WorldWideScience

Sample records for baseline cohort characteristics

  1. Cohort profile: Lifelines DEEP, a prospective, general population cohort study in the northern Netherlands: study design and baseline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Tigchelaar, E.F.; Zhernakova, A; Dekens, J.A.M.; Hermes, G.D.A.; Baranska, A.; Mujagic, Z.; M.A. Swertz; Munoz, A.M.; Deelen, P.; Cenit, M. C.; Franke, L; Scholtens, S.; Stolk, R.P.; Wijmenga, C; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: There is a critical need for population-based prospective cohort studies because they follow individuals before the onset of disease, allowing for studies that can identify biomarkers and disease-modifying effects, and thereby contributing to systems epidemiology. Participants: This paper describes the design and baseline characteristics of an intensively examined subpopulation of the LifeLines cohort in the Netherlands. In this unique subcohort, LifeLines DEEP, we included 1539 part...

  2. The Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.;

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteristics...

  3. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: study design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥ 28 kg/m2, 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases.

  4. Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL; emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI; disease self-management (PAM; and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC. 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing.

  5. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  6. ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS): study methodology, recruitment, and baseline demographic and disease characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Andrews, Howard; Goetz, Raymond R; Andrews, Leslie; Rabkin, Judith G; McElhiney, Martin; Nieves, Jeri; Santella, Regina M; Murphy, Jennifer; Hupf, Jonathan; Singleton, Jess; Merle, David; Kilty, Mary; Heitzman, Daragh; Bedlack, Richard S; Miller, Robert G; Katz, Jonathan S; Forshew, Dallas; Barohn, Richard J; Sorenson, Eric J; Oskarsson, Bjorn; Fernandes Filho, J Americo M; Kasarskis, Edward J; Lomen-Hoerth, Catherine; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Rollins, Yvonne D; Nations, Sharon P; Swenson, Andrea J; Shefner, Jeremy M; Andrews, Jinsy A; Koczon-Jaremko, Boguslawa A

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In a multicenter study of newly diagnosed ALS patients without a reported family history of ALS, we are prospectively investigating whether markers of oxidative stress (OS) are associated with disease progression. Methods utilize an extensive structured telephone interview ascertaining environmental, lifestyle, dietary and psychological risk factors associated with OS. Detailed assessments were performed at baseline and at 3-6 month intervals during the ensuing 30 months. Our biorepository includes DNA, plasma, urine, and skin. Three hundred and fifty-five patients were recruited. Subjects were enrolled over a 36-month period at 16 sites. To meet the target number of subjects, the recruitment period was prolonged and additional sites were included. Results showed that demographic and disease characteristics were similar between 477 eligible/non-enrolled and enrolled patients, the only difference being type of health insurance among enrolled patients. Sites were divided into three groups by the number of enrolled subjects. Comparing these three groups, the Columbia site had fewer 'definite ALS' diagnoses. This is the first prospective, interdisciplinary, in-depth, multicenter epidemiological investigation of OS related to ALS progression and has been accomplished by an aggressive recruitment process. The baseline demographic and disease features of the study sample are now fully characterized.

  7. A cluster randomized trial of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring in Zambia: study design, implementation, and baseline cohort characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Koethe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The benefit of routine HIV-1 viral load (VL monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-constrained settings is uncertain because of the high costs associated with the test and the limited treatment options. We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the use of routine VL testing at ART-initiation and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, versus our local standard of care (which uses immunological and clinical criteria to diagnose treatment failure, with discretionary VL testing when the two do not agree. METHODOLOGY: Dedicated study personnel were integrated into public-sector ART clinics. We collected participant information in a dedicated research database. Twelve ART clinics in Lusaka, Zambia constituted the units of randomization. Study clinics were stratified into pairs according to matching criteria (historical mortality rate, size, and duration of operation to limit the effect of clustering, and independently randomized to the intervention and control arms. The study was powered to detect a 36% reduction in mortality at 18 months. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From December 2006 to May 2008, we completed enrollment of 1973 participants. Measured baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the study arms. Enrollment was staggered by clinic pair and truncated at two matched sites. CONCLUSIONS: A large clinical trial of routing VL monitoring was successfully implemented in a dynamic and rapidly growing national ART program. Close collaboration with local health authorities and adequate reserve staff were critical to success. Randomized controlled trials such as this will likely prove valuable in determining long-term outcomes in resource-constrained settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00929604.

  8. The baseline characteristics and interim analyses of the high-risk sentinel cohort of the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic InfectiONS (VIZIONS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Tue, Ngo T; Bryant, Juliet E; Saylors, Karen; Cuong, Nguyen V; Hoa, Ngo T; An, Nguyen N; Hien, Vo B; Lao, Pham V; Tu, Nguyen C; Chuyen, Nguyen K; Chuc, Nguyen T K; Tan, Dinh V; Duong, Hoang Van V; Toan, Tran K; Chi, Nguyen T Y; Campbell, James; Rabaa, Maia A; Nadjm, Behzad; Woolhouse, Mark; Wertheim, Heiman; Thwaites, Guy; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-10

    The Vietnam Initiative for Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS) includes community-based 'high-risk sentinel cohort' (HRSC) studies investigating individuals at risk of zoonotic infection due to occupational or residential exposure to animals. A total of 852 HRSC members were recruited between March 2013 and August 2014 from three provinces (Ha Noi, Dak Lak, and Dong Thap). The most numerous group (72.8%) corresponded to individuals living on farms, followed by slaughterers (16.3%) and animal health workers (8.5%). Nasal/pharyngeal and rectal swabs were collected from HRSC members at recruitment and after notifying illness. Exposure to exotic animals (including wild pigs, porcupine, monkey, civet, bamboo rat and bat) was highest for the Dak Lak cohort (53.7%), followed by Ha Noi (13.7%) and Dong Thap (4.0%). A total of 26.8% of individuals reported consumption of raw blood over the previous year; 33.6% slaughterers reported no use of protective equipment at work. Over 686 person-years of observation, 213 episodes of suspect infectious disease were notified, equivalent of 0.35 reports per person-year. Responsive samples were collected from animals in the farm cohort. There was noticeable time and space clustering of disease episodes suggesting that the VIZIONS set up is also suitable for the formal epidemiological investigation of disease outbreaks.

  9. Patient-orientated longitudinal study of multiple sclerosis in south west England (The South West Impact of Multiple Sclerosis Project, SWIMS 1: protocol and baseline characteristics of cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Dave E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for greater understanding of the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS from the perspective of individuals with the condition. The South West Impact of MS Project (SWIMS has been designed to improve understanding of disease impact using a patient-centred approach. The purpose is to (1 develop improved measurement instruments for clinical trials, (2 evaluate longitudinal performance of a variety of patient-reported outcome measures, (3 develop prognostic predictors for use in individualising drug treatment for patients, particularly early on in the disease course. Methods This is a patient-centred, prospective, longitudinal study of multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS in south west England. The study area comprises two counties with a population of approximately 1.7 million and an estimated 1,800 cases of MS. Self-completion questionnaires are administered to participants every six months (for people with MS or 12 months (CIS. Here we present descriptive statistics of the baseline data provided by 967 participants with MS. Results Seventy-five percent of those approached consented to participate. The male:female ratio was 1.00:3.01 (n = 967. Average (standard deviation age at time of entry to SWIMS was 51.6 (11.5 years (n = 961 and median (interquartile range time since first symptom was 13.3 (6.8 to 24.5 years (n = 934. Fatigue was the most commonly reported symptom, with 80% of participants experiencing fatigue at baseline. Although medication use for symptom control was common, there was little evidence of effectiveness, particularly for fatigue. Nineteen percent of participants were unable to classify their subtype of MS. When patient-reported subtype was compared to neurologist assessment for a sample of participants (n = 396, agreement in disease sub-type was achieved in 63% of cases. There were 836 relapses, reported by 931 participants, in the twelve months prior to baseline. Twenty

  10. Design and baseline characteristics of a coronary heart disease prospective cohort: two-year experience from the strategy of registry of acute coronary syndrome study (ERICO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra C. Goulart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the ERICO study (Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome, a prospective cohort to investigate the epidemiology of acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: The ERICO study, which is being performed at a secondary general hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, is enrolling consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients who are 35 years old or older. The sociodemographic information, medical assessments, treatment data and blood samples are collected at admission. After 30 days, the medical history is updated, and additional blood and urinary samples are collected. In addition, a retinography, carotid intima-media thickness, heart rate variability and pulse-wave velocity are performed. Questionnaires about food frequency, physical activity, sleep apnea and depression are also applied. At six months and annually after an acute event, information is collected by telephone. RESULTS: From February 2009 to September 2011, 738 patients with a diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled. Of these, 208 (28.2% had ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 288 (39.0% had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and 242 (32.8% had unstable angina (UA. The mean age was 62.7 years, 58.5% were men and 77.4% had 8 years or less of education. The most common cardiovascular risk factors were hypertension (76% and sedentarism (73.4%. Only 29.2% had a prior history of coronary heart disease. Compared with the ST-elevation myocardial infarction subgroup, the unstable angina and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients had higher frequencies of hypertension, diabetes, prior coronary heart disease (p<0.001 and dyslipidemia (p = 0.03. Smoking was more frequent in the ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients (p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with other hospital registries, our findings revealed a higher burden of CV risk factors and less frequent prior CHD history.

  11. Characteristics, cycling patterns, and crash and injury experiences at baseline of a cohort of transport and recreational cyclists in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, R G; Hatfield, J; Rissel, C; Flack, L K; Murphy, S; Grzebieta, R; McIntosh, A S

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines self-reported retrospective data for a 12 month period from 2038 adult cyclists from New South Wales (Australia), and compares cyclists according to whether they self-identify as riding mainly for transport or mainly for recreation. Statistically significant differences were found in the demographic characteristics, cycling patterns, and crash experiences between these two groups of cyclists. Transport cyclists tended to be younger, travel more days per week, and within morning and evening peak hours than recreational cyclists; recreational cyclists were more likely to identify fitness as a purpose for cycling. The proportion of cyclists experiencing a crash or crash-related injury in the previous 12 months was similar for transport and recreational cyclists, but there were differences in crash types and location which likely reflect different cycling environments. Heterogeneity within transport and recreational cyclists was also found, based on self-reported riding intensity. An understanding of the different cycling patterns and experiences of various types of cyclists is useful to inform road safety, transport and health promotion policy.

  12. Design and baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study for determinants of osteoporotic fracture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men: the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Jong-Seong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture in men are significant public health problems in an aging society. However, information on male osteoporosis remains impressively lacking, especially for Asians. We designed the Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN study as an ancillary study of a cohort study, the Fujiwara-kyo study, to determine risk factors for osteoporotic fractures in Japanese men. Methods/Design Design: A community-based single-centre prospective cohort study with at least a 5-year follow-up Subjects: All the male participants of the Fujiwara-kyo study who were living in the four cities studied, aged 65 years and older, and able to walk without aid from others. Primary outcome: Incidence of osteoporotic fractures including vertebral and clinical non-vertebral fractures. Additional outcomes: Change in bone mineral density (BMD, change in hip geometry, onset of receiving benefits from Long-term Care Insurance (LCI, health-related quality of life, and mortality. Baseline measurements: BMD at the lumbar spine (LS and hip (TH, hip geometry, vertebral deformity assessment, bone turnover markers, physical and cognitive performance, various medical and lifestyle factors, and geriatric psychosocial measures confirmed by interviews based on self-administrated questionnaires. Outcome surveillance: Annual mail surveys and a follow-up survey at the fifth year comprising similar items to the baseline study will be used to determine the outcomes. Receipt of benefits from LCI and mortality will be obtained from the city governments. Current status: The baseline study was conducted for 2174 eligible men, and 2012 completed the study and were eligible for follow-up. Prevalence rates of osteoporosis (BMD 2.5 SD or more below the young adult mean (YAM and low BMD (BMD 1 SD or more below YAM in at least one of LS and TH were calculated to be 4.4% and 41.8%, respectively. The proportion of men with low BMD only at TH showed a

  13. The physical and mental health of a large military cohort: baseline functional health status of the Millennium Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engel Charles C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The US military is currently involved in large, lengthy, and complex combat operations around the world. Effective military operations require optimal health of deployed service members, and both mental and physical health can be affected by military operations. Methods: Baseline data were collected from 77,047 US service members during 2001–2003 as part of a large, longitudinal, population-based military health study (the Millennium Cohort Study. The authors calculated unadjusted, adjusted, and weighted means for the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Survey for Veterans physical (PCS and mental component summary (MCS scores over a variety of demographic and military characteristics at baseline. Results: The unadjusted mean PCS and MCS scores for this study were 53.4 (95% confidence interval: 53.3–53.4 and 52.8 (95% confidence interval: 52.7–52.9. Average PCS and MCS scores were slightly more favorable in this military sample compared to those of the US general population of the same age and sex. Factors independently associated with more favorable health status included male gender, being married, higher educational attainment, higher military rank, and Air Force service. Combat specialists had similar health status compared to other military occupations. Having been deployed to Southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo between 1998 and 2000 was not associated with diminished health status. Conclusion: The baseline health status of this large population-based military cohort is better than that of the US general population of the same age and sex distribution over the same time period, especially in older age groups. Deployment experiences during the period of 1998–2001 were not associated with decreased health status. These data will serve as a useful reference for other military health studies and for future longitudinal analyses.

  14. Characteristics, therapy and outcome in an unselected and prospectively registered cohort of pancreatic cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, J K; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Schønnemann, K R;

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is associated with a dismal prognosis. Few studies have examined characteristics and outcome in an unselected population-based cohort of PC patients. Therefore, we investigated patient baseline characteristics, therapy choices and survival in a complete cohort of patients...

  15. Protocol of the baseline assessment for the Environments for Healthy Living (EHL Wales cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunstan Frank

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health is a result of influences operating at multiple levels. For example, inadequate housing, poor educational attainment, and reduced access to health care are clustered together, and are all associated with reduced health. Policies which try to change individual people's behaviour have limited effect when people have little control over their environment. However, structural environmental change and an understanding of the way that influences interact with each other, has the potential to facilitate healthy choices irrespective of personal resources. The aim of Environments for Healthy Living (EHL is to investigate the impact of gestational and postnatal environments on health, and to examine where structural change can be brought about to optimise health outcomes. The baseline assessment will focus on birth outcomes and maternal and infant health. Methods/Design EHL is a longitudinal birth cohort study. We aim to recruit 1000 pregnant women in the period April 2010 to March 2013. We will examine the impact of the gestational environment (maternal health and the postnatal environment (housing and neighbourhood conditions on subsequent health outcomes for the infants born to these women. Data collection will commence during the participants' pregnancy, from approximately 20 weeks gestation. Participants will complete a questionnaire, undergo anthropometric measurements, wear an accelerometer, compile a food diary, and have environmental measures taken within their home. They will also be asked to consent to having a sample of umbilical cord blood taken following delivery of their baby. These data will be complemented by routinely collected electronic data such as health records from GP surgeries, hospital admissions, and child health and development records. Thereafter, participants will be visited annually for follow-up of subsequent exposures and child health outcomes. Discussion The baseline assessment of EHL will

  16. Baseline characteristics in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Marc A; Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Chen, Chao-Yin;

    2009-01-01

    : the composite end point of death or cardiovascular morbidity (nonfatal myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or hospitalization for myocardial ischemia). The composite end point of death or need for long-term renal replacement therapy also is a primary end point. CONCLUSIONS: With several......BACKGROUND: Anemia augments the already high rates of fatal and major nonfatal cardiovascular and renal events in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In 2004, we initiated the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT). This report presents the baseline characteristics......-fold more patient-years and a placebo arm, TREAT will provide a robust estimate of the safety and efficacy of darbepoetin alfa and generate prospective data regarding the risks of major cardiovascular and renal events in a contemporarily managed cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes, CKD, and anemia....

  17. Baseline self reported functional health and vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder after combat deployment: prospective US military cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    LeardMann, Cynthia A; Tyler C. Smith; Smith, Besa; Wells, Timothy S; Ryan, Margaret A. K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine if baseline functional health status, as measured by SF-36 (veterans), predicts new onset symptoms or diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder among deployed US military personnel with combat exposure. Design Prospective cohort analysis. Setting Millennium Cohort. Participants Combat deployed members who completed baseline (2001-3) and follow-up (2004-6) questionnaires. Self reported and electronic data used to examine the relation between functional health and post-...

  18. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sink KM

    2014-08-01

    adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7 had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001. The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the area of prevention of cognitive decline, the LIFE Study will also likely serve as a model for exercise and other behavioral intervention trials in older adults. Keywords: exercise, physical activity, older adults, dementia

  19. Hearing aid effectiveness after aural rehabilitation - individual versus group (HEARING trial: RCT design and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heagerty Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hearing impairment is the most common body system disability in veterans. In 2008, nearly 520,000 veterans had a disability for hearing loss through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA. Changes in eligibility for hearing aid services, along with the aging population, contributed to a greater than 300% increase in the number of hearing aids dispensed from 1996 to 2006. In 2006, the VA committed to having no wait times for patient visits while providing quality clinically-appropriate care. One approach to achieving this goal is the use of group visits as an alternative to individual visits. We sought to determine: 1 if group hearing aid fitting and follow-up visits were at least as effective as individual visits, and 2 whether group visits lead to cost savings through the six month period after the hearing aid fitting. We describe the rationale, design, and characteristics of the baseline cohort of the first randomized clinical trial to study the impact of group versus individual hearing aid fitting and follow-up visits. Methods Participants were recruited from the VA Puget Sound Health Care System Audiology Clinic. Eligible patients had no previous hearing aid use and monaural or binaural air-conduction hearing aids were ordered at the evaluation visit. Participants were randomized to receive the hearing aid fitting and the hearing aid follow-up in an individual or group visit. The primary outcomes were hearing-related function, measured with the first module of the Effectiveness of Aural Rehabilitation (Inner EAR, and hearing aid adherence. We tracked the total cost of planned and unplanned audiology visits over the 6-month interval after the hearing aid fitting. Discussion A cohort of 659 participants was randomized to receive group or individual hearing aid fitting and follow-up visits. Baseline demographic and self-reported health status and hearing-related measures were evenly distributed across the treatment arms

  20. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2

  1. Association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and utilization of colonoscopy in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Silke; Friedrich, Susanne; Haug, Ulrike; Rohrmann, Sabine; Becker, Nikolaus; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to describe the utilization of colonoscopy and its association with sociodemographic characteristics within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort study. We included 15 014 study participants (43% men) of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort recruited between 1994 and 1998. At baseline recruitment, as well as in the 3-yearly follow-up surveys, study participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, socioeconomic background variables, health status, and use of medications and medical services, including colonoscopy examinations. The present analyses focused on participants who completed the question on colonoscopy examination in all follow-up rounds. Our results show that by the end of the fourth follow-up round, more than half of all participants of the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort had had a colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was associated with some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics: a positive association with vocational training level as well as overall socioeconomic status level [International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) classification]. A negative association was found for household size and employment status. Colonoscopy usage increased steeply within the subgroup of participants older than 55 years of age and decreased again within the subgroup of participants older than 75 years of age. Organized colorectal cancer screening should include a written invitation system, to overcome the problem of sociodemographic-related differential awareness of and attendance at colonoscopy examinations. Also, the high proportion of prescreened individuals should be taken into account to avoid unnecessary re-examinations. PMID:25244156

  2. Baseline characteristics and management of patients with splanchnic vein thrombosis: Results of an international registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageno, W.; Riva, N.; Schulman, S.; Bang, S.-M.; Sartori, M.T.; Grandone, E.; Beyer, J.; Pasca, S.; Di Minno, D.; Duce, R.; Malato, A.; Santoro, R.; Poli, D.; Verhamme, P.; Passamonti, S.; Kamphuisen, P.; Alatri, A.; Becattini, C.; Bucherini, E.; Piana, A.; De Stefano, V.; Vidili, G.; Bazzan, M.; Di Nisio, M.; Dentali, F.; Martinelli, I.; Barillari, G.; Poggio, R.; Colaizzo, D.; Vaccarino, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is a challenging disease. The aim of this international registry was to describe the characteristics of a large cohort of patients with SVT and their management in clinical practice. Patients and Methods Consecutive patients with objectively diagnosed SVT

  3. Baseline Characteristics in the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeffer, Marc A.; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.; Chen, Chao-Yin; Cooper, Mark E.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Ivanovich, Peter; Kewalramani, Reshma; Levey, Andrew S.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; McGill, Janet; McMurray, John J. V.; Parfrey, Patrick; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Singh, Ajay K.; Solomon, Scott D.; Toto, Robert; Uno, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anemia augments the already high rates of fatal and major nonfatal cardiovascular and renal events in individuals with type 2 diabetes. In 2004, we initiated the Trial to Reduce Cardiovascular Events With Aranesp Therapy (TREAT). This report presents the baseline characteristics and ther

  4. Course and prognosis of recovery for chronic non-specific low back pain: design, therapy program and baseline data of a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkerk Karin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increasing focus on factors predicting the development of chronic musculoskeletal disorders. For patients already experiencing chronic non-specific low back pain it is also relevant to investigate which prognostic factors predict recovery. We present the design of a cohort study that aims to determine the course and prognostic factors for recovery in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Methods/Design All participating patients were recruited (Jan 2003-Dec 2008 from the same rehabilitation centre and were evaluated by means of (postal questionnaires and physical examinations at baseline, during the 2-month therapy program, and at 5 and 12 months after start of therapy. The therapy protocol at the rehabilitation centre used a bio-psychosocial approach to stimulate patients to adopt adequate (movement behaviour aimed at physical and functional recovery. The program is part of regular care and consists of 16 sessions of 3 hours each, over an 8-week period (in total 48 hours, followed by a 3-month self-management program. The primary outcomes are low back pain intensity, disability, quality of life, patient's global perceived effect of recovery, and participation in work. Baseline characteristics include information on socio-demographics, low back pain, employment status, and additional clinical items status such as fatigue, duration of activities, and fear of kinesiophobia. Prognostic variables are determined for recovery at short-term (5 months and long-term (12 months follow-up after start of therapy. Discussion In a routine clinical setting it is important to provide patients suffering from chronic non-specific low back pain with adequate information about the prognosis of their complaint.

  5. Impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes of carotid artery stenting in acute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Sheng Yu,1,* Chih-Ming Lin,2,3,* Chi-Kuang Liu,4 Henry Horng-Shing Lu1 1Institute of Statistics and Big Data Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 2Stroke Centre and Department of Neurology, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, 3Graduate Institute of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 4Department of Medical Imaging, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Carotid artery stenting is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke patients with moderate-to-severe carotid artery stenosis. However, the midterm outcome for patients undergoing this procedure varies considerably with baseline characteristics. To determine the impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes following carotid artery stenting, data from 107 eligible patients with a first episode of ischemic stroke were collected by retrospective chart review. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to divide patients into two baseline groups, mRS ≤2 and mRS >2. A three-step decision-tree statistical analysis was conducted. After weighting the decision-tree parameters, the following impact hierarchy was obtained: admission low-density lipoprotein, gouty arthritis, chronic kidney disease, ipsilateral common carotid artery resistance index, contralateral ophthalmic artery resistance index, sex, and dyslipidemia. The finite-state machine model demonstrated that, in patients with baseline mRS ≤2, 46% had an improved mRS score at follow-up, whereas 54% had a stable mRS score. In patients with baseline mRS >2, a stable mRS score was observed in 75%, improved score in 23%, and a poorer score in 2%. Admission low-density lipoprotein was the strongest predictive factor influencing poststenting outcome. In addition, our study provides further evidence that carotid artery stenting can be of benefit in first-time ischemic stroke patients with baseline m

  6. A Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER): Screening Experience and Baseline Characteristics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ford, Ian

    2002-05-20

    BACKGROUND: PROSPER was designed to investigate the benefits of treatment with pravastatin in elderly patients for whom a typical doctor might consider the prescription of statin therapy to be a realistic option. METHODS: The PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the hypothesis that treatment with pravastatin (40 mg\\/day) will reduce the risk of coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or non-fatal stroke in elderly men and women with pre-existing vascular disease or with significant risk of developing this condition. RESULTS: In Scotland, Ireland, and the Netherlands, 23,770 individuals were screened, and 5,804 subjects (2,804 men and 3,000 women), aged 70 to 82 years (average 75 years) and with baseline cholesterol 4.0-9.0 mmol\\/l, were randomised. Randomised subjects had similar distributions with respect to age, blood pressure, and body mass index when compared to the entire group of screenees, but had a higher prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and a history of vascular disease. The average total cholesterol level at baseline was 5.4 mmol\\/l (men) and 6.0 mmol\\/l (women). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with previous prevention trials of cholesterol-lowering drugs, the PROSPER cohort is significantly older and for the first time includes a majority of women. The study, having achieved its initial goal of recruiting more than 5,500 elderly high-risk men and women, aims to complete all final subject follow-up visits in the first half of 2002 with the main results being available in the fourth quarter of 2002.

  7. A Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER: Screening Experience and Baseline Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagaay A Margot

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PROSPER was designed to investigate the benefits of treatment with pravastatin in elderly patients for whom a typical doctor might consider the prescription of statin therapy to be a realistic option. Methods The PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the hypothesis that treatment with pravastatin (40 mg/day will reduce the risk of coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or non-fatal stroke in elderly men and women with pre-existing vascular disease or with significant risk of developing this condition. Results In Scotland, Ireland, and the Netherlands, 23,770 individuals were screened, and 5,804 subjects (2,804 men and 3,000 women, aged 70 to 82 years (average 75 years and with baseline cholesterol 4.0–9.0 mmol/l, were randomised. Randomised subjects had similar distributions with respect to age, blood pressure, and body mass index when compared to the entire group of screenees, but had a higher prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and a history of vascular disease. The average total cholesterol level at baseline was 5.4 mmol/l (men and 6.0 mmol/l (women. Conclusions Compared with previous prevention trials of cholesterol-lowering drugs, the PROSPER cohort is significantly older and for the first time includes a majority of women. The study, having achieved its initial goal of recruiting more than 5,500 elderly high-risk men and women, aims to complete all final subject follow-up visits in the first half of 2002 with the main results being available in the fourth quarter of 2002.

  8. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Amy A; Sherman, Ross A; Crawley, William R; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M

    2016-05-01

    Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p change across the second half of the program (weeks 8-16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark. PMID:26466133

  9. Occupational Characteristics and Cognitive Aging in the Glostrup 1914 Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gow, Alan J; Avlund, Kirsten; Mortensen, Erik L

    2014-01-01

    ). In growth curve models, intellectual challenge continued to be associated with cognitive ability, controlling for sex, education, and social class. However, the association was reversed after accounting for cognitive ability at age 50; of 2 individuals with the same baseline level of cognitive ability...

  10. Physical Fitness of Police Academy Cadets: Baseline Characteristics and Changes During a 16-Week Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ross A.; Crawley, William R.; Cosio-Lima, Ludmila M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Crawley, AA, Sherman, RA, Crawley, WR, and Cosio-Lima, LM. Physical fitness of police academy cadets: baseline characteristics and changes during a 16-week academy. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1416–1424, 2016—Police academies traditionally emphasize the importance of being physically fit. The purpose of this research was to determine cadet baseline physical fitness characteristics and assess effectiveness of a 16-week training program. Sixty-eight cadets (61 men, 7 women) volunteered to have baseline physical fitness characteristics assessed, and 55 cadets (49 men, 6 women) completed further testing at weeks 8 and 16. The testing comprised hand grip (strength), arm crank (upper-body power), 30 seconds Wingate (lower body power), sum of skinfolds and percentage body fat (body composition), 40-yard dash (sprint speed), 1 repetition maximum bench press (strength), T-test (agility), and sit-and-reach (flexibility). In addition, cadets completed standardized state testing (push-ups, sit-ups, vertical jump, and half-mile shuttle run). The training program consisted of 1 hour sessions, 3 d·wk−1, including aerobic, plyometrics, body weight, and resistance exercise. Significant changes were found in agility (p < 0.01), upper-body and lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05) across the first 8 weeks, and in agility (p ≤ 0.05), lower-body peak power (p ≤ 0.05), sit-ups (p < 0.01), push-ups (p ≤ 0.05), half-mile shuttle run (p < 0.01) across the full 16 weeks. However, none of the variables showed significant change across the second half of the program (weeks 8–16). A number of individual parameters of physical fitness showed evidence of improvement in the first 8 weeks, whereas none of the variables showed significant improvement in the second 8 weeks. This suggests modifications could be made to increase overall effectiveness of cadet physical training specifically after the 8-week mark. PMID:26466133

  11. Environmental Baseline Characteristics for a Pilot Project Site for Integrated Solid Waste Management in Makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Irtwange

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of the pilot project site for integrated solid waste management in Makurdi, Nigeria wasconducted to establish the environmental baseline characteristics as part of an Environmental ImpactAssessment (EIA process. Survey of literature was conducted to generate information on climate, geology, andthe general physical, chemical and biological status of the environment as well as identify information gaps.This was achieved through the consultation of existing studies/survey reports, technical publications, textbooks,etc. Field data gathering exercise was conducted to fill information gap identified from desk survey and alsoto validate existing information. It entailed visual observation, interviews, on-site measurements and collectionof samples for laboratory analysis and testing. The study covered terrain/topography, climate and meteorology,land ownership, land use and zoning, soil quality, geological formations underneath the project site, hydrologyand water quality, groundwater geophysical survey, hydro geology, ambient air quality, ecology of the projectsite and surroundings, baseline noise levels and public consultation. The results of the study indicates that theenvironmental components of the site were within natural background levels of the environment except theoutcrops of the Makurdi sandstone in the designated land fill areas having served as a road constructionexcavation site in the past. The study also shows that apart from the nearby stream, there are no existingenvironmental stresses or pollution within the area.

  12. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" longitudinal survey - Protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. Methods/Design MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750 were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. Discussion The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less

  13. Baseline characteristics influencing quality of life in women undergoing gynecologic oncology surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenison Eric L

    2007-05-01

    -being. Models that included PCS and MCS accounted for 30 to 44% of the variability in baseline physical, emotional, and functional well-being on the FACT-G. Conclusion At the time of diagnosis and treatment, patients' QoL is affected by inherent characteristics. Assessment of treatment outcome should take into account the effect of these independent variables. As treatment options become more complex, these variables are likely to be of increasing importance in evaluating treatment effects on QoL.

  14. Inclusion criteria provide heterogeneity in baseline profiles of patients with mild cognitive impairment: comparison of two prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashima, Shoji; Ito, Kengo; Kato, Takashi; ,

    2012-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to represent a transitional stage between ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To aim at identifying neuroimaging measures associated with cognitive changes in healthy elderly and MCI patients, longitudinal multicentre studies are ongoing in several countries. The patient profiles of each study are based on unique inclusion criteria. Objectives The purpose of the study is to clarify differences in baseline profiles of MCI patients betwe...

  15. Baseline characteristics of patients in the reduction of events with darbepoetin alfa in heart failure trial (RED-HF)

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, J J V; Anand, I. S.; Diaz, R.; Maggioni, A. P.; O'Connor, C; Pfeffer, M. A.; Solomon, S D; M. Tendera; van Veldhuisen, D J; Albizem, M.; Cheng, S.; Scarlata, D.; Young, J B; Amuchastegui, M.; Belziti, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This report describes the baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF) which is testing the hypothesis that anaemia correction with darbepoetin alfa will reduce the composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospital admission for worsening heart failure, and improve other outcomes. Methods and results: Key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compar...

  16. Clinical characteristics and disease predictors of a large Chinese cohort of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongping Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is a relentlessly progressing form of chronic kidney disease for which there is no cure. The aim of this study was to characterize Chinese patients with ADPKD and to identify the factors which predict cyst growth and renal functional deterioration. METHODS: To analyze disease predicting factors we performed a prospective longitudinal observational study in a cohort of 541 Chinese patients with ADPKD and an eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2. Patients were followed clinically and radiologically with sequential abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Clinical characteristics and laboratory data were related to changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and total kidney volume (TKV. A linear regression model was developed to analyze the factors which determine eGFR and TKV changes. RESULTS: The age range of this unselected cohort ranged from 4 to 77 years. Median follow-up time was 14.3 ± 10.6 months. Although inter-individual differences in eGFR and TKV were large, there was a consistent link between these two parameters. Baseline log10-transformed TKV and urinary protein/creatinine ratio were identified as the major predictors for a faster eGFR decline and were associated with a higher TKV growth rate. Interestingly, a lower thrombocyte count correlated significantly with lower eGFR (r = 0.222 and higher TKV (r = 0.134. CONCLUSIONS: This large cohort of Chinese patients with ADPKD provides unique epidemiological data for comparison with other cohorts of different ethnicity. In Chinese patients we identified a lower thrombocyte count as a significant predictor of disease progression. These results are important for the design of future clinical trials to retard polycystic kidney disease progression.

  17. Disability and Living with HIV: Baseline from a Cohort of People on Long Term ART in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Hanass-Hancock

    Full Text Available Through access to life saving antiretroviral treatment (ART in southern Africa, HIV has been reconceptualised as a chronic disease. This comes with new challenges of HIV-related co-morbidities and disabilities. We still lack an understanding of the types and scope of disabilities experienced by people on long term ART and how this impacts health, adherence, and livelihood. This paper describes the results of a cohort study examining the new health- and disability-related needs of the millions of people on ART in the region.Data was collected from a cohort of people who had been on ART for six months or longer in a semi-urban public health care setting in South Africa. 1042 adults (18 and older participated in the cross-sectional study which investigated disabilities/activity limitations, health, ART adherence, depression symptoms, and livelihood. We analysed the associations between these constructs using descriptive statistics, and bivariate and multivariate analyses.A large number of participants (35.5% obtained a weighted score of two or more on the WHODAS 2.0 indicating possible activity limitations. A positive relationship was found between activity limitations and depression symptoms, adherence, and worse health outcomes, while none was found for BMI or CD4 count. These associations varied by type of activity limitations and, in some cases, by gender.Activity limitations are potentially experienced by a large portion of people on ART in southern Africa which impacts health and ART adherence negatively. These results highlight the importance of better understanding the new health-related needs of people who are on long term ART, as well as the nuances of the disability they experience. This is urgently needed in order to enable HIV-endemic countries to better prepare for the new health-related needs of the millions of people on ART in southern Africa.

  18. Dynamic volume perfusion CT in patients with lung cancer: Baseline perfusion characteristics of different histological subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jingyun, E-mail: shijingyun89179@126.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine (China); Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schmid-Bindert, Gerald, E-mail: gerald.schmid-bindert@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Division of Surgical Oncology and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@akh-celle.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Sudarski, Sonja, E-mail: sonja_sudarski@gmx.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Pilz, Lothar R., E-mail: Lothar.Pilz@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Liu, Bo, E-mail: bo.liu@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, No. 278, Zhouzhu Road, Shanghai, 201318 (China); Haberland, Ulrike, E-mail: ulrike.haberland@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); Klotz, Ernst, E-mail: ernst.klotz@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare Sector, H IM CR R and D PA SC, Siemensstraße 1, 91301 Forchheim (Germany); and others

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To evaluate dynamic volume perfusion CT (dVPCT) tumor baseline characteristics of three different subtypes of lung cancer in untreated patients. Materials and methods: 173 consecutive patients (131 men, 42 women; mean age 61 ± 10 years) with newly diagnosed lung cancer underwent dVPCT prior to biopsy. Tumor permeability, blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were quantitatively assessed as well as tumor diameter and volume. Tumor subtypes were histologically determined and compared concerning their dVPCT results. dVPCT results were correlated to tumor diameter and volume. Results: Histology revealed adenocarcinoma in 88, squamous cell carcinoma in 54 and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) in 31 patients. Tumor permeability was significantly differing between adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC (all p < 0.05). Tumor BF and BV were higher in adenocarcinomathan in SCLC (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0002 respectively). BV was also higher in squamous cell carcinoma compared to SCLC (p = 0.01). MTT was not differing between tumor subtypes. Regarding all tumors, tumor diameter did not correlate with any of the dVPCT parameters, whereas tumor volume was negatively associated with permeability, BF and BV (r = −0.22, −0.24, −0.24, all p < 0.05). In squamous cell carcinoma, tumor diameter und volume correlated with BV (r = 0.53 and r = −0.40, all p < 0.05). In SCLC, tumor diameter und volume correlated with MTT (r = 0.46 and r = 0.39, all p < 0.05). In adenocarcinoma, no association between morphological and functional tumor characteristics was observed. Conclusions: dVPCT parameters are only partially related to tumor diameter and volume and are significantly differing between lung cancer subtypes.

  19. Regression to the mean and predictors of MRI disease activity in RRMS placebo cohorts--is there a place for baseline-to-treatment studies in MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Patrick Stellmann

    Full Text Available Gadolinium-enhancing (GD+ lesions and T2 lesions are MRI outcomes for phase-2 treatment trials in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS. Little is known about predictors of lesion development and regression-to-the-mean, which is an important aspect in early baseline-to-treatment trials.To quantify regression-to-the-mean and identify predictors of MRI lesion development in placebo cohorts.21 Phase-2 and Phase-3 trials were identified by a systematic literature research. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to estimate development of T2 and GD+ after 6 months (phase-2 or 2 years (phase-3. Predictors of lesion development were evaluated with mixed-effect meta-regression.The mean number of GD+-lesions per scan was similar after 6 months (1.19, 95%CI: 0.87-1.51 and 2 years (1.19, 95%CI: 1.00-1.39. 39% of the patients were without new T2-lesion after 6 month and 19% after 2 years (95%CI: 12-25%. Mean number of baseline GD+-lesions was the best predictor for new lesions after 6 months.Baseline GD-enhancing lesions predict evolution of Gd- and T2 lesions after 6 months and might be used to control for regression to the mean effects. Overall, proof-of-concept studies with a baseline to treatment design have to face a regression to 1.2 GD+lesions per scan within 6 months.

  20. Adult HIV care resources, management practices and patient characteristics in the Phase 1 IeDEA Central Africa cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Mushingantahe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite recent advances in the management of HIV infection and increased access to treatment, prevention, care and support, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to be a major global health problem, with sub-Saharan Africa suffering by far the greatest humanitarian, demographic and socio-economic burden of the epidemic. Information on HIV/AIDS clinical care and established cohorts’ characteristics in the Central Africa region are sparse. Methods: A survey of clinical care resources, management practices and patient characteristics was undertaken among 12 adult HIV care sites in four countries of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Central Africa (IeDEA-CA Phase 1 regional network in October 2009. These facilities served predominantly urban populations and offered primary care in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC; six sites, secondary care in Rwanda (two sites and tertiary care in Cameroon (three sites and Burundi (one site. Results: Despite some variation in facility characteristics, sites reported high levels of monitoring resources, including electronic databases, as well as linkages to prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs. At the time of the survey, there were 21,599 HIV-positive adults (median age=37 years enrolled in the clinical cohort. Though two-thirds were women, few adults (6.5% entered HIV care through prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, whereas 55% of the cohort entered care through voluntary counselling and testing. Two-thirds of patients at sites in Cameroon and DRC were in WHO Stage III and IV at baseline, whereas nearly all patients in the Rwanda facilities with clinical stage information available were in Stage I and II. WHO criteria were used for antiretroviral therapy initiation. The most common treatment regimen was stavudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (64%, followed by zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (19%. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the

  1. General practitioner characteristics and delay in cancer diagnosis. a population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Vedsted Peter; Hansen Rikke P; Sokolowski Ineta; Søndergaard Jens; Olesen Frede

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Delay in cancer diagnosis may have serious prognostic consequences, and some patients experience delays lasting several months. However, we have no knowledge whether such delays are associated with general practitioner (GP) characteristics. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether GP and practice characteristics are associated with the length of delay in cancer diagnosis. Methods The study was designed as a population-based cohort study. The setting was the Coun...

  2. Cytokine and protein markers of leprosy reactions in skin and nerves: baseline results for the North Indian INFIR cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana N J Lockwood

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies investigating the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of leprosy have either been on only small numbers of patients or have not combined clinical and histological data. The INFIR Cohort study is a prospective study of 303 new multibacillary leprosy patients to identify risk factors for reaction and nerve damage. This study characterised the cellular infiltrate in skin and nerve biopsies using light microscopic and immunohistochemical techniques to identify any association of cytokine markers, nerve and cell markers with leprosy reactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TNF-α, TGF-β and iNOS protein in skin and nerve biopsies were detected using monoclonal antibody detection immunohistochemistry techniques in 299 skin biopsies and 68 nerve biopsies taken from patients at recruitment. The tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, modified Fite Faraco, CD68 macrophage cell marker and S100. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Histological analysis of the biopsies showed that 43% had borderline tuberculoid (BT leprosy, 27% borderline lepromatous leprosy, 9% lepromatous leprosy, 13% indeterminate leprosy types and 7% had no inflammation. Forty-six percent had histological evidence of a Type 1 Reaction (T1R and 10% of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum. TNF-α was detected in 78% of skin biopsies (181/232, iNOS in 78% and TGF-β in 94%. All three molecules were detected at higher levels in patients with BT leprosy. TNF-α was localised within macrophages and epithelioid cells in the granuloma, in the epidermis and in dermal nerves in a few cases. TNF-α, iNOS and TGF-β were all significantly associated with T1R (p<0.001. Sixty-eight nerve biopsies were analysed. CD68, TNF-α and iNOS staining were detectable in 88%, 38% and 28% of the biopsies respectively. The three cytokines TNF-α, iNOS and TGF-β detected by immunohistochemistry showed a significant association with the presence of skin reaction. This study is the first to

  3. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER—A Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia Ngandu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER study population. Potential study participants (age 60–77 years, the dementia risk score ≥6 were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496, 48% (n = 2654 attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1. The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0 points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2 mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0 mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9 mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons.

  4. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)—A Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Trial †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Peltonen, Markku; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Mangialasche, Francesca; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) study population. Potential study participants (age 60–77 years, the dementia risk score ≥6) were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496), 48% (n = 2654) attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1). The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD) age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0) points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2) mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0) mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9) mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons. PMID:25211775

  5. Recruitment and baseline characteristics of participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)-a randomized controlled lifestyle trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Peltonen, Markku; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Mangialasche, Francesca; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2014-09-01

    Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) study population. Potential study participants (age 60-77 years, the dementia risk score ≥ 6) were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496), 48% (n = 2654) attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1). The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD) age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0) points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2) mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0) mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9) mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons. PMID:25211775

  6. The counseling african americans to control hypertension (caatch trial: baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Gloster Marleny

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of combined physician and patient-level interventions for blood pressure (BP control in low-income, hypertensive African Americans with multiple co-morbid conditions remains largely untested in community-based primary care practices. Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics of participants in the Counseling African American to Control Hypertension (CAATCH Trial are described. CAATCH evaluates the effectiveness of a multi-level, multi-component, evidence-based intervention compared with usual care (UC in improving BP control among poorly controlled hypertensive African Americans who receive primary care in Community Health Centers (CHCs. Methods Participants included 1,039 hypertensive African Americans receiving care in 30 CHCs in the New York Metropolitan area. Baseline data on participant demographic, clinical (e.g., BP, anti-hypertensive medications, psychosocial (e.g., depression, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and behavioral (e.g., exercise, diet characteristics were gathered through direct observation, chart review, and interview. Results The sample was primarily female (71.6%, middle-aged (mean age = 56.9 ± 12.1 years, high school educated (62.4%, low-income (72.4% reporting less than $20,000/year income, and received Medicaid (35.9% or Medicare (12.6%. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 150.7 ± 16.7 mm Hg and 91.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg, respectively. Participants were prescribed an average of 2.5 ± 1.9 antihypertensive medications; 54.8% were on a diuretic; 33.8% were on a beta blocker; 41.9% were on calcium channel blockers; 64.8% were on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs. One-quarter (25.6% of the sample had resistant hypertension; one-half (55.7% reported medication non-adherence. Most (79.7% reported one or more co-morbid medical conditions. The majority of the patients had a Charlson Co-morbidity score ≥ 2. Diabetes

  7. The burden of non-communicable disease in transition communities in an Asian megacity: baseline findings from a cohort study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The demographic transition in South Asia coupled with unplanned urbanization and lifestyle changes are increasing the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD where infectious diseases are still highly prevalent. The true magnitude and impact of this double burden of disease, although predicted to be immense, is largely unknown due to the absence of recent, population-based longitudinal data. The present study was designed as a unique 'Framingham-like' Pakistan cohort with the objective of measuring the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection in a multi-ethnic, middle to low income population of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: We selected two administrative areas from a private charitable hospital's catchment population for enrolment of a random selection of cohort households in Karachi, Pakistan. A baseline survey measured the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection. RESULTS: Six hundred and sixty-seven households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011. A majority of households lived in permanent structures (85% with access to basic utilities (77% and sanitation facilities (98% but limited access to clean drinking water (68%. Households had high ownership of communication technologies in the form of cable television (69% and mobile phones (83%. Risk factors for NCD, such as tobacco use (45%, overweight (20%, abdominal obesity (53%, hypertension (18%, diabetes (8% and pre-diabetes (40% were high. At the same time, infectious diseases such as hepatitis B (24% and hepatitis C (8% were prevalent in this population. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the need to monitor risk factors and disease trends through longitudinal research in high-burden transition communities in the context of rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. They also demonstrate the urgency of public

  8. BeLieving in Native Girls: Characteristics from a Baseline Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Deborah; Langhorne, Aleisha

    2012-01-01

    BeLieving In Native Girls (BLING) is a juvenile delinquency and HIV intervention at a residential boarding school for American Indian/Alaska Native adolescent girls ages 12-20 years. In 2010, 115 participants completed baseline surveys to identify risk and protective factors. Initial findings are discussed regarding a variety of topics, including…

  9. Morphological and Electrical Characteristics in Patient with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Quantitative Analysis of 864 Korean Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Oh, Yong-Seog; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, Dae Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan; Kim, You-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although several studies have reported the morphological and electrical characteristics in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), comparison between asymmetric and apical HCM has not been investigated in a reasonably sized cohort. Materials and Methods Echocardiography and electrocardiography were quantitatively analyzed in patients with HCM in a Korean tertiary referral center. Results Of 864 patients (mean age 55.4±14.2 years, 68.9% men), 255 (29.5%) patients had apical HC...

