WorldWideScience

Sample records for baseline characterization measurements

  1. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  2. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  3. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  4. Sterile Neutrino Fits to Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Conrad

    2013-01-01

    (3 + 2 and (3 + 3 fits, rather than (3 + 1 fits, for future neutrino oscillation phenomenology. These results motivate the pursuit of further short-baseline experiments, such as those reviewed in this paper.

  5. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  6. Heat flow characterization and baseline of sandstone using infra-red thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Y.; Padmanabhan, E.; Ano, A. B.; Ismail, W.

    2016-11-01

    Infra-red thermography was applied to sandstone to characterize and obtain a baseline or a reference thermal image for sandstone. The sample was imaged at room temperature and then heated and imaged again at different time intervals. The thermal images and the optical gradient obtained were analyzed, calibrated, and equated to actual-temperature measured geothermal gradient under controlled heat flux. Heat flow propagation is not consistent in the first time intervals (below 25 minutes). However, after that, the difference in temperature in the distal part and the proximal parts to the heat source almost remained constant. In general, the heat flow could fit to a linear model that is directly proportional to time. The results can be useful when applied to borehole thermal imaging, as well as in thermal conductivity and geothermal gradient determination.

  7. GPS survey in long baseline neutrino-oscillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Noumi, H; Inagaki, T; Hasegawa, T; Katoh, Y; Kohama, M; Kurodai, M; Kusano, E; Maruyama, T; Minakawa, M; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Sakuda, M; Suzuki, Y; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K H; Yamanoi, Y; 10.1109/TNS.2004.836042

    2004-01-01

    We made a series of surveys to obtain neutrino beam line direction toward SuperKamiokande (SK) at a distance of 250 km for the long- baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at KEK. We found that the beam line is directed to SK within 0.03 mr and 0.09 mr (in sigma) in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. During beam operation, we monitored the muon distribution from secondary pions produced at the target and collected by a magnetic horn system. We found that the horn system functions like a lens of a point-to- parallel optics with magnification of approximately -100 and the focal length of 2.3 m. Namely, a small displacement of the primary beam position at the target is magnified about a factor -100 at the muon centroid, while the centroid position is almost stable against a change of the incident angle of the primary beam. Therefore, the muon centroid can be a useful monitor of the neutrino beam direction. We could determine the muon centroid within 6 mm and 12 mm in horizontal and vertical ...

  8. Characterization of a 450-km Baseline GPS Carrier-Phase Link using an Optical Fiber Link

    CERN Document Server

    Droste, Stefan; Leute, Julia; Raupach, Sebastian M F; Matveev, Arthur; Hänsch, Theodor W; Bauch, Andreas; Holzwarth, Ronald; Grosche, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    A GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer link along a baseline of 450 km has been established and is characterized by comparing it to a phase-stabilized optical fiber link of 920 km length, established between the two endpoints, the Max-Planck-Institut f\\"ur Quantenoptik in Garching and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig. The characterization is accomplished by comparing two active hydrogen masers operated at both institutes. The masers serve as local oscillators and cancel out when the double differences are calculated, such that they do not constitute a limitation for the GPS link characterization. We achieve a frequency instability of 3 x 10^(-13) in 30 s and 5 x 10^(-16) for long averaging times. Frequency comparison results obtained via both links show no deviation larger than the statistical uncertainty of 6 x 10^(-16). These results can be interpreted as a successful cross-check of the measurement uncertainty of a truly remote end fiber link.

  9. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  10. Baseline measures for net-proton distributions in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netrakanti, P. K.; Luo, X. F.; Mishra, D. K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.; Xu, N.

    2016-03-01

    We report a systematic comparison of the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions for 0-5% central Au + Au collisions in the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Collider facility to various kinds of possible baseline measures. These baseline measures correspond to an assumption that the proton and anti-proton distributions follow Poisson statistics, Binomial statistics, obtained from a transport model calculation and from a hadron resonance gas model. The higher order cumulant net-proton data for the center of mass energies (√{sNN}) of 19.6 and 27 GeV are observed to deviate from most of the baseline measures studied. The deviations are predominantly due to the difference in shape of the proton distributions between data and those obtained in the baseline measures. We also present a detailed study on the relevance of the independent production approach as a baseline for comparison with the measurements at various beam energies. Our studies point to the need of either more detailed baseline models for the experimental measurements or a description via QCD calculations in order to extract the exact physics process that leads to deviation of the data from the baselines presented.

