI images. We place a 3σ flux density limit of 0.3 mJy on any pulsar or pulsar wind nebula at 1.7 GHz.

  2. Stellar Intensity Interferometry: Astrophysical targets for sub-milliarcsecond imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis; LeBohec, Stephan; Nuñez, Paul D; 10.1117/12.856394

    2010-01-01

    Intensity interferometry permits very long optical baselines and the observation of sub-milliarcsecond structures. Using planned kilometric arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes at short wavelengths, intensity interferometry may increase the spatial resolution achieved in optical astronomy by an order of magnitude, inviting detailed studies of the shapes of rapidly rotating hot stars with structures in their circumstellar disks and winds, or mapping out patterns of nonradial pulsations across stellar surfaces. Signal-to-noise in intensity interferometry favors high-temperature sources and emission-line structures, and is independent of the optical passband, be it a single spectral line or the broad spectral continuum. Prime candidate sources have been identified among classes of bright and hot stars. Observations are simulated for telescope configurations envisioned for large Cherenkov facilities, synthesizing numerous optical baselines in software, confirming that resolutions of tens of microarcseconds are feas...

  3. Radio astronomy in Africa: the case of Ghana

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, Bernard Duah; Horellou, Cathy; Winkler, Hartmut; Jarrett, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has played a leading role in radio astronomy in Africa with the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). It continues to make strides with the current seven-dish MeerKAT precursor array (KAT-7), leading to the 64-dish MeerKAT and the giant Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will be used for transformational radio astronomy research. Ghana, an African partner to the SKA, has been mentored by South Africa over the past six years and will soon emerge in the field of radio astronomy. The country will soon have a science-quality 32m dish converted from a redundant satellite communication antenna. Initially, it will be fitted with 5 GHz and 6.7 GHz receivers to be followed later by a 1.4 - 1.7 GHz receiver. The telescope is being designed for use as a single dish observatory and for participation in the developing African Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (AVN) and the European VLBI Network. Ghana is earmarked to host a remote station during a possible SKA Phase 2. The loca...

  4. Towards the Intensity Interferometry Stellar Imaging System

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, M; Dravins, D; Kieda, D; Le Bohec, S; Núñez, P; Ribak, E

    2009-01-01

    The imminent availability of large arrays of large light collectors deployed to exploit atmospheric Cherenkov radiation for gamma-ray astronomy at more than 100GeV, motivates the growing interest in application of intensity interferometry in astronomy. Indeed, planned arrays numbering up to one hundred telescopes will offer close to 5,000 baselines, ranging from less than 50m to more than 1000m. Recent and continuing signal processing technology developments reinforce this interest. Revisiting Stellar Intensity Interferometry for imaging is well motivated scientifically. It will fill the short wavelength (B/V bands) and high angular resolution (< 0.1mas) gap left open by amplitude interferometers. It would also constitute a first and important step toward exploiting quantum optics for astronomical observations, thus leading the way for future observatories. In this paper we outline science cases, technical approaches and schedule for an intensity interferometer to be constructed and operated in the visible...

  5. Accuracy assessment of SAR interferometry using the ERS-1

    OpenAIRE

    Broquetas Ibars, Antoni

    1995-01-01

    A SAR raw data simulator and a SAR processor are used as a tool for performance assessment of SAR interferometry algorithms like the multi-baseline and multifrequency. Traditional algorithms have also been tested with real ERS-1 data and validated with a high accuracy reference DEM. Peer Reviewed

  6. Radio and gamma-ray properties of extragalactic jets from the TANAMI sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böck, M.; Kadler, M.; Müller, C.; Tosti, G.; Ojha, R.; Wilms, J.; Bastieri, D.; Burnett, T.; Carpenter, B.; Cavazzuti, E.; Dutka, M.; Blanchard, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Jauncey, D. L.; Krauß, F.; Lister, M. L.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Lott, B.; Murphy, D. W.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Pursimo, T.; Quick, J.; Ros, E.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Tzioumis, A.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    The TANAMI program has been observing parsec-scale radio jets of southern (declination south of - 30°) γ-ray bright AGN, simultaneously with Fermi/LAT monitoring of their γ-ray emission, via high-resolution radio imaging with Very Long Baseline Interferometry techniques. We present the radio and γ-rayproperties of the TANAMI sources based on one year of contemporaneous TANAMI and Fermi/LAT data. A large fraction (72%) of the TANAMI sample can be associated with bright γ-ray sources for this time range. Association rates differ for different optical classes with all BL Lacs, 76% of quasars, and just 17% of galaxies detected by the LAT. Upper limits were established on the γ-ray flux from TANAMI sources not detected by LAT. This analysis led to the identification of three new Fermi sources whose detection was later confirmed. The γ-ray and radio luminosities are related by Lγ ∝ Lr0.89±0.04. The brightness temperatures of the radio cores increase with the average γ-ray luminosity and the presence of brightness temperatures above the inverse Compton limit implies strong Doppler boosting in those sources. The undetected sources have lower γ/radio luminosity ratios and lower contemporaneous brightness temperatures. Unless the Fermi/LAT-undetected blazars are much γ-ray-fainter than the Fermi/LAT-detected sources, their γ-ray luminosity should not be significantly lower than the upper limits calculated here.

  7. The compact structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Wang, T. G.; Xie, F. G.

    2008-11-01

    We present the results of EVN+MERLIN very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) polarization observations of eight broad absorption line (BAL) quasars at 1.6 GHz, including four low-ionization BAL quasars (LoBALs) and four high-ionization BAL quasars (HiBALs) with either steep or flat spectra on Very Large Array (VLA) scales. Only one steep-spectrum source, J1122+3124, shows two-sided structure on the scale of 2 kpc. The other four steep-spectrum sources and three flat-spectrum sources display either an unresolved image or a core-jet structure on scales of less than 300 pc. In all cases, the marginally resolved core is the dominant radio component. Linear polarization in the cores has been detected in the range of a few to 10 per cent. Polarization, together with high brightness temperatures (from 2 × 109 to 5 × 1010K), suggests a synchrotron origin for the radio emission. There is no apparent difference in the radio morphologies or polarization between low-ionization and high-ionization BAL quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) or between flat- and steep-spectrum sources. We discuss the orientation of BAL QSOs with both flat and steep spectra, and consider a possible evolutionary scenario for BAL QSOs. In this scenario, BAL QSOs are probably a young population of radio sources that are compact steep spectrum or GHz peaked radio source analogues at the low end of radio power.

  8. RFI profiles of prime candidate sites for the first radio astronomical telescope in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Bahari Ramadzan Syed Adnan, Syed; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2010-03-01

    Radio astronomy is a very young research field in South East Asia. There has not been a research-grade radio telescope built in this part of the world yet. A plan has been proposed by the University of Malaya's Radio Cosmology Research Laboratory to build a medium-sized radio telescope in order to eventually join the global projects of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network and Square Kilometer Array (SKA). Main parameters taken into consideration in finding the main prime candidate sites involves features that produce Radio Frequency Interference (RFI). These features are mainly telecommunication and satellite navigation signals and population density. Other important features considered are rainfall level, land contour and availability for future collaboration with institutions at the chosen sites. In this paper we described the experimental procedure and the RFI measurement on our five prime candidate's sites in Malaysia, covering frequency band from 1 MHz to 2000 MHz. The levels and sources of RFI on these sites were monitored and analyzed. The RFI level in Langkawi showed the lowest average of -100.33dBm(4.4×106Jy). These RFI have been found to fluctuate relatively lowly (between 1 dB m and 2 dB m). This site is also ideally located close to the Langkawi National Observatory and we recommend that this site as the best site to build the first research-grade radio telescope in this region.

  9. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  10. Quantum interferometry with complex molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Markus; Hornberger, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    This chapter reviews recent experiments on matter wave interferometry with large molecules. Starting from an elementary introduction to matter wave physics we discuss far-field diffraction and near-field interferometry with thermally excited many-body systems. We describe the constraints imposed by decoherence and dephasing effects, and present an outlook to the future challenges in macromolecule and cluster interferometry.

  11. Characterization of a Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy Prototype Array in Western Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Sutinjo, A T; Wayth, R B; Hall, P J; Acedo, E de Lera; Booler, T; Faulkner, A J; Feng, L; Hurley-Walker, N; Juswardy, B; Padhi, S K; Razavi-Ghods, N; Sokolowski, M; Tingay, S J; de Vaate, J G Bij

    2015-01-01

    We report characterization results for an engineering prototype of a next-generation low-frequency radio astronomy array. This prototype, which we refer to as the Aperture Array Verification System 0.5 (AAVS0.5), is a sparse pseudo-random array of 16 log-periodic antennas designed for 70-450 MHz. It is co-located with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) at the Murchison Radioastronomy Observatory (MRO) near the Australian Square Kilometre Array (SKA) core site. We characterize the AAVS0.5 using two methods: in-situ radio interferometry with astronomical sources and an engineering approach based on detailed full-wave simulation. In-situ measurement of the small prototype array is challenging due to the dominance of the Galactic noise and the relatively weaker calibration sources easily accessible in the southern sky. The MWA, with its 128 "tiles" and up to 3 km baselines, enabled in-situ measurement via radio interferometry. We present array sensitivity and beam pattern characterization results and compare to ...

  12. A Data Exchange Standard for Optical (Visible/IR) Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pauls, T A; Cotton, W D; Monnier, J D

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the OI Exchange Format, a standard for exchanging calibrated data from optical (visible/infrared) stellar interferometers. The standard is based on the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS), and supports storage of the optical interferometric observables including squared visibility and closure phase -- data products not included in radio interferometry standards such as UV-FITS. The format has already gained the support of most currently-operating optical interferometer projects, including COAST, NPOI, IOTA, CHARA, VLTI, PTI, and the Keck Interferometer, and is endorsed by the IAU Working Group on Optical Interferometry. Software is available for reading, writing and merging OI Exchange Format files.

  13. First statistics of the isopistonic angle for long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziad, A.; Elhalkouj, T.; Petrov, R. G.; Borgnino, J.; Lazrek, M.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Martin, F.; Elazhari, Y.

    2016-06-01

    To reach a suitable limiting magnitude with a multi-aperture interferometer, we need to cophase the different telescopes using a reference source. The latter should be located in the same isopistonic domain as the science source. We developed a direct analytical expression of deducing the isopistonic angle from atmospheric optical parameters as seeing, isoplanatic angle and outer scale. All of these atmospheric turbulence parameters are measured by the Generalized Seeing Monitor (GSM). The first statistics of the isopistonic angle obtained from the GSM data are presented and comparison between the major sites over the world are discussed (La Silla, Cerro Pachon, Paranal, San Pedro, Mt Palomar, Mauna Kea, La Palma, Oukaïmeden, Maydanak, Dome C). Implications of these isopistonic angle statistics on large interferometers cophasing in terms of sky coverage and limiting magnitude are discussed.

  14. INVESTIGATING BE STAR DISKS USING LONG-BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tycner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrellas Be forman una subclase de estrellas-B, donde éstas poseen estructuras gaseosas tipo-disco. Históricamente, la presencia de un disco fue detectado a través de líneas de emisi on presentes en el espectro, o vía el exceso del IR detectado en la distribución de energía espectral originada de estas fuentes. Sin embargo, la interferometría de línea de gran base es el único método de observación disponible hoy en día, que puede ser utilizado para resolver espacialmente las regiones circunestelares de estas estrellas, usando la emisión de las líneas o del contínuo de los discos. Se revisa una muestra de los resultados interferométricos dominantes que desempeñaron un rol principal apoyando la visión actual de estos sistemas, discos planos que rotan conectados con las estrellas que a su vez rotan rápidamente, son usualmente citados como un est andar observacional. Se presentan ejemplos de trabajos y resultados observacionales de varios interferómetros incluyendo trabajos recientes. Se discuten brevemente posibles direcciones futuras.

  15. Opacity in compact extragalactic radio sources and the core shift effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparent position of the 'core' in a parsec-scale radio jet (a compact, bright emitting region at the narrow end of the jet) depends on the observing frequency, owing to synchrotron self-absorption and external absorption. This dependency both provides a tool to probe physical conditions in the vicinity of the core and poses problems for astrometric studies using compact radio sources. We investigate the frequency-dependent shift of the positions of the cores (core shift) observed with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in parsec-scale jets. We present results for 29 selected active galactic nuclei (AGN). In these AGN, the magnitude of the measured core shift between 2.3 and 8.6 GHz reaches 1.4 mas, with a median value for the sample of 0.44 mas. We discuss related physics as well as astrometry applications and plans for further studies.

  16. Opacity in compact extragalactic radio sources and the core shift effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, Y Y; Lobanov, A P; Pushkarev, A B; Zensus, J A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: ykovalev@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: alobanov@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: apushkar@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: azensus@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

    2008-10-15

    The apparent position of the 'core' in a parsec-scale radio jet (a compact, bright emitting region at the narrow end of the jet) depends on the observing frequency, owing to synchrotron self-absorption and external absorption. This dependency both provides a tool to probe physical conditions in the vicinity of the core and poses problems for astrometric studies using compact radio sources. We investigate the frequency-dependent shift of the positions of the cores (core shift) observed with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in parsec-scale jets. We present results for 29 selected active galactic nuclei (AGN). In these AGN, the magnitude of the measured core shift between 2.3 and 8.6 GHz reaches 1.4 mas, with a median value for the sample of 0.44 mas. We discuss related physics as well as astrometry applications and plans for further studies.

  17. Radio observations of the first three-months of Fermi AGN at 4.8 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Urumqi 25 m radio telescope, sources from the first three months of the Fermi-large area telescope detected active galactic nuclei (AGN) catalog with a declination of > 0° were observed in 2009 at 4.8 GHz. The radio flux density appeared to correlate with the γ-ray intensity. Intra-day variability (IDV) observations were performed in March, April and May 2009 for 42 selected γ-ray bright blazars, and ∼60% of them showed evidence of flux variability at 4.8 GHz during the IDV observations. The IDV detection rate was higher than that in previous flat-spectrum AGN samples. IDV appeared more often in the very long baseline interferometry-core dominant blazars, and the non-IDV blazars showed relatively 'steeper' spectral indices than the IDV blazars. Pronounced inter-month variability was also found in two BL Lac objects: J0112+2244 and J0238+1636.

  18. The radio evolution of supernova SN$\\,$2008iz in M$\\,$82

    CERN Document Server

    Kimani, N; Brunthaler, A; Menten, K M; Martí-Vidal, I; Henkel, C; Falcke, H; Muxlow, T W B; Beswick, R J; Bower, G C

    2016-01-01

    We report on multi-frequency Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio observations for a monitoring campaign of supernova SN$\\,$2008iz in the nearby irregular galaxy M$\\,$82. We fit two models to the data, a simple time power-law, S$\\propto$ t$^\\beta$, and a simplified Weiler model, yielding decline indices, $\\beta$ of -1.22$\\pm$0.07 (days 100-1500) and -1.41$\\pm$0.02 (days 76-2167), respectively. The late-time radio light curve evolution shows flux-density flares at $\\sim\\,$970 and $\\sim\\,$1400 days which are a factor of $\\sim\\,$2 and $\\sim\\,$4 higher than the expected flux, respectively. The later flare, besides being brighter, does not show signs of decline at least from results examined so far (2014 January 23, day 2167). We derive the spectral index, $\\alpha$, S$\\propto$ $\

  19. Radio Astrometry towards the Nearby Universe with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Imai, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Goda, Naoteru; Yano, Tahei; Orosz, Gabor; Niinuma, Kotaro; Bekki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This chapter summarizes radio astrometry in relation to current very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) projects and describes its perspectives with the SKA. The scientific goals of the astrometry with the SKA have been discussed in the international and Japanese communities of researchers, whose major issues are shown here. We have demonstrated some of the issues, such as censuses of possible targets and the technical feasibility of astrometry in the SKA frequency bands. The preliminary results of our case studies on SKA astrometry are also presented. In addition, possible synergy and commensality of the SKA astrometric projects with those in the optical and infrared astrometric missions, especially JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration) are discussed.

  20. The inner radio jet of 3C273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio maps of 3C273 obtained with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) have been limited by low dynamic range and poor north-south resolution resulting from the low declination of this quasar. Dramatic improvement can now be achieved using larger arrays and antennas in the Southern Hemisphere. A new VLBI map, made at 5 GHz with angular resolution and dynamic range unsurpassed at this frequency for this source, shows a narrow jet extending to a projected distance lsub(proj) ∼ 125 h-1 parsecs from the core. Superluminal motion exists out to at least lsub(proj) ''approx ='' 46 h-1 parsecs. Successive superluminal components emerge from the core and appear to move on a fixed curved path with similar speeds of about 1 milliarcseconds per year. (author)

  1. The compact radio structure of the high-redshift quasar OQ172

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Gu, M.; Gurvits, L. I.

    2016-02-01

    The GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) quasar OQ172 (J1445+0958) has an extremely high rest-frame rotation measure (RM > 20 000 rad m-2) and an RM gradient in its inner nucleus. Its jet observed with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is strongly bent along an arc spanning > 100 pc. Near infrared (NIR) spectra reveal an unusually large [O III] line width which suggests a large mass within the NLR and/or strong interactions between the emerging jet and the dense material therein. We present our VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) and Multi-frequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observation of the GPS quasar OQ172. The observations will help us to explore the VLBI radio properties and to better understand the circumnuclear environment of OQ172.

  2. NGC5252: a pair of radio-emitting active galactic nuclei?

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiaolong; Paragi, Zsolt; Liu, Xiang; An, Tao; Bianchi, Stefano; Ho, Luis C; Cui, Lang; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Xiaocong

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray source CXO J133815.6+043255 has counterparts in the UV, optical, and radio bands. Based on the multi-band investigations, it has been recently proposed by Kim et al. (2015) as a rarely-seen off-nucleus ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source with a black hole mass of >= 10^4 solar mass in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5252. To explore its radio properties at very high angular resolution, we performed very long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.7 GHz. We find that the radio counterpart is remarkably compact among the known ULXs. It does not show a resolved structure with a resolution of a few milliarcsecond (mas), and the total recovered flux density is comparable to that measured in earlier sub-arcsecond-resolution images. The compact radio structure, the relatively flat spectrum, and the high radio luminosity are consistent with a weakly accreting supermassive black hole in a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus. The nucleus of NGC 5252 itself has simi...

  3. Radioastron studies of the nearby, turbulent interstellar plasma with the longest space-ground interferometer baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnova, T. V.; Shishov, V. I. [Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Oblast' 142290 (Russian Federation); Popov, M. V.; Andrianov, A. S.; Kardashev, N. S.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Soglasnov, V. A.; Zhuravlev, V. I. [Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya str.84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Gwinn, C. R.; Johnson, M. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Anderson, J. M.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Zensus, J. A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bartel, N. [York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Deller, A. [The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Joshi, B. C., E-mail: zhur@asc.rssi.ru [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2014-05-10

    RadioAstron space-ground very long baseline interferometry observations of the pulsar B0950+08, conducted with the 10 m Space Radio Telescope in conjunction with the Arecibo 300 m telescope and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope at a frequency of 324 MHz were analyzed in order to investigate plasma inhomogeneities in the direction of this nearby pulsar. The observations were conducted at a spacecraft distance of 330,000 km, resulting in a projected baseline of 220,000 km, providing the greatest angular resolution ever achieved at meter wavelengths. Our analysis is based on fundamental behavior of structure and coherence functions. We find that the pulsar shows scintillation on two frequency scales, both much less than the observing frequency, but modulation is less than 100%. We infer that the scattering is weak, but a refracting wedge disperses the scintillation pattern. The refraction angle of this 'cosmic prism' is measured as θ{sub 0} = 1.1-4.4 mas, with the refraction direction being approximately perpendicular to the observer velocity. We show that the observed parameters of scintillation effects indicate that two plasma layers lie along the line of sight to the pulsar, at distances of 4.4-16.4 pc and 26-170 pc, and traveling in different directions relative to the line of sight. Spectra of turbulence for the two layers are found to follow a power law with the indices γ{sub 1} = γ{sub 2} = 3.00 ± 0.08, significantly different from the index expected for a Kolmogorov spectrum of turbulence, γ = 11/3.

  4. Radioastron studies of the nearby, turbulent interstellar plasma with the longest space-ground interferometer baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RadioAstron space-ground very long baseline interferometry observations of the pulsar B0950+08, conducted with the 10 m Space Radio Telescope in conjunction with the Arecibo 300 m telescope and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope at a frequency of 324 MHz were analyzed in order to investigate plasma inhomogeneities in the direction of this nearby pulsar. The observations were conducted at a spacecraft distance of 330,000 km, resulting in a projected baseline of 220,000 km, providing the greatest angular resolution ever achieved at meter wavelengths. Our analysis is based on fundamental behavior of structure and coherence functions. We find that the pulsar shows scintillation on two frequency scales, both much less than the observing frequency, but modulation is less than 100%. We infer that the scattering is weak, but a refracting wedge disperses the scintillation pattern. The refraction angle of this 'cosmic prism' is measured as θ0 = 1.1-4.4 mas, with the refraction direction being approximately perpendicular to the observer velocity. We show that the observed parameters of scintillation effects indicate that two plasma layers lie along the line of sight to the pulsar, at distances of 4.4-16.4 pc and 26-170 pc, and traveling in different directions relative to the line of sight. Spectra of turbulence for the two layers are found to follow a power law with the indices γ1 = γ2 = 3.00 ± 0.08, significantly different from the index expected for a Kolmogorov spectrum of turbulence, γ = 11/3.

  5. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  6. Temporal decorrelation model for the bistatic SAR interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qilei Zhang; Wenge Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a temporal decorrelation model for the bistatic synthetic aperture radar (BSAR) interferometry. The temporal baseline is one of the important decorrelation sources for the repeat-pass synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry. The study of temporal decorrelation is chal enging, especial y for the bistatic configuration, since temporal decorrelation is related to the data acquisition geometry. To develop an appropriate theoretical model for BSAR interferometry, the existing models for monostatic SAR cases are extended, and the general BSAR geometry con-figuration is involved in the derivation. Therefore, the developed temporal decorrelation model can be seen as a general model. The validity of the theoretical model is supported by Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the impacts of the system parameters and BSAR geometry configurations on the temporal decorrelation model are discussed briefly.

  7. Iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hagan, Ola

    2014-05-02

    In refraction tomography, the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) can be a major obstacle in picking the first-break arrivals at the far-offset receivers. To increase the S/N, we evaluated iterative supervirtual refraction interferometry (ISVI), which is an extension of the supervirtual refraction interferometry method. In this method, supervirtual traces are computed and then iteratively reused to generate supervirtual traces with a higher S/N. Our empirical results with both synthetic and field data revealed that ISVI can significantly boost up the S/N of far-offset traces. The drawback is that using refraction events from more than one refractor can introduce unacceptable artifacts into the final traveltime versus offset curve. This problem can be avoided by careful windowing of refraction events.

  8. A LISA Interferometry Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for all gravitational wave detectors in the detection of changes in the fractional difference between pairs of test masses with sufficient precision to measure astrophysical strains with amplitudes on the order of approx.10(exp -21). ln the case of the five million km arms of LISA, this equates to distance measurements on the ten picometer level. LISA interferometry utilizes a decentralized topology, in which each of the sciencecraft houses its own light sources, detectors, and electronics. The measurements made at each of the sciencecraft are then telemetered to ground and combined to extract the strain experienced by the constellation as a whole. I will present an overview of LISA interferometry and highlight some of the key components and technologies that make it possible.

  9. Interferometry with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optics and interferometry with matter waves is the art of coherently manipulating the translational motion of particles like neutrons, atoms and molecules. Coherent atom optics is an extension of techniques that were developed for manipulating internal quantum states. Applying these ideas to translational motion required the development of techniques to localize atoms and transfer population coherently between distant localities. In this view position and momentum are (continuous) quantum mechanical degrees of freedom analogous to discrete internal quantum states. In our contribution we start with an introduction into matter wave optics in sect. 1, discuss coherent atom optics and atom interferometry techniques for molecular beams in sect. 2 and for trapped atoms in sect. 3. In sect. 4 we then describe tools and experiments that allow to probe the evolution of quantum states of many-body systems by atom interference.

  10. Digitally Enhanced Heterodyne Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddock, Daniel; Ware, Brent; Lay, Oliver; Dubovitsky, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Spurious interference limits the performance of many interferometric measurements. Digitally enhanced interferometry (DEI) improves measurement sensitivity by augmenting conventional heterodyne interferometry with pseudo-random noise (PRN) code phase modulation. DEI effectively changes the measurement problem from one of hardware (optics, electronics), which may deteriorate over time, to one of software (modulation, digital signal processing), which does not. DEI isolates interferometric signals based on their delay. Interferometric signals are effectively time-tagged by phase-modulating the laser source with a PRN code. DEI improves measurement sensitivity by exploiting the autocorrelation properties of the PRN to isolate only the signal of interest and reject spurious interference. The properties of the PRN code determine the degree of isolation.

  11. Astronomical optical interferometry, II: Astrophysical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankov S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical interferometry is entering a new age with several ground- based long-baseline observatories now making observations of unprecedented spatial resolution. Based on a great leap forward in the quality and quantity of interferometric data, the astrophysical applications are not limited anymore to classical subjects, such as determination of fundamental properties of stars; namely, their effective temperatures, radii, luminosities and masses, but the present rapid development in this field allowed to move to a situation where optical interferometry is a general tool in studies of many astrophysical phenomena. Particularly, the advent of long-baseline interferometers making use of very large pupils has opened the way to faint objects science and first results on extragalactic objects have made it a reality. The first decade of XXI century is also remarkable for aperture synthesis in the visual and near-infrared wavelength regimes, which provided image reconstructions from stellar surfaces to Active Galactic Nuclei. Here I review the numerous astrophysical results obtained up to date, except for binary and multiple stars milliarcsecond astrometry, which should be a subject of an independent detailed review, taking into account its importance and expected results at microarcsecond precision level. To the results obtained with currently available interferometers, I associate the adopted instrumental settings in order to provide a guide for potential users concerning the appropriate instruments which can be used to obtain the desired astrophysical information.

  12. Perspectives in holografic interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, T.; Lédl, Vít; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    Lisabon : Instituto Superior Técnico, 2013 - (Coelho, P.; Costa, M.), s. 91-91 ISBN 978-972-8620-23-3. [World Conference on Experimental Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics, and Thermodynamics /8./. Lisabon (PT), 16.06.2013-20.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : holographic interferometry * synthetic jet * tomographic reconstruction Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts

  13. Interferometry for rotating sources

    OpenAIRE

    Velle, S.; Pari, S. Mehrabi; Csernai, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    The two particle interferometry method to determine the size of the emitting source after a heavy ion collision is extended. Following the extension of the method to spherical expansion dynamics, here we extend the method to rotating systems. It is shown that rotation of a cylindrically symmetric system leads to modifications, which can be perceived as spatial asymmetry by the "azimuthal HBT" method. We study an exact rotating and expanding solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion r...

  14. Coal fire interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This BCRS project demonstrates the use of SAR interferometry for measuring and monitoring land subsidence caused by underground coal fires and underground mining in a remote area of north west China. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Throughout the N.W., N. and N.E. of China, the coal-seams are very susceptible to spontaneous combustion, causing underground coal fires. As the thick coal seams are burned out, the overburden collapses, causing land subsidence, and producing new cracks and fissures, which allow more air to penetrate and continue the fire to spread. SAR interferometry, especially differential interferometry has been shown to be able to measure small differences in surface height caused by such land subsidence. This report describes the problems, the test area, the procedures and techniques used and the results obtained. It concludes with a description of some of the problems encountered during the project plus provides some general conclusions and recommendations. 127 refs

  15. Interferometry in the Era of Very Large Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Research in modern stellar interferometry has focused primarily on ground-based observatories, with very long baselines or large apertures, that have benefited from recent advances in fringe tracking, phase reconstruction, adaptive optics, guided optics, and modern detectors. As one example, a great deal of effort has been put into development of ground-based nulling interferometers. The nulling technique is the sparse aperture equivalent of conventional coronography used in filled aperture telescopes. In this mode the stellar light itself is suppressed by a destructive fringe, effectively enhancing the contrast of the circumstellar material located near the star. Nulling interferometry has helped to advance our understanding of the astrophysics of many distant objects by providing the spatial resolution necessary to localize the various faint emission sources near bright objects. We illustrate the current capabilities of this technique by describing the first scientific results from the Keck Interferometer Nuller that combines the light from the two largest optical telescopes in the world including new, unpublished measurements of exozodiacal dust disks. We discuss prospects in the near future for interferometry in general, the capabilities of secondary masking interferometry on very large telescopes, and of nulling interferometry using outriggers on very large telescopes. We discuss future development of a simplified space-borne NIR nulling architecture, the Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer, capable of detecting and characterizing an Earth twin in the near future and how such a mission would benefit from the optical wavelength coverage offered by large, ground-based instruments.

  16. Nature of radio feature formed by re-started jet activity in 3C 84 and its relation with γ-ray emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Chida, H.; Kino, M.; Orienti, M.; D'Ammando, F.; Giovannini, G.; Hiura, K.

    2016-02-01

    Re-started jet activity occurred in the bright nearby radio source 3C 84 in about 2005. The re-started jet is forming a prominent component (namely C3) at the tip of jet. The component has showed an increase in radio flux density for more than 7 years while the radio spectrum remains optically thin. This suggests that the component is the head of a radio lobe including a hotspot where the particle acceleration occurs. Thus, 3C 84 is a unique laboratory to study the physical properties at the very early stage of radio source evolution. Another important aspect is that high energy and very high energy γ-ray emissions are detected from this source. The quest for the site of γ-ray emission is quite important to obtain a better understanding of γ-ray emission mechanisms in radio galaxies. In this paper, we review the observational results from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) monitoring of 3C 84 reported in series of our previous papers. We argue the nature of re-started jet/radio lobe and its relation with high-energy emission.

  17. RadioAstron Observations of the Quasar 3C273: A Challenge to the Brightness Temperature Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kardashev, N. S.; Kellermann, K. I.; Lobanov, A. P.; Johnson, M. D.; Gurvits, L. I.; Voitsik, P. A.; Zensus, J. A.; Anderson, J. M.; Bach, U.; Jauncey, D. L.; Ghigo, F.; Ghosh, T.; Kraus, A.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Lisakov, M. M.; Petrov, L. Yu.; Romney, J. D.; Salter, C. J.; Sokolovsky, K. V.