  10. Characteristics in childhood and adolescence associated with future multiple sclerosis risk in men: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, M.; Udumyan, R.; Bahmanyar, S; Nilsagård, Y.; Montgomery, S

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Associations with multiple sclerosis (MS) of living conditions in childhood and characteristics in adolescence including physical fitness, cognitive function and psychological stress resilience were investigated. Methods A cohort of male Swedish residents born 1952–1956 who were included in the Swedish Military Conscription Register was used to create a nested case−control study comprising 628 MS cases and 6187 controls matched on birth year, county of reside...

  11. Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response.

  12. Baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J.V.; Anand, Inder S.; Diaz, Rafael; Maggioni, Aldo P.; O'Connor, Christopher; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Solomon, Scott D.; Tendera, Michal; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Albizem, Moetaz; Cheng, Sunfa; Scarlata, Debra; Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B.; Amuchastegui, M.; Belziti, C.; Bluguermann, J.; Caccavo, M.; Cartasegna, L.; Colque, R.; Cuneo, C.; Fernandez, A.; Gabito, A.; Goicochea, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Gorosito, V.; Grinfeld, L.; Hominal, M.; Kevorkian, R.; Litvak Bruno, M.; Llanos, J.; Mackinnon, I.; Manuale, O.; Marzetti, E.; Nul, D.; Perna, E.; Riccitelli, M.; Sanchez, A.; Santos, D.; Schygiel, P.; Toblli, J.; Vogel, D.; Aggarwal, A.; Amerena, J.; De Looze, F.; Fletcher, P.; Hare, D.; Ireland, M.; Krum, H.; Lattimore, J.; Marwick, T.; Sindone, A.; Thompson, P.; Waites, J.; Altenberger, J.; Ebner, C.; Lenz, K.; Pacher, R.; Poelzl, G.; Charlier, F.; de Ceuninck, M.; De Keulenaer, G.; Dendale, P.; Maréchal, P.; Mullens, W.; Thoeng, J.; Vanderheyden, M.; Vanhaecke, J.; Weytjens, C.; Wollaert, B.; Albuquerque, D.; Almeida, D.; Aspe y Rosas, J.; Bocchi, E.; Bordignon, S.; Clausell, N.; Kaiser, S.; Leaes, P.; Martins Alves, S.; Montera, M.; Moura, L.; Pereira de Castro, R.; Rassi, S.; Reis, A.; Saraiva, J.; Simões, M.; Souza Neto, J.; Teixeira, M.; Benov, H.; Chompalova, B.; Donova, T.; Georgiev, P.; Gotchev, D.; Goudev, A.; Grigorov, M.; Guenova, D.; Hergeldjieva, V.; Ivanov, D.; Kostova, E.; Manolova, A.; Marchev, S.; Nikolov, F.; Popov, A.; Raev, D.; Tzekova, M.; Czarnecki, W.; Giannetti, N.; Haddad, H.; Heath, J.; Huynh, T.; Lepage, S.; Liu, P.; Lonn, E.; Ma, P.; Manyari, D.; Moe, G.; Parker, J.; Pesant, Y.; Rajda, M.; Ricci, J.; Roth, S.; Sestier, F.; Sluzar, V.; Sussex, B.; Vizel, S.; Antezana, G.; Bugueno, C.; Castro, P.; Conejeros, C.; Manriquez, L.; Martinez, D.; Potthoff, S.; Stockins, B.; Vukasovic, J.; Gregor, P.; Herold, M.; Jerabek, O.; Jirmar, R.; Kuchar, R.; Linhart, A.; Podzemska, B.; Soucek, M.; Spac, J.; Spacek, R.; Vodnansky, P.; Bronnum-Schou, J.; Clemmensen, K.; Egstrup, K.; Jensen, G.; Kjoller-Hansen, L.; Kober, L.; Markenvard, J.; Rokkedal, J.; Skagen, K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Tuxen, C.; Videbak, L.; Laks, T.; Vahula, V.; Harjola, V.; Kettunen, R.; Kotila, M.; Bauer, F.; Cohen Solal, A.; Coisne, D.; Davy, J.; De Groote, P.; Dos Santos, P.; Funck, F.; Galinier, M.; Gibelin, P.; Isnard, R.; Neuder, Y.; Roul, G.; Sabatier, R.; Trochu, J.; Anker, S.; Denny, S.; Dreykluft, T.; Flesch, M.; Genth-Zotz, S.; Hambrecht, R.; Hein, J.; Jeserich, M.; John, M.; Kreider-Stempfle, H.; Laufs, U.; Muellerleile, K.; Natour, M.; Sandri, M.; Schäufele, T.; von Hodenberg, E.; Weyland, K.; Winkelmann, B.; Tse, H.; Yan, B.; Barsi, B.; Csikasz, J.; Dezsi, C.; Edes, I.; Forster, T.; Karpati, P.; Kerekes, C.; Kis, E.; Kosa, I.; Lupkovics, G.; Nagy, A.; Preda, I.; Ronaszeki, A.; Tomcsanyi, J.; Zamolyi, K.; Agarwal, D.; Bahl, V.; Bordoloi, A.; Chockalingam, K.; Chopda, M.; Chopra, V.; Dugal, J.; Ghaisas, N.; Ghosh, S.; Grant, P.; Hiremath, S.; Iyengar, S.; Jagadeesa Subramania, B.; Jain, P.; Joshi, A.; Khan, A.; Mullasari, A.; Naik, S.; Oomman, A.; Pai, V.; Pareppally Gopal, R.; Parikh, K.; Patel, T.; Prakash, V.; Sastry, B.; Sathe, S.; Sinha, N.; Srikanthan, V.; Subburamakrishnan, P.; Thacker, H.; Wander, G.; Admon, D.; Katz, A.; Klainman, E.; Lewis, B.; Marmor, A.; Moriel, M.; Mosseri, M.; Shotan, A.; Weinstein, J.; Zimlichman, R.; Agostoni, P.; Albanese, M.; Alunni, G.; Bini, R.; Boccanelli, A.; Bolognese, L.; Campana, C.; Carbonieri, E.; Carpino, C.; Checco, L.; Cosmi, F.; D'Angelo, G.; De Cristofaro, M.; Floresta, A.; Fucili, A.; Galvani, M.; Ivleva, A.; Marra, S.; Musca, G.; Peccerillo, N.; Perrone Filardi, P.; Picchio, E.; Russo, T.; Scelsi, L.; Senni, M.; Tavazzi, L.; Erglis, A.; Jasinkevica, I.; Kakurina, N.; Veze, I.; Volans, E.; Bagdonas, A.; Berukstis, E.; Celutkiene, J.; Dambrauskaite, A.; Jarasuniene, D.; Luksiene, D.; Rudys, A.; Sakalyte, G.; Sliaziene, S.; Aguilar-Romero, R.; Cardona-Muñoz, E.; Castro-Jimenez, J.; Chavez-Herrera, J.; Chuquiure Valenzuela, E.; De la Pena, G.; Herrera, E.; Leiva-Pons, J.; Lopez Alvarado, A.; Mendez Machado, G.; Ramos-Lopez, G.; Basart, D.; Buijs, E.; Cornel, J.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Dunselman, P.; Freericks, M.; Hamraoui, K.; Lenderlink, T.; Linssen, G.; Lodewick, P.; Lodewijks, C.; Lok, D.; Nierop, P.; Ronner, E.; Somsen, A.; van Dantzig, J.; van der Burgh, P.; van Kempen, L.; van Vlies, B.; Voors, A.; Wardeh, A.; Willems, F.; Dickstein, K.; Gundersen, T.; Hole, T.; Thalamus, J.; Westheim, A.; Dabrowski, M.; Gorski, J.; Korewicki, J.; Kuc, K.; Miekus, P.; Musial, W.; Niegowska, J.; Piotrowski, W.; Podolec, P.; Polonski, L.; Ponikowski, P.; Rynkiewicz, A.; Szelemej, R.; Trusz-Gluza, M.; Ujda, M.; Wojciechowski, D; Wysokinski, A.; Camacho, A.; Fonseca, C.; Monteiro, P.; Apetrei, E.; Bruckner, I.; Carasca, E.; Coman, I.; Datcu, M.; Dragulescu, S.; Ionescu, P.; Iordachescu-Petica, D.; Manitiu, I.; Popa, V.; Pop-Moldovan, A.; Radoi, M.; Stamate, S.; Tomescu, M.; Vita, I.; Aroutiounov, G.; Ballyuzek, M.; Bart, B.; Churina, S.; Glezer, M.; Goloshchekin, B.; Ivleva, A.; Kobalava, Z.; Kostenko, V.; Lopatin, Y.; Martynov, A.; Orlov, V.; Semernin, E.; Shogenov, Z.; Sidorenko, B.; Skvortsov, A.; Storzhakov, G.; Sulimov, V.; Talibov, O.; Tereshenko, S.; Tsyrline, V.; Zadionchenko, V.; Zateyshchikov, D.; Dzupina, A.; Hranai, M.; Kmec, J.; Micko, K.; Murin, J.; Pella, D.; Sojka, G.; Spisak, V.; Vahala, P.; Vinanska, D.; Badat, A.; Bayat, J.; Dawood, S.; Delport, E.; Ellis, G.; Garda, R.; Klug, E.; Mabin, T.; Naidoo, D.; Pretorius, M.; Ranjith, N.; Van Zyl, L.; Weich, H.; Anguita, M.; Berrazueta, J.; Bruguera i Cortada, J.; de Teresa, E.; Gómez Sánchez, M.; González Juanatey, J.; Gonzalez-Maqueda, I.; Jordana, R.; Lupon, J.; Manzano, L.; Pascual Figal, D.; Pulpón, L.; Recio, J.; Ridocci Soriano, F.; Rodríguez Lambert, J.; Roig Minguell, E.; Roig Minguell, E.; Romero, J.; Valdovinos, P.; Klintberg, L.; Kronvall, T.; Lycksell, M.; Morner, S.; Rydberg, E.; Swedberg, K.; Timberg, I.; Wikstrom, G.; Moccetti, T.4; Ashok, J.; Banerjee, P.; Carr-White, G.; Cleland, J.; Connolly, E.; Francis, M.; Greenbaum, R.; Kadr, H.; Lindsay, S.; McMurray, J.; Megarry, S.; Memon, A.; Murdoch, D.; Senior, R.; Squire, I.; Tan, L.; Witte, K.; Adams, K.; Adamson, P.; Adler, A.; Altschul, L.; Altschuller, A.; Amirani, H.; Anand, I.; Andreou, C.; Ansari, M.; Antonishen, M.; Banchs, H.; Banerjee, S.; Banish, D.; Bank, A.; Barbagelata, A.; Barnard, D.; Bellinger, R.; Benn, A.; Berk, M.; Berry, B.; Bethala, V.; Bilazarian, S.; Bisognano, J.; Bleyer, F.; Blum, M.; Boehmer, J.; Bouchard, A.; Boyle, A.; Bozkurt, B.; Brown, C.; Burlew, B.; Burnham, K.; Butler, J.; Call, J.; Cambier, P.; Cappola, T.; Carlson, R.; Chandler, B.; Chandra, R.; Chandraratna, P.; Chernick, R.; Colan, D.; Colfer, H.; Colucci, W.; Connelly, T.; Costantini, O.; Dadkhah, S.; Dauber, I.; Davis, J.; Davis, S.; Denning, S.; Drazner, M.; Dunlap, S.; Egbujiobi, L.; Elkayam, U.; Elliott, J.; El-Shahawy, M.; Essandoh, L.; Ewald, G.; Fang, J.; Farhoud, H.; Felker, G.; Fernandez, J.; Festin, R.; Fishbein, G.; Florea, V.; Flores, E.; Floro, J.; Gabris, M.; Garg, M.; Gatewood, R.; Geller, M.; Ghali, J.; Ghumman, W.; Gibbs, G.; Gillespie, E.; Gilmore, R.; Gogia, H.; Goldberg, L.; Gradus-Pizlo, I.; Grainger, T.; Gudmundsson, G.; Gunawardena, D.; Gupta, D.; Hack, T.; Hall, S.; Hamroff, G.; Hankins, S.; Hanna, M.; Hargrove, J.; Haught, W.; Hauptman, P.; Hazelrigg, M.; Herzog, C.; Heywood, J.; Hill, T.; Hilton, T.; Hirsch, H.; Hunter, J.; Ibrahim, H.; Imburgia, M.; Iteld, B.; Jackson, B.; Jaffrani, N.; Jain, D.; Jain, A.; James, M.; Jimenez, J.; Johnson, E.; Kale, P.; Kaneshige, A.; Kapadia, S.; Karia, D.; Karlsberg, R.; Katholi, R.; Kerut, E.; Khoury, W.; Kipperman, R.; Klapholz, M.; Kosinski, E.; Kozinn, M.; Kraus, D.; Krueger, S.; Krum, H.; Kumar, S.; Lader, E.; Lee, C.; Levy, W.; Lewis, E.; Light-McGroary, K.; Loh, I.; Lombardi, W.; Machado, C.; Maislos, F.; Mancini, D.; Markus, T.; Mather, P.; McCants, K.; McGrew, F.; McLaurin, B.; McMillan, E.; McNamara, D.; Meyer, T.; Meymandi, S.; Miller, A.; Minami, E.; Modi, M.; Mody, F.; Mohanty, P.; Moscoso, R.; Moskowitz, R.; Moustafa, M.; Mullen, M.; Naz, T.; Noonan, T.; O'Brien, T.; Oellerich, W.; Oren, R.; Pamboukian, S.; Pereira, N.; Pitt, W.; Porter, C.; Prabhu, S.; Promisloff, S.; Ratkovec, R.; Richardson, R.; Ross, A.; Saleh, N.; Saltzberg, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schmedtje, J.; Schneider, R.; Schuyler, G.; Shanes, J.; Sharma, A.; Siegel, C.; Siegel, R.; Silber, D.; Singh, V.; Singh, N.; Singh, J.; Sklar, J.; Small, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smull, D.; Sotolongo, R.; Staniloae, C.; Stapleton, D.; Steele, P.; Stehlik, J.; Stein, M.; Tang, W.; Thadani, U.; Torre-Amoine, G.; Trichon, B.; Tsai, C.; Tummala, R.; Van Bakel, A.; Vicari, R.; Vijay, N.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Vittorio, T.; Vossler, M.; Wagoner, L.; Wallis, D.; Ward, N.; Widmer, M.; Wight, J.; Wilkins, C.; Williams, C.; Williams, G.; Winchester, M.; Winkel, E.; Wittmer, B.; Wood, D.; Wormer, D.; Wright, R.; Xu, Z.; Yasin, M.; Zolty, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This report describes the baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF) which is testing the hypothesis that anaemia correction with darbepoetin alfa will reduce the composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospital admission for worsening heart failure, and improve other outcomes. Methods and results Key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in other recent clinical trials in heart failure. Compared with other recent trials, RED-HF enrolled more elderly [mean age 70 (SD 11.4) years], female (41%), and black (9%) patients. RED-HF patients more often had diabetes (46%) and renal impairment (72% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients in RED-HF had heart failure of longer duration [5.3 (5.4) years], worse NYHA class (35% II, 63% III, and 2% IV), and more signs of congestion. Mean EF was 30% (6.8%). RED-HF patients were well treated at randomization, and pharmacological therapy at baseline was broadly similar to that of other recent trials, taking account of study-specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) haemoglobin at baseline was 112 (106–117) g/L. Conclusion The anaemic patients enrolled in RED-HF were older, moderately to markedly symptomatic, and had extensive co-morbidity. PMID:23329651

  13. Baseline characteristics in the Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Chertow, Glenn M; Akizawa, Tadao;

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most important contributing cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Bardoxolone methyl, a nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 activator, augments estimated glomerular filtration. The Bardoxolone methyl EvAluation in patients with Chronic k...... kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Occurrence of renal eveNts (BEACON) trial was designed to establish whether bardoxolone methyl slows or prevents progression to ESRD. Herein, we describe baseline characteristics of the BEACON population....

  14. A telephone intervention for dementia caregivers: background, design, and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremont, Geoffrey; Davis, Jennifer; Papandonatos, George D; Grover, Christine; Ott, Brian R; Fortinsky, Richard H; Gozalo, Pedro; Bishop, Duane S

    2013-11-01

    Family caregivers of individuals with dementia are at heightened risk for emotional and mental health problems. Many caregivers do not seek assistance or become isolated in their caregiving role. Multi-component interventions have demonstrated efficacy for reducing emotional distress and burden, although these approaches are potentially costly and are not widely accessible. In response to these issues, we developed the Family Intervention: Telephone Tracking - Caregiver (FITT-C), which is an entirely telephone-based psychosocial intervention. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design, methodology, and baseline data for the trial. This study uses a randomized controlled trial design to examine the efficacy of the FITT-C to reduce depressive symptoms and burden in distressed dementia caregivers. All participants (n=250) received a packet of educational materials and were randomly assigned to receive 6 months of the FITT-C intervention or non-directive telephone support. The FITT-C intervention was designed to reduce distress in caregivers and is based on the McMaster Model of Family Functioning, transition theory, and Lazarus and Folkman's Stress and Coping Models. The primary dependent variables were depressive symptoms (Centers for Epidemiological Studies - Depression) and burden (Zarit Burden Interview, Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist - Reaction). Secondary outcome measures included family functioning, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results of the study will provide important data about the efficacy of a telephone-based approach to reduce distress in dementia caregivers.

  15. Clinical characteristics and evaluation of LDL-cholesterol treatment of the Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Longitudinal Cohort Study (SAFEHEART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedecausa Mar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH patients are at high risk for premature coronary heart disease (CHD. Despite the use of statins, most patients do not achieve an optimal LDL-cholesterol goal. The aims of this study are to describe baseline characteristics and to evaluate Lipid Lowering Therapy (LLT in FH patients recruited in SAFEHEART. Methods and Results A cross-sectional analysis of cases recruited in the Spanish FH cohort at inclusion was performed. Demographic, lifestyle, medical and therapeutic data were collected by specific surveys. Blood samples for lipid profile and DNA were obtained. Genetic test for FH was performed through DNA-microarray. Data from 1852 subjects (47.5% males over 19 years old were analyzed: 1262 (68.1%, mean age 45.6 years had genetic diagnosis of FH and 590 (31.9%, mean age 41.3 years were non-FH. Cardiovascular disease was present in 14% of FH and in 3.2% of non-FH subjects (P Conclusion Although most of this high risk population is receiving LLT, prevalence of cardiovascular disease and LDL-c levels are still high and far from the optimum LDL-c therapeutic goal. However, LDL-c levels could be reduced by using more intensive LLT such as combined therapy with maximum statin dose and ezetimibe.

  16. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  17. Clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA mutations in a Central European gastric cancer cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Christoph; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Böger, Christine; Krüger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Genomically stable gastric cancers (GCs) are enriched for the diffuse phenotype and hotspot mutations of RHOA. Here we aimed to validate the occurrence, phenotype and clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA mutant GCs in an independent Central European GC cohort consisting of 415 patients. The RHOA genotype (exon 2 and 3) was correlated with various genotypic, phenotypic and clinicopathological patient characteristics. Sixteen (3.9%) tumours had a RHOA mutation including four hitherto unreported mutations, that is, p.G17Efs*24, p.V24F, p.T37A and p.L69R. RHOA mutation was more prevalent in women (5.4% vs 2.8%), distal GCs (4.5% vs 2.4%), in poorly differentiated GCs (G3/G4; 4.8% vs 1.1%), T1/T2 tumours (6.2% vs 3.1%) and lacked distant metastases. Nine RHOA mutant GCs had a diffuse, four an intestinal, two an unclassified and one a mixed Laurén phenotype. KRAS and RHOA mutations were mutually exclusive. A single case showed both a RHOA and a PIK3CA mutation. No significant difference was found in the overall survival between RHOA mutant and wildtype GCs. Our study confirms the occurrence and clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA hotspot mutations in an independent patient cohort. However, we found no evidence for a prognostic or growth advantageous effect of RHOA mutations in GC. PMID:26251521

  18. The Personalized Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM) Trial: Rationale, Methods and Baseline Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J.; Boot, Walter R.; Charness, Neil; Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D.; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N.

    2014-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65 – 98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. PMID:25460342

  19. Changes in Exposure to Neighborhood Characteristics are Associated with Sexual Network Characteristics in a Cohort of Adults Relocating from Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Hannah L F; Linton, Sabriya; Haley, Danielle F; Kelley, Mary E; Dauria, Emily F; Karnes, Conny Chen; Ross, Zev; Hunter-Jones, Josalin; Renneker, Kristen K; Del Rio, Carlos; Adimora, Adaora; Wingood, Gina; Rothenberg, Richard; Bonney, Loida E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic and cross-sectional multilevel analyses suggest that characteristics of the places where people live influence their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually-transmitted infections (STIs). Using data from a predominately substance-misusing cohort of African-American adults relocating from US public housing complexes, this multilevel longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that participants who experienced greater post-relocation improvements in economic disadvantage, violent crime, and male:female sex ratios would experience greater reductions in perceived partner risk and in the odds of having a partner who had another partner (i.e., indirect concurrency). Baseline data were collected from 172 public housing residents before relocations occurred; three waves of post-relocation data were collected every 9 months. Participants who experienced greater improvements in community violence and in economic conditions experienced greater reductions in partner risk. Reduced community violence was associated with reduced indirect concurrency. Structural interventions that decrease exposure to violence and economic disadvantage may reduce vulnerability to HIV/STIs. PMID:25150728

  20. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    Belsky, D. W.; Caspi, A.; Arseneault, L; Bleidorn, W.; Fonagy, P.; Goodman, M.; Houts, R.; Moffitt, T.E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 ...

  1. Implementation of case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in the Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart randomized controlled trial: study protocol and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Randall S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case management has emerged as a promising alternative approach to supplement traditional one-on-one sessions between patients and doctors for improving the quality of care in chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD. However, data are lacking in terms of its efficacy and cost-effectiveness when implemented in ethnic and low-income populations. Methods The Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart (HTH project is a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to rigorously evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multi-risk cardiovascular case management program in low-income, primarily ethnic minority patients served by a local county health care system in California. Randomization occurred at the patient level. The primary outcome measure is the absolute CHD risk over 10 years. Secondary outcome measures include adherence to guidelines on CHD prevention practice. We documented the study design, methodology, and baseline sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of 419 participants. Results We achieved equal distributions of the sociodemographic, biophysical and lifestyle characteristics between the two randomization groups. HTH participants had a mean age of 56 years, 63% were Latinos/Hispanics, 65% female, 61% less educated, and 62% were not employed. Twenty percent of participants reported having a prior cardiovascular event. 10-year CHD risk averaged 18% in men and 13% in women despite a modest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a high on-treatment percentage at baseline. Sixty-three percent of participants were diagnosed with diabetes and an additional 22% had metabolic syndrome. In addition, many participants had depressed high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels and elevated values of total cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, triglycerides, triglyceride-to-HDL ratio, and blood pressure. Furthermore, nearly 70% of participants were obese, 45% had a family history of CHD or

  2. Open-label randomized trial of titrated disease management for patients with hypertension: Study design and baseline sample characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George L; Weinberger, Morris; Kirshner, Miriam A; Stechuchak, Karen M; Melnyk, Stephanie D; Bosworth, Hayden B; Coffman, Cynthia J; Neelon, Brian; Van Houtven, Courtney; Gentry, Pamela W; Morris, Isis J; Rose, Cynthia M; Taylor, Jennifer P; May, Carrie L; Han, Byungjoo; Wainwright, Christi; Alkon, Aviel; Powell, Lesa; Edelman, David

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, only half of patients with hypertension achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. This paper describes the protocol and baseline subject characteristics of a 2-arm, 18-month randomized clinical trial of titrated disease management (TDM) for patients with pharmaceutically-treated hypertension for whom systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not controlled (≥140mmHg for non-diabetic or ≥130mmHg for diabetic patients). The trial is being conducted among patients of four clinic locations associated with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. An intervention arm has a TDM strategy in which patients' hypertension control at baseline, 6, and 12months determines the resource intensity of disease management. Intensity levels include: a low-intensity strategy utilizing a licensed practical nurse to provide bi-monthly, non-tailored behavioral support calls to patients whose SBP comes under control; medium-intensity strategy utilizing a registered nurse to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls plus home BP monitoring; and high-intensity strategy utilizing a pharmacist to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls, home BP monitoring, and pharmacist-directed medication management. Control arm patients receive the low-intensity strategy regardless of BP control. The primary outcome is SBP. There are 385 randomized (192 intervention; 193 control) veterans that are predominately older (mean age 63.5years) men (92.5%). 61.8% are African American, and the mean baseline SBP for all subjects is 143.6mmHg. This trial will determine if a disease management program that is titrated by matching the intensity of resources to patients' BP control leads to superior outcomes compared to a low-intensity management strategy.

  3. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  4. The occurrence and characteristics of auras in a large epilepsy cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakken, K O; Solaas, M H; Kjeldsen, M J;

    2009-01-01

    Objectives - Despite several studies, estimates of the frequency with which auras occur in conjunction with epilepsy continue to be imprecise. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence and characteristics of auras in a large population-based epilepsy cohort. Materials and methods...... - Subjects with verified epilepsy were recruited from population-based twin registries in the USA, Denmark and Norway. Using a structured interview in which a list of auras was provided, subjects were asked about the warning symptoms preceding their epileptic attacks. Results - 31% of the total sample (n...... = 1897) and 39% of those with active epilepsy (n = 765) had experienced an aura. Six percent reported more than one type. Non-specified auras were most frequently reported (35%), followed by somatosensory (11%) and vertiginous (11%). While the majority of those reporting auras (59%) had focal epilepsies...

  5. The HIV-Brazil cohort study: design, methods and participant characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Grangeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV-Brazil Cohort Study was established to analyze the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and the impact of this treatment on morbidity, quality of life (QOL and mortality. The study design, patients' profiles and characteristics of cART initiation between 2003 and 2010 were described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since 2003, the HIV-Brazil Cohort has been following HIV-infected adults receiving cART at 26 public health care facilities, using routine clinical care data and self-reported QOL questionnaires. When not otherwise available, data are obtained from national information systems. The main outcomes of interest are diseases related or unrelated to HIV; suppression of viral replication; adverse events; virological, clinical and immunological failures; changes in the cART; and mortality. For the 5,061 patients who started cART between 2003 and 2010, the median follow-up time was 4.1 years (IQR 2.2-5.9 years with an 83.4% retention rate. Patient profiles were characterized by a predominance of men (male/female ratio 1.7∶1, with a mean age of 36.9 years (SD 9.9 years; 55.2% had been infected with HIV via heterosexual contact. The majority of patients (53.4% initiated cART with a CD4+ T-cell count ≤200 cells/mm3. The medications most often used in the various treatment regimens were efavirenz (59.7% and lopinavir/ritonavir (18.2%. The proportion of individuals achieving viral suppression within the first 12 months of cART use was 77.4% (95% CI 76.1-78.6. Nearly half (45.4% of the patients presented HIV-related clinical manifestations after starting cART, and the AIDS mortality rate was 13.9 per 1,000 person-years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from cART use in the daily practice of health services remain relatively unknown in low- and middle-income countries, and studies with the characteristics of the HIV-Brazil Cohort contribute to minimizing these shortcomings, given its scope and patient

  6. Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD study: baseline characteristics and short-term effects of fenofibrate [ISRCTN64783481

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD Study is examining the effects of long-term fibrate therapy on coronary heart disease (CHD event rates in patients with diabetes mellitus. This article describes the trial's run-in phase and patients' baseline characteristics. Research design and methods FIELD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 63 centres in 3 countries evaluating the effects of fenofibrate versus placebo on CHD morbidity and mortality in 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were to have no indication for lipid-lowering therapy on randomization, but could start these or other drugs at any time after randomization. Follow-up in the study was to be for a median duration of not less than 5 years and until 500 major coronary events (fatal coronary heart disease plus nonfatal myocardial infarction had occurred. Results About 2100 patients (22% had some manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD at baseline and thus high risk status. Less than 25% of patients without CVD had a (UKPDS determined calculated 5-year CHD risk of 30, most were men, two-thirds were aged over 60 years, and substantial proportions had NCEP ATP III features of the metabolic syndrome independent of their diabetes, including low HDL (60%, high blood pressure measurement or treatment for hypertension (84%, high waist measurement (68%, and raised triglycerides (52%. After a 6-week run-in period before randomisation with all participants receiving 200 mg comicronized fenofibrate, there were declines in total and LDL cholesterol (10% and triglycerides (26% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (6.5%. Conclusion The study will show the effect of PPAR-alpha agonist action on CHD and other vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes including substantial numbers with low to moderate CVD risk but with the various components of the metabolic syndrome. The main results of the study will be reported in

  7. General practitioner characteristics and delay in cancer diagnosis. a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedsted Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delay in cancer diagnosis may have serious prognostic consequences, and some patients experience delays lasting several months. However, we have no knowledge whether such delays are associated with general practitioner (GP characteristics. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether GP and practice characteristics are associated with the length of delay in cancer diagnosis. Methods The study was designed as a population-based cohort study. The setting was the County of Aarhus, Denmark (640,000 inhabitants. Participants include 334 GPs and their 1,525 consecutive, newly diagnosed cancer patients. During one year (September 2004 to August 2005, patients with incident cancer were enrolled from administrative registries. GPs completed questionnaires on the patients' diagnostic pathways and on GP and practice characteristics. Delay was categorised as patient-related (more than 60 days, doctor-related (more than 30 days and system-related (more than 90 days. The associations between delay and characteristics were assessed in a logistic regression model using odds ratios (ORs. Results No GP characteristics (seniority, practice organization, list size, participation in continuing medical education, job satisfaction and level of burnout were associated with doctor delay. Patients of female GPs more often had a short patient delay than patients of male GPs (OR 0.44, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 0.28 to 0.71. Patients whose GPs provided many services (OR 0.66, 95%CI 0.44 to 0.95 and patients attending GPs with little former knowledge of their patients (OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.47 to 0.99 more often experienced a short system delay than patients attending GPs with less activity and more knowledge of their patients. Patients listed with a female GP more often experienced a long system delay than patients of male GPs (OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.02 to 2.21. Finally, patients with low GP-reported compliance more often experienced a long system delay

  8. A randomised controlled trial of forward-planned radiotherapy (IMRT) for early breast cancer: Baseline characteristics and dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: This large trial was designed to investigate whether correction of dose inhomogeneities using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) reduces late toxicity and improves quality of life in patients with early breast cancer. This paper reports baseline characteristics of trial participants and dosimetry results. Materials and methods: Standard tangential plans of 1145 trials were analysed. Patients with inhomogeneous plans, defined by ICRU recommendations, were randomised to forward-planned IMRT or standard radiotherapy. Results: Twenty-nine percentage of patients had adequate dosimetry with standard 2D radiotherapy. In the randomised patients, the decreases in mean volumes receiving greater than 107% (Vol > 107) and less than 95% (Vol 3 (95% CI 26.4-41.6; P 3 (95% CI 34.4-61.9; P 107 > 2 cm3 on standard radiotherapy plans. Conclusion: This large trial, in which patients with all breast sizes were eligible, confirmed that breast dosimetry can be significantly improved with a simple method of forward-planned IMRT and has little impact on radiotherapy resources. It is shown that patients with larger breasts are more likely to have dose inhomogeneities and breast separation gives some indication of this likelihood. Photographic assessment of patients at 2 years after radiotherapy, as the next part of this randomised controlled trial, will show whether these results for IMRT translate into improved cosmetic outcome in patients with early breast cancer. This would provide impetus for the widespread adoption of 3D planning and IMRT.

  9. Indirect comparisons of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in CML: case study using baseline population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbach Tran Carpiuc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Kimbach Tran Carpiuc1, Gianantonio Rosti2, Fausto Castagnetti2, Maarten Treur3, Jennifer Stephens11Pharmerit North America LLC, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Hematology and Oncology, S Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy; 3Pharmerit Europe, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: The use of indirect comparisons to evaluate the relative effectiveness between two or more treatments is widespread in the literature and continues to grow each year. Appropriate methodologies will be essential for integrating data from various published clinical trials into a systematic framework as part of the increasing emphasis on comparative effectiveness research. This article provides a case study example for clinicians using the baseline study population characteristics and response rates of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors in imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic myelogenous leukemia followed by a discussion of indirect comparison methods that are being increasingly implemented to address challenges with these types of comparisons.Keywords: comparative effectiveness research, meta-analysis, BCR–ABL-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia, imatinib mesylate, nilotinib, dasatinib 

  10. HACEK infective endocarditis: characteristics and outcomes from a large, multi-national cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chambers

    Full Text Available The HACEK organisms (Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter species, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella species are rare causes of infective endocarditis (IE. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with HACEK endocarditis (HE in a large multi-national cohort. Patients hospitalized with definite or possible infective endocarditis by the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study in 64 hospitals from 28 countries were included and characteristics of HE patients compared with IE due to other pathogens. Of 5591 patients enrolled, 77 (1.4% had HE. HE was associated with a younger age (47 vs. 61 years; p<0.001, a higher prevalence of immunologic/vascular manifestations (32% vs. 20%; p<0.008 and stroke (25% vs. 17% p = 0.05 but a lower prevalence of congestive heart failure (15% vs. 30%; p = 0.004, death in-hospital (4% vs. 18%; p = 0.001 or after 1 year follow-up (6% vs. 20%; p = 0.01 than IE due to other pathogens (n = 5514. On multivariable analysis, stroke was associated with mitral valve vegetations (OR 3.60; CI 1.34-9.65; p<0.01 and younger age (OR 0.62; CI 0.49-0.90; p<0.01. The overall outcome of HE was excellent with the in-hospital mortality (4% significantly better than for non-HE (18%; p<0.001. Prosthetic valve endocarditis was more common in HE (35% than non-HE (24%. The outcome of prosthetic valve and native valve HE was excellent whether treated medically or with surgery. Current treatment is very successful for the management of both native valve prosthetic valve HE but further studies are needed to determine why HE has a predilection for younger people and to cause stroke. The small number of patients and observational design limit inferences on treatment strategies. Self selection of study sites limits epidemiological inferences.

  11. A prospective, descriptive cohort study of malignant wound characteristics and wound care strategies in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromantin, Isabelle; Watson, Sarah; Baffie, Aurélie; Rivat, Alexandra; Falcou, Marie-Christine; Kriegel, Irene; de Rycke Ingenior, Yann

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have addressed the effects of dressings on malignant wounds. A 20-month (May 2010 to January 2011) descriptive, prospective cohort study was conducted by the Wound Care Unit of Institute Curie, Paris, France to evaluate the use of various local care procedures and characteristics of malignant wounds. Symptoms and wound management methods were observed over a period of 42 days in 32 patients (all women, mean age 60 years, range 30-96 years, most with infiltrating ductal carcinoma). After cleansing (with either sterile saline or water), a variety of wound treatments were used based on specific wound characteristics, including calcium alginate, hydrocellular, interface, and active charcoal and superabsorbent dressings. Wound size, color (red, pink, black, yellow), periwound condition, surface wound organisms (number of species and quantity), and signs of infection, along with wound-related pain (rated on a verbal rating scale), odor, bleeding (spontaneous or induced), and exudate (rated on a four-level scale as none, slight, moderate, intense) were assessed at baseline and on days 21 and 42 of treatment. The degree to which each symptom was managed was scored as controlled, partly controlled, or not controlled. Mean initial wound size did not change over the evaluation period; most (74%) wounds were characterized as being inflamed. No infectious episodes were observed during the duration of the evaluation. Exudate and bleeding were generally controlled with hemostatic dressings, calcium alginate dressings, or absorbent pads. Odor was not completely controlled with charcoal dressing and was noted to be significantly greater in patients with >105/g bacterial counts and/or with one or more anaerobic bacteria (P = 0.05). At day 0, 13 out of 25 patients (50%) had uncontrolled pain; pain ratings did not change over the course of the study. Clinical research on specific clinical practice (eg, topical morphine for pain) and to assess the comparative efficacy of

  12. Vulnerability to HIV infection among sex worker and non-sex worker female injecting drug users in Dhaka, Bangladesh: evidence from the baseline survey of a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Khan Sharful I; Khandakar Irona; Rahman Motiur; Ahmed Giasuddin; Khan Repon; Ahmed Munir; Uddin Mohammed T; Reza Masud; Chowdhury Ezazul I; Azim Tasnim; Sack David A; Strathdee Steffanie A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background: Very little is known about female injecting drug users (IDU) in Bangladesh but anecdotal evidence suggests that they are hidden and very vulnerable to HIV through both their injection sharing and sexual risk behaviors. In order to better understand the risks and vulnerability to HIV of female IDU, a cohort study was initiated through which HIV prevalence and risk behaviors was determined. Methods: All female IDU (those who had injected in the last six months and were 15 y...

  13. Contactable Non-responders Show Different Characteristics Compared to Lost to Follow-Up Participants: Insights from an Australian Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu-Kay; Scott, Rani; Scuffham, Paul A

    2016-07-01

    Objective This research aims to identify predictors of attrition in a longitudinal birth cohort study in Australia and assess differences in baseline characteristics and responses in subsequent follow-up phases between contactable non-responders and uncontactable non-responders deemed "lost to follow-up (LTF)". Methods 3368 women recruited from three public hospitals in Southeast Queensland and Northern New South Wales during antenatal visits in 2006-2011 completed a baseline questionnaire to elicit information on multiple domains of exposures. A follow-up questionnaire was posted to each participant at 1 year after birth to obtain mother's and child's health and development information. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the association between exposures and respondents' status at 1 year. The effect of an inverse-probability-weighting method to adjust for non-response was studied. Results Overall attrition at 1-year was 35.4 %; major types of attrition were "contactable non-response" (27.6 %) and "LTF" (6.7 %). These two attrition types showed different responses at the 3-year follow-up and involved different predictors. Besides shared predictors (first language not English, higher risk of psychological distress, had smoked during pregnancy, higher levels of family conflict), distinguishable predictors of contactable non-responders were younger age, having moved home in the past year and having children under 16 in the household. Attrition rates increased substantially from 20 % in 2006 to 54 % in 2011. Conclusions This observed trend of increased attrition rates raises concern about the use of traditional techniques, such as "paper-based" questionnaires, in longitudinal cohort studies. The supplementary use of electronic communications, such as online survey tools and smart-device applications, could provide a better alternative. PMID:26976281

  14. Baseline participant characteristics and risk for dropout from ten obesity randomized controlled trials: a pooled analysis of individual level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Ann Kaiser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. Methods: We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results: Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46. Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively. There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02 and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04. Conclusion/Significance: As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on

  15. Characteristics and outcomes for right heart endocarditis: six-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Oh, Timothy; Voss, Jamie; Pemberton, James

    2014-07-01

    Right heart endocarditis makes up 5-10% of all infective endocarditis involving valvular, congenital and artificial structures. Given the limited literature in this area, we reviewed the characteristics, management and outcomes of this condition in this retrospective cohort study. Thirty-five patients with right heart endocarditis admitted to Auckland City Hospital during 2005-2010 were followed-up for 3.4+/-2.5 years. In-hospital mortality was 11.4% (4), all occurring in those treated medically (20.0% (4) vs 0.0% (0), P=0.119). Surgical intervention was independently associated with reduced long-term mortality (HR 0.078, 95%CI 0.010-0.609, P=0.015) in multivariate analysis, while concurrent left heart endocarditis predicted both in-hospital mortality (HR 11.0, 95%CI 1.18-102, P=0.027) and long-term mortality (HR 3.20, 95%CI 1.03-9.92, P=0.044). Our study showed that surgical intervention and concomitant left heart endocarditis are positive and negative prognostic factors for outcomes after right heart endocarditis.

  16. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. The present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Methods: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. Results: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (PHIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to initiate appropriate ART regimen. PMID:27488008

  17. Role of baseline antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone in prediction of cumulative live birth in the first in vitro fertilisation cycle: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Wun Raymond Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study determined for the first time the role of baseline antral follicle count (AFC and serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH level in the first in-vitro fertilisation (IVF cycle in predicting cumulative live birth from one stimulation cycle. METHODS: We studied 1,156 women (median age 35 years undergoing the first IVF cycle. Baseline AFC and AMH level on the day before ovarian stimulation were analysed. The main outcome measure was cumulative live birth in the fresh plus all the frozen embryo transfers after the same stimulation cycle. RESULTS: Serum AMH was significantly correlated with AFC. Both AMH and AFC showed significant correlation with age and ovarian response in the stimulated cycle and total number of transferrable embryos. Baseline AFC and serum AMH were significantly higher in subjects attaining a live birth than those who did not in the fresh stimulated cycle, as well as those attaining cumulative live birth. There was a significant trend of higher cumulative live birth rate in women with higher AMH or AFC. However, logistic regression revealed that both AMH and AFC were not significant predictors of cumulative live birth after adjusting for age and number of embryos available for transfer. Considering only one single predictor, the areas under the ROC curves for AMH (0.646, 95% CI 0.616-0.675 and age (0.648, 95% CI 0.618-0.677 were slightly higher than that for AFC (0.617, 95% CI 0.587-0.647 in predicting cumulative live birth. However, a model combining AMH (with or without AFC and age of the women only classified an addition of less than 2% of subjects correctly compared to the model with age alone. CONCLUSION: Baseline AFC and serum AMH have only modest predictive performance on the occurrence of cumulative live birth, and may not give additional value on top of the women's age.

  18. Clinical characteristics and evaluation of LDL-cholesterol treatment of the Spanish Familial Hypercholesterolemia Longitudinal Cohort Study (SAFEHEART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients are at high risk for premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite the use of statins, most patients do not achieve an optimal LDL-cholesterol goal. The aims of this study are to describe baseline characteristics and to evaluate Lipid Lowering Therapy (L...

  19. Socioeconomic patient characteristics predict delay in cancer diagnosis: a Danish cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolowski Ineta

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delay in cancer diagnosis may be important for cancer prognosis. Large individual variations in the duration of delay have been observed. This study examines whether patients' socioeconomic characteristics are predictors of long patient-, doctor- and system-related delay in cancer diagnosis. Methods Danish population-based cohort study. From September 2004 to September 2005, newly diagnosed cancer patients were enrolled from administrative registries. A total of 467 general practitioners in the County of Aarhus, Denmark, completed questionnaires on 2,212 cancer patients' diagnostic pathways. A total of 1,252 cancer patients filled in questionnaires on their socioeconomic characteristics (e.g. marital status, education, occupation, household income and fortune. Delay was categorised as short or long based on quartiles. Predictors of long delay were assessed in a logistic regression model using odds ratios (ORs as a proxy of relative risks. Results In regard to patient delay, retired female patients experienced shorter delays (OR 0.35, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 0.13 to 0.98 than employed female patients, while female smokers experienced longer delays (OR 2.42, 95%CI 1.21 to 4.85 than female non-smokers. In regard to doctor delay, female patients with a large household fortune experienced shorter delays (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.45 than economically less privileged female patients. Well-educated men experienced shorter delays (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.16 to 1.00 than men with short education. Male patients experienced longer doctor delays (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.11 to 4.02 than women when gender-specific cancers were excluded. In regard to system delay, female patients with a large household fortune experienced shorter delays (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.21 to 0.99 than economically less privileged women, while female patients with a high alcohol intake experienced longer delays (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.18 to 6.72 than women with an average intake

  20. Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Ohashi, Kayo; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Some recent molecular epidemiology studies of the effects of genetic and environmental factors on human health have required the enrollment of more than 100 000 participants and the involvement of regional study offices across the country. Although regional study office investigators play a critical role in these studies, including the acquisition of funds, this role is rarely discussed. Methods We first differentiated the functions of the regional and central study offices. We then investigated the minimum number of items required and approximate cost of a molecular epidemiology study enrolling 7400 participants from a model region with a population of 100 000 for a 4-year baseline survey using a standard protocol developed based on the protocol of Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation. Results The functions of the regional study office were identified, and individual expenses were itemized. The total cost of the 4-year baseline survey was 153 million yen, excluding consumption tax. Accounting difficulties in conducting the survey were clarified. Conclusions We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID:27001116

  1. Occurrence and Characteristics of Chronic Pain in a Community-Based Cohort of Indigent Adults Living With HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Miaskowski, C; Penko, JM; D. Guzman; Mattson, JE; Bangsberg, DR; Kushel, MB

    2011-01-01

    Pain is common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), but little is known about chronic pain in socioeconomically disadvantaged HIV-infected populations with high rates of substance abuse in the postantiretroviral era. This cross-sectional study describes the occurrence and characteristics of pain in a community-based cohort of 296 indigent PLWHA. Participants completed questionnaires about sociodemographics, substance use, depression, and pain. Cut-point analysis was used to generate cat...