  11. Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2014-01-15

    If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Detection of atmospheric pressure loading using very long baseline interferometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandam, T. M.; Herring, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    Loading of the Earth by the temporal redistribution of global atmospheric mass is likely to displace the positions of geodetic monuments by tens of millimeters both vertically and horizontally. Estimates of these displacements are determined by convolving National Meteorological Center (NMC) global values of atmospheric surface pressure with Farrell's elastic Green's functions. An analysis of the distances between radio telescopes determined by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) between 1984 and 1992 reveals that in many of the cases studied there is a significant contribution to baseline length change due to atmospheric pressure loading. Our analysis covers intersite distances of between 1000 and 10,000 km and is restricted to those baselines measured more than 100 times. Accounting for the load effects (after first removing a best fit slope) reduces the weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length residuals on 11 of the 22 baselines investigated. The slight degradation observed in the WRMS scatter on the remaining baselines is largely consistent with the expected statistical fluctuations when a small correction is applied to a data set having a much larger random noise. The results from all baselines are consistent with approximately 60% of the computed pressure contribution being present in the VLBI length determinations. Site dependent coefficients determined by fitting local pressure to the theoretical radial displacement are found to reproduce the deformation caused by the regional pressure to within 25% for most inland sites. The coefficients are less reliable at near coastal and island stations.

  13. Error baseline rates of five sample preparation methods used to characterize RNA virus populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelman, Jeffrey R.; Wiley, Michael R.; Nagle, Elyse R.; Reyes, Daniel; Pfeffer, Brad P.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Sanchez-Lockhart, Mariano; Palacios, Gustavo F.

    2017-01-01

    Individual RNA viruses typically occur as populations of genomes that differ slightly from each other due to mutations introduced by the error-prone viral polymerase. Understanding the variability of RNA virus genome populations is critical for understanding virus evolution because individual mutant genomes may gain evolutionary selective advantages and give rise to dominant subpopulations, possibly even leading to the emergence of viruses resistant to medical countermeasures. Reverse transcription of virus genome populations followed by next-generation sequencing is the only available method to characterize variation for RNA viruses. However, both steps may lead to the introduction of artificial mutations, thereby skewing the data. To better understand how such errors are introduced during sample preparation, we determined and compared error baseline rates of five different sample preparation methods by analyzing in vitro transcribed Ebola virus RNA from an artificial plasmid-based system. These methods included: shotgun sequencing from plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a basic “no amplification” method, amplicon sequencing from the plasmid DNA or in vitro transcribed RNA as a “targeted” amplification method, sequence-independent single-primer amplification (SISPA) as a “random” amplification method, rolling circle reverse transcription sequencing (CirSeq) as an advanced “no amplification” method, and Illumina TruSeq RNA Access as a “targeted” enrichment method. The measured error frequencies indicate that RNA Access offers the best tradeoff between sensitivity and sample preparation error (1.4−5) of all compared methods. PMID:28182717

  14. Forest Structure Characterization Using Jpl's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  15. A baseline study characterizing the municipal solid waste in the State of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jarallah, Rawa; Aleisa, Esra

    2014-05-01

    This paper provides a new reference line for municipal solid waste characterization in Kuwait. The baseline data were collected in accordance with the Standard Test Method for the Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste (ASTM). The results indicated that the average daily municipal waste generation level is 1.01 kg/person. Detailed waste stream surveys were conducted for more than 600 samples of municipal solid waste (MSW). The waste categories included paper, corrugated fibers, PET bottles, film, organic matter, wood, metal, glass, and others. The results indicated that organic waste dominated the characterization (44.4%), followed by film (11.2%) and then corrugated fibers (8.6%). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the influence of season and governorate on waste composition. A significant seasonal variation was observed in almost all waste categories. In addition, significant differences in proportions between the current level and 1995 baseline were observed in most waste categories at the 95% confidence level.

  16. Baseline characterization of patients aged 70 years and above with hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Nakamuta; Shusuke Morizono; Motoyuki Kohjima; Kazuhiro Kotoh; Munechika Enjoji

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the baseline profiles of patients aged 70 years and above with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: A series of 127 consecutive patients with HCC were enrolled between 2000 and 2004, and none of them had been diagnosed as having HCC previously. Baseline profiles, including parameters of hepatic function such as serum transaminase and prothrombin time [PT (% activity)] were compared between patients aged ≥70 and <70 years.RESULTS: Patients ≥70 years old showed significantly lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.04)and alanine aminotransferase (P = 0.01), and significantly higher PTs (P= 0.04) and platelet counts (P = 0.02).Concomitantly, among ≥70-year-old patients, HCC was more common in non-cirrhotics, whereas among patients <70 years old, HCC was more common in cirrhotics. There was no significant difference between the groups in the number or size of tumors.CONCLUSION: Older HCC patients showed less inflammation and better preservation of hepatic function, indicating that not only cirrhotic patients but also noncirrhotic patients should be considered as a high-risk group among the elderly.