    2016-03-01

    Inverse Compton cooling limits the brightness temperature of the radiating plasma to a maximum of 1011.5 K. Relativistic boosting can increase its observed value, but apparent brightness temperatures much in excess of 1013 K are inaccessible using ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at any wavelength. We present observations of the quasar 3C 273, made with the space VLBI mission RadioAstron on baselines up to 171,000 km, which directly reveal the presence of angular structure as small as 26 μas (2.7 light months) and brightness temperature in excess of 1013 K. These measurements challenge our understanding of the non-thermal continuum emission in the vicinity of supermassive black holes and require a much higher Doppler factor than what is determined from jet apparent kinematics.

  18. RadioAstron Observations of the Quasar 3C273: a Challenge to the Brightness Temperature Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalev, Y Y; Kellermann, K I; Lobanov, A P; Johnson, M D; Gurvits, L I; Voitsik, P A; Zensus, J A; Anderson, J M; Bach, U; Jauncey, D L; Ghigo, F; Ghosh, T; Kraus, A; Kovalev, Yu A; Lisakov, M M; Petrov, L Yu; Romney, J D; Salter, C J; Sokolovsky, K V

    2016-01-01

    Inverse Compton cooling limits the brightness temperature of the radiating plasma to a maximum of $10^{11.5}$ K. Relativistic boosting can increase its observed value, but apparent brightness temperatures much in excess of $10^{13}$ K are inaccessible using ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at any wavelength. We present observations of the quasar 3C273, made with the space VLBI mission RadioAstron on baselines up to 171,000 km, which directly reveal the presence of angular structure as small as 26 $\\mu$as (2.7 light months) and brightness temperature in excess of $10^{13}$ K. These measurements challenge our understanding of the non-thermal continuum emission in the vicinity of supermassive black holes and require much higher jet speeds than are observed.

  19. Stellar Intensity Interferometry: Prospects for sub-milliarcsecond optical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis; Jensen, Hannes; Nuñez, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Using kilometric arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, intensity interferometry may increase the spatial resolution in optical astronomy by an order of magnitude, enabling images of rapidly rotating stars with structures in their circumstellar disks and winds, or mapping out patterns of nonradial pulsations across stellar surfaces. Intensity interferometry (pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss) connects telescopes only electronically, and is practically insensitive to atmospheric turbulence and optical imperfections, permitting observations over long baselines and through large airmasses, also at short optical wavelengths. The required large telescopes with very fast detectors are becoming available as arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes, distributed over a few square km. Digital signal handling enables very many baselines to be synthesized, while stars are tracked with electronic time delays, thus synthesizing an optical interferometer in software. Simulated observations indicate limiting magnitudes around m(v)...

  20. Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Gerber, S; Tietje, I C; Allkofer, Y R; Trezzi, D; Dassa, L; Rienacker, B; Khalidova, O; Ferrari, G; Krasnicky, D; Perini, D; Cerchiari, G; Belov, A; Boscolo, I; Sacerdoti, M G; Ferragut, R O; Nedelec, P; Testera, G; Hinterberger, A; Al-qaradawi, I; Malbrunot, C L S; Brusa, R S; Prelz, F; Manuzio, G; Riccardi, C; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Haider, S; Haug, F; Merkt, F; Turbabin, A; Castelli, F; Doser, M; Penasa, L; Gninenko, S; Cataneo, F; Zenoni, A; Cabaret, L; Comparat, D P; Zmeskal, J; Scampoli, P; Dudarev, A; Kellerbauer, A G; Lagomarsino, V E; Mariazzi, S; Fesel, J V; Nesteruk, K P; Eisel, W T; Carraro, C; Zavatarelli, S M

    The AEGIS experiment (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) has the aim of carrying out the first measurement of the gravitational interaction of antimatter to a precision of 1%, by applying techniques from atomic physics, laser spectroscopy and interferometry to a beam of antihydrogen atoms. A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight.

  1. Observations of radio sources or 'What happened to radio stars?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the early history of the interpretation of the radiation mechanisms following the discovery of the discrete radio sources, both galactic and extragalactic. The conflicting views which prevailed in the early fifties are discussed in some detail: some advocated thermal radiation from stars relatively close by, and others proposed the alternative that synchrotron radiation was responsible for the majority of the radio sources. Attention is drawn to the importance of high-resolution interferometry, whereby the structure of many of the sources could be obtained. Red-shift measurements and spectral distributions also played a part in determining distances and flux strengths at the sources. (U.K.)

  2. TANAMI - Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Cornelia; Kadler, Matthias; Ojha, Roopesh; De Boeck, M.; Booth, R.; Dutka, M. S.; Edwardsk, P.; Fey, A. L.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnston, K.J.; Katz, U.; Lister, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a summary of the observation strategy of TANAMI (Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry), a monitoring program to study the parsec-scale structure and dynamics of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the Southern Hemisphere with the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and the trans-oceanic antennas Hartebeesthoek, TIGO, and O'Higgins. TANAMI is focusing on extragalactic sources south of -30 degrees declination with observations a...

  3. Basics of interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, P

    1991-01-01

    This book is for those who have some knowledge of optics, but little or no previous experience in interferometry. Accordingly, the carefully designed presentation helps readers easily find and assimilate the interferometric techniques they need for precision measurements. Mathematics is held to a minimum, and the topics covered are also summarized in capsule overviews at the beginning and end of each chapter. Each chapter also contains a set of worked problems that give a feel for numbers.The first five chapters present a clear tutorial review of fundamentals. Chapters six and seven discus

  4. Apparatus for Ultra-Cold Fermion Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Seth; Garcia, Aiyana; Desalvo, Brian

    2008-05-01

    We present progress on the construction of an apparatus for ultra-cold fermion interferometry experiments. The apparatus consists of two connected glass vacuum cells: Fermionic potassium (^40K) and bosonic rubidium (^87Rb) atoms are cooled and collected in a dual-species magneto-optical trap (MOT) in the first cell and are then transported magnetically to the second cell, where they are loaded into a micro-magnetic chip trap. We use radio-frequency (RF) evaporation to cool the rubidium atoms, which in turn sympathetically cool the potassium atoms. The apparatus takes advantage of the rapid cooling inherent to micro-magnetic traps, while also benefiting from the ultra high vacuum achievable with a two chamber vacuum system. In describing our experimental approach, we address the experimental challenges and possible force-sensing applications of fermion interferometers on chips.

  5. On the nature of bright compact radio sources at z>4.5

    CERN Document Server

    Coppejans, Rocco; Cseh, Dávid; Müller, Cornelia; Paragi, Zsolt; Falcke, Heino; Gabányi, Krisztina É; Gurvits, Leonid I; An, Tao; Titov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    High-redshift radio-loud quasars are used to, among other things, test the predictions of cosmological models, set constraints on black hole growth in the early universe and understand galaxy evolution. Prior to this paper, 20 extragalactic radio sources at redshifts above 4.5 have been imaged with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Here we report on observations of an additional ten z>4.5 sources at 1.7 and 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN), thereby increasing the number of imaged sources by 50%. Combining our newly observed sources with those from the literature, we create a substantial sample of 30 z>4.5 VLBI sources, allowing us to study the nature of these objects. Using spectral indices, variability and brightness temperatures, we conclude that of the 27 sources with sufficient information to classify, the radio emission from one source is from star formation, 13 are flat-spectrum radio quasars and 13 are steep-spectrum sources. We also argue that the steep-spectrum sources are off-axis ...

  6. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  7. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.; Tinto, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory and mathematical foundations of TDI as it will be implemented by the forthcoming space-based interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We have purposely left out from this first version of our "Living Review" article on TDI all the results of more practical and experimental nature, as well as all the aspects of TDI that the data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the LISA TDI data combinations. Our forthcoming "second edition" of this review paper will include these topics.

  8. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infrared interferometer to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer to simultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline provides subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  9. RU Radio

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlbom, Anna Lohmann; Bollmann, Anders Theis; Mariager, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The point of departure in this report is the newly established student radio at Roskilde University named RU Radio. The radio was established in 2012. This report aims to device an editorial policy for RU Radio. The report starts with a clarification of the conditions of RU Radio. Following is a discussion of the press and media ethics in relation to RU Radio which juxtaposed with more concrete ethical guidelines. Accordingly attempts are made to define the radio audience and to clarify their...

  10. AGN coronal emission models - I. The predicted radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raginski, I.; Laor, Ari

    2016-06-01

    Accretion discs in active galactic nucleus (AGN) may be associated with coronal gas, as suggested by their X-ray emission. Stellar coronal emission includes radio emission, and AGN corona may also be a significant source for radio emission in radio quiet (RQ) AGN. We calculate the coronal properties required to produce the observed radio emission in RQ AGN, either from synchrotron emission of power-law (PL) electrons, or from cyclosynchrotron emission of hot mildly relativistic thermal electrons. We find that a flat spectrum, as observed in about half of RQ AGN, can be produced by corona with a disc or a spherical configuration, which extends from the innermost regions out to a pc scale. A spectral break to an optically thin power-law emission is expected around 300-1000 GHz, as the innermost corona becomes optically thin. In the case of thermal electrons, a sharp spectral cut-off is expected above the break. The position of the break can be measured with very long baseline interferometry observations, which exclude the cold dust emission, and it can be used to probe the properties of the innermost corona. Assuming equipartition of the coronal thermal energy density, the PL electrons energy density, and the magnetic field, we find that the energy density in a disc corona should scale as ˜R-1.3, to get a flat spectrum. In the spherical case the energy density scales as ˜R-2, and is ˜4 × 10-4 of the AGN radiation energy density. In Paper II we derive additional constraints on the coronal parameters from the Gudel-Benz relation, Lradio/LX-ray ˜ 10- 5, which RQ AGN follow.

  11. NOS/NGS activities to support development of radio interferometric surveying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. E.; Dracup, J. F.; Hothem, L. D.; Robertson, D. S.; Strange, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    National Geodetic Survey activities towards the development of operational geodetic survey systems based on radio interferometry are reviewed. Information about the field procedures, data reduction and analysis, and the results obtained to date is presented.

  12. Maximum entropy imaging of radio astrophysical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdaway, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Imaging and deconvolution of linear polarization P in radio synthesis has generally been accomplished through the same means as imaging total intensity 1, namely, by Fourier inversion followed by application of the CLEAN algorithm (Hogbom, 1974). CLEAN images each Stokes parameter I, Q, U, and V independently, or at best, Q and U are imaged simultaneously with a complex CLEAN. In very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and the sources which can be investigated by VLBI, poor (u,v) coverage, lower SNR in the polarization data, high intrinsic degrees of polarization in the observed sources, and knotty source structure can result in nonphysical I and P images in which features are imaged to be more than 100% polarized. The maximum entropy method (MEM) is flexible enough to permit simultaneous imaging of I and P to ensure the image is everywhere less than 100% polarized. Here, the algorithm of Cornwell and Evans (1985) is applied to imaging I and P on milliarcsecond scales. The success of MEM in imaging VLBI data is gauged by simulations on test data. Presented here are the first I and P radio images deconvolved simultaneously by MEM and generated from reat data. The jet in quasar 3C273 is found to be polarized with the electric field perpendicular to the jet out to 70 milliarseconds (mas). The jet in quasar 1928 + 738 is found to be polarized out to 75 mas with the electric field perpendicular to the jet. In the quasar 3C345, one component is found to be {approximately}50% polarized, close to the maximum for synchrotron radiation and indicating a highly ordered magnetic field. Polarized features are associated with changes in jet direction in 1928 {plus} 738 and 3C345.

  13. Maximum entropy imaging of radio astrophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging and deconvolution of linear polarization P in radio synthesis has generally been accomplished through the same means as imaging total intensity 1, namely, by Fourier inversion followed by application of the CLEAN algorithm (Hogbom, 1974). CLEAN images each Stokes parameter I, Q, U, and V independently, or at best, Q and U are imaged simultaneously with a complex CLEAN. In very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and the sources which can be investigated by VLBI, poor (u,v) coverage, lower SNR in the polarization data, high intrinsic degrees of polarization in the observed sources, and knotty source structure can result in nonphysical I and P images in which features are imaged to be more than 100% polarized. The maximum entropy method (MEM) is flexible enough to permit simultaneous imaging of I and P to ensure the image is everywhere less than 100% polarized. Here, the algorithm of Cornwell and Evans (1985) is applied to imaging I and P on milliarcsecond scales. The success of MEM in imaging VLBI data is gauged by simulations on test data. Presented here are the first I and P radio images deconvolved simultaneously by MEM and generated from reat data. The jet in quasar 3C273 is found to be polarized with the electric field perpendicular to the jet out to 70 milliarseconds (mas). The jet in quasar 1928 + 738 is found to be polarized out to 75 mas with the electric field perpendicular to the jet. In the quasar 3C345, one component is found to be ∼50% polarized, close to the maximum for synchrotron radiation and indicating a highly ordered magnetic field. Polarized features are associated with changes in jet direction in 1928 + 738 and 3C345

  14. Interferometry for rotating sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velle, S.; Mehrabi Pari, S.; Csernai, L. P.

    2016-06-01

    The two particle interferometry method to determine the size of the emitting source after a heavy ion collision is extended. Following the extension of the method to spherical expansion dynamics, here we extend the method to rotating systems. It is shown that rotation of a cylindrically symmetric system leads to modifications, which can be perceived as spatial asymmetry by the "azimuthal HBT" method. We study an exact rotating and expanding solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion reactions. We consider a source that is azimuthally symmetric in space around the axis of rotation, and discuss the features of the resulting two particle correlation function. This shows the azimuthal asymmetry arising from the rotation. We show that this asymmetry leads to results similar to those given by spatially asymmetric sources.

  15. Decoherence Free Neutron Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pushin, Dmitry A; Cory, David G

    2016-01-01

    Perfect single-crystal neutron interferometers are adversely sensitive to environmental disturbances, particularly mechanical vibrations. The sensitivity to vibrations results from the slow velocity of thermal neutrons and the long measurement time that are encountered in a typical experiment. Consequently, to achieve a good interference solutions for reducing vibration other than those normally used in optical experiments must be explored. Here we introduce a geometry for a neutron interferometer that is less sensitive to low-frequency vibrations. This design may be compared with both dynamical decoupling methods and decoherence-free subspaces that are described in quantum information processing. By removing the need for bulky vibration isolation setups, this design will make it easier to adopt neutron interferometry to a wide range of applications and increase its sensitivity.

  16. Bandwidth in bolometric interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Charlassier, R; Hamilton, J -Ch; Kaplan, J; Malu, S

    2009-01-01

    Bolometric Interferometry is a technology currently under development that will be first dedicated to the detection of B-mode polarization fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background. A bolometric interferometer will have to take advantage of the wide spectral detection band of its bolometers in order to be competitive with imaging experiments. A crucial concern is that interferometers are presumed to be importantly affected by a spoiling effect known as bandwidth smearing. In this paper, we investigate how the bandwidth modifies the work principle of a bolometric interferometer and how it affects its sensitivity to the CMB angular power spectra. We obtain analytical expressions for the broadband visibilities measured by broadband heterodyne and bolometric interferometers. We investigate how the visibilities must be reconstructed in a broadband bolometric interferometer and show that this critically depends on hardware properties of the modulation phase shifters. Using an angular power spectrum estimator ...

  17. A new DEM of the Austfonna ice cap by combining differential SAR interferometry with ICESat laser altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Moholdt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a new digital elevation model (DEM of the Austfonna ice cap in the Svalbard Archipelago, Norwegian Arctic. Previous DEMs derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR and optical shape-from-shading have been tied to airborne radio echo-sounding surface profiles from 1983 which contain an elevation-dependent bias of up to several tens of metres compared with recent elevation data. The new and freely available DEM is constructed purely from spaceborne remote sensing data using differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR in combination with ICESat laser altimetry. Interferograms were generated from pairs of SAR scenes from the one-day repeat tandem phase of the European Remote Sensing Satellites 1/2 (ERS-1/2 in 1996. ICESat elevations from winter 2006–08 were used as ground control points to refine the interferometric baseline. The resulting DEM is validated against the same ground control points and independent surface elevation profiles from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS and airborne laser altimetry, yielding root mean square (RMS errors of about 10 m in all cases. This quality is sufficient for most glaciological applications, and the new DEM will be a baseline data set for ongoing and future research at Austfonna. The technique of combining satellite DInSAR with high-resolution satellite altimetry for DEM generation might also be a good solution in other glacier regions with similar characteristics, especially when data from TanDEM-X and CryoSat-2 become available.

  18. Interferometry using undulator sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography need to use optical components with subnanometer surface figure error tolerances to achieve diffraction-limited performance [M.D. Himel, in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A.M. Hawryluk and R.H. Stulen, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1993), 18, 1089, and D. Attwood et al., Appl. Opt. 32, 7022 (1993)]. Also, multilayer-coated optics require at-wavelength wavefront measurement to characterize phase effects that cannot be measured by conventional optical interferometry. Furthermore, EUV optical systems will additionally require final testing and alignment at the operational wavelength for adjustment and reduction of the cumulative optical surface errors. Therefore, at-wavelength interferometric measurement of EUV optics will be the necessary metrology tool for the successful development of optics for EUV lithography. An EUV point diffraction interferometer (PDI) has been developed at the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) and has been already in operation for a year [K. Goldberg et al., in Extreme Ultra Lithography, D.T. Attwood and F. Zernike, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1994), K. Goldberg et al., Proc. SPIE 2437, to be published, and K. Goldberg et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2923 (1995)] using an undulator radiation source and coherent optics beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An overview of the PDI interferometer and some EUV wavefront measurements obtained with this instrument will be presented. In addition, future developments planned for EUV interferometry at CXRO towards the measurement of actual EUV lithography optics will be shown. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhurandhar Sanjeev V.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory and mathematical foundations of TDI as it will be implemented by the forthcoming space-based interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission. We have purposely left out from this first version of our "Living Review" article on TDI all the results of more practical and experimental nature, as well as all the aspects of TDI that the data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the LISA TDI data combinations. Our forthcoming "second edition" of this review paper will include these topics.

  20. The Space Geodesy Project and Radio Frequency Interference Characterization and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Hilliard M.; Beaudoin, C.; Corey, B. E.; Tourain, C. L.; Petrachenko, B.; Dickey, John

    2013-01-01

    The Space Geodesy Project (SGP) development by NASA is an effort to co-locate the four international geodetic techniques Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) into one tightly referenced campus and coordinated reference frame analysis. The SGP requirement locates these stations within a small area to maintain line-of-sight and frequent automated survey known as the vector tie system. This causes a direct conflict with the new broadband VLBI technique. Broadband means 2-14 GHz, and RFI susceptibility at -80 dBW or higher due to sensitive RF components in the front end of the radio receiver.

  1. Radio interferometric detection of a traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the explosion of Mount St. Helens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) was detected over Owens Valley, California, on May 18, 1980, by a highly sensitive very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio astronomy experiment. This TID is interpreted as the response of the ionosphere to a gravity wave excited in the neutral atmosphere by the explosion of Mount St. Helens that took place at 1532 UT on that day. A model, invoking the point-excitation of internal gravity waves in an isothermal atmosphere, which fits observations of the TID at several other stations, leads to identification of the features observed in the VLBI data. Small-amplitude higher-frequency changes in the ionosphere were detected for several hours after the passage of the large-amplitude Mount St. Helens TID, but it is not clear whether these were excited by the passage of the gravity wave or were background fluctuations

  2. Radio interferometric detection of a traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the explosion of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Allen, B. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Burke, B. F.; Greenfield, P. E.; Lawrence, C. R.; Clark, T. A.

    1982-08-01

    A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) was detected over Owens Valley, California, on May 18, 1980, by a highly sensitive very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio astronomy experiment. This TID is interpreted as the response of the ionosphere to a gravity wave excited in the neutral atmosphere by the explosion of Mount St. Helens that took place at 1532 UT on that day. A model, invoking the point-excitation of internal gravity waves in an isothermal atmosphere, which fits observations of the TID at several other stations, leads to identification of the features observed in the VLBI data. Small-amplitude higher-frequency changes in the ionosphere were detected for several hours after the passage of the large-amplitude Mount St. Helens TID, but it is not clear whether these were excited by the passage of the gravity wave or were background fluctuations.

  3. Optical Interferometry Motivation and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A history and motivation of stellar interferometry is presented. The topics include: 1) On Tides, Organ Pipes, and Soap Bubbles; 2) Armand Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896); 3) Fizeau Suggests Stellar Interferometry 1867; 4) Edouard Stephan (1837-1923); 5) Foucault Refractor; 6) Albert A. Michelson (1852-1931); 7) On the Application of Interference Methods to Astronomy (1890); 8) Moons of Jupiter (1891); 9) Other Applications in 19th Century; 10) Timeline of Interferometry to 1938; 11) 30 years goes by; 12) Mount Wilson Observatory; 13) Michelson's 20 ft Interferometer; 14) Was Michelson Influenced by Fizeau? 15) Work Continues in the 1920s and 30s; 16) 50 ft Interferometer (1931-1938); 17) Light Paths in the 50 ft Interferometer; 18) Ground-level at the 50 ft; 19) F.G. Pease (1881-1938); 20) Timeline of Optical Interferometry to 1970; 21) A New Type of Stellar Interferometer (1956); 22) Intensity Interferometer (1963- 1976; 23) Robert Hanbury Brown; 24) Interest in Optical Interferometry in the 1960s; 25) Interferometry in the Early 1970s; and 26) A New Frontier is Opened up in 1974.

  4. Interferometry from Space: A Great Dream

    CERN Document Server

    Høg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    During some thirty years, 1980-2010, technical studies of optical interferometry from instruments in space were pursued as promising for higher spatial resolution and for higher astrometric accuracy. Nulling interferometry was studied for both high spatial resolution and high contrast. These studies were great dreams deserving further historical attention. ESA's interest in interferometry began in the early 1980s. The studies of optical interferometry for the global astrometry mission GAIA began in 1993 and ended in 1998 when interferometry was dropped as unsuited for the purpose, and the Gaia mission to be launched in 2013 is not based on interferometry. \\c{opyright} Anita Publications. All rights reserved.

  5. A demonstration of a transportable radio interferometric surveying system with 3-cm accuracy on a 307-m base line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, K. M.; Macdoran, P. F.; Thomas, J. B.; Fliegel, H. F.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.; Batelaan, P. D.; Paine, S. R.; Newsted, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    A precision geodetic measurement system (Aries, for Astronomical Radio Interferometric Earth Surveying) based on the technique of very long base line interferometry has been designed and implemented through the use of a 9-m transportable antenna and the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Communications Complex at Goldstone, California. A series of experiments designed to demonstrate the inherent accuracy of a transportable interferometer was performed on a 307-m base line during the period from December 1973 to June 1974. This short base line was chosen in order to obtain a comparison with a conventional survey with a few-centimeter accuracy and to minimize Aries errors due to transmission media effects, source locations, and earth orientation parameters. The base-line vector derived from a weighted average of the measurements, representing approximately 24 h of data, possessed a formal uncertainty of about 3 cm in all components. This average interferometry base-line vector was in good agreement with the conventional survey vector within the statistical range allowed by the combined uncertainties (3-4 cm) of the two techniques.

  6. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  7. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, K A [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-01

    EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources

  8. Interferometry meets the third and fourth dimensions in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Trimble, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Radio astronomy began with one array (Jansky's) and one paraboloid of revolution (Reber's) as collecting areas and has now reached the point where a large number of facilities are arrays of paraboloids, each of which would have looked enormous to Reber in 1932. In the process, interferometry has contributed to the counting of radio sources, establishing superluminal velocities in AGN jets, mapping of sources from the bipolar cow shape on up to full grey-scale and colored images, determining spectral energy distributions requiring non-thermal emission processes, and much else. The process has not been free of competition and controversy, at least partly because it is just a little difficult to understand how earth-rotation, aperture-synthesis interferometry works. Some very important results, for instance the mapping of HI in the Milky Way to reveal spiral arms, warping, and flaring, actually came from single moderate-sized paraboloids. The entry of China into the radio astronomy community has given large (40-...

  9. The parsec-scale structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, G; Mack, K -H; Montenegro-Montes, F M; González-Serrano, J I; Holt, J; Jiménez-Luján, F

    2013-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BAL QSOs) belong to a class of objects not well-understood as yet. Their UV spectra show BALs in the blue wings of the UV resonance lines, due to ionized gas with outflow velocities up to 0.2 c. They can have radio emission difficult to characterize, and that needs to be studied at various wavelengths and resolutions. We aim at studying the pc-scale properties of their synchrotron emission, and in particular at determining their core properties. We performed observations in Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique, using both the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz, and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz to map the pc-scale structure of the brightest radio-loud objects of our sample, allowing a proper morphological interpretation. A variety of morphologies have been found: 9 BAL QSOs on a total of 11 observed sources have a resolved structure. Core-jet, double and symmetric objects are present, suggesting different orientations. In some cases the sou...

  10. Extreme Brightness Temperatures and Refractive Substructure in 3C273 with RadioAstron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Gwinn, Carl R.; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Narayan, Ramesh; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Jauncey, David L.; Voitsik, Peter A.; Anderson, James M.; Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Lisakov, Mikhail M.

    2016-03-01

    Earth-space interferometry with RadioAstron provides the highest direct angular resolution ever achieved in astronomy at any wavelength. RadioAstron detections of the classic quasar 3C 273 on interferometric baselines up to 171,000 km suggest brightness temperatures exceeding expected limits from the “inverse-Compton catastrophe” by two orders of magnitude. We show that at 18 cm, these estimates most likely arise from refractive substructure introduced by scattering in the interstellar medium. We use the scattering properties to estimate an intrinsic brightness temperature of 7× {10}12 {{K}}, which is consistent with expected theoretical limits, but which is ˜15 times lower than estimates that neglect substructure. At 6.2 cm, the substructure influences the measured values appreciably but gives an estimated brightness temperature that is comparable to models that do not account for the substructure. At 1.35 {{cm}}, the substructure does not affect the extremely high inferred brightness temperatures, in excess of {10}13 {{K}}. We also demonstrate that for a source having a Gaussian surface brightness profile, a single long-baseline estimate of refractive substructure determines an absolute minimum brightness temperature, if the scattering properties along a given line of sight are known, and that this minimum accurately approximates the apparent brightness temperature over a wide range of total flux densities.

  11. Subarcsecond international LOFAR radio images of the M82 nucleus at 118 MHz and 154 MHz

    CERN Document Server

    Varenius, E; Martí-Vidal, I; Beswick, R; Deller, A T; Wucknitz, O; Jackson, N; Adebahr, B; Pérez-Torres, M A; Chyży, K T; Carozzi, T D; Moldón, J; Aalto, S; Beck, R; Best, P; Dettmar, R -J; van Driel, W; Brunetti, G; Brüggen, M; Haverkorn, M; Heald, G; Horellou, C; Jarvis, M J; Morabito, L K; Miley, G K; Röttgering, H J A; Toribio, M C; White, G J

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear starburst in the nearby galaxy M82 provides an excellent laboratory for understanding the physics of star formation. This galaxy has been extensively observed in the past, revealing tens of radio-bright compact objects embedded in a diffuse free-free absorbing medium. Our understanding of the structure and physics of this medium in M82 can be greatly improved by high-resolution images at low frequencies where the effects of free-free absorption are most prominent. The aims of this study are, firstly, to demonstrate imaging using international baselines of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), and secondly, to constrain low-frequency spectra of compact and diffuse emission in the central starburst region of M82 via high-resolution radio imaging at low frequencies. The international LOFAR telescope was used to observe M82 at 110-126MHz and 146-162MHz. Images were obtained using standard techniques from very long baseline interferometry. images were obtained at each frequency range: one only using interna...

  12. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths, a powerful tool for scientific discovery, We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers,

  13. Experimental steps towards a digital revival of Stellar Intensity Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Nolan; Kieda, David; Lebohec, Stephan; Abeysekara, Udara

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade there has been a growing interest in using Stellar intensity interferometry (sii) for high-resolution imaging of hot stars in the optical and uv. In contrast to standard amplitude interferometry, the sii technique is unaffected by atmospheric turbulence allowing for extremely large baselines (>100m) and angular resolution scales down to tens of micro-arcseconds. The technique can be applied to existing and planned observatories which employ imaging air cherenkov telescopes (iacts) due to the similar requirements of large light collection areas and nano-second time resolution capabilities. The university of utah operates the starbase-utah observatory, located in Grantsville, ut, consisting of dual three meter diameter telescopes serving as a test-bed for sii instrumentation. I will summarize the sii technique and highlight the motivation for using sii. I will also present laboratory results in the reconstruction of artificial sources using pseudo-thermal light and the development of starbase-utah.

  14. An efficient phase-shifting scheme for bolometric additive interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Charlassier, R; Bréelle, É; Ghribi, A; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Kaplan, J; Piat, M; Prêle, D

    2008-01-01

    Context: Most upcoming CMB polarization experiments will use direct imaging to search for the primordial gravitational waves through the B-modes. Bolometric interferometry is an appealing alternative to direct imaging that combines the advantages of interferometry in terms of systematic effects handling and those of bolometric detectors in terms of sensitivity. Aims: We calculate the signal from a bolometric interferometer in order to investigate its sensitivity to the Stokes parameters paying particular attention to the choice of the phase-shifting scheme applied to the input channels in order to modulate the signal. Methods: The signal is expressed as a linear combination of the Stokes parameter visibilities whose coefficients are functions of the phase-shifts. Results: We show that the signal to noise ratio on the reconstructed visibilities can be maximized provided the fact that the phase-shifting scheme is chosen in a particular way called coherent summation of equivalent baselines. As a result, a bolome...