  2. A molecular epidemiology project on diet and cancer: the EPIC-Italy Prospective Study. Design and baseline characteristics of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Salvini, Simonetta; Ceroti, Marco; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Frasca, Graziella; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Fiorini, Laura; Celentano, Egidio; Galasso, Rocco; Decarli, Adriano; Krogh, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    cancer risk and different dietary patterns. Baseline characteristics of participants are briefly described. PMID:14870823

  3. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyemi Kolawole S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans experience significant tobacco-related health disparities despite the fact that over half of African American smokers are light smokers (use ≤10 cigarettes per day. African Americans have been under-represented in smoking cessation research, and few studies have evaluated treatment for light smokers. This paper describes the study design, measures, and baseline characteristics from Kick It at Swope III (KIS-III, the first treatment study of bupropion for African American light smokers. Methods Five hundred forty African American light smokers were randomly assigned to receive bupropion (150mg bid (n = 270 or placebo (n = 270 for 7 weeks. All participants received written materials and health education counseling. Participants responded to survey items and provided blood samples for evaluation of phenotype and genotype of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 enzymes involved in nicotine and bupropion metabolism. Primary outcome was cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at Week 26 follow-up. Results Of 2,628 individuals screened, 540 were eligible, consented, and randomized to treatment. Participants had a mean age of 46.5 years and 66.1% were women. Participants smoked an average of 8.0 cigarettes per day, had a mean exhaled carbon monoxide of 16.4ppm (range 1-55 and a mean serum cotinine of 275.8ng/ml. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence was 3.2, and 72.2% of participants smoked within 30 minutes of waking. The average number of quit attempts in the past year was 3.7 and 24.2% reported using pharmacotherapy in their most recent quit attempt. Motivation and confidence to quit were high. Conclusion KIS-III is the first study designed to examine both nicotine and bupropion metabolism, evaluating CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 phenotype and genotype in conjunction with psychosocial factors, in the context of treatment of African American light smokers. Of 1629 smokers screened for study participation, only

  4. Primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening: a retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, Aisha K; Ng, Ryan; Lobb, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    Primary care physicians can serve as both facilitators and barriers to cancer screening, particularly for under-screened groups such as immigrant patients. The objective of this study was to inform physician-targeted interventions by identifying primary care physician characteristics associated with cancer screening for their eligible patients, for their eligible immigrant patients, and for foreign-trained physicians, for their eligible immigrant patients from the same world region. A population-based retrospective cohort study was performed, looking back 3 years from 31 December 2010. The study was performed in urban primary care practices in Ontario, Canada's largest province. A total of 6303 physicians serving 1,156,627 women eligible for breast cancer screening, 2,730,380 women eligible for cervical screening, and 2,260,569 patients eligible for colorectal screening participated. Appropriate breast screening was defined as at least one mammogram in the previous 2 years, appropriate cervical screening was defined as at least one Pap test in the previous 3 years, and appropriate colorectal screening as at least one fecal occult blood test in the previous 2 years or at least one colonoscopy or barium enema in the previous 10 years. Just fewer than 40% of physicians were female, and 26.1% were foreign trained. In multivariable analyses, physicians who attended medical schools in the Caribbean/Latin America, the Middle East/North Africa, South Asia, and Western Europe were less likely to screen their patients than Canadian graduates. South Asian-trained physicians were significantly less likely to screen South Asian women for cervical cancer than other foreign-trained physicians who were seeing region-congruent patients (adjusted odds ratio: 0.56 [95% confidence interval 0.32-0.98] versus physicians from the USA, Australia and New Zealand). South Asian patients were the most vulnerable to under-screening, and decreasing patient income quintile was consistently

  5. Use of Viremia to Evaluate the Baseline Case Fatality Ratio of Ebola Virus Disease and Inform Treatment Studies: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Faye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The case fatality ratio (CFR of Ebola virus disease (EVD can vary over time and space for reasons that are not fully understood. This makes it difficult to define the baseline CFRs needed to evaluate treatments in the absence of randomized controls. Here, we investigate whether viremia in EVD patients may be used to evaluate baseline EVD CFRs.We analyzed the laboratory and epidemiological records of patients with EVD confirmed by reverse transcription PCR hospitalized in the Conakry area, Guinea, between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2015. We used viremia and other variables to model the CFR. Data for 699 EVD patients were analyzed. In the week following symptom onset, mean viremia remained stable, and the CFR increased with viremia, V, from 21% (95% CI 16%-27% for low viremia (V < 104.4 copies/ml to 53% (95% CI 44%-61% for intermediate viremia (104.4 ≤ V < 105.2 copies/ml and 81% (95% CI 75%-87% for high viremia (V ≥ 105.2 copies/ml. Compared to adults (15-44 y old [y.o.], the CFR was larger in young children (0-4 y.o. (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44; 95% CI 1.02-5.86 and older adults (≥ 45 y.o. (OR: 2.84; 95% CI 1.81-4.46 but lower in children (5-14 y.o. (OR: 0.46; 95% CI 0.24-0.86. An order of magnitude increase in mean viremia in cases after July 2014 compared to those before coincided with a 14% increase in the CFR. Our findings come from a large hospital-based study in Conakry and may not be generalizable to settings with different case profiles, such as with individuals who never sought care.Viremia in EVD patients was a strong predictor of death that partly explained variations in CFR in the study population. This study provides baseline CFRs by viremia group, which allow appropriate adjustment when estimating efficacy in treatment studies. In randomized controlled trials, stratifying analysis on viremia groups could reduce sample size requirements by 25%. We hypothesize that monitoring the viremia of hospitalized patients may inform the

  6. Baseline characteristics, time-to-hospital admission and in-hospital outcomes of patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, 2002 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Pehnec, Zlatko; Sinkovič, Andreja; Kamenik, Borut; Marinšek, Martin; Svenšek, Franci

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively determine baseline patient characteristics, time-to-hospital admission, utilization of reperfusion therapy and outcomes of patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS) between 2002 and 2005, particularly after 24-h primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was introduced in 2004. Methods. Included were all patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from 2002 to 2005 who met the crit...

  7. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: Baseline characteristics and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school...

  8. Coronary Heart Disease [CHD] with Obesity in Kebon Kalapa Village, Bogor [Baseline Cohort Study of Non-communicable Diseases Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustika Rustika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity has become global pandemic problem in the world as WHO said that it is the largest chronic health problems in adults. Riskesdas 2007 shown that national obesity prevalence in adult based on BMI in 15 years age groups were 10.3%. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of obesity on CHD i. e socio demography, behavior risk factors and blood test results. Methods: Cross sectional design with a deep analysis on the data evaluation subset of “Risk Factors Cohort Study of Non Communicable Diseases” research in Kebon Kalapa village, Bogor. The samples took were 1079 respondents CHD patients with obesity. CHD patients were determined based on ECG examination in 2013 and had obesity (BMI > 25 cm and hip ratio > 80 cm on women, and > 90 cm on men. Analysis Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results:The research shows that hypertension gives 1.8 of risk compared to obese CHD respondents with no hypertension with 95% of CI 1.31–2.53; LDL gives 1.6 of risk compared to respondents with no risk LDL in obese CHD group with 95% CI 1,18–2,32; HDL give 1.66 higher risk to respondents with risky HDL in obese CHD group with 95% CI 1,23–2,23 while Triglycerides gives 1.5 risk to obese CHD respondents with 95% CI 1,07–2,22. Conclusion: People of old ages, females, divorced, housewifes, well educated and high socioeconomic status would have CHD risk. Suggestion: Required further study of obese CHD on the quality of the food intake, especially in fat of the oil used for frying in order to know more detail the types of saturated fatty acids that affect the deterioration of the blood lipid profile.

  9. Heterogeneity in outcomes of treated HIV-positive patients in Europe and North America: relation with patient and cohort characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    May, M.T.; Hogg, R. S.; Justice, A.C.; Shepherd, B. E.; Costagliola, D.; Ledergerber, B; R. Thiebaut; Gill, M J; Kirk, O; van Sighem, A.; Saag, M S; Navarro, G.; P. Sobrino-Vegas; Lampe, F.; Ingle, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV cohort collaborations, which pool data from diverse patient cohorts, have provided key insights into outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the extent of, and reasons for, between-cohort heterogeneity in rates of AIDS and mortality are unclear.

  10. Menopausal hormone therapy in relation to breast cancer characteristics and prognosis: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lena U; Granath, Fredrik; Dickman, Paul W.; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Wedrén, Sara; Persson, Ingemar; Hall, Per

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Menopausal hormone therapy has been reported to increase the risk of certain subtypes of breast cancer and to be associated with a favorable survival. These associations could either be due to an increased mammographic surveillance or to a biological effect. We assessed these associations in a Swedish cohort of postmenopausal breast cancer patients holding information on mammographic examinations, menopausal hormone therapy use, other breast cancer risk factors, and cancer treatm...

  11. A cohort study of mortality predictors and characteristics of patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    Kishaba, Tomoo; Shimaoka, Yousuke; Fukuyama, Hajime; Yoshida, Kyoko; Tanaka, Maki; Yamashiro, Shin; Tamaki, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose was to assess the clinical data, predictors of mortality and acute exacerbation (AE) in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) patients. Design Single-centre retrospective cohort study. Setting Teaching hospital in Japan. Participants We identified 93 CPFE patients with high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) through multidisciplinary discussion. Patients who had connective tissue disease, drug-associated interstitial lung disease and occupationally relate...

  12. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Arseneault, Louise; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Fonagy, Peter; Goodman, Marianne; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2012-02-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis-stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology.

  13. Etiological features of borderline personality related characteristics in a birth cohort of 12-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    BELSKY, DANIEL W.; CASPI, AVSHALOM; ARSENEAULT, LOUISE; BLEIDORN, WIEBKE; FONAGY, PETER; GOODMAN, MARIANNE; HOUTS, RENATE; MOFFITT, TERRIE E.

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that borderline personality related characteristics can be observed in children, and that these characteristics are associated with increased risk for the development of borderline personality disorder. It is not clear whether borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with adult borderline personality disorder. We investigated the etiology of borderline personality related characteristics in a longitudinal cohort study of 1,116 pairs of same-sex twins followed from birth through age 12 years. Borderline personality related characteristics measured at age 12 years were highly heritable, were more common in children who had exhibited poor cognitive function, impulsivity, and more behavioral and emotional problems at age 5 years, and co-occurred with symptoms of conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Exposure to harsh treatment in the family environment through age 10 years predicted borderline personality related characteristics at age 12 years. This association showed evidence of environmental mediation and was stronger among children with a family history of psychiatric illness, consistent with diathesis–stress models of borderline etiology. Results indicate that borderline personality related characteristics in children share etiological features with borderline personality disorder in adults and suggest that inherited and environmental risk factors make independent and interactive contributions to borderline etiology. PMID:22293008

  14. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  15. Danish cohort of monozygotic inflammatory bowel disease twins: Clinical characteristics and inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Frederik Trier; Knudsen, Lina; Harbord, Marcus; Satsangi, Jack; Gordon, Hannah; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Jess, Tine; Andersen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the establishment of a Danish inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) twin cohort with focus on concordance of treatment and inflammatory markers. METHODS: We identified MZ twins, likely to be discordant or concordant for IBD, by merging information from the Danish Twin Register and the National Patient Register. The twins were asked to provide biological samples, questionnaires, and data access to patient files and public registries. Biological samples were collected via a mobile laboratory, which allowed for immediate centrifugation, fractionation, and storage of samples. The mean time from collection of samples to storage in the -80 °C mobile freezer was less than one hour. The diagnoses where validated using the Copenhagen diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: We identified 159 MZ IBD twin pairs, in a total of 62 (39%) pairs both twins agreed to participate. Of the supposed 62 IBD pairs, the IBD diagnosis could be confirmed in 54 pairs. The cohort included 10 concordant pairs, whereof some were discordant for either treatment or surgery. The 10 concordant pairs, where both pairs suffered from IBD, included eight CD/CD pairs, one UC/UC pair and one UC/IBDU pair. The discordant pairs comprised 31 UC, 5 IBDU (IBD unclassified), and 8 CD discordant pairs. In the co-twins not affected by IBD, calprotectin was above 100 μg/g in 2 participants, and above 50 μg/g in a further 5 participants. CONCLUSION: The presented IBD twin cohorts are an excellent resource for bioinformatics studies with proper adjustment for disease-associated exposures including medication and inflammatory activity in the co-twins. PMID:27275097

  16. Kericho CLinic-based ART Diagnostic Evaluation (CLADE: design, accrual, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial conducted in predominately rural, district-level, HIV clinics of Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick K Sawe

    Full Text Available Prospective clinical trial data regarding routine HIV-1 viral load (VL monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART in non-research clinics of Sub-Saharan Africa are needed for policy makers.CLinic-based ART Diagnostic Evaluation (CLADE is a randomized, controlled trial (RCT evaluating feasibility, superiority, and cost-effectiveness of routine VL vs. standard of care (clinical and immunological monitoring in adults initiating dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+non-NRTI ART. Participants were randomized (1:1 at 7 predominately rural, non-research, district-level clinics of western Kenya. Descriptive statistics present accrual patterns and baseline cohort characteristics.Over 15 months, 820 adults enrolled at 7 sites with 86-152 enrolled per site. Monthly site enrollment ranged from 2-92 participants. Full (100% informed consent compliance was independently documented. Half (49.9% had HIV diagnosed through voluntary counseling and testing. Study arms were similar: mostly females (57.6% aged 37.6 (SD = 9.0 years with low CD4 (166 [SD = 106] cells/m3. Notable proportions had WHO Stage III or IV disease (28.7%, BMI <18.5 kg/m2 (23.1%, and a history of tuberculosis (5.6% or were receiving tuberculosis treatment (8.2% at ART initiation. In the routine VL arm, 407/409 (99.5% received baseline VL (234,577 SD = 151,055 copies/ml. All participants received lamivudine; 49.8% started zidovudine followed by 38.4% stavudine and 11.8% tenofovir; and, 64.4% received nevirapine as nNRTI (35.6% efavirenz.A RCT can be enrolled successfully in rural, non-research, resource limited, district-level clinics in western Kenya. Many adults presenting for ART have advanced HIV/AIDS, emphasizing the importance of universal HIV testing and linkage-to-care campaigns.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01791556.

  17. Patient characteristics in low back pain subgroups based on an existing classification system. A descriptive cohort study in chiropractic practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirikstoft, Heidi; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    patient characteristics within each subgroup, and (3) to determine the proportion of patients in whom clinicians considered the classification to be unchanged after approximately 10 days. A cohort of 923 LBP patients was included during their first consultation. Patients completed an extensive...... questionnaire and were examined according to a standardised protocol. Based on the clinical examination, patients were classified into diagnostic subgroups. After approximately 10 days, chiropractors reported whether they considered the subgroup had changed. The most frequent subgroups were reducible and partly...... subgroup as at the first visit. In conclusion, LBP patients could be classified according to a standardised protocol, and chiropractors considered most patient classifications to be unchanged within 10 days. Differences in patient characteristics between subgroups were very small, and the clinical...

  18. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0% followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%. Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients

  19. Baseline characteristics, response to and outcome of antiretroviral therapy among patients with HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual infection in Burkina Faso.

    OpenAIRE

    Harries, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Manzi, Marcel; Firmenich, Peter; Mathela, Richard; Drabo, Joseph; Onadja, G; Arnould, Line; Harries, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    In an urban district hospital in Burkina Faso we investigated the relative proportions of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 among those tested, the baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and the response to and outcome of antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 7368 individuals (male=32%; median age=34 years) were included in the analysis over a 6 year period (2002-2008). The proportions of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual infection were 94%, 2.5% and 3.6%, respectively. HIV-1-infected individu...

  20. Most Trial Eligibility Criteria and Patient Baseline Characteristics Do Not Modify Treatment Effect in Trials Using Targeted Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anton Wulf; Tarp, Simon; Furst, Daniel E;

    2015-01-01

    )) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We conducted a meta-epidemiological study of all trials evaluating a targeted therapy approved by regulatory authorities for treating RA. The database search was completed on December 11th 2013. Eligible trials reported ACR20 data at months 3-6 and used an add-on design......OBJECTIVE: To determine if variations in trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics could be considered effect modifiers of the treatment response when testing targeted therapies (biological agents and targeted synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs...

  1. Potential Effects of a Scenario Earthquake on the Economy of Southern California: Baseline County-Level Migration Characteristics and Trends 1995-2000 and 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Hester, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and various partners from the public and private sectors and academia, meant to improve Southern California's resiliency to natural hazards. In support of the MHDP objectives, the ShakeOut Scenario was developed. It describes a magnitude 7.8 earthquake along the southernmost 300 kilometers (200 miles) of the San Andreas Fault, identified by geoscientists as a plausible event that will cause moderate to strong shaking over much of the eight-county (Imperial, Kern, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Ventura) Southern California region. This report uses historical, estimated, and projected population data from several Federal and State data sources to estimate baseline characteristics and trends of the region's population migration (that is, changes in a person's place of residence over time). The analysis characterizes migration by various demographic, economic, family, and household variables for the period 1995-2000. It also uses existing estimates (beginning in 2001) of the three components of population change - births, deaths, and migration - to extrapolate near-term projections of county-level migration trends through 2010. The 2010 date was chosen to provide baseline projections corresponding to a two-year recovery period following the November 2008 date that was selected for the occurrence of the ShakeOut Scenario earthquake. The baseline characteristics and projections shall assist with evaluating the effects of inflow and outflow migration trends for alternative futures in which the simulated M7.8 earthquake either does or does not occur and the impact of the event on housing and jobs, as well as community composition and regional economy changes based on dispersion of intellectual, physical, economic, and cultural capital.

  2. Nonlinear undulator tapering in conventional SASE regime at baseline electron beam parameters as a way to optimize the radiation characteristics of the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkez, Svitozar; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    We demonstrate that the output radiation characteristics of the European XFEL sources at nominal operation point can be easily made significantly better than what is currently reported in the TDRs of scientific instruments and X-ray optics. In fact, the output SASE characteristics of the baseline European XFEL have been previously optimized assuming uniform undulators at a nominal operating point of 5 kA peak current, without considering the potential of undulator tapering in the SASE regime. In order to illustrate this point, we analyze the case of an electron bunch with nominal parameters. Based on start-to-end simulations, we demonstrate that nonlinear undulator tapering allows one to achieve up to a tenfold increase in peak power and photon spectral density in the conventional SASE regime, without modification to the baseline design. The FEL code Genesis has been extensively used for these studies. In order to increase our confidence in simulation results, we cross-checked outcomes by reproducing simulations in the deep nonlinear SASE regime with tapered undulator using the code ALICE.

  3. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers...

  4. Clinical and inflammatory characteristics of the European U-BIOPRED adult severe asthma cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dominick E; Sousa, Ana R; Fowler, Stephen J; Fleming, Louise J; Roberts, Graham; Corfield, Julie; Pandis, Ioannis; Bansal, Aruna T; Bel, Elisabeth H; Auffray, Charles; Compton, Chris H; Bisgaard, Hans; Bucchioni, Enrica; Caruso, Massimo; Chanez, Pascal; Dahlén, Barbro; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Dyson, Kerry; Frey, Urs; Geiser, Thomas; Gerhardsson de Verdier, Maria; Gibeon, David; Guo, Yi-Ke; Hashimoto, Simone; Hedlin, Gunilla; Jeyasingham, Elizabeth; Hekking, Pieter-Paul W; Higenbottam, Tim; Horváth, Ildikó; Knox, Alan J; Krug, Norbert; Erpenbeck, Veit J; Larsson, Lars X; Lazarinis, Nikos; Matthews, John G; Middelveld, Roelinde; Montuschi, Paolo; Musial, Jacek; Myles, David; Pahus, Laurie; Sandström, Thomas; Seibold, Wolfgang; Singer, Florian; Strandberg, Karin; Vestbo, Jorgen; Vissing, Nadja; von Garnier, Christophe; Adcock, Ian M; Wagers, Scott; Rowe, Anthony; Howarth, Peter; Wagener, Ariane H; Djukanovic, Ratko; Sterk, Peter J; Chung, Kian Fan

    2015-11-01

    U-BIOPRED is a European Union consortium of 20 academic institutions, 11 pharmaceutical companies and six patient organisations with the objective of improving the understanding of asthma disease mechanisms using a systems biology approach.This cross-sectional assessment of adults with severe asthma, mild/moderate asthma and healthy controls from 11 European countries consisted of analyses of patient-reported outcomes, lung function, blood and airway inflammatory measurements.Patients with severe asthma (nonsmokers, n=311; smokers/ex-smokers, n=110) had more symptoms and exacerbations compared to patients with mild/moderate disease (n=88) (2.5 exacerbations versus 0.4 in the preceding 12 months; plife, and higher levels of anxiety and depression. They also had a higher incidence of nasal polyps and gastro-oesophageal reflux with lower lung function. Sputum eosinophil count was higher in severe asthma compared to mild/moderate asthma (median count 2.99% versus 1.05%; p=0.004) despite treatment with higher doses of inhaled and/or oral corticosteroids.Consistent with other severe asthma cohorts, U-BIOPRED is characterised by poor symptom control, increased comorbidity and airway inflammation, despite high levels of treatment. It is well suited to identify asthma phenotypes using the array of "omic" datasets that are at the core of this systems medicine approach. PMID:26357963

  5. The Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging: methodology and health profile of participants at baseline Estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí: metodologia e perfil de saúde dos participantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cohort study was initiated in 1997 to investigate the incidence and predictors of health outcomes in an elderly population with low socio-economic level. The eligible population consisted of all 1,742 residents in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, aged 60 years and over (1,606 participated. During 10 years of follow-up, 641 participants died and 96 were lost, leading to 13,739 person-years of observation. The baseline health profile of participants revealed a double burden of diseases with high prevalence of chronic non-transmissible diseases and widespread Trypanosoma cruzi infection. The most common health condition was hypertension (61.5%, followed by chronic knee or hand symptoms (43.6%, common mental disorders (38.5%, T. cruzi infection (38.1%, and insomnia (36.7%. In general, the baseline prevalence of mental symptoms and cardiovascular diseases or risk factors was comparable to those found in populations in high income countries.O estudo de coorte foi iniciado em 1997 para examinar a incidência e os determinantes de eventos em saúde em uma população idosa com baixo nível socioeconômico. Todos os 1.742 residentes na cidade de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil, com idade > 60 anos foram elegíveis para o estudo (1.606 participaram. Durante dez anos de seguimento, 641 participantes faleceram e 96 foram perdidos, resultando em 13.739 pessoas-anos de observação. O perfil de saúde dos participantes revelou carga dupla de doenças com alta prevalência de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e da infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. A condição de saúde mais frequente foi hipertensão (61,5%, seguida por dores articulares crônicas (43,6%, sintomas mentais comuns (38,5%, infecção pelo T. cruzi (38,1% e insônia (36,7%. Em geral, as prevalências de sintomas mentais e de doenças cardiovasculares ou fatores de risco para as mesmas foram comparáveis às observadas entre idosos em países de alta renda.

  6. Characteristics, stability and outcomes of the 2011 GOLD COPD groups in the ECLIPSE cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agusti, Alvar; Edwards, Lisa D; Celli, Bartolomé;

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classifies patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) into four groups (A to D). We explored the characteristics, stability and relationship to outcomes of these groups within the ECLIPSE study (Evaluation of C...

  7. GFDL's ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth System Models. Part I: physical formulation and baseline simulation characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, John P.; John, Jasmin G.; Adcroft, Alistair J.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hallberg, Robert W.; Shevalikova, Elena; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Cooke, William; Dunne, Krista A.; Harrison, Matthew J.; Krasting, John P.; Malyshev, Sergey L.; Milly, P.C.D.; Phillipps, Peter J.; Sentman, Lori A.; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spelman, Michael J.; Winton, Michael; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Zadeh, Niki

    2012-01-01

    We describe the physical climate formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled carbon-climate Earth System Models, ESM2M and ESM2G. These models demonstrate similar climate fidelity as the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's previous CM2.1 climate model while incorporating explicit and consistent carbon dynamics. The two models differ exclusively in the physical ocean component; ESM2M uses Modular Ocean Model version 4.1 with vertical pressure layers while ESM2G uses Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics with a bulk mixed layer and interior isopycnal layers. Differences in the ocean mean state include the thermocline depth being relatively deep in ESM2M and relatively shallow in ESM2G compared to observations. The crucial role of ocean dynamics on climate variability is highlighted in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation being overly strong in ESM2M and overly weak ESM2G relative to observations. Thus, while ESM2G might better represent climate changes relating to: total heat content variability given its lack of long term drift, gyre circulation and ventilation in the North Pacific, tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans, and depth structure in the overturning and abyssal flows, ESM2M might better represent climate changes relating to: surface circulation given its superior surface temperature, salinity and height patterns, tropical Pacific circulation and variability, and Southern Ocean dynamics. Our overall assessment is that neither model is fundamentally superior to the other, and that both models achieve sufficient fidelity to allow meaningful climate and earth system modeling applications. This affords us the ability to assess the role of ocean configuration on earth system interactions in the context of two state-of-the-art coupled carbon-climate models.

  8. Rotating shift work and menstrual characteristics in a cohort of Chinese nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yizi; Gu, Fang; Deng, Mingfen; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong; Zhou, Canquan; Chen, Shouzhen; Xu, Yanwen

    2016-01-01

    Background Shift work disrupts the circadian rhythm and may cause menstruation disorders. This study assessed the impact of shift work on menstrual cycle in a population of Chinese nurses. Methods Questionnaires on menstrual characteristics and shift schedules were sent to female nurses of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (FAHSYSU) and Guanghua Hospital of Stomatology (GHHS), affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University. Part I was a cross-sectional study and included 139 nurse...

  9. Clinical characteristics and outcome of a cohort of 101 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Rabe; Tillmann Pilz; Christoph Klostermann; Marc Berna; Hans H. Schild; Tilman Sauerbruch; Wolfgang H. Caselmann

    2001-01-01

    AIM To conduct a cohort study of 101 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presenting to a tertiary care medical referral center in Germany between 1997 and 1999.METHODS AND RESULTS Data were retrospectively analyzed by chart review. In 95cases (72 males and 23 females) sufficient data were available for analysis. Twenty-five (29%)of 8.5 patients were HBsAg or anti-HBc positive,21/85 (25%) were anti-HCV positive, and 6/85(7%) were positive for both HBV and HCV-markers. Age was significantly lower in HBV-positive patients than in the other two groups.Thirty-one (34%) of 90 patients had histories of alcohol abuse, In 79/ 94 (84%) patients,cirrhosis was diagnosed. Of these cirrhotic patients, 29/79 (37%) belonged to Child-Pugh's group (CHILD) A, 32/79 (40%) to CHILD B, and 18/79 (23%) to CHILD C. AFP was elevated in 61/91 (67%) patients. A single tumor nodule was found in 38/94 (40%), more than one nodule in 31/94 (34%), and 25/94 (26%) had a diffusely infiltrating tumor, i.e. the tumor margins could not be seen on imaging procedures. Portal vein thrombosis was present in 19/ 94 (20%).Imaging data consistent with lymph node metastases were found in 10/92 (11%), while distant metastases were found in 8/93 (9%).According to Okuda 28/94 (30%) were grouped to stage Ⅰ, 53/94 (56%) were grouped to stage Ⅱ, and 13/94 (14%) were grouped to stage Ⅲ.Survival data were available for 83 patients. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for median survival was 8.4 months. Factors influencing survival were the Okuda score, the presence of portal vein thrombosis, and the presence of ascites. The presence of non-complicated liver cirrhosis by itself, distant metastases, or infection with hepatitis viruses did not influence survival. AFP positivity by itself did not influence survival,though patients with an AFP value greater than 100μg/L did experience shortened survival.Treatment besides tamoxifen or supportive care was associated with prolonged survival. The influence of therapy on

  10. The combination of amlodipine and angiotensin receptor blocker or diuretics in high-risk hypertensive patients: rationale, design and baseline characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Ma, L; Zhang, Y; Deng, Q; Liu, M; Liu, L

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Hypertension Intervention Efficacy Study (CHIEF) is a multi-centre randomized controlled clinical trial comparing the effects of amlodipine+angiotensin II receptor blocker and amlodipine+diuretics on the incidence of cardiovascular events, represented as a composite of non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death events in high-risk Chinese hypertensive patients. The study also evaluates the long-term effects of lipid-lowering treatment and lifestyle modification. From October 2007 to October 2008, 13 542 patients were enrolled into the study in 180 centres in China. Patients will be followed up for 4 years. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the two blood pressure arms. PMID:20445570

  11. Epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes in a Mediterranean country; aims, design and baseline characteristics of the Greek study of acute coronary syndromes (GREECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stravopodis Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study GREECS was conducted in order to evaluate the annual incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS and to delineate the role of clinical, biochemical, lifestyle and behavioral characteristics on the severity of disease. In this work we present the design, methodology of the study and various baseline characteristics of people with ACS. Methods/Design A sample of 6 hospitals located in Greek urban and rural regions was selected. In these hospitals we recorded almost all admissions due to ACS, from October 2003 to September 2004. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological and other lifestyle characteristics were recorded. 2172 patients were included in the study (76% were men and 24% women. The crude annual incidence rate was 22.6 per 10,000 people and the highest frequency of events was observed in winter. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.3%. The most common discharged diagnosis for men was Q-wave MI, while for women it was unstable angina. Discussion This study aims to demonstrate current information about the epidemiology of patients who suffer from ACS, in Greece.

  12. Gender specific association of neonatal characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors on carotid intima-media thickness in a Chinese cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xue; ZHU Wen-ling; TAN Li; XU Tao; XU Rui-yi; FANG Quan; ZHANG Shu-yang; ZHANG Zhen-xin

    2010-01-01

    Background Multiple neonatal characteristics and adult cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the development of atherosclerosis, however little conclusive evidence exists characterizing the relative strength of these factors. In a large retrospective study, we investigated the association between both objective neonatal measurements and comprehensive adult cardiovascular risk factors with the development of atherosclerosis, quantified by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Further, we assessed the impact of gender on the relative impact of these risk factors.Methods CIMT, a measure of atherosclerosis, was determined by carotid ultrasound on 1568 participants (age 50-85)whose birth records were obtained from Peking Union Medical College Hospital. In addition, each participant was given a physical examination, and completed a medical questionnaire to identify a panel of cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple regression analysis was performed on the population and on the male and female cohorts individually, to identify the relative contribution of these risk factors to increased CIMT.Results For the total population the Framingham score, renal function, adult abdominal circumference and mother's gestational age were associated with CIMT, accounting for 14.7%, 1.4%, 0.9%, and 0.2% of total variance, respectively.In the male population the Framingham score, renal function, abdominal circumference and hemoglobin were the most significant risk factors for CIMT. Risk in the female population was associated with Framingham score, renal function,insulin resistance and gestational age. No relationship between birth weight or head circumference and CIMT were observed.Conclusions Adult cardiovascular risk factors were the most significantly associated with the development of atherosclerosis; however mother's age at birth was associated with CIMT, particularly in the female cohort. The relative contribution of the risk factors analyzed varied between the male and

  13. Neighborhood community characteristics associated with HIV disease outcomes in a cohort of urban women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Miller, Jane K; Weber, Kathleen; Cohn, Susan E; Hershow, Ronald C; Sha, Beverly E; French, Audrey L; Cohen, Mardge H

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have found geographic variations in immune and viral human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease outcomes associated with census measures of neighborhood poverty and segregation. Although readily available, such aggregate census measures are not based on health behavior models and provide limited information regarding neighborhood effect pathways. In contrast, survey-based measures can capture specific aspects of neighborhood disadvantage that may better inform community-based interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the measurement validity of multi-dimensional survey measures of neighborhood disorder compared with census measures as predictors of HIV outcomes in a cohort of 197 low-income women in a major metropolitan area. The multi-dimensional survey measures were related to each other and to census measures of concentrated poverty and racial segregation, but not so highly correlated as to be uniform. We found notable variation between community areas in women's CD4 levels but there was no corresponding geographic variance in viral load, and relationships between community area measures and viral load disappeared after adjustment for individual characteristics, including HIV treatment adherence. In multilevel models adjusting for individual characteristics including substance use, depression, and HIV treatment adherence, one survey measure of neighborhood disadvantage (poor-quality built environment) and one census measure (racial segregation) were significantly associated with greater likelihood of CD4 < 500 (p < .05). PMID:27098593

  14. DEMOGRAPHICAL, VIRO-IMMUNOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN A “EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY UNEXPLORED” REGION OF ITALY (CALABRIA REGION: THE CALABRHIV COHORT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Postorino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives   HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy.   Methods   The CalabrHIV cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information were recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension were also studied.   Results   548 patients (68% males; 63% aged 50 years-old patients than in <50 years-old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001. Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006.   Conclusion   This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients’ characteristics in the Calabria Region. Despite a small number of officially reported cases, the size of the cohort was substantial. We showed that HIV infected patients with chronic hepatites, were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are eagerly awaited.

  15. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: characteristics and treatment in an Irish patient cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, EP

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is increasing globally. However, reliable national and international data relating to its epidemiology and management is lacking. During the period 2003-2014, MAC was isolated from the pulmonary samples of 75 patients at the Irish Mycobacteria Reference Laboratory (IMRL). Most patients (42, 56%) had underlying pulmonary disease, and 37 (49%) had clinical\\/radiographic characteristics consistent with MAC pulmonary disease. However, only 18 patients (24%) fulfilled internationally accepted criteria for diagnosis\\/treatment of this disease. Treatment was started in 13 (72%) of these cases, which is similar to internationally published treatment rates. The diagnosis of significant MAC pulmonary disease can be difficult, and treatment is not always warranted even when diagnostic criteria are met.

  16. V.A. Cooperative Study on antiplatelet agents in diabetic patients after amputation for gangrene: III. Definitions and review of design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, J A; Bingham, S F; Abraira, C; Anderson, J W; Kwaan, H C

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the major design features, methods, and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. In eleven V.A. centers, 231 male diabetic patients who had either a recent amputation for gangrene (N = 207) or active gangrene (N = 24) were randomly assigned to a group which received aspirin (325 mg t.i.d.) plus dipyridamole (75 mg t.i.d.) (N = 110) or two placeboes t.i.d. (N = 121). Major end point were vascular death and amputation of the opposite extremity for gangrene. Forty-one percent of the 563 patients screened were enrolled during a 39 month period. Enrollment errors were found in 8.7%. Historically, the two groups were well matched regarding the following variables: age, duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, previous oral agent therapy, hypertension, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, renal disease, sensory neuropathy, and smoking. The drug therapy group had an increased frequency of a history of cerebrovascular disease (19% vs 7%, p = 0.01). The groups were well matched regarding amputation site, obesity, extent of lower extremity vascular disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy upon examination. Their baseline fasting values of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and creatinine were also comparable. We conclude that this study should provide definitive data on the efficacy of these antiplatelet agents in preventing further vascular disease in this patient group. It should also provide new prospective data on the natural history of vascular disease, and the association of vascular risk factors with subsequent vascular events in this patient population.

  17. Prevalence of comorbidities and baseline characteristics of LAP-BAND AP® subjects in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Dreyer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the baseline characteristics in patients who chose placement of a LAP-BAND AP® System (LBAP and participated in the Helping Evaluate Reduction in Obesity (HERO Study across regions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HERO is a five-year, prospective, multicenter, international study of patients with LBAP placement between July 22, 2009 and January 31, 2011. In addition to baseline and peri-surgery clinical data, seven follow up visits are scheduled at 3, 6 and 12 months, and annually through year five. Data collection included family and medical history, clinical outcomes, laboratory data, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, productivity, healthcare resource utilization, and adverse events. RESULTS: LBAP were placed in 1106 enrolled patients; 56.6% from the US, 26.3% from Europe, 7.1% from Canada, and 10.0% from Australia. The majority were female (n = 877 (79.3% with a mean age of 43 years (s.d. = 11.4 and mean body mass index of 45.1 kg/m(2 (s.d. = 6.9. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (HTN (overall  = 42.9% and diabetes (overall 22.2%, with 27% from the US and 14% from Europe. Overall, less than 5% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The prevalence rates of HTN, diabetes and cardiovascular disease were significantly (p<0.001 higher in men than in women across all regions. Overall HRQoL also worsened with increasing BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The HERO study is the first large, multinational and long-term registry with the LBAP. This study will provide real-world outcomes data on LAGB that will help inform patient choice, clinician treatment strategies, and payer reimbursement decisions.

  18. Maternal anthropometric characteristics in pregnancy and blood pressure among adolescents: 1993 live birth cohort, Pelotas, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallal Pedro C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the association between maternal anthropometric measurements in prepregnancy and at the end of pregnancy and their children's systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure at 11 years of age, in a prospective cohort study. Methods All hospital births which took place in 1993 in the city of Pelotas - Brazil, were identified (5,249 live births. In 2004, the overall proportion of follow-up was 85% and we obtained arterial blood pressure measurements of 4,452 adolescents. Results Independent variables analyzed included maternal prepregnancy weight and body mass index (BMI and maternal weight, and height at the end of pregnancy. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for the following confounders were carried out: adolescent's skin color, family income at birth, smoking, alcohol intake during pregnancy, and gestational arterial hypertension. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.9 mmHg (SD 12.3 and 63.4 mmHg (SD 9.9, respectively. Maternal prepregnancy weight and BMI, and weight at the end of pregnancy were positively associated with both SBP and DBP in adolescent subjects of both sexes; maternal height was positively associated with SBP only among males. Conclusions Adequate evaluation of maternal anthropometric characteristics during pregnancy may prevent high levels of blood pressure among adolescent children.

  19. The characteristics and clinical outcome of drug-induced liver injury in a Chinese hospital: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sen; Yu, Kang-Kang; Huang, Chong; Li, Ning; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Bao, Su-Xia; Chen, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Wen-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to determine the characteristics and clinical outcome of 287 patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in a Chinese hospital.Between January 2008 and January 2013, individuals who were diagnosed with DILI were selected. The complete medical records of each case were reviewed, and factors for the outcome of patients with DILI were extracted and analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis.Two hundred eighty-seven cases identified as DILI were included in the study. A total of 105 different drugs were considered to be related to the hepatotoxicity. The main causative group of drugs was Chinese herb (n = 111). Liver failure developed in 9 (3.1%) patients, and 2 died (0.7%). Overall, complete recovery occurred in 92 (32.1%) patients. Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis identified the digestive symptoms, jaundice, total bilirubin (TBIL), and direct bilirubin (DBIL) as independent factors for the non-recovery of DILI. Then the prediction model, including digestive symptoms, jaundice, TBIL, and DBIL, was built by using binary logistic regression analysis again. Receiver operating characteristic curve validated the strong power (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.907) of prediction model for predicting the DILI non-recovery.DILI is an important cause of liver test abnormalities, and Chinese herb represented the most common drug group. The factors such as digestive symptoms, jaundice, TBIL, and DBIL have effect on DILI outcomes. The prediction model, including digestive symptoms, jaundice, TBIL, and DBIL, established in this study is really an excellent predictive tool for non-recovery of DILI patients. PMID:27559976

  20. Demographics, clinical disease characteristics, and quality of life in a large cohort of psoriasis patients with and without psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available B Truong,1,* N Rich-Garg,2,* BD Ehst,1 AA Deodhar,2 JH Ku,2 K Vakil-Gilani,2 A Danve,2 A Blauvelt,1,3 1Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health and Science University, 2Division of Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases, Oregon Health and Science University, 3Oregon Medical Research Center, Portland, OR, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Innovation: What is already known about the topic: psoriasis (PsO is a common skin disease with major impact on quality of life (QoL. Patient-reported data on QoL from large number of PsO patients with and without psoriatic arthritis (PsA are limited. What this study adds: In a large cohort referred to a university psoriasis center, patients with PsO and concomitant PsA (~30% in this group had greater degrees of skin and nail involvement and experienced greater negative impacts on QoL. Despite large numbers of patients with moderate-to-severe disease, use of systemic therapy by community practitioners was uncommon. Background: PsO and PsA are common diseases that have marked adverse impacts on QoL. The disease features and patient-reported QoL data comparing PsO and PsA patients are limited. Objective: To identify and compare demographics, clinical disease characteristics, and QoL scores in a large cohort of PsO patients with and without PsA. Methods: All PsO patients seen in a psoriasis specialty clinic, named the Center of Excellence for Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis, were enrolled in an observational cohort. Demographic, QoL, and clinical data were collected from patient-reported questionnaires and from physical examinations performed by Center of Excellence for Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis dermatologists and a rheumatologists. Cross sectional descriptive data were collected and comparisons between patients with PsO alone and those with concomitant PsA are presented. Results: A total of 568 patients were enrolled in the database. Mean age of PsO onset was 28 years and mean disease

  1. The Pap smear screening as an occasion for smoking cessation and physical activity counselling: baseline characteristics of women involved in the SPRINT randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellini Elisabetta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender-specific smoking cessation strategies have rarely been developed. Evidence of effectiveness of physical activity (PA promotion and intervention in adjunct to smoking cessation programs is not strong. SPRINT study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a counselling intervention on smoking cessation and PA delivered to women attending the Italian National Health System Cervical Cancer Screening Program. This paper presents study design and baseline characteristics of the study population. Methods/Design Among women undergoing the Pap examination in three study centres (Florence, Turin, Mantua, participants were randomized to the smoking cessation counselling [S], the smoking cessation + PA counselling [S + PA], or the control [C] groups. The program under evaluation is a standard brief counselling on smoking cessation combined with a brief counselling on increasing PA, and was delivered in 2010. A questionnaire, administered before, after 6 months and 1 year from the intervention, was used to track behavioural changes in tobacco use and PA, and to record cessation rates in participants. Discussion Out of the 5,657 women undergoing the Pap examination, 1,100 participants (55% of smokers were randomized in 1 of the 3 study groups (363 in the S, 366 in the S + PA and 371 in the C groups. The three arms did not differ on any demographic, PA, or tobacco-use characteristics. Recruited smokers were older, less educated than non-participant women, more motivated to quit (33% vs.9% in the Preparation stage, p p p Trial registration number ISRCTN: ISRCTN52660565

  2. Distribution of Glycated Haemoglobin According to Early-Life and Contemporary Characteristics in Adolescents and Adults without Diabetes: The 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Silveira, Vera M.; Miranda, Jaime J.; Gonçalves, Helen D.; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Menezes, Ana Maria; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker of glucose control in individuals with diabetes mellitus, is also related with the incidence of cardiometabolic risk in populations free of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of HbA1c levels according to early-life and contemporary factors in adolescents and adults without diabetes mellitus. Methods HbA1c was measured in adults aged 30 years and adolescents aged 18 years who are participants in the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohorts, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe the HbA1c mean values according to early-life and contemporary characteristics collected prospectively since birth. Results The distribution of the HbA1c was approximately normal in both cohorts, with a mean (SD) 5.10% (0.43) in the 1982 cohort, and 4.89% (0.50) in the 1993 cohort. HbA1c mean levels were significantly higher in individuals self-reported as black/brown skin color compared to those self-reported as white in both cohorts. Parental history of diabetes was associated with higher HbA1c mean in adults, while stunting at one year old presented an inverse relation with the outcome in adolescents. No other early and contemporary factors were associated with HbA1c levels in adults or adolescents. Conclusions We found a consistent relationship between HbA1c and skin color in both cohorts. Further research is needed to understand the role of genomic ancestry on levels of HbA1c concentrations which may inform policies and preventive actions for diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27626274

  3. Medical students’ characteristics as predictors of career practice location: retrospective cohort study tracking graduates of Nepal’s first medical college

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark; Shakya, Rabina; Pokhrel, Bharat M.; Rijal, Basista P; Shrestha, Ratindra N; Sayami, Arun; Eyal, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine, in one low income country (Nepal), which characteristics of medical students are associated with graduate doctors staying to practise in the country or in its rural areas. Design: Observational cohort study. Setting: Medical college registry, with internet, phone, and personal follow-up of graduates. Participants: 710 graduate doctors from the first 22 classes (1983-2004) of Nepal’s first medical college, the Institute of Medicine. Main outcome measures: Career practi...

  4. Incomplete reporting of baseline characteristics in clinical trials: an analysis of randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews involving patients with chronic low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M Wertli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reporting of relevant prognostic information in a sample of randomized controlled trials (RCTs that investigated treatments for patients with chronic low back pain (LBP. We also analysed how researchers conducting the meta-analyses and systematic reviews addressed the reporting of relevant prognostic information in RCTs. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database to identify systematic reviews that investigated non-surgical treatments for patients with chronic LBP. The reported prognostic information was then extracted from the RCTs included in the reviews. We used a purpose-defined score to assess the quantity of information reported in the RCTs. We also determined how the authors of systematic reviews addressed the question of comparability of patient populations between RCTs. RESULTS: Six systematic reviews met our inclusion criteria, and we analysed 84 RCTs. Based on the scores, the reporting of important prognostic variables was incomplete in almost half of the 84 RCTs. Information regarding patients' general health, social support, and work-related conditions was rarely reported. Almost half of the studies included in one of the meta-analyses provided insufficient information that did not allow us to determine whether patients in the primary trials were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Missing prognostic information potentially threatens the external validity (i.e. the generalizability or applicability not only of primary studies but also of systematic reviews that investigate treatments for LBP. A detailed description of baseline patient characteristics that includes prognostic information is needed in all RCTs to ensure that clinicians can determine the applicability of the study or review results to their patients.