  17. The impact of sterile neutrinos on CP measurements at long baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, Raj; Masud, Mehedi; Prakash, Suprabh

    2015-01-01

    With the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) as an example, we show that the presence of even one sterile neutrino of mass $\\sim$1 eV can significantly impact the measurements of CP violation in long baseline experiments. Using a probability level analysis and neutrino-antineutrino asymmetry calculations, we discuss the large magnitude of these effects, and show how they translate into significant event rate deviations at DUNE. Our results demonstrate that measurements which, when interpreted in the context of the standard three family paradigm, indicate CP conservation at long baselines, may, in fact hide large CP violation if there is a sterile state. Similarly, any data indicating the violation of CP cannot be properly interpreted within the standard paradigm unless the presence of sterile states of mass O(1 eV) can be conclusively ruled out. Our work underscores the need for a parallel and linked short baseline oscillation program and a highly capable near detector for DUNE, in order that its high...

  18. Axiomatic Characterizations of Information Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Csiszár

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Axiomatic characterizations of Shannon entropy, Kullback I-divergence, and some generalized information measures are surveyed. Three directions are treated: (A Characterization of functions of probability distributions suitable as information measures. (B Characterization of set functions on the subsets of {1; : : : ;N} representable by joint entropies of components of an N-dimensional random vector. (C Axiomatic characterization of MaxEnt and related inference rules. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the relevance of the axiomatic approach for information theory.

  19. The upgraded PTB 600 m baseline: a high-accuracy reference for the calibration and the development of long distance measurement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinger, Florian; Meyer, Tobias; Beyer, Jens; Doloca, Nicolae R.; Schellin, Wolfgang; Niemeier, Wolfgang; Jokela, Jorma; Häkli, Pasi; Abou-Zeid, Ahmed; Meiners-Hagen, Karl

    2012-09-01

    The calibration and verification of high-precision electronic distance meters (EDMs) requires well-characterized and calibrated geodetic baselines. As the length measurements are performed typically over several hundred metres in air, a thorough understanding of the environmental conditions is necessary. In the course of a major refurbishment, the 600 m baseline of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at Braunschweig, Germany, was equipped with a dense environmental sensor network. This paper presents the characterization of this novel reference baseline, including the calibration of the inter-pillar distances, and identifies the major sources of uncertainty for such a length standard. A preliminary expanded standard uncertainty (k = 2) of U ( l ) _{k=2}=\\sqrt{( 6.2 \\times 10^{-4} \\: m )^2 + ( 7.6 \\times 10^{-7} \\, l )^2} is deduced for single-slope distance comparisons on the baseline. In the course of a full calibration, the additive constant cEDM of an EDM can currently be determined with an expanded uncertainty of U(cEDM)k = 2 = 6.1 × 10-5 m, and its scale correction sEDM with an expanded uncertainty of U(sEDM)k = 2 = 8.2 × 10-7. As an example, a femtosecond laser-based distance measurement over 600 m on this baseline is presented.

  20. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  1. Deep microbial life in the Altmark natural gas reservoir: baseline characterization prior CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Shaheed, Mina; Vieth, Andrea; Krüger, Martin; Kock, Dagmar; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the framework of the CLEAN project (CO2 Largescale Enhanced gas recovery in the Altmark Natural gas field) technical basics with special emphasis on process monitoring are explored by injecting CO2 into a gas reservoir. Our study focuses on the investigation of the in-situ microbial community of the Rotliegend natural gas reservoir in the Altmark, located south of the city Salzwedel, Germany. In order to characterize the microbial life in the extreme habitat we aim to localize and identify microbes including their metabolism influencing the creation and dissolution of minerals. The ability of microorganisms to speed up dissolution and formation of minerals might result in changes of the local permeability and the long-term safety of CO2 storage. However, geology, structure and chemistry of the reservoir rock and the cap rock as well as interaction with saline formation water and natural gases and the injected CO2 affect the microbial community composition and activity. The reservoir located at the depth of about 3500m, is characterised by high salinity fluid and temperatures up to 127° C. It represents an extreme environment for microbial life and therefore the main focus is on hyperthermophilic, halophilic anaerobic microorganisms. In consequence of the injection of large amounts of CO2 in the course of a commercial EGR (Enhanced Gas Recovery) the environmental conditions (e.g. pH, temperature, pressure and solubility of minerals) for the autochthonous microorganisms will change. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes are applied for detecting structural changes in the community by using PCR- SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results of the baseline survey indicate the presence of microorganisms similar to representatives from other saline, hot, anoxic, deep environments. However, due to the hypersaline and hyperthermophilic reservoir conditions, cell numbers are low, so that