  15. Highspeed multiplexed heterodyne interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isleif, Katharina-S; Gerberding, Oliver; Köhlenbeck, Sina; Sutton, Andrew; Sheard, Benjamin; Goßler, Stefan; Shaddock, Daniel; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry is a metrology technique that uses pseudo-random noise codes for modulating the phase of the laser light. Multiple interferometric signals from the same beam path can thereby be isolated based on their propagation delay, allowing one to use advantageous optical layouts in comparison to classic laser interferometers. We present here a high speed version of this technique for measuring multiple targets spatially separated by only a few centimetres. This allows measurements of multiplexed signals using free beams, making the technique attractive for several applications requiring compact optical set-ups like for example space-based interferometers. In an experiment using a modulation and sampling rate of 1.25 GHz we are able to demonstrate multiplexing between targets only separated by 36 cm and we achieve a displacement measurement noise floor of <3 pm/√Hz at 10 Hz between them. We identify a limiting excess noise at low frequencies which is unique to this technique and is probably caused by the finite bandwidth in our measurement set-up. Utilising an active clock jitter correction scheme we are also able to reduce this noise in a null measurement configuration by one order of magnitude. PMID:25322043

  16. Geometric time delay interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using time delay interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the interspacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new and intuitive approach to extend this interpretation to all TDI observables. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of second-generation TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent arm lengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have improved high-frequency gravitational-wave sensitivity in realistic noise conditions (because they have fewer nulls in the gravitational-wave and noise response functions), and are less susceptible to instrumental gaps and glitches (because their component phase measurements span shorter time periods)

  17. Geometric Time Delay Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Vallisneri, M

    2005-01-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA--ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using Time Delay Interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the inter-spacecraft phase measurements. In this paper I present_Geometric TDI_, a new, intuitive approach to derive the TDI observables and to understand them as the virtual measurements of a synthesized multi-beam interferometer. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of _second-generation_ TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent armlengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have imp...

  18. The Distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud Global Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, S.; Shao, M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss the prospects for global astrometric measurements with the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). SIM will perform four microarcsecond astrometric measurements onpoint-like objects as dim as 20th magnitude using optical interferometric techniques with a 10m baseline.

  19. High-resolution double morphology of the most distant known radio quasar at z=6.12

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, S; Paragi, Z; Gabanyi, K E

    2008-01-01

    Context: The highest redshift quasars at z>~6 receive considerable attention since they provide strong constraints on the growth of the earliest supermassive black holes. They also probe the epoch of reionisation and serve as "lighthouses" to illuminate the space between them and the observer. The source J1427+3312 (z=6.12) has recently been identified as the first and so far the only known radio-loud quasar at z>6. Aims: We investigated the compact radio structure of J1427+3312 on milli-arcsecond (mas) angular scales, to compare it with that of the second most distant radio-loud quasar J0836+0054 (z=5.77) and with lower-redshift radio quasars in general. Methods: We observed J1427+3312 in phase-reference mode with ten antennas of the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz on 11 March 2007 and at 5 GHz on 3 March 2007. Results: The source was clearly detected at both frequencies. At 1.6 GHz, it shows a prominent double structure. The two components are separated by 8.3 mas,...

  20. Interferometry from Space: A Great Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Høg, Erik

    2014-01-01

    During some thirty years, 1980-2010, technical studies of optical interferometry from instruments in space were pursued as promising for higher spatial resolution and for higher astrometric accuracy. Nulling interferometry was studied for both high spatial resolution and high contrast. These studies were great dreams deserving further historical attention. ESA's interest in interferometry began in the early 1980s. The studies of optical interferometry for the global astrometry mission GAIA be...

  1. A comprehensive radio view of the extremely bright gamma-ray burst 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, A. J.; Paragi, Z.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Granot, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Starling, R. L. C.; Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Rowlinson, A.; Anderson, G. A.; Fender, R. P.; Yang, J.; Strom, R. G.

    2014-11-01

    GRB 130427A was extremely bright as a result of occurring at low redshift whilst the energetics were more typical of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We collected well-sampled light curves at 1.4 and 4.8 GHz of GRB 130427A with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT); and we obtained its most accurate position with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN). Our flux density measurements are combined with all the data available at radio, optical and X-ray frequencies to perform broad-band modelling in the framework of a reverse-forward shock model and a two-component jet model, and we discuss the implications and limitations of both models. The low density inferred from the modelling implies that the GRB 130427A progenitor is either a very low metallicity Wolf-Rayet star, or a rapidly rotating, low-metallicity O star. We also find that the fraction of the energy in electrons is evolving over time, and that the fraction of electrons participating in a relativistic power-law energy distribution is less than 15 per cent. We observed intraday variability during the earliest WSRT observations, and the source sizes inferred from our modelling are consistent with this variability being due to interstellar scintillation effects. Finally, we present and discuss our limits on the linear and circular polarization, which are among the deepest limits of GRB radio polarization to date.

  2. High-Resolution Radio Continuum Measurements of the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Barcos-Muñoz, Loreto; Evans, Aaron S; Privon, George C; Armus, Lee; Condon, Jim; Mazzarella, Joseph M; Meier, David S; Momjian, Emmanuel; Murphy, Eric J; Ott, Juerguen; Reichardt, Ashely; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Sanders, David B; Schinnerer, Eva; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Surace, Jason A; Thompson, Todd A; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum images of the nuclei of Arp 220, the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy. These images have both the angular resolution to study detailed morphologies of the two nuclei that power the system and sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales. At 33 GHz, and with a resolution of 0".081 x 0".063 (29.9 x 23.3 pc), we resolve the emission surrounding both nuclei and conclude that is mostly synchrotron in nature. The spatial distributions of radio emission in both nuclei are well described by exponential profiles. These have deconvolved half-light radii of 51 and 35 pc for the eastern and western nuclei, and they match the number density profile of radio supernovae observed with very long baseline interferometry. This similarity might be due to the fast cooling of cosmic rays electrons caused by the presence of a strong (~ mG) magnetic field in this system. We estimate high luminosity surface densities of $\\mathrm{\\Sigma_{IR} \\sim 4.2^{+1.6}_{-0.7} \\...

  3. Expected level of self-Compton scattering in radio loud quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Steven D.; Marscher, Alan P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-loud quasars usually contain parsec-scale nonthermal jets. The most compact emission region ('the core'), and perhaps some of the moving 'knots', are expected to be efficient producers of inverse Compton scattered X-rays and gamma-rays since many of the synchrotron photons will upscatter before escaping. Through multifrequency flux density observations and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurements of angular sizes, one can predict the flux density of this self-Compton high-energy emission. It is not always the case that the brightest synchrotron sources are also the brightest X-ray and gamma-ray sources. Perhaps a better predictor of high-energy brightness is the ratio of hard X-ray to high-frequency radio emission. Using the synchrotron self-Compton relations, we predict the gamma-ray fluxes of several sources we expect to be detected by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). More accurate predictions will be made when we complete a program of contemporaneous radio-submillimeter and X-ray observations during the course of the EGRET all-sky survey.

  4. THE CATALOG OF POSITIONS OF OPTICALLY BRIGHT EXTRAGALACTIC RADIO SOURCES OBRS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future space-borne astrometry missions, such as Gaia, will be able to determine the optical positions of hundreds of quasars with submilliarcsecond accuracies comparable to those achieved in radio by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Comparisons of coordinate systems from space-borne missions and VLBI will be very important, first for investigations of possible systematic errors and second for investigations of possible shifts between centroids of radio and optical emissions in active galactic nuclei. In order to make such a comparison more robust, a program for densification of the grid of radio sources detectable with both VLBI and Gaia was launched in 2006. Program sources are 398 quasars with declinations > – 10° that are brighter than 18 mag at the V band. The first two observing campaigns were run in 2007-2008. In the third campaign, a set of 291 objects from that list was observed with the VLBA+EVN in 2010-2011 with the primary goal of producing their images with milliarcsecond resolution. In this paper, following the method of absolute astrometry, coordinates of observed sources have been derived with milliarcsecond accuracies from analysis of these observations. The catalog of positions of 295 target sources, estimates of their correlated flux densities at 2.2 and 8.4 GHz, and their images are presented. The accuracies of source coordinates are in a range of 2-200 mas, with a median of 3.2 mas.

  5. Self-calibration in optical/infrared interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millour, Florentin; Dalla Vedova, Gaetan

    2015-08-01

    Optical interferometry produces nowadays images of the observed stars. However, the image quality of the current facilities (VLTI, CHARA) is impaired by the lack of phases measurements. We will describe here a method used to improve the image reconstruction that takes profit of a badly used observable: the wavelength differential phase. This phase shares some properties with the interferometric phase. That method is parent to the self-calibration which was developed in the 80's for radio astronomy to get rid of calibratioon artifacts, and produces a significant improvement on image quality over the current available methods.

  6. A system for airborne SAR interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Skou, Niels; Granholm, Johan;

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) systems have already demonstrated that elevation maps can be generated rapidly with single pass airborne across-track interferometry systems (XTT), and satellite repeat track interferometry (RTT) techniques have been used to map both elevation and......) the status of the airborne interferometry activities at DCRS, including the present system configuration, recent results, and some scientific applications of the system....

  7. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  8. Phase estimation in optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rastogi, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    Phase Estimation in Optical Interferometry covers the essentials of phase-stepping algorithms used in interferometry and pseudointerferometric techniques. It presents the basic concepts and mathematics needed for understanding the phase estimation methods in use today. The first four chapters focus on phase retrieval from image transforms using a single frame. The next several chapters examine the local environment of a fringe pattern, give a broad picture of the phase estimation approach based on local polynomial phase modeling, cover temporal high-resolution phase evaluation methods, and pre

  9. High-Speed Digital Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vine, Glenn; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Ware, Brent; Spero, Robert E.; Wuchenich, Danielle M.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry (DI) is a laser metrology technique employing pseudo-random noise (PRN) codes phase-modulated onto an optical carrier. Combined with heterodyne interferometry, the PRN code is used to select individual signals, returning the inherent interferometric sensitivity determined by the optical wavelength. The signal isolation arises from the autocorrelation properties of the PRN code, enabling both rejection of spurious signals (e.g., from scattered light) and multiplexing capability using a single metrology system. The minimum separation of optical components is determined by the wavelength of the PRN code.

  10. The Connection between the Radio Jet and the Gamma-ray Emission in the Radio Galaxy 3C 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Carolina; Gómez, José L.; Grandi, Paola; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Lister, Matthew L.; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Savolainen, Tuomas; Pushkarev, Alexander B.

    2015-08-01

    We present the analysis of the radio jet evolution of the radio galaxy 3C 120 during a period of prolonged γ-ray activity detected by the Fermi satellite between 2012 December and 2014 October. We find a clear connection between the γ-ray and radio emission, such that every period of γ-ray activity is accompanied by the flaring of the millimeter very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) core and subsequent ejection of a new superluminal component. However, not all ejections of components are associated with γ-ray events detectable by Fermi. Clear γ-ray detections are obtained only when components are moving in a direction closer to our line of sight. This suggests that the observed γ-ray emission depends not only on the interaction of moving components with the millimeter VLBI core, but also on their orientation with respect to the observer. Timing of the γ-ray detections and ejection of superluminal components locate the γ-ray production to within ∼0.13 pc from the millimeter VLBI core, which was previously estimated to lie about 0.24 pc from the central black hole. This corresponds to about twice the estimated extension of the broad line region, limiting the external photon field and therefore suggesting synchrotron self Compton as the most probable mechanism for the production of the γ-ray emission. Alternatively, the interaction of components with the jet sheath can provide the necessary photon field to produced the observed γ-rays by Compton scattering.

  11. Astronomers Make First Images With Space Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Marking an important new milestone in radio astronomy history, scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, have made the first images using a radio telescope antenna in space. The images, more than a million times more detailed than those produced by the human eye, used the new Japanese HALCA satellite, working in conjunction with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) ground-based radio telescopes. The landmark images are the result of a long-term NRAO effort supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). "This success means that our ability to make detailed radio images of objects in the universe is no longer limited by the size of the Earth," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "Astronomy's vision has just become much sharper." HALCA, launched on Feb. 11 by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), is the first satellite designed for radio astronomy imaging. It is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by NRAO; Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. On May 22, HALCA observed a distant active galaxy called PKS 1519-273, while the VLBA and VLA also observed it. Data from the satellite was received by a tracking station at the NRAO facility in Green Bank, West Virginia. Tape-recorded data from the satellite and from the radio telescopes on the ground were sent to NRAO's Array Operations Center (AOC) in Socorro, NM. In Socorro, astronomers and computer scientists used a special-purpose computer to digitally combine the signals from the satellite and the ground telescopes to make them all work together as a single, giant radio telescope. This dedicated machine, the VLBA Correlator, built as

  12. Probing the Innermost Regions of AGN Jets and Their Magnetic Fields with RadioAstron. I. Imaging BL Lacertae at 21 Microarcsecond Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José L.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Bruni, Gabriele; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Bach, Uwe; Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Anderson, James M.; Galindo, Pablo; Kardashev, Nikolay S.; Lisakov, Mikhail M.

    2016-02-01

    We present the first polarimetric space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging observations at 22 GHz. BL Lacertae was observed in 2013 November 10 with the RadioAstron space VLBI mission, including a ground array of 15 radio telescopes. The instrumental polarization of the space radio telescope is found to be less than 9%, demonstrating the polarimetric imaging capabilities of RadioAstron at 22 GHz. Ground-space fringes were obtained up to a projected baseline distance of 7.9 Earth diameters in length, allowing us to image the jet in BL Lacertae with a maximum angular resolution of 21 μas, the highest achieved to date. We find evidence for emission upstream of the radio core, which may correspond to a recollimation shock at about 40 μas from the jet apex, in a pattern that includes other recollimation shocks at approximately 100 and 250 μas from the jet apex. Polarized emission is detected in two components within the innermost 0.5 mas from the core, as well as in some knots 3 mas downstream. Faraday rotation analysis, obtained from combining RadioAstron 22 GHz and ground-based 15 and 43 GHz images, shows a gradient in rotation measure and Faraday-corrected polarization vector as a function of position angle with respect to the core, suggesting that the jet in BL Lacertae is threaded by a helical magnetic field. The intrinsic de-boosted brightness temperature in the unresolved core exceeds 3× {10}12 K, suggesting, at the very least, departure from equipartition of energy between the magnetic field and radiating particles.

  13. Application of interferometry to studies of glacier dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1996-01-01

    Multi baseline repeat track interferometry (RTI) can potentially be used to measure both velocities and the micro topography of glaciers. The Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) in corporation with the Danish Polar Center (DPC) has established a test cite for studies of glacier dynamics on the...... Storstrommen glacier in North East Greenland. DCRS has acquired RTI data over the glacier in 1994 and 1995 and ERS-1/2 tandem mode data are also available. This paper presents recent results from this study. The advantages of satellite and airborne RTI respectively is described. The paper concludes with an...

  14. Precision Gravity Tests with Atom Interferometry in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tino, G.M.; Sorrentino, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, Università di Firenze, INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Aguilera, D. [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center, Robert-Hooke-Strasse 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Battelier, B.; Bertoldi, A. [Laboratoire Photonique, Numérique et Nanosciences, LP2N - UMR5298 - IOGS - CNRS Université Bordeaux 1, Bâtiment A30 351 cours de la Libération F-33405 TALENCE Cedex France (France); Bodart, Q. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia and LENS, Università di Firenze, INFN Sezione di Firenze, via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bongs, K. [Midlands Ultracold Atom Research Centre School of Physics and Astronomy University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Bouyer, P. [Laboratoire Photonique, Numérique et Nanosciences, LP2N - UMR5298 - IOGS - CNRS Université Bordeaux 1, Bâtiment A30 351 cours de la Libération F-33405 TALENCE Cedex France (France); Braxmaier, C. [Institute of Space Systems, German Aerospace Center, Robert-Hooke-Strasse 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Cacciapuoti, L. [European Space Agency, Research and Scientific Support Department, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Gaaloul, N. [Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D 30167 Hannover (Germany); Gürlebeck, N. [University of Bremen, Centre of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), Am Fallturm, D - 29359 Bremen (Germany); Hauth, M. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2013-10-15

    Atom interferometry provides extremely sensitive and accurate tools for the measurement of inertial forces. Operation of atom interferometers in microgravity is expected to enhance the performance of such sensors. This paper presents two possible implementations of a dual {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb atom interferometer to perform differential gravity measurements in space, with the primary goal to test the Weak Equivalence Principle. The proposed scheme is in the framework of two projects of the European Space Agency, namely Q-WEP and STE-QUEST. The paper describes the baseline experimental configuration, and discusses the technology readiness, noise and error budget for the two proposed experiments.

  15. Precision Gravity Tests with Atom Interferometry in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom interferometry provides extremely sensitive and accurate tools for the measurement of inertial forces. Operation of atom interferometers in microgravity is expected to enhance the performance of such sensors. This paper presents two possible implementations of a dual 85Rb-87Rb atom interferometer to perform differential gravity measurements in space, with the primary goal to test the Weak Equivalence Principle. The proposed scheme is in the framework of two projects of the European Space Agency, namely Q-WEP and STE-QUEST. The paper describes the baseline experimental configuration, and discusses the technology readiness, noise and error budget for the two proposed experiments

  16. Seismic interferometry by midpoint integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, E.N.; Almagro Vidal, C.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.

    2012-01-01

    With seismic interferometry reflections can be retrieved between station positions. In the classical form, the reflections are retrieved by an integration over sources. For a specific dataset, however, the actual source distribution might not be sufficient to approximate the source integral. Yet, th

  17. Meteorology Gauges for Spatial Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Heterodyne interferometers have been commercially available for many years. In addition, many versions have been built at JPL for various projects. This activity is aimed at improving the accuracy of such interferometers from the 1-30 nanometer level to the picometer level for use in the proposes Stellar Interferometry Mission (SIM) as metrology gauges.

  18. Infrasonic interferometry applied to synthetic and measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Julius T.; Evers, Läslo G.; Ruigrok, Elmer; Wapenaar, Kees; Simons, Dick G.

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of the traveltime of infrasound through the atmosphere is interesting for several applications. For example, it could be used to determine temperature and wind of the atmosphere, since the traveltime depends on these atmospheric conditions (Haney, 2009). In this work the traveltime is estimated with infrasonic interferometry. In other words, we calculate the crosscorrelations of data of spatially distributed receivers. With this method the traveltime between two receivers is determined without the need for ground truth events. In a first step, we crosscorrelate synthetic data, which are generated by a raytracing model. This model takes into account the traveltime along the rays, the attenuation of the different atmospheric layers, the spreading of the rays and the influence of caustics. In these numerical experiments we show that it is possible to determine the traveltime through infrasonic interferometry. We present the results of infrasonic interferometry applied to measured data. Microbaroms are used in the crosscorrelation approach. Microbaroms are caused by ocean waves and are measured by the 'Large Aperture Infrasound Array' (LAIA). LAIA is being installed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in the framework of the radio-astronomical 'Low Frequency Array' (LOFAR) initiative. LAIA consists currently of around twenty receivers (microbarometers) with an aperture of around 100 km, allowing for several inter-station distances. Here, we show the results of crosscorrelations as a function of receivers distance, to assess the signal coherency. This research is made possible by the support of the 'Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research' (NWO). Haney, M., 2009. Infrasonic ambient noise interferometry from correlations of microbaroms, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L19808

  19. Radio Reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Bulley, James; Jones, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Radio Reconstructions is a sound installation which use indeterminate radio broadcasts as its raw material. Each piece is structured by a notated score, which controls its rhythm, dynamics and melodic contour over time. The audio elements used to enact this score are selected in real-time from unknown radio transmissions, by an autonomous software system which is continuously scanning the radio waves in search of similar fragments of audio. Using a technique known as audio mosaicing, hund...

  20. Radio Ghosts

    OpenAIRE

    Ensslin, Torsten A.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that patches of old radio plasma (`radio ghosts') of former radio galaxies form a second distinct phase of the inter-galactic medium (IGM), not mixed with the thermal gas. The separation of this phase from the ambient gas and its resistance against eroding turbulent forces is given by magnetic fields, which are expected to be roughly in pressure equilibrium with the surrounding medium. Since patches of this plasma are largely invisible in the radio we use the te...

  1. Small-scale structure of quasars and galactic nuclei at radio wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results from high-resolution radio interferometry of extragalactic sources are described. Reasonable models of compact radio sources are considered. Several sources with regular increases in apparent angular size seem most simply to be explained as relativistic expansion. 22 references

  2. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlights radio astronomy research of the 40th IAU commission in the years 1982-1984. Radio imaging of different objects are treated in separate sections: solar system, galaxy, supernovae, extragalactic objects. The paper begins with a section on radio instrumentation

  3. Quasar Astrophysics with the Space Interferometry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen; Wehrle, Ann; Meier, David; Jones, Dayton; Piner, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Optical astrometry of quasars and active galaxies can provide key information on the spatial distribution and variability of emission in compact nuclei. The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) will have the sensitivity to measure a significant number of quasar positions at the microarcsecond level. SIM will be very sensitive to astrometric shifts for objects as faint as V = 19. A variety of AGN phenomena are expected to be visible to SIM on these scales, including time and spectral dependence in position offsets between accretion disk and jet emission. These represent unique data on the spatial distribution and time dependence of quasar emission. It will also probe the use of quasar nuclei as fundamental astrometric references. Comparisons between the time-dependent optical photocenter position and VLBI radio images will provide further insight into the jet emission mechanism. Observations will be tailored to each specific target and science question. SIM will be able to distinguish spatially between jet and accretion disk emission; and it can observe the cores of galaxies potentially harboring binary supermassive black holes resulting from mergers.

  4. Compact radio cores in radio-quiet AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Alessandro; Norris, Ray P; Giovannini, Gabriele; Spitler, Lee R

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of radio emission in radio-quiet (RQ) active galactic nuclei (AGN) is still debated and might arise from the central AGN, from star formation activity in the host, or from either of these sources. A direct detection of compact and bright radio cores embedded in sources that are classified as RQ can unambiguously determine whether a central AGN significantly contributes to the radio emission. We search for compact, high-surface-brightness radio cores in RQ AGNs that are caused unambiguously by AGN activity. We used the Australian Long Baseline Array to search for compact radio cores in four RQ AGNs located in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS). We also targeted four radio-loud (RL) AGNs as a control sample. We detected compact and bright radio cores in two AGNs that are classified as RQ and in one that is classified as RL. Two RL AGNs were not imaged because the quality of the observations was too poor. We report on a first direct evidence of radio cores in RQ AGNs at cosmological reds...

  5. Comparison of Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry for Gravitational Wave Observations in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.

    2015-08-01

    1. In 2013 a suggestion was made by Graham et al. [1] [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 171102 (2013)] of possible GW observations over 10^3 km baselines using strongly forbidden single photon transitions in atoms such as Sr-87. A comparison of the requirements for such a mission with those for laser interferometer missions such as LISA or eLISA with roughly 10^6 km baselines was published in 2014 [Bender, Phys. Rev. D 89, 062004 (2014)]. The comparison will be somewhat updated in this talk.2. Recently, a possible method for gravitational wave observations with atom interferometry over million km scale baselines has been suggested by Hogan and Kasevich [arXiv:1501.06797v1 (2015)]. As an example, they consider observations similar to those discussed in [1], but over a 2*10^6 km baseline. The atomic transitions in the two spacecraft would be driven by separate lasers that are phase locked using 1 W laser power and 30 cm diam. telescopes. Total observation times for individual clouds of 80 to 320 s are assumed, along with 50 concurrent interferometers and a 60 Hz Rabi frequency for the laser pulses.3. After the flight of the LISA Pathfinder mission later this year, it is expected that more intensive work will start on a laser interferometer gravitational wave mission. Probably the most important objective will be the observation of GW signals from the mergers at high redshifts of massive black holes with masses in the range from perhaps 10^4 to 10^7 M_sun. Such signals would give new constraints on the mechanisms for the formation of intermediate mass and larger black holes at early times, and probably contribute to understanding the observed close correlation between the growth of galaxies and of the massive black holes at their centers.

  6. Radio observations of the TeV source HESS J1943+213: a new case of a pulsar wind nebula?

    CERN Document Server

    Gabanyi, K E; Giacani, E; Paragi, Z; Pidopryhora, Y; Frey, S

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the H.E.S.S. Collaboration discovered a very high energy gamma-ray point source close to the Galactic plane. They offered three possible explanations for the nature of the source: a gamma-ray binary, a pulsar wind nebula, or a BL Lac object. They concluded that the observations favoured an extreme BL Lac object interpretation. We investigated the nature of the radio source reported as the counterpart of the very high energy gamma-ray source. We performed high-resolution radio interferometric observations with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network at a frequency of 1.6 GHz on 2011 May 18. We also reanalysed archival 1.4-GHz radio continuum and HI spectral line data taken with the Very Large Array. The accurate position of the radio source, as observed with EVN, is ~ 4" off from the one obtained in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. The new position is in excellent agreement with that of the proposed X-ray counterpart of the TeV source. From HI absorption data, a distance of about 11.5 +/- 1.5 ...

  7. Engineering and science highlights of the KAT-7 radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A. R.; Alberts, T.; Armstrong, R. P.; Barta, A.; Bauermeister, E. F.; Bester, H.; Blose, S.; Booth, R. S.; Botha, D. H.; Buchner, S. J.; Carignan, C.; Cheetham, T.; Cloete, K.; Coreejes, G.; Crida, R. C.; Cross, S. D.; Curtolo, F.; Dikgale, A.; de Villiers, M. S.; du Toit, L. J.; Esterhuyse, S. W. P.; Fanaroff, B.; Fender, R. P.; Fijalkowski, M.; Fourie, D.; Frank, B.; George, D.; Gibbs, P.; Goedhart, S.; Grobbelaar, J.; Gumede, S. C.; Herselman, P.; Hess, K. M.; Hoek, N.; Horrell, J.; Jonas, J. L.; Jordaan, J. D. B.; Julie, R.; Kapp, F.; Kotzé, P.; Kusel, T.; Langman, A.; Lehmensiek, R.; Liebenberg, D.; Liebenberg, I. J. V.; Loots, A.; Lord, R. T.; Lucero, D. M.; Ludick, J.; Macfarlane, P.; Madlavana, M.; Magnus, L.; Magozore, C.; Malan, J. A.; Manley, J. R.; Marais, L.; Marais, N.; Marais, S. J.; Maree, M.; Martens, A.; Mokone, O.; Moss, V.; Mthembu, S.; New, W.; Nicholson, G. D.; van Niekerk, P. C.; Oozeer, N.; Passmoor, S. S.; Peens-Hough, A.; Pińska, A. B.; Prozesky, P.; Rajan, S.; Ratcliffe, S.; Renil, R.; Richter, L. L.; Rosekrans, D.; Rust, A.; Schröder, A. C.; Schwardt, L. C.; Seranyane, S.; Serylak, M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Siebrits, R.; Sofeya, L.; Spann, R.; Springbok, R.; Swart, P. S.; Thondikulam, Venkatasubramani L.; Theron, I. P.; Tiplady, A.; Toruvanda, O.; Tshongweni, S.; van den Heever, L.; van der Merwe, C.; van Rooyen, R.; Wakhaba, S.; Walker, A. L.; Welz, M.; Williams, L.; Wolleben, M.; Woudt, P. A.; Young, N. J.; Zwart, J. T. L.

    2016-08-01

    The construction of the seven-dish Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7) array in the Karoo region of the Northern Cape in South Africa was intended primarily as an engineering prototype for technologies and techniques applicable to the MeerKAT telescope. This paper looks at the main engineering and scientific highlights from this effort, and discusses their applicability to both MeerKAT and other next-generation radio telescopes. In particular, we found that the composite dish surface works well, but it becomes complicated to fabricate for a dish lacking circular symmetry; the Stirling cycle cryogenic system with ion pump to achieve vacuum works but demands much higher maintenance than an equivalent Gifford-McMahon cycle system; the ROACH (Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware)-based correlator with SPEAD (Streaming Protocol for Exchanging Astronomical Data) protocol data transfer works very well and KATCP (Karoo Array Telescope Control Protocol) control protocol has proven very flexible and convenient. KAT-7 has also been used for scientific observations where it has a niche in mapping low surface-brightness continuum sources, some extended H I haloes and OH masers in star-forming regions. It can also be used to monitor continuum source variability, observe pulsars, and make Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations.

  8. Obervational Model for Microarcsecond Astrometry with the Space Interferometry Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Milman, M H; Milman, Mark H.; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based long-baseline optical interferometer for precision astrometry. One of the primary objectives of the SIM instrument is to accurately determine the directions to a grid of stars, together with their proper motions and parallaxes, improving a priori knowledge by nearly three orders of magnitude. The basic astrometric observable of the instrument is the pathlength delay, a measurement made by a combination of internal metrology measurements that determine the distance the starlight travels through the two arms of the interferometer and a measurement of the white light stellar fringe to find the point of equal pathlength. Because this operation requires a non--negligible integration time to accurately measure the stellar fringe position, the interferometer baseline vector is not stationary over this time period, as its absolute length and orientation are time--varying. This conflicts with the consistency condition necessary for extracting the astrometric para...

  9. Absolute kinematics of radio-source components in the complete S5 polar cap sample. IV. Proper motions of the radio cores over a decade and spectral properties

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Marcaide, J M; Guirado, J C; Perez-Torres, M A; Ros, E

    2016-01-01

    We have carried out a high-precision astrometric analysis of two very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) epochs of observation of the 13 extragalactic radio sources in the complete S5 polar cap sample. The VLBI epochs span a time baseline of 10 years and enable us to achieve precisions in the proper motions of the source cores up to a few micro-arcseconds per year. The observations were performed at 14.4 GHz and 43.1 GHz, and enable us to estimate the frequency core-shifts in a subset of sources, for which the spectral-index distributions can be computed. We study the source-position stability by analysing the changes in the relative positions of fiducial source points (the jet cores) over a decade. We find motions of 0.1-0.9 mas among close-by sources between the two epochs, which imply drifts in the jet cores of approximately a few tens of micro-as per year. These results have implications for the standard Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) jet model (where the core locations are supposed to be stable in time)....

  10. Advancing differential atom interferometry for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Williams, Jason; Yu, Nan

    2016-05-01

    Atom interferometer (AI) based sensors exhibit precision and accuracy unattainable with classical sensors, thanks to the inherent stability of atomic properties. Dual atomic sensors operating in a differential mode further extend AI applicability beyond environmental disturbances. Extraction of the phase difference between dual AIs, however, typically introduces uncertainty and systematic in excess of that warranted by each AI's intrinsic noise characteristics, especially in practical applications and real time measurements. In this presentation, we report our efforts in developing practical schemes for reducing noises and enhancing sensitivities in the differential AI measurement implementations. We will describe an active phase extraction method that eliminates the noise overhead and demonstrates a performance boost of a gravity gradiometer by a factor of 3. We will also describe a new long-baseline approach for differential AI measurements in a laser ranging assisted AI configuration. The approach uses well-developed AIs for local measurements but leverage the mature schemes of space laser interferometry for LISA and GRACE. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a Contract with NASA.