  5. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a trial of prevention of cardiovascular and renal disease with Fosinopril and Pravastatin in nonhypertensive, nonhypercholesterolemic subjects with microalbuminuria (the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENdstage Disease Intervention Trial [PREVEND IT])

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, GFH; Janssen, WMT; van Boven, AJ; Bak, AAA; de Jong, PE; Crijns, HJGM; van Gilst, WH

    2000-01-01

    This study describes the rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of a trial to determine whether treatment with fosinopril 20 mg/day and/or pravastatin 40 mg/day will prevent cardiovascular and renal disease in nonhypertensive (RR 10 mg/L once in an early morning spot urine and 15 to 300 mg/

  6. Demographic, medical, and behavioral characteristics associated with over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in a population based cohort: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Joseph A C; Biggs, Mary L.; Kronmal, Richard A; Psaty, Bruce M

    2010-01-01

    Background Three types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be obtained both over the counter (OTC) and by prescription in the United States. OTC NSAID use is not recorded in prescription claims databases; this might lead to differential misclassification of NSAID exposure status in studies that use computerized pharmacy databases to study NSAID use. Objective To evaluate characteristics of OTC versus prescription NSAID users Methods This analysis is set within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study; a prospective cohort study of 6,814 adults from 4 ethnic groups (European descent, Asian, African-American and Hispanic) with a mean age of 62 years. The cohort was restricted to those who initiated NSAID use (aspirin, ibuprofen or naproxen) during follow-up. We compared information about age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, medication use, education, income, health insurance status and exercisebetween groups. Results OTC NSAID use was prevalent at baseline (25% Aspirin, 9% Ibuprofen, 2% Naproxen). Compared to prescribed NSAID use, OTC NSAID use was lower for users of non-European descent for all classes: aspirin (p<0.0001), ibuprofen (p<0.0001) and naproxen (p=0.0094). For aspirin, differences were seen for male gender (Relative Risk (RR):0.92; 95%(Confidence interval) CI:0.86–0.98), use of lipid lowering drugs (RR:0.88; 95% CI: 0.80–0.96), low income (RR:0.89; 95%CI:0.81–0.97), and participants one standard deviation above average in intentional exercise (RR:1.03; 95%CI:1.01–1.05). Conclusions OTC NSAID use is prevalent in an older multi-ethnic population and OTC users differ from prescription NSAID users. Caution should be exercised when using prescribed NSAIDs as a proxy for NSAID use. PMID:21182156

  7. Clinical characteristics and disease predictors of a large Chinese cohort of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dongping; Ma, Yiyi; Wang, Xueqi; Yu, Shengqiang; Li, Lin; Dai, Bing; Mao, Zhiguo; Sun, Lijun; Xu, Chenggang; Rong, Shu; Tang, Mengjun; Zhao, Hongbo; Liu, Hongchao; Andreas L Serra; Graf, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a relentlessly progressing form of chronic kidney disease for which there is no cure. The aim of this study was to characterize Chinese patients with ADPKD and to identify the factors which predict cyst growth and renal functional deterioration. METHODS: To analyze disease predicting factors we performed a prospective longitudinal observational study in a cohort of 541 Chinese patients with ADPKD and an eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min/1.7...

  8. Clinical characteristics and disease predictors of a large Chinese cohort of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dongping Chen; Yiyi Ma; Xueqi Wang; Shengqiang Yu; Lin Li; Bing Dai; Zhiguo Mao; Lijun Sun; Chenggang Xu; Shu Rong; Mengjun Tang; Hongbo Zhao; Hongchao Liu; Serra, Andreas L.; Nicole Graf

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a relentlessly progressing form of chronic kidney disease for which there is no cure. The aim of this study was to characterize Chinese patients with ADPKD and to identify the factors which predict cyst growth and renal functional deterioration. METHODS: To analyze disease predicting factors we performed a prospective longitudinal observational study in a cohort of 541 Chinese patients with ADPKD and an eGFR ≥ 30 ml/min/1.73 m...

  9. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhaar Harald JJ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth ( At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively.

  10. Nested Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  11. Clinical Characteristics and Disease Predictors of a Large Chinese Cohort of Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dongping; Ma, Yiyi; Wang, Xueqi; Yu, Shengqiang; Li, Lin; Dai, Bing; Mao, Zhiguo; Sun, Lijun; Xu, Chenggang; Rong, Shu; Tang, Mengjun; Zhao, Hongbo; Liu, Hongchao; Andreas L Serra; Graf, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a relentlessly progressing form of chronic kidney disease for which there is no cure. The aim of this study was to characterize Chinese patients with ADPKD and to identify the factors which predict cyst growth and renal functional deterioration. Methods To analyze disease predicting factors we performed a prospective longitudinal observational study in a cohort of 541 Chinese patients with ADPKD and an eGFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m2. ...

  12. Cohort Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Cohorts are the aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval. Cohorts can be based on people born in a given year, for example in 1940 or within a span of years, e.g. born in 1940-1944. The year of birth is here the defining event for cohorts. The health di...

  13. Prospective Cohort Study of Stress, Life Satisfaction, Self-Rated Health, Insomnia, and Suicide Death in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi

    2005-01-01

    The association between many psychosocial factors and risk of suicide was examined. A cohort was conducted over 14 years of follow up among the general population (15,597 people) in Japan. A baseline survey of psychosocial characteristics was conducted by self-administrated questionnaire. The relative risks of occasional emotional stress,…

  14. 云南省乳腺癌基线特征分析%Baseline characteristics of breast cancer in Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云芬; 杨晓娟; 刘倩; 张宁鑫; 聂建云

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the baseline characteristics of breast cancer in Yunnan Province. Methods:Col-lected 1862 cases confirmed to be breast cancer by pathology. Results:Patients were aged in 21 to 78,the average age was(48. 23 ± 10. 59)years old,the peak age of onset was 40-49 years old. According to the age0. 05). Predominantly invasive nonspecific carcinoma in pathological classification,with 1523 cases,accounting for 81. 8%;Pathological staging Ⅱ period pa-tients,with 916 cases,accounting for 49. 2%. Main molecular classification was Luminal B patients,with 1260 cases, accounting for 67. 7%. According to the stratified analysis of different cultural levels,the breast cancer patients be-tween the ages of different cultural levels,production history,pathological staging expression difference was statistically significant(P0. 05). Conclusion:The difference between Han nationality and ethnic minorities breast cancer patients in Yunnan Province has not been found. The clinical feature of breast cancer may have relationship with education level.%目的:了解云南省肿瘤医院收治的乳腺癌患者基线特点。方法:收集2011年1月-2012年12月云南省肿瘤医院乳腺病科收治的经病理确诊为乳腺癌的所有初诊患者,共计1862例,对其年龄、病理分型、分期及分子分型构成等情况进行分析。结果:患者年龄21-78岁,平均年龄(48.23±10.59)岁。发病高峰年龄为40-49岁,按年龄<40和年龄≥40岁分为2组,分析不同年龄组民族、生产史、发病时间、病理分型、分期、分子分型、ER、PR、CerbB2、p53及Ki67的表达情况。除生产史(P<0.001)和PR(P=0.025)差异有统计学意义外,其余差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。病理分型以浸润性非特殊癌为主,共1523例,占81.8%。临床分期以Ⅱ期患者为主,共916例,占49.2%;Ⅰ期620例,占33.3%;Ⅲ期294例,占15.8%;Ⅳ期32例,占1.7

  15. Early life characteristics and late life burden of cerebral small vessel disease in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Thalia S.; Doubal, Fergus N.; Johnson, Wendy; Backhouse, Ellen; McHutchison, Caroline; Cox, Simon; Corley, Janie; Pattie, Alison; Gow, Alan J.; Shenkin, Susan; Cvoro, Vera; Morris, Zoe; Staals, Julie; Bastin, Mark; Deary, Ian J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether relations between early-life factors and overall health in later life apply to burden of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), a major cause of stroke and dementia. We explored relations between early-life factors and cSVD in the Lothian Birth Cohort, a healthy aging cohort. Participants were recruited at age 70 (N = 1091); most had completed a test of cognitive ability at age 11 as part of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947. Of those, 700 participants had brain MRI that could be rated for cSVD conducted at age 73. Presence of lacunes, white matter hyperintensities, microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were summed in a score of 0-4 representing all MRI cSVD features. We tested associations with early-life factors using multivariate logistic regression. Greater SVD score was significantly associated with lower age-11 IQ (OR higher SVD score per SD age-11 IQ = .78, 95%CI 0.65-.95, p=.01). The associations between SVD score and own job class (OR higher job class, .64 95%CI .43-.95, p=.03), age-11 deprivation index (OR per point deprivation score, 1.08, 95%CI 1.00-1.17, p=.04), and education (OR some qualifying education, .60 95%CI .37-.98, p=.04) trended towards significance (p<.05 for all) but did not meet thresholds for multiple testing. No early-life factor was significantly associated with any one individual score component. Early-life factors may contribute to age-73 burden of cSVD. These relations, and the potential for early social interventions to improve brain health, deserve further study. PMID:27652981

  16. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the DANish randomized, controlled, multicenter study to assess the efficacy of Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with non-ischemic Systolic Heart failure on mortality (DANISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thune, Jens Jakob; Pehrson, Steen; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure (HF) caused by coronary artery disease is well documented. However, the effect of primary prophylactic ICDs in patients with systolic HF not due to coronary artery disease...... by coronary artery disease have been randomized to receive an ICD or not, in addition to contemporary standard therapy. The primary outcome of the trial is time to all-cause death. Follow-up will continue until June 2016 with a median follow-up period of 5 years. Baseline characteristics show that enrolled...... (range, 21-84 years) at baseline, and 28% were women. CONCLUSION: DANISH will provide pertinent information about the effect on all-cause mortality of a primary prophylactic ICD in patients with symptomatic systolic HF not caused by coronary artery disease on contemporary standard therapy including CRT....

  17. Assessment of participation bias in cohort studies: systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The proportion of non-participation in cohort studies, if associated with both the exposure and the probability of occurrence of the event, can introduce bias in the estimates of interest. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of participation and its characteristics in longitudinal studies. A systematic review (MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science for articles describing the proportion of participation in the baseline of cohort studies was performed. Among the 2,964 initially identified, 50 were selected. The average proportion of participation was 64.7%. Using a meta-regression model with mixed effects, only age, year of baseline contact and study region (borderline were associated with participation. Considering the decrease in participation in recent years, and the cost of cohort studies, it is essential to gather information to assess the potential for non-participation, before committing resources. Finally, journals should require the presentation of this information in the papers.

  18. The rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of PREVENT-DM: A community-based comparative effectiveness trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among Latinas with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Alberly; Alos, Victor A; Scanlan, Adam; Maia, Catarina M; Davey, Adam; Whitaker, Robert C; Foster, Gary D; Ackermann, Ronald T; O'Brien, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Promotora Effectiveness Versus Metformin Trial (PREVENT-DM) is a randomized comparative effectiveness trial of a lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program delivered by community health workers (or promotoras), metformin, and standard care. Eligibility criteria are Hispanic ethnicity, female sex, age ≥ 20 years, fluent Spanish-speaking status, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2), and prediabetes. We enrolled 92 participants and randomized them to one of the following three groups: standard care, DPP-based lifestyle intervention, or metformin. The primary outcome of the trial is the 12-month difference in weight between groups. Secondary outcomes include the following cardiometabolic markers: BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and insulin. PREVENT-DM participants are socioeconomically disadvantaged Latinas with a mean annual household income of $15,527 ± 9922 and educational attainment of 9.7 ± 3.6 years. Eighty-six percent of participants are foreign born, 20% have a prior history of gestational diabetes, and 71% have a first-degree relative with diagnosed diabetes. At baseline, PREVENT-DM participants had a mean age of 45.1 ± 12.5 years, weight of 178.8 ± 39.3 lbs, BMI of 33.3 ± 6.5 kg/m(2), HbA1c of 5.9 ± 0.2%, and waist circumference of 97.4 ± 11.1cm. Mean baseline levels of other cardiometabolic markers were normal. The PREVENT-DM study successfully recruited and randomized an understudied population of Latinas with prediabetes. This trial will be the first U.S. study to test the comparative effectiveness of metformin and lifestyle intervention versus standard care among prediabetic adults in a "real-world" setting.

  19. Baseline Characteristics and Prescription Patterns of Standard Drugs in Patients with Angiographically Determined Coronary Artery Disease and Renal Failure (CAD-REF Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Reinecke

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is strongly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD. We established a prospective observational nationwide multicenter registry to evaluate current treatment and outcomes in patients with both CKD and angiographically documented CAD.In 32 cardiological centers 3,352 CAD patients with ≥50% stenosis in at least one coronary artery were enrolled and classified according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria into one of five stages of CKD or as a control group.2,723 (81.2% consecutively enrolled patients suffered from CKD. Compared to controls, CKD patients had a higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, peripheral artery diseases, heart failure, and valvular heart disease (each p<0.001. Myocardial infarctions (p = 0.02, coronary bypass grafting, valve replacements and pacemaker implantations had been recorded more frequently (each p<0.001. With advanced CKD, the number of diseased coronary vessels and the proportion of patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF increased significantly (both p<0.001. Percutaneous coronary interventions were performed less frequently (p<0.001 while coronary bypass grafting was recommended more often (p = 0.04 with advanced CKD. With regard to standard drugs in CAD treatment, prescriptions were higher in our registry than in previous reports, but beta-blockers (p = 0.008, and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin-receptor blockers (p<0.001 were given less often in higher CKD stages. In contrast, in the subgroup of patients with moderately to severely reduced LVEF the prescription rates did not differ between CKD stages. In-hospital mortality increased stepwise with each CKD stage (p = 0.02.In line with other studies comprising CKD cohorts, patients' morbidity and in-hospital mortality increased with the degree of renal impairment. Although cardiologists' drug prescription rates in CAD-REF were higher than in

  20. Compliance of nutritional recommendations of Spanish pregnant women according to sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Vidal, María; Amiano, Pilar; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara; Santa Marina, Loreto; Mozo, Imanol; Vioque, Jesús; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Romaguera, Dora; Valvi, Damaskini; Fernández Samoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Objetivo: Estudiar las ingesta dietética y cumplimiento de las recomendaciones nutricionales de una población de mujeres embarazadas, de acuerdo a sus características sociodemográficas y hábitos de vida. Métodos: se trata de un estudio prospectivo basado en datos de la cohorte española INMA (Infancia y Medioambiente). Se han reclutado 2.585 mujeres embarazadas entre los años 2003 y 2008 en cuatro regiones diferentes de España. La ingesta dietética ha sido recogida mediante Cuestionarios de Frecuencia Alimentaria (CFA) y la información antropométrica, sociodemográfica y de estilos de vida a través de cuestionarios generales. La ingesta de grupos de alimentos y de vitaminas A, C y E y carotenoides fueron comparadas con las ingestas dietéticas de referencia de las guías Española y Americana. Resultados: El porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas que no cumplían las recomendaciones de cereales y legumbres (3-4 raciones /día) fue del 70 %, de frutas (2-3 raciones /día) el 39,2%, de verduras (2-4 raciones /día) fue del 47,3% y de lácteos (3-4 raciones /día) el 51,6%. La ingesta de frutas y verduras fue mayor en mujeres extranjeras y aumento con la edad, con el nivel de estudios y en mujeres con mayor actividad física (p.

  1. Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23900718

  2. Characteristics, therapy and outcome in an unselected and prospectively registered cohort of patients with gastro-oesophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schonnemann, K. R.; Mortensen, M. B.; Kroll Bjerregaard, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose was to examine characteristics, treatment and outcome in an unselected, prospectively registered complete population of patients with gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma cancer (GEA). Methods. All cases diagnosed with GEA between 2008 and 2009 in the Region of Southern Denmark...

  3. Demography, baseline disease characteristics and treatment history of patients with psoriasis enrolled in a multicentre, prospective, disease-based registry (PSOLAR)*

    OpenAIRE

    Kimball, AB; Leonardi, C; Stahle, M.; Gulliver, W; Chevrier, M; Fakharzadeh, S; Goyal, K.; Calabro, S; Langholff, W; Menter, A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: Psoriasis is associated with several comorbidities and behavioural risk factors. Objectives: To evaluate demographic and disease characteristics in patients enrolled in the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry (PSOLAR). Methods: PSOLAR is a global, prospective, longitudinal, disease-based registry that includes a postmarketing commitment to evaluate safety in patients with psoriasis. Enrolled patients had to be receiving, or be eligible to receive, conventional s...

  4. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  5. A prospective cohort study of stroke characteristics, care, and mortality in a hospital stroke registry in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tirschwell David L; Ton Thanh G N; Ly Kiet A; Van Ngo Quang; Vo Tung T; Pham Chien Hung; Longstreth William T; Fitzpatrick Annette L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background As low and middle-income countries such as Vietnam experience the health transition from infectious to chronic diseases, the morbidity and mortality from stroke will rise. In line with the recommendation of the Institute of Medicine’s report on “Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World” to “improve local data”, we sought to investigate patient characteristics and clinical predictors of mortality among stroke inpatients at Da Nang Hospital in Vietnam. Methods...

  6. Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behaviors (SUPERB: study design, methods, and demographic characteristics of cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertz-Picciotto Irva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to toxic chemicals in the home is a growing concern. This report presents an overview of the recruitment, methods for data collection, instruments used to collect data, and participant demographics for a study examining behaviors that influence exposure to environmental toxins in the home environment, also known as SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors. Methods The methods involved three different platforms: telephone interviews, internet-based surveys, and home-based monitoring. The purposes of SUPERB were: first, to compare data collection platforms with regard to feasibility, acceptability and reliability; and second, to provide longitudinal population-based data characterizing seasonal and long-term changes in exposure-related behaviors including food consumption, temporal-spatial activity, and household product use. Results Two cohorts of households were enrolled: families (one parent and one child from northern California and older individuals (age 55+ from central California. Parents (n = 499 in Northern California families were on average 36 years of age, 47.1% were Latino or nonwhite, and 10.2% took the survey in Spanish. Most of the children enrolled (n = 566 were under 6 years (82.7%. The older adults enrolled (n = 156 were, on average, 66 years of age and 23.7% were Latino or nonwhite, but only 2.6% completed the survey in Spanish. Conclusions We found that oversampling was successful in improving recruitment of under-represented subgroups, such as those with low education, thereby increasing diversity of our study sample. Protocols that minimize participant time, e.g., use of bar scanners and scales rather than questionnaires regarding use of household products, and the implementation of these protocols by staff who built relationships of trust, resulted in high retention over a longitudinal data collection scheme. A relatively small fraction of those who volunteer for

  7. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Retreatment Tuberculosis Patients in Benin.

    OpenAIRE

    Serge Ade; Omer Adjibodé; Prudence Wachinou; Narcisse Toundoh; Bérénice Awanou; Gildas Agodokpessi; Dissou Affolabi; Gabriel Adè; Harries, Anthony D; Séverin Anagonou

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine among retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin baseline characteristics, culture, and drug sensitivity testing (DST) results and treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective national cohort study of all retreatment tuberculosis patients in Benin in 2013 using registers and treatment cards. Results. Of 3957 patients with tuberculosis, 241 (6%) were retreatment cases. Compared to new pulmonary bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis (NPBCT) patients, the...

  8. Baseline characteristics of climate, permafrost and land cover from a new permafrost observatory in the Lena River Delta, Siberia (1998–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boike

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Samoylov Island is centrally located within the Lena River Delta at 72° N, 126° E and lies within the Siberian zone of continuous permafrost. The landscape on Samoylov Island consists mainly of late Holocene river terraces with polygonal tundra, ponds and lakes, and an active floodplain. The island has been the focus of numerous multidisciplinary studies since 1993, which have focused on climate, land cover, ecology, hydrology, permafrost and limnology. This paper aims to provide a framework for future studies by describing the characteristics of the island's meteorological parameters (temperature, radiation and snow cover, soil temperature, and soil moisture. The land surface characteristics have been described using high resolution aerial images in combination with data from ground-based observations. Of note is that deeper permafrost temperatures have increased between 0.3 to 1.3 °C over the last five years. However, no clear warming of air and active layer temperatures is detected since 1998, though winter air temperatures during recent years have not been as cold as in earlier years. Data related to this article are archived under: http://doi. pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.806233 .

  9. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of childhood pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus infection: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn You-Sook

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There was a pandemic influenza around the world in 2009 including South Korea since last pandemic occurred four decades ago. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this infection in childhood. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of all the subjects infected with the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (2,971 patients, ≤ 15 years of age, and the clinical and laboratory findings of the inpatients (217 patients, 80 had pneumonia between 1 September 2009 and 31 January 2010 in a single hospital throughout the epidemic. Results The age distribution of all the subjects was relatively even. Over 90% of cases occurred during a two-month period. Two hundred and five patients (94.5% received oseltamivir within 48 h of fever onset, and 97% of inpatients defervesced within 48 h of medication. The group with pneumonia included more males than females, and had higher leukocytes counts with lower lymphocyte differentials than the group without pneumonia. The white blood cell count and lymphocyte differential were associated with the severity of pneumonia. Corticosteroid treatment for severe pneumonia patients was highly effective in preventing disease progression. Conclusion Children of all ages affected with even rates of infection, but males were predominant in pneumonia patients. Pneumonia patients showed lymphopenia and its severity was associated with the severity of illness. Our results suggest that the mechanism of lung injury in 2009 H1N1 virus infection may be associated with the host immune response.

  10. The Danish Youth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Riegels, Mette; Rod, Morten Hulvej;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods used in the Danish Youth Cohort and to give a description of the study participants with special attention to a comparison between participants and non-participants regarding sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: A total of 1...

  11. Persistent systemic inflammation and symptoms of depression among patients with COPD in the ECLIPSE cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, D. J. A.; Mullerova, H.; Agusti, A.;

    2014-01-01

    follow-up between COPD patients with persistent systemic inflammation (PSI) and never inflamed patients (NI) in the ECLIPSE cohort. Methods: The ECLIPSE study included 2164 COPD patients. Parameters assessed at baseline and at 36 months follow-up included: demographics, clinical characteristics...... and symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression, CES-D). Patients classified as NI had zero and patients with PSI had >= 2 inflammatory biomarkers (white blood cell count, hsCRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen) in the upper quartile, at baseline and 12 months later. Findings: 350 patients (29...

  12. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas, and measured selected water-quality properties in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the course of the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to environmental flow prescriptions for Big Cypress Bayou, Black Cypress Bayou, and Little Cypress Bayou. Data collection and analysis were done at mesohabitat- and reach-specific scales, where a mesohabitat is defined as a discrete area within a stream that exhibits unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover.

  13. Achieving Synergy: Linking an Internet-Based Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort to a Community-Based Inception Cohort and Multicentered Cohort in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Molly; Cook, Suzanne Follan; Bright, Renee; Mallette, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Shah, Samir A; LeLeiko, Neal S; Shapiro, Jason; Sands, Bruce E; Chen, Wenli; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Galanko, Joseph; Long, Millie D; Martin, Christopher F; Sandler, Robert S; Kappelman, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional cohort studies are important contributors to our understanding of inflammatory bowel diseases, but they are labor intensive and often do not focus on patient-reported outcomes. Internet-based studies provide new opportunities to study patient-reported outcomes and can be efficiently implemented and scaled. If a traditional cohort study was linked to an Internet-based study, both studies could benefit from added synergy. Existing cohort studies provide an opportunity to develop and test processes for cohort linkage. The Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America’s (CCFA) Partners study is an Internet-based cohort of more than 14,000 participants. The Ocean State Crohn’s and Colitis Area Registry (OSCCAR) is an inception cohort. The Sinai-Helmsley Alliance for Research Excellence (SHARE) is a multicentered cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Both the later cohorts include medical record abstraction, patient surveys, and biospecimen collection. Objective Given the complementary nature of these existing cohorts, we sought to corecruit and link data. Methods Eligible OSCCAR and SHARE participants were invited to join the CCFA Partners study and provide consent for data sharing between the 2 cohorts. After informed consent, participants were directed to the CCFA Partners website to complete enrollment and a baseline Web-based survey. Participants were linked across the 2 cohorts by the matching of an email address. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics between OSCCAR and SHARE participants who did and did not enroll in CCFA Partners and the data linkage. Results Of 408 participants in the OSCCAR cohort, 320 were eligible for participation in the CCFA Partners cohort. Of these participants, 243 consented to participation; however, only 44 enrolled in CCFA Partners and completed the linkage. OSCCAR participants who enrolled in CCFA Partners were better educated (17% with doctoral degrees) than those who did not (3% with

  14. Personal characteristics, therapy modalities and individual DNA repair capacity as predictive factors of acute skin toxicity in an unselected cohort of breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect the occurrence of side effects of radiotherapy. The influence of therapy modalities, personal characteristics and individual DNA repair capacity on the risk of acute skin toxicity was thus evaluated. Materials and methods: In a prospective study of 478 female breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy of the breast after breast-conserving surgery, acute skin toxicity was documented systematically using a modified version of the common toxicity criteria. Prognostic personal and treatment characteristics were identified for the entire cohort. Individual DNA repair capacity was determined in a subgroup of 113 patients with alkaline comet assay using phytohemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes. Using proportional hazards analysis to account for cumulative biologically effective radiation dose, the hazard for the development of acute skin reactions (moist desquamation) associated with DNA repair capacity was modeled. Results: Of the 478 participants, 84 presented with acute reactions by the end of treatment. Higher body mass index was significantly associated with an increased risk for acute reactions (hazard ratio=1.09 per 1 kg/m2), adjusted for treating hospital and photon beam quality. The comet assay parameters examined, including background DNA damage in non-irradiated cells, DNA damage induced by 5 Gy, and DNA repair capacity, were not significantly associated with risk of acute skin toxicity. Conclusions: Higher BMI is predictive of acute skin toxicity, however, individual repair parameters as determined by the alkaline comet assay are not informative enough. More comprehensive analyses including late effects of radiotherapy and repair kinetics optimized for different radiation-induced DNA lesions are warranted

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs based on a community cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Z; Li, D; Wang, A; Su, H; Shao, Z; Zhang, J; Ji, Z; Gao, J; Choi, B C K; Yan, Y

    2016-04-01

    The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs is an atypical serological pattern in HBV infection. There is no epidemiological characteristics of this serological pattern in the community and there is controversy over the molecular mechanisms underlying this pattern. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with HBsAg and anti-HBs in a longitudinal community cohort study. The prevalence of this atypical serological pattern was 2.93% (122/4169) in HBsAg-positive populations. The prevalence progressively increased with age from 40 to 70 years old. The rate of HBeAg positive and detectable HBV DNA were both significantly higher in carriers with this pattern than in carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (26/122 verse 598/4047, P = 0.046; 86/122 verse 275/529,P < 0.001). After 1 year of follow-up, 85.19% of the carriers still had coexistence HBsAg and anti-HBs, 14.81% of the carriers lost their anti-HBs. Viral sequencing showed that carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs had higher numbers of residue changes within the S gene than carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (2.42 verse 1.33 changes per 100 residues, P < 0.05). Hence, the coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs is a unique serological pattern which may be associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical outcome and may be related to HBsAg immune variants which have genotypic heterogeneity.

  16. Factors Associated With Non-participation in a Face-to-Face Second Survey Conducted 5 Years After the Baseline Survey

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-participation in second surveys is reported to be associated with certain baseline characteristics; however, such data are unavailable for Japanese populations. Although disease incidence during follow-up might influence participation, few reports have addressed this possibility. This study sought to identify factors associated with non-participation in a second survey of a population-based cohort, and to evaluate the influence of self-reported disease incidence on non-particip...

  17. Vesicoureteral reflux and antibiotic prophylaxis: why cohorts and methodologies matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Saul P.; Cheng, Earl; DeFoor, William; Kropp, Bradley; Rushton, H. Gil; Skoog, Steve; Carpenter, Myra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Published cohorts of children with vesicoureteral reflux placed on antibiotic prophylaxis differ in baseline characteristics and methodology. These data have been combined in meta-analyses to derive treatment recommendations. We analyzed these cohorts in an attempt to understand the disparate outcomes reported. Materials and Methods Eighteen studies were identified from 1987 to 2013. These either retrospectively or prospectively evaluated children with VUR who were on long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. The presenting demographic data, criteria and methods of evaluation were tabulated. Outcomes were compared—specifically recurrent urinary infection and renal scarring. Results Significant differences in baseline characteristics and methodology were identified: gender, circumcision status, grade of reflux, evaluation of bowel and bladder dysfunction (BBD), methodology of urine collection, definition of urinary infection (UTI), measurement of compliance, means of identifying renal scarring. Cohorts with larger numbers of uncircumcised boys had more breakthrough UTI’s. Both infection and renal scarring rates were higher in series with higher grades of reflux. Bagged urine specimens were allowed in 6 series, rendering the data suspect. Children with BBD were excluded from 3 cohorts; only in 1 was BBD correlated with outcome. Compliance was monitored in only 6 studies. Conclusions Sub-populations as well as methodologies vary significantly in published series of children with VUR on anti-biotic prophylaxis. It is inappropriate to combine outcome data from these series in a meta-analysis, since this serves to blur distinctions between these sub-populations. Broad recommendations or guidelines based upon meta-analyses should be viewed with caution. PMID:22910235

  18. Demographical, Viro-Immunological, Clinical and Therapeutical Characteristics of HIV-Infected Patients in an “Epidemiologically Unexplored” Region of Italy (Calabria Region): the CalabrHIV Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postorino, Maria Concetta; Luciani, Filippo; Mangano, Carmelo; Carpentieri, Maria Stella; Scerbo, Paolo; Priamo, Armando; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Marino, Roberto; Vallone, Alfredo; Serrao, Nicola; Pisani, Vincenzo; Costa, Chiara; Terremoto, Albano; Foti, Giuseppe; Cosco, Lucio; Calderazzo, Massimo; Corigliano, Domenico; Scordo, Preziosa; Strazzulla, Alessio; Torti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy). Methods The CalabrHIV Cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information was recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension) were also studied. Results 548 patients (68% males; 59% aged 50 years old patients than in <50 years old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001). Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006). Conclusion This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients’ characteristics in the Calabria Region. We showed that HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are therefore to be implemented in the co-infected population. PMID:26543523

  19. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés;

    2014-01-01

    new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-naı ̈ve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Sima ̃ o Mendes, the main...

  20. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  1. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  2. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  3. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment in 2010-11 of physical characteristics and selected aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas for which environmental flows have been prescribed. Mesohabitats are visually distinct units of habitat within the stream with unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Mesohabitats in reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous were evaluated to gain an understanding of how fish communities and mussel populations varied by habitat. Selected water-quality properties were also measured in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of the prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to the prescribed environmental flows.

  4. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  5. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  6. The Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kjøller, Mette; Davidsen, Michael;

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of a nationally representive public health research database in Denmark, the Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS). DANCOS combines baseline data from health interview surveys with both pre- and post-baseline data from national health registries with date from a re...... Service Register recorded 980,043 contacts with general practitioners and specialist physicians. For 1943-1996, the Danish cancer Registry contained information about one or more cancer diseases among 1,432 people. A total of 4,334 people in the 1994 cohort were re-interview in 2000. DANCOS allows...

  7. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2014-01-01

    participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations...... and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk....

  8. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major ...

  9. Estimating bias from loss to follow-up in a prospective cohort study of bicycle crash injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up, if related to exposures, confounders and outcomes of interest, may bias association estimates. We estimated the magnitude and direction of such bias in a prospective cohort study of crash injury among cyclists. Methods The Taupo Bicycle Study involved 2590 adult cyclists recruited from New Zealand's largest cycling event in 2006 and followed over a median period of 4.6 years through linkage to four administrative databases. We resurveyed the participants in 2009 and excluded three participants who died prior to the resurvey. We compared baseline characteristics and crash outcomes of the baseline (2006) and follow-up (those who responded in 2009) cohorts by ratios of relative frequencies and estimated potential bias from loss to follow-up on seven exposure-outcome associations of interest by ratios of HRs. Results Of the 2587 cyclists in the baseline cohort, 1526 (60%) responded to the follow-up survey. The responders were older, more educated and more socioeconomically advantaged. They were more experienced cyclists who often rode in a bunch, off-road or in the dark, but were less likely to engage in other risky cycling behaviours. Additionally, they experienced bicycle crashes more frequently during follow-up. The selection bias ranged between −10% and +9% for selected associations. Conclusions Loss to follow-up was differential by demographic, cycling and behavioural risk characteristics as well as crash outcomes, but did not substantially bias association estimates of primary research interest. PMID:24336816

  10. Low back pain patients in Sweden, Denmark and the UK share similar characteristics and outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Davies, Laura; Axén, Iben

    2015-01-01

    were LBP intensity (0-10 scales) and LBP frequency (0-7 days the previous week). Cohort differences were tested in mixed models accounting for repeated measures. It was investigated if any differences were explained by different baseline characteristics, and interaction terms between baseline factors...... and nations tested if strength of prognostic factors differed across countries. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 262, 947 and 453 patients from Sweden, Denmark and the UK respectively. Patient characteristics were largely similar across cohorts although some statistically significant differences were...... observed. The clinical course followed almost identical patterns across nations and small observed differences were not present after adjusting for baseline factors. The associations of LBP intensity and episode duration with outcome differed in strength between countries. CONCLUSIONS: Chiropractic...

  11. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  12. Is Statin Use Associated With Tendon Rupture? A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Tahmeed; Beri, Abhimanyu; Gardiner, Joseph C; Tang, Xiaoqin; Dwamena, Francesca C

    2015-01-01

    Previous case reports and small studies have suggested that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (HMG-CoA-Is) may increase the risk of tendon rupture. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort evaluation to better assess this relationship. From approximately 800,000 enrollees of a private insurance database, those who were aged ≤64 years with at least 1 year of continuous enrollment were selected. Exposure was defined as initiation of HMG-CoA-I after the beginning of the study period. Each exposed person was matched with 2 controls of similar age and gender. Baseline characteristics, including known risk factors for tendon rupture, were compared between exposed and control cohorts with fidelity to the study's matched design. After adjusting for differences in follow-up and baseline characteristics, incidence rate ratios for tendon rupture was assessed in HMG-CoA-I users and nonusers. A total of 34,749 exposed patients were matched with 69,498 controls. There was no difference in the occurrence of tendon ruptures in HMG-CoA-I users versus nonusers. The results remained unchanged after adjustment for age and gender. In conclusion, this population-based retrospective cohort evaluation suggests that use of HMG-CoA-Is as a group are not associated with tendon rupture. PMID:24451300

  13. Baseline clinical characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients with initial antiretroviral therapy%HIV/AIDS患者初始抗病毒治疗基线特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时晓庆; 张美; 李群辉; 张宏伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze baseline clinical characteristics of 1 094 acquired immunodeficiency syn-drome/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS) patients with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Baseline da-ta were collected from HIV/AIDS patients undergoing initial ART in Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical Universi-ty from January 2013 to January 2014. Clinical features were analyzed. Results The study enrolled a total of 1 094 HIV/AIDS patients, including 1 012 males and 82 females, most of whom were 30~44 years old. Sex contact was the major HIV transmission route. The main symptoms were found to be fever, cough, sputum, fatigue, weight loss, etc. Op-portunistic infections mostly occurred in respiratory system (53.3%), followed by digestive system (28.9%). Morbidity of lung infection, PCP, oral fungal infection, herpes zoster, CMV retinitis and lymphoma in group of CD4+T cells<200 cells/µl were significantly higher than those in group of CD4+T cells≥200 cells/μl (P<0.05). Conclusion Clinical manifestations are complex and diverse in HIV/AIDS patients, and opportunistic infections mostly involve respiratory system. Closely observing symptoms and regularly testing CD4+T cell count are conducive to early prevention and con-trol of opportunistic infections and can improve the life quality of AIDS patients.%目的:研究基线时人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)感染者/艾滋病(AIDS)患者的临床特点,为预防和控制艾滋病机会性感染提供依据。方法采集2013年1月至2014年1月在首都医科大学附属北京佑安医院感染中心随访并初次接受艾滋病抗逆转录病毒(ART)治疗的成年HIV/AIDS患者的基线资料并分析其临床特点。结果本研究共纳入1094例HIV/AIDS患者,其中男性1012例,女性82例,以30~44岁者居多,以性传播途径为主,主要临床表现为发热、咳嗽咳痰、乏力、消瘦等,其中呼吸系统机会性感染发生率达53.3%,其次为消化系统机会性感染(28

  14. Predicting incident fatty liver using simple cardio-metabolic risk factors at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ki-Chul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and chronic liver disease but identifying patients who have NAFLD without resorting to expensive imaging tests is challenging. In order to help identify people for imaging investigation of the liver who are at high risk of NAFLD, our aim was to: a identify easily measured risk factors at baseline that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up, and then b to test the diagnostic performance of thresholds of these factors at baseline, to predict or to exclude incident fatty liver at follow up. Methods 2589 people with absence of fatty liver on ultrasound examination at baseline were re-examined after a mean of 4.4 years in a Korean occupational cohort study. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to identify baseline factors that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up. The diagnostic performance of thresholds of these baseline factors to identify people with incident fatty liver at follow-up was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results 430 incident cases of fatty liver were identified. Several factors were independently associated with incident fatty liver: increased triglyceride (per mmol/l increase OR 1.378 [95%CIs 1.179, 1.611], p 9/L increase OR 1.004 [1.001, 1.006], p = 0.001; were each independently associated with incident fatty liver. Binary thresholds of the five factors were applied and the area under the ROC curve for incident fatty liver was 0.75 (95%CI 0.72–0.78 for the combination of all five factors above these thresholds. Conclusion Simple risk factors that overlap considerably with risk factors for type 2 diabetes allow identification of people at high risk of incident fatty liver at who use of hepatic imaging could be targeted.

  15. Single-site Baseline and Short-term Outcomes of Clinical Characteristics and Life Quality Evaluation of Chinese Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration Patients in Routine Clinical Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Li Wang; Wen-Jia Liu; Hai-Yun Liu; Xun Xu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible vision loss among the older population.In China,treatment of age-related ocular diseases is becoming a priority in eye care services.This study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and quality of life of Chinese patients with wet AMD and current treatment types,to evaluate short-term gains in different treatments,and to investigate associations between visual function and vision-related quality of life (VRQoL).Methods:A prospective,observational,noninterventional study was conducted.Basic data were collected from patients with clinical diagnoses of wet AMD before clinical assessments at baseline.VRQoL was measured with the Chinese version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25).Correlations of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale scores with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and between-group differences were analyzed.Results:A total of 80 wet AMD patients were enrolled,with the mean age of 68.40 years.About one-quarter ofwetAMD patients received intravitreal (IVT) ranibizumab treatment,and 67% of them were treated on apro re nata basis.The visual acuity of patients treated with IVT ranibizumab at month 3 after treatment was significantly increased,whereas patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine achieved no significant improvement.Cronbach's α for the NEI VFQ-25 subscales ranged from 0.697 to 0.843.Eight subscale and overall composite scores were moderately correlated with the BCVA of the better-seeing eye.Significant differences in the overall NEI VFQ-25 scores and other subscales were observed between patients with BCVA in the better-seeing eye of less than 50 letters and the others.Conclusions:Patients treated with IVT ranibizumab experienced better vision improvement at short-term follow-up.The Chinese version of the NEI VFQ-25 is a valid and reliable tool for assessing the VRQoL of Chinese wet AMD patients.

  16. An analysis of case-finding and baseline clinical characteristics in non-Shanghainese HIV/AIDS patients in Yangpu district of Shanghai%上海市杨浦区非沪籍HIV/AIDS病例的发现及临床就诊特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯云; 黄惠敏; 成俊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study case-finding and baseline clinical characteristics in non-Shanghainese HIV/AIDS patients in Yangpu district of Shanghai.Methods Information of all non-Shanghainese HIV/AIDS patients reported in Yangpu district recent years (2001-2012) were collected and collated.Demographic characteristics,way of casefinding and medical behavior characteristics were analyzed by the method of retrospective cohort study.Results Most of the non-Shanghainese HIV/AIDS cases were female,young adults and married,coming from Jiangsu,Anhui and Xinjiang provinces.Of all the non-shanghainese HIV/AIDS patients,58.9% (162/275) were confirmed HIV infection in hospital,and most of them were due to lung diseases.Among the non-shanghainese HIV/AIDS death cases,71.2% were founded by the way of "other clinic visitors".Conclusion HIV screening should be enforced in outpatients of internal medicine (such as respiratory,emergency and tuberculosis departments),and meanwhile VCT should also be enforced,which are positive to find and treat HIV/AIDS patients earlier.%目的 了解上海市杨浦区非沪籍艾滋病病毒(HIV)感染者/艾滋病(AIDS)病人(简称HIV/AIDS病人)的发现和临床就诊行为的特征.方法 收集和整理杨浦区历年(2001-2012年)报告的非沪籍HIV/AIDS病人的相关资料,采用回顾队列研究的方法,分析其人口学特征、病例发现方式、临床就诊行为特征.结果 非沪籍HIV/AIDS病人中,以男性、青壮年、已婚为主要特征,江苏、安徽、新疆籍病人较多.58.9% (162/275)的非沪籍HIV/AIDS病人在医疗机构就诊时被确诊感染HIV,大多因肺部疾病就诊;71.2%(47/66)的死亡非沪籍HIV/AIDS病人,其发现方式为“其他临床就诊者”.结论 应加大对内科门诊(呼吸内科、急诊科、结核科等)就诊病人的HIV抗体筛查力度,同时深入开展艾滋病免费自愿咨询检测(VCT)工作,对于早发现、早治疗HIV/AIDS病人具有积极作用.

  17. Frequency and Characteristics of Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Organisms in Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Vijayakanthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the frequency of infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL- producing organisms, various bacteria producing ESBL, antibiotic susceptibility of these organisms, and the risk factors associated with these infections in a neonatal intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital in North India. Of the 150 neonates enrolled in the study, 47 culture-positive neonates were included in the study cohort and were divided into two groups: ESBL-positive (8 neonates and ESBL-negative (39 neonates cohorts. Various organisms were isolated from 72 culture samples in these 47 neonates. Of these, 10 culture samples grew ESBL-positive organisms and 62 samples grew ESBL-negative organisms. The frequency of ESBL-producing organisms was found to be 5.3%. ESBL infection incidence densities were found to be 3.4 per 1000 patient-days. Klebsiella (60% was the most common organism producing ESBL followed by Escherichia coli (30% and Pseudomonas (10%. Eighty percent of the ESBL-producing organisms were sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam. Risk factors found significant by univariate analysis (P7 days, length of hospitalization, length of level 3 stay, prior antibiotic use, central venous catheter duration, peripherally inserted central venous catheter duration, and total parenteral nutrition duration. Factors that retained significance in the logistic regression model were duration of hospital stay (adjusted OR: 0.958, CI: 0.920–0.997, and P value = 0.037 and gestational age (adjusted OR: 1.39, CI: 1.037–1.865, and P value = 0.028. There was no significant difference in the mortality between the two groups.

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder in a cohort of young patients in day treatment for eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nicely, Terri A; Lane-Loney, Susan; Masciulli, Emily; Hollenbeak, Christopher S.; Ornstein, Rollyn M

    2014-01-01

    Background Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is a “new” diagnosis in the recently published DSM-5, but there is very little literature on patients with ARFID. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ARFID in children and adolescents undergoing day treatment for an eating disorder, and to compare ARFID patients to other eating disorder patients in the same cohort. Methods A retrospective chart review of 7-17 year olds admitted to a day program for younger patients wi...

  19. The telmisartan renoprotective study from incipient nephropathy to overt nephropathy--rationale, study design, treatment plan and baseline characteristics of the incipient to overt: angiotensin II receptor blocker, telmisartan, Investigation on Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy (INNOVATION) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, H; Haneda, M; Babazono, T; Moriya, T; Ito, S; Iwamoto, Y; Kawamori, R; Takeuchi, M; Katayama, S

    2005-01-01

    We planned the INNOVATION study to determine whether telmisartan, an angiotensin-2-receptor blocker, delays the progression of renal disease from incipient nephropathy to overt nephropathy in hypertensive or normotensive Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The INNOVATION study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eligible patients must have incipient nephropathy (defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 100-300 mg/g creatinine) and a serum creatinine concentration of 300 mg/g creatinine and 30% higher than the baseline on at least two consecutive visits). A total of 1855 patients have been enrolled from 160 study centres. In 527 randomized patients (28.4% of the enrolled patients), mean (SD) urinary albumin to creatinine ratio and serum creatinine concentration at baseline were 173.3 (47.2) mg/g creatinine and 0.78 (0.19) mg/dl. Sixty-eight per cent of the patients had hypertension at baseline. Mean (SD) systolic and diastolic blood pressures at baseline were 137.1 (14.6) and 77.5 (10.3) mmHg. The INNOVATION study will determine whether telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, provides clinical benefits in hypertensive or normotensive patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  1. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-09-30

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of September 30, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that dellinate the differences between this revision and revision 4 (May 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  2. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  3. Program cost and schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall purpose of cost and schedule baseline management is to ensure that the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program's cost and schedule plan are controlled in an orderly, efficient, and documented manner. Baseline control of the Program's cost and schedule will result in changes that only take place with OCRWM senior management approval, by way of the change control process. The Program Management System (PMS) Manual describes how the Program Cost and Schedule Baseline (PCSB) is integrated into the OCRWM management system. This PCSB document identifies the components of Program cost and schedule that will be subject to change control by DOE-Headquarters and establishes their baseline values. This document also summarizes the management components of the cost and schedule baseline, including reporting, monitoring, and corrective action. Detailed PCSB reporting, monitoring, and corrective action procedures will be issued as an Office of Program Administration and Resource Management (OPARM) administrative procedure. 9 figs

  4. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  5. Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas, and measured selected water-quality properties in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the course of the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to environmental flow prescriptions for Big Cypress Bayou, Black Cypress Bayou, and Little Cypress Bayou. Data collection and analysis were done at mesohabitat- and reach-specific scales, where a mesohabitat is defined as a discrete area within a stream that exhibits unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Biological and physical characteristic data were collected from two sites on Big Cypress Bayou, and one site on both Black Cypress Bayou and Little Cypress Bayou. The upstream reach of Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346015 Big Cypress Bayou at confluence of French Creek, Jefferson, Texas) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 02 site. The downstream site on Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346017 Big Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 01 site and was sampled exclusively for mussels. The sites on Black Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346044 Black Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) and Little Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346071 Little Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) are hereinafter referred to as the Black Cypress and Little Cypress sites, respectively. A small range of streamflows was targeted for data collection, including a

  6. Within-Cohort Age-Related Differences in Cognitive Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the level of cognitive functioning can be influenced by characteristics of the environment that change over time. Many developmental researchers have referred to these influences as cohort effects, and have used year of birth as the basis for determining cohort membership. Furthermore, age-related differences in cognitive functioning are sometimes assumed to be primarily attributable to cohort differences, which implies that differences between birth cohorts should ...