  2. CCD characterization and measurements automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Frank, J.; Kotov, A.I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kubanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences, Prague, CZ 18221 (Czech Republic); Image Processing Laboratory, Universidad de Valencia (Spain); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Prouza, M. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences, Prague, CZ 18221 (Czech Republic); Radeka, V.; Takacs, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2012-12-11

    Modern mosaic cameras have grown both in size and in number of sensors. The required volume of sensor testing and characterization has grown accordingly. For camera projects as large as the LSST, test automation becomes a necessity. A CCD testing and characterization laboratory was built and is in operation for the LSST project. Characterization of LSST study contract sensors has been performed. The characterization process and its automation are discussed, and results are presented. Our system automatically acquires images, populates a database with metadata information, and runs express analysis. This approach is illustrated on {sup 55}Fe data analysis. {sup 55}Fe data are used to measure gain, charge transfer efficiency and charge diffusion. Examples of express analysis results are presented and discussed.

  3. Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments for Precise Measurements of Mixing Parameters and CP Violating Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Gallardo, J; Kahn, S; Kirk, H; Marciano, W; Morse, W; Parsa, Z; Samios, Nicholas P; Semertzidis, Y K; Viren, B M; Weng, W; Yamin, P; Frati, W; Lande, K; Mann, A K; Berg, R V; Wildenhain, P S; Klein, J R; Mocioiu, I; Shrock, R E; McDonald, K T

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the prospects of a feasible, very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment consisting of a conventional horn produced low energy wide band beam and a detector of 500 kT fiducial mass with modest requirements on event recognition and resolution. Such an experiment is intended primarily to measure CP violating effects in the neutrino sector for 3-generation mixing. We analyze the sensitivity of such an experiment. We conclude that this experiment will allow determination of the CP parameter $\\delta_{CP}$, if the currently unknown mixing parameter $\\sin ^2 2 \\theta_{13} \\geq 0.01$, a value about 10 times lower than the present experimental upper limit. In addition to $\\theta_{13}$ and $\\delta_{CP}$, the experiment has great potential for precise measurements of most other parameters in the neutrino mixing matrix including $\\Delta m^2_{32}$, $\\sin^2 2\\theta_{23}$, $\\Delta m^2_{21}\\times \\sin^2 2 \\theta_{12}$, and the mass ordering of neutrinos through the observation of the matter effect in the $\\...

  4. Spectrum resolving power of hearing: measurements, baselines, and influence of maskers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ya. Supin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary methods of measurement of frequency tuning in the auditory system are reviewed. Most of them are based on the frequency-selective masking paradigm and require multi-point measurements (a number of masked thresholds should be measured to obtain a single frequency-tuning estimate. Therefore, they are rarely used for practical needs. As an alternative approach, frequency-selective properties of the auditory system may be investigated using probes with complex frequency spectrum patterns, in particular, rippled noise that is characterized by a spectrum with periodically alternating maxima and minima. The maximal ripple density discriminated by the auditory system is  a convenient measure of the spectrum resolving power (SRP. To find the highest resolvable ripple density, a phase-reversal test has been suggested. Using this technique, normal SRP, its dependence on probe center frequency, spectrum contrast, and probe level were measured. The results were not entirely predictable by frequency-tuning data obtained by masking methods. SRP is influenced by maskers, with on- and off-frequency maskers influencing SRP very differently. Dichotic separation of the probe and masker results in almost complete release of SRP from influence of maskers.

  5. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization. Groundwater geochemistry of the Savannah River Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  6. Measurement of western U.S. baseline ozone from the surface to the tropopause and assessment of downwind impact regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, O. R.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. R.; Pollack, I.; Cullis, P. D.; Ives, M. A.; Tarasick, D. W.; Al-Saadi, J.; Stajner, I.