  11. Geometric phase modulation for stellar interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In a long baseline optical interferometer, the fringe visibility is normally measured by modulation of the optical path difference between the two arms of the instruments. To obtain accurate measurements, the spectral bandwidth must be narrow, limiting the sensitivity of the technique. The application of geometric phase modulation technique to stellar interferometry has been proposed by Tango and Davis. Modulation of the geometric phase has the potential for improving the sensitivity of optical interferometers, and specially the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI), by allowing broad band modulation of the light signals. This is because a modulator that changes the geometric phase of the signal is, in principle, achromatic. Another advantage of using such a phase modulator is that it can be placed in the common path traversed by the two orthogonally polarized beams emerging from the beam combiner in a stellar interferometer. Thus the optical components of the modulator do not have to be interferometric quality and could be relatively easily introduced into SUSI. We have investigated the proposed application in a laboratory-based experiment using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with white-light source. This can be seen as a small model of an amplitude stellar interferometer where the light source takes the place of the distant star and two corner mirrors replaces the entrance pupils of the stellar interferometer

  12. (Strange) meson interferometry at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We make predictions for the kaon interferometry measurements in Au+Au collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). A first-order phase transition from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma (QGP) to a gas of hadrons is assumed for the transport calculations. The fraction of kaons that are directly emitted from the phase boundary is considerably enhanced at large transverse momenta KT ∼ 1 GeV/c. In this kinematic region, the sensitivity of the Rout/Rside ratio to the QGP properties is enlarged. The results of the one-dimensional correlation analysis are presented. The extracted interferometry radii, depending on KT, are not unusually large and are strongly affected by finite momentum resolution effects. (author)

  13. Phase stepping in Lau interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel-Toro, Luciano; Tebaldi, Myrian; Henao, Rodrigo

    1999-01-01

    The implementation of phase shifting interferometry to analyze the Lau interferometric fringe patterns is proposed. The fundamentals of this application are theoretically discussed and the basis of the phase map interpretation is outlined. The three steps algorithm is used to depict the phase maps of lens-like test objects and an application for measuring focal lengths of lenses is reported. Experimental results are presented. q1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Virtual Reference Interferometry: Theory & Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Michael Anthony

    This thesis introduces the idea that a simulated interferogram can be used as a reference for an interferometer. This new concept represents a paradigm shift from the conventional thinking, where a reference is the phase of a wavefront that traverses a known path. The simulated interferogram used as a reference is called a virtual reference. This thesis develops the theory of virtual reference interferometry and uses it for the characterization of chromatic dispersion in short length (development of many photonic systems. The current generation of short-length dispersion measurement techniques are either easy to operate but lack sufficient accuracy, or have sufficient accuracy but are difficult to operate. The use of a virtual reference combines the advantages of these techniques so that it is both accurate and easy to operate. Chromatic dispersion measurements based on virtual reference interferometry have similar accuracy as the best conventional measurement techniques due to the ability to measure first and second order dispersion directly from the interference pattern. Unique capabilities of virtual reference interferometry are demonstrated, followed by a derivation of the operational constraints and system parameters. The technique is also applied to the characterization of few-mode fibers, a hot topic in telecommunications research where mode division multiplexing promises to expand network bandwidth. Also introduced is the theory of dispersive virtual reference interferometry, which can be used to overcome the bandwidth limitations associated with the measurement of near-zero dispersion-length optical components via compression of the interference pattern. Additionally, a method for utilizing the virtual reference interferometer in a low-coherence setup is introduced, enabling characterization in new wavelength ranges and further reducing the cost of characterization.

  15. Multi-wavelength interferometry of evolved stars using VLTI and VLBA

    OpenAIRE

    Wittkowski, M.; Boboltz, D. A.; Driebe, T.; Ohnaka, K.

    2005-01-01

    We report on our project of coordinated VLTI/VLBA observations of the atmospheres and circumstellar environments of evolved stars. We illustrate in general the potential of interferometric measurements to study stellar atmospheres and envelopes, and demonstrate in particular the advantages of a coordinated multi-wavelength approach including near/mid-infrared as well as radio interferometry. We have so far made use of VLTI observations of the near- and mid-infrared stellar sizes and of concur...

  16. Holographic interferometry in construction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T.

    1995-12-31

    In this work techniques for visualizing phase and opaque objects by ruby laser interferometry are introduced. A leakage flow as a phase object is studied by holographic interferometry and the intensity distribution of the interferograms presenting the leakage flow are computer-simulated. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leakage flow is made. The analysis is based on the experimental and theoretical results presented in this work. The holographic setup and the double pass method for visualizing leakage flow are explained. A vibrating iron plate is the opaque object. Transient impact waves are generated by a pistol bullet on the iron plate and visualized by holographic interferometry. An apparatus with the capability of detecting and calculating the delays necessary for laser triggering is introduced. A time series of interferograms presenting elastic wave formation in an iron plate is shown. A computer-simulation of the intensity distributions of these interferograms is made. An analysis based on the computer-simulation and the experimental data of the transient elastic wave is carried out and the results are presented. (author)

  17. The Analysis of Moonborne Cross Track Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for Global Environment Change Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faced to the earth observation requirement of large scale global environment change, a SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) antenna system is proposed to set on Moon's surface for interferometry in this paper. With several advantages superior to low earth obit SAR, such as high space resolution, large range swath and short revisit interval, the moonborne SAR could be a potential data resource of global changes monitoring and environment change research. Due to the high stability and ease of maintenance, the novel system is competent for offering a long and continuous time series of remote sensing imagery. The Moonborne SAR system performance is discussed at the beginning. Then, the peculiarity of interferometry is analyzed in both repeat pass and single pass cases. The chief distinguishing feature which is worth to research the potentiality of repeat pass interferometry is that the revisit interval is reduced to one day in most cases, and in worst case one month. Decorrelation deriving from geometry variety is discussed in detail. It turns out that the feasibility of moonborne SAR repeat pass interferometry depends on the declination of Moon. The severity of shift effects in radar echoes increased as Moon approaches to the equatorial plane. Moreover, referring to the single pass interferometry, two antennas are assumed to set on different latitude of Moon. There is enough space on Moon to form a long baseline, which is highly related to the interferogram precision

  18. Radio wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, V

    1992-01-01

    In developing countries with high rates of poverty and illiteracy, radio is emerging as an excellent medium for delivering information on health issues, family planning, nutrition, and agricultural development. Since radio does not require wired electricity, it can reach remote rural populations. Surveys have found that between 50-75% of poor rural households in developing countries own radios, and the majority listen to educational radio at least once a week. A program that reaches the urban poor outside of Lima, Peru, has been instrumental in controlling the spread of cholera. A Bolivian station broadcasts 8 hours of literacy, health, agricultural, and cultural programming a day to an audience of more than 2 million Aymara Indians. Small village radio stations with a broadcast range of 15 miles can be established for under US$400 and can generally achieve sustainability through local fundraising events such as raffles. In many cases, listeners have become broadcasters at their local radio stations. PMID:12286181

  19. Radio receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankov, V. N.; Barulin, L. G.; Zhodzishskii, M. I.; Malyshev, I. V.; Petrusinskii, V. V.

    The book is concerned with the design of microelectronic radio receivers and their components based on semiconductor and hybrid integrated circuits. Topics discussed include the hierarchical structure of radio receivers, the synthesis of structural schemes, the design of the principal functional units, and the design of radio receiver systems with digital signal processing. The discussion also covers the integrated circuits of multifunctional amplifiers, analog multipliers, charge-transfer devices, frequency filters, piezoelectronic devices, and microwave amplifiers, filters, and mixers.

  20. Relativistic jet motion in the core of the radio-loud quasar J1101+7225

    CERN Document Server

    Pott, J U; Krips, M; Krichbaum, T P; Britzen, S; Alef, W; Zensus, J A

    2005-01-01

    Multi-epoch GHz Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data of the radio-loud quasar J1101+7225 were analyzed to estimate the proper motion of extended optically thin jet components. Two components separated from the core could be mapped at 1.66 GHz, which is consistent with earlier observations. In one case we found evidence of high apparent superluminal motion (beta_app= 22.5+/-4) at large (deprojected) distances to the core (22 mas ~ 4 kpc at z= 1.46). Typically in other quasars such high separation velocities are only found much closer to the core component. Furthermore the Doppler factor, the magnetic field strength, and the angular size of the optically thick core were derived using published X-ray data. Analysis of 5 GHz VLBI data reveals the existence of further jet components within the central 5 mas. Additionally the data published so far on the GHz-spectrum were discussed at all angular resolutions. J1101+7225 turns out to be a standard quasar for studying different aspects of radio jet kinematic...

  1. Designing a new Geodetic Research Data Management System for the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Glend Lorraine

    2015-08-01

    The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) participates in astronomic, astrometric and geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using both 26- and 15-m diameter radio telescopes. Geodetic data from a Satellite Laser Ranger (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Met4 weather stations and a new seismic vault network must be stored at HartRAO and made available to the scientific community. Some data are e-transferred to correlators, analysis centres and space geodesy data providers, while some data are processed locally to produce basic data products. The new South African co-located seismology network of seismic and GNSS instrumentation will generate large volumes of raw data to be stored and archived at HartRAO. The current data storage systems are distributed and outdated, and management systems currently being used will also not be able to handle the additional large volumes of data. This necessitates the design and implementation of a new, modern research data management system which combines all the datasets into one database, as well as cater for current and future data volume requirements. The librarian’s expertise and knowledge will be used in the design and implementation of the new HartRAO Geodetic Research Data Management System (GRDMS). The librarian’s role and involvement in the design and implementation of the new GRDMS are presented here. Progress to date will also be discussed.

  2. 15 years of VLBI observations of two compact radio sources in Messier 82

    CERN Document Server

    Beswick, R J; Fenech, D; Marti-Vidal, I; McDonald, A R; Muxlow, T W B; Pedlar, A; Riley, J D; Wills, K A

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of a second epoch of 18cm global Very Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations, taken on 23 February 2001, of the central kiloparsec of the nearby starburst galaxy Messier 82. These observations further investigate the structural and flux evolution of the most compact radio sources in the central region of M82. The two most compact radio objects in M82 have been investigated (41.95+575 and 43.31+592). Using this recent epoch of data in comparison with our previous global VLBI observations and two earlier epochs of European VLBI Network observations we measure expansion velocities in the range of 1500-2000km/s for 41.95+575, and 9000-11000km/s for 43.31+592 using various independent methods. In each case the measured remnant expansion velocities are significantly larger than the canonical expansion velocity (500km/s) of supernova remnants within M82 predicted from theoretical models. In this paper we discuss the implications of these measured expansion velocities with respect to ...

  3. A Comprehensive Radio View of the Extremely Bright Gamma-Ray Burst 130427A

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, A J; de Bruyn, A G; Granot, J; Kouveliotou, C; Wiersema, K; Starling, R L C; Curran, P A; Wijers, R A M J; Rowlinson, A; Anderson, G A; Fender, R P; Yang, J; Strom, R G

    2014-01-01

    GRB 130427A was extremely bright due to a combination of its low redshift and energetics typical of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). As a result, we were able to obtain high-quality light curves across the electromagnetic spectrum, providing an excellent opportunity for detailed broadband modeling. We observed GRB 130427A with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and collected well-sampled light curves at 1.4 and 4.8 GHz. Our observations with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network provide the best localization of this GRB, with a position uncertainty of 0.6 milliarcseconds. Our flux density measurements are combined with all the data available in the literature at radio, optical and X-ray frequencies to perform broadband modeling. We show that the reverse-forward shock model that has been suggested to explain the GRB 130427A observations does not give a good fit to all the light curve features once the entire broadband data set is modeled. We suggest a two-component jet model as an ...

  4. Extreme Brightness Temperatures and Refractive Substructure in 3C273 with RadioAstron

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael D; Gwinn, Carl R; Gurvits, Leonid I; Narayan, Ramesh; Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Jauncey, David L; Voitsik, Peter A; Anderson, James M; Sokolovsky, Kirill V; Lisakov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    Earth-space interferometry with RadioAstron provides the highest direct angular resolution ever achieved in astronomy at any wavelength. RadioAstron detections of the classic quasar 3C273 on interferometric baselines up to 171,000 km suggest brightness temperatures exceeding expected limits from the "inverse-Compton catastrophe" by two orders of magnitude. We show that at 18 cm, these estimates most probably arise from refractive substructure introduced by scattering in the interstellar medium. We use the scattering properties to estimate an intrinsic brightness temperature of 7*10^12 K, which is consistent with expected theoretical limits, but which is ~15 times lower than estimates that neglect substructure. At 6 cm, the substructure influences the measured values appreciably but gives an estimated brightness temperature that is comparable to models that do not account for the substructure. At 1.3 cm, the substructure does not affect the extremely high inferred brightness temperatures, in excess of 10^13 K....

  5. VLBI observations of GNSS satellites on the baseline Hobart-Ceduna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerschmied, Andreas; Böhm, Johannes; Kwak, Younghee; McCallum, Jamie; Plank, Lucia

    2016-04-01

    Observations of satellites of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) with the geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique open a variety of new possibilities and promote the integration of these techniques within the framework of GGOS, the Global Geodetic Observing System of the IAG. Such observations provide possibilities to directly connect the dynamic GNSS and the kinematic VLBI reference frame, which may result in improved future ITRF realizations. In our research we are trying to apply observation strategies, which are commonly used in geodetic VLBI, i.e. the main observables are group delay values derived from direct observations and the subsequent correlations of GNSS satellite signals. However, data acquisition schemes for VLBI satellite observations are still at an experimental stage. Further research is required to establish an operational process chain, similar to that applied for natural radio sources, such as quasars, which are observed generally. In 2015 we successfully carried out several experiments on the Australian baseline Ceduna-Hobart. During these sessions, with a few hours duration each, GNSS satellites (GLONASS and GPS) were observed in the L1 and L2 band along with natural radio sources for calibrations. All experiments were based on schedule files created with the satellite scheduling module in the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS). The recorded data were successfully correlated with the DiFX correlator software in combination with a suitable input model for near field targets. A preliminary analysis of the group delay measurements derived with the AIPS software suite was carried out with VieVS. Using this workflow we can achieve a measurement precision of the group delays down to a few picoseconds (5-30, depending on the satellite) over a 5 minutes track. Nevertheless, our results also show a residual signal of a few nanoseconds, which might be caused by the ionosphere or insufficient orbit modelling in the present state of

  6. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems such as...... bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  7. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  8. Holographic interferometry of plasma electron density diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holographic interferometry is an effective measurement method to diagnose the electronic density of laser plasma. It has very high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultraviolet Holographic interferometry system on 'XG-II' is explained briefly, and the experimental results are presented. A windows-based data processing software is developed

  9. Quantum Interferometry with Electrons: Outstanding Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gefen, Yuval

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments involving semiconducting quantum dots embedded in Aharonov-Bohm interferometry setups suggest that information concerning the phase of electron wavefunctions can be obtained from transport measurements. Here we review the basics of the theory of electron interferometry, some of the relevant experimental results, and recent theoretical developments attempting to shed light on the outstanding dilemmas.

  10. Radio stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  11. Embracing the Wave: Using the Very Small Radio Telescope to Teach Students about Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, M. M.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Doherty, M.; Minnigh, S.; Arndt, M. B.; Pratap, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Very Small Radio Telescope (VSRT) is a low-cost educational tool appropriate for laboratory demonstrations of the nature of radio waves and the principles of interferometry for use in both high school and undergraduate physics/astronomy classes. The system consists of small direct broadcast antenna dishes and other commercially available parts and can be assembled for under $500. Complete teaching units have been developed and tested by high school physics teachers to demonstrate radio wave transmission and exponential absorption though materials (Beer's law), the polarization of electromagnetic waves (Malus' law), the inverse square law, and interferometry. These units can be used to explore the properties of electromagnetic waves, including similarities and differences between radio and visible light, while challenging students' misconceptions about a wavelength regime that is important to both astronomy and everyday life. In addition, the VSRT can be used as a radio astronomical interferometer to measure the diameter of the Sun at 12 GHz. Full details, including a parts list, comprehensive assembly instructions, informational memos, teaching units, software, and conformance to national and Massachusetts educational standards, are available on the web at http://www.haystack.mit.edu/edu/undergrad/VSRT/index.html . Development of the VSRT at MIT Haystack Observatory is made possible through funding provided by the National Science Foundation.

  12. Intensity interferometry in subatomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensity interferometry technique, commonly referred to as the Hanbury-Brown/Twiss effect, has been applied to nuclear and elementary-particle collisions as a method of investigating their space-time evolution. In this review the theoretical framework of the technique is presented, describing the formulations in common use. A survey is made of its application to subatomic collisions, ranging from high-energy elementary-particle reactions to low-energy nuclear reactions. Results derived from experimental data analysis are compiled and discussed. A critique is made of the interpretational difficulties associated with the use of the technique in reaction studies

  13. The method of intensity interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some methods and concepts found in the field of Quantum Optics are applied to clarify concepts useful in Nuclear Physics. The experiments and the coherence function from first and second-order interferences are discussed. The interaction of a particle with a system as a whole, described by one-body optical potential, is analyzed. The Kooning's analysis and the photon interferometry are discussed. It is shown that the second order correlation pattern is sensitive to the statistics and to the state of the source

  14. Golographic interferometry of physical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the contribution of Yuri Ostrovsky to holographic interferometry, one of the fundamental scientific and practical applications of holography. The title of this paper is the same as the title of his doctoral thesis that he defended in 1974, and, as it seems to me, reflects most of the specific features of the majority of his scientific publications, viz., an inseparable link of the methods developed by him with the results obtained with the help of these methods in a wide range of investigations of physical processes and phenomena.

  15. Displacement measurement with intracavity interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazar, Josef; Holá, Miroslava; Fejfar, Antonín; Stuchlík, Jiří; Kočka, Jan; Oulehla, Jindřich; Číp, Ondřej

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2014, 913210:1-6. ISSN 0277-786X. [Optical Micro- and Nanometrology /5./. Brussels (BE), 15.04.2014-17.04.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P820; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016; GA TA ČR TA02010711; GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA TA ČR TA01010995; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : antireflective coatings * Fabry–Perot interferometers * interferometry * lasers * photodetectors * refractive index * silicon Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  16. Radar interferometry persistent scatterer technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kampes, Bert M

    2006-01-01

    Only book on Permanent Scatterer technique of radar interferometryExplains the Permanent Scatterer technique in detail, possible pitfalls, and details a newly developed stochastic model and estimator algorithm to cope with possible problems for the application of the PS techniqueThe use of Permanent Scatterer allows very precise measurements of the displacement of hundreds of points per square kilometerDescribes the only technique currently able to perform displacement measurements in the past, utilizing the ERS satellite data archive using data acquired from 1992-prese

  17. Polarization effects in neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron interferometry represents a new technique for the investigation of magnetic substances. Instead of cross sections the phase shifs due to the magnetic interaction are measured. Experiments about the spinor rotation within magnetized samples and about the investigation of the magnetic domain structure are described. A discussion is presented about the advantage of polarized neutrons and of an extreme angular resolution for certain experiments. Most of the experiments described have been carried out or are in progress at the interferometer set-up at the ILL in Grenoble or are proposed to be performed there. (author)

  18. Terrestrial monitoring of a radio telescope reference point using comprehensive uncertainty budgeting. Investigations during CONT14 at the Onsala Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösler, Michael; Haas, Rüdiger; Eschelbach, Cornelia

    2016-05-01

    During the 15-day-long global very long baseline interferometry campaign CONT14, a terrestrial monitoring campaign was carried out at the Onsala Space Observatory. The goal of these efforts was to monitor the reference point of the Onsala 20 m radio telescope during normal telescope operations. Parts of the local site network as well as a number of reflectors that were mounted on the 20 m radio telescope were observed in an automated and continual way using the in-house-developed software package HEIMDALL. The analysis of the observed data was performed using a new concept for a coordinate-based network adjustment to allow the full adjustment process in a true Cartesian global reference frame. The Akaike Information Criterion was used to select the preferable functional model for the network adjustment. The comprehensive stochastic model of this network adjustment process considers over 25 parameters, and, to describe the persistence of the observations performed during the monitoring with a very high measurement frequency, includes also time-dependent covariances. In total 15 individual solutions for the radio telescope reference point were derived, based on monitoring observations during the normal operation of the radio telescope. Since the radio telescope was moving continually, the influence of timing errors was studied and considered in the adjustment process. Finally, recursive filter techniques were introduced to combine the 15 individual solutions. Accuracies at the sub-millimeter level could be achieved for the radio telescope reference point. Thus, the presented monitoring concept fulfills the requirement proposed by the global geodetic observing system.

  19. Fundamental research with neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention of neutron interferometry in 1974 stimulated many experiments related to the wave-particle dualism of quantum mechanics. Widely separated coherent beams can be produced within a perfect crystal interforemeter which can be influenced by nuclear, magnetic and gravitational interaction. High order interferences have been observed connected with the occurrence of an interferometric spectral modeling. This effect has been demonstrated by a proper post-selection procedure showing a persisting action of plane wave components outside the wave packets. The verification of the 4π-symmetry of spinor wave functions and of the spin superposition law at a macroscopic scale and the observation of gravitational effects including the Sagnac effect have been widely debated in literature. The coupling of the neutron magnetic moment to resonator coils permitted the coherent energy exchange between the neutron quantum system and the macroscopic resonator. This phenomenon provided the basis for the observation of the magnetic Josephson effect with an energy sensitivity of 10-19 eV. Partial beam path detection experiments are in close connection with the development of quantum mechanical measurement theory. The very high sensitivity of neutron interferometry may be used in future for new fundamental-, solid-state and nuclear-physics application. Further steps towards advanced neutron quantum optical methods are envisaged. (author)

  20. Radio supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the radio detection of supernova 1961v in NGC 1058. SN 1961v has a spectral index of - 0.4 ±0.1. At the distance of NGC 1058, the absolute monochromatic luminosity of this source is comparable to that of Cas A. A second nonthermal source with a spectral index of - 0.3 ±0.1 was also detected in NGC 1058 and is likely to be a remnant of a supernova that was not optically detected. The two radio sources, and two optically faint H II regions that coincide with the radio sources, are separated by only 3.5 double-prime

  1. DISTANCE AND KINEMATICS OF THE RED HYPERGIANT VY CMa: VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY AND VERY LARGE ARRAY ASTROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report astrometric results of phase-referencing very long baseline interferometry observations of 43 GHz SiO maser emission toward the red hypergiant VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.83 ± 0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.20+0.13–0.10 kpc. Compared to previous studies, the spatial distribution of SiO masers has changed dramatically, while its total extent remains similar. The internal motions of the maser spots are up to 1.4 mas yr–1, corresponding to 8 km s–1, and show a tendency for expansion. After modeling the expansion of maser spots, we derived an absolute proper motion for the central star of μx = –2.8 ± 0.2 and μy = 2.6 ± 0.2 mas yr–1 eastward and northward, respectively. Based on the maser distribution from the VLBA observations, and the relative position between the radio photosphere and the SiO maser emission at 43 GHz from the complementary Very Large Array observations, we estimate the absolute position of VY CMa at mean epoch 2006.53 to be αJ2000 = 07h22m58.s3259 ± 0.s0007, δJ2000 = –25°46'03.''063 ± 0.''010. The position and proper motion of VY CMa from the VLBA observations differ significantly with values measured by the Hipparcos satellite. These discrepancies are most likely associated with inhomogeneities and dust scattering the optical light in the circumstellar envelope. The absolute proper motion measured with VLBA suggests that VY CMa may be drifting out of the giant molecular cloud to the east of it.

  2. DISTANCE AND KINEMATICS OF THE RED HYPERGIANT VY CMa: VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY AND VERY LARGE ARRAY ASTROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Reid, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, K. M. [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Zheng, X. W., E-mail: bzhang@mpifr.de [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2012-01-01

    We report astrometric results of phase-referencing very long baseline interferometry observations of 43 GHz SiO maser emission toward the red hypergiant VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.83 {+-} 0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.20{sup +0.13}{sub -0.10} kpc. Compared to previous studies, the spatial distribution of SiO masers has changed dramatically, while its total extent remains similar. The internal motions of the maser spots are up to 1.4 mas yr{sup -1}, corresponding to 8 km s{sup -1}, and show a tendency for expansion. After modeling the expansion of maser spots, we derived an absolute proper motion for the central star of {mu}{sub x} = -2.8 {+-} 0.2 and {mu}{sub y} = 2.6 {+-} 0.2 mas yr{sup -1} eastward and northward, respectively. Based on the maser distribution from the VLBA observations, and the relative position between the radio photosphere and the SiO maser emission at 43 GHz from the complementary Very Large Array observations, we estimate the absolute position of VY CMa at mean epoch 2006.53 to be {alpha}{sub J2000} = 07{sup h}22{sup m}58.{sup s}3259 {+-} 0.{sup s}0007, {delta}{sub J2000} = -25 Degree-Sign 46'03.''063 {+-} 0.''010. The position and proper motion of VY CMa from the VLBA observations differ significantly with values measured by the Hipparcos satellite. These discrepancies are most likely associated with inhomogeneities and dust scattering the optical light in the circumstellar envelope. The absolute proper motion measured with VLBA suggests that VY CMa may be drifting out of the giant molecular cloud to the east of it.

  3. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  4. Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Beskin, V S; Gwinn, C R; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2015-01-01

    Almost 50 years after radio pulsars were discovered in 1967, our understanding of these objects remains incomplete. On the one hand, within a few years it became clear that neutron star rotation gives rise to the extremely stable sequence of radio pulses, that the kinetic energy of rotation provides the reservoir of energy, and that electromagnetic fields are the braking mechanism. On the other hand, no consensus regarding the mechanism of coherent radio emission or the conversion of electromagnetic energy to particle energy yet exists. In this review, we report on three aspects of pulsar structure that have seen recent progress: the self-consistent theory of the magnetosphere of an oblique magnetic rotator; the location, geometry, and optics of radio emission; and evolution of the angle between spin and magnetic axes. These allow us to take the next step in understanding the physical nature of the pulsar activity.

  5. Record-Breaking Radio Astronomy Project to Measure Sky with Extreme Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Astronomers will tie together the largest collection of the world's radio telescopes ever assembled to work as a single observing tool in a project aimed at improving the precision of the reference frame scientists use to measure positions in the sky. The National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) will be a key part of the project, which is coordinated by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry. For 24 hours, starting Wednesday, November 18, and ending Thursday, November 19, 35 radio telescopes located on seven continents will observe 243 distant quasars. The quasars, galaxies with supermassive black holes at their cores, are profuse emitters of radio waves, and also are so distant that, despite their actual motions in space, they appear stationary as seen from Earth. This lack of apparent motion makes them ideal celestial landmarks for anchoring a grid system, similar to earthly latitude and longitude, used to mark the positions of celestial objects. Data from all the radio telescopes will be combined to make them work together as a system capable of measuring celestial positions with extremely high precision. The technique used, called very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), has been used for decades for both astronomical and geodetic research. However, no previous position-measuring observation has used as many radio telescopes or observed as many objects in a single session. The previous record was a 23-telescope observation. At a meeting in Brazil last August, the International Astronomical Union adopted a new reference frame for celestial positions that will be used starting on January 1. This new reference frame uses a set of 295 quasars to define positions, much like surveyor's benchmarks in a surburban subdivision. Because even with 35 radio telescopes around the world, there are some gaps in sky coverage, the upcoming observation will observe 243 of the 295. By observing so many quasars in a single observing session

  6. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverburg, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The comparatively low spatial resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths. We have proposed a new high altitude balloon experiment, the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). High altitude operation makes far-infrared (30- 300micron) observations possible, and BETTII's 8-meter baseline provides unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 0.5 arcsec) in this band. BETTII will use a double-Fourier instrument to simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral information. The spatially resolved spectroscopy provided by BETTII will address key questions about the nature of disks in young cluster stars and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the groundwork for future space interferometers.

  7. Blazars at Low Radio Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüstedt, J.; Kadler, M.; Brüggen, M.; Falcke, H.; Heald, G.; McKean, J.; Mueller, C.; Ros, E.; Schulz, R.; Wilms, J.

    We explore the low radio-frequency properties of the MOJAVE 1 blazar sample using the LOFAR Multi-Frequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). We find the characteristically flat blazar spectrum to extend down to the LOFAR bands, demonstrating that the emission at these low radio frequencies is still dominated by relativistically beamed emission. As most sources remain unresolved at the MSSS angular resolution, we are reimaging these data using LOFAR baselines beyond the standard MSSS uv-range resulting in an angular resolution of ~24 arcsec. We present first LOFAR images of MOJAVE sources from this project.

  8. Stellar intensity interferometry: Optimizing air Cherenkov telescope array layouts

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Hannes; LeBohec, Stephan; Nuñez, Paul D; 10.1117/12.856412

    2010-01-01

    Kilometric-scale optical imagers seem feasible to realize by intensity interferometry, using telescopes primarily erected for measuring Cherenkov light induced by gamma rays. Planned arrays envision 50--100 telescopes, distributed over some 1--4 km$^2$. Although array layouts and telescope sizes will primarily be chosen for gamma-ray observations, also their interferometric performance may be optimized. Observations of stellar objects were numerically simulated for different array geometries, yielding signal-to-noise ratios for different Fourier components of the source images in the interferometric $(u,v)$-plane. Simulations were made for layouts actually proposed for future Cherenkov telescope arrays, and for subsets with only a fraction of the telescopes. All large arrays provide dense sampling of the $(u,v)$-plane due to the sheer number of telescopes, irrespective of their geographic orientation or stellar coordinates. However, for improved coverage of the $(u,v)$-plane and a wider variety of baselines (...

  9. Quantum nonlocality in weak-thermal-light interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Mankei

    2011-01-01

    In astronomy, interferometry of light collected by separate telescopes is often performed by physically interfering the optical paths in the form of the classic Young's double-slit experiment. Optical loss along the paths severely hampers the efficiency of this so-called direct detection method, limiting the maximum baseline between the telescopes and thus the achievable resolution. This problem motivates the fundamental question of whether one can achieve a comparable signal-to-noise performance by separate optical measurements at the two telescopes before combining the measurement results. Using quantum mechanics and estimation theory, here I show that any such spatially local measurement scheme, such as heterodyne or homodyne detection, is fundamentally inferior to coherently nonlocal measurements, such as direct detection, for estimating the mutual coherence of bipartite thermal light when the average photon flux is low. This surprising result can be regarded as a dual of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglem...