  7. Recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer: towards personalized treatment based on evaluation of tumor characteristics with PET (THYROPET Study): study protocol of a multicenter observational cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After initial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) patients are followed with thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements to detect recurrences. In case of elevated levels of Tg and negative neck ultrasonography, patients are treated 'blindly' with Iodine-131 (131I). However, in up to 50% of patients, the post-therapy scan reveals no 131I-targeting of tumor lesions. Such patients derive no benefit from the blind therapy but are exposed to its toxicity. Alternatively, iodine-124 (124I) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has become available to visualize DTC lesions and without toxicity. In addition to this, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT detects the recurrent DTC phenotype, which lost the capacity to accumulate iodine. Taken together, the combination of 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT has potential to stratify patients for treatment with 131I. In a multicenter prospective observational cohort study the hypothesis that the combination of 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT can avoid futile 131I treatments in patients planned for ‘blind’ therapy with 131I, is tested. One hundred patients planned for 131I undergo both 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT after rhTSH stimulation. Independent of the outcome of the scans, all patients will subsequently receive, after thyroid hormone withdrawal, the 131I therapy. The post 131I therapeutic scintigraphy is compared with the outcome of the 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT in order to evaluate the diagnostic value of the combined PET modalities. This study primary aims to reduce the number of futile 131I therapies. Secondary aims are the nationwide introduction of 124I PET/CT by a quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program, to correlate imaging outcome with histopathological features, to compare 124I PET/CT after rhTSH and after withdrawal of thyroid hormone, and to compare 124I and 131I dosimetry. This study aims to evaluate the potential value of the combination of 124I and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the prevention

  8. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  9. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  10. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer risk: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Thomassen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik T;

    2008-01-01

    nationwide health registers. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 847 breast cancer cases over an average follow-up period of 7.5 years. Any NSAID use at baseline was associated with an increased incidence...... and Health cohort. Information on NSAID and paracetamol use was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at baseline (1993-1997) and updated through 2003 using a nationwide prescription database. Detailed information on breast cancer incidence and tumour characteristics was obtained from...... was unrelated to breast cancer incidence. The increased breast cancer incidence among NSAID users may reflect a noncausal association, but our study provides no evidence of a chemopreventive effect of NSAIDs against breast cancer over the durations studied. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Apr...

  11. Learning to Baseline Business Technology

    OpenAIRE

    David Gore; Marie D. Lee; Kimberly Hopper

    2013-01-01

    bills, sign multi-­‐year contracts, and make purchasing decisions without having an overall technology plan. That plan includes a technology baseline to fully assess existing technology. A CIO's goal is to align IT with business goals. Businesses must know total cost of ownership and the return on investment for all technology purchases and monthly costs. A business must also be able to manage technology assets and best utilize resources across the business. Teaching students to baseline tech...

  12. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  13. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  14. Characteristics and Prognosis of Never-Smokers and Smokers with Asthma in the Copenhagen General Population Study. A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Asthma is associated with complications, cardiovascular comorbidities, and higher mortality in some individuals. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that, among individuals with asthma, never-smokers have different characteristics and a better prognosis than smokers. METHODS: We recruit...... with asthma. Thus, tobacco smoking was the main explanation for poor prognosis in asthma....

  15. A Prospective Cohort Study on Cardiotoxicity of Adjuvant Trastuzumab Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Erika; Jug, Borut; Blagus, Rok; Zakotnik, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiotoxicity is an important side effect of trastuzumab therapy and cardiac surveillance is recommended. Objectives The aim of our study was to prospectively assess baseline patients' characteristics, level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and echocardiographic parameters as possible predictors of trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction. Methods In a prospective cohort study, clinical, echocardiographic and neurohumoral assessment was performed at baseline, after 4, 8 and 12 months in breast cancer patients undergoing post-anthracycline (3-4 cycles) adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction was defined as a decline of ≥ 10% in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Results 92 patients (mean age, 53.6 ± 9.0 years) were included. Patients who developed trastuzumab-related LVEF decline ≥ 10% (20.6%) during treatment had significantly higher baseline LVEF (70.7 ± 4.4%) than those without (64.8 ± 5.5%) (p = 0.0035). All other measured baseline parameters (age, body mass index, arterial hypertension, level of NT-proBNP and other echocardiographic parameters) were not identified as significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that baseline patient' characteristics, level of NT-proBNP and echocardiographic parameters, as long as they are within normal range, are not a reliable tool to predict early trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction in patients undergoing post-low dose anthracycline adjuvant trastuzumab therapy. A LVEF decline in patients with high-normal baseline level although statistically significant is not clinically relevant. PMID:27305108

  16. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  17. Learning to Baseline Business Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available bills, sign multi-­‐year contracts, and make purchasing decisions without having an overall technology plan. That plan includes a technology baseline to fully assess existing technology. A CIO's goal is to align IT with business goals. Businesses must know total cost of ownership and the return on investment for all technology purchases and monthly costs. A business must also be able to manage technology assets and best utilize resources across the business. Teaching students to baseline technology will enable them to track and manage costs, discover errors and waste, and consolidate and improve existing technology.

  18. Work characteristics predict psychiatric disorder: prospective results from the Whitehall II Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfeld, S. A.; Fuhrer, R; Shipley, M J; Marmot, M G

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The impact of work on the risk of future psychiatric disorder has been examined in few longitudinal studies. This was examined prospectively in a large epidemiological study of civil servants. METHODS: In the Whitehall II study, a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of 6895 male and 3413 female London based civil servants, work characteristics measured at baseline (phase 1: 1985-8) and first follow up (phase 2: 1989) were used to predict psychiatric disorder measured by a...

  19. Case -cohort design in practice - experiences from the MORGAM Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kulathinal, S.; Karvanen, J.; Saareka, O.; K. Kuulasmaa; Evans, Alun; Yarnell, John

    2007-01-01

    When carefully planned and analysed, the case-cohort design is a powerful choice for follow-up studies with multiple event types of interest. While the literature is rich with analysis methods for case-cohort data, little is written about the designing of a case-cohort study. Our experiences in designing, coordinating and analysing the MORGAM case-cohort study are potentially useful for other studies with similar characteristics. The motivation for using the case-cohort design in the MORGAM g...

  20. The Mediating and Moderating Effects of Workplace Social Capital on the Associations between Adverse Work Characteristics and Psychological Distress among Japanese Workers

    OpenAIRE

    OSHIO, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2014-01-01

    Our current study investigated how workplace social capital (WSC) mediates and moderates the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers. We collected cross-sectional data (N=9,350) from a baseline survey of an occupational Japanese cohort study. We focused on individual WSC and considered job demands/control, effort/reward, and two types (i.e., procedural and interactional) of organizational justice as work-characteristic variables. We ...

  1. What matters for working fathers? Job characteristics, work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' postpartum mental health in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Angela; Leach, Liana S; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-12-01

    One in ten fathers experience mental health difficulties in the first year postpartum. Unsupportive job conditions that exacerbate work-family conflict are a potential risk to fathers' mental health given that most new fathers (95%) combine parenting with paid work. However, few studies have examined work-family conflict and mental health for postpartum fathers specifically. The aim of the present study was to identify the particular work characteristics (e.g., work hours per week, job quality) associated with work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' mental health in the postpartum period. Survey data from 3243 fathers of infants (aged 6-12 months) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed via path analysis, considering key confounders (age, education, income, maternal employment, maternal mental health and relationship quality). Long and inflexible work hours, night shift, job insecurity, a lack of autonomy and more children in the household were associated with increased work-family conflict, and this was in turn associated with increased distress. Job security, autonomy, and being in a more prestigious occupation were positively associated with work-family enrichment and better mental health. These findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian fathers contribute novel evidence that employment characteristics, via work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, are key determinants of fathers' postnatal mental health, independent from established risk factors. Findings will inform the provision of specific 'family-friendly' conditions protective for fathers during this critical stage in the family life-cycle, with implications for their wellbeing and that of their families.

  2. Using emergency department-based inception cohorts to determine genetic characteristics associated with long term patient outcomes after motor vehicle collision: Methodology of the CRASH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peak David A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent musculoskeletal pain and psychological sequelae following minor motor vehicle collision (MVC are common problems with a large economic cost. Prospective studies of pain following MVC have demonstrated that demographic characteristics, including female gender and low education level, and psychological characteristics, including high pre-collision anxiety, are independent predictors of persistent pain. These results have contributed to the psychological and social components of a biopsychosocial model of post-MVC pain pathogenesis, but the biological contributors to the model remain poorly defined. Recent experimental studies indicate that genetic variations in adrenergic system function influence the vulnerability to post-traumatic pain, but no studies have examined the contribution of genetic factors to existing predictive models of vulnerability to persistent pain. Methods/Design The Project CRASH study is a federally supported, multicenter, prospective study designed to determine whether variations in genes affecting synaptic catecholamine levels and alpha and beta adrenergic receptor function augment social and psychological factors in a predictive model of persistent musculoskeletal pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD following minor MVC. The Project CRASH study will assess pain, pain interference and PTSD symptoms at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year in approximately 1,000 patients enrolled from 8 Emergency Departments in four states with no-fault accident laws. Discussion The results from this study will provide insights into the pathophysiology of persistent pain and PTSD following MVC and may serve to improve the ability of clinicians and researchers to identify individuals at high risk for adverse outcomes following minor MVC.

  3. What matters for working fathers? Job characteristics, work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' postpartum mental health in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, Amanda R; Giallo, Rebecca; Strazdins, Lyndall; Martin, Angela; Leach, Liana S; Nicholson, Jan M

    2015-12-01

    One in ten fathers experience mental health difficulties in the first year postpartum. Unsupportive job conditions that exacerbate work-family conflict are a potential risk to fathers' mental health given that most new fathers (95%) combine parenting with paid work. However, few studies have examined work-family conflict and mental health for postpartum fathers specifically. The aim of the present study was to identify the particular work characteristics (e.g., work hours per week, job quality) associated with work-family conflict and enrichment, and fathers' mental health in the postpartum period. Survey data from 3243 fathers of infants (aged 6-12 months) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed via path analysis, considering key confounders (age, education, income, maternal employment, maternal mental health and relationship quality). Long and inflexible work hours, night shift, job insecurity, a lack of autonomy and more children in the household were associated with increased work-family conflict, and this was in turn associated with increased distress. Job security, autonomy, and being in a more prestigious occupation were positively associated with work-family enrichment and better mental health. These findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian fathers contribute novel evidence that employment characteristics, via work-family conflict and work-family enrichment, are key determinants of fathers' postnatal mental health, independent from established risk factors. Findings will inform the provision of specific 'family-friendly' conditions protective for fathers during this critical stage in the family life-cycle, with implications for their wellbeing and that of their families. PMID:26520473

  4. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having Mediterranean diet rich in extra virgin olive oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study. PMID:27297848

  5. CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (the CORDIOPREV study): Rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics: A clinical trial comparing the efficacy of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil versus a low-fat diet on cardiovascular disease in coronary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Alcala-Diaz, Juan F; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Fuentes, Francisco; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Ortiz-Morales, Ana M; Delgado-Casado, Nieves; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Camargo, Antonio; Marin, Carmen; Rodriguez-Cantalejo, Fernando; Gomez-Luna, Purificacion; Ordovas, Jose M; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) represents a major global health burden. However, despite the well-known influence that dietary habits exert over the progression of this disease, there are no well-established and scientifically sound dietary approaches to prevent the onset of clinical outcomes in secondary prevention. The objective of the CORonary Diet Intervention with Olive oil and cardiovascular PREVention study (CORDIOPREV study, clinical trials number NCT00924937) is to compare the ability of a Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil versus a low-fat diet to influence the composite incidence of cardiovascular events after 7 years in subjects with documented CHD at baseline. For this purpose, we enrolled 1,002 coronary patients from Spain. Baseline assessment (2009-2012) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess dietary, social, and biological variables. Results of baseline characteristics: The CORDIOPREV study in Spain describes a population with a high body mass index (37.2% overweight and 56.3% obesity) and with a median of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of 88.5 mg/dL (70.6% of the patients having oil as compared with a low-fat diet on the incidence of CHD recurrence in a long-term follow-up study.

  6. Project FIT: Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a school- and community-based intervention to address physical activity and healthy eating among low-income elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Hyun J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes Project FIT, a collaboration between the public school system, local health systems, physicians, neighborhood associations, businesses, faith-based leaders, community agencies and university researchers to develop a multi-faceted approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating toward the general goal of preventing and reducing childhood obesity among children in Grand Rapids, MI, USA. Methods/design There are four overall components to Project FIT: school, community, social marketing, and school staff wellness - all that focus on: 1 increasing access to safe and affordable physical activity and nutrition education opportunities in the schools and surrounding neighborhoods; 2 improving the affordability and availability of nutritious food in the neighborhoods surrounding the schools; 3 improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors regarding nutrition and physical activity among school staff, parents and students; 4 impacting the 'culture' of the schools and neighborhoods to incorporate healthful values; and 5 encouraging dialogue among all community partners to leverage existing programs and introduce new ones. Discussion At baseline, there was generally low physical activity (70% do not meet recommendation of 60 minutes per day, excessive screen time (75% do not meet recommendation of rd-5th grade children (n = 403. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385046

  7. Clinicopathological Characteristics and Outcomes of Chinese Patients with Scanty Immune Deposits Lupus Nephritis: A Large Cohort Study from a Single Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess clinicopathological characteristics of lupus nephritis patients with scanty immune deposits. Methods. The data of patients with scanty immune deposits lupus nephritis were retrospectively analyzed. Plasma ANCA and complement components were detected. Results. Among 316 cases with renal biopsy-proven lupus nephritis, 40 cases were diagnosed as scanty immune deposits. There were significantly higher value of serum creatinine (P=0.002 and lower hemoglobin level (P=0.009 and higher score of cellular crescents (P=0.015 in scanty immune deposits group compared with immune complex deposits group. The frequency of positive plasma ANCA was significantly higher in scanty immune deposits group than that in immune complex deposits group (52.5% versus 10.1%, P<0.001. As for comparisons of plasma complement components, there were significantly higher levels of C1q (P=0.005 and Bb (P=0.02 and lower level of factor H (P=0.003 in scanty immune deposits group. The ratio of treatment failure was significantly higher in scanty immune deposits group than that in immune deposits group (42.5% versus 19.20%, P=0.001. The renal outcomes were similar between the two groups. Conclusions. Patients with scanty immune deposits lupus nephritis had more severe kidney damage. ANCA and activation of complement alternative pathway might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  8. Assessing nonresponse bias at follow-up in a large prospective cohort of relatively young and mobile military service members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooper Tomoko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonresponse bias in a longitudinal study could affect the magnitude and direction of measures of association. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, military, and health-related predictors of response to the first follow-up questionnaire in a large military cohort and assessed the extent to which nonresponse biased measures of association. Methods Data are from the baseline and first follow-up survey of the Millennium Cohort Study. Seventy-six thousand, seven hundred and seventy-five eligible individuals completed the baseline survey and were presumed alive at the time of follow-up; of these, 54,960 (71.6% completed the first follow-up survey. Logistic regression models were used to calculate inverse probability weights using propensity scores. Results Characteristics associated with a greater probability of response included female gender, older age, higher education level, officer rank, active-duty status, and a self-reported history of military exposures. Ever smokers, those with a history of chronic alcohol consumption or a major depressive disorder, and those separated from the military at follow-up had a lower probability of response. Nonresponse to the follow-up questionnaire did not result in appreciable bias; bias was greatest in subgroups with small numbers. Conclusions These findings suggest that prospective analyses from this cohort are not substantially biased by non-response at the first follow-up assessment.

  9. Retrospective cohort analysis of chest injury characteristics and concurrent injuries in patients admitted to hospital in the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare retrospectively the characteristics of chest injuries and frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients after earthquakes of different seismic intensity. METHODS: We compared the cause, type, and body location of chest injuries as well as the frequencies of other, concurrent injuries in patients admitted to our hospital after the Wenchuan and Lushan earthquakes in Sichuan, China. We explored possible relationships between seismic intensity and the causes and types of injuries, and we assessed the ability of the Injury Severity Score, New Injury Severity Score, and Chest Injury Index to predict respiratory failure in chest injury patients. RESULTS: The incidence of chest injuries was 9.9% in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake and 22.2% in the less intensive Lushan earthquake. The most frequent cause of chest injuries in both earthquakes was being accidentally struck. Injuries due to falls were less prevalent in the stronger Wenchuan earthquake, while injuries due to burial were more prevalent. The distribution of types of chest injury did not vary significantly between the two earthquakes, with rib fractures and pulmonary contusions the most frequent types. Spinal and head injuries concurrent with chest injuries were more prevalent in the less violent Lushan earthquake. All three trauma scoring systems showed poor ability to predict respiratory failure in patients with earthquake-related chest injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies may have underestimated the incidence of chest injury in violent earthquakes. The distributions of types of chest injury did not differ between these two earthquakes of different seismic intensity. Earthquake severity and interval between rescue and treatment may influence the prevalence and types of injuries that co-occur with the chest injury. Trauma evaluation scores on their own are inadequate predictors of respiratory failure in patients with earthquake

  10. Comparison of characteristics and outcomes of patients with heart failure preserved ejection fraction versus reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in an urban cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Rene; Doros, Gheorghe; Shaw, Peter; Liang, Chang-Seng; Gauthier, Diane F; Sam, Flora

    2014-02-15

    Despite significant advances in therapies for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), there are no evidence-based therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), also known as diastolic heart failure (HF). Differences in pathophysiologic mechanisms are touted as to why patients with HFpEF purportedly do not derive similar therapeutic benefits compared with HFrEF. Similarly, the relative frequencies of HFpEF and HFrEF may differ between hospitalized and ambulatory settings. There are limited data on the prevalence, characteristics, treatment, and short-term outcomes of patients hospitalized with HFpEF. We sought to investigate these in patients hospitalized with HFpEF in an urban, hospitalized setting using the Get With The Guidelines registry. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive discharges (n = 1,701) with a diagnosis of acute decompensated HF from December 1, 2006 to September 30, 2008. Patients with HFpEF (n = 499) were older, overweight, predominantly women, and had underlying hypertension and dyslipidemia. Presenting blood pressure and levels of creatinine were higher, with lower brain natriuretic peptide levels compared with patients with HFrEF (n = 598). Length of stay and 30-day mortality were comparable between patients with HFpEF and HFrEF. Thirty-day readmission was initially lower in patients with HFpEF. However 30-day mortality from any cause after the index HF hospitalization and survival curve at 1-year was no different between patients with HFpEF and HFrEF. In conclusion, lower 30-day readmissions do not translate into improved long-term outcome in patients with HFpEF.

  11. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  12. Five-year prognosis in an incident cohort of people presenting with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R Simpson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following an AMI, it is important for patients and their physicians to appreciate the subsequent risk of death, and the potential benefits of invasive cardiac procedures and secondary preventive therapy. Studies, to-date, have focused largely on high-risk populations. We wished to determine the risk of death in a population-derived cohort of 2,887 patients after a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODS: Logistic regression and survival analysis were conducted to investigate the effect of different baseline characteristics, pharmacological therapies and revascularization procedures on coronary heart disease (CHD and all-cause mortality outcomes. RESULTS: Within five years 44.4% of patients died (27.1% short-term [30 kg/m2; AHR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.01-1.90 increased the risk of longer-term mortality independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: It is encouraging that the coronary procedure PTCA and pharmacological secondary prevention therapies were found to be strongly associated with an important reduced risk of subsequent death, although not all patients received these interventions. Smoking, being obese and having cardiovascular related disease at baseline were also associated with an increased likelihood of longer-term mortality, independent of other baseline characteristics. Thus, the provision of smoking cessation, advice on diet (for obese patients and optimal treatment is likely to be crucial for reducing mortality in all patients after AMI.

  13. The Nuts and Bolts of Baseline Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Partnership for Market Readiness

    2012-01-01

    This document provides an overview of baseline setting for greenhouse gas (GHG) crediting mechanisms. The first section briefly explains the general purpose and objectives of setting a crediting mechanism baseline. The second section summarizes key policy considerations in defining and setting baselines. The final section covers important technical elements of baselines and provides an ove...

  14. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01] - study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    -performing peers is reported back to the provider periodically by email. We enrolled 269 clinicians (practicing attending physicians or advanced practice nurses) in 49 participating clinic sites and collected baseline data. The primary outcome is the antibiotic prescribing rate for office visits with non-antibiotic-appropriate ARI diagnoses. Secondary outcomes will examine antibiotic prescribing more broadly. The 18-month intervention period will be followed by a one year follow-up period to measure persistence of effects after interventions cease. Discussion The ongoing BEARI Trial will evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral economic strategies in reducing inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics. Trials registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01454947 PMID:23806017

  15. Inconsistent self-reported mammography history: Findings from the National Population Health Survey longitudinal cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snider Judy

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported information has commonly been used to monitor mammography utilization across populations and time periods. However, longitudinal investigations regarding the prevalence and determinants of inconsistent responses over time and the impact of such responses on population screening estimates are lacking. Methods Based on longitudinal panel data for a representative cohort of Canadian women aged 40+ years (n = 3,537 assessed in the 1994–95 (baseline and 1996–97 (follow-up National Population Health Survey (NPHS, we examined the prevalence of inconsistent self-reports of mammography utilization. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between women's baseline sociodemographic and health characteristics and 2 types of inconsistent responses: (i baseline reports of ever use which were subsequently contradicted by follow-up reports of never use; and (ii baseline reports of never use which were contradicted by follow-up reports of use prior to 1994–95. Results Among women who reported having a mammogram at baseline, 5.9% (95% confidence interval (CI: 4.6–7.3% reported at follow-up that they had never had one. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that women with such inconsistent responses were more often outside target age groups, from low income households and less likely to report hormone replacement therapy and Pap smear use. Among women reporting never use at baseline and ever use at follow-up, 17.4% (95%CI: 11.7–23.1% reported their most recent mammogram as occurring prior to 1994–95 (baseline and such responses were more common among women aged 70+ years and those in poorer health. Conclusions Women with inconsistent responses of type (i, i.e., ever users at baseline but never users at follow-up, appeared to exhibit characteristics typical of never users of mammography screening. Although limited by sample size, our preliminary analyses suggest that type (ii

  16. Dietary patterns associated with male lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, H.F.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this article was to study the association between dietary patterns and lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. The baseline measurement of this prospective case cohort study that was completed by 58,279 men in 1986 included a self-administered quest

  17. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  18. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  19. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  20. Baseline report for infiltration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infiltration experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration was started in late 2008 near ONKALO. The purpose of the experiment is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at a depth of about 50 to 100 m depending on the observations made during the experiment. Infiltration is activated by pumping a highly transmissive fracture zone (13-18.2 m) in drillhole OL-KR14, which is a part of the site scale hydrogeological feature. The influence of pumping is then monitored in drillholes, groundwater observation tubes and lysimeters through water, groundwater and microbiological samplings and hydrogeological measurements. Before the experiment was started, four new monitoring drillholes, nine groundwater observation tubes and nine lysimeters were installed in the test area and very detailed baseline field investigations were performed. In addition, information of existing investigation data from the area of interest was collected in together. The baseline field investigations included geological logging of the cores of new shallow drillholes, flow and transverse flow measurements in new shallow drillholes, SLUG measurements in groundwater observation tubes, head monitoring, groundwater and microbiological sampling and analysis from observation tubes, shallow drillholes and the pumping section in OL-KR14, water sampling and analysis from lysimeters and resistivity measurements of the overburden. The results of previously performed soil pit investigations and hydrogeological measurements carried out in the area of interest were also added to the investigation data. A detailed hydrogeological model of the experiment area was updated simultaneously with baseline field investigations; the previous version was presented in Pitkaenen et al. (2008). Apart from the field investigations, predictive

  1. Metodología de reclutamiento y características de una cohorte de jóvenes consumidores habituales de cocaína de tres ciudades españolas (Proyecto Itínere-cocaína Recruitment methodology and characteristics of a cohort of young regular cocaine users in three Spanish cities (the Itinere-cocaine Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pulido

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Los sistemas de información sociosanitaria que monitorizan el consumo de drogas no profundizan en el análisis de las características sociodemográficas y de los patrones de consumo, ni en los factores que condicionan los problemas de salud. Se describe la metodología de reclutamiento y las características de una cohorte de jóvenes consumidores de cocaína. Métodos: Cohorte prospectiva de 720 consumidores de cocaína que no consumen habitualmente heroína, captados en la comunidad, independientemente de los servicios asistenciales, mediante métodos de referencia en cadena en las áreas metropolitanas de Madrid, Barcelona y Sevilla. Cuestionario administrado por ordenador y parcialmente autoadministrado. Análisis estratificado por ciudad y por frecuencia de consumo de cocaína base. Resultados: En los últimos 12 meses el 58,8% había consumido cocaína entre 1 y 2 días por semana; el 91,9% habitualmente la había esnifado, un 5,3% fumado y sólo un 2,8% inyectado; el 6,1% la había utilizado la mitad de las veces o más en forma de base. Hubo policonsumo con cannabis (93,6%, éxtasis (73,2% y anfetaminas (60,6%; un 4,0% se había inyectado alguna droga. Los que habían usado «crack» (22,1% tenían un menor nivel educativo, un consumo de cocaína más intenso, mayor prevalencia de consumo de otras drogas, en especial opioides, y prevalencia de inyección mucho más alta. Conclusiones: El estudio confirma y completa el perfil sociodemográfico y de consumo ofrecido por los sistemas de información basados en servicios o las encuestas poblacionales, en especial que una gran parte de los consumidores jóvenes son esporádicos y que existen dos subpoblaciones muy diferenciadas según el consumo o no de cocaína base.Background: Health information systems that monitor drug use do not perform in-depth analyses of sociodemographic characteristics and patterns of use, or of the factors that influence health problems. We describe

  2. Baseline Hepatitis B Virus DNA Level is a Promising Factor for Predicting the 3rd Month Virological Response to Entecavir Therapy: A Study of Strict Defined Hepatitis B virus Induced Cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xu; Xiao-Ning Wu; Yi-Wen Shi; Wei Wei; Ai-Ting Yang; Ya-Meng Sun; Wen-Shan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Cirrhosis is a common complication of chronic hepatitis B.It remains unclear if viral and biochemical parameters at baseline affect virological response to entecavir and therefore warrant investigation.In the present study,we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of entecavir therapy by monitoring virological response at the end of the 3rd month of treatment and try to figure out whether baseline factors could help predict it in a cohort of hepatitis B virus (HBV) compensated cirrhosis patients and to determine the cut-off value of a predicting parameter.Methods:A total of 91 nucleos(t)ide-na(i)ve patients with HBV induced cirrhosis (compensatory stage) were enrolled in a prospective cohort.HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were tested at baseline and monitored every 3-6 months after starting therapy.Results:Of all 91 patients,the median follow-up time was 12 (9-24) months.Overall,64 patients (70.3%) achieved virological response in the 3rd month.Univariate analysis showed that the 3rd month virological response can be predicted by baseline HBV DNA levels (P < 0.001,odds ratio [OR]:2.13,95% confidence interval [CI]:1.44-3.15),ALT value (P =0.023,OR:1.0 1,95% CI:1.00-1.01) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negativity (P=0.016,OR:0.30,95% CI:0.11-0.80).Multiple regression analysis showed baseline HBV DNA level was the only parameter related to full virological response.Higher baseline HBV DNA strata indicated a higher probability that HBV DNA remains detectable at the 3rd month (P =0.001).Area under receiver operating characteristic curve for determining the 3rd month virological response by baseline HBV DNA was 77.6% (95% CI:66.7-85.2%),with a best cut-off value of 5.8 log10.Conclusions:Baseline HBV DNA,HBeAg negativity,and ALT were independent factors contributing to virological response at the 3rd month.Further,multiple regression showed that HBV DNA level was the only parameter predicting full virological response as early as the 3rd

  3. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725, respon

  4. A Clinical Algorithm to Identify HIV Patients at High Risk for Incident Active Tuberculosis: A Prospective 5-Year Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Shin-Jung Lee

    Full Text Available Predicting the risk of tuberculosis (TB in people living with HIV (PLHIV using a single test is currently not possible. We aimed to develop and validate a clinical algorithm, using baseline CD4 cell counts, HIV viral load (pVL, and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA, to identify PLHIV who are at high risk for incident active TB in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is routinely provided.A prospective, 5-year, cohort study of adult PLHIV was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in two hospitals in Taiwan. HAART was initiated based on contemporary guidelines (CD4 count < = 350/μL. Cox regression was used to identify the predictors of active TB and to construct the algorithm. The validation cohorts included 1455 HIV-infected individuals from previous published studies. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was calculated.Seventeen of 772 participants developed active TB during a median follow-up period of 5.21 years. Baseline CD4 < 350/μL or pVL ≥ 100,000/mL was a predictor of active TB (adjusted HR 4.87, 95% CI 1.49-15.90, P = 0.009. A positive baseline IGRA predicted TB in patients with baseline CD4 ≥ 350/μL and pVL < 100,000/mL (adjusted HR 6.09, 95% CI 1.52-24.40, P = 0.01. Compared with an IGRA-alone strategy, the algorithm improved the sensitivity from 37.5% to 76.5%, the negative predictive value from 98.5% to 99.2%. Compared with an untargeted strategy, the algorithm spared 468 (60.6% from unnecessary TB preventive treatment. Area under the ROC curve was 0.692 (95% CI: 0.587-0.798 for the study cohort and 0.792 (95% CI: 0.776-0.808 and 0.766 in the 2 validation cohorts.A validated algorithm incorporating the baseline CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and IGRA status can be used to guide targeted TB preventive treatment in PLHIV in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where HAART is routinely provided to all PLHIV. The implementation of this algorithm will avoid unnecessary

  5. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  6. Physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesma, R.G.; Schouten, L.J.; Dirx, M.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between nonoccupational physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer among post-menopausal women. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information regarding baseline nonoccupation

  7. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  8. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  9. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  10. 327 Building hazard baseline document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document identifies the hazards in the 327 Building at the time that a facility walk through was performed during FY99, presents a PHA of stabilization and deactivation activities, and provides a basis for the hazard evaluation and accident analysis that will be developed in the 327 Building Basis for Interim Operation (BIO). Activities addressed in this hazard baseline document include: (1) Stabilization and deactivation activities in preparation for eventual decommissioning of the 327 Building and the routine handling, processing, and shipment of waste to support these activities. (2) 324/327 Building Minimum Safe Project engineering and maintenance activities to maintain the building and systems viable--especially the Safety SSCs--to allow stabilization, deactivation, and waste handling activities with a minimum of risk to workers, the public, and the environment

  11. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  12. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  13. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  14. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  15. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  16. Are risk estimates biased in follow-up studies of psychosocial factors with low base-line participation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Johan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population. Methods In a Danish cohort study of associations between psychosocial characteristics of the work environment and mental health, the source population of public service workers comprised 10,036 employees in 502 work units of which 4,489 participated (participation rate 45%. Data on the psychosocial work environment were obtained for each work unit by calculating the average of the employee self-reports. The average values were assigned all employees and non-respondent at the work unit. Outcome data on sick leave and prescription of antidepressant medication during the follow-up period (1.4.2007-31.12.2008 was obtained by linkage to national registries. Results Respondents differed at baseline from non-respondents by gender, age, employment status, sick leave and hospitalization for affective disorders. However, risk estimates for sick leave and prescription of antidepressant medication, during follow-up, based on the subset of participants, did only differ marginally from risk estimates based upon the entire population. Conclusions We found no indications that low participation at baseline distorts the estimates of associations between the work unit level of psychosocial work environment and mental health outcomes during follow-up. These results may not be valid for other exposures or outcomes.

  17. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  19. Shifting Baselines, Science, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    All of us have a deeply personal concept of nature based upon our childhood perceptions of the world around us, and of the subsequent degradation of nature by the experiences of our lifetimes. Yet even the most rudimentary knowledge of history clearly demonstrates that the modern rise of human population and consumption have wreaked havoc on global ecosystems to the extent that nowhere is close to natural or pristine and that most places have been increasingly degraded over many centuries. This disconnect between direct personal experience and abstract historical perspective is the problem of "shifting baselines" that is the fundamental impediment to basic scientific understanding and environmental policy, and affects scientists as much as the general public, business, and government. Scientists in particular suffer from the inability to directly observe and experimentally verify causes and effects of previous changes in ecosystems that now bear so little resemblance to their natural state. Under the circumstances, it is essential for scientists to draw scientific conclusions based on imperfect data and to publicly explain, defend, and discuss their conclusions as the best possible science given present information. The failure to do so makes science virtually irrelevant to social and environmental policy and government.

  20. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  1. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfaa Wahabi

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant.A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated.The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%.Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world.

  2. Early Childhood Development and Schooling Attainment: Longitudinal Evidence from British, Finnish and Philippine Birth Cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan D Peet

    Full Text Available While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally.We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986, the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970, and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1983 (CLHNS to assess the association of height-for-age z-score (HAZ and cognitive development measured prior to age 8 with schooling attainment. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate baseline and adjusted associations.Both physical and cognitive development were highly predictive of adult educational attainment conditional on parental characteristics. The largest positive associations between physical development and schooling were found in the CLHNS (β = 0.53, 95%-CI: [0.32, 0.74] with substantially smaller associations in the BCS1970 (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.04, 0.16] and the NFBC1986 (β = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.16]. Strong associations between cognitive development and educational attainment were found for all three cohorts (NFBC1986: β = 0.22, 95%-CI: [0.12, 0.31], BCS1970: β = 0.58, 95%-CI: [0.52, 0.64], CLHNS: β = 1.08, 95%-CI: [0.88, 1.27]. Models jointly estimating educational associations of physical and cognitive development demonstrated weaker associations for physical development and minimal changes for cognitive development.The results indicate that although physical and cognitive early development are both important predictors of educational attainment, cognitive development appears to play a particularly important role. The large degree of heterogeneity in the observed effect sizes suggest that the importance of early life physical growth and cognitive development is highly dependent on socioeconomic and institutional contexts.

  3. Early Childhood Development and Schooling Attainment: Longitudinal Evidence from British, Finnish and Philippine Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Evan D.; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pillas, Demetris

    2015-01-01

    Background While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally. Methods We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970), and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1983 (CLHNS) to assess the association of height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and cognitive development measured prior to age 8 with schooling attainment. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate baseline and adjusted associations. Results Both physical and cognitive development were highly predictive of adult educational attainment conditional on parental characteristics. The largest positive associations between physical development and schooling were found in the CLHNS (β = 0.53, 95%-CI: [0.32, 0.74]) with substantially smaller associations in the BCS1970 (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.04, 0.16]) and the NFBC1986 (β = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.16]). Strong associations between cognitive development and educational attainment were found for all three cohorts (NFBC1986: β = 0.22, 95%-CI: [0.12, 0.31], BCS1970: β = 0.58, 95%-CI: [0.52, 0.64], CLHNS: β = 1.08, 95%-CI: [0.88, 1.27]). Models jointly estimating educational associations of physical and cognitive development demonstrated weaker associations for physical development and minimal changes for cognitive development. Conclusion The results indicate that although physical and cognitive early development are both important predictors of educational attainment, cognitive development appears to play a particularly important role. The large degree of heterogeneity in the observed effect sizes suggest that the importance of early life physical growth and cognitive development is highly dependent on socioeconomic and

  4. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of

  5. Baseline Characteristics of the Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Wook-Jin; Park, Yong Bum; Jeon, Chan Hong; Jung, Jo Won; Ko, Kwang-Phil; Choi, Sung Jae; Seo, Hye Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Jung, Hae Ok; ,

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding of the pathobiology and targeted treatments of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), epidemiologic data from large populations have been limited to western countries. The aim of the Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (KORPAH) was to examine the epidemiology and prognosis of Korean patients with PAH. KORPAH was designed as a nationwide, multicenter, prospective data collection using an internet webserver from September 2008 to December ...

  6. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  7. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A; Carey, Vincent J; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial-the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)--to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-year U.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review.

  8. Clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of a cohort of patients with epilepsy and absence seizures Características clínicas e eletrencefalográficas de uma coorte de pacientes com epilepsia com crises de ausência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epileptic syndromes with absence seizures (AS possess unique clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG characteristics. In typical or atypical AS, ictal phenomenology may include various characteristics. Vídeo-EEG monitoring enables findings to be correlated with ictal phenomenology. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the different AS in a cohort of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE based on the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE's 2006 classification, to correlate with ictal phenomenology recorded and to apply the Panayiotopoulos criteria. METHOD: This study included patients with criteria of AS followed up at the Epilepsy Clinic. A dual, cross-sectional cohort study was carried out between 2005 and 2008. Patients receiving care in the Epilepsy Program of the HUCFF-UFRJ, who had been investigated by video-EEG and who presented clinical and EEG criteria for absence seizures, typical or atypical, according to the criteria defined by the ILAE, were included in the study, independent of age onset, the review of clinical history, age onset, family history, epilepsy onset and evolution, seizures phenomenology, antiepileptic drugs response and neuroimaging studies were used to classify the patients among the different epileptic syndrome associated to absence seizures. RESULTS: Typical absences were more frequent (71.4% than atypical absences. Cases of juvenile absence epilepsy were the most frequent (19% in this series, followed by childhood absence epilepsy (14.4% and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (4.8%. In 14 patients (66.67%, diagnosis was modified from focal epilepsy to primary generalized epilepsy. Clinical and EEG diagnosis of absence epilepsy resulted in a dramatic improvement in the control of seizures following modification of diagnosis and indication of an appropriate antiepileptic drug. CONCLUSION: Our results show that typical AS are more frequent than atypical. AS was successfully defined in 10 patients following

  9. Determinants of Attrition to Follow-Up in a Multicentre Cohort Study in Children-Results from the IDEFICS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Hense; Hermann Pohlabeln; Nathalie Michels; Staffan Mårild; Lauren Lissner; Eva Kovacs; Luis A. Moreno; Charalampos Hadjigeorgiou; Toomas Veidebaum; Licia Iacovello; Yannis Pitsiladis; Lucia Reisch; Alfonso Siani; Wolfgang Ahrens

    2013-01-01

    Cohort participant retention is a crucial element and may depend on several factors. Based on data from a multicentre cohort of European children, the effect of baseline participation on attrition and the association with and the impact of single determinants in relation to the extent of attrition were investigated. Data was available for 16,225 children from the IDEFICS baseline survey (2007/2008). Attrition was defined as nonparticipation in the first follow-up examination (2009/2010). Dete...

  10. Hospital doctors' assessment of baseline spirometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, N.; Morgan, R.; Abdel-Rahman-Abdel-Wahab, E.; Turnbull, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline spirometry is useful in diagnosing and managing pulmonary disease. In a questionnaire survey of 100 hospital doctors in two hospitals in the Mersey region, their views and ability to interpret baseline spirometry was assessed. Of the 70 doctors who responded, 65% felt they could accurately interpret baseline spirometry. However, only 12% accurately interpreted all five vitalographs in the questionnaire. The majority (72%) felt they had not had adequate teaching in interpretation of s...

  11. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  12. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  13. Clinical factors influencing normalization of prothrombin time after stopping warfarin: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zondag Michelle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anticoagulation with warfarin should be stopped 4–6 days before invasive procedures to avoid bleeding complications. Despite this routine, some patients still have high International Normalized Ratio (INR values on the day of surgery and the procedure may be cancelled. We sought to identify easily available clinical characteristics that may influence the rate of normalization of prothrombin time when warfarin is stopped before surgery or invasive procedures. Methods Clinical data were collected retrospectively from consecutive cases from two cohorts, who stopped warfarin 6 days before surgery. An INR value of 1.6 or higher on the day of surgery or requirement for reversal with vitamin K the day before surgery were criteria for slow return (S to normal INR. Results Of 202 patients, 14 (7% were classified as S. Eight of the S-patients required reversal with vitamin K one day before surgery and in another case surgery was cancelled due to high INR. Baseline INR was the only variable significantly associated with classification as S in stepwise logistic regression analysis (p = 0.003. The odds ratio for being in the normal group was 0.27 (95% confidence interval 0.12–0.62 for each unit baseline INR increased. The positive predictive value of baseline INR with a cut off at > 3.0 was only 15% and for INR > 3.5 it was 33%. Conclusion Baseline INR, but not the size of the maintenance dose, is associated with the rate of normalization of prothrombin time after stopping warfarin, but it has limited utility as predictor in clinical practice. Whenever normal hemostasis is considered crucial for the safety, the INR should be checked again before the invasive procedure.

  14. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  15. Venous Thromboembolism and Cerebrovascular Events in Patients with Giant Cell Arteritis: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lo Gullo

    Full Text Available To investigate the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE and cerebrovascular events in a community-based incidence cohort of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA compared to the general population.A population-based inception cohort of patients with incident GCA between January 1, 1950 and December 31, 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota and a cohort of non-GCA subjects from the same population were assembled and followed until December 31, 2013. Confirmed VTE and cerebrovascular events were identified through direct medical record review.The study population included 244 patients with GCA with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 76.2 ± 8.2 years (79% women and an average length of follow-up of 10.2 ± 6.8 years. Compared to non-GCA subjects of similar age and sex, patients diagnosed with GCA had a higher incidence (% of amaurosis fugax (cumulative incidence ± SE: 2.1 ± 0.9 versus 0, respectively; p = 0.014 but similar rates of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA, and VTE. Among patients with GCA, neither baseline characteristics nor laboratory parameters at diagnosis reliably predicted risk of VTE or cerebrovascular events.In this population-based study, the incidence of VTE, stroke and TIA was similar in patients with GCA compared to non-GCA subjects.

  16. Cohort postponement and period measures

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua R. Goldstein; Thomas Cassidy

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new class of models in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. We show how this model fits into a general framework of period and cohort postponement that includes the existing models in the literature, notably those of Bongaarts and Feeney and Kohler and Philipov. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo-adjusted measure o...

  17. Birth cohort differences in physical functioning levels among elderly Brazilians: findings from the Bambui Cohort Study of Aging (1997-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, C. M.; M.F. Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cohort differences in physical functioning levels among the older (cohort members born in 1916-1926 and in 1927-1937) participants of the Bambui Cohort Study of Aging. The data came from participants aged 71-81 who took part at baseline in 1997 (n = 491) and in the 11th wave in 2008 (n = 620). The physical functioning variables included the following self-reported measures: activities of daily living, the instrumental activities of daily living and...

  18. Development of a screening tool predicting the transition from acute to chronic low back pain for patients in a GP setting: Protocol of a multinational prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajracharya Suraj

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is by far the most prevalent and costly musculoskeletal problem in our society today. Following the recommendations of the Multinational Musculoskeletal Inception Cohort Study (MMICS Statement, our study aims to define outcome assessment tools for patients with acute LBP and the time point at which chronic LBP becomes manifest and to identify patient characteristics which increase the risk of chronicity. Methods Patients with acute LBP will be recruited from clinics of general practitioners (GPs in New Zealand (NZ and Switzerland (CH. They will be assessed by postal survey at baseline and at 3, 6, 12 weeks and 6 months follow-up. Primary outcome will be disability as measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI; key secondary endpoints will be general health as measured by the acute SF-12 and pain as measured on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. A subgroup analysis of different assessment instruments and baseline characteristics will be performed using multiple linear regression models. This study aims to examine 1. Which biomedical, psychological, social, and occupational outcome assessment tools are identifiers for the transition from acute to chronic LBP and at which time point this transition becomes manifest 2. Which psychosocial and occupational baseline characteristics like work status and period of work absenteeism influence the course from acute to chronic LBP 3. Differences in outcome assessment tools and baseline characteristics of patients in NZ compared with CH. Discussion This study will develop a screening tool for patients with acute LBP to be used in GP clinics to access the risk of developing chronic LBP. In addition, biomedical, psychological, social, and occupational patient characteristics which influence the course from acute to chronic LBP will be identified. Furthermore, an appropriate time point for follow-ups will be given to detect this transition. The generalizability of our

  19. Kidney stones and kidney function loss: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, R Todd; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Wiebe, Natasha; Bello, Aminu; Morgan, Catherine; Samuel, Susan; Klarenbach, Scott W; Curhan, Gary C.; Tonelli, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the presence of kidney stones increase the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) or other adverse renal outcomes. Design A registry cohort study using validated algorithms based on claims and facility utilisation data. Median follow-up of 11 years. Setting Alberta, Canada, between 1997 and 2009. Participants 3 089 194 adult patients without ESRD at baseline or a history of pyelonephritis. Of these, 1 954 836 had outpatient serum creatinine measurements and we...

  20. Migraine and Cognitive Decline Among Women: Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rist, Pamela Marie; Kang, Jae Hee Hee; Buring, Julie Elizabeth; Glymour, Maria Lee; Grodstein, Francine; Kurth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between migraine and cognitive decline among women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Women’s Health Study, United States. Participants 6349 women aged 65 or older enrolled in the Women’s Health Study who provided information about migraine status at baseline and participated in cognitive testing during follow-up. Participants were classified into four groups: no history of migraine, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and past history of m...

  1. Depressive symptoms predict memory decline over subsequent 4 years: longitudinal analysis of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, L; Kwan, JSK; Jiang, CQ; Zhang, WS; Cheng, KK; Lam, TH

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Late-life depression may increase dementia risk, raising the possibility of overlapping pathophysiology and potential preventive strategies. We examined whether: a) baseline depressive symptoms predicted memory decline, and b) baseline memory function predicted mood decline, in an older Chinese cohort

  2. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  3. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  4. The systemic lupus erythematosus travel burden survey: baseline data among a South Carolina cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Edith M.; Ortiz, Kasim; Zhang, Jiajia; Zhou, Jie; Kamen, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies on the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus or lupus have identified patient travel costs as being problematic. We administered a survey that examined the impact of self-rated travel burden on lupus patients. The systemic lupus erythematosus travel burden survey included 41 patients enrolled in the systemic lupus erythematosus database project at the Medical University of South Carolina. Results Most participants reported that travel caused medications to be disconti...