    2011-11-01

    Since 1997, baseline ozone monitoring from the surface to the tropopause along the U.S. west coast has been limited to the weekly ozonesondes from Trinidad Head, California. To explore baseline ozone at other latitudes, an ozonesonde network was implemented during spring 2010, including four launch sites along the California coast. Modeling indicated that North American pollution plumes impacted the California coast primarily below 3 km, but had no measurable impact on the average coastal ozone profiles. Vertical and latitudinal variation in free tropospheric baseline ozone appears to be partly explained by polluted and stratospheric air masses that descend isentropically along the west coast. Above 3 km, the dominant sources of ozone precursors were China and international shipping, while international shipping was the greatest source below 2 km. Approximately 8-10% of the baseline ozone that enters California in the 0-6 km range impacts the surface of the USA, but very little reaches the eastern USA. Within California, the major impact of baseline ozone above 2 km is on the high elevation terrain of eastern California. Baseline ozone below 2 km has its strongest impact on the low elevation sites throughout the state. To quantify ozone production within California we compared inland ozone measurements to baseline measurements. For average daytime conditions, we found no enhancements of lower tropospheric ozone in the northern Central Valley, but enhancements of 12-23% were found in the southern Central Valley. Enhancements above Joshua Tree were greater, 33-41%, while the greatest enhancements occurred over the LA Basin, 32-63%.

  7. Radioactivity in the Kuwait marine environment--Baseline measurements and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, S; Aba, A; Fowler, S W; Behbehani, M; Ismaeel, A; Al-Shammari, H; Alboloushi, A; Mietelski, J W; Al-Ghadban, A; Al-Ghunaim, A; Khabbaz, A; Alboloushi, O

    2015-11-30

    The Arabian Gulf region is moving towards a nuclear energy option with the first nuclear power plant now operational in Bushehr, Iran, and others soon to be constructed in Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia. Radiological safety is becoming a prime concern in the region. This study compiles available data and presents recent radionuclide data for the northern Gulf waters, considered as pre-nuclear which will be a valuable dataset for future monitoring work in this region. Radionuclide monitoring in the marine environment is a matter of prime concern for Kuwait, and an assessment of the potential impact of radionuclides requires the establishment and regular updating of baseline levels of artificial and natural radionuclides in various environmental compartments. Here we present baseline measurements for (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (3)H in Kuwait waters. The seawater concentration of (3)H, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (137)Cs, and (90)Sr vary between 130-146, 0.48-0.68, 0.75-0.89, 1.25-1.38 and 0.57-0.78 mBq L(-1), respectively. The (40)K concentration in seawater varies between 8.9-9.3 Bq L(-1). The concentration of (40)K, total (210)Pb, (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (239+240)Pu and (238)Pu were determined in sediments and range, respectively, between 353-445, 23.6-44.3, 1.0-3.1, 4.8-5.29, 17.3-20.5, 15-16.4, 28.7-31.4, 1.26-1.30, 29.7-30.0, 0.045-0.21 and 0.028-0.03 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. Since, radionuclides are concentrated in marine biota, a large number of marine biota samples covering several trophic levels, from microalgae to sharks, were analyzed. The whole fish concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra, (224)Ra, (228)Ra, (137)Cs, (210)Po and (90)Sr range between 230-447, 0.7-7.3, marine organisms with the highest (210)Po concentration found in Marica marmorata (193.5-215.6 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). (210)Po in most dissected fish samples shows increasing concentrations in the following order: edible tissue, gills, digestive system, liver and fecal

  8. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

  9. Examining the Perceived Value of Integration of Earned Value Management with Risk Management-Based Performance Measurement Baseline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Akhtar H.

    2014-01-01

    Many projects fail despite the use of evidence-based project management practices such as Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB), Earned Value Management (EVM) and Risk Management (RM). Although previous researchers have found that integrated project management techniques could be more valuable than the same techniques used by themselves, these…

  10. Ground level measurement of nuclei from coal development in the northern Great Plains: baseline measurements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B. L.; Johnson, L. R.; Sengupta, S.; Yue, P. C.