  10. Designing the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    While infrared astronomy has revolutionized our understanding of galaxies, stars, and planets, further progress on major questions is stymied by the inescapable fact that the spatial resolution of single-aperture telescopes degrades at long wavelengths. The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter boom interferometer to operate in the FIR (30-90 micron) on a high altitude balloon. The long baseline will provide unprecedented angular resolution (approx. 5") in this band. In order for BETTII to be successful, the gondola must be designed carefully to provide a high level of stability with optics designed to send a collimated beam into the cryogenic instrument. We present results from the first 5 months of design effort for BETTII. Over this short period of time, we have made significant progress and are on track to complete the design of BETTII during this year.

  11. Software tools for optical interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thureau, Nathalie D.; Ireland, Michael; Monnier, John D.; Pedretti, Ettore

    2006-06-01

    We describe a set of general purpose utilities for visualizing and manipulating optical interferometry data stored in the FITS-based OIFITS data format. This class of routines contains code like the OiPlot navigation/visualization tool which allows the user to extract visibility, closure phase and UV-coverage information from the OIFITS files and to display the information in various ways. OiPlot also has basic data model fitting capabilities which can be used for a rapid first analysis of the scientific data. More advanced image reconstruction techniques are part of a dedicated utility. In addition, these routines allow data from multiple interferometers to be combined and used together. Part of our work also aims at developing software specific to the Michigan InfraRed Combiner (MIRC). Our experience designing a flexible and robust graphical user interfaced based on sockets using python libraries has wide applicability and this paper will discuss practicalities.

  12. Parasitic interference in nulling interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Matter, Alexis; Danchi, William C; Lopez, Bruno; Absil, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Nulling interferometry aims to detect faint objects close to bright stars. Its principle is to produce a destructive interference along the line-of-sight so that the stellar flux is rejected, while the flux of the off-axis source can be transmitted. In practice, various instrumental perturbations can degrade the nulling performance. Any imperfection in phase, amplitude, or polarization produces a spurious flux that leaks to the interferometer output and corrupts the transmitted off-axis flux. One of these instrumental pertubations is the crosstalk phenomenon, which occurs because of multiple parasitic reflections inside transmitting optics, and/or diffraction effects related to beam propagation along finite size optics. It can include a crosstalk of a beam with itself, and a mutual crosstalk between different beams. This can create a parasitic interference pattern, which degrades the intrinsic transmission map - or intensity response - of the interferometer. In this context, we describe how this instrumental ...

  13. Interferometry with referencing of wavelength

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej; Čížek, Martin; Hrabina, Jan; Buchta, Zdeněk

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2011, 80010X:1-6. ISBN 978-0-8194-8575-5. [International Conference on Applications of Optics and Photonics. Braga (PT), 03.05.2011-07.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA ČR GA102/09/1276; GA ČR GPP102/11/P820; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MPO FR-TI1/241; GA MPO FR-TI2/705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : refractometry * nanopositioning * interferometry * nanometrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  14. Photon intensity interferometry with multidetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of two-photon interferometry in heavy ion collisions at the intermediate energies is discussed and the importance of a new methodology, used in the treatment of the experimental data, is evidenced. For the first time, both the relative momentum, qrel, and the relative energy, q0, of the two correlated photons have been simultaneously used to extract the source size and lifetime of the emitting source. As an application, the performances of the BaF2 ball of the MEDEA multidetector as a photon intensity interferometer have been evaluated. The response of such a detector to correlated pairs of photons has been studied through full GEANT3 simulations. The effects of the experimental filter on the photon correlation function have been investigated, and the noise, induced in the correlation signal by cosmic radiation, neutral pion decay, and γ-conversion, has also been estimated. ((orig.))

  15. Uncertainty formulations for multislit interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniok, Johannes C. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the context of (far-field) multislit interferometry we investigate the utility of two formulations of uncertainty in accounting for the complementarity of spatial localization and fringe width. We begin with a characterization of the relevant observables and general considerations regarding the suitability of different types of measures. The detailed analysis shows that both of the discussed uncertainty formulations yield qualitatively similar results, confirming that they correctly capture the relevant tradeoff. One approach, based on an idea of Aharonov and co-workers, is intuitively appealing and relies on a modification of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. The other approach, developed by Uffink and Hilgevoord for single- and double-slit experiments, is readily applied to multislits. However, it is found that one of the underlying concepts requires generalization and that the choice of the parameters requires more consideration than was known.

  16. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  17. Two particle interferometry at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Laue, F

    2002-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a pion interferometry analysis of Au+Au collisions at square root (S/sub NN/)=130 GeV, recorded with the STAR (Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC) detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The evaluation of three-dimensional correlation functions indicates increasing source sizes with increasing event centrality. The dependence of the calculated HBT radii on transverse momentum is attributed to strong space-momentum correlations (transverse flow). In the study presented in this paper we have not observed anomalously large source sizes as have been predicted as a signal for quark-qluon plasma formation. However, the measured HBT radii seem to follow the trend established at lower energies (AGS/SPS). We find the ratio R/sub o//R/sub s/ approximately =1, suggesting a short duration of pion emission. The "universal" pion phase space density, observed at AGS/SPS, seems to hold also at RHIC. (26 refs).

  18. Novel Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polarimetric radar interferometry (PolInSAR) is a new SAR imaging mode that is rapidly becoming an important technique for bare earth topographic mapping, tree...

  19. Some applications of holographic interferometry in biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeni, Jean P. L.

    1992-03-01

    Holographic interferometry is well adapted for the determination of 2D strain fields in osseous structures. The knowledge of those strain fields is important for the understanding of structure behavior such as arthrosis.

  20. Novel Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Algorithms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polarimetric SAR interferometry (PolInSAR) is a recently developed synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mode that combines the capabilities of radar polarimetry...

  1. Fundamental physics research and neutron interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioffe, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The possibility of the use of an extremely sensitive neutron interferometry technique for the study of electromagnetic structure of the neutron and the parity non-conservative effects in neutron spin rotation is discussed. (author)

  2. Planar Integrated Optics and astronomical interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Pierre; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Haguenauer, Pierre; Malbet, Fabien; Perraut, Karine

    2001-01-01

    16 pages Integrated optics (IO) is an optical technology that allows to reproduce optical circuits on a planar substrate. Since 1996, we have investigated the potentiality of IO in the framework of astronomical single mode interferometry. We review in this paper the principles of IO, the requirements for interferometry and the corresponding solutions offered by IO, the results of component characterization and the possible fields of application.

  3. Spectral modulation interferometry for quantitative phase imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Ruibo; Chen, Shichao; Li, Chengshuai; Zhu, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    We propose a spectral-domain interferometric technique, termed spectral modulation interferometry (SMI), and present its application to high-sensitivity, high-speed, and speckle-free quantitative phase imaging. In SMI, one-dimensional complex field of an object is interferometrically modulated onto a broadband spectrum. Full-field phase and intensity images are obtained by scanning along the orthogonal direction. SMI integrates the high sensitivity of spectral-domain interferometry with the h...

  4. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  5. The physics of Hanbury Brown-Twiss intensity interferometry from stars to nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1950's Hanbury Brown and Twiss showed that one could measure the angular sizes of astronomical radio sources and stars from correlations of signal intensities, rather than amplitudes, in independent detectors. Their subsequent correlation experiments demonstrating quantum bunching of photons in incoherent light beams were seminal in the development of quantum optics. Since that time the technique of intensity interferometry has become a valuable probe of high energy nuclear and particle collisions, providing information on the space-time geometry of the collision. The effect is one of the few measurements in elementary particle detection that depends on the wave mechanics of the produced particles. Here we discuss the basic physics of intensity interferometry, and its current applications in high energy nuclear physics, as well as recent applications in condensed matter and atomic physics. (author)

  6. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  7. Results of Infrasound Interferometry in Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, J. T.; Ruigrok, E. N.; Evers, L. G.; Simons, D. G.; Wapenaar, K.

    2012-04-01

    The travel time of infrasound through the atmosphere depends on the temperature and the wind. These atmospheric conditions could be estimated by measuring the travel times between different receivers (microbarometers). For such an estimation an inverse model of the propagation of infrasound through the atmosphere is essential. In the first step it is useful to build a forward model. The inputs of our raytracing model are the atmospheric conditions and the positions of source and receiver. The model consists of three elements the source, the channel and the receiver. The source is a blast wave or microbaroms. The channel is the atmosphere and it takes into account the travel time along the eigen ray, the attenuation of the different atmospheric layers, the spreading of the rays and the influence of caustics. Each receiver is reached by different rays (eigen rays). To determine the eigen rays is part of the receiver element. As output the model generates synthetic barograms. The synthetic barograms can be used to explain measured barograms. Furthermore the synthetic barograms can also be used to evaluate the determination of the travel time. The accurate travel time is for the inverse model as input essential. Since small changes of the travel time lead to big changes of the output (temperature and wind). The travel time between two receivers is determined by crosscorrelating the barograms of these two receivers. This technique was already successfully applied in the troposphere (Haney, 2009). We show that the same can be achieved with more complicated stratospheric phases. Now we compare the crosscorrelation of synthetic barograms with the crosscorrelation of measured barograms. These barograms are measured with the 'Large Aperture Infrasound Array' (LAIA). LAIA is being installed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in the framework of the radio-astronomical 'Low Frequency Array' (LOFAR) initiative. LAIA will consist of thirty microbarometers

  8. Theory of supervirtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Bharadwaj, Pawan

    2012-01-01

    Inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution by refraction traveltime tomography is a well-accepted imaging method by both the exploration and earthquake seismology communities. A significant drawback, however, is that the recorded traces become noisier with increasing offset from the source position, and so accurate picking of traveltimes in far-offset traces is often prevented. To enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the far-offset traces, we present the theory of supervirtual refraction interferometry where the SNR of far-offset head-wave arrivals can be theoretically increased by a factor proportional to; here, N is the number of receiver or source positions associated with the recording and generation of the head-wave arrival. There are two steps to this methodology: correlation and summation of the data to generate traces with virtual head-wave arrivals, followed by the convolution of the data with the virtual traces to create traces with supervirtual head-wave arrivals. This method is valid for any medium that generates head-wave arrivals recorded by the geophones. Results with both synthetic traces and field data demonstrate the feasibility of this method. There are at least four significant benefits of supervirtual interferometry: (1) an enhanced SNR of far-offset traces so the first-arrival traveltimes of the noisy far-offset traces can be more reliably picked to extend the useful aperture of the data, (2) the SNR of head waves in a trace that arrive later than the first arrival can be enhanced for accurate traveltime picking and subsequent inversion by later-arrival traveltime tomography, (3) common receiver-pair gathers can be analysed to detect the presence of diving waves in the first arrivals, which can be used to assess the nature of the refracting boundary, and (4) the source statics term is eliminated in the correlation operations so that the timing of the virtual traces is independent of the source excitation time. This suggests the

  9. Enhancing GLAST Science Through Complementary Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, James S.

    2006-12-01

    Radio astronomical observations with state-of-the-art instrumentation will be critical for achieving the maximum science return from the GLAST mission. Radio nterferometers with baselines of thousands of kilometers, such as the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), will provide sub-milliarcsecond imaging of GLAST blazars. High-frequency VLBA imaging, repeatable at intervals of days to weeks, will image the region where gamma-ray flares occur in blazars and help determine the location of the gamma-ray emission. Multi-frequency arcsecond-scale imaging with interferometers having baselines of one to tens of kilometers, particularly the Very Large Array, will provide efficient discrimination among the candidates for unidentified gamma-ray sources. Pulsar timing with single-dish radio telescopes such as the Green Bank Telescope will enable accurate registration of gamma-ray photons with pulsar ephemerides for studies of the pulsar emission mechanisms. Along with these contemporaneous radio/GLAST observing programs, we will discuss briefly some of the recent radio programs that have been conducted in preparation for GLAST launch. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  10. UWB Cognitive Radios

    OpenAIRE

    Kandeepan, Sithamparanathan; BALDINI Gianmarco; Piesiewicz, Radoslaw

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we present UWB communication as a potential candidate for cognitive radio technology. Cognitive radios are intelligent radios that could adopt itself by sensing and learning the radio environment and optimize its transmission strategies to maximize the utilization of the scarce radio resources such as the radio spectrum. This has been motivated by the radio regulatory bodies around the world (EC, 2007; FCC, 2003) to utilize unused radio spectrum known as white s...

  11. Advances in space-borne SAR interferometry and its application to ground deformation monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen-guo; BIAN Zheng-fu

    2011-01-01

    The development of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (D-InSAR), in terms of its evolution from classic to advanced forms, such as Least-Squares approach, Permanent Scatterer Interferometry, Small Baseline Subset, and Coherent Pixel Technique, is reviewed, describing concisely the main principles of each method and highlighting the difference and relationship between them. Applications of InSAR technology in China were then introduced, together with the obstacles to overcome and feasible strategies, such as integrating MERIS/MODIS data to compensate for the atmospheric effect and GPS, and multi-platform SAR data to make InSAR technique practical and operational under various conditions. The latest developments were then analyzed along with high-quality SAR data, available thanks to the newly launched high-tech satellites, TerraSAR-X, and Cosmo Sky-med, and conclusions were drawn about the main limitations of the technique.

  12. Interferometry on a Balloon; Paving the Way for Space-based Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission, and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The relatively low angular resolution of these missions, however, is insufficient to resolve the physical scale on which mid-to-far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths- a powerful tool for scientific discovery. We will build the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII), an eight-meter baseline Michelson stellar interferometer to fly on a high-altitude balloon. BETTII's spectral-spatial capability, provided by an instrument using double-Fourier techniques, will address key questions about the nature of disks in young star clusters and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the technological groundwork for future space interferometers.

  13. Radio Variability of Radio Quiet and Radio Loud Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Barvainis, Richard; Lehar, Joseph; Birkinshaw, Mark; Falke, Heino; Blundell, Katherine M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of quasars are weak in their radio emission, with flux densities comparable to those in the optical, and energies far lower. A small fraction, about 10%, are hundreds to thousands of times stronger in the radio. Conventional wisdom holds that there are two classes of quasars, the radio quiets and radio louds, with a deficit of sources having intermediate power. Are there really two separate populations, and if so, is the physics of the radio emission fundamentally different betwe...

  14. Structural influences on intensity interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Arup; Harris, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Intensity interferometry (II) is an alternate form of creating images of distant objects. It is significantly less sensitive to atmospheric distortions and aberrations of telescope surfaces than conventional amplitude-based imaging. The deficiencies of II can be overcome as photodetectors' read-out rates are becoming faster and computers more powerful. In recognition of the possibility of very large space-based imaging systems, this paper investigates how the deformation of a large, thin optical surface would influence the accuracy of II. Based on the theoretical foundation of II, an optical ray-tracing algorithm was used to examine how the statistics of a photon stream changes from the source to the detector. Ray-tracing and finite element analyses of the structure were thereafter integrated to quantify how the correlation of the intensity field changes as the reflective structure deforms. Varying the positions of the detector from the focal plane and the surface profile of the mirror provided an understanding and quantification of how the various scenarios affect the statistics of the detected light and the correlation measurement. This research and analysis provide the means to quantify how structural perturbations of focal mirrors affect the statistics of photon stream detections inherent in II instrumentation.

  15. Effects of collective flow on two pion interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of collective flow on two pion interferometry is studied using two pion interferometry at small relative momentum. The analytical relation between the apparent radius and real radius of the pion source is given

  16. Using the Very Long Baseline Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, J. M.

    1999-05-01

    The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) is a user facility run by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Many AAS members currently use the VLBA to study astrophysical topics as diverse as gamma-ray blazars, gravitational lenses, black holes in nearby galaxies, astrometry of pulsars and stellar companions, supernova evolution, magnetic fields in stellar atmospheres, and molecules and atoms in active galaxies. Numerous examples of such studies will be presented at this meeting and many other examples appear in ``Radio Emission from Galactic and Extragalactic Compact Sources'' (1998, ASP Conference Series, Volume 144, eds. J.A. Zensus, G.B. Taylor, and J.M. Wrobel). This talk has three parts. (1) I will briefly summarize the VLBA's capabilities, so potential observers can asses the suitability of the VLBA as a tool for their research and so theorists can become familiar with the parameter space probed with VLBA observations. (2) I will offer guidelines for preparing technically sound proposals to the NRAO for observing time on the VLBA and will describe the proposal process. (3) I will summarize some strategies for VLBA observers to help them optimize the scientific return from their observations, especially when those observations involve phase referencing, polarimetry, surveys, or spectroscopy. The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. The SFXC software correlator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry: Algorithms and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Keimpema, A; Pogrebenko, S V; Campbell, R M; Cimó, G; Duev, D A; Eldering, B; Kruithof, N; van Langevelde, H J; Marchal, D; Calvés, G Molera; Ozdemir, H; Paragi, Z; Pidopryhora, Y; Szomoru, A; Yang, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a description is given of the SFXC software correlator, developed and maintained at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). The software is designed to run on generic Linux-based computing clusters. The correlation algorithm is explained in detail, as are some of the novel modes that software correlation has enabled, such as wide-field VLBI imaging through the use of multiple phase centres and pulsar gating and binning. This is followed by an overview of the software architecture. Finally, the performance of the correlator as a function of number of CPU cores, telescopes and spectral channels is shown.

  18. The SFXC software correlator for very long baseline interferometry: algorithms and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keimpema, A.; Kettenis, M. M.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Campbell, R. M.; Cimó, G.; Duev, D. A.; Eldering, B.; Kruithof, N.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Marchal, D.; Molera Calvés, G.; Ozdemir, H.; Paragi, Z.; Pidopryhora, Y.; Szomoru, A.; Yang, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a description is given of the SFXC software correlator, developed and maintained at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). The software is designed to run on generic Linux-based computing clusters. The correlation algorithm is explained in detail, as are some of the novel modes that software correlation has enabled, such as wide-field VLBI imaging through the use of multiple phase centres and pulsar gating and binning. This is followed by an overview of the software architecture. Finally, the performance of the correlator as a function of number of CPU cores, telescopes and spectral channels is shown.

  19. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  20. Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Spatial-Spectral Image Synthesis Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Leisawitz, David T.; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Developed is an algorithmic approach for wide field of view interferometric spatial-spectral image synthesis. The data collected from the interferometer consists of a set of double-Fourier image data cubes, one cube per baseline. These cubes are each three-dimensional consisting of arrays of two-dimensional detector counts versus delay line position. For each baseline a moving delay line allows collection of a large set of interferograms over the 2D wide field detector grid; one sampled interferogram per detector pixel per baseline. This aggregate set of interferograms, is algorithmically processed to construct a single spatial-spectral cube with angular resolution approaching the ratio of the wavelength to longest baseline. The wide field imaging is accomplished by insuring that the range of motion of the delay line encompasses the zero optical path difference fringe for each detector pixel in the desired field-of-view. Each baseline cube is incoherent relative to all other baseline cubes and thus has only phase information relative to itself. This lost phase information is recovered by having point, or otherwise known, sources within the field-of-view. The reference source phase is known and utilized as a constraint to recover the coherent phase relation between the baseline cubes and is key to the image synthesis. Described will be the mathematical formalism, with phase referencing and results will be shown using data collected from NASA/GSFC Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT).

  1. Program cost and schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall purpose of cost and schedule baseline management is to ensure that the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program's cost and schedule plan are controlled in an orderly, efficient, and documented manner. Baseline control of the Program's cost and schedule will result in changes that only take place with OCRWM senior management approval, by way of the change control process. The Program Management System (PMS) Manual describes how the Program Cost and Schedule Baseline (PCSB) is integrated into the OCRWM management system. This PCSB document identifies the components of Program cost and schedule that will be subject to change control by DOE-Headquarters and establishes their baseline values. This document also summarizes the management components of the cost and schedule baseline, including reporting, monitoring, and corrective action. Detailed PCSB reporting, monitoring, and corrective action procedures will be issued as an Office of Program Administration and Resource Management (OPARM) administrative procedure. 9 figs

  2. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  3. Compressed sensing for radio interferometric imaging: review and future direction

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D

    2011-01-01

    Radio interferometry is a powerful technique for astronomical imaging. The theory of Compressed Sensing (CS) has been applied recently to the ill-posed inverse problem of recovering images from the measurements taken by radio interferometric telescopes. We review novel CS radio interferometric imaging techniques, both at the level of acquisition and reconstruction, and discuss their superior performance relative to traditional approaches. In order to remain as close to the theory of CS as possible, these techniques necessarily consider idealised interferometric configurations. To realise the enhancement in quality provided by these novel techniques on real radio interferometric observations, their extension to realistic interferometric configurations is now of considerable importance. We also chart the future direction of research required to achieve this goal.

  4. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  5. Demonstration of X-ray talbot interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Momose, A; Kawamoto, S; Hamaishi, Y; Takai, K; Suzuki, Y

    2003-01-01

    First Talbot interferometry in the hard X-ray region was demonstrated using a pair of transmission gratings made by forming gold stripes on glass plates. By aligning the gratings on the optical axis of X-rays with a separation that caused the Talbot effect by the first grating, moire fringes were produced inclining one grating slightly against the other around the optical axis. A phase object placed in front of the first grating was detected by moire-fringe bending. Using the technique of phase-shifting interferometry, the differential phase corresponding to the phase object could also be measured. This result suggests that X-ray Talbot interferometry is a novel and simple method for phase-sensitive X-ray radiography. (author)

  6. Optical Intensity Interferometry through Atmospheric Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Peng Kian; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrowband spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photon detectors (APDs), the Solar $g^{(2)}(\\tau)$ signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of $g^{(2)}(\\tau) = 1.693 \\pm 0.003$ from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement scheme...

  7. Hadronic interferometry in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of intensity interferometry is to learn about the lifetime of the fireball created in heavy-ion collisions. From this information, it should be possible to further understand the possible formation of quark-gluon plasma. At unrelativistic energies, present interest is focused on two-pion correlations. At intermediate energies, the two-proton interferometry technique is the main topic of review. Recent experiments have been able to yield quantitative information regarding the space-time extensin of nuclear reactions. This review focuses on both the theoretical basis for hadronic interferometry as well as the experimental determination of correlation functions and their calculation via nuclear transport theory. 170 refs., 6 figs

  8. Samuel A. Werner Pioneer of Neutron Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1975, Sam Werner and his collaborators on the staff of the Scientific Laboratory of the Ford Motor Company carried out one of the pioneering experiments in neutron interferometry at the 2MW University of Michigan research reactor. It was the famous COW Experiment on gravitationally induced quantum interference. Shortly thereafter he moved to the University of Missouri in Columbia, to set up a program of neutron scattering research, including neutron interferometry. In the 25 years until his retirement a large number of beautiful experiments have been performed by Sam, with his group, his numerous students and many international collaborators. The Interferometry and Coherence session at this conference has been organized in his honour and the collected papers presented by his friends, collaborators and former students form his Festschrift. (author)

  9. Demonstration of X-ray talbot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First Talbot interferometry in the hard X-ray region was demonstrated using a pair of transmission gratings made by forming gold stripes on glass plates. By aligning the gratings on the optical axis of X-rays with a separation that caused the Talbot effect by the first grating, moire fringes were produced inclining one grating slightly against the other around the optical axis. A phase object placed in front of the first grating was detected by moire-fringe bending. Using the technique of phase-shifting interferometry, the differential phase corresponding to the phase object could also be measured. This result suggests that X-ray Talbot interferometry is a novel and simple method for phase-sensitive X-ray radiography. (author)

  10. Pion and kaon interferometry of nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study complex reactions, the simple space-time interpretation of pion interferometry often breaks down due to strong correlations between spatial and momentum coordinates. In those cases, pion interferometry is still useful as a complementary test of specific dynamic models, but a refined formalism must be used, as discussed in the introduction. With this formalism, we show that recent NA35 data on O + Au → π-π- + X at 200 AGeV are consistent with both hadronic resonance and quark-gluon plasma models for this reaction. The sensitivity of the outward and sideward transverse projected correlation function for pions is investigated. Finally, we compare pion and kaon interferometry predictions of these two models. 31 refs., 3 figs

  11. Radio Telescopes' Precise Measurements Yield Rich Scientific Payoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Having the sharpest pictures always is a big advantage, and a sophisticated radio-astronomy technique using continent-wide and even intercontinental arrays of telescopes is yielding extremely valuable scientific results in a wide range of specialties. That's the message delivered to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, Texas, by Mark Reid of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, a leading researcher in the field of ultra-precise astronomical position measurements. Very Long Baseline Interferometry provides extremely high precision that can extend use of the parallax technique to many more celestial objects. Parallax is a direct means of measuring cosmic distances by detecting the slight shift in an object’s apparent position in the sky caused by Earth’s orbital motion. Credit: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF "Using radio telescopes, we are measuring distances and motions of celestial bodies with unprecedented accuracy. That's helping us better understand many processes ranging from star formation to the scale of the entire Universe," Reid said. The observing technique, called Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), was pioneered in 1967, but has come into continuous use only in the past 10-15 years. The National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of 10 radio-telescope antennas ranging from Hawaii to the Caribbean, was dedicated in 1993. There are other VLBI systems in Europe and Asia, and large radio telescopes around the world cooperate regularly to increase sensitivity. VLBI observations routinely produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those made at visible-light wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope. Several groups of researchers from across the globe use the VLBA to study stellar nurseries in our own Milky Way Galaxy and measure distances to regions where new stars are forming. The key has been to improve measurement accuracy to a factor of a hundred times better than that produced by the

  12. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  13. Parasitic interference in nulling interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, A.; Defrère, D.; Danchi, W. C.; Lopez, B.; Absil, O.

    2013-05-01

    Nulling interferometry aims to detect faint objects close to bright stars. Its principle is to produce a destructive interference along the line of sight so that the stellar flux is rejected, while the flux of the off-axis source can be transmitted. In practice, various instrumental perturbations can degrade the nulling performance. Any imperfection in phase, amplitude or polarization produces a spurious flux that leaks to the interferometer output and corrupts the transmitted off-axis flux. One of these instrumental perturbations is the crosstalk phenomenon, which occurs because of multiple parasitic reflections inside transmitting optics, and/or diffraction effects related to beam propagation along finite size optics. It can include a crosstalk of a beam with itself, and a mutual crosstalk between different beams. This can create a parasitic interference pattern, which degrades the intrinsic transmission map - or intensity response - of the interferometer. In this context, we describe how this instrumental effect impairs the performance of a Bracewell interferometer. A simple formalism is developed to derive the corresponding modified intensity response of the interferometer, as a function of the two parameters of interest: the crosstalk level (or contamination rate) and the phase shift between the primary and secondary - parasitic - beams. We then apply our mathematical approach to a few scientific cases, both analytically and using the GENIESIM simulation software, adapted to handle coherent crosstalk. Our results show that a coherent crosstalk level of about 1 per cent implies a 20 per cent drop of the signal-to-noise ratio at most. Careful attention should thus be paid to reduce the crosstalk level inside an interferometric instrument and ensure an instrumental stability that provides the necessary sensitivity through calibration procedures.

  14. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  15. Altimetry Using GPS-Reflection/Occultation Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellach, Estel; DeLaTorre, Manuel; Hajj, George A.; Ao, Chi

    2008-01-01

    A Global Positioning System (GPS)- reflection/occultation interferometry was examined as a means of altimetry of water and ice surfaces in polar regions. In GPS-reflection/occultation interferometry, a GPS receiver aboard a satellite in a low orbit around the Earth is used to determine the temporally varying carrier- phase delay between (1) one component of a signal from a GPS transmitter propagating directly through the atmosphere just as the GPS transmitter falls below the horizon and (2) another component of the same signal, propagating along a slightly different path, reflected at glancing incidence upon the water or ice surface.

  16. Advances in Small-Telescope Speckle Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David J.

    2016-06-01

    The current revolution in CMOS camera technology has enabled a new generation of small telescope systems targeted at the measurement of close binary systems using the techniques of speckle interferometry and bispectrum analysis. These inexpensive, ultra-sensitive, high resolution cameras are now outperforming CCD technology, and come at a truly affordable price. In addition, dedicated, user-friendly speckle interferometry reduction software has been developed for the amateur, making it easy to perform the otherwise complicated data processing tasks. This talk will address these recent advances in hardware and software, and describe some of the results of the informal amateur-professional collaboration that has formed around them.

  17. Numerical simulations of imaging satellites with optical interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuanyuan; Wang, Chaoyan; Chen, Zhendong

    2015-08-01

    Optical interferometry imaging system, which is composed of multiple sub-apertures, is a type of sensor that can break through the aperture limit and realize the high resolution imaging. This technique can be utilized to precisely measure the shapes, sizes and position of astronomical objects and satellites, it also can realize to space exploration and space debris, satellite monitoring and survey. Fizeau-Type optical aperture synthesis telescope has the advantage of short baselines, common mount and multiple sub-apertures, so it is feasible for instantaneous direct imaging through focal plane combination.Since 2002, the researchers of Shanghai Astronomical Observatory have developed the study of optical interferometry technique. For array configurations, there are two optimal array configurations proposed instead of the symmetrical circular distribution: the asymmetrical circular distribution and the Y-type distribution. On this basis, two kinds of structure were proposed based on Fizeau interferometric telescope. One is Y-type independent sub-aperture telescope, the other one is segmented mirrors telescope with common secondary mirror.In this paper, we will give the description of interferometric telescope and image acquisition. Then we will mainly concerned the simulations of image restoration based on Y-type telescope and segmented mirrors telescope. The Richardson-Lucy (RL) method, Winner method and the Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OS-EM) method are studied in this paper. We will analyze the influence of different stop rules too. At the last of the paper, we will present the reconstruction results of images of some satellites.