  5. Growing up together: cohort composition and child investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly M

    2014-02-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, 60 % of child deaths are preventable by investments in child health as simple as immunizations, bed nets, or water purification. This article investigates how a household's decisions regarding such investments are affected by the size and gender composition of a child's cohort. I focus on a previously overlooked type of investment: nonrival, child-specific goods (club goods). I empirically estimate the response of immunization status to cohort characteristics. I carefully address the problem of endogenous fertility, which is common in cohort studies. Because most rural Senegalese households are composed of multiple nuclear families, a child's cohort is composed of both siblings and nonsibling children. Estimating within households, I instrument cohort characteristics with those of the nonsibling (exogenous) portion. I find that children with larger (or more predominantly male) cohorts of vaccine-eligible age are significantly more likely to receive immunization. These findings suggest that children with larger cohorts may be better off in terms of club investments; this is a significant finding for child health given that many illness prevention methods are of a club good nature. PMID:24072608

  6. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  7. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  8. Self-reported hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin in the Hoorn Diabetes Care System Cohort, the Netherlands: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, Femke; Thorsted, Brian L; Wolden, Michael L; Nijpels, Giel; van der Heijden, Amber A W A; Walraven, Iris; Elders, Petra J; Heymans, Martijn W; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Background Our aim was to study the prevalence of self-reported hypoglycaemic sensations and its association with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) treated with insulin in usual care. Methods Demographics, clinical characteristics and mortality data were obtained from 1667 patients with T2D treated with insulin in the Hoorn Diabetes Care System Cohort (DCS), a prospective cohort study using clinical care data. Self-reported hypoglycaemic sensations were defined as either mild: events not requiring help; or severe: events requiring help from others (either medical assistance or assistance of others). The association between hypoglycaemic sensations and mortality was analysed using logistic regression analysis. Results At baseline, 981 patients (59%) reported no hypoglycaemic sensations in the past year, 612 (37%) reported only mild sensations and 74 (4%) reported severe hypoglycaemic sensations. During a median follow-up of 1.9 years, 98 patients (5.9%) died. Reporting only mild hypoglycaemic sensations was associated with a lower mortality risk (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.80), while reporting severe sensations was not significantly associated with mortality (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.80), compared with reporting no hypoglycaemic sensations, and adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Sensitivity analyses showed an OR of 1.38 (95% CI 0.31 to 6.11) for patients reporting severe hypoglycaemic sensations requiring medical assistance. Conclusions Self-reported hypoglycaemic sensations are highly prevalent in our insulin-treated T2D population. Patients reporting hypoglycaemic sensations not requiring medical assistance did not have an increased risk of mortality, suggesting that these sensations are not an indicator of increased short-term mortality risk in patients with T2D. PMID:27645557

  9. A prospective study of symptoms, function, and medication use during acute illness in nursing home residents: design, rationale and cohort description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Sophia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents are at high risk for developing acute illnesses. Compared with community dwelling adults, nursing home residents are often more frail, prone to multiple medical problems and symptoms, and are at higher risk for adverse outcomes from acute illnesses. In addition, because of polypharmacy and the high burden of chronic disease, nursing home residents are particularly vulnerable to disruptions in transitions of care such as medication interruptions in the setting of acute illness. In order to better estimate the effect of acute illness on nursing home residents, we have initiated a prospective cohort which will allow us to observe patterns of acute illnesses and the consequence of acute illnesses, including symptoms and function, among nursing home residents. We also aim to examine the patterns of medication interruption, and identify patient, provider and environmental factors that influence continuity of medication prescribing at different points of care transition. Methods This is a prospective cohort of nursing home residents residing in two nursing homes in a metropolitan area. Baseline characteristics including age, gender, race, and comorbid conditions are recorded. Participants are followed longitudinally for a planned period of 3 years. We record acute illness incidence and characteristics, and measure symptoms including depression, pain, withdrawal symptoms, and function using standardized scales. Results 76 nursing home residents have been followed for a median of 666 days to date. At baseline, mean age of residents was 74.4 (± 11.9; 32% were female; 59% were white. The most common chronic conditions were dementia (41%, depression (38%, congestive heart failure (25% and chronic obstructive lung disease (27%. Mean pain score was 4.7 (± 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10; Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 score was 5.2 (± 4.4. During follow up, 138 acute illness episodes were identified, for an

  10. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  11. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  12. Monoenergetic neutrino beam for long baseline experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an electron capture process by a nucleus, emitted neutrinos are monoenergetic. We study a long baseline experiment with such a completely monoenergetic neutrino beam. This talk is based on Refs. 1 and 2. (author)

  13. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsing, Anne M J; Schouten, Leo J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study - Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), 2-5 day/week- (n = 2703), and 6-7 day/week meat consumers (n = 5253). After 20.3 years of follow-up, 437 colorectal cancer cases (307 colon, 92 rectal) were available. A non-significantly decreased risk of CRC for vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers was observed (age/sex adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR): 0.73(0.47-1.13), 0.80(0.47-1.39), and 0.72(0.52-1.00), respectively). Most of the differences in HR between these groups could be explained by intake of dietary fiber and soy products. Other (non-)dietary factors characteristic for a vegetarian or low meat diet had negligible individual effects, but attenuated the HRs towards the null when combined. Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat eaters showed a non-significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers, mainly due to differences in dietary pattern other than meat intake. PMID:26316135

  14. Stratified case-cohort analysis of general cohort sampling designs

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We first point out that variance estimates for regression coefficients in exposure stratified case-cohort studies (Borgan et al., 2000) can easily be obtained from influence terms routinely calculated in standard software for Cox regression. We also place the estimators proposed by Chen (2001) for a general class of cohort sampling designs within the Borgan et al. framework by allowing for post-stratification on outcome. This facilitates simple variance estimation for this class of cohort sam...

  15. Spreading of chronic pain between body regions: Prospective cohort study among health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, LL; Clausen, T; Carneiro, IG; Holtermann, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prognostic value of pain in one body region on the risk for developing chronic pain in other body regions. Methods Prospective cohort study among 5052 Danish female health care workers responding to a baseline and follow-up questionnaire in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Using adjusted logistic regression analysis, the risk for developing chronic pain (>30 days last year) at follow-up in the low back (among those without low back pain during the last year at baseline) ...

  16. Trends in Dietary Supplement Use in a Cohort of Postmenopausal Women From Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyong; Harnack, Lisa; Jacobs, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely known that use of dietary supplements is common in the United States, little is known about use patterns among older Americans. The authors examined trends in dietary supplement use and its contribution to total nutrient intake in the Iowa Women's Health Study cohort in 1986 (baseline) and 2004 (follow-up). The proportion of women who reported using dietary supplements increased substantially between baseline (66%) and follow-up (85%). Moreover, a substantial proportion ...

  17. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Anne M. J. Gilsing; Schouten, Leo J.; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Weijenberg, Matty P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), ...

  18. Preradiotherapy Calcium Scores of the Coronary Arteries in a Cohort of Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Comparison With a Cohort of Healthy Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Breast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy women. Therefore, baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared with the CAC scores of a healthy, asymptomatic cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or infiltrative breast cancer referred for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included in our study. Their cardiovascular risk profile was registered, and a 64 multislice CT scan was performed. The CAC scores of an unselected (Caucasian only) Radiotherapy Centre West (RCWEST) cohort, as well as of those of a selected (comorbidity and race adjusted) RCWEST cohort, were determined. The scores of both cohorts were compared with those of the female (Caucasian only) MESA cohort. Results: For the unselected RCWEST cohort (n = 62) we found significant (p < .01) higher scores for women in the 55–64 age category compared with those of the MESA cohort. In the selected cohort (n = 55) the CAC scores of the women in the age category 55–64 were significantly (p = .02) higher compared with the MESA cohort. No significant differences were noted in the other age categories. Conclusion: Both cohorts revealed that CAC scores in the 55–64 age category were significantly higher than the CAC scores in the asymptomatic (female) MESA population. These data suggest that breast cancer patients bear a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease before the start of radiotherapy. Therefore, measures to decrease cardiac dose further in breast cancer radiotherapy are even more important.

  19. Atmospheric media effects on ARIES baseline determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Different types of media effects on ARIES baseline determination are compared. The effectiveness of simple ionospheric calibration models are studied. To perform the covariance analysis, an ARIES observation sequence needs to be assumed. For the current purposes, the observation sequence is selected to be that of experiment 80D over the JPL/Goldstone baseline (approximately 180 km). This experiment consisted of 96 observations over a period of approximately 25 hours on March 25 to 26, 1980. It is found through covariance analyses that the component most sensitive to media depends heavily upon the correlation, between the two stations, of the media effects. It is also found that relying on the cancellation of ionospheric delays between the two ray paths of VLBI observations at S band results in a large error in baseline length determination. High degree removal of ionospheric effects is possible with a crude model, providing correct diurnal peak and minimum ionospheric levels are input.

  20. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  1. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  2. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  3. Cohort profile: golestan hepatitis B cohort study- a prospective long term study in northern iran ​.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

  4. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  5. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of the environment on the development of the fetus and infant throughout early life is increasingly recognised. To study such effects, biological samples and accurate data records are required. Based on multiple data collection from a healthy pregnant population......, the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data....

  6. The IDEFICS Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bammann, Karin; Siani, Alfonso;

    2011-01-01

    The European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study was set up to determine the aetiology of overweight, obesity and related disorders in children, and to develop and evaluate a tailored primary prevention programme...... included anthropometry, blood pressure, fitness, accelerometry, DNA from saliva and physiological markers in blood and urine. The built environment, sensory taste perception and other mechanisms of children's food choices and consumer behaviour were studied in subgroups. Results: Between 1507 and 2567....... The proportion of children donating venous blood, urine and saliva was 57, 86 and 88%, respectively. Conclusion: The IDEFICS cohort provides valuable data to investigate the interplay of social, environmental, genetic, physiological and behavioural factors in the development of major diet- and lifestyle...

  7. Parallel Robust Estimation for Large-scale High-precision GNSS Baseline Vector Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Yang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of large-scale GNSS baseline vector network, the relevant observations robust estimation model which is based on RECO scheme is improved by parallel computing. A feasible process steps are also presented. Using the improved model, a numerical example is given. It is demonstrated that the large-scale GNSS baseline vector related robust parallel estimation not only can inhibit the influence of the outliers to the parameter estimates, but also significantly improve the computational efficiency.

  8. Twenty-month follow-up of occlusal caries lesions deemed questionable at baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2014-01-01

    -three clinicians from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated in this study, recording lesion characteristics at baseline and lesion status at 20 months. RESULTS: At baseline, 1,341 QOC lesions were examined; the treatment that was planned for 1,033 of those at baseline was monitoring...... (oral hygiene instruction, applying or prescribing fluoride or varnish, or both), and the remaining 308 received a sealant (n = 192) or invasive therapy (n = 116). At the 20-month visit, clinicians continued to monitor 927 (90 percent) of the 1,033 monitored lesions. Clinicians decided to seal 61 (6...

  9. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  10. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  11. Waste management project technical baseline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project

  12. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...

  13. Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant?s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the ...

  14. The CONSTANCES cohort: an open epidemiological laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zins Marie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective cohorts represent an essential design for epidemiological studies and allow for the study of the combined effects of lifestyle, environment, genetic predisposition, and other risk factors on a large variety of disease endpoints. The CONSTANCES cohort is intended to provide public health information and to serve as an "open epidemiologic laboratory" accessible to the epidemiologic research community. Although designed as a "general-purpose" cohort with very broad coverage, it will particularly focus on occupational and social determinants of health, and on aging. Methods/Design The CONSTANCES cohort is designed as a randomly selected representative sample of French adults aged 18-69 years at inception; 200,000 subjects will be included over a five-year period. At inclusion, the selected subjects will be invited to fill a questionnaire and to attend a Health Screening Center (HSC for a comprehensive health examination: weight, height, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, vision, auditory, spirometry, and biological parameters; for those aged 45 years and older, a specific work-up of functional, physical, and cognitive capacities will be performed. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes a yearly self-administered questionnaire, and a periodic visit to an HSC. Social and work-related events and health data will be collected from the French national retirement, health and death databases. The data that will be collected include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events, behaviors, and occupational factors. The health data will cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalizations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare utilization and services provided, and causes of death. To take into account non-participation at inclusion and attrition throughout the

  15. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For the current study, observations were extended over two more provinces, West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen. Ranges of soil Hg contents were distinctly higher in the province Oost-Vlaanderen (interquartile range from 0.09 to 0.43 mg/kg) than in the other provinces (interquartile ranges from 0.7 to 0.13 and 0.7 to 0.15 mg/kg for West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen, respectively). The standard threshold method was applied to separate soils containing baseline levels of Hg from the data. Baseline concentrations for Hg were characterised by a median of 0.10 mg Hg/kg dry soil, an interquartile range from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/kg and a 90% percentile value of 0.30 mg/kg. The influence of soil properties such as clay and organic carbon contents, and pH on baseline Hg concentrations was not important. Maps of the spatial distribution of Hg levels showed that the province Oost-Vlaanderen exhibited zones with systematically higher Hg soil contents. This may be related to the former presence of many small-scale industries employing mercury in that region. - Increased mercury levels may reflect human activity

  16. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other ri

  17. Vegetable and fruit consumption and prostate cancer risk: A cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    The association between 21 vegetables and eight fruits and prostate cancer risk was assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 610 cases with complete vegetable data and 642 cases with complete fruit data were avai

  18. Differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Kluitenberg, Bas; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective study examined differences in kinetic variables between injured and noninjured novice female and male runners and their potential contribution to RRIs. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: At baseline vertical ground reaction forces were assessed with an instrume

  19. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study, the authors investigated whether anthropometry is associated with prostate cancer risk. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self- administered questionnaire on diet, anthropometry, and other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-

  20. Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brants, H.A.M.; Klaveren, J.D. van; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by me

  1. K-ras oncogene mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Weijenberg, M.P.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Pachen, M.M.M.; Smits, K.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2003-01-01

    Activation of K-ras oncogene has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis, being mutated in 30-60% of the adenocarcinomas. In this study, 737 incident colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, originating from 120 852 men and women (55-69 years at baseline) participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study

  2. Asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli and mood in a cohort of older people: a prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Purandare, N.; Hardicre, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether asymptomatic spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE) predicts subsequent depression in older people. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 2.5 years of follow-up including 96 nondepressed older subjects in primary care. Presence of SCE was measured at baseline by transcrania

  3. Cohort analysis of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer mortality in European men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bueno-de Mesquita, H.B.; Rasanen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.M.; Menotti, A.; Kok, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer mortality in a cohort of European males. Around 1970, dietary intake of Finnish, Italian and Dutch middle-aged men was assessed using a cross-check dietary history. Complete baseline information was avail

  4. Revisiting the relationship between baseline risk and risk under treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nony Patrice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In medical practice, it is generally accepted that the 'effect model' describing the relationship between baseline risk and risk under treatment is linear, i.e. 'relative risk' is constant. Absolute benefit is then proportional to a patient's baseline risk and the treatment is most effective among high-risk patients. Alternatively, the 'effect model' becomes curvilinear when 'odds ratio' is considered to be constant. However these two models are based on purely empirical considerations, and there is still no theoretical approach to support either the linear or the non-linear relation. Presentation of the hypothesis From logistic and sigmoidal Emax (Hill models, we derived a phenomenological model which includes the possibility of integrating both beneficial and harmful effects. Instead of a linear relation, our model suggests that the relationship is curvilinear i.e. the moderate-risk patients gain most from the treatment in opposition to those with low or high risk. Testing the hypothesis Two approaches can be proposed to investigate in practice such a model. The retrospective one is to perform a meta-analysis of clinical trials with subgroups of patients including a great range of baseline risks. The prospective one is to perform a large clinical trial in which patients are recruited according to several prestratified diverse and high risk groups. Implications of the hypothesis For the quantification of the treatment effect and considering such a model, the discrepancy between odds ratio and relative risk may be related not only to the level of risk under control conditions, but also to the characteristics of the dose-effect relation and the amount of dose administered. In the proposed approach, OR may be considered as constant in the whole range of Rc, and depending only on the intrinsic characteristics of the treatment. Therefore, OR should be preferred rather than RR to summarize information on treatment efficacy.

  5. Caring for an aging society: cohort values and eldercare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, T X

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the impact of cohort values is important in trying to project future aging service needs. The cultural characteristics of cohorts yet to reach the age of 65 are compared with those already "old," with specific focus on the Baby Boomers. Aging policies (and available services) reflect the cultural notions of age and aging held as normative during the historical era in which they are enacted. Previous research into lifestyle preferences, consumer practices, and key characteristics is drawn upon to investigate the values of Baby Boomers in light of their projected needs for eldercare services. Cohort research and generational marketing practices offer a promising foundation for exploring how best to develop, target, and deliver aging services that most effectively utilize our social resources.

  6. The impact of breast cancer-specific birth cohort effects among younger and older Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyuna; Rosenberg, Philip S; Chen, Wan-Qing; Hartman, Mikael; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chia, Kee Seng; Wai-Kong Mang, Oscar; Tse, Lapah; Anderson, William F; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2016-08-01

    Historically low breast cancer incidence rates among Asian women have risen worldwide; purportedly due to the adoption of a "Western" life style among younger generations (i.e., the more recent birth cohorts). However, no study has simultaneously compared birth cohort effects between both younger and older women in different Asian and Western populations. Using cancer registry data from rural and urban China, Singapore and the United States (1990-2008), we estimated age-standardized incidence rates (ASR), annual percentage change (EAPC) in the ASR, net drifts, birth cohort specific incidence rates and cohort rate ratios (CRR). Younger (30-49 years, 1943-1977 birth cohorts) and older women (50-79 years; 1913-1957 birth cohorts) were assessed separately. CRRs among Chinese populations were estimated using birth cohort specific rates with US non-Hispanic white women (NHW) serving as the reference population with an assigned CRR of 1.0. We observed higher EAPCs and net drifts among those Chinese populations with lower ASRs. Similarly, we observed the most rapidly increasing cohort-specific incidence rates among those Chinese populations with the lowest baseline CRRs. Both trends were more significant among older than younger women. Average CRRs were 0.06-0.44 among older and 0.18-0.81 among younger women. Rapidly rising cohort specific rates have narrowed the historic disparity between Chinese and US NHW breast cancer populations particularly in regions with the lowest baseline rates and among older women. Future analytic studies are needed to investigate risk factors accounting for the rapid increase of breast cancer among older and younger women separately in Asian populations. PMID:26992019

  7. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    and infant health) of a variety of exposures during pregnancy, as well as examples showing different methodological approaches in design and analyses of the studies, are presented. RESEARCH TOPICS: The exposures of interest include alcohol drinking, coffee intake, smoking, use of nicotine substitutes......, physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has...

  8. The management of bipolar mania: a national survey of baseline data from the EMBLEM study in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraco Alessandra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a number of studies have assessed the management of mania in routine clinical practice, no studies have so far evaluated the short- and long-term management and outcome of patients affected by bipolar mania in different European countries. The objective of the study is to present, in the context of a large multicenter survey (EMBLEM study, an overview of the baseline data on the acute management of a representative sample of manic bipolar patients treated in the Italian psychiatric hospital and community settings. EMBLEM is a 2-year observational longitudinal study that evaluates across 14 European countries the patterns of the drug prescribed in patients with bipolar mania, their socio-demographic and clinical features and the outcomes of the treatment. Methods The study consists of a 12-week acute phase and a ≤ 24-month maintenance phase. Bipolar patients were included into the study as in- or out-patients, if they initiated or changed, according to the decision of their psychiatrist, oral antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and/or lithium for the treatment of an episode of mania. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric and medical history, severity of mania, prescribed medications, functional status and quality of life were collected at baseline and during the follow-up period. Results In Italy, 563 patients were recruited in 56 sites: 376 were outpatients and 187 inpatients. The mean age was 45.8 years. The mean CGI-BP was 4.4 (± 0.9 for overall score and mania, 1.9 (± 1.2 for depression and 2.6 (± 1.6 for hallucinations/delusions. The YMRS showed that 14.4% had a total score Conclusion Data collected at baseline in the Italian cohort of the EMBLEM study represent a relevant source of information to start addressing the short and long-term therapeutic strategies for improving the clinical as well as the socio-economic outcomes of patients affected by bipolar mania. Although it's not an

  9. Cohort Profile Update: The China Jintan Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children's neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725

  10. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  11. Dissipative Effect in Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Roberto L N

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using Lindblad Master Equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the probabilities behavior. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each decoherence parameters change the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using numeric and analytic approach.

  12. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  13. Sense of coherence and attrition during four-year follow-up in cohorts of permanent and non-permanent Finnish employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Jaana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied whether health resources, measured as sense of coherence (SOC, are associated with participation in a follow-up survey among permanent and non-permanent employees who responded at baseline. Methods Of a cohort of 5,981 permanent employees, those who after four years were still in the service of the same employer were asked to participate in a follow-up survey. Another cohort consisted of 2,194 fixed-term and 682 subsidised employees; among these the follow-up survey was posted to those whose addresses were found in the population register. Non-participation was divided into loss to follow-up (i.e., failure to locate the individual, death and, among permanent employees, turnover or exit from labour market and non-response to the follow-up survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether the respondents differed from the non-respondents with respect to SOC and other characteristics at baseline. Results Among permanent employees the follow-up survey yielded 3,998 respondents, 1,051 were lost, and 932 did not reply. Among non-permanent employees the follow-up survey yielded 1,563 respondents on initially fixed-term and 467 on subsidised contracts, the corresponding figures for those lost were 145 and 38, and for the non-respondents 486 and 177. Low SOC was associated with lower response rate among fixed-term but not among permanent or subsidised employees. No association was found between SOC and loss to follow-up. Conclusion SOC is a potential source of non-random sample attrition and should be taken into account for when estimating bias due to non-participation in occupational cohorts that include fixed-term employees.

  14. Association of worker characteristics and early reimbursement for physical therapy, chiropractic and opioid prescriptions with workers’ compensation claim duration, for cases of acute low back pain: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Jason W; Ebrahim, Shanil; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Wang, Li; Couban, Rachel; Walter, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between early reimbursement for physiotherapy, chiropractic and opioid prescriptions for acute low back pain (LBP) with disability claim duration. Design Observational cohort study. Setting and participants From a random sample of 6665 claims for acute, uncomplicated LBP approved by the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) in 2005, we analysed 1442 who remained on full benefits at 4 weeks after claim approval. Primary outcome measure Our primary outcome was WSIB claim duration. Results We had complete data for all but 3 variables, which had $920 vs ≤$480/week=0.34; 99% CI 0.17 to 0.68). Missing data for union membership (HR=1.27; 99% CI 1.01 to 1.59), and working for an employer with a return-to-work programme were associated with fewer days on claim (HR=1.78; 99% CI 1.45 to 2.18). Neither reimbursement for physiotherapy (HR=1.01; 99% CI 0.86 to 1.19) nor chiropractic care (HR for active claims at 60 days=1.15; 99% CI 0.94 to 1.41) within the first 4 weeks was associated with claim duration. Our meta-analysis of 3 studies (n=51 069 workers) confirmed a strong association between early opioid use and prolonged claim duration (HR=0.57, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.69; low certainty evidence). Conclusions Our analysis found that early WSIB reimbursement for physiotherapy or chiropractic care, in claimants fully off work for more than 4 weeks, was not associated with claim duration, and that early reimbursement for opioids predicted prolonged claim duration. Well-designed randomised controlled trials are needed to verify our findings and establish causality between these variables and claim duration. PMID:26310398

  15. Incidence and characteristics of sexually transmitted acute hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Copenhagen, Denmark during four years (2006-2009): a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Toke S; Omland, Lars Haukali; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2011-01-01

    We determined the incidence of hepatitis C virus among Danish human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and described their characteristics. We included 871 HIV-positive MSM seen from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009 at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen; drug users ...

  16. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  17. Differences in bacterial saliva profile between periodontitis patients and a control cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H;

    2014-01-01

    the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray...... in samples from periodontitis patients than in samples from the control cohort. These differences were independent of the individuals' smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis is associated with a characteristic bacterial profile of saliva different from that of a control cohort....

  18. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  19. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho; Josélia O A Firmo; Elizabeth Uchôa; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937) among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492) and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620). The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively) and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, ...

  20. A Study of the Birth Weight–Obesity Relation Using a Longitudinal Cohort and Sibling and Twin Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    The, Natalie S.; Adair, Linda S.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-01-01

    Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994–2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11–21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. ...

  1. Dietary Fiber, Magnesium, and Glycemic Load Alter Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in a Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii12

    OpenAIRE

    Hopping, Beth N.; Erber, Eva; Grandinetti, Andrew; Verheus, Martijn; Kolonel, Laurence N; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2010-01-01

    The influence of dietary fiber, magnesium (Mg), and glycemic load (GL) on diabetes was examined in the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort. The 75,512 Caucasian, Japanese American, and Native Hawaiian participants aged 45–75 y at baseline completed a FFQ. After 14 y of follow-up, 8587 incident diabetes cases were identified through self-reports and health plans. We applied Cox regression stratified for age at cohort entry and adjusted for ethnicity, BMI, physical activity, education, a...

  2. A comparison of health outcomes in older versus younger adults following a road traffic crash injury: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamini Gopinath

    Full Text Available Given the aging demographics of most developed countries, understanding the public health impact of mild/moderate road traffic crash injuries in older adults is important. We aimed to determine whether health outcomes (pain severity and quality of life measures over 24 months differ significantly between older (65+ and younger adults (18-64.Prospective cohort study of 364, 284 and 252 participants with mild/moderate injury following a vehicle collision at baseline, 12 and 24 months, respectively. A telephone-administered questionnaire obtained information on socio-economic, pre- and post-injury psychological and heath characteristics.At baseline, there were 55 (15.1% and 309 (84.9% participants aged ≥65 and 18-64 years, respectively. At 12- and 24-month follow-up, older compared to younger participants who had sustained a mild/moderate musculoskeletal injury had lower physical functioning (3.9-units lower Short Form-12 Physical Composite Score, multivariable-adjusted p = 0.03 at both examinations. After multivariable adjustment, older (n = 45 versus younger (n = 207 participants had lower self-perceived health status (8.1-units lower European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Visual Acuity Scale scores at 24 months, p = 0.03, 24 months later.Older compared to younger participants who sustained a mild/moderate injury following a road-traffic crash demonstrated poorer physical functioning and general health at 24 months.

  3. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy: The IeDEA-West Africa HIV-2 Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier K Ekouevi

    Full Text Available HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA.We collected data on all HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually seropositive patients (both ARV-naive and starting ART and followed-up in clinical centres in the IeDEA-WA network including a total of 13 clinics in five countries: Benin, Burkina-Faso Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal, in the West Africa region.Data was merged for 1,754 patients (56% female, including 1,021 HIV-2 infected patients (551 on ART and 733 dually seropositive for both HIV-1 and HIV 2 (463 on ART. At ART initiation, the median age of HIV-2 patients was 45.3 years, IQR: (38.3-51.7 and 42.4 years, IQR (37.0-47.3 for dually seropositive patients (p = 0.048. Overall, 16.7% of HIV-2 patients on ART had an advanced clinical stage (WHO IV or CDC-C. The median CD4 count at the ART initiation is 166 cells/mm(3, IQR (83-247 among HIV-2 infected patients and 146 cells/mm(3, IQR (55-249 among dually seropositive patients. Overall, in ART-treated patients, the CD4 count increased 126 cells/mm(3 after 24 months on ART for HIV-2 patients and 169 cells/mm(3 for dually seropositive patients. Of 551 HIV-2 patients on ART, 5.8% died and 10.2% were lost to follow-up during the median time on ART of 2.4 years, IQR (0.7-4.3.This large multi-country study of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infection in West Africa suggests that routine clinical care is less than optimal and that management and treatment of HIV-2 could be further informed by ongoing studies and randomized clinical trials in this population.

  4. Employment Trajectories After Spinal Cord Injury : Results From a 5-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdiana, Astri; Post, Marcel W.; Hoekstra, Trynke; van der Woude, Luccas H.; van der Klink, Jac J.; Bultmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To identify different employment trajectories in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) after discharge from initial rehabilitation and to determine predictors of different trajectories from demographic, injury, functional, and psychological characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort

  5. Risk Factors, Coronary Severity, Outcome and ABO Blood Group: A Large Chinese Han Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Xu, Rui-Xia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-10-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to have ethnic difference and to be a pivotal genetic determinant of cardiovascular risk, whereas few prospective data regarding the impact on cardiovascular outcomes are available in a large cohort of patients with angiography-proven coronary artery disease, especially from the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic role of blood type in future cardiovascular events (CVEs) in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.The population of this prospective cohort study consisted of 3823 eligible patients, and followed annually to capture all CVEs. Baseline characteristics and ABO blood type were obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of ABO blood type on CVEs.New CVEs occurred in 348 patients [263 (10.3%) non-O and 85 (7.8%) O] during a median period of 24.6 months follow-up. Significantly, non-O blood group was related to the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and several risk factors including inflammatory markers. The log-rank test revealed that there was a significant difference between non-O and O blood groups in event-free survival analysis (P = 0.026). In particular, the Cox proportional hazards models revealed that non-O blood type was associated with increased CVEs risk [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.320 (1.033-1.685)], even after adjusting for potential confounders [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) non-O: 1.289 (1.003-1.656); A: 1.083 (0.797-1.472); B: 1.481 (1.122-1.955); AB: 1.249 (0.852-1.831), respectively].Non-O blood type is associated with future CVEs in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.

  6. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragi, Z.; Godfrey, L.; Reynolds, C.; Rioja, M. J.; Deller, A.; Zhang, B.; Gurvits, L.; Bietenholz, M.; Szomoru, A.; Bignall, H. E.; Boven, P.; Charlot, P.; Dodson, R.; Frey, S.; Garrett, M. A.; Imai, H.; Lobanov, A.; Reid, M. J.; Ros, E.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Zensus, A. J.; Zheng, X. W.; Alberdi, A.; Agudo, I.; An, T.; Argo, M.; Beswick, R.; Biggs, A.; Brunthaler, A.; Campbell, B.; Cimo, G.; Colomer, F.; Corbel, S.; Conway, J. E.; Cseh, D.; Deane, R.; Falcke, H. D. E.; Gawronski, M.; Gaylard, M.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Goddi, C.; Goedhart, S.; Gómez, J. L.; Gunn, A.; Kharb, P.; Kloeckner, H. R.; Koerding, E.; Kovalev, Y.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Lindqvist, M.; Lister, M.; Mantovani, F.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Mezcua, M.; McKean, J.; Middelberg, E.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Moldon, J.; Muxlow, T.; O'Brien, T.; Perez-Torres, M.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Quick, J.; Rushton, A.; Schilizzi, R.; Smirnov, O.; Sohn, B. W.; Surcis, G.; Taylor, G. B.; Tingay, S.; Tudose, V. M.; van der Horst, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Venturi, T.; Vermeulen, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; de Witt, A.; Wucknitz, O.; Yang, J.; Gabänyi, K.; Jung, T.

    2015-04-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  7. Baseline scenarios of global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents three baseline scenarios of no policy action computed by the IMAGE2 model. These scenarios cover a wide range of coupled global change indicators, including: energy demand and consumption; food demand, consumption, and production; changes in land cover including changes in extent of agricultural land and forest; emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors; and climate change and its impacts on sea level rise, crop productivity and natural vegetation. Scenario information is available for the entire world with regional and grid scale detail, and covers from 1970 to 2100. (author)

  8. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  9. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Diabetes and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of One Million U.S. Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Peter T.; Newton, Christina C.; Patel, Alpa V.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes is a major predictor of death from heart disease and stroke; its impact on nonvascular mortality, including specific cancers, is less understood. We examined the association of diabetes with cause-specific mortality, including deaths from specific cancers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort of 1,053,831 U.S. adults, without cancer at baseline, enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982 and was followed for mortality until December 2008. At baseline, pa...

  11. No influence of GB virus C on disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Rosa; Katzenstein, Terese L; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2006-01-01

    Presumed apathogenic viruses have been suggested to play a role in HIV infection. In some cohorts of HIVpositive patients, GB virus C (GBVC) has been associated with prolonged survival and time to AIDS. We set out to address whether GBVC infection had any influence on survival in a cohort of 112...... homosexual white HIV-1 positive Danish men. Patients were enrolled between 1984 and 1987 and followed for a mean of 6.7 years. Follow-up was censored in May 1996 when the first patient in the cohort received HAART. Plasma samples were screened at baseline using polymerase chain reaction methods for GBVC...

  12. Characteristics Associated with Psychological, Physical, Sexual Abuse, Caregiver Neglect and Financial Exploitation in U.S. Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the Population-Based Cohort Study in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-demographic and health related characteristics of elder mistreatment (EM in a community-dwelling older Chinese population. Methods: Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, the PINE study conducted in-person interviews with 3,159 U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area from 2011–2013. Participants answered questions regarding psychological, physical and sexual mistreatment, caregiver neglect, and financial exploitation. Definitional approaches for EM subtypes were constructed from least restrictive to most restrictive. Results: The sociodemographic and health-related characteristics associated with EM differed by type of mistreatment and by the operational definition used. Living with fewer people, having been born in countries other than China, poorer health status, and lower quality of life were significantly correlated with physical mistreatment. Only higher education was positively and significantly associated with sexual mistreatment and only poorer health status was consistently correlated with psychological mistreatment among all definitions. Male gender, higher educational levels, higher income, fewer children, and having been in the U.S. for fewer years were significantly correlated with financial exploitation. As for caregiver neglect, older age, having more children, having been in the U.S. for more years, poorer health status, lower quality of life, and worsening health over the past year were consistently correlated with caregiver neglect with different definitions. Conclusions: Prevention and intervention programs on EM should be geared towards specific types of mistreatment. Studies on EM should conduct a thorough analysis to justify the operational definition used.

  13. Undifferenced and single differenced GNSS noise analysis through a constrained baseline vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, P.J.; Imparato, D.

    2014-01-01

    GNSS noise characteristics can be obtained by short and zero baseline analysis, for both pseudorange and carrier phase measurements. Differencing observations from a GNSS satellite tracked by two GNSS receivers (connected to the same or different antennas) will explicitly eliminate common errors. I

  14. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  15. Spinal radiographic progression in patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with TNF-α blocking therapy: a prospective longitudinal observational cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Maas

    Full Text Available To evaluate spinal radiographic damage over time and to explore the associations of radiographic progression with patient characteristics and clinical assessments including disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis (AS patients treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α blocking therapy in daily clinical practice.Consecutive outpatients from the Groningen Leeuwarden AS (GLAS cohort were included based on the availability of cervical and lumbar radiographs before start of TNF-α blocking therapy and after 2, 4, and/or 6 years of follow-up. Clinical data were assessed at the same time points. Radiographs were scored by two independent readers using the modified Stoke AS Spine Score (mSASSS. Spinal radiographic progression in relation to clinical assessments was analyzed using generalized estimating equations.176 AS patients were included, 58% had syndesmophytes at baseline. Median mSASSS increased significantly from 10.7 (IQR: 4.6-24.0 at baseline to 14.8 (IQR: 7.9-32.8 at 6 years. At the group level, spinal radiographic progression was linear with a mean progression rate of 1.3 mSASSS units per 2 years. Both spinal radiographic damage at baseline and radiographic progression were highly variable between AS patients. Male gender, older age, longer disease duration, higher BMI, longer smoking duration, high CRP, and high ASDAS were significantly associated with syndesmophytes at baseline. Significantly more radiographic progression was seen in patients with versus without syndesmophytes (2.0 vs. 0.5 mSASSS units per 2 years and in patients >40 versus ≤40 years of age (1.8 vs. 0.7 mSASSS units per 2 years. No longitudinal associations between radiographic progression and clinical assessments were found.This prospective longitudinal observational cohort study in daily clinical practice shows overall slow and linear spinal radiographic progression in AS patients treated with TNF-α blocking therapy. At the individual level, progression was

  16. Clinical outcomes of first-line antiretroviral therapy in Latin America: analysis from the LATINA retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Belloso, Waldo H; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Sánchez, Jorge; Moreira, Ronaldo Ismerio; Kovalevski, Leandro O; Orellana, Liliana C; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; La Rosa, Alberto; Losso, Marcelo H

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 2 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Latin America. However, information regarding population-scale outcomes from a regional perspective is scarce. We aimed to describe the baseline characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of newly-treated individuals with HIV infection in Latin America. A Retrospective cohort study was undertaken. The primary explanatory variable was combination antiretroviral therapy based on either a protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The main outcome was defined as the composite of all-cause mortality and the occurrence of an AIDS-defining clinical event or a serious non-AIDS-defining event during the first year of therapy. The secondary outcomes included the time to a change in treatment strategy. All analyses were performed according to the intention to treat principle. A total of 937 treatment-naive patients from four participating countries were included (228 patients with PI therapy and 709 with NNRTI-based treatment). At the time of treatment initiation, the patients had a mean age of 37 (SD: 10) years and a median CD4 + T-cell count of 133 cells/mm(3) (interquartile range: 47.5-216.0). Patients receiving PI-based regimens had a significantly lower CD4 + count, a higher AIDS prevalence at baseline and a shorter time from HIV diagnosis until the initiation of treatment. There was no difference in the hazard ratio for the primary outcome between groups. The only covariates associated with the latter were CD4 + cell count at baseline, study site and age. The estimated hazard ratio for the time to a change in treatment (NNRTI vs PI) was 0.61 (95% CI 0.47-0.80, p Latin America present with similar clinical outcomes regardless of the choice of initial therapy. Patients treated with PIs are more likely to require a treatment change during the first year of follow up.

  17. The Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort; a population-based cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsing, Anne MJ; Weijenberg, Matty P.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Schouten, Leo J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirme...

  18. Probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases. RESULTS: Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use. CONCLUSION: The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children.

  19. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  20. Sterile neutrino fits to short baseline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, G. H.; Argüelles, C. A.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation models involving extra mass eigenstates beyond the standard three (3 + N) are fit to global short baseline experimental data. We find that 3 + 1 has a best fit of Δ m412 = 1.75 eV2 with a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 52.34 (3). The 3 + 2 fit has a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 56.99 (7). For the first time, we show Bayesian credible intervals for a 3 + 1 model. These are found to be in agreement with frequentist intervals. The results of these new fits favor a higher Δm2 value than previous studies, which may have an impact on future sterile neutrino searches such as the Fermilab SBN program.

  1. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  2. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  3. Octant degeneracy, CPV phase at Long Baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work by two of us, we have studied, how CP violation discovery potential can be improved at long baseline neutrino experiments (LBNE/DUNE), by combining with its ND (near detector) and reactor experiments. In this work, we discuss how this study can be further analysed to resolve entanglement of the quadrant of CPV phase and Octant of atmospheric mixing angle {\\theta}23, at LBNEs. The study is done for both NH (Normal hierarchy) and IH (Inverted hierarchy). We further show how leptogenesis can enhance this effect of resolving this entanglement. A detailed analytic and numerical study of baryogenesis through leptogenesis is performed in this framework in a model independent way. We then compare our result of the baryon to photon ratio with the the current observational data of the baryon asymmetry.

  4. Mujeres en accion: design and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G

    2011-10-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women. PMID:21298400

  5. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  6. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  7. Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.

  8. Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be pro...

  9. Risk of developing diabetes is inversely related to lung function: a population-based cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Gunnar; Janzon, Lars

    2002-01-01

    AimTo investigate whether reduced lung function is a risk factor for developing diabetes. MethodsNon-diabetic men (n = 382) from the population-based cohort 'Men Born in 1914' were examined with spirometry at age 55 years. The cohort was re-examined at 68 years. Diabetes and fasting plasma glucose at follow-up were studied in relation to vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1.0) at baseline. ResultsFifteen men developed diabetes during the follow-up. The ...

  10. Air Pollution and Nonmalignant Respiratory Mortality in 16 Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina; Samoli, Evangelia; Beelen, Rob;

    2014-01-01

    used. The total number of subjects was 307,553. There were 1,559 respiratory deaths during follow-up. Measurements: Air pollution exposure was estimated by land use regression models at the baseline residential addresses of study participants and traffic-proximity variables were derived from...... geographical databases, following a standardized procedure within ESCAPE study. Cohort-specific hazard ratios obtained by Cox proportional hazard models from standardized individual cohort analyses were combined using meta-analyses. Main Results: We found no significant associations between air pollution...

  11. Stroke and Long-Term Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution From Nitrogen Dioxide A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Kristiansen, Luise Cederkvist; Andersen, Klaus K.;

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Years of exposure to tobacco smoke substantially increase the risk for stroke. Whether long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution can lead to stroke is not yet established. We examined the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and incident...... and fatal stroke in a prospective cohort study.Methods-We followed 57 053 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort in the Hospital Discharge Register for the first-ever hospital admission for stroke (incident stroke) between baseline (1993-1997) and 2006 and defined fatal strokes as death...

  12. Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Brants, H.A.M.; van Klaveren, J.D.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis, a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated from a randomly selected subcohort (1688 men and 1812 ...

  13. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...

  14. Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Celeste

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression. Methods This study included 10,286 participants from a dynamic prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, who were followed-up for a median period of 4.2 years (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra – the SUN study. The key characteristic of the study is the permanently open recruitment that started in 1999. The baseline questionnaire included information about body mass index (BMI and the nine figure schemes that were used to assess body size perception. These variables were grouped according to recommended classifications and the difference between BMI and body size perception was considered as a proxy of body image disturbance. A subject was classified as an incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported a physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression was estimated by calculating the multivariable adjusted Odds Ratio (OR and its 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI, using logistic regression models. Results The cumulative incidence of depression during follow-up in the cohort was 4.8%. Men who underestimated their body size had a high percentage of overweight and obesity (50.1% and 12.6%, respectively, whereas women who overestimated their body size had a high percentage of underweight (87.6%. The underestimation exhibited a negative association with the incidence of depression among women (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 – 0.95, but this effect disappeared after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The proportion of

  15. COPD association and repeatability of blood biomarkers in the ECLIPSE cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickens Jennifer A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for biomarkers to better characterise individuals with COPD and to aid with the development of therapeutic interventions. A panel of putative blood biomarkers was assessed in a subgroup of the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE cohort. Methods Thirty-four blood biomarkers were assessed in 201 subjects with COPD, 37 ex-smoker controls with normal lung function and 37 healthy non-smokers selected from the ECLIPSE cohort. Biomarker repeatability was assessed using baseline and 3-month samples. Intergroup comparisons were made using analysis of variance, repeatability was assessed through Bland-Altman plots, and correlations between biomarkers and clinical characteristics were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Fifteen biomarkers were significantly different in individuals with COPD when compared to former or non-smoker controls. Some biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, were measurable in only a minority of subjects whilst others such as C-reactive protein showed wide variability over the 3-month replication period. Fibrinogen was the most repeatable biomarker and exhibited a weak correlation with 6-minute walk distance, exacerbation rate, BODE index and MRC dyspnoea score in COPD subjects. 33% (66/201 of the COPD subjects reported at least 1 exacerbation over the 3 month study with 18% (36/201 reporting the exacerbation within 30 days of the 3-month visit. CRP, fibrinogen interleukin-6 and surfactant protein-D were significantly elevated in those COPD subjects with exacerbations within 30 days of the 3-month visit compared with those individuals that did not exacerbate or whose exacerbations had resolved. Conclusions Only a few of the biomarkers assessed may be useful in diagnosis or management of COPD where the diagnosis is based on airflow obstruction (GOLD. Further analysis of more promising biomarkers may reveal

  16. In a cohort of breast cancer screened patients the proportion of HER2 positive cases is lower than that earlier reported and pathological characteristics differ between HER2 3+ and HER2 2+/Her2 amplified cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Silvia; Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Leonardi, Elena; Polla, Enzo; Decarli, Nicola; Luchini, Claudio; Cantaloni, Chiara; Gasperetti, Fabio; Cazzolli, Daniela; Berlanda, Gabriella; Bernardi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Marco; Triolo, Renza; Ferro, Antonella; Verderio, Paolo; Barbareschi, Mattia

    2016-07-01

    Human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression and/or amplification is of predictive and prognostic value in infiltrating breast carcinoma (IBC). We evaluated the proportion of HER2-positive cases (score 3 overexpression/score 2 plus fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) amplification) in a consecutive series of 2163 patients. According to immunohistochemical analysis of HER2 expression, using Herceptest and FDA criteria, 839 cases had score 0, 476 score 1+, 699 score 2+, and 149 score 3+. Of the 699 scoring 2+ cases, 160 (22.88 %) showed Her2 gene amplification by FISH analysis, making a total of 309 (14.28 %) HER2-positive cases. Grade 1 ductal and special type IBC were never HER2 positive, while only three infiltrating lobular carcinomas but a relevant percentage of small IBC were HER2 positive. Of HER2-positive cases, 52.1 % was pT1 and of these, 38.5 % was pT1b or smaller. Logistic regression analysis revealed that estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), grade, and pT were significantly associated with HER2 positivity and that HER2 3+ cases were more frequently of higher grade and pT than HER2 2+/Her2 amplified cases. In addition, HER2 3+ cases were more frequently in ER and PgR negative than HER2 2+/Her2 amplified cases. We conclude that the proportion of HER2 positive cases is lower than that reported in older literature and that pathological characteristics differ between HER2 3+ and HER2 2+/Her2 amplified cases. PMID:27097809

  17. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, William C. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  18. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-01

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the νμ → νe appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  19. Hypoperfusion in baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of adult and elderly patients with depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the rCBF abnormalities of the baseline and cognitively activated rCBF imaging in unmedicated adult and elderly patients with depression. Methods: The subjects were divided into four groups: depressed adults, normal adult controls, depressed elders and normal elderly controls. All depressed patients were unmedicated and the diagnoses (depression of moderate degree with accompanying somatization) were confirmed by the ICD-10 criteria. Age range of the 39 depressed adult patients was 17 - 55 years. 17 age-matched normal adult controls (age range 21 - 50 years) were studied under identical conditions. The age range of 18 depressed elderly patients was 62 - 76 years. 21 age-matched normal elderly controls (age range 60 - 72 years) were studied under identical conditions. Baseline and cognitively activated 99Tcm-ECD SPECT were performed on 25 of the 39 adult patients with depression and 17 normal adult controls. Baseline 99Tcm-ECD SPECT only was performed on the remaining 14 patients with depression. Baseline and cognitively activated 99Tcm-ECD SPECT were performed on 12 of the 18 elderly patients with depression and 18 of the 21 normal elderly controls. Baseline 99Tcm-ECD SPECT only was performed on the remaining elderly patients and 3 normal elderly controls. Results: 1) The characteristic abnormalities of baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of depression in adults: the baseline rCBF values of frontal and temporal lobe decreased significantly and the activated rCBF values of frontal, temporal lobe decreased more evidently than that in the baseline imaging and additionally decreased activated rCBF values in parietal lobe were found. 2) The characteristic abnormalities of baseline and cognitively activated brain SPECT imaging of elderly patients with depression: the baseline rCBF values of frontal, temporal lobe and right basal ganglia decreased significantly and the activated rCBF values of frontal, temporal, right parietal lobe

  20. Methods used for successful follow-up in a large scale national cohort study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokkanapitak Jaruwan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring successful follow-up is essential when conducting a prospective cohort study. Most existing literature reviewing methods to ensure a high response rate is based on experience in developed nations. Findings We report our 4-year follow-up success for a national cohort study examining the health transition underway in Thailand. We began the cohort study in 2005 with a baseline postal questionnaire sent to all 200,000 Thais enrolled as distance learning students at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing all over Thailand; 87,134 or 44% of the students responded. Subsequently we used University and national media to inform cohort members of study progress. Also, we prepared a health book with study results and health advice which was distributed to all cohort members. After 4 years we repeated the survey and achieved a 71% response rate. In this paper we report the methods used to achieve this response The initial follow-up mail-out generated a response rate of about 48% reflecting the extensive preparatory work between baseline and follow-up. After 4 rounds of telephone contact (more than 100,000 phone calls and 4 related mail-out rounds progressively over 16 months an overall response rate was achieved of just over 71% (n = 60,774. The total cost was US$4.06/respondent - 19% for printing, 21% for postage, 14% for tape measures (included in mail-out, 18% for data processing 22% for prizes and 6% for telephone. Conclusions Many of the methods reported as effective for mail questionnaire and cohort response rates held true for Thailand. These included being associated with a university, incentivating cooperation, follow-up contact, providing a second copy of questionnaire where necessary, and assurance of confidentiality. Telephone contact with the cohort and the small prizes given to responders were particularly important in the Thai context as was Thai leadership of the research team.

  1. Low FEV1, smoking history, and obesity are factors associated with oxygen saturation decrease in an adult population cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vold ML

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monica Linea Vold,1,3 Ulf Aasebø,1,2 Hasse Melbye3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway Background: Worsening of pulmonary diseases is associated with a decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO2. Such a decrease in SpO2 and associated factors has not been previously evaluated in a general adult population. Aim: We sought to describe SpO2 in a sample of adults, at baseline and after 6.3 years, to determine whether factors predicting low SpO2 in a cross-sectional study were also associated with a decrease in SpO2 in this cohort. Methods: As part of the Tromsø Study, 2,822 participants were examined with pulse oximetry in Tromsø 5 (2001/2002 and Tromsø 6 (2007/2008. Low SpO2 by pulse oximetry was defined as an SpO2 ≤95%, and SpO2 decrease was defined as a ≥2% decrease from baseline to below 96%. Results: A total of 139 (4.9% subjects had a decrease in SpO2. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 <50% of the predicted value and current smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years were the baseline characteristics most strongly associated with an SpO2 decrease in multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio 3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.60–7.89] and 2.48 [95% CI 1.48–4.15], respectively. Male sex, age, former smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, and C-reactive protein ≥5 mg/L were also significantly associated with an SpO2 decrease. A significant decrease in FEV1 and a new diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the observation period most strongly predicted a fall in SpO2. A lower SpO2 decrease was observed in those who quit smoking and those who lost weight, but these tendencies were not statistically significant. Conclusion: A decrease in SpO2 was most strongly associated with severe airflow limitation and a history of

  2. Increasing transfers-out from an antiretroviral treatment service in South Africa: patient characteristics and rates of virological non-suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mweete D Nglazi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion, characteristics and outcomes of patients who transfer-out from an antiretroviral therapy (ART service in a South African township. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all patients aged ≥15 years who enrolled between September 2002 and December 2009. Follow-up data were censored in December 2010. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to describe time to transfer-out and cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine associated risk factors. RESULTS: 4511 patients (4003 ART-naïve and 508 non-naïve at baseline received ART during the study period. Overall, 597 (13.2% transferred out. The probability of transferring out by one year of ART steadily increased from 1.4% in 2002/2004 cohort to 8.9% for the 2009 cohort. Independent risk factors for transfer-out were more recent calendar year of enrolment, younger age (≤25 years and being ART non-naïve at baseline (i.e., having previously transferred into this clinic from another facility. The proportions of patients transferred out who had a CD4 cell count 1000 copies/mL around the time of transfer, suggesting the need for careful adherence counseling and assessment of medication supplies among those planning transfer.

  3. Long-term lifestyle and dietary habits in relation to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In prospective cohort studies, information on lifestyle and dietary habits is generally only assessed at the baseline examination, assuming that these habits are relatively constant over the entire study period. Repeated measures can take into account changes in these habits, reduce me

  4. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong;

    2009-01-01

    weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake...

  5. A Cohort Model of Fertility Postponement

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua R. Goldstein; Cassidy, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new formal model in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo adjustment to determine the period fertility that would have occurred without postponement. Cohort-based postponement spans multiple periods and produces “fertility momentum,” with implications for future fertility rates. We...

  6. Generational cohorts and their attitudes toward advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Cyril de Run; Hiram Ting

    2013-01-01

    This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, ...

  7. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sargent, K.A. [Furman Univ., Greenville, SC (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  8. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  9. Space Station-Baseline Configuration With Callouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  10. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    CERN Document Server

    Moldón, J; Wucknitz, O; Jackson, N; Drabent, A; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Kapińska, A D; McKean, P; Morabito, L; Varenius, E; Zarka, P; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Offringa, A R; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; White, S; Wise, M W; Yatawatta, S; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for International LOFAR is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods. We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full International LOFAR array. Sources were pre-selected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results. Over 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to sho...

  11. Lorentz symmetry and Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; lambert, S

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model extension (SME). Recently, post-fit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars lead to an upper limit at the $10^{-4}$ level on the time-time coefficient $\\bar s^{TT}$ of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then we implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of $\\bar s^{TT}$ and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and with analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on $\\bar s^{TT}=(-5\\pm 8)\\times 10^{-5}$, directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor 5 pr...

  12. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  13. Beyond Baselines: Rethinking Priorities for Ocean Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna M. Shackeroff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1995, Daniel Pauly identified a "shifting baselines syndrome" (SBS. Pauly was concerned that scientists measure ecosystem change against their personal recollections of the past and, based on this decidedly short-term view, mismanage fish stocks because they tolerate gradual and incremental elimination of species and set inappropriate recovery goals. As a concept, SBS is simple to grasp and its logic is compelling. Much current work in marine historical ecology is rationalized in part as a means of combating SBS, and the term has also resonated outside of the academy with environmental advocacy groups. Although we recognize both conceptual and operational merit in SBS, we believe that the ultimate impact of SBS on ocean management will be limited by some underlying and interrelated problematic assumptions about ecology and human–environment relations, and the prescriptions that these assumptions support. In this paper, we trace both assumptions and prescriptions through key works in the SBS literature and interrogate them via ecological and social science theory and research. We argue that an expanded discussion of SBS is needed, one that engages a broader range of social scientists, ecologists, and resource users, and that explicitly recognizes the value judgments inherent in deciding both what past ecosystems looked like and whether or not and how we might reconstruct them.

  14. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process

  15. Longitudinal association of neighborhood variables with Body Mass Index in Dutch school-age children: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Swantje C; Sleddens, Ester F C; de Vries, Sanne I; Gubbels, Jessica; Thijs, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the neighborhood environment may explain part of the rapid increase in childhood overweight and obesity during the last decades. To date few theory-driven rather than data-driven studies have explored longitudinal associations between multiple neighborhood characteristics and child body weight development. We aimed to assess the relationship between physical, social and perceived safety related characteristics of the neighborhood and Body Mass Index (BMI) development in children during early school age, using a longitudinal design. We included an examination of moderating and confounding factors based on a conceptual model adapted from the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain prevention) and empirical research. Analyses included 1887 children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study followed from baseline age 4-5 years until 8-9 years. For children age 4-5 years, parents completed a questionnaire measuring characteristics of the neighborhood. Reliability and factor analyses were used to identify constructs for neighborhood characteristics. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between neighborhood constructs and BMI z-scores cross-sectionally at age 4-5 years and longitudinally using Generalized Estimating Equations with BMI z-scores over 5 repeated measurements until age 8-9 years. Fourteen constructs were identified and grouped in three domains including perceived physical, social, or safety related characteristics of the neighborhood. Cross-sectionally, a lower BMI z-score was associated with higher perceived physical attractiveness of the neighborhood environment (standardized regression coefficient (β) -0.078, 95% CI -0.123 to -0.034) and a higher level of social capital (β -0.142, -0.264 to -0.019). Longitudinally, similar associations were observed with potentially even stronger regression coefficients. This study suggests that BMI in children is mainly related to the modifiable physical

  16. The MANGUA Project: A Population-Based HIV Cohort in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan Ignacio; Samayoa, Blanca; Sabidó, Meritxell; Prieto, Luis Alberto; Nikiforov, Mikhail; Pinzón, Rodolfo; Santa Marina de León, Luis Roberto; Ortiz, José Fernando; Ponce, Ernesto; Mejía, Carlos Rodolfo; Arathoon, Eduardo; Casabona, Jordi; Study Group, The Mangua Cohort

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The MANGUA cohort is an ongoing multicenter, observational study of people living with HIV/AIDS in Guatemala. The cohort is based on the MANGUA application which is an electronic database to capture essential data from the medical records of HIV patients in care. Methods. The cohort enrolls HIV-positive adults ≥16 years of age. A predefined set of sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and laboratory data are registered at entry to the cohort study. Results. As of October 1st, 2012, 21 697 patients had been included in the MANGUA cohort (median age: 33 years, 40.3% female). At enrollment 74.1% had signs of advanced HIV infection and only 56.3% had baseline CD4 cell counts. In the first 12 months after starting antiretroviral treatment 26.9% (n = 3938) of the patients were lost to the program. Conclusions. The implementation of a cohort of HIV-positive patients in care in Guatemala is feasible and has provided national HIV indicators to monitor and evaluate the HIV epidemic. The identified percentages of late presenters and high rates of LTFU will help the Ministry to target their current efforts in improving access to diagnosis and care. PMID:26425365

  17. Prognosis of chronic low back pain: design of an inception cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAuley James H

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although clinical guidelines generally portray chronic low back pain as a condition with a poor prognosis this portrayal is based on studies of potentially unrepresentative survival cohorts. The aim of this study is to describe the prognosis of an inception cohort of people with chronic low back pain presenting for primary care. Methods/Design The study will be an inception cohort study with one year follow-up. Participants are drawn from a cohort of consecutive patients presenting with acute low back pain (less than 2 weeks duration to primary care clinics in Sydney, Australia. Those patients who continue to experience pain at three months, and are therefore classified as having chronic back pain, are invited to participate in the current study. The cohort will be followed up by telephone at baseline, 9 months and 12 months after being diagnosed with chronic low back pain. Recovery from low back pain will be measured by sampling three different outcomes: pain intensity, interference with function due to pain, and work status. Life tables will be generated to determine the one year prognosis of chronic low back pain. Prognostic factors will be assessed using Cox regression. Discussion This study will determine the prognosis of chronic non-specific low back pain in a representative cohort of patients sourced from primary care. The results of this study will improve understanding of chronic low back pain, allowing clinicians to provide more accurate prognostic information to their patients.

  18. Hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-positive individuals in the UK collaborative HIV cohort (UK CHIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huw Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and incidence of HBV in the UK CHIC Study, a multicentre observational cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 12 HIV treatment centres were included. Of 37,331 patients, 27,450 had at least one test (HBsAg, anti-HBs or anti-HBc result post-1996 available. 16,043 were white, 8,130 black and 3,277 other ethnicity. Route of exposure was homosexual sex 15,223 males, heterosexual sex 3,258 males and 5,384 females, injecting drug use 862 and other 2,723. The main outcome measures used were the cumulative prevalence and the incidence of HBV coinfection. HBV susceptible patients were followed up until HBsAg and/or anti-HBc seroconversion incident infection, evidence of vaccination or last visit. Poisson regression was used to determine associated factors. 25,973 had at least one HBsAg test result. Participants with HBsAg results were typically MSM (57% and white (59% (similar to the cohort as a whole. The cumulative prevalence of detectable HBsAg was 6.9% (6.6 to 7.2%. Among the 3,379 initially HBV-susceptible patients, the incidence of HBV infection was 1.7 (1.5 to 1.9/100 person-years. Factors associated with incident infection were older age and IDU. The main limitation of the study was that 30% of participants did not have any HBsAg results available. However baseline characteristics of those with results did not differ from those of the whole cohort. Efforts are on-going to improve data collection. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBV in UK CHIC is in line with estimates from other studies and low by international standards. Incident infection continued to occur even after entry to the cohort, emphasising the need to ensure early vaccination.

  19. Addiction treatment and stable housing among a cohort of injection drug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Palepu

    Full Text Available Unstable housing and homelessness is prevalent among injection drug users (IDU. We sought to examine whether accessing addiction treatment was associated with attaining stable housing in a prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada.We used data collected via the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS between December 2005 and April 2010. Attaining stable housing was defined as two consecutive "stable housing" designations (i.e., living in an apartment or house during the follow-up period. We assessed exposure to addiction treatment in the interview prior to the attainment of stable housing among participants who were homeless or living in single room occupancy (SRO hotels at baseline. Bivariate and multivariate associations between the baseline and time-updated characteristics and attaining stable housing were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models.Of the 992 IDU eligible for this analysis, 495 (49.9% reported being homeless, 497 (50.1% resided in SRO hotels, and 380 (38.3% were enrolled in addiction treatment at the baseline interview. Only 211 (21.3% attained stable housing during the follow-up period and of this group, 69 (32.7% had addiction treatment exposure prior to achieving stable housing. Addiction treatment was inversely associated with attaining stable housing in a multivariate model (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.71; 95% CI: 0.52-0.96. Being in a partnered relationship was positively associated with the primary outcome (AHR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.88. Receipt of income assistance (AHR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96, daily crack use (AHR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.51-0.93 and daily heroin use (AHR=0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.92 were negatively associated with attaining stable housing.Exposure to addiction treatment in our study was negatively associated with attaining stable housing and may have represented a marker of instability among this sample of IDU. Efforts to stably house this vulnerable group may be occurring in contexts

  20. Blindness in a 25-Year Follow-up of a Population-Based Cohort of Danish Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, Jakob; Green, Anders; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the long-term incidence of blindness and to evaluate risk factors for blindness in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A population-based cohort of 573 type 1 diabetic patients, all of whom participated...... in a clinical ophthalmologic examination in 1981 and 1982 and were followed up for 25 years. METHODS: At the baseline examination in 1981 and 1982, visual acuity, level of retinopathy, maculopathy, hemoglobin A(1) (HbA(1)), proteinuria, smoking habits, and blood pressure were evaluated and related...... to the subsequent development of blindness. Blindness was defined as present in patients who were registered as members of the Danish Association of the Blind between baseline and January 2007. The Danish Association of the Blind is a voluntary organization open for all patients with a best-corrected visual acuity...

  1. TB incidence in an adolescent cohort in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mahomed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem globally. Little is known about TB incidence in adolescents who are a proposed target group for new TB vaccines. We conducted a study to determine the TB incidence rates and risk factors for TB disease in a cohort of school-going adolescents in a high TB burden area in South Africa. METHODS: We recruited adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from high schools in Worcester, South Africa. Demographic and clinical information was collected, a tuberculin skin test (TST performed and blood drawn for a QuantiFERON TB Gold assay at baseline. Screening for TB cases occurred at follow up visits and by surveillance of registers at public sector TB clinics over a period of up to 3.8 years after enrolment. RESULTS: A total of 6,363 adolescents were enrolled (58% of the school population targeted. During follow up, 67 cases of bacteriologically confirmed TB were detected giving an overall incidence rate of 0.45 per 100 person years (95% confidence interval 0.29-0.72. Black or mixed race, maternal education of primary school or less or unknown, a positive baseline QuantiFERON assay and a positive baseline TST were significant predictors of TB disease on adjusted analysis. CONCLUSION: The adolescent TB incidence found in a high burden setting will help TB vaccine developers plan clinical trials in this population. Latent TB infection and low socio-economic status were predictors of TB disease.

  2. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Agostino, L; Aittola, M; Alekou, A; Andrieu, B; Antoniou, F; Asfandiyarov, R; Autiero, D; Bésida, O; Balik, A; Ballett, P; Bandac, I; Banerjee, D; Bartmann, W; Bay, F; Biskup, B; Blebea-Apostu, A M; Blondel, A; Bogomilov, M; Bolognesi, S; Borriello, E; Brancus, I; Bravar, A; Buizza-Avanzini, M; Caiulo, D; Calin, M; Calviani, M; Campanelli, M; Cantini, C; Cata-Danil, G; Chakraborty, S; Charitonidis, N; Chaussard, L; Chesneanu, D; Chipesiu, F; Crivelli, P; Dawson, J; De Bonis, I; Declais, Y; Sanchez, P Del Amo; Delbart, A; Di Luise, S; Duchesneau, D; Dumarchez, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eliseev, A; Emery, S; Enqvist, T; Enqvist, K; Epprecht, L; Erykalov, A N; Esanu, T; Franco, D; Friend, M; Galymov, V; Gavrilov, G; Gendotti, A; Giganti, C; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Gomoiu, C M; Gornushkin, Y A; Gorodetzky, P; Haesler, A; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, S; Huitu, K; Izmaylov, A; Jipa, A; Kainulainen, K; Karadzhov, Y; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kopylov, A N; Korzenev, A; Kosyanenko, S; Kryn, D; Kudenko, Y; Kuusiniemi, P; Lazanu, I; Lazaridis, C; Levy, J -M; Loo, K; Maalampi, J; Margineanu, R M; Marteau, J; Martin-Mari, C; Matveev, V; Mazzucato, E; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Mirizzi, A; Mitrica, B; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Narita, S; Nesterenko, D A; Nguyen, K; Nikolics, K; Noah, E; Novikov, Yu; Oprima, A; Osborne, J; Ovsyannikova, T; Papaphilippou, Y; Pascoli, S; Patzak, T; Pectu, M; Pennacchio, E; Periale, L; Pessard, H; Popov, B; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M; Resnati, F; Ristea, O; Robert, A; Rubbia, A; Rummukainen, K; Saftoiu, A; Sakashita, K; Sanchez-Galan, F; Sarkamo, J; Saviano, N; Scantamburlo, E; Sergiampietri, F; Sgalaberna, D; Shaposhnikova, E; Slupecki, M; Smargianaki, D; Stanca, D; Steerenberg, R; Sterian, A R; Sterian, P; Stoica, S; Strabel, C; Suhonen, J; Suvorov, V; Toma, G; Tonazzo, A; Trzaska, W H; Tsenov, R; Tuominen, K; Valram, M; Vankova-Kirilova, G; Vannucci, F; Vasseur, G; Velotti, F; Velten, P; Venturi, V; Viant, T; Vihonen, S; Vincke, H; Vorobyev, A; Weber, A; Wu, S; Yershov, N; Zambelli, L; Zito, M

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  3. Iron Metabolism Disturbance in a French Cohort of ALS Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Veyrat-Durebex; Philippe Corcia; Aleksandra Mucha; Simon Benzimra; Cindy Mallet; Chantal Gendrot; Caroline Moreau; David Devos; Eric Piver; Jean-Christophe Pagès; François Maillot; Andres, Christian R.; Patrick Vourc’h; Hélène Blasco

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess iron status in a cohort of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients compared to controls in order to evaluate these parameters as a risk factor or a modifying factor of ALS. Methods. We collected serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, total iron-binding capacity, and transferrin saturation coefficient (TSC) from 104 ALS patients at the time of diagnosis and from 145 controls. We reported phenotypic characteristics and evolution parameters such as...

  4. Anxiety disorders and inflammation in a large adult cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety characteristics with several inflammatory markers. For this purpose, persons (18-65 years) with a current (N = 1273) or remitted (N = 459) anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, social ph...

  5. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, J.; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools ...

  6. High blood pressure during pregnancy is associated with future cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Tooher, Jane; Chiu, Christine L; Yeung, Kristen; Lupton, Samantha J; Thornton, Charlene; Makris, Angela; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study aimed to determine if having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of age and body mass index (BMI). Design Data were sourced from the baseline questionnaire of the 45 and Up Study, Australia, an observational cohort study. Setting Participants were randomly selected from the Australian Medicare Database within New South Wales. Participants A total of 84 619 women were eligible for this study, of w...

  7. Major dietary patterns and risk of frailty in older adults: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    León-Muñoz, Luz M.; García-Esquinas, Esther; López-García, Esther; Banegas, José R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence of the role of certain nutrients as risk factors for frailty. However, people eat food, rather than nutrients, and no previous study has examined the association between dietary patterns empirically derived from food consumption and the risk of frailty in older adults. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 1,872 non-institutionalized individuals aged ≥60 years recruited between 2008 and 2010. At baseline, food consumption was obtained with a valid...

  8. Prospective cohort study of predictors of incident low back pain in nurses.

    OpenAIRE

    Smedley, J.; Egger, P.; Cooper, C.; Coggon, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of handling patients and indicators of individual susceptibility on risk of low back pain in nurses. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with follow up by repeated self administered every three months over two years. SETTING: NHS university hospital trust. SUBJECTS: 961 female nurses who had been free from low back pain for at least one month at the time of completing a baseline questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of new low back pain during follow up ...

  9. Long working hours and cancer risk : a multi-cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkila, K.; Nyberg, S. T.; Madsen, I. E.; Vroome, E. de; Alfredsson, L; Bjorner, J B; Borritz, M; Burr, H; Erbel, R; Ferrie, J E; Fransson, E; Geuskens, G. A.; Hooftman, W. E.; Houtman, I L; Jöckel, K H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. METHODS: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. R...

  10. Sparse learning and stability selection for predicting MCI to AD conversion using baseline ADNI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jieping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI are at high risk of progression to Alzheimer’s dementia. Identifying MCI individuals with high likelihood of conversion to dementia and the associated biosignatures has recently received increasing attention in AD research. Different biosignatures for AD (neuroimaging, demographic, genetic and cognitive measures may contain complementary information for diagnosis and prognosis of AD. Methods We have conducted a comprehensive study using a large number of samples from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI to test the power of integrating various baseline data for predicting the conversion from MCI to probable AD and identifying a small subset of biosignatures for the prediction and assess the relative importance of different modalities in predicting MCI to AD conversion. We have employed sparse logistic regression with stability selection for the integration and selection of potential predictors. Our study differs from many of the other ones in three important respects: (1 we use a large cohort of MCI samples that are unbiased with respect to age or education status between case and controls (2 we integrate and test various types of baseline data available in ADNI including MRI, demographic, genetic and cognitive measures and (3 we apply sparse logistic regression with stability selection to ADNI data for robust feature selection. Results We have used 319 MCI subjects from ADNI that had MRI measurements at the baseline and passed quality control, including 177 MCI Non-converters and 142 MCI Converters. Conversion was considered over the course of a 4-year follow-up period. A combination of 15 features (predictors including those from MRI scans, APOE genotyping, and cognitive measures achieves the best prediction with an AUC score of 0.8587. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the power of integrating various baseline data for prediction of the conversion from MCI

  11. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health.

  12. Social Integration and Maternal Smoking: A Longitudinal Analysis of a National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Social support and engagement are related to smoking behavior in general populations, but it is unknown whether these measures of social integration as experienced by recent mothers are related to longitudinal maternal smoking patterns. The purpose of this study is, first, to describe longitudinal patterns of maternal smoking before, during, and after pregnancy through the early childhood parenting years, as well as variation in these patterns; and second, to examine these patterns in relation to social integration, emotional, behavioral, and sociodemographic factors. Methods Among 9050 mothers of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (a nationally representative probability sample of children born in 2001), we estimated trajectories of maternal smoking with a general growth mixture model and examined how baseline predictors are associated with these patterns over a 5-6 year period beginning 3 months prior to pregnancy. Results A 5-class solution identified trajectories of nonsmokers (70.5 %), temporary quitters (9.4 %), pregnancy-inspired quitters (3.3 %), delayed initiators (5.1 %), and persistent smokers (11.7 %). Modifiable risk factors included postpartum alcohol consumption and behavioral cues from co-resident smokers, while breastfeeding beyond 6 months and social engagement through religious service attendance were protective characteristics. Conclusions for Practice Prevention of and treatment for maternal perinatal and postpartum smoking is best informed by mothers' emotional, behavioral and sociodemographic characteristics. Religious service attendance, but not measures of social support or social engagement, was a protective factor for maternal smoking trajectories. PMID:26987858

  13. The Prognosis of Acute Low Back Pain in Primary Care in the U.S. A 2-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Wolf E.; Gopisetty, Viranjini; Bartmess-LeVasseur, Elizabeth; Acree, Mike; Pressman, Alice; Goldberg, Harley; Hecht, Frederick M; Carey, Tim; Avins, Andrew L

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study Objective to assess the prognosis of patients presenting with acute low back pain (LBP) in a primary care setting in the U.S. Summary of Background Data Practice guidelines for acute LBP based on return-to-work outcomes underestimate the development of chronic pain in the primary care setting. Due to differences in inclusion criteria, chronic pain definitions and national health systems, prognostic cohort studies have reported a wide range of results limiting interpretation and generalization. Current data from carefully designed prognostic studies of acute LBP are lacking for the U.S. primary care system. Methods Members of a large health service organization were enrolled after seeking medical care for acute LBP, with or without sciatica, of up to 30 days duration, with no prior episode in the past 12 months and no history of spine surgery. We conducted phone interviews at baseline, six months and two years. Based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, a combination of global perceived recovery with pain intensity was used as primary outcome for chronic pain. Recurrence and multiple secondary outcomes were assessed to allow for comparison with other studies. Results 605 patients had an average pain intensity of 5.6 (numeric rating scale 0–10) and disability of 15.8 (Roland Morris scale 0–24). Eight percent had declared sick leave between pain onset and baseline interview. 13% of 521 patients (86% follow-up) suffered from chronic pain at six months and 19% of 443 patients at 2 years. At six months, 54% had experienced at least one LBP recurrence, and 47% in the subsequent 18 months. Conclusion The prognosis of strictly-defined acute LBP, with or without sciatica, is less favorable than commonly stated in practice guidelines based on failure to return to work. Broad initiatives to develop new means for the primary and secondary prevention of recurrent and chronic LBP are urgently needed. PMID:22504516

  14. [The study of baseline estimated in digital XRF analyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhou, Jian-Bin; Fang, Fang; Shi, Ze-Ming; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yi; Cao, Jian-Yu; Zhu, Xing

    2013-01-01

    For the digital X-ray fluorescence analyzer, the voltage of the instability baseline will directly affect the performance of the instrument, resulting in decreased energy resolution. In order to solve this problem, Kalman filtering algorithm was used for pulse signal baseline estimate in the digital X-ray fluorescence. Whether using the classic Kalman filter, or the simplified sage-husa, or the improved sage-husa, their baseline filtering effects were all poor. So, it is necessary to improve and optimize existing algorithms. The method of Double-Forgotten was put forward to establish a new model of adaptive Kalman filter algorithm based on the sage-husa. The experiment results show that a very good filtering effect was obtained using the mathematical model of the baseline filter. The algorithm solved the problem of filtering divergence, avoided slow convergence of baseline and realized the pulse baseline restoration, and improved the instrumental energy resolution. PMID:23586263

  15. Absolute Baseline for Testing of Electronic Distance Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Braun; Filip Dvořáček; Martin Štroner

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the construction and determination of coordinates of the absoluteEDMs baseline in a laboratory with 16 pillars with forced centring. Leica Absolute TrackerAT401 (standard deviation of distance measurement: 5 μ m, standard deviation of anglemeasurement: 0.15 mgon), which is designed for very accurate industrial measurements,was used for our purpose. Lengths between the baseline points were determined with astandard deviation of 0.02 mm. The baseline is used for determining...

  16. Comparison of efavirenz and protease inhibitor based combination antiretroviral therapy regimens in treatment-naïve people living with HIV with baseline resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Charlotte; McFaul, Katie; Kabagambe, Samuel; Sonecha, Sonali; Jones, Rachael; Asboe, David; Pozniak, Anton; Nwokolo, Nneka; Boffito, Marta

    2016-07-17

    A retrospective cohort analysis comparing the efficacy of boosted protease inhibitor-based and efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve people living with HIV with baseline resistance found that efavirenz-based treatment led to a shorter mean time to undetectable viral load. A higher proportion of patients with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor related baseline resistance mutations in the efavirenz-treatment group achieved an undetectable viral load at both 6 and 12 months post-treatment initiation, compared with the boosted protease-inhibitor-treatment group.Supplementary content: http://links.lww.com/QAD/A930. PMID:27139315

  17. Diet and risk of diverticular disease in Oxford cohort of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): prospective study of British vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, FL; Appleby, PN; Allen, NE; Key, TJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of a vegetarian diet and dietary fibre intake with risk of diverticular disease. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The EPIC-Oxford study, a cohort of mainly health conscious participants recuited from around the United Kingdom. Participants: 47033 men and women living in England or Scotland of whom 15459 (33%) reported consuming a vegetarian diet. Main outcome measures: Diet group was assessed at baseline; intake of dietary fibre was...

  18. Patterns of drug use and abuse among aging adults with and without HIV: A latent class analysis of a US Veteran cohort*

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Traci C.; Kershaw, Trace; Lin, Haiqun; Heimer, Robert; Goulet, Joseph L.; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Gordon, Adam J.; Maisto, Steve A.; Day, Nancy L.; Bryant, Kendall; Fiellin, David A.; Justice, Amy C

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the extent and patterns self-reported drug use among aging adults with and without HIV, assessed differences in patterns by HIV status, and examined pattern correlates. Data derived from 6351 HIV infected and uninfected adults enrolled in an eight-site matched cohort, the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Using clinical variables from electronic medical records and sociodemographics, drug use consequences, and frequency of drug use from baseline surveys, we performe...

  19. Does a healthy lifestyle behaviour influence the prognosis of low back pain among men and women in a general population? A population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bohman, Tony; Alfredsson, Lars; Jensen, Irene; Hallqvist, Johan; Vingård, Eva; Skillgate, Eva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. DESIGN: Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. SETTINGS: General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. MEASURES: Lifestyle factors and potential confound...

  20. Use of baseline and updated information on alcohol intake on risk for breast cancer: importance of latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Keiding, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake has been shown to be associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. In the analysis of longitudinal prospective cohort studies, however, the analysis of repeated measurements of alcohol intake might not be straightforward. METHODS: In this analysis of the Copenhagen...... between alcohol intake and breast cancer occurrence, because a markedly increased risk was estimated on the basis of direct lagging of risk time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that baseline alcohol intake is more strongly associated with breast cancer risk than updated intake, and we...

  1. The high burden of infant deaths in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Abdoulaye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality rates (IMR remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data on the burden of and risk factors for infant death. We measured IMR and explored risk factors for infant death in a cohort of children born in Banfora Health District, a rural area in South-West Burkina Faso. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study was nested within the PROMISE-EBF trial (NCT00397150 in 24 villages of the study area. Maternal and infant baseline characteristics were collected at recruitment and after birth, respectively. Home visits were conducted at weeks 3, 6, 12, 24 and 52 after birth. Descriptive statistics were calculated using robust standard errors to account for cluster sampling. Cox multivariable regression was used to investigate potential risk factors for infant death. Results Among the 866 live born children included in the study there were 98 infant deaths, yielding an IMR of 113 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 89–143. Over 75% of infant deaths had occurred by 6 months of age and the post neonatal infant mortality rate was 67 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 51–88. Infections (35% and preterm births complications (23% were the most common probable causes of death by 6 months. Multivariable analyses identified maternal history of child death, polygyny, twin births and poor anthropometric z-scores at week-3 as factors associated with increased risk of infant death. Conclusions We observed a very high IMR in a rural area of Burkina Faso, a country where 75% of the population lives in rural settings. Community-based health interventions targeting mothers and children at high risk are urgently needed to reduce the high burden of infant deaths in these areas.

  2. Genetic polymorphism rs6922269 in the MTHFD1L gene is associated with survival and baseline active vitamin B12 levels in post-acute coronary syndromes patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry R Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The methylene-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent 1-like (MTHFD1L gene is involved in mitochondrial tetrahydrofolate metabolism. Polymorphisms in MTHFD1L, including rs6922269, have been implicated in risk for coronary artery disease (CAD. We investigated the association between rs6922269 and known metabolic risk factors and survival in two independent cohorts of coronary heart disease patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: DNA and plasma from 1940 patients with acute coronary syndromes were collected a median of 32 days after index hospital admission (Coronary Disease Cohort Study, CDCS. Samples from a validation cohort of 842 patients post-myocardial infarction (PMI were taken 24-96 hours after hospitalization. DNA samples were genotyped for rs6922269, using a TaqMan assay. Homocysteine and active vitamin B12 were measured by immunoassay in baseline CDCS plasma samples, but not PMI plasma. All cause mortality was documented over follow-up of 4.1 (CDCS and 8.8 (PMI years, respectively. rs6922269 genotype frequencies were AA n = 135, 7.0%; GA n = 785, 40.5% and GG n = 1020, 52.5% in the CDCS and similar in the PMI cohort. CDCS patients with AA genotype for rs6922269 had lower levels of co-variate adjusted baseline plasma active vitamin B12 (p = 0.017 and poorer survival than patients with GG or GA genotype (mortality: AA 19.6%, GA 12.0%, GG 11.6%; p = 0.007. In multivariate analysis, rs6922269 genotype predicted survival, independent of established covariate predictors (p = 0.03. However the association between genotype and survival was not validated in the PMI cohort. CONCLUSION: MTHFD1L rs6922269 genotype is associated with active vitamin B12 levels at baseline and may be a marker of prognostic risk in patients with established coronary heart disease.

  3. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    OpenAIRE

    Panter Jenna; Griffin Simon; Jones Andrew; Mackett Roger; Ogilvie David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582). Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to an...

  4. Using Baseline Studies in the Investigation of Test Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horak, Tania

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of "baseline studies" in investigations of test impact and to illustrate the type of thinking underlying the design and implementation of such studies by reference to a recent study relating to a high-stakes test of English language proficiency. Baseline studies are used to describe an educational…

  5. Searching for neutrino oscillation parameters in long baseline experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vihonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Developing neutrino astronomy requires a good understanding of the neutrino oscillations mechanism. The European strategy for neutrino oscillation physics sets a high priority on future long baseline neutrino experiments with the aim to measure the intrinsic parameters that govern the neutrino oscillations. In this work we take a look at the next generation of long baseline experiments and discuss their prospects in future research.

  6. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline points are used by the BOEM to...

  7. Design and implementation of the canadian kidney disease cohort study (CKDCS: A prospective observational study of incident hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opgenorth Dawn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many nephrology observational studies use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease Cohort Study (CKDCS is a large prospective observational study of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers. This study focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Methods/Design The CKDCS collects information on risk factors and outcomes, and stores specimens (blood, dialysate, hair and fingernails at baseline and in long-term follow-up. Such specimens will permit measurements of biochemical markers, proteomic and genetic parameters (proteins and DNA not measured in routine care. To avoid selection bias, all consenting incident hemodialysis patients at participating centers are enrolled, the large sample size (target of 1500 patients, large number of exposures, and high event rates will permit the exploration of multiple potential research questions. Preliminary Results Data on the baseline characteristics from the first 1074 subjects showed that the average age of patients was 62 (range; 50-73 years. The leading cause of ESRD was diabetic nephropathy (41.9%, and the majority of the patients were white (80.0%. Only 18.7% of the subjects received dialysis in a satellite unit, and over 80% lived within a 50 km radius of the nearest nephrologist's practice. Discussion The prospective design, detailed clinical information, and stored biological specimens provide a wealth of information with potential to greatly enhance our understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes in dialysis patients. The scientific value of the stored patient tissue will grow as new genetic and biochemical markers are discovered in the future.

  8. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  9. Site Outcomes Baseline Multi Year Work Plan Volume 1, River Corridor Restoration Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Corridor Restoration volume is a compilation of Hanford Site scope, which excludes the approximately 194 km2 Central Plateau. The River Corridor scope is currently contractually assigned to Fluor Hanford, Bechtel Hanford, inc., DynCorp, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and others. The purpose of this project specification is to provide an overall scoping document for the River Corridor Restoration volume, and to provide a link with the overall Hanford Site River Corridor scope. Additionally, this specification provides an integrated and consolidated source of information for the various scopes, by current contract, for the River Corridor Restoration Baseline. It identifies the vision, mission, and goals, as well as the operational history of the Hanford Site, along with environmental setting and hazards

  10. 江苏省暗娼性病新发感染及失访人群特征分析%Incidence rates of sexually transmitted infection and the characteristic analysis of female sex workers failing in follow-up in cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩倩; 傅更锋; 还锡萍; 尹跃平; 王小亮; 胡海洋; 蒋宁; 羊海涛; 陈祥生; 徐晓琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence rates of human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV )and syphilis and analyse the characteristic of female sex workers who lost to follow-up in cohort study. Methods Convenience sampling was used to recruit the subjects. Demographic and behavioral information was obtained in terms of face to face questionnaire interview. Blood sample and cervical swab were collected for the tests of HIV, treponema pallidum ( TP ), chlamydia trachomatis ( CT ) and neisseria gonorrhoeae ( NG ). The same investigation was conducted 3 months later. Results A total of 1 806 subjects were recruited with questionnaire information and blood samples was conducted. The rate of retention in cohort was 40. 8%( 737/1 806 ). During the 3-month follow-up period, HIV and TP incidence appeared to be 0. 0 per 100 person-year and 6. 1 per 100 person-year respectively. The subjects receiving higher education, working in the high class venues, being not covered by any HIV educations, and being infections of TP were apt to fail in follow-up. Conclusion High STI incidence rates and widespread risk behaviors are identified among female sex workers in Jiangsu province although HIV prevalence is still relatively low. Drop-out cases are apt to infect TP and HIV, and more work should be done about FSW especially on those working in high class venues to prevent them from failing to follow-up.%目的 了解江苏省暗娼人群艾滋病毒(HIV)和梅毒(TP)新发感染及队列研究中失访人群的特征.方法 采用方便抽样建立暗娼队列,3个月后进行随访.在基线和随访时对每个调查对象进行匿名问卷调查,对随访和失访对象的人口学、行为学和实验室指标进行比较.抽取5 ml静脉血和2支宫颈拭子检测性病(STI)、HIV.结果 本次共调查1 806名暗娼,3个月后随访到737名,随访率为40.8%,HIV和TP血清阳转率分别为0.0/100人年和6.1/100人年;接受的教育程度高、来源的场所档次高、最近一

  11. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Gunnar; Rønsen, Marit; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.;

    similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64-cohort than in the 1950-54-cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level...... of the older cohort when aged 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers...

  12. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Gunnar; Rønsen, Marit; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.;

    2009-01-01

    remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern...... of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education, resulting in small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Another interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women...

  13. Chinese cohort study of chronic kidney disease: design and methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Bixia; Zhang Luxia; Wang Haiyan; Zhao Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disorder associated with multiple adverse clinical consequences,especially cardiovascular risk and end-stage renal disease.A recent national survey demonstrated that CKD has become a leading health problem in China.There is an urgent need to implement an in-depth investigation of the CKD burden and also to explore underlying mechanisms of CKD progression and it association with adverse consequences.Methods The Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) is the first national CKD cohort in China.It will enroll approximately 3 000 pre-dialysis CKD patients aged between 18 and 74 years and follow-up for at least 5 years.Questionnaires,anthropometric measures,laboratory tests,and biomaterials will be collected at baseline and annually.The principal clinical outcomes of the C-STRIDE consist of renal disease events,cardiovascular events,and death.Based on the longitudinal clinical data and biomaterials,the risk factors with CKD progression and other outcomes will be analyzed,and candidate markers and predicted models will be established.Conclusion The C-STRIDE would provide important evidence for underlying mechanisms of CKD progression,valuable information for clinical guidelines,and healthcare policies in China.

  14. The Healthy Young Men's Study: Sampling Methods to Recruit a Random Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Wesley L; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Lopez, Donna

    2009-10-01

    Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on non-probability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations is limited.In this paper the authors describe a venue-based sampling methodology used to recruit a large and diverse cohort of YMSM from public venues in Los Angeles County. Venue-based sampling is a multi-stage, probability sampling design that uses standard outreach techniques and standard survey methods to systematically enumerate, sample, and survey hard-to-reach populations. The study design allowed the authors to estimate individual, familial and interpersonal psychosocial factors associated with HIV risk and health seeking behaviors for a cohort of YMSM with known properties. Study participants completed an extensive baseline survey and over a two year period will complete four follow-up surveys at six-month intervals. The baseline survey was administered in both English and Spanish.

  15. Association Between Baseline Iris Thickness and Prophylactic Laser Peripheral Iridotomy Outcomes in Primary Angle Closure Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y.; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Cui, Qi N.; Porco, Travis C.; Huang, Guofu; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between baseline measurements of iris thickness at three positions and change in anterior segment biometric parameters after prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Design Prospective clinical cohort study. Participants Fifty-two eyes of 52 nonglaucomatous subjects with anatomically narrow angles. Methods Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images captured before and after LPI were analyzed using customized software, the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program. Differences in preoperative and postoperative measurements for anterior segment biometric parameters were compared by paired Student’s t-tests. Multivariate linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and preoperative pupil diameter, were used to examine the association between the baseline measurements of iris thickness at three positions and the change in anterior segment biometric parameters after LPI. Main Outcome Measures Baseline iris thickness measured at 750μm (IT750) and 2000μm (IT2000) from the scleral spur and maximal iris thickness (ITM). Changes in iris curvature (ICURV) and trabecular–iris space area at 500μm (TISA500) and 750μm (TISA750) from the scleral spur after LPI. Results ICURV significantly decreased, while TISA500 and TISA750 significantly increased following LPI (all PTISA500 and TISA750 (both PTISA500 and TISA750 after LPI. This suggests that eyes with thinner irides undergoing LPI were more likely to exhibit greater magnitude of change in terms of flattening of the iris convexity (i.e., ICURV) and widening of the anterior chamber angle (i.e., TISA500 and TISA750). PMID:24534754

  16. Longitudinal study of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in Brazil (SaMi-Trop project): a cohort profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clareci Silva; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; de Oliveira, Lea Campos; Ferreira, Ariela Mota; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Reingold, Arthur L; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We have established a prospective cohort of 1959 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy to evaluate if a clinical prediction rule based on ECG, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, and other biomarkers can be useful in clinical practice. This paper outlines the study and baseline characteristics of the participants. Participants The study is being conducted in 21 municipalities of the northern part of Minas Gerais State in Brazil, and includes a follow-up of 2 years. The baseline evaluation included collection of sociodemographic information, social determinants of health, health-related behaviours, comorbidities, medicines in use, history of previous treatment for Chagas disease, functional class, quality of life, blood sample collection, and ECG. Patients were mostly female, aged 50–74 years, with low family income and educational level, with known Chagas disease for >10 years; 46% presented with functional class >II. Previous use of benznidazole was reported by 25.2% and permanent use of pacemaker by 6.2%. Almost half of the patients presented with high blood cholesterol and hypertension, and one-third of them had diabetes mellitus. N-terminal of the prohormone BNP (NT-ProBNP) level was >300 pg/mL in 30% of the sample. Findings to date Clinical and laboratory markers predictive of severe and progressive Chagas disease were identified as high NT-ProBNP levels, as well as symptoms of advanced heart failure. These results confirm the important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the remote areas, thus supporting political decisions that should prioritise in addition to epidemiological surveillance the medical treatment of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy in the coming years. The São Paulo-Minas Gerais Tropical Medicine Research Center (SaMi-Trop) represents a major challenge for focused research in neglected diseases, with knowledge that can be applied in primary healthcare. Future plans We will continue following this patients’ cohort

  17. Birth cohort differences in the use of medications in a Brazilian population of older elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging (1997 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Ignácio de Loyola Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the use of medications in two birth cohorts (born from 1916 to 1926 and from 1927 to 1937 among older elderly in the population-based cohort study in Bambuí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study used data on participants who were 71-81 years of age in the baseline survey in 1997 (n = 492 and in the 11th wave, in 2008 (n = 620. The number of medications currently consumed (mean = 4.6 and 3.4, respectively and prevalence of polypharmacy (46.6% and 29.1%, respectively were higher in the more recent cohort as compared to the earlier one. These differences were independent of gender, age, schooling, number of medical visits in the previous 12 months, and number of chronic conditions. The more recent cohort showed significant differences in the use of psychoactive drugs, lipid modifying agents, drugs for diabetes, and antithrombotic agents, as well as changes in drugs used for arterial hypertension. In general, these changes are consistent with those observed in elderly populations in high-income countries.