  18. The parsec-scale structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, G.; Dallacasa, D.; Mack, K.-H.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Holt, J.; Jiménez-Luján, F.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Broad absorption line quasars (BAL QSOs) belong to a class of objects not well-understood as yet. Their UV spectra show BALs in the blue wings of the UV resonance lines, owing to ionized gas with outflow velocities up to 0.2 c. They can have radio emission that is difficult to characterize and that needs to be studied at various wavelengths and resolutions. Aims: We aim to study the pc-scale properties of their synchrotron emission and, in particular, to determine their core properties. Methods: We performed observations in the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique, using both the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5 GHz, and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz to map the pc-scale structure of the brightest radio-loud objects of our sample, allowing a proper morphological interpretation. Results: A variety of morphologies have been found: 9 BAL QSOs on a total of 11 observed sources have a resolved structure. Core-jet, double, and symmetric objects are present, suggesting different orientations. In some cases the sources can be young GPS or CSS. The projected linear size of the sources, also considering observations from our previous work for the same objects, can vary from tens of pc to hundreds of kpc. In some cases, a diffuse emission can be supposed from the missing flux-density with respect to previous lower resolution observations. Finally, the magnetic field strength does not significantly differ from the values found in the literature for radio sources with similar sizes. Conclusions: These results are not easily interpreted with the youth scenario for BAL QSOs, in which they are generally compact objects still expelling a dust cocoon. The variety of orientations, morphologies, and extensions found are presumably related to different possible angles for the BAL producing outflows, with respect to the jet axis. Moreover, the phenomenon could be present in various phases of the QSO evolution. Table 3 is available in

  19. Cold neutron interferometry and its application. 2. Coherency and cold neutron spin interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second workshop entitled 'Interference studies and cold neutron spin interferometry' was held on 10 and 11 March 1998 at KUR (Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, Kumatori). Cold neutron spin interferometry is a new field. So it is very important for its development to learn the studies of X-ray and neutron optics which are rapidly developing with long history. In the workshop, the issues related to interference were reviewed such as experimental studies on cold neutron spin interferometry, theoretical and experimental approach on tunneling time, interference experiments by neutrons and its application, interference studies using synchrotron radiation, topics on silicon interferometry and quantum measurement problem and cold neutron interference experiment related to quantum measurement problem. The 8 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Interferometry in astrophysics as a roadmap for interferometry in multiparticle dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gurvits, L.I.

    2001-01-01

    Interferometry is one of the most powerful experimental tools of modern astrophysics. Some of its methods are considered in view of potential applicability to studies of correlations in multiparticle dynamics.

  1. Radio evolution of supernova SN 2008iz in M 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, N.; Sendlinger, K.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Henkel, C.; Falcke, H.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Beswick, R. J.; Bower, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    We report on multi-frequency Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) radio observations for a monitoring campaign of supernova SN 2008iz in the nearby irregular galaxy M 82. We fit two models to the data, a simple time power-law, S ∝ tβ, and a simplified Weiler model, yielding decline indices of β = -1.22 ± 0.07 (days 100-1500) and -1.41 ± 0.02 (days 76-2167), respectively. The late-time radio light-curve evolution shows flux-density flares at ~970 and ~1400 days that are a factor of ~2 and ~4 higher than the expected flux, respectively. The later flare, except for being brighter, does not show signs of decline at least from results examined so far (2014 January 23; day 2167). We derive the spectral index, α, S ∝ να for frequencies 1.4 to 43 GHz for SN 2008iz during the period from ~430 to 2167 days after the supernova explosion. The value of α shows no signs of evolution and remains steep ≈-1 throughout the period, unlike that of SN 1993J, which started flattening at ~day 970. From the 4.8 and 8.4 GHz VLBI images, the supernova expansion is seen to start with a shell-like structure that becomes increasingly more asymmetric, then breaks up in the later epochs, with bright structures dominating the southern part of the ring. This structural evolution differs significantly from SN 1993J, which remains circularly symmetric over 4000 days after the explosion. The VLBI 4.8 and 8.4 GHz images are used to derive a deceleration index, m, for SN 2008iz, of 0.86 ± 0.02, and the average expansion velocity between days 73 and 1400 as (12.1 ± 0.2) × 103 km s-1. From the energy equipartition between magnetic field and particles, we estimate the minimum total energy in relativistic particles and the magnetic fields during the supernova expansion and also find the magnetic field amplification factor for SN 2008iz to be in the range of 55-400. The VLBI images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  2. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  3. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  4. Learning to Baseline Business Technology

    OpenAIRE

    David Gore; Marie D. Lee; Kimberly Hopper

    2013-01-01

    bills, sign multi-­‐year contracts, and make purchasing decisions without having an overall technology plan. That plan includes a technology baseline to fully assess existing technology. A CIO's goal is to align IT with business goals. Businesses must know total cost of ownership and the return on investment for all technology purchases and monthly costs. A business must also be able to manage technology assets and best utilize resources across the business. Teaching students to baseline tech...

  5. Design and Status of the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII): An Interferometer at the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.; Barclay, Richard B.; Barry, R. K.; Benford, D. J.; Calhoun, P. C.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gorman, E. T.; Jackson, M. L.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Maher, S. F.; Mentzell, J. E.; Mundy, L. G.; Rizzo, M. J.; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII) is an 8-meter baseline far-infraredinterferometer designed to fly on a high altitude balloon. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer tosimultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline permits subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities. Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers.

  6. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  7. Airborne Repeat Pass Interferometry for Deformation Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.; Otten, M.; Halsema, E. van

    2000-01-01

    In ground engineering the need for deformation measurements is urgent. SAR interferometry can be used to measure small (sub-wavelength) deformations. An experiment to investigate this for dike deformations was set up, using the C-band SAR system PHARUS (PHased ARray Universal SAR). This paper descri

  8. Detection of deoxynivalenol using biolayer interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolayer interferometry allows for the real time monitoring of the interactions between molecules without the need for reagents with enzymatic, fluorescent, or radioactive labels. The technology is based upon the changes in interference pattern of light reflected from the surface of an optical fiber...

  9. Evolving radio structure of the binary star SS433 at a resolution of 15 marc s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive series of VLBI (very-long-baseline interferometry) observations of SS433, carried out over an 11-day period on the European VLBI Network at 5 GHz, reveals the motion and evolution of a series of faint 'blobs' ejected from the system. These blobs are observed to brighten at a substantial distance from the binary star. (author)

  10. An overview of VHF lightning observations by digital interferometry from ISS/JEM-GLIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Mitsuteru; Ushio, Tomoo; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Makoto; Ishida, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Kazuya; Hobara, Yasuhide; Sano, Takuki; Abe, Takumi; Kawasaki, Zen-Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    The Global Lightning and sprIte MeasurementS (GLIMS) mission has been conducted at the Exposed Facility of Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station for more than 30 months. This paper focuses on an electromagnetic (EM) payload of JEM-GLIMS mission, the very high frequency (VHF) broadband digital InTerFerometer (VITF). The JEM-GLIMS mission is designed to conduct comprehensive observations with both EM and optical payloads for lightning activities and related transient luminous events. Its nominal operation continued from November 2012 to December 2014. The extended operation followed for eight months. Through the operation period, the VITF collected more than two million VHF EM waveforms in almost 18,700 datasets. The number of VITF observations synchronized with optical signal is 8049. Active VHF radiations are detected in about 70 % of optical observations without obvious regional or seasonal dependency. Estimations of the EM direction-of-arrival (DOA) are attempted using the broadband digital interferometry. Some results agree with the optical observations, even though DOA estimation is problematic because of a very short antenna baseline and multiple pulses over a short time period, namely burst-type EM waveforms. The world's first lightning observations by means of space-borne VHF interferometry are achieved in this mission. This paper summarizes VITF instruments, the recorded VHF EM signals, and the results of DOA estimations by means of digital interferometry as a preliminary report after termination of the mission.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. First results from VLTI near-infrared interferometry on high-mass young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Stefan; Menten, Karl; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Meilland, Anthony; Perraut, Karine; Petrov, Romain; Robbe-Dubois, Sylvie; Schilke, Peter; Testi, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent dramatic technological advances, infrared interferometry can now be applied to new classes of objects, resulting in exciting new science prospects, for instance, in the area of high-mass star formation. Although extensively studied at various wavelengths, the process through which massive stars form is still only poorly understood. For instance, it has been proposed that massive stars might form like low-mass stars by mass accretion through a circumstellar disk/envelope, or otherwise by coalescence in a dense stellar cluster. After discussing the technological challenges which result from the special properties of these objects, we present first near-infrared interferometric observations, which we obtained on the massive YSO IRAS 13481-6124 using VLTI/AMBER infrared long-baseline interferometry and NTT speckle interferometry. From our extensive data set, we reconstruct a model-independent aperture synthesis image which shows an elongated structure with a size of 13x19 AU, consistent with a d...

  12. Web-based Teaching Radio Interferometer for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-08-01

    Practical training for the future use of the African VLBI Network (AVN) or any VLBI experiment starts by understanding the basic principles of radio observations and radio interferometry. The aim of this project is to build a basic interferometer that could be used remotely via a web interface from any country on the African continent. This should turn out as a much less expensive and much more efficient way to train AVN researchers from SKA partner countries to the principles of radio astronomy and to interferometric data analysis. The idea is based on the very successful EUHOU (European Hands-On Universe) already very successful in Europe. The former EUHOU manager, Dr Yannick Liebert, arrived for a 3 years postdoc with Prof Claude Carignan at the University of Cape Town to implement the same project on the African continent (AHI: African Hands-on Interferometry). Besides the use of AHI for the AVN researchers, this web-based system could be used be any undergraduate program on radio astronomical techniques across the African continent as the EUHOU is used all across Europe.

  13. Geodesy and astrometry by transatlantic long base line interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report geodetic and astrometric results from the analysis of fringe frequency observations from a series of three long base line interferometry (LBI) experiments carried out in 1973 between the 46-m antenna of the Algonquin Radio Observatory, Lake Traverse, Canada, and the 25-m antenna at Chilbolton Field Station, Chilbolton, England. The rms deviation from the mean of the estimates of the length and orientation of the 5251-km equatorial component of the base line from all three experiments is 1.05-m and 0.015'', respectively. The experiments also yielded positions of five extragalactic radio sources. The reported positions, each of which is from only a single experiment, have uncertainties of about 0.2'' in declination (except for low declination sources) and about 0.01 s in right ascension. The LBI determination of the length and orientation of the equatorial component of the base line is compared to the corresponding values derived from Naval Weapons Laboratory 9D (NWL-9D) coorinates for the antennae. The two length measurements agree in scale within quoted experimental errors; however, the NWL-9D coordinate frame is found to be rotated 0.867'' +- 0.1'' to the east relative to the average terrestrial frame of the Bureau Internationale de l'Heure (BIH),(LBI coordinate frame). This is in good agreement with the expected misalignment of 0.65'' +- 0.2''. The differences in the rates of the clocks used at each end of the base line were also determined and compared to Loran-C observations

  14. Looking to the future: using IR interferometry to study microquasars

    CERN Document Server

    Markoff, Sera

    2008-01-01

    Infrared interferometry is currently in a rapid development phase, with new instrumentation soon achieving milliarcsecond spatial resolutions for faint sources and astrometry on the order of 10 microarcseconds. For jet studies in particular, the next generation of instruments will bring us closer to the event horizon of supermassive black holes such as Sgr A*, and the region where jet launching must occur. But a new possibility to study microquasars in general and jet physics in particular may also arise, using techniques similar to those employed for finding faint exoplanets around stars. The compact, steady jets observed in the hard state of X-ray binaries display a flat/inverted spectrum from the lower radio wavelengths up through at least the far-IR band. Somewhere above this band, a turnover is predicted where the jets become optically thin, revealing a power-law spectrum. This break may have been observed directly in GX339-4, but in most sources such a feature is likely hidden under bright emission from...

  15. Radios Online

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Zapata, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do grau de mestre em Ciências da Comunicação, especialização em Jornalismo A través de este trabajo se investiga la forma en la que el fenómeno de la tecnología online influye en un medio de origen tradicional como es la radio y las consecuencias de una transición mediática sin precedentes. Realizando una visión histórica y analítica del desarrollo tecnológico en relación con los me...

  16. Radio emission from radio-quiet quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a search for radio emission from bright, optically selected quasars at 5 GHz are reported. The work was initiated to examine the distribution of radio - to -optical luminosity ratios and also, by optical and IR photometry, to seek correlations between IR - optical properties and radio emission. It is shown that quasars of bright apparent magnitude exhibit a significantly higher incidence of radio emission than would be expected on the basis of a scaling of detection thresholds. (UK)

  17. Radio VLBI and the quantum interference paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    We address here the question of interference of radio signals from astronomical sources like distant quasars, in a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI), where two (or more) distantly located radio telescopes (apertures), receive simultaneous signal from the sky. In an equivalent optical two-slit experiment, it is generally argued that for the photons involved in the interference pattern on the screen, it is not possible, even in principle, to ascertain which of the two slits a particular photon went through. It is argued that any procedure to ascertain this destroys the interference pattern. But in the case of the modern radio VLBI, it is a routine matter to record the phase and amplitude of the voltage outputs from the two radio antennas on a recording media separately and then do the correlation between the two recorded signals later in an offline manner. Does this not violate the quantum interference principle? We provide a resolution of this problem here.

  18. Developing RESRAD-BASELINE for environmental baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RESRAD-BASELINE is a computer code developed at Argonne developed at Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform both radiological and chemical risk assessments. The code implements the baseline risk assessment guidance of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1989). The computer code calculates (1) radiation doses and cancer risks from exposure to radioactive materials, and (2) hazard indexes and cancer risks from exposure to noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic chemicals, respectively. The user can enter measured or predicted environmental media concentrations from the graphic interface and can simulate different exposure scenarios by selecting the appropriate pathways and modifying the exposure parameters. The database used by PESRAD-BASELINE includes dose conversion factors and slope factors for radionuclides and toxicity information and properties for chemicals. The user can modify the database for use in the calculation. Sensitivity analysis can be performed while running the computer code to examine the influence of the input parameters. Use of RESRAD-BASELINE for risk analysis is easy, fast, and cost-saving. Furthermore, it ensures in consistency in methodology for both radiological and chemical risk analyses

  19. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    An Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) is a review of a supplier?s Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB). It is conducted by Program/Project Managers and their technical staffs on contracts and in-house work requiring compliance with NASA Earned Value Management System (EVMS) policy as defined in program/project policy, NPR 7120.5, or in NASA Federal Acquisition Regulations. The IBR Handbook may also be of use to those responsible for preparing the Terms of Reference for internal project reviews. While risks may be identified and actions tracked as a result of the IBR, it is important to note that an IBR cannot be failed.

  20. Model Order Selection in Multi-baseline Interferometric Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Gini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR is a powerful technique to derive three-dimensional terrain images. Interest is growing in exploiting the advanced multi-baseline mode of InSAR to solve layover effects from complex orography, which generate reception of unexpected multicomponent signals that degrade imagery of both terrain radar reflectivity and height. This work addresses a few problems related to the implementation into interferometric processing of nonlinear algorithms for estimating the number of signal components, including a system trade-off analysis. Performance of various eigenvalues-based information-theoretic criteria (ITC algorithms is numerically investigated under some realistic conditions. In particular, speckle effects from surface and volume scattering are taken into account as multiplicative noise in the signal model. Robustness to leakage of signal power into the noise eigenvalues and operation with a small number of looks are investigated. The issue of baseline optimization for detection is also addressed. The use of diagonally loaded ITC methods is then proposed as a tool for robust operation in the presence of speckle decorrelation. Finally, case studies of a nonuniform array are studied and recommendations for a proper combination of ITC methods and system configuration are given.

  1. Observations of Supernova Remnants with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Egron, E; Loru, S; Iacolina, M N; Marongiu, M; Righini, S; Mulas, S; Murtas, G; Bachetti, M; Concu, R; Melis, A; Trois, A; Ricci, R; Pilia, M

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of the Astronomical Validation activities for the 64m Sardinia Radio Telescope, we performed 5-22 GHz imaging observations of the complex-morphology supernova remnants (SNRs) W44 and IC443. We adopted innovative observing and mapping techniques providing unprecedented accuracy for single-dish imaging of SNRs at these frequencies, revealing morphological details typically available only at lower frequencies through interferometry observations. High-frequency studies of SNRs in the radio range are useful to better characterize the spatially-resolved spectra and the physical parameters of different regions of the SNRs interacting with the ISM. Furthermore, synchrotron-emitting electrons in the high-frequency radio band are also responsible for the observed high-energy phenomenology as -e.g.- Inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emission components observed in gamma-rays, to be disentangled from hadron emission contribution (providing constraints on the origin of cosmic rays).

  2. Modal Filters for Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksendzov, Alexander; MacDonald, Daniel R.; Soibel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range have been implemented as planar dielectric waveguides in infrared interferometric applications such as searching for Earth-like planets. When looking for a small, dim object ("Earth") in close proximity to a large, bright object ("Sun"), the interferometric technique uses beams from two telescopes combined with a 180 phase shift in order to cancel the light from a brighter object. The interferometer baseline can be adjusted so that, at the same time, the light from the dimmer object arrives at the combiner in phase. This light can be detected and its infrared (IR) optical spectra can be studied. The cancellation of light from the "Sun" to approximately equal to 10(exp 6) is required; this is not possible without special devices-modal filters- that equalize the wavefronts arriving from the two telescopes. Currently, modal filters in the approximately equal to 10-micrometer spectral range are implemented as single- mode fibers. Using semiconductor technology, single-mode waveguides for use as modal filters were fabricated. Two designs were implemented: one using an InGaAs waveguide layer matched to an InP substrate, and one using InAlAs matched to an InP substrate. Photon Design software was used to design the waveguides, with the main feature all designs being single-mode operation in the 10.5- to 17-micrometer spectral range. Preliminary results show that the filter's rejection ratio is 26 dB.

  3. Continuous subsurface velocity measurement with coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoshan; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Yong; Niu, Fenglin; Wang, Bin

    2008-12-01

    A 1-month field experiment was conducted near Kunming in Yunnan Province, China, to continuously monitor subsurface velocity variations along different baselines. The experiment site is located 10 km west to the seismically very active Xiaojiang fault zone. An electric hammer was used as a source to generate highly repeatable seismic waves, which were recorded by 5 short-period seismometers deployed at ˜10 m to 1.2 km away from the source. Velocity variation was estimated by using coda wave interferometry technique. The technique measures changes in differential time between the coda and the first arrival, which is in principal insensitive to timing errors. We obtained a fractional velocity perturbation (δv/v) of 10-3 to 10-2 with a precision of 10-4. The measured velocity variation is consistent among different components and stations and appears to well correlate with deep water level. The velocity variation is featured by a long-term linear trend and well-developed daily cycles. The latter is interpreted as the velocity response to the barometric pressure. A multivariate linear regression analysis of the data indicates that the velocity change exhibits a negative correlation with barometric pressure, with a stress sensitivity of 10-6/Pa at the experimental site.

  4. Atmospheric Refraction Path Integrals in Ground-Based Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mathar, R J

    2004-01-01

    The basic effect of the earth's atmospheric refraction on telescope operation is the reduction of the true zenith angle to the apparent zenith angle, associated with prismatic aberrations due to the dispersion in air. If one attempts coherent superposition of star images in ground-based interferometry, one is in addition interested in the optical path length associated with the refracted rays. In a model of a flat earth, the optical path difference between these is not concerned as the translational symmetry of the setup means no net effect remains. Here, I evaluate these interferometric integrals in the more realistic arrangement of two telescopes located on the surface of a common earth sphere and point to a star through an atmosphere which also possesses spherical symmetry. Some focus is put on working out series expansions in terms of the small ratio of the baseline over the earth radius, which allows to bypass some numerics which otherwise is challenged by strong cancellation effects in building the opti...

  5. Intensity Interferometry with Aqueye+ and Iqueye in Asiago

    CERN Document Server

    Zampieri, L; Barbieri, C; Barbieri, M; Verroi, E; Umbriaco, G; Favazza, P; Lessio, L; Farisato, G

    2016-01-01

    Since a number of years our group is engaged in the design, construction and operation of instruments with very high time resolution in the optical band for applications to Quantum Astronomy and more conventional Astrophysics. Two instruments were built to perform photon counting with sub-nanosecond temporal accuracy. The first of the two, Aqueye+, is regularly mounted at the 1.8 m Copernicus telescope in Asiago, while the second one, Iqueye, was mounted at the ESO New Technology Telescope in Chile, and at the William Herschel Telescope and Telescopio Nazionale Galileo on the Roque (La Palma, Canary Islands). Both instruments deliver extraordinarily accurate results in optical pulsar timing. Recently, Iqueye was moved to Asiago to be mounted at the 1.2 m Galileo telescope to attempt, for the first time ever, experiments of optical intensity interferometry (a` la Hanbury Brown and Twiss) on a baseline of a few kilometers, together with the Copernicus telescope. This application was one of the original goals fo...

  6. Updated progress in theories and applications of spaceborne SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Ling; Huang, Cheng; Ding, Xiao-Li; Li, Zhi-Wei

    2006-12-01

    InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) and D-InSAR (Differential InSAR) are rapidly developed new technologies of space geodesy during the late 20th century, and now obviously become hot research topics in the field of microwave remote sensing. Compared with the other sensors, InSAR possesses many incomparable advantages such as the capability to work at all-time and under all weather, very high spatial resolution and strong penetrability through the ground surface. This paper introduces general status of SAR, InSAR, D-InSAR technology, and the principles of InSAR and D-InSAR. New theories and the potential problems of (D-)InSAR technology are largely discussed, including multi-baseline interferometry, Pol-InSAR technique, the correction of atmospheric effects, permanent Scatterers method, the synthesization technique between InSAR and GPS, LIDAR etc., and the InSAR parallel algorithm. Then the new applications of InSAR and D-InSAR are described in detail including 3D topographic mapping, deformation monitoring (including surface subsidence, landside monitoring and ITRF's foundation and maintenance, etc.), thematic mapping (including agriculture and forestry, oceanic surveying and flood monitoring, etc.) and meteorology etc.. Finally, the prospect and future trends in InSAR development are summarized.

  7. Optical interferometry for biology and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Nolte, David D

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental physics of optical interferometry as applied to biophysical, biological and medical research. Interference is at the core of many types of optical detection and is a powerful probe of cellular and tissue structure in interfererence microscopy and in optical coherence tomography. It is also the root cause of speckle and other imaging artefacts that limit range and resolution. For biosensor applications, the inherent sensitivity of interferometry enables ultrasensitive detection of molecules in biological samples for medical diagnostics. In this book, emphasis is placed on the physics of light scattering, beginning with the molecular origins of refraction as light propagates through matter, and then treating the stochastic nature of random fields that ultimately dominate optical imaging in cells and tissue. The physics of partial coherence plays a central role in the text, with a focus on coherence detection techniques that allow information to be selectively detected out of ...

  8. Use of interferometry in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J E; Kozol, N; Crawford, R D

    1989-05-01

    Any procedure that can help to predict the outcome of treatment for a vision disorder is a desired clinical goal. Interferometry has shown such an ability for predicting the post-treatment visual acuities in amblyopia and other vision disorders. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of using interferometry with preschool children, aged 3-5 years. We determined that they can be reliably tested in 5-10 minutes using a non-verbal, forced choice technique. Due to developmental differences, the 3-year-olds needed slightly more time to test and were more variable in their responses than the 4-years-olds. Overall, the prognostic value of interferometer visual acuity measures should be considered for use in preschool children with visual acuity disorders, e.g., amblyopia. PMID:2732416

  9. Cold neutron interferometry using multilayer mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold neutron interferometry using multilayer mirrors are discussed. The interferometry includes two kinds of multilayer interferometers, which are analogous optically to the Mach-Zehnder and the Jamin interferometer in classical optics. The Mach-Zehnder multilayer interferometer has been installed at JRR3M reactor of JAERI. We describe the conditions required for the Mach-Zehnder multilayer interferometer and the characteristics of the interferometer. The Jamin multilayer interferometer, called as phase echo interferometer, shows a phase echo effect analogous functionally to the spin echo principle. We describe briefly the first successful performance tests. We propose a precession phase echo interferometer and a phase echo spin interferometer, based on the coherent superposition of spin eigenstates and the phase echo effect. (author)

  10. Nanoscale optical interferometry with incoherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongfang; Feng, Jing; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Optical interferometry has empowered an impressive variety of biosensing and medical imaging techniques. A widely held assumption is that devices based on optical interferometry require coherent light to generate a precise optical signature in response to an analyte. Here we disprove that assumption. By directly embedding light emitters into subwavelength cavities of plasmonic interferometers, we demonstrate coherent generation of surface plasmons even when light with extremely low degrees of spatial and temporal coherence is employed. This surprising finding enables novel sensor designs with cheaper and smaller light sources, and consequently increases accessibility to a variety of analytes, such as biomarkers in physiological fluids, or even airborne nanoparticles. Furthermore, these nanosensors can now be arranged along open detection surfaces, and in dense arrays, accelerating the rate of parallel target screening used in drug discovery, among other high volume and high sensitivity applications. PMID:26880171

  11. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knox, Hunter Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); James, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Rebekah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cole, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  12. Unveiling the radio counterparts of two binary AGN candidates: J1108+0659 and J1131-0204

    CERN Document Server

    Bondi, M; Piconcelli, E; Fu, H

    2016-01-01

    The sources SDSS\\,J113126.08-020459.2 and SDSS\\,J110851.04+065901.4 are two double-peaked [O III] emitting AGN, identified as candidate binary AGNs by optical and near infrared (NIR) observations. We observed the two sources with high resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) using the European VLBI Network at 5\\,GHz, reduced VLA observations at three frequencies available for one of the sources, and used archival HST observations. For the source SDSS\\,J113126.08-020459.2, the VLBI observations detected only one single compact component associated with the eastern NIR nucleus. In SDSS\\,J110851.04+065901.4, the VLBI observations did not detect any compact components, but the VLA observations allowed us to identify a possible compact core in the region of the north-western optical/NIR nucleus. In this source we find kpc-scale extended radio emission that is spatially coincident to the ultraviolet continuum and to the extended emission narrow line region. The UV continuum is significantly obscured sinc...

  13. Gliotransmission modulates baseline mechanical nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Jeannine C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain is a physiological and adaptive process which occurs to protect organisms from tissue damage and extended injury. Pain sensation beyond injury, however, is a pathological process which is poorly understood. Experimental models of neuropathic pain demonstrate that reactive astrocytes contribute to reduced nociceptive thresholds. Astrocytes release "gliotransmitters" such as D-serine, glutamate, and ATP, which is extracellularly hydrolyzed to adenosine. Adenosine 1 receptor activation in the spinal cord has anti-nociceptive effects on baseline pain threshold, but the source of the endogenous ligand (adenosine in the spinal cord is unknown. In this study we used a transgenic mouse model in which SNARE-mediated gliotransmission was selectively attenuated (called dnSNARE mice to investigate the role of astrocytes in mediating baseline nociception and the development of neuropathic pain. Under baseline conditions, immunostaining in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord showed astrocyte-specific transgene expression in dnSNARE mice, and no difference in expression levels of the astrocyte marker GFAP and the microglia marker Iba1 relative to wild-type mice. The Von Frey filament test was used to probe sensitivity to baseline mechanical pain thresholds and allodynia following the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. DnSNARE mice exhibit a reduced nociceptive threshold in response to mechanical stimulation compared to wild-type mice under baseline conditions, but nociceptive thresholds following spared nerve injury were similar between dnSNARE and wild-types. This study is the first to provide evidence that gliotransmission contributes to basal mechanical nociception.

  14. Tomorrow optical interferometry: astrophysical prospects and instrumental issues

    OpenAIRE

    Malbet, F.

    2006-01-01

    Interferometry has brought many new constraints in optical astronomy in the recent years. A major leap in this field is the opening of large interferometric facilities like the Very Large Telescope Interferometer and the Keck Interferometer to the astronomical community. Planning for the future is both easy --most specialists know in which directions to develop interferometry-- and difficult because of the increasing complexity of the technique. I present a short status of interferometry toda...

  15. Digital speckle pattern shearing interferometry: Limitations and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owner-Petersen, Mette

    1996-01-01

    Since shearing interferometry, also called shearography, does not depict fringes caused by object tilt, it is a tool well suited for either nondestructive testing of objects under load or for quantitative evaluation of flexural strains. In traditional shearing interferometry, observation of fringes...... requires optical processing of double exposed interferograms. Hence the technique is not in real time. This paper explores the possibilities and limitations for real time shearing fringe observation using the electronic speckle pattern interferometry technique. Prospects for quantitative determination of...

  16. Chameleon Dark Energy and Atom Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Elder, Benjamin; Khoury, Justin; Haslinger, Philipp; Jaffe, Matt; Müller, Holger; Hamilton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Atom interferometry experiments are searching for evidence of chameleon scalar fields with ever-increasing precision. As experiments become more precise, so too must theoretical predictions. Previous work has made numerous approximations to simplify the calculation, which in general requires solving a 3-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we introduce a new technique for calculating the chameleonic force, using a numerical relaxation scheme on a uniform g...

  17. Kinetic Titration Series with Biolayer Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Frenzel, Daniel; Willbold, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Biolayer interferometry is a method to analyze protein interactions in real-time. In this study, we illustrate the usefulness to quantitatively analyze high affinity protein ligand interactions employing a kinetic titration series for characterizing the interactions between two pairs of interaction patterns, in particular immunoglobulin G and protein G B1 as well as scFv IC16 and amyloid beta (1–42). Kinetic titration series are commonly used in surface plasmon resonance and involve sequentia...

  18. AMiBA: Broadband Heterodyne CMB Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming-Tang; Li, Chao-Te; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Chu, Tah-Hsiung; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Martin-Cocher, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background (AMiBA) has reported the first science results on the detection of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect. The science objectives required small reflectors in order to sample large scale structures (20') while interferometry provided modest resolutions (2'). With these constraints, we designed for the best sensitivity by utilizing the maximum possible continuum bandwidth matched to the atmospheric window at 86-102GHz, with dual polarizat...

  19. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new, with potential for operational applications, but currently not exploited to full advantage. Here we investigate how to optimally assess and monitor the structural health of civil infrastructure usi...

  20. Monitoring of Bridge Dynamics by Radar Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Imrich Lipták; Ján Erdélyi; Peter Kyrinovič; Alojz Kopáčik

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the possibilities of radar interferometry in dynamic deformationmonitoring of bridge structures. The technology is increasingly used for this purposethanks to high accuracy of realized measurements and possibility to measure deformationat multiple places of the monitored structure. High frequency of realized measurements (upto 200 Hz) enables to determine the most of significant vibration modes of bridgedeformation. This technology is presented on real case study of the cyc...