  18. HIV-1 tropism and CD4 T lymphocyte recovery in a prospective cohort of patients initiating HAART in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Minhoto Lanca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 chemokine co-receptors 5 tropism and the GWGR motif in the envelope third variable region (V3 loop have been associated with a slower disease progression, their influence on antiretroviral response remains unclear. The impact of baseline V3 characteristics on treatment response was evaluated in a randomised, double blind, prospective cohort study with patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy with lopinavir or efavirenz plus azithothymidine/3TC (1:1 over 48 weeks. Similar virological and immunological responses were observed for both treatment regimens. The 43 individuals had a mean baseline CD4 T cell count of 119 cells/mm³ [standard deviation (SD = 99] and a mean viral load of 5.09 log10 copies/mL (SD = 0.49. The GWGR motif was not associated with a CD4 T cell response, but predicted R5 tropism by the geno2pheno[clinical20%] algorithm correlated with higher CD4 T cell levels at all monitoring points (p < 0.05. Moreover, higher false-positive rates (FPR values from this analysis revealed a strong correlation with CD4 T cell recovery (p < 0.0001. Transmitted drug resistance mutations, documented in 3/41 (7.3% cases, were unrelated to the assigned antiretroviral regimen and had no impact on patient outcomes. In conclusion, naÏve HIV-1 R5 infected patients exhibited higher CD4 T cell counts at baseline; this difference was sustained throughout therapy. The geno2pheno[clinical] option FPR positively correlated with CD4 T cell gain and may be useful in predicting CD4 T cell recovery.

  19. Clinical effectiveness of posaconazole versus fluconazole as antifungal prophylaxis in hematology–oncology patients: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Hsiang-Chi; Johnson, Melissa D; Drew, Richard H; Saha-Chaudhuri, Paramita; Perfect, John R

    2014-01-01

    In preventing invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), clinical trials demonstrated efficacy of posaconazole over fluconazole and itraconazole. However, effectiveness of posaconazole has not been investigated in the United States in real-world setting outside the environment of controlled clinical trial. We performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 130 evaluable patients ≥18 years of age admitted to Duke University Hospital between 2004 and 2010 who received either posaconazole or fluconazole as prophylaxis during first induction or first reinduction chemotherapy for AML or MDS. The primary endpoint was possible, probable, or definite breakthrough IFD. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between groups, except that posaconazole recipients received reinduction chemotherapy and cytarabine more frequently. IFD occurred in 17/65 (27.0%) in the fluconazole group and in 6/65 (9.2%) in the posaconazole group (P = 0.012). Definite/probable IFDs occurred in 7 (10.8%) and 0 patients (0%), respectively (P = 0.0013). In multivariate analysis, fluconazole prophylaxis and duration of neutropenia were predictors of IFD. Mortality was similar between groups. This study demonstrates superior effectiveness of posaconazole over fluconazole as prophylaxis of IFD in AML and MDS patients. Such superiority did not translate to reductions in 100-day all-cause mortality. PMID:24644249

  20. Clinical effectiveness of posaconazole versus fluconazole as antifungal prophylaxis in hematology–oncology patients: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In preventing invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), clinical trials demonstrated efficacy of posaconazole over fluconazole and itraconazole. However, effectiveness of posaconazole has not been investigated in the United States in real-world setting outside the environment of controlled clinical trial. We performed a single-center, retrospective cohort study of 130 evaluable patients ≥18 years of age admitted to Duke University Hospital between 2004 and 2010 who received either posaconazole or fluconazole as prophylaxis during first induction or first reinduction chemotherapy for AML or MDS. The primary endpoint was possible, probable, or definite breakthrough IFD. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between groups, except that posaconazole recipients received reinduction chemotherapy and cytarabine more frequently. IFD occurred in 17/65 (27.0%) in the fluconazole group and in 6/65 (9.2%) in the posaconazole group (P = 0.012). Definite/probable IFDs occurred in 7 (10.8%) and 0 patients (0%), respectively (P = 0.0013). In multivariate analysis, fluconazole prophylaxis and duration of neutropenia were predictors of IFD. Mortality was similar between groups. This study demonstrates superior effectiveness of posaconazole over fluconazole as prophylaxis of IFD in AML and MDS patients. Such superiority did not translate to reductions in 100-day all-cause mortality

  1. Long-term cognitive correlates of traumatic brain injury across adulthood and interactions with APOE genotype, sex, and age cohorts.

    OpenAIRE

    Eramudugolla, R.; Bielak, AA; Bunce, D; Easteal, S; Cherbuin, N; Anstey, KJ

    2014-01-01

    There is continuing debate about long-term effects of brain injury. We examined a range of traumatic brain injury (TBI) variables (TBI history, severity, frequency, and age of injury) as predictors of cognitive outcome over 8 years in an adult population, and interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, sex, and age cohorts. Three randomly sampled age cohorts (20-24, 40-44, 60-64 years at baseline; N = 6333) were each evaluated three times over 8 years. TBI variables, based on self-rep...

  2. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  3. Observational cohort study of ventricular arrhythmia in adults with Marfan syndrome caused by FBN1 mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aydin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome is associated with ventricular arrhythmia but risk factors including FBN1 mutation characteristics require elucidation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed an observational cohort study of 80 consecutive adults (30 men, 50 women aged 42±15 years with Marfan syndrome caused by FBN1 mutations. We assessed ventricular arrhythmia on baseline ambulatory electrocardiography as >10 premature ventricular complexes per hour (>10 PVC/h, as ventricular couplets (Couplet, or as non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (nsVT, and during 31±18 months of follow-up as ventricular tachycardia (VT events (VTE such as sudden cardiac death (SCD, and sustained ventricular tachycardia (sVT. We identified >10 PVC/h in 28 (35%, Couplet/nsVT in 32 (40%, and VTE in 6 patients (8%, including 3 with SCD (4%. PVC>10/h, Couplet/nsVT, and VTE exhibited increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide serum levels(P10/h and Couplet/nsVT also related to increased indexed end-systolic LV diameters (P = .024 and P = .020, to moderate mitral valve regurgitation (P = .018 and P = .003, and to prolonged QTc intervals (P = .001 and P = .006, respectively. Moreover, VTE related to mutations in exons 24-32 (P = .021. Kaplan-Meier analysis corroborated an association of VTE with increased NT-proBNP (P<.001 and with mutations in exons 24-32 (P<.001. CONCLUSIONS: Marfan syndrome with causative FBN1 mutations is associated with an increased risk for arrhythmia, and affected persons may require life-long monitoring. Ventricular arrhythmia on electrocardiography, signs of myocardial dysfunction and mutations in exons 24-32 may be risk factors of VTE.

  4. Computational models as predictors of HIV treatment outcomes for the Phidisa cohort in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Revell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selecting the optimal combination of HIV drugs for an individual in resourcelimited settings is challenging because of the limited availability of drugs and genotyping.Objective: The evaluation as a potential treatment support tool of computational models that predict response to therapy without a genotype, using cases from the Phidisa cohort in South Africa.Methods: Cases from Phidisa of treatment change following failure were identified that had the following data available: baseline CD4 count and viral load, details of failing and previous antiretroviral drugs, drugs in new regimen and time to follow-up. The HIV Resistance Response Database Initiative’s (RDI’s models used these data to predict the probability of a viral load < 50 copies/mL at follow-up. The models were also used to identify effective alternative combinations of three locally available drugs.Results: The models achieved accuracy (area under the receiver–operator characteristic curve of 0.72 when predicting response to therapy, which is less accurate than for an independent global test set (0.80 but at least comparable to that of genotyping with rules-based interpretation. The models were able to identify alternative locally available three-drug regimens that were predicted to be effective in 69% of all cases and 62% of those whose new treatment failed in the clinic.Conclusion: The predictive accuracy of the models for these South African patients together with the results of previous studies suggest that the RDI’s models have the potential to optimise treatment selection and reduce virological failure in different patient populations, without the use of a genotype.Keywords: HIV therapy; mathematical modelling; treatment; genotype

  5. Cardiovascular risk profile and lifestyle habits in a cohort of Italian cardiologists (from the SOCRATES Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Zito, Giovanni; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2013-07-15

    Cardiologists' cardiovascular profile and lifestyle habits are poorly known worldwide. To offer a snapshot of the personal health habits of Italian cardiologists, the Survey on Cardiac Risk Profile and Lifestyle Habits in a Cohort of Italian Cardiologists (SOCRATES) was undertaken. A Web-based electronic self-reported survey, accessible through a dedicated Web site, was used for data entry, and data were transferred through the Web to a central database. The survey was divided into 4 sections: baseline characteristics, medical illnesses and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle habits, and selected medication use. The e-mail databases of 3 national scientific societies were used to survey a large and representative sample of Italian cardiologists. During the 3-month period of the survey, 1,770 of the 5,240 cardiologists contacted (33.7%) completed and returned ≥1 sections of the questionnaire. More than 49% of the participants had 1 of the 5 classic risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, active smoking, diabetes, and previous vascular events). More than 28% of respondents had 2 to 5 risk factors, and only 22.1% had none and therefore, according to age and gender, could be considered at low to intermediate risk. Despite the reported risk factors, >90% of cardiologists had a self-reported risk perception quantified as mild, such as low or intermediate. Furthermore, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, and stress at work or at home were commonly reported, as well as limited use of cardiovascular drugs, such as statins or aspirin. In conclusion, the average cardiovascular profile of Italian cardiologist is unlikely to be considered ideal or even favorable according to recent statements and guidelines regarding cardiovascular risk.

  6. Identification and characterization of HPA-axis reactivity endophenotypes in a cohort of female PTSD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaba, Monika; Kirmeier, Thomas; Ionescu, Irina A; Wollweber, Bastian; Buell, Dominik R; Gall-Kleebach, Dominique J; Schubert, Christine F; Novak, Bozidar; Huber, Christine; Köhler, Katharina; Holsboer, Florian; Pütz, Benno; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Höhne, Nina; Uhr, Manfred; Ising, Marcus; Herrmann, Leonie; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis in patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has hitherto produced inconsistent findings, inter alia in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). To address these inconsistencies, we compared a sample of 23 female PTSD patients with either early life trauma (ELT) or adult trauma (AT) or combined ELT and AT to 18 age-matched non-traumatized female healthy controls in the TSST which was preceded by intensive baseline assessments. During the TSST, we determined a variety of clinical, psychological, endocrine and cardiovascular parameters as well as expression levels of four HPA-axis related genes. Using a previously reported definition of HPA-axis responsive versus non-responsive phenotypes, we identified for the first time two clinically and biologically distinct HPA-axis reactivity subgroups of PTSD. One subgroup ("non-responders") showed a blunted HPA-axis response and distinct clinical and biological characteristics such as a higher prevalence of trauma-related dissociative symptoms and of combined AT and ELT as well as alterations in the expression kinetics of the genes encoding for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and for FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51). Interestingly, this non-responder subgroup largely drove the relatively diminished HPA axis response of the total cohort of PTSD patients. These findings are limited by the facts that the majority of patients was medicated, by the lack of traumatized controls and by the relatively small sample size. The here for the first time identified and characterized HPA-axis reactivity endophenotypes offer an explanation for the inconsistent reports on HPA-axis function in PTSD and, moreover, suggest that most likely other factors than HPA-axis reactivity play a decisive role in determination of PTSD core symptom severity.

  7. A Wavelet Packets Approach to Electrocardiograph Baseline Drift Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Tinati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseline wander elimination is considered a classical problem. In electrocardiography (ECG signals, baseline drift can influence the accurate diagnosis of heart disease such as ischemia and arrhythmia. We present a wavelet-transform- (WT- based search algorithm using the energy of the signal in different scales to isolate baseline wander from the ECG signal. The algorithm computes wavelet packet coefficients and then in each scale the energy of the signal is calculated. Comparison is made and the branch of the wavelet binary tree corresponding to higher energy wavelet spaces is chosen. This algorithm is tested using the data record from MIT/BIH database and excellent results are obtained.

  8. Absolute Baseline for Testing of Electronic Distance Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the construction and determination of coordinates of the absoluteEDMs baseline in a laboratory with 16 pillars with forced centring. Leica Absolute TrackerAT401 (standard deviation of distance measurement: 5 μ m, standard deviation of anglemeasurement: 0.15 mgon, which is designed for very accurate industrial measurements,was used for our purpose. Lengths between the baseline points were determined with astandard deviation of 0.02 mm. The baseline is used for determining systematic and randomerrors of distance meters and for accuracy of distance meters at short distances commonin engineering surveying for purposes of mechanical engineering.

  9. Trinocular Stereo Matching Based on Correlations Between Baselines and Disparities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYepeng; GUWeikang

    2004-01-01

    Gray correlation technique is utilized to take the multi-peak feature points with gray correlation coefficients less than a certain range of maximal correlation coefficient as a potential candidate matching set. There exists the maximal correlation between the correct disparities and their corresponding baselines. A trinocular stereo matching algorithm is proposed based on correlations between the baselines and disparities. After computing the correlations between the baselines and disparities, the unique matches can be determined by maximal correlation coefficient. It is proved that the algorithm proposed is valid and credible by 3-D reconstruction on two pairs of actual natural stereo images.

  10. Neutrino-factory storage ring with multiple baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Cline, David B; Garren, A

    2001-01-01

    We designed a noble bow tie storage ring to provide neutrino beams for multiple neutrino detectors around the world with a baseline length of about 1000-9000 km. We present a preliminary lattice that could provide non-planar straight sections. We describe the amount of non-planarity of the third or fourth baseline and the space angles between the baselines and the local surface angles at possible site locations for neutrino factories and at the possible detector locations. We describe the detectors at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy, and at the new laboratory at Carlsbad, NM.

  11. Neutrino oscillations: what is magic about the "magic" baseline?

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    Physics interpretation of the ``magic'' baseline that can play important role in future oscillation experiments is given. The ``magic'' baseline coincides with the refraction length, $l_0$. The latter, in turn, approximately equals the oscillation length in matter at high energies. Therefore at the baseline $L = l_0$ the oscillation phase is $2\\pi$, and consequently, the ``solar'' amplitude of oscillations driven by the mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ and mass splitting $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ vanishes. As a result, in the lowest order (i) the interference of amplitudes in the $\

  12. Parametric estimation of time varying baselines in airborne interferometric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1996-01-01

    A method for estimation of time varying spatial baselines in airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is described. The range and azimuth distortions between two images acquired with a non-linear baseline are derived. A parametric model of the baseline is then, in a least square...... sense, estimated from image shifts obtained by cross correlation of numerous small patches throughout the image. The method has been applied to airborne EMISAR imagery from the 1995 campaign over the Storstrommen Glacier in North East Greenland conducted by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing. This has...

  13. Talent in Female Gymnastics: a Survival Analysis Based upon Performance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, J; Lenoir, M; Vandorpe, B; Segers, V

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the link between the anthropometric, physical and motor characteristics assessed during talent identification and dropout in young female gymnasts. 3 cohorts of female gymnasts (n=243; 6-9 years) completed a test battery for talent identification. Performance-levels were monitored over 5 years of competition. Kaplan-Meier and Cox Proportional Hazards analyses were conducted to determine the survival rate and the characteristics that influence dropout respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that only 18% of the female gymnasts that passed the baseline talent identification test survived at the highest competition level 5 years later. The Cox Proportional Hazards Model indicated that gymnasts with a score in the best quartile for a specific characteristic significantly increased chances of survival by 45-129%. These characteristics being: basic motor skills (129%), shoulder strength (96%), leg strength (53%) and 3 gross motor coordination items (45-73%). These results suggest that tests batteries commonly used for talent identification in young female gymnasts may also provide valuable insights into future dropout. Therefore, multidimensional test batteries deserve a prominent place in the selection process. The individual test results should encourage trainers to invest in an early development of basic physical and motor characteristics to prevent attrition. PMID:26212248

  14. Benefits of a Cohort Survival Projection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Sidney

    1977-01-01

    A cohort survival model of student attendance provides primary and secondary benefits in accurate student information not before available. At Berkeley the computerized Cohort Survival History File, in use for two years, has been successful in assessing various aspects of students' academic behavior and student flow problems. (Editor/LBH)

  15. Cohort Crowding and Nonresident College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John V.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a fixed effects panel data framework to examine the effects of cohort crowding and other variables on nonresident enrollment at four-year public colleges and universities. The results suggest that larger cohorts of resident students crowd out nonresident students at flagship universities, but there is inconsistent evidence of crowd…

  16. Graduate Cohort Approach in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson-Gearhart, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    The use of the cohorts in teacher education has steadily increased over the last decade. Research indicates both beneficial and negative aspects to this approach, with the field undecided. This study focuses on a Midwestern university's accelerated graduate program for special educators. The program uses a mixed cohort approach to model…

  17. 2011 Cohort Graduation and Dropout Rate Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    To align with new federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) regulations for graduation rate calculations, the Utah State Office of Education (USOE) is reporting a new graduation rate beginning with the 2011 graduating class (also known as the 2011 cohort). The four-year cohort rate (includes all students who started 9th grade in 2007-2008 plus…

  18. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley;

    2013-01-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross...

  19. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Design Nationwide register-based cohort study. Setting In 2003–2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. Participants After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25–69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Interventions Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. Main outcome measures We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. Results 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25–33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34–69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25–33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34–69 years. Conclusions The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25–33 years and

  20. Sterile Neutrino Fits to Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Conrad

    2013-01-01

    (3 + 2 and (3 + 3 fits, rather than (3 + 1 fits, for future neutrino oscillation phenomenology. These results motivate the pursuit of further short-baseline experiments, such as those reviewed in this paper.

  1. Effects of baseline risk information on social and individual choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Nexøe, Jørgen; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes preferences for risk reductions in the context of individual and societal decision making. The effect of information on baseline risk is analyzed in both contexts. The results indicate that if individuals are to imagine that they suffer from 1 low-risk and 1 high-risk ailment, and are offered a specified identical absolute risk reduction, a majority will ceteris paribus opt for treatment of the low-risk ailment. A different preference structure is elicited when priority questions are framed as social choices. Here, a majority will prefer to treat the high-risk group of patients. The preference reversal demonstrates the extent to which baseline risk information can influence preferences in different choice settings. It is argued that presentation of baseline risk information may induce framing effects that lead to nonoptimal resource allocations. A solution to this problem may be to not present group-specific baseline risk information when eliciting preferences. PMID:11833667

  2. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  3. Baseline inventory data users guide to abiotic GIS layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team was chartered by the Fulfilling the Promises Implementation Team to recommend minimum abiotic and biotic inventories for the National...

  4. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Regional Baseline Station, Chester, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research programs conducted at the Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ during 1981 are reported. Data are presented on chemical air pollutants and background radiation. Items within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base

  5. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  6. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Arnay; Javier Hernández-Aceituno; Leopoldo Acosta

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle.

  7. Uncertainty in Clean Development Mechanism Baselines: Sources, Ramifications, and Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Bushey, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Awarding Certified Emission Reductions to Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects under the Kyoto Protocol involves comparing the actual emissions of the project to a counterfactual “baseline” emissions level. The baseline of a project is intended to represent the emissions that would have occurred in the absence of the project. Accordingly, there is a high degree of uncertainty in determining CDM baselines. In the years since the emergence of the CDM, scientific and political debates h...

  8. Baseline implementations of the Standard Line Editor (SLED)

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C F; Burnham, R.; Coulter, R.; Smart, S.; Cox, Lyle Ashton

    1980-01-01

    In response to a recognized requirement for a more uniform man machine interface, especially in multiple machine networks, a standardized text editor was proposed (1). This editor, "SLED" was designed to be easily implementable in several commonly available higher level languages. This document reviews two baseline implementations taken directly from the SLED standards which users may want to consider when implementing SLED upon local systems. These baseline programs were written and...

  9. Urinary neurotransmitter testing: considerations of spot baseline norepinephrine and epinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini,Tom

    2011-01-01

    Marty Hinz1 Alvin Stein2 Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3DBS Laboratories, Duluth, MN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of statistical analysis of spot baseline urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine assays in correlation with spot baseline urinary serotonin and dopamine findings previously published by the authors. Our research indicates a need for physicia...

  10. [Environmental geochemical baseline of heavy metals in soils of the Ili river basin and pollution evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Ru; Nasier, Telajin; Cheng, Yong-Yi; Zhan, Jiang-Yu; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Environmental geochemical baseline models of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Hg were established by standardized method in the ehernozem, chestnut soil, sierozem and saline soil from the Ili river valley region. The theoretical baseline values were calculated. Baseline factor pollution index evaluation method, environmental background value evaluation method and heavy metal cleanliness evaluation method were used to compare soil pollution degrees. The baseline factor pollution index evaluation showed that As pollution was the most prominent among the four typical types of soils within the river basin, with 7.14%, 9.76%, 7.50% of sampling points in chernozem, chestnut soil and sierozem reached the heavy pollution, respectively. 7.32% of sampling points of chestnut soil reached the permitted heavy metal Pb pollution index in the chestnut soil. The variation extent of As and Pb was the largest, indicating large human disturbance. Environmental background value evaluation showed that As was the main pollution element, followed by Cu, Zn and Pb. Heavy metal cleanliness evaluation showed that Cu, Zn and Pb were better than cleanliness level 2 and Hg was the of cleanliness level 1 in all four types of soils. As showed moderate pollution in sierozem, and it was of cleanliness level 2 or better in chernozem, chestnut soil and saline-alkali soil. Comparing the three evaluation systems, the baseline factor pollution index evaluation more comprehensively reflected the geochemical migration characteristics of elements and the soil formation processes, and the pollution assessment could be specific to the sampling points. The environmental background value evaluation neglected the natural migration of heavy metals and the deposition process in the soil since it was established on the regional background values. The main purpose of the heavy metal cleanliness evaluation was to evaluate the safety degree of soil environment.

  11. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  12. MALDI-TOF Baseline Drift Removal Using Stochastic Bernstein Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic Bernstein (SB approximation can tackle the problem of baseline drift correction of instrumentation data. This is demonstrated for spectral data: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF data. Two SB schemes for removing the baseline drift are presented: iterative and direct. Following an explanation of the origin of the MALDI-TOF baseline drift that sheds light on the inherent difficulty of its removal by chemical means, SB baseline drift removal is illustrated for both proteomics and genomics MALDI-TOF data sets. SB is an elegant signal processing method to obtain a numerically straightforward baseline shift removal method as it includes a free parameter that can be optimized for different baseline drift removal applications. Therefore, research that determines putative biomarkers from the spectral data might benefit from a sensitivity analysis to the underlying spectral measurement that is made possible by varying the SB free parameter. This can be manually tuned (for constant or tuned with evolutionary computation (for .

  13. Are retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and carotenoids intake associated with bladder cancer risk? : results from the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120 852 subjects aged 55-69 years at baseline (1986), the association between vitamins and carotenoids intake, vitamin supplement use, and bladder cancer incidence was examined. Exposure status was measured with a food-frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of

  14. Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans. The MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982-1997, 69094 men and women aged 19-78 years, wi...

  15. Health Literacy Is Associated With Health Behaviors and Social Factors Among Older Adults : Results from the LifeLines Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geboers, Bas; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Jansen, Carel J M; de Winter, Andrea F

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the associations between health literacy and various health behaviors and social factors among older adults, and whether social factors moderate the other associations. Data from 3,241 participants in the LifeLines Cohort Study were analyzed (mean baseline age = 68.9 years). Data

  16. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  17. An automated baseline correction protocol for infrared spectra of atmospheric aerosols collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmiakova, Adele; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of research on statistical applications for characterization of atmospheric aerosol Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) samples collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters (e.g., Russell et al., 2011; Ruthenburg et al., 2014) and a rising interest in analyzing FT-IR samples collected by air quality monitoring networks call for an automated PTFE baseline correction solution. The existing polynomial technique (Takahama et al., 2013) is not scalable to a project with a large number of aerosol samples because it contains many parameters and requires expert intervention. Therefore, the question of how to develop an automated method for baseline correcting hundreds to thousands of ambient aerosol spectra given the variability in both environmental mixture composition and PTFE baselines remains. This study approaches the question by detailing the statistical protocol, which allows for the precise definition of analyte and background subregions, applies nonparametric smoothing splines to reproduce sample-specific PTFE variations, and integrates performance metrics from atmospheric aerosol and blank samples alike in the smoothing parameter selection. Referencing 794 atmospheric aerosol samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011, we start by identifying key FT-IR signal characteristics, such as non-negative absorbance or analyte segment transformation, to capture sample-specific transitions between background and analyte. While referring to qualitative properties of PTFE background, the goal of smoothing splines interpolation is to learn the baseline structure in the background region to predict the baseline structure in the analyte region. We then validate the model by comparing smoothing splines baseline-corrected spectra with uncorrected and polynomial baseline (PB)-corrected equivalents via three statistical applications: (1) clustering analysis, (2) functional group quantification

  18. Progression of carotid intima media thickness after radiotherapy: A long-term prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Carotid artery vasculopathy is a long-term complication of radiotherapy (RT) of the neck. We investigated the change in carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and the incidence of ischemic stroke in the first 7 years after radiotherapy (RT) of the neck. Materials and methods: A multicentre prospective cohort study among patients treated for Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) assessed carotid IMT at baseline (before RT) and after a median of 7 years follow-up. We also screened for cerebrovascular risk factors and events. Results: 48 patients underwent IMT measurement at baseline and follow-up (median age 61 years, range 29–87). Mean IMT of the irradiated common carotid arteries was 0.64 mm at baseline and 0.74 mm at follow-up (p = 0.002). Mean delta IMT in the irradiated and non-irradiated common carotid arteries were 0.11 and 0.02 mm (p = 0.03). Incidence rate of stroke in our cohort, compared to the Dutch population was 8.9 versus 1.5 per 1.000 person years. Conclusions: IMT in irradiated carotid arteries was significantly increased in the first 7 years after RT. The incidence rate of stroke was six fold increased. Patients treated with RT for HNC have sustained risk for developing atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries and future stroke

  19. Body mass index and risk of subtypes of head-neck cancer: the Netherlands Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasland, Denise H E; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kremer, Bernd; Schouten, Leo J

    2015-12-04

    Low body mass index (BMI) has been associated with risk of head-neck cancer (HNC), but prospective data are scarce. We investigated the association between BMI, BMI at age 20 years and change in BMI during adulthood with risk of HNC and HNC subtypes. 120,852 participants completed a questionnaire on diet and other cancer risk factors, including anthropometric measurements, at baseline in 1986. After 20.3 years of follow-up, 411 HNC (127 oral cavity cancer (OCC), 84 oro-/hypopharyngeal cancer (OHPC), and 197 laryngeal cancer (LC)) cases and 3,980 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. BMI at baseline was inversely associated with risk of HNC overall, with a multivariate rate ratio of 3.31 (95% CI 1.40-7.82) for subjects with a BMI risk appeared to be positive. In this large prospective cohort study, we found an inverse association between BMI at baseline and HNC risk. For BMI at age 20, however, a positive rather than inverse association was found.

  20. Cohort Learning for Graduate Students at the Dissertation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Barbara D.; Birds, Kimberly; Seay, Angela D.; Smith, Debra B.; Wilson, Kimberly N.

    2010-01-01

    Doctoral students discuss the power of collaborative cohort learning in transforming the dissertation phase of doctoral study. Innovative components of doctoral cohort learning and dissertation preparation are detailed.

  1. Generational cohorts and their attitudes toward advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Cyril de Run

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at determining the attitudes with regard to advertising from the perspective of generational cohorts in Sarawak. A two-phase of study was conducted to firstly identify generational cohorts in the state and, secondly, to investigate the attitude of each cohort to advertising. Utilizing theories of generations, a qualitative approach by means of personal interviews was used at the outset to identify external events which bring about the formation of cohorts. Accordingly, 48 interviews were conducted and data were content-analyzed. The findings were then incorporated into the second phase of study to investigate cohorts’ views about advertising, using theory of reasoned action. A quantitative approach via questionnaire-based survey was administered, and 1,410 copies were collected for analysis. Five distinct cohorts are proposed in the initial findings. They are labeled as Neoteric Inheritors, Prospective Pursuers, Social Strivers, Idealistic Strugglers and Battling Lifers on the basis of their respective engagement with events during the coming-of-age years. The subsequent findings show that beliefs about advertising are significant predictors of the attitudes to advertising, and so are the attitudes with regard to the intention of every cohort. However, their beliefs and attitudes to advertising are found to differ significantly, especially in the older cohort. The study thus highlights the implication of generational differences on the attitudes to advertising.

  2. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Country differences in fertility outcome are generally rather low. Childlessness is highest in Finland and lowest in Norway, and the educational differentials are largest in Norway. Despite such differences, the cohort analyses in many ways support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  3. Reduced risk of malaria parasitemia following household screening and treatment: a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine G Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In regions of declining malaria transmission, new strategies for control are needed to reduce transmission and achieve elimination. Artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT is active against immature gametocytes and can reduce the risk of transmission. We sought to determine whether household screening and treatment of infected individuals provides protection against infection for household members. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was conducted in two areas in Southern Province, Zambia in 2007 and 2008/2009. To determine the impact of proactive case detection, households were randomly selected either to join a longitudinal cohort, in which participants were repeatedly screened throughout the year and those infected treated with artemether-lumefantrine, or a cross-sectional survey, in which participants were visited only once. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted throughout the year. The prevalence of RDT positivity was compared between the longitudinal and cross-sectional households at baseline and during follow-up using multilevel logistic regression. In the 2007 study area, 174 and 156 participants enrolled in the cross-sectional and longitudinal groups, respectively. In the 2008/2009 study area, 917 and 234 participants enrolled in the cross-sectional and longitudinal groups, respectively. In both study areas, participants and households in the longitudinal and cross-sectional groups were similar on demographic characteristics and prevalence of RDT positivity at baseline (2007: OR = 0.97; 95% CI:0.46, 2.03 | 2008/2009: OR = 1.28; 95% CI:0.44, 3.79. After baseline, the prevalence of RDT positivity was significantly lower in longitudinal compared to cross-sectional households in both study areas (2007: OR = 0.44; 95% CI:0.20, 0.96 | 2008/2009: OR = 0.16; 95% CI:0.05, 0.55. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Proactive case detection, consisting of screening household members with an RDT and treating those positive with

  4. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...

  5. Sixteen-year Incidence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in a Nationwide Cohort of Young Danish Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rebecca Broe

    Design of study: Prospective cohort-study Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess long-term incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and associated risk factors in a Danish population-based cohort of young type 1 diabetic patients. Methods: Eighty...... percent of all Danish type 1 diabetic patients below the age of 18 (n=1033) were examined in 1986-89. In 1995, baseline retinopathy was graded and other risk factors were assessed in 324 patients (31.4% of the original cohort). Of these, 132 (40.7%) were re-examined at follow-up in 2011. At baseline two...... and diabetes duration. Results: The mean age and diabetes duration at baseline were 21.1±3.1 and 13.3±3.5 years, respectively. At baseline 31.8% had no retinopathy, 67.4% had non-PDR and 0.8% had PDR. At follow-up, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 96.9%. Thirty-eight patients with no DR at baseline...

  6. Sleep duration and sleep disturbances partly explain the association between depressive symptoms and cardiovascular mortality: the Whitehall II cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo Da Silva, Marine; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin; Vahtera, Jussi; Brunner, Eric; Ferrie, Jane; Kivimäki, Mika; Nabi, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    International audience Depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of death, but most of this association remains unexplained. Our aim was to explore the contribution of sleep duration and disturbances to the association between depressive symptoms, all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. A total of 5813 (4220 men and 1593 women) aged 50-74 years at baseline, participants of the British Whitehall II prospective cohort study, were included. Depressive symptoms, sleep d...

  7. Long-term lifestyle and dietary habits in relation to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Streppel, M T

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In prospective cohort studies, information on lifestyle and dietary habits is generally only assessed at the baseline examination, assuming that these habits are relatively constant over the entire study period. Repeated measures can take into account changes in these habits, reduce measurement error due to a reduction in within-subject variation, and can give more insight into the etiology of diseases. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the relationships of recent a...

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the prediction of early conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to dementia: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro J. Modrego; Fayed, Nicolas; Sarasa, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) of an amnestic type is a common condition in older people and highly predictive of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To date, there is no clear consensus regarding the best antecedent biomarker to predict early conversion to AD. Objective The aim of the study is to demonstrate that 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain in MCI patients may predict early conversion to dementia within the 2-year period after baseline assessment. Methods A cohort...

  9. Sarcopenic Obesity and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study of Older Men

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, J. L.; Morris, R W; Lennon, L T; Papacosta, O; Wannamethee, S. G.; Whincup, P H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations between sarcopenia, obesity, and sarcopenic obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in older men. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting British Regional Heart Study. Participants Men aged 60-79 years (n = 4,252). Measurements Baseline waist circumference (WC) and midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) measurements were used to classify participants into four groups: sarcopenic, obese, sarcopenic obese, or optimal WC and MAMC. ...

  10. Predictors and Health Consequences of Screen-Time Change During Adolescence—1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Leandro Martin Totaro GARCIA; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate screen-time change from early to mid adolescence, its predictors, and its influence on body fat, blood pressure, and leisure-time physical activity. Methods We used data from a longitudinal prospective study, conducted among participants of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. At baseline, adolescents were, on average, 11 years old. They were later visited at age 15 years. Screen time was self-reported, accounting for the time spent watching television, playing...

  11. Dietary components and risk of total, cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials cohort in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Bing Wang; Jin-Hu Fan; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Rashmi Sinha; Freedman, Neal D.; Taylor, Philip R.; You-Lin Qiao; Abnet, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that dietary consumption of certain food groups is associated with a lower risk of cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality in western populations, limited prospective data are available from China. We prospectively examined the association between dietary intake of different food groups at baseline and risk of total, cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality outcomes in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials(NIT) cohort. In 1984–1991, 2445 subjects ...

  12. Baseline MELD score predicts hepatic decompensation during antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Dultz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In patients with advanced liver cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection antiviral therapy with peginterferon and ribavirin is feasible in selected cases only due to potentially life-threatening side effects. However, predictive factors associated with hepatic decompensation during antiviral therapy are poorly defined. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, 68 patients with HCV-associated liver cirrhosis (mean MELD score 9.18 ± 2.72 were treated with peginterferon and ribavirin. Clinical events indicating hepatic decompensation (onset of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, hospitalization as well as laboratory data were recorded at baseline and during a follow up period of 72 weeks after initiation of antiviral therapy. To monitor long term sequelae of end stage liver disease an extended follow up for HCC development, transplantation and death was applied (240 weeks, ± SD 136 weeks. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (26.5% achieved a sustained virologic response. During the observational period a hepatic decompensation was observed in 36.8%. Patients with hepatic decompensation had higher MELD scores (10.84 vs. 8.23, p14, respectively. Baseline MELD score was significantly associated with the risk for transplantation/death (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the baseline MELD score predicts the risk of hepatic decompensation during antiviral therapy and thus contributes to decision making when antiviral therapy is discussed in HCV patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.

  13. Particulate air pollution and mortality in a cohort of Chinese men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few prior cohort studies exist in developing countries examining the association of ambient particulate matter (PM) with mortality. We examined the association of particulate air pollution with mortality in a prospective cohort study of 71,431 middle-aged Chinese men. Baseline data were obtained during 1990–1991. The follow-up evaluation was completed in January, 2006. Annual average PM exposure between 1990 and 2005, including TSP and PM10, were estimated by linking fixed-site monitoring data with residential communities. We found significant associations between PM10 and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases; each 10 μg/m3 PM10 was associated with a 1.6% (95%CI: 0.7%, 2.6%), 1.8% (95%CI: 0.8%, 2.9%) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.3%, 3.2%) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For TSP, we observed significant associations only for cardiovascular morality. These data contribute to the scientific literature on long-term effects of particulate air pollution for high exposure settings typical in developing countries. -- Highlights: • There have been few air pollution cohort studies in developing countries. • PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in 71,431 Chinese men. • PM was not significantly associated with lung cancer mortality. -- PM10 was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality in a cohort of 71,431 Chinese men

  14. Soccer injuries and recovery in dutch male amateur soccer players: Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Steffen, K.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To describe characteristics of outdoor soccer injury and recovery among Dutch soccer players. DESIGN:: Prospective cohort study. SETTING:: The 2009-2010 competitive season (33 weeks). PARTICIPANTS:: Four hundred fifty-six Dutch male soccer players of 23 amateur teams. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUR

  15. Mainstream and Special School Attendance among a Dutch Cohort of Children with Down Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Dommelen, P. van; Fekkes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Object. To determine the level of mainstream education in a nationwide cohort of adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS), and to find characteristics related to mainstream or special school attendance. Method. Dutch children with DS born in 1992, 1993 or 1994, were assessed when 16–19 years old. Parents

  16. Stuttering, Temperament, and Anxiety: Data from a Community Cohort Ages 2-4 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Ukoumunne, Obioha; Block, Susan; Reilly, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether and when temperament differences, including precursors of anxiety, emerge before onset and during stuttering development. Method: The authors prospectively studied temperament characteristics of a community cohort of children who stutter (N = 183) and children in the control group (N =…

  17. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  18. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  19. LBCS: the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, N; Deller, A; Moldón, J; Varenius, E; Morabito, L; Wucknitz, O; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Drabent, A; Kapinska, A; Orrù, E; Brentjens, M; Blaauw, R; Kuper, G; Sluman, J; Schaap, J; Vermaas, N; Iacobelli, M; Cerrigone, L; Shulevski, A; ter Veen, S; Fallows, R; Pizzo, R; Sipior, M; Anderson, J; Avruch, M; Bell, M; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brouw, W; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Garrett, M; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A; van Haarlem, M; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Intema, H; Juette, E; Kuniyoshi, M; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, G; Maat, P; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J; Mulcahy, D; Munk, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Polatidis, A; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A; Schwarz, D; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R; Wise, M; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2016-01-01

    (abridged). We outline LBCS (the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (50-100mJy) at frequencies around 110--190~MHz on scales of a few hundred mas. At least for the 200--300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas -- typically a few degrees -- around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200--600~km, with good calibrators on the longest...

  20. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon...... and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses...... of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect...

  1. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  2. Examination of spatial polygamy among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men in New York City: the P18 cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N

    2014-08-28

    The few previous studies examining the influence of the neighborhood context on health and health behavior among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) have predominantly focused on residential neighborhoods. No studies have examined multiple neighborhood contexts among YMSM or the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, health behaviors, and neighborhood concordance. In this study, we assessed spatial polygamy by determining the amount of concordance between residential, social, and sex neighborhoods (defined as boroughs) in addition to examining individual-level characteristics that may be associated with neighborhood concordance. These data come from the baseline assessment of Project 18, a cohort of racially and ethnically diverse YMSM residing in the New York City metropolitan area. Participants (N = 598) provided information on their residential, social, and sex boroughs as well as information on their sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors (e.g., substance use and condomless sex). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the distribution of boroughs reported across all three contexts, i.e., residential, social, and sex boroughs. Next, concordance between: (1) residential and social boroughs; (2) residential and sex boroughs; (3) social and sex boroughs; and (4) residential, social, and sex boroughs was assessed. Finally, bivariable analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, social support network characteristics, and health behaviors in relation to borough concordance. Approximately two-thirds of participants reported concordance between residential/socializing, residential/sex, and sex/socializing boroughs, whereas 25% reported concordance between all three residential/socializing/sex boroughs

  3. Multistate cohort models with proportional transfer rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    We present a new, broadly applicable approach to summarizing the behavior of a cohort as it moves through a variety of statuses (or states). The approach is based on the assumption that all rates of transfer maintain a constant ratio to one another over age. We present closed-form expressions for...... the size and state composition of the cohort at every age and provide expressions for other useful summary measures. The state trajectories, or life course schematics, depict all the possible size and state configurations that the cohort can exhibit over its life course under the specified pattern of.......61. Increases in parity progression rates to parities 4 and above have little effect on a cohort's TFR, while changes in childlessness have a substantial impact....

  4. Demographic cycles, cohort size, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M C

    1989-05-01

    This article examines whether position in the demographic cycle is an important factor in determining earnings and earnings growth. Earnings equations for white males are estimated by using March Current Population Survey data. Position in the demographic cycle is captured by including both measures of own cohort size and the size of surrounding cohorts in the estimated earnings equations. Position in the demographic cycle matters. Increases in own cohort size lead to flatter earnings profiles, whereas increases in the size of surrounding cohorts are associated with steeper earnings profiles. The net effect is that those who enter the labor market before or after the peak of the demographic cycle start out with lower earnings but experience faster earnings growth. This pattern is uniform across all schooling groups: high school dropouts, high school graduates, those with some college, and college graduates.

  5. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Arun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A

  6. Validation of the pooled cohort risk score in an Asian population – a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2014-01-01

    Background The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort ...

  7. High mortality in the Thule cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study mortality in the Thule cohort in order to clarify whether it is a selected population and to ascertain the possibility of misinterpretation when national mortality rates are used as reference in the analysis of occupational mortality.......The objective was to study mortality in the Thule cohort in order to clarify whether it is a selected population and to ascertain the possibility of misinterpretation when national mortality rates are used as reference in the analysis of occupational mortality....

  8. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  9. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  10. Baseline hydrocarbon levels in New Zealand coastal and marine avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, H M; Gartrell, B D; Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, S T; Bridgen, P C E; Morgan, K J

    2015-05-15

    The external effects of oil on wildlife can be obvious and acute. Internal effects are more difficult to detect and can occur without any external signs. To quantify internal effects from oil ingestion by wildlife during an oil spill, baseline levels of ubiquitous hydrocarbon fractions, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), need to be established. With these baseline values the extent of impact from exposure during a spill can be determined. This research represents the first investigation of baseline levels for 22 PAHs in New Zealand coastal and marine avian wildlife. Eighty-five liver samples were tested from 18 species. PAHs were identified in 98% of livers sampled with concentrations ranging from 0 to 1341.6 ng/g lipid wt or on wet wt basis, 0 to 29.5 ng/g. Overall, concentrations were low relative to other globally reported avian values. PAH concentration variability was linked with species foraging habitat and migratory patterns. PMID:25707316

  11. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  12. Loneliness, social integration and consumption of sugar-containing beverages: testing the social baseline theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Ekeberg Henriksen

    Full Text Available Social Baseline Theory (SBT proposes that close relationships aid in metabolic resource management and that individuals without significant relationships may experience more demands on their own neural metabolic resources on a daily basis when solving problems, remaining vigilant against potential threats and regulating emotional responses. This study tests a hypothesised consequence derived from SBT: relative social isolation leads to increased levels of sugar intake.Based on cross-sectional, self-reported data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (N = 90 084, information on social integration and the consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened sodas and juices was obtained from a large number of women in early pregnancy. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess whether loneliness, marital status, relationship satisfaction, advice from others than partner, and cohesion at work is associated with consumption of sodas and juices.Perceived loneliness was associated with elevated intake of all sugary beverages, while relationship satisfaction was negatively associated with all sugary beverages. Being married or cohabitating, having supportive friends, and having a sense of togetherness at work were associated with lower intake of two out of three sugar-containing beverages. These associations were significant, even after controlling for factors such as body mass index, weight related self-image, depression, physical activity, educational level, age and income. In comparison, a statistically significant relationship emerged between relationship satisfaction and artificially sweetened cola. No other predictor variables were significantly associated with any type of artificially sweetened beverage.This study indicates that loneliness and social integration influence the level of consumption of sugary beverages. The results support the hypothesis derived from the Social Baseline Theory that relative social

  13. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated i...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks....... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  14. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity.

  15. Baseline characteristics and initial treatment decisions for patients with schizophrenia at risk of treatment nonadherence

    OpenAIRE

    Kelin, Kelin

    2010-01-01

    Katarina Kelin1, Alan JM Brnabic2, Richard Newton3, Raúl I Escamilla4, Liang-Jen Chuo5, Malina Simu6, Wenyu Ye2, William Montgomery1, Jamie Karagianis7, Haya Ascher-Svanum81Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 2Intercontinental Information Sciences, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, Macquarie Park, NSW, Australia; 3Peninsula Health Psychiatric Services, Frankston Hospital, Frankston, VIC, Australia (current affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Austin Hospital, Heide...

  16. VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial: baseline characteristics in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velazquez, Eric J; Pfeffer, Marc A; McMurray, John V;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial compared outcomes with: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) with the reference agent captopril; (2) angiotensin-receptor blockade (ARB) with valsartan; or (3) both in patients with heart failure (HF) and/or l...

  17. Hearing aid effectiveness after aural rehabilitation - individual versus group (HEARING) trial: RCT design and baseline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Heagerty Patrick J; Liu Chuan-Fen; Souza Pamela E; Collins Margaret P; Amtmann Dagmar; Yueh Bevan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hearing impairment is the most common body system disability in veterans. In 2008, nearly 520,000 veterans had a disability for hearing loss through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Changes in eligibility for hearing aid services, along with the aging population, contributed to a greater than 300% increase in the number of hearing aids dispensed from 1996 to 2006. In 2006, the VA committed to having no wait times for patient visits while providing quality clinicall...

  18. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics of participants and dropout in Web-based weight reduction program in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Brdaric

    2015-10-01

    The findings show that the majority of participants of web-based weight loss program Health on menu were adult women who are highly educated. The average BMI of the respondents fall into the category of overweight. The findings demonstrate very high prevalence of attrition among participants. Given that this is the first time that this kind of web based program is introduced to Serbian participants, these results emphasize the importance of further continuation of such research. Also, those preliminary results highlight the need for evidence-based strategies in order to improve use of web based weight loss programs.

  19. Design and baseline characteristics of the simvastatin and ezetimibe in aortic stenosis (SEAS) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossebø, Anne B; Pedersen, Terje R; Allen, Christopher;

    2007-01-01

    stenosis (AS) is unclear, and there are no randomized treatment trials evaluating cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in such patients. The Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of a minimum 4 years' duration...... investigating the effect of lipid lowering with ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg/day in patients with asymptomatic AS with peak transvalvular jet velocity 2.5 to 4.0 m/s. Primary efficacy variables include aortic valve surgery and ischemic vascular events, including cardiovascular mortality, and second...

  20. Lifestyle interventions and independence for elders study: Recruitment and baseline characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recruitment of older adults into long-term clinical trials involving behavioral interventions is a significant challenge. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase 3 multicenter randomized controlled multisite trial, designed to compare the effects of a moderate...