  1. Green Light Interferometry for Metrological SPM Positioning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lazar, Josef; Klapetek, P.; Číp, Ondřej; Čížek, Martin; Hrabina, Jan; Šerý, Mojmír

    Paris: LNE, 2011, s. 143. [Workshop on Metrological Atomic Force Microscope Instrumentation. Trappes (FR), 07.02.2011-09.02.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1276; GA ČR GA102/07/1179; GA AV ČR KAN311610701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : green light interferometry * scanning probe microscopy * nanometrology Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s

  2. Laser interferometry for the Big Bang Observer

    OpenAIRE

    Harry, Gregory M.; Fritschel, Peter; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Folkner, William; Phinney, E. Sterl

    2006-01-01

    The Big Bang Observer is a proposed space-based gravitational-wave detector intended as a follow on mission to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). It is designed to detect the stochastic background of gravitational waves from the early universe. We discuss how the interferometry can be arranged between three spacecraft for this mission and what research and development on key technologies are necessary to realize this scheme.

  3. Defect Depth Measurement Using White Light Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Don; Starr, Stan

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of the White Light Interferometry project are the following: (1) Demonstrate a small hand-held instrument capable of performing inspections of identified defects on Orbiter outer pane window surfaces. (2) Build and field-test a prototype device using miniaturized optical components. (3) Modify the instrument based on field testing and begin the conversion of the unit to become a certified shop-aid.

  4. Development of Speckle Interferometry Algorithm and System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) method is a wholefield, non destructive measurement method widely used in the industries such as detection of defects on metal bodies, detection of defects in intergrated circuits in digital electronics components and in the preservation of priceless artwork. In this research field, this method is widely used to develop algorithms and to develop a new laboratory setup for implementing the speckle pattern interferometry. In speckle interferometry, an optically rough test surface is illuminated with an expanded laser beam creating a laser speckle pattern in the space surrounding the illuminated region. The speckle pattern is optically mixed with a second coherent light field that is either another speckle pattern or a smooth light field. This produces an interferometric speckle pattern that will be detected by sensor to count the change of the speckle pattern due to force given. In this project, an experimental setup of ESPI is proposed to analyze a stainless steel plate using 632.8 nm (red) wavelength of lights.

  5. Optical interferometry in fluid dynamics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachalo, W. D.; Houser, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Optical interferometry techniques were applied to the investigation of transonic airfoil flow fields in large wind tunnels. Holographic interferometry techniques were used to study 2 dimensional symmetric NACA 64A010 and Douglas Aircraft Co. DSMA671 supercritical airfoil performance in the NASA Ames 2 x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. Quantitative data obtained from the interferograms were compared to the surface pressure data. The agreement obtained verified the accuracy of the flow visualization and demonstrated the potential for acquiring quantitative scalar results. Measurements of the inviscid flow speed and the boundary layer and wake velocity profiles were extracted from the interferograms and compared to laser Doppler velocimeter measurements. These results were also in good agreement. A method for acquiring real time interferometric data in large scale facilities was developed. This method, based on the point diffraction interferometer, was successfully tested in the 2 x 2 ft transonic wind tunnel. The holographic and real time interferometry methods were applied to the investigations of circulation control airfoils utilizing the Coanda effect. These results reveals the details of the jet interacting with the trailing edge boundary layer and the other parameters affecting the lift augmentation.

  6. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  7. Quantum Interferometry in Phase Space Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suda, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Interferometry in Phase Space is primarily concerned with quantum-mechanical distribution functions and their applications in quantum optics and neutron interferometry. In the first part of the book, the author describes the phase-space representation of quantum optical phenomena such as coherent and squeezed states. Applications to interferometry, e.g. in beam splitters and fiber networks, are also presented. In the second part of the book, the theoretical formalism is applied to neutron interferometry, including the dynamical theory of diffraction, coherence properties of superposed beams, and dephasing effects.

  8. Portable Wireless LAN Device and Two-way Radio Threat Assessment for Aircraft Navigation Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Smith, Laura J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2003-01-01

    Measurement processes, data and analysis are provided to address the concern for Wireless Local Area Network devices and two-way radios to cause electromagnetic interference to aircraft navigation radio systems. A radiated emission measurement process is developed and spurious radiated emissions from various devices are characterized using reverberation chambers. Spurious radiated emissions in aircraft radio frequency bands from several wireless network devices are compared with baseline emissions from standard computer laptops and personal digital assistants. In addition, spurious radiated emission data in aircraft radio frequency bands from seven pairs of two-way radios are provided, A description of the measurement process, device modes of operation and the measurement results are reported. Aircraft interference path loss measurements were conducted on four Boeing 747 and Boeing 737 aircraft for several aircraft radio systems. The measurement approach is described and the path loss results are compared with existing data from reference documents, standards, and NASA partnerships. In-band on-channel interference thresholds are compiled from an existing reference document. Using these data, a risk assessment is provided for interference from wireless network devices and two-way radios to aircraft systems, including Localizer, Glideslope, Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range, Microwave Landing System and Global Positioning System. The report compares the interference risks associated with emissions from wireless network devices and two-way radios against standard laptops and personal digital assistants. Existing receiver interference threshold references are identified as to require more data for better interference risk assessments.

  9. Infrasound Interferometry for Active and Passive Sources: A Synthetic Example for Waves Refracted in the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, J.; Ruigrok, E. N.; Evers, L. G.; El Allouche, N.; Simons, D.; Wapenaar, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    The travel time of infrasound through the stratosphere depends on the temperature profile and the wind speed. These atmospheric conditions can be estimated by determining the travel times between different receivers (microbarometers). Therefore the determination of the travel time of infrasound between different receivers becomes more and more important. An approach to determine the travel time is infrasound interferometry. In this work, the infrasound interferometry is applied to synthetic data of active and passive sources refracted by the stratosphere is tested. The synthetic data were generated with a raytracing model. The inputs of the raytracing model are the atmospheric conditions and a source wavelet. As source wavelet we used blast waves and microbaroms. With the atmospheric conditions and the source wavelet the raytracing model calculates the raypath and the travel time of the infrasound. In order to simulate the measurement of a receiver the rays which reach the receiver need to be found. The rays which propagate from a source to the receiver are called eigen rays. The simulation of the receiver measurements takes into account the travel time along the eigen rays, the attenuation of the different atmospheric layers, the spreading of the rays and the influence of caustics. The simulated measurements of the different receivers are combined to synthetic barograms. Two synthetic experiments were performed with the described model. In the first experiment the interferometry was applied to barograms of active sources like blast waves. The second experiment with microbaroms tests the applicability of interferometry to barograms of passive sources. In the next step infrasound interferometry will be applied to measured barograms. These barograms are measured with the 'Large Aperture Infrasound Array' (LAIA). LAIA is being installed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in the framework of the radio-astronomical 'Low Frequency Array' (LOFAR

  10. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem. PMID:10387778

  11. Round Table Summary Stellar interferometry as a tool to investigate atmospheres and to compare observations with models

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, M

    2003-01-01

    Long-baseline interferometry at optical and near-infrared wavelengths is an emerging technology which is quickly becoming a useful tool to investigate stellar atmospheres and to compare observations with models. Stellar atmosphere models have so far mainly been constrained by comparisons with stellar spectra which are integrated over the stellar disks. Interferometric observations provide spatially and spectrally resolved information and can thus provide important complementary observational information which can be compared to model predictions. Here, I summarize the different aspects on this topic which were discussed at a round table on Thursday, June 20, 2002, during IAU Symposium 210. This summary gives an overview on discussed interferometric facilities and techniques, concepts to study atmospheres by optical interferometry, and particular classes of objects. We conclude that more frequent interactions between the efforts of atmosphere modelling and interferometric observations promise to lead to increa...

  12. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  13. Applications of atom interferometry - from ground to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Gaaloul, Naceur; Ertmer, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Atom interferometry is utilized for the measurement of rotations [1], accelerations [2] and for tests of fundamental physics [3]. In these devices, three laser light pulses separated by a free evolution time coherently manipulate the matter waves which resembles the Mach-Zehnder geometry in optics. Atom gravimeters demonstrated an accuracy of few microgal [2,4], and atom gradiometers showed a noise floor of 30 E Hz^{-1/2} [5]. Further enhancements of atom interferometers are anticipated by the integration of novel source concepts providing ultracold atoms, extending the free fall time of the atoms, and enhanced techniques for coherent manipulation. Sources providing Bose-Einstein condensates recently demontrated a flux compatible with precision experiments [6]. All of these aspects are studied in the transportable quantum gravimeter QG-1 and the very long baseline atom interferometry teststand in Hannover [7] with the goal of surpassing the microgal regime. Going beyond ground based setups, the QUANTUS collaboration exploits the unique features of a microgravity environment in drop tower experiments [8] and in a sounding rocket mission. The payloads are compact and robust atom optics experiments based on atom chips [6], enabling technology for transportable sensors on ground as a byproduct. More prominently, they are pathfinders for proposed satellite missions as tests of the universality of free fall [9] and gradiometry based on atom interferometers [10]. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50WM1552-1557 (QUANTUS-IV-Fallturm) and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the framework of the SFB 1128 geo-Q. [1] PRL 114 063002 2015 [2] Nature 400 849 1999 [3] PRL 112 203002 2014 [4] NJP 13 065026 2011 [5] PRA 65 033608 2002 [6] NJP 17 065001 2015 [7] NJP 17 035011 2015 [8] PRL 110 093602 2013 [9

  14. The Nuts and Bolts of Baseline Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Partnership for Market Readiness

    2012-01-01

    This document provides an overview of baseline setting for greenhouse gas (GHG) crediting mechanisms. The first section briefly explains the general purpose and objectives of setting a crediting mechanism baseline. The second section summarizes key policy considerations in defining and setting baselines. The final section covers important technical elements of baselines and provides an ove...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radio fluxes of 195 ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources (Le Bail+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, K.; Gipson, J. M.; Gordon, D.; MacMillan, D. S.; Behrend, D.; Thomas, C. C.; Bolotin, S.; Himwich, W. E.; Baver, K. D.; Corey, B. E.; Titus, M.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; Collioud, A.

    2016-07-01

    The second realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2) is based on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data at radio frequencies in X band and S band. The European Space Agency's Gaia mission, launched on 2013 December 19, started routine scientific operations in 2014 July. By scanning the whole sky, it is expected to observe ~500000 Quasi Stellar Objects in the optical domain. This means that, in the future, two extragalactic celestial reference frames, at two different frequency domains, will coexist. It will thus be important to align them very accurately. In 2012, the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux (LAB) selected 195 sources from ICRF2 that will be observed by Gaia and should be suitable for aligning the radio and optical frames: they are called ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources. The LAB submitted a proposal to the International VLBI Service (IVS) to regularly observe these ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources at the same rate as Gaia observes them in the optical realm, e.g., roughly once a month. Of the 195 sources, all but one have been successfully observed in the 12 months prior to 2015 September 01. Table1 lists the 195 ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources. Beginning in 2003 June, the Goddard VLBI group developed a program to purposefully monitor when sources were observed and to increase the observations of "under-observed" sources. In 2013 March, we added all 195 ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources to the IVS source monitoring program with an observation target of 12 successful sessions per year. (1 data file).

  16. Unveiling the radio counterparts of two binary AGN candidates: J1108+0659 and J1131-0204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, M.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Piconcelli, E.; Fu, H.

    2016-04-01

    The sources SDSS J113126.08-020459.2 and SDSS J110851.04+065901.4 are two double-peaked [O III] emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified as candidate binary AGNs by optical and near infrared (NIR) observations. We observed the two sources with high resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) using the European VLBI Network at 5 GHz, reduced VLA observations at three frequencies available for one of the sources, and used archival HST observations. For the source SDSS J113126.08-020459.2, the VLBI observations detected only one single compact component associated with the eastern NIR nucleus. In SDSS J110851.04+065901.4, the VLBI observations did not detect any compact components, but the VLA observations allowed us to identify a possible compact core in the region of the north-western optical/NIR nucleus. In this source we find kpc-scale extended radio emission that is spatially coincident to the ultraviolet continuum and to the extended emission narrow line region. The UV continuum is significantly obscured since the amount of extended radio emission yields a star formation rate of about 110 M⊙ yr-1, which is an order of magnitude larger than implied by the observed ultraviolet emission. Our analysis confirms the presence of only one AGN in the two candidate binary AGNs. FITS files of the reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A102

  17. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bentum, M. J.; Boonstra, A. J.; Baan, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission power density and cause an increasing level of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), which may impact other services and particularly passive users of the spectrum. In this paper we present the princ...

  18. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  19. Infrasonic interferometry of stratospherically refracted microbaroms: A numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fricke, J.T.; El Allouche, N.; Simons, D.G.; Ruigrok, E.N.; Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Evers, L.G.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric wind and temperature can be estimated through the traveltimes of infrasound between pairs of receivers. The traveltimes can be obtained by infrasonic interferometry. In this study, the theory of infrasonic interferometry is verified and applied to modeled stratospherically refracted

  20. Phase-Shift Interferometry with a Digital Photocamera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Trivi, Marcelo; Molesini, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    A phase-shift interferometry experiment is proposed, working on a Twyman-Green optical configuration with additional polarization components. A guideline is provided to modern phase-shift interferometry, using concepts and laboratory equipment at the level of undergraduate optics courses. (Contains 5 figures.)

  1. An introduction to optical/IR interferometry (PDF file)

    OpenAIRE

    Surdej, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Lecture notes of an introductory course on optical/IR interferometry (2010 VLTI School organized on 17-28 April 2010 at Centre IGESA, Porquerolles Island, Côte d'Azur, France). For more information, see http://www.european-interferometry.eu/training/2010

  2. Polarimetric SAR interferometry applied to land ice: modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos; Skriver, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a few simple scattering models intended for the application of polarimetric SAR interfer-ometry to land ice. The principal aim is to eliminate the penetration bias hampering ice sheet elevation maps generated with single-channel SAR interferometry. The polarimetric coherent...

  3. Recent experiments in neutron interferometry and optics at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron interferometry and optics facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been in full operation since September 1996 as both a NIST research facility and as a national user facility. Unprecedented performance characteristics have been achieved in interferometry. A very busy schedule of experiments in fundamental physics, applied physics, and materials science has developed

  4. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  5. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  6. Baseline report for infiltration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, P. (ed.); Helin, J.; Lindgren, S. (and others)

    2011-04-15

    An infiltration experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration was started in late 2008 near ONKALO. The purpose of the experiment is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at a depth of about 50 to 100 m depending on the observations made during the experiment. Infiltration is activated by pumping a highly transmissive fracture zone (13-18.2 m) in drillhole OL-KR14, which is a part of the site scale hydrogeological feature. The influence of pumping is then monitored in drillholes, groundwater observation tubes and lysimeters through water, groundwater and microbiological samplings and hydrogeological measurements. Before the experiment was started, four new monitoring drillholes, nine groundwater observation tubes and nine lysimeters were installed in the test area and very detailed baseline field investigations were performed. In addition, information of existing investigation data from the area of interest was collected in together. The baseline field investigations included geological logging of the cores of new shallow drillholes, flow and transverse flow measurements in new shallow drillholes, SLUG measurements in groundwater observation tubes, head monitoring, groundwater and microbiological sampling and analysis from observation tubes, shallow drillholes and the pumping section in OL-KR14, water sampling and analysis from lysimeters and resistivity measurements of the overburden. The results of previously performed soil pit investigations and hydrogeological measurements carried out in the area of interest were also added to the investigation data. A detailed hydrogeological model of the experiment area was updated simultaneously with baseline field investigations; the previous version was presented in Pitkaenen et al. (2008). Apart from the field investigations, predictive

  7. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  8. Baseline report for infiltration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infiltration experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration was started in late 2008 near ONKALO. The purpose of the experiment is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at a depth of about 50 to 100 m depending on the observations made during the experiment. Infiltration is activated by pumping a highly transmissive fracture zone (13-18.2 m) in drillhole OL-KR14, which is a part of the site scale hydrogeological feature. The influence of pumping is then monitored in drillholes, groundwater observation tubes and lysimeters through water, groundwater and microbiological samplings and hydrogeological measurements. Before the experiment was started, four new monitoring drillholes, nine groundwater observation tubes and nine lysimeters were installed in the test area and very detailed baseline field investigations were performed. In addition, information of existing investigation data from the area of interest was collected in together. The baseline field investigations included geological logging of the cores of new shallow drillholes, flow and transverse flow measurements in new shallow drillholes, SLUG measurements in groundwater observation tubes, head monitoring, groundwater and microbiological sampling and analysis from observation tubes, shallow drillholes and the pumping section in OL-KR14, water sampling and analysis from lysimeters and resistivity measurements of the overburden. The results of previously performed soil pit investigations and hydrogeological measurements carried out in the area of interest were also added to the investigation data. A detailed hydrogeological model of the experiment area was updated simultaneously with baseline field investigations; the previous version was presented in Pitkaenen et al. (2008). Apart from the field investigations, predictive

  9. Laser interferometry: streaked shadowgraphy and Schlieren imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical diagnostics are extensively used to probe plasmas because they do not perturb the measured medium. Among them, the measurements of the refractive index and its variations give direct access to the electronic density, its gradients and the hydrodynamics of the plasma. Schlieren and shadowgraphy show qualitatively the density gradients and can even give quantitative information if certain conditions are fulfulled, in particular symmetry. Laser interferometry gives a very precise density measurement in a cylindrical plasma. Time resolution is achieved either using ultra-short laser pulses or using a streak camera. The authors illustrate such methods, describing some optical diagnostics of a laser produced plasma. (Auth.)

  10. Geometric-phase atom optics and interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygelman, B.

    2015-10-01

    We illustrate how geometric gauge forces and topological phase effects emerge in atomic and molecular systems without employing assumptions that rely on adiabaticity. We show how geometric magnetism may be harnessed to engineer novel quantum devices including a velocity sieve, a component in mass spectrometers, for neutral atoms. We introduce and outline a possible experimental setup that demonstrates topological interferometry for neutral spin-1/2 systems. For that two-level system, we study the transition from Abelian to non-Abelian behavior and explore its relation to the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  11. Phase contrast laminography based on Talbot interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altapova, Venera; Helfen, Lukas; Myagotin, Anton; Hänschke, Daniel; Moosmann, Julian; Gunneweg, Jan; Baumbach, Tilo

    2012-03-12

    Synchrotron laminography is combined with Talbot grating interferometry to address weakly absorbing specimens. Integrating both methods into one set-up provides a powerful x-ray diagnostical technique for multiple contrast screening of macroscopically large flat specimen and a subsequent non-destructive three-dimensional (3-D) inspection of regions of interest. The technique simultaneously yields the reconstruction of the 3-D absorption, phase, and the so-called dark-field contrast maps. We report on the theoretical and instrumental implementation of of this novel technique. Its broad application potential is exemplarily demonstrated for the field of cultural heritage, namely study of the historical Dead Sea parchment. PMID:22418532

  12. Light Source for Low-Coherence Interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchta, Zdeněk; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    Aachen : Shaker Verlag, 2011, s. 30-33. ISBN 978-3-8440-0058-0. [IMEKO TC2 Symposium on Photonics in Measurement /20./. Linz (AT), 16.05.2011-18.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA ČR GP102/09/P293; GA ČR GP102/09/P630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : low-coherence interferometry * phase-crossing algorithm * white-light source * CCD camera Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  13. Probing Dark Energy with Atom Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burrage, Clare; Hinds, E A

    2015-01-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  14. Neutron interferometry constrains dark energy chameleon fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lemmel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present phase shift measurements for neutron matter waves in vacuum and in low pressure Helium using a method originally developed for neutron scattering length measurements in neutron interferometry. We search for phase shifts associated with a coupling to scalar fields. We set stringent limits for a scalar chameleon field, a prominent quintessence dark energy candidate. We find that the coupling constant β is less than 1.9×107 for n=1 at 95% confidence level, where n is an input parameter of the self-interaction of the chameleon field φ inversely proportional to φn.

  15. The critical angle in seismic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, K.; Calvert, A.; Haney, M.; Mikesell, D.; Snieder, R.

    2008-01-01

    Limitations with respect to the characteristics and distribution of sources are inherent to any field seismic experiment, but in seismic interferometry these lead to spurious waves. Instead of trying to eliminate, filter or otherwise suppress spurious waves, crosscorrelation of receivers in a refraction experiment indicate we can take advantage of spurious events for near-surface parameter extraction for static corrections or near-surface imaging. We illustrate this with numerical examples and a field experiment from the CSM/Boise State University Geophysics Field Camp.

  16. Spin dynamics in polarized neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its first implementation in 1974, perfect crystal neutron interferometry has become an extremely successful method applicable to a variety of research fields. Moreover, it proved as an illustrative and didactically valuable experiment for the demonstration of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, the neutron being an almost ideal probe for the detection of various effects, as it interacts by all four forces of nature. For instance, the first experimental verification of the 4-pi-periodicity of spinor wave functions was performed with perfect crystal neutron interferometry, and it remains the only method known which demonstrates the quantum mechanical wave-particle-duality of massive particles at a macroscopic separation of the coherent matter waves of several centimeters. A particular position is taken herein by polarized neutron interferometry, which as a collective term comprises all techniques and experiments which not only aim at the coherent splitting and macroscopic separation of neutron beams in the interferometer with the purpose of their separate treatment, but which aim to do so with explicit employment of the spin-magnetic properties of the neutron as a fermion. Remarkable aspects may arise, for example, if nuclear and magnetic potentials are concurrently applied to a partial beam of the interferometer: among other results, it is found that - in perfect agreement to the theoretical predictions - the neutron beam leaving the interferometer features non-zero polarization, even if the incident neutron beam, and hence either of the partial beams, is unpolarized. The main emphasis of the present work lies on the development of an appropriate formalism that describes the effect of simultaneous occurrence of nuclear and magnetic interaction on the emerging intensity and polarization for an arbitrary number of sequential magnetic regions, so-called domains. The confrontation with subtle theoretical problems was inevitable during the experimental

  17. Stitching algorithm for annular subaperture interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Hou; Fan Wu; Li Yang; Shibin Wu; Qiang Chen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Annular subaperture interferometry (ASI) has been developed for low cost and flexible test of rotationally symmetric aspheric surfaces, in which accurately combining the subaperture measurement data corrupted by misalignments and noise into a complete surface figure is the key problem. By introducing the Zernike annular polynomials which are orthogonal over annulus, a method that eliminates the coupling problem in the earlier algorithm based on Zernike circle polynomials is proposed. Vector-matrix notation is used to simplify the description and calculations. The performance of this reduction method is evaluated by numerical simulation. The results prove this method with high precision and good anti-noise capability.

  18. The VLBA Fast Radio Transient Experiment: Progress and Early Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayth, Randall B.; Brisken, Walter F.; Deller, Adam T.; Majid, Walid A.; Thompson, David R.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-04-01

    Motivated by recent discoveries of isolated, dispersed radio pulses of possible extragalactic origin, we are performing a commensal search for short-duration (ms) continuum radio pulses using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The geographically separated antennæ of the VLBA make the system robust to local RFI and allow events to be verified and localised on the sky with milli-arcsec accuracy. We report sky coverage and detection limits from the experiment to date.

  19. The Radio Properties of Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies on Parsec Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Minfeng; Komossa, S; Yuan, Weimin; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Zhou, Hongyan; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present the detection of compact radio structures of fourteen radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies from Very Long Baseline Array observations at 5 GHz, which were performed in 2013. While 50\\% of the sources of our sample show a compact core only, the remaining 50\\% exhibit a core-jet structure. The measured brightness temperatures of the cores range from $10^{8.4}$ to $10^{11.4}$ K with a median value of $10^{10.1}$ K, indicating that the radio emission is from non-thermal jets, and that, likely, most sources are not strongly beamed, then implying a lower jet speed in these radio-loud NLS1 galaxies. In combination with archival data taken at multiple frequencies, we find that seven sources show flat or even inverted radio spectra, while steep spectra are revealed in the remaining seven objects. Although all these sources are very radio-loud with $R > 100$, their jet properties are diverse, in terms of their milli-arcsecond (mas) scale (pc scale) morphology and their overall radio spectral shap...

  20. Comparison of fringe tracking algorithms for single-mode near-infrared long baseline interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet, Élodie; Perrin, Guy; Cassaing, Frédéric; Lacour, Sylvestre; Eisenhauer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To enable optical long baseline interferometry toward faint objects, long integrations are necessary despite atmospheric turbulence. Fringe trackers are needed to stabilize the fringes and thus increase the fringe visibility and phase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), with efficient controllers robust to instrumental vibrations, and to subsequent path fluctuations and flux drop-outs. We report on simulations, analysis and comparison of the performances of a classical integrator controller and of a Kalman controller, both optimized to track fringes under realistic observing conditions for different source magnitudes, disturbance conditions, and sampling frequencies. The key parameters of our simulations (instrument photometric performance, detection noise, turbulence and vibrations statistics) are based on typical observing conditions at the Very Large Telescope observatory and on the design of the GRAVITY instrument, a 4-telescope single-mode long baseline interferometer in the near-infrared, next in line to be in...

  1. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, M.J.; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  2. Resonance and Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, Malin J.

    2008-01-01

    The science and technology of radio receives little attention in contemporary education. This article discusses ways to explore the basic operating principles of radio. (Contains 4 figures, 3 footnotes, and 2 notes.)

  3. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  4. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  5. Inter-agency comparison of TanDEM-X baseline solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, A.; Montenbruck, O.; Moon, Y.; Wermuth, M.; König, R.; Michalak, G.; Bock, H.; Bodenmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) is the first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission using close formation flying for bistatic SAR interferometry. The primary goal of the mission is to generate a global digital elevation model (DEM) with 2 m height precision and 10 m ground resolution from the configurable SAR interferometer with space baselines of a few hundred meters. As a key mission requirement for the interferometric SAR processing, the relative position, or baseline vector, of the two satellites must be determined with an accuracy of 1 mm (1D RMS) from GPS measurements collected by the onboard receivers. The operational baseline products for the TanDEM-X mission are routinely generated by the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) and the German Space Operations Center (DLR/GSOC) using different software packages (EPOS/BSW, GHOST) and analysis strategies. For a further independent performance assessment, TanDEM-X baseline solutions are generated at the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) on a best effort basis using the Bernese Software (BSW). Dual-frequency baseline solutions are compared for a 1-month test period in January 2011. Differences of reduced-dynamic baseline solutions exhibit a representative standard deviation (STD) of 1 mm outside maneuver periods, while biases are below 1 mm in all directions. The achieved baseline determination performance is close to the mission specification, but independent SAR calibration data takes acquired over areas with a well known DEM from previous missions will be required to fully meet the 1 mm 1D RMS target. Besides the operational solutions, single-frequency baseline solutions are tested. They benefit from a more robust ambiguity fixing and show a slightly better agreement of below 1 mm STD, but are potentially affected by errors caused by an incomplete compensation of differential ionospheric path delays.

  6. LTE Network Radio Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Maravić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different ways of planning the radio resources within an LTE network are analyzed. All simulations were carried out using 3GPP recommendations. Soft frequency reuse (SFR, soft fractional frequency reuse (SFFR and hard fractional frequency reuse (HFFR radio resource allocation schemes are compared to fixed frequency reuse 1 (R1 and reuse 3 (R3 radio resource allocation schemes. An optimum way of planning radio resources in a LTE network is proposed at the end of paper.

  7. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  8. Using Atom Interferometry to Detect Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Burrage, Clare

    2015-01-01

    We review the tantalising prospect that the first evidence for the dark energy driving the observed acceleration of the Universe on giga-parsec scales may be found through metre scale laboratory based atom interferometry experiments. To do that, we first introduce the idea that scalar fields could be responsible for dark energy and show that in order to be compatible with fifth force constraints these fields must have a screening mechanism which hides their effects from us within the solar system. Particular emphasis is placed on one such screening mechanism known as the chameleon effect where the field's mass becomes dependent on the environment. The way the field behaves in the presence of a spherical source is determined and we then go on to show how in the presence of the kind of high vacuum associated with atom interferometry experiments, and when the test particle is an atom, it is possible to use the associated interference pattern to place constraints on the acceleration due to the fifth force of the ...

  9. Deflectometry challenges interferometry: the competition gets tougher!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Christian; Olesch, Evelyn; Krobot, Roman; Häusler, Gerd

    2012-09-01

    Deflectometric methods that are capable of providing full-field topography data for specular freeform surfaces have been around for more than a decade. They have proven successful in various fields of application, such as the measurement of progressive power eyeglasses, painted car body panels, or windshields. However, up to now deflectometry has not been considered as a viable competitor to interferometry, especially for the qualification of optical components. The reason is that, despite the unparalleled local sensitivity provided by deflectometric methods, the global height accuracy attainable with this measurement technique used to be limited to several microns over a field of 100 mm. Moreover, spurious reflections at the rear surface of transparent objects could easily mess up the measured signal completely. Due to new calibration and evaluation procedures, this situation has changed lately. We will give a comparative assessment of the strengths and - now partly revised - weaknesses of both measurement principles from the current perspective. By presenting recent developments and measurement examples from different applications, we will show that deflectometry is now heading to become a serious competitor to interferometry.

  10. Using atom interferometry to detect dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J.

    2016-04-01

    We review the tantalising prospect that the first evidence for the dark energy driving the observed acceleration of the universe on giga-parsec scales may be found through metre scale laboratory-based atom interferometry experiments. To do that, we first introduce the idea that scalar fields could be responsible for dark energy and show that in order to be compatible with fifth force constraints, these fields must have a screening mechanism which hides their effects from us within the solar system. Particular emphasis is placed on one such screening mechanism known as the chameleon effect where the field's mass becomes dependent on the environment. The way the field behaves in the presence of a spherical source is determined and we then go on to show how in the presence of the kind of high vacuum associated with atom interferometry experiments, and when the test particle is an atom, it is possible to use the associated interference pattern to place constraints on the acceleration due to the fifth force of the chameleon field - this has already been used to rule out large regions of the chameleon parameter space and maybe one day will be able to detect the force due to the dark energy field in the laboratory.

  11. Baseline for coal powered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequently, the cost performance of a specific power plant is measured by comparing the cost with the statistical average cost of plants through the industry. Unless all of the variables have been considered, this comparison may draw a misleading conclusion. The capital cost of a power plant varies with time (year of commercial operation and construction duration) due to the effect of inflation. Examine these cost data in detail revels that the variation in the cost is very wide. For example, published data shows that the ratio between the highest to the lowest cost per KW is more than 4 to 1 for the plants that commenced operation in 1984. The wide variation of the capital costs is explained below in relation to various influencing factors, differing conditions, and scope of work. This paper provides a defined baseline coal-fired plant, an analysis of its capital costs, and a discussion of the reasons for such wide variation

  12. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  13. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  14. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  15. 327 Building hazard baseline document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document identifies the hazards in the 327 Building at the time that a facility walk through was performed during FY99, presents a PHA of stabilization and deactivation activities, and provides a basis for the hazard evaluation and accident analysis that will be developed in the 327 Building Basis for Interim Operation (BIO). Activities addressed in this hazard baseline document include: (1) Stabilization and deactivation activities in preparation for eventual decommissioning of the 327 Building and the routine handling, processing, and shipment of waste to support these activities. (2) 324/327 Building Minimum Safe Project engineering and maintenance activities to maintain the building and systems viable--especially the Safety SSCs--to allow stabilization, deactivation, and waste handling activities with a minimum of risk to workers, the public, and the environment

  16. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  17. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  18. VLBI detection of an Infrared-Faint Radio Source

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Ray P.; Tingay, Steven; Phillips, Chris; Middelberg, Enno; Deller, Adam; Appleton, Philip N.

    2007-01-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources represent a new and unexpected class of object which is bright at radio wavelengths but unusually faint at infrared wavelengths. If, like most mJy radio sources, they were either conventional active or star-forming galaxies in the local Universe, we would expect them to be detectable at infrared wavelengths, and so their non-detection by the Spitzer Space Telescope is surprising. Here we report the detection of one of these sources using Very Long Baseline Interfe...

  19. Ham radio for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  20. Radio Loud and Radio Quiet Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Kellermann, K I; Kimball, A E; Perley, R A; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2016-01-01

    We discuss 6 GHz JVLA observations covering a volume-limited sample of 178 low redshift ($0.2 5 \\mathrm{~mJy~beam}^{-1}$ ($log(L) \\gtrsim 24$). The radio luminosity function of optically selected QSOs and the extended radio emission associated with RLQs are both inconsistent with simple "unified" models that invoke relativistic beaming from randomly oriented QSOs to explain the difference between RLQs and RQQs. Some intrinsic property of the AGNs or their host galaxies must also determine whether or not a QSO appears radio loud.

  1. Portable Wireless Device Threat Assessment for Aircraft Navigation Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Smith, Laura J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the concern for Wireless Local Area Network devices and two-way radios to cause electromagnetic interference to aircraft navigation radio systems. Spurious radiated emissions from various IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, and Bluetooth devices are characterized using reverberation chambers. The results are compared with baseline emissions from standard laptop computer and personal digital assistants (PDAs) that are currently allowed for use on aircraft. The results indicate that the WLAN devices tested are not more of a threat to aircraft navigation radios than standard laptop computers and PDAs in most aircraft bands. In addition, spurious radiated emission data from seven pairs of two-way radios are provided. These two-way radios emit at much higher levels in the bands considered. A description of the measurement process, device modes of operation and the measurement results are reported.

  2. Radio Structures of Compact Quasars with Broad Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Gawroński, Marcin P.

    2010-05-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs), seen in a small fraction of both the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasar populations, are probably caused by the outflow of gas with high velocities and are part of the accretion process. The presence of BALs is due to a geometrical effect and/or it is connected with the quasar evolution. Using the final release of FIRST survey combined with a catalog of BAL QSOs from SDSS/DR3, we have constructed a new sample of compact radio-loud BAL QSOs, which constitutes the majority of radio-loud BAL QSOs. The main goal of this project is to study the origin of BALs by analysis of the BAL QSOs radio morphology, orientation, and jet evolution using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz.

  3. Radiography of Spanish Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Rodero Antón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In its eighty years of existence, radio has been always characterized to adapt to the social, cultural and technological transformations. Thus it has been until this moment. Nevertheless, some years ago, the authors and professionals of this medium have been detecting a stagnation that affects to its structure. At a time in continuous technological evolution, radio demands a deep transformation. For that reason, from the conviction of which the future radio, public and commercial, will necessarily have to renew itself, in this paper we establish ten problems and their possible solutions to the radio crisis in order to draw an x-ray of radio in Spain. Radio has future, but it is necessary to work actively by it. That the radio continues being part of sound of our life, it will depend on the work of all: companies, advertisers, professionals, students, investigators and listeners.

  4. Survey Layanan Publik Pemantauan Frekuensi Radio untuk Radio Amatir Dan Radio Antar Penduduk Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Azwar Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Berlatar belakang fenomena penggunaan amatir radio dan komunikasi radio antar penduduk yang berkaitan dengan faktor layanan publik dari monitor frekuensi radio, dimana peneliti memfokuskan pada permasalahan kondisi pelayanan publik yang diberikan oleh pemerintah tentang penggunaan radio non komersial yang digunakan oleh perorangan. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan penggiat amatir radio dan komunikasi radio antar penduduk bervariasi, mulai dari yang tidak mempunyai izin sampai pada yang memiliki ...

  5. The varying w spread spectrum effect for radio interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wolz, Laura; Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves; McEwen, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of the spread spectrum effect in radio interferometry on the quality of image reconstruction. This spread spectrum effect will be induced by the wide field-of-view of forthcoming radio interferometric telescopes. The resulting chirp modulation improves the quality of reconstructed interferometric images by increasing the incoherence of the measurement and sparsity dictionaries. We extend previous studies of this effect to consider the more realistic setting where the chirp modulation varies for each visibility measurement made by the telescope. In these first preliminary results, we show that for this setting the quality of reconstruction improves significantly over the case without chirp modulation and achieves almost the reconstruction quality of the case of maximal, constant chirp modulation.

  6. The Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed: Recent Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    The Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed (WIIT) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center was designed to demonstrate the practicality and application of techniques for wide-field spatial-spectral ("double Fourier") interferometry. WIIT is an automated system, and it is now producing substantial amounts of high-quality data from its state-of-the-art operating environment, Goddard's Advanced Interferometry and Metrology Lab. In this paper, we discuss the characterization and operation of the testbed and present the most recent results. We also outline future research directions. A companion paper within this conference discusses the development of new wide-field double Fourier data analysis algorithms.

  7. Coda wave interferometry for the measurement of thermally induced ultrasonic velocity variations in CFRP laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livings, Richard; Dayal, Vinay; Barnard, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic velocity measurement is a well-established method to measure properties and estimate strength as well as detect and locate damage. Determination of accurate and repeatable ultrasonic wave velocities can be difficult due to the influence of environmental and experimental factors. Diffuse fields created by a multiple scattering environment have been shown to be sensitive to homogeneous strain fields such as those caused by temperature variations, and Coda Wave Interferometry has been used to measure the thermally induced ultrasonic velocity variation in concrete, aluminum, and the Earth's crust. In this work, we analyzed the influence of several parameters of the experimental configuration on the measurement of thermally induced ultrasonic velocity variations in a carbon-fiber reinforced polymer plate. Coda Wave Interferometry was used to determine the relative velocity change between a baseline signal taken at room temperature and the signal taken at various temperatures. The influence of several parameters of the experimental configuration, such as the material type, the receiver aperture size, and fiber orientation on the results of the processing algorithm was evaluated in order to determine the optimal experimental configuration.---This work is supported by the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Program of the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University.

  8. Comparison of Site Velocities Derived from Collocated GPS, VLBI and SLR Techniques at The Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (Comparison of Site Velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munghemezulu C.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Space geodetic techniques provide highly accurate methods for estimating bedrock stability at subcentimetre level. We utilize data derived from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR, Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI and Global Positioning Systems (GPS techniques, collocated at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory, to characterise local plate motion and compare the solutions from the three techniques. Data from the GNSS station were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK (version 10.4 software, data from the SLR station (MOBLAS-6were processed using the Satellite Laser Ranging Data Analysis Software (SDAS and the VLBI data sets were processed using the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS software. Results show that there is a good agreement between horizontal and vertical velocity components with a maximum deviation of 1.7 mm/yr, 0.7 mm/yr and 1.3 mm/yr between the North, East and Up velocity components respectively for the different techniques. At HartRAO there is no significant trend in the vertical component and all the techniques used are consistent with the a-priori velocities when compared with each other. This information is crucial in monitoring the local motion variations since geodetic instruments require a very stable base to minimise measurement errors. These findings demonstrate that station coordinate time-series derived with different techniques and analysis strategies provide comparable results.

  9. VLTI/AMBER differential interferometry of the broad-line region of the quasar 3C273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Romain G.; Millour, Florentin; Lagarde, Stéphane; Vannier, Martin; Rakshit, Suvendu; Marconi, Alessandro; weigelt, Gerd

    2012-07-01

    Unveiling the structure of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of AGNs is critical to understand the quasar phenomenon. Resolving a few BLRs by optical interferometry will bring decisive information to confront, complement and calibrate the reverberation mapping technique, seed of the mass-luminosity relation in quasars. BLRs are much smaller than the angular resolution of the VLT and Keck interferometers and they can be resolved only by differential interferometry very accurate measurements of differential visibility and phase. The latest yields the photocenter variation with λ, and constrains the size, position and velocity law of various regions of the BLR. AGNs are below the magnitude limit for spectrally resolved interferometry set by currently available fringe trackers. A new “blind” observation method and a data processing based on the accumulation of 2D Fourier power and cross spectra permitted us the first spectrally resolved interferometric observation of a BLR, on the K=10 quasar 3C273. A careful bias analysis is still in progress, but we report strong evidence that, as the baseline increases, the differential visibility decreases in the Paα line. Combined with a differential phase certainly smaller than 3°, this yields an angular radius of the BLR larger than 0.4 milliarcseconds, or 1000 light days at the distance of 3C273, much larger than the reverberation mapping radius of 300 light days. Explaining the coexistence of these two different scales, and possibly structures and mechanisms, implies very new insights about the BLR of 3C273.

  10. Analisis Kendala Perizinan Spektrum Frekuensi Radio untuk Radio Komunitas

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Wahyuningsih

    2014-01-01

    Izin penggunaan spektrum frekuensi radio diatur dalam Undang-undang No.36 tahun 1999 tentang Telekomunikasi. Saat ini masih ditemukan Radio Komunitas yang belum memiliki Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menemu kenali kendala-kendala yang dihadapi Radio Komunitas pada proses pengajuan Izin Stasiun Radio (ISR). Teknik pengumpulan data melalui wawancara dengan penanggungjawab Radio Komunitas dan pejabat di lingkungan Balai Monitor Frekuensi Radio (Balmon) di Jakarta, Sema...

  11. Baseline Graphite Characterization: First Billet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark C. Carroll; Joe Lords; David Rohrbaugh

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Graphite Research and Development program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a very high temperature reactor design. To meet this goal, the program is generating the extensive amount of quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the available nuclear graphite grades. In order determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for the latest proposed designs, two main programs are underway. The first, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) program, is a set of experiments that are designed to evaluate the irradiated properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences, and compressive loads. Despite the aggressive experimental matrix that comprises the set of AGC test runs, a limited amount of data can be generated based upon the availability of space within the Advanced Test Reactor and the geometric constraints placed on the AGC specimens that will be inserted. In order to supplement the AGC data set, the Baseline Graphite Characterization program will endeavor to provide supplemental data that will characterize the inherent property variability in nuclear-grade graphite without the testing constraints of the AGC program. This variability in properties is a natural artifact of graphite due to the geologic raw materials that are utilized in its production. This variability will be quantified not only within a single billet of as-produced graphite, but also from billets within a single lot, billets from different lots of the same grade, and across different billets of the numerous grades of nuclear graphite that are presently available. The thorough understanding of this variability will provide added detail to the irradiated property data, and provide a more thorough understanding of the behavior of graphite that will be used in reactor design and licensing. This report covers the

  12. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation in Radio Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of radio telescopes is expected to be one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current generation. Examples of such new telescopes are the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), currently under construction in the Netherlands, and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), currently in a concept study phase. Another trend is that technological advances in the fields of electronics and communications systems have led to a vast increase in radio communication applications and sys...

  13. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  14. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  15. Hydrogeology baseline study Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  16. Investigating Cepheid $\\ell$ Carinae's Cycle-to-cycle Variations via Contemporaneous Velocimetry and Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, R I; Kervella, P; Breitfelder, J; LeBouquin, J -B; Eyer, L; Gallenne, A; Palaversa, L; Semaan, T; Saesen, S; Mowlavi, N

    2015-01-01

    Baade-Wesselink-type (BW) techniques enable geometric distance measurements of Cepheid variable stars in the Galaxy and the Magellanic clouds. The leading uncertainties involved concern projection factors required to translate observed radial velocities (RVs) to pulsational velocities and recently discovered modulated variability. We carried out an unprecedented observational campaign involving long-baseline interferometry (VLTI/PIONIER) and spectroscopy (Euler/Coralie) to search for modulated variability in the long-period (P $\\sim$ 35.5 d) Cepheid Carinae. We determine highly precise angular diameters from squared visibilities and investigate possible differences between two consecutive maximal diameters, $\\Delta_{\\rm{max}} \\Theta$. We characterize the modulated variability along the line-of-sight using 360 high-precision RVs. Here we report tentative evidence for modulated angular variability and confirm cycle-to-cycle differences of $\\ell$ Carinae's RV variability. Two successive maxima yield $\\Delta_{\\rm...

  17. Speckle interferometry of asteroids. I - 433 Eros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Cocke, W. J.; Hege, E. K.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Lambert, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the semimajor and semiminor axes and orientation angle of the ellipse projected by a triaxial asteroid, and the results are applied speckle-interferometry observations of the 433 Eros asteroid. The expressions were calculated as functions of the dimensions and pole of the body and of the asterocentric position of the earth and the sun. On the basis of the analytical expressions, the dimensions of 433 Eros are obtained. The light curve from December 18, 1981 is compared to the dimensions to obtain a geometric albedo of 0.156 (+ or - 0.010). A series of two-dimensional power spectra and autocorrelation functions for 433 Eros show that it is spinning in space.

  18. Ultrafast electrooptic dual-comb interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, Vicente; Torres-Company, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The femtosecond laser frequency comb has enabled the 21st century revolution in optical synthesis and metrology. A particularly compelling technique that relies on the broadband coherence of two laser frequency combs is dual-comb interferometry. This method is rapidly advancing the field of optical spectroscopy and empowering new applications, from nonlinear microscopy to laser ranging. Up to now, most dual-comb interferometers were based on modelocked lasers, whose repetition rates have restricted the measurement speed to ~ kHz. Here we demonstrate a novel dual-comb interferometer that is based on electrooptic frequency comb technology and measures consecutive complex spectra at a record-high refresh rate of 25 MHz. These results pave the way for novel scientific and metrology applications of frequency comb generators beyond the realm of molecular spectroscopy, where the measurement of ultrabroadband waveforms is of paramount relevance.

  19. Self-calibrating common-path interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Aguilar, Rosario; Falaggis, Konstantinos; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative phase measuring technique is presented that estimates the object phase from a series of phase shifted interferograms that are obtained in a common-path configuration with unknown phase shifts. The derived random phase shifting algorithm for common-path interferometers is based on the Generalized Phase Contrast theory [pl. Opt.40(2), 268 (2001)10.1063/1.1404846], which accounts for the particular image formation and includes effects that are not present in two-beam interferometry. It is shown experimentally that this technique can be used within common-path configurations employing nonlinear liquid crystal materials as self-induced phase filters for quantitative phase imaging without the need of phase shift calibrations. The advantages of such liquid crystal elements compared to spatial light modulator based solutions are given by the cost-effectiveness, self-alignment, and the generation of diminutive dimensions of the phase filter size, giving unique performance advantages. PMID:25836191

  20. AMiBA: Broadband Heterodyne CMB Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ming-Tang; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar; Chu, Tah-Hsiung; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wang, Huei; Wilson, Warwick; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wei; Koch, Patrick; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2009-01-01

    The Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background (AMiBA) has reported the first science results on the detection of galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect. The science objectives required small reflectors in order to sample large scale structures (20') while interferometry provided modest resolutions (2'). With these constraints, we designed for the best sensitivity by utilizing the maximum possible continuum bandwidth matched to the atmospheric window at 86-102GHz, with dual polarizations. A novel wide-band analog correlator was designed that is easily expandable for more interferometer elements. MMIC technology was used throughout as much as possible in order to miniaturize the components and to enhance mass production. These designs will find application in other upcoming astronomy projects. AMiBA is now in operations since 2006, and we are in the process to expand the array from 7 to 13 elements.

  1. Monitoring of Bridge Dynamics by Radar Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imrich Lipták

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the possibilities of radar interferometry in dynamic deformationmonitoring of bridge structures. The technology is increasingly used for this purposethanks to high accuracy of realized measurements and possibility to measure deformationat multiple places of the monitored structure. High frequency of realized measurements (upto 200 Hz enables to determine the most of significant vibration modes of bridgedeformation. This technology is presented on real case study of the cycle bridge over theriver Morava near to Bratislava (Slovak republic. A spectral analysis of vibrationfrequencies is performed by discrete Fourier transformation. The evaluation of correctnessof the obtained deformation is performed by comparison of the results with accelerometerand total station measurements and FEM (Finite Element Method model of the structure.

  2. Observations of Circumstellar Disks with Infrared Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeson, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Star formation is arguably the area of astrophysics in which infrared interferometry has had the biggest impact. The optically thick portion of T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be disks DO NOT extend to a few stellar radii of the stellar surface. Emission is coming from near the dust sublimation radius, but not all from a single radius. The Herbig Ae stars can be either flared or self-shadowed but very massive (early Be) stars are geometrically thin. The Herbig Ae stars can be either flared or self-shadowed but very massive (early Be) stars are geometrically thin. Observational prospects are rapidly improving: a) Higher spectral resolution will allow observations of the gas: jets, winds, accretion. b) Closure phase and imaging will help eliminate model uncertainties/dependencies.

  3. Interferometry with Photon-Subtracted Thermal Light

    CERN Document Server

    Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad Hashemi; Magana-Loaiza, Omar S; Gard, Bryan T; Birrittella, Richard; Koltenbah, B E; Parazzoli, C G; Capron, Barbara A; Gerry, Christopher C; Dowling, Jonathan P; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We propose and implement a quantum procedure for enhancing the sensitivity with which one can determine the phase shift experienced by a weak light beam possessing thermal statistics in passing through an interferometer. Our procedure entails subtracting exactly one (which can be generalized to m) photons from the light field exiting an interferometer containing a phase-shifting element in one of its arms. As a consequence of the process of photon subtraction, and somewhat surprisingly, the mean photon number and signal-to-noise ratio of the resulting light field are thereby increased, leading to enhanced interferometry. This method can be used to increase measurement sensitivity in a variety of practical applications, including that of forming the image of an object illuminated only by weak thermal light.

  4. Refractive index determination by coherence scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, H; Kaminski, P M; Smith, R; Walls, J M; Mansfield, D

    2016-05-20

    Coherence scanning interferometry is established as a powerful noncontact, three-dimensional, metrology technique used to determine accurate surface roughness and topography measurements with subnanometer precision. The helical complex field (HCF) function is a topographically defined helix modulated by the electrical field reflectance, originally developed for the measurement of thin films. An approach to extend the capability of the HCF function to determine the spectral refractive index of a substrate or absorbing film has recently been proposed. In this paper, we confirm this new capability, demonstrating it on surfaces of silicon, gold, and a gold/palladium alloy using silica and zirconia oxide thin films. These refractive index dispersion measurements show good agreement with those obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry. PMID:27411157

  5. Ultrafast electrooptic dual-comb interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Vicente; Tainta, Santiago; Torres-Company, Victor

    2015-11-16

    Dual-comb interferometry is a particularly compelling technique that relies on the phase coherence of two laser frequency combs for measuring broadband complex spectra. This method is rapidly advancing the field of optical spectroscopy and empowering new applications, from nonlinear microscopy to laser ranging. Up to now, most dual-comb interferometers were based on modelocked lasers, whose repetition rates have restricted the measurement speed to ~kHz. Here we demonstrate a dual-comb interferometer that is based on electrooptic frequency combs and measures consecutive complex spectra at an ultra-high refresh rate of 25 MHz. These results pave the way for novel scientific and metrology applications of frequency comb generators beyond the realm of molecular spectroscopy, where the measurement of ultrabroadband waveforms is of paramount relevance. PMID:26698533

  6. Shell deformation studies using holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmerter, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The buckling of shallow spherical shells under pressure has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental papers. Experimental data above the theoretical buckling load of Huang have given rise to speculation that shallow shell theory may not adequately predict the stability of nonsymmetric modes in higher-rise shells which are normally classified as shallow by the Reissner criterion. This article considers holographic interferometry as a noncontact, high-resolution method of measuring prebuckling deformations. Prebuckling deformations of a lambda = 9, h/b = 0.038 shell are Fourier-analyzed. Buckling is found to occur in an N = 5 mode as predicted by Huang's theory. The N = 4 mode was unusually stable, suggesting that even at this low value of h/b, stabilizing effects may be at work.

  7. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Precision Radial Velocimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J; Lloyd, J; Herter, T; Feuerstein, W M; Muirhead, P; Wishnow, E

    2007-01-01

    Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) is the series combination of a fixed-delay field-widened Michelson interferometer with a dispersive spectrograph. This combination boosts the spectrograph performance for both Doppler velocimetry and high resolution spectroscopy. The interferometer creates a periodic spectral comb that multiplies against the input spectrum to create moire fringes, which are recorded in combination with the regular spectrum. The moire pattern shifts in phase in response to a Doppler shift. Moire patterns are broader than the underlying spectral features and more easily survive spectrograph blurring and common distortions. Thus, the EDI technique allows lower resolution spectrographs having relaxed optical tolerances (and therefore higher throughput) to return high precision velocity measurements, which otherwise would be imprecise for the spectrograph alone.

  8. Low Coherence Interferometry in Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, A.; Seyda, V.; Herzog, D.; Emmelmann, C.; Schönleber, M.; Kogel-Hollacher, M.

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive layer manufacturing technology that offers several advantages compared to conven- tional methods of production such as an increased freedom of design and a toolless production suited for variable lot sizes. Despite these attractive aspects today's state of the art SLM machines lack a holistic process monitoring system that detects and records typical defects during production. A novel sensor concept based on the low coherence interferometry (LCI) was integrated into an SLM production setup. The sensor is mounted coaxially to the processing laser beam and is capable of sampling distances along the optical axis. Measurements during and between the processing of powder layers can reveal crucial topology information which is closely related to the final part quality. The overall potential of the sensor in terms of quality assurance and process control is being discussed. Furthermore fundamental experiments were performed to derive the performance of the system.

  9. Chameleon Dark Energy and Atom Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Elder, Benjamin; Haslinger, Philipp; Jaffe, Matt; Müller, Holger; Hamilton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Atom interferometry experiments are searching for evidence of chameleon scalar fields with ever-increasing precision. As experiments become more precise, so too must theoretical predictions. Previous work has made numerous approximations to simplify the calculation, which in general requires solving a 3-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we introduce a new technique for calculating the chameleonic force, using a numerical relaxation scheme on a uniform grid. This technique is more general than previous work, which assumed spherical symmetry to reduce the PDE to a 1-dimensional ordinary differential equation (ODE). We examine the effects of approximations made in previous efforts on this subject, and calculate the chameleonic force in a set-up that closely mimics the recent experiment of Hamilton et al. Specifically, we simulate the vacuum chamber as a cylinder with dimensions matching those of the experiment, taking into account the backreaction of the source mass, its o...

  10. Edge effects in composites by moire interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnek, R.; Post, D.; Herakovich, C.

    1983-01-01

    The very high sensitivity of moire interferometry has permitted the present edge effect experiments to be conducted at a low average stress and strain level, assuring linear and elastic behavior in the composite material samples tested. Sensitivity corresponding to 2450 line/mm moire was achieved with a 0.408 micron/fringe. Simultaneous observations of the specimen face and edge displacement fields showed good fringe definition despite the 1-mm thickness of the specimens and the high gradients, and it is noted that the use of a carrier pattern and optical filtering was effective in even these conditions. Edge effects and dramatic displacement gradients were confirmed in angle-ply composite laminates.

  11. Interferometry using undulator sources (invited, abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguiristain, R.; Goldberg, K. A.; Tejnil, E.; Bokor, J.; Medecki, H.; Attwood, D. T.; Jackson, K.

    1996-09-01

    Optical systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography need to use optical components with subnanometer surface figure error tolerances to achieve diffraction-limited performance [M.D. Himel, in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A.M. Hawryluk and R.H. Stulen, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1993), 18, 1089, and D. Attwood et al., Appl. Opt. 32, 7022 (1993)]. Also, multilayer-coated optics require at-wavelength wavefront measurement to characterize phase effects that cannot be measured by conventional optical interferometry. Furthermore, EUV optical systems will additionally require final testing and alignment at the operational wavelength for adjustment and reduction of the cumulative optical surface errors. Therefore, at-wavelength interferometric measurement of EUV optics will be the necessary metrology tool for the successful development of optics for EUV lithography. An EUV point diffraction interferometer (PDI) has been developed at the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) and has been already in operation for a year [K. Goldberg et al., in Extreme Ultra Lithography, D.T. Attwood and F. Zernike, eds. (OSA, Washington, D.C., 1994), K. Goldberg et al., Proc. SPIE 2437, to be published, and K. Goldberg et al., J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 2923 (1995)] using an undulator radiation source and coherent optics beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. An overview of the PDI interferometer and some EUV wavefront measurements obtained with this instrument will be presented. In addition, future developments planned for EUV interferometry at CXRO towards the measurement of actual EUV lithography optics will be shown.

  12. Investigation of surface deformations by double exposure holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface deformations of rigid bodies produced by thermal as well as mechanical strains have been investigated using double-exposure holographic interferometry. The recorded interference fringes have been discussed qualitatively. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  13. Radio emission in peculiar galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demellorabaca, Dulia F.; Abraham, Zulema

    1990-01-01

    During the last decades a number of surveys of peculiar galaxies have been carried out and accurate positions become available. Since peculiarities are a possible evidence of radio emission (Wright, 1974; Sulentic, 1976; Stocke et al., 1978), the authors selected a sample of 24 peculiar galaxies with optical jet-like features or extensions in different optical catalogues, mainly the Catalogue of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations (Arp and Madore, 1987) and the ESO/Uppsala Survey of the ESO(B) Atlas (Lauberts, 1982) for observation at the radio continuum frequency of 22 GHz. The sample is listed in a table. Sol (1987) studied this sample and concluded that the majority of the jet-like features seem to admit an explanation in terms of interactive galaxies with bridges and/or tails due to tidal effects. Only in a few cases do the jets seem to be possibly linked to some nuclear activity of the host galaxy. The observations were made with the 13.7m-radome enclosed Itapetinga Radiotelescope (HPBW of 4.3 arcmin), in Brazil. The receiver was a 1 GHz d.s.b. super-heterodine mixer operated in total-power mode, with a system temperature of approximately 800 K. The observational technique consisted in scans in right ascention, centralized in the optical position of the galaxy. The amplitude of one scan was 43 arcmin, and its duration time was 20 seconds. The integration time was at least 2 hours (12 ten-minute observations) and the sensibility limit adopted was an antenna temperature greater than 3 times the r.m.s. error of the baseline determination. Virgo A was used as the calibrator source. Three galaxies were detected for the first time as radio sources and four other known galaxies at low frequencies had their flux densities measured at 22 GHz. The results for these sources are presented.

  14. Applications of holographic interferometry to cryogenic ICF target characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniformity of condensed layers of DT fuel in cryogenic ICF targets is a crucial parameter in their design. Measurements by classical interferometry lacks resolution to determine DT layer uniformity for targets with thick glass shells and/or thick ablative polymer coatings. We have developed holographic interferometry as an alternative tool for layer uniformity determination. This method is sensitive only to the fuel layer itself. We describe the technique and interference pattern analysis, and present preliminary results

  15. Wedge Prism for Direction Resolved Speckle Correlation Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of a wedge prism for strain sign determination and enhancing the sensitivity for sub-fringe changes is emphasized. The design and incorporation aspects for in-plane sensitive interferometers have been described in detail. Some experimental results dealing with stress determination by laser annealing and speckle correlation interferometry are presented. The prism can also be applied to produce standardized carrier fringes in spatial phase shifting interferometry

  16. Control system for absolute laser interferometry with semiconductor lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    Brno: Vysoké učení technické v Brně, 2004 - (Boušek, J.; Háze, J.), s. 468-473 ISBN 80-214-2701-9. [EDS '04 /11./ Electronic Devices and Systems Conference. Brno (CZ), 09.09.2004-10.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2065009 Keywords : Semiconductor laser * absolute laser interferometry * wavelength scanning interferometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  17. Narrow linewidth single laser source system for onboard atom interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Theron, Fabien; Carraz, Olivier; Renon, Geoffrey; Bidel, Yannick; Zahzam, Nassim; Cadoret, Malo; Bresson, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    A compact and robust laser system for atom interferometry based on a frequency-doubled telecom laser is presented. Thanks to an original stabilization architecture on a saturated absorption setup, we obtain a frequency-agile laser system allowing fast tuning of the laser frequency over 1 GHz in few ms using a single laser source. The different laser frequencies used for atom interferometry are generated by changing dynamically the frequency of the laser and by creating sidebands using a phase...

  18. Lepton interferometry in relativistic heavy ion collisions - a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Jan-e; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Rahaman, A .; Sarkar, Sourav; Sinha, Bikash

    2004-01-01

    We propose intensity interferometry with identical lepton pairs as an efficient tool for the estimation of the source size of the expanding hot zone produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. This can act as a complementary method to two photon interferometry. The correlation function of two electrons with the same helicity has been evaluated for RHIC energies. The thermal shift of the rho meson mass has negligible effects on the HBT radii.

  19. A Possible Future for Space-Based Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, L.; Leger, A.; Malbet, F.; Danchi, William C.; Lopez, B.

    2013-01-01

    We address the question of space interferometry following the recent outcome of the science themes selection by ESA for the L2/L3 missions slots. We review the current context of exoplanetary sciences and its impact for an interferometric mission. We argue that space interferometry will make a major step forward when the scientific communities interested in this technique will merge their efforts into a coherent technology development plan.

  20. In-Process Fast Surface Measurement Using Wavelength Scanning Interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, F.; H. Muhamedsalih; Jiang, X.

    2012-01-01

    A wavelength scanning interferometry system for fast areal surface measurement of micro and nano-scale surfaces which is immune to environmental noise is introduced in this paper. It can be used for surface measurement of discontinuous surface profiles by producing phase shifts without any mechanical scanning process. White light spectral scanning interferometry, together with an acousto-optic tuneable filtering technique, is used to measure both smooth surfaces and those with ...