    1978-11-01

    The Institute of Atmospheric Sciences of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has completed 20 months of ambient air sampling at rural and remote sites in a five-state region of the northern Great Plains. Sampling was accomplished by use of a 27-ft motor home laboratory containing living accommodations for a field crew of two. The laboratory was outfitted with a number of instruments for measurement of pollutant parameters: cloud condensation nuclei, ice nuclei, Aitken nuclei, size distribution information for Aitken size particulate, sulfur dioxide, ozone, raindrop size distributions, and pH of precipitation. In addition, an instrumented meteorological tower provided wind speed, wind direction, ambient air temperature, and dew-point temperature. Instruments varied as to durability and success of operation, but better than 90% data retrieval was possible for the entire 20-month sampling study. Analyses of the large quantities of data obtained were not possible under the initial baseline measurement program, but examination of most parameters indicate that the air masses in the northern Great Plains are still relatively clean and are influenced primarily by local sources of contamination rather than large regional sources. Particulate concentrations in these remote areas are representative of mountain stations or clean rural conditions, and sulfur dioxide concentrations are at the threshold of detectability of the instrument. Precipitation is only very slightly acidic, and no significant quantity of amorphous particles (such as coal dust or combustion products) is found in the quantitative analyses of the high-volume filter collections. A summary of ''average'' conditions observed over the study area is tabulated.

  11. Hot Exozodiacal Dust Disks, their Detection and Variability, as Measured with Long-Baseline Optical Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nicholas Jon

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared long-baseline optical interferometry has provided the first unambiguous resolved detections of hot dust around main sequence stars (Absil et al. 2006). This showed that an unexpectedly dense population of (sub)micrometer dust grains close exists to their sublimation temperature of approximately 1400K. A later survey (Absil et al. 2013) revealed that these "hot exozodiacal disks" are relatively common around spectral type A-K stars. Current models of circumstellar debris disks suggest that in the inner region, within 1 AU, of the disk the timescale for complete removal of submicron dust is on the order of a few years (Wyatt 2008). The presence of dust close to the star is surprising because most cold debris belts detected are collisionally dominated. Mutual collisions grind the dust down to the size where radiation pressure pushes the dust out before Poynting-Robertson drag has a chance to pull the dust inward. Competing models exist to explain the persistence of this dust; some of which suggest that dust production is a punctuated and chaotic process fueled by asteroid collisions and comet infall that would show variability on timescales of a few years.High precision long-baseline interferometry observations in the K-band with the FLUOR (Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination) beam combiner at the CHARA (Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy) Array provided the data for these exozodiacal dust detections. This original instrument has undergone upgrades as part of JouFLU (Jouvence of FLUOR) project. The new instrument has been used to expand the original survey and to re-observe stars from the previous exozodiacal disk survey to search for predicted variations in the detected disks. We have found evidence that for some systems the amount of circumstellar flux from these previously detected exozodiacal disks, or exozodis, has varied greatly. The flux from some exozodis has increased, others decreased, and for a few the amount has remained

  12. FINE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE QUASAR 3C 279 MEASURED WITH 1.3 mm VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Rusen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Akiyama, Kazunori; Honma, Mareki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Algaba, Juan C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Inoue, Makoto [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Bower, Geoffrey C.; Dexter, Matt [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Brinkerink, Christiaan [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Chamberlin, Richard [Caltech Submillimeter Observatory, 111 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Freund, Robert [Arizona Radio Observatory, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Friberg, Per [James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Gurwell, Mark A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jorstad, Svetlana G. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Krichbaum, Thomas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent, E-mail: rslu@haystack.mit.edu [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); and others

    2013-07-20

    We report results from five day very long baseline interferometry observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of {approx}1 pc extending along the northwest-southeast direction (P.A. = 127 Degree-Sign {+-} 3 Degree-Sign ), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution Very Long Baseline Array images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate a brightness temperature of {approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K in the 1.3 mm core, much lower than that at centimeter wavelengths. Observations with better uv coverage and sensitivity in the coming years will allow the discrimination between different structure models and will provide direct images of the inner regions of the jet with 20-30 {mu}as (5-7 light months) resolution.

  13. Personality traits measured at baseline can predict academic performance in upper secondary school three years late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Bäckström, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the ability of personality to predict academic performance in a longitudinal study of a Swedish upper secondary school sample. Academic performance was assessed throughout a three-year period via final grades from the compulsory school and upper secondary school. The Big Five personality factors (Costa & McCrae, ) - particularly Conscientiousness and Neuroticism - were found to predict overall academic performance, after controlling for general intelligence. Results suggest that Conscientiousness, as measured at the age of 16, can explain change in academic performance at the age of 19. The effect of Neuroticism on Conscientiousness indicates that, as regarding getting good grades, it is better to be a bit neurotic than to be stable. The study extends previous work by assessing the relationship between the Big Five and academic performance over a three-year period. The results offer educators avenues for improving educational achievement.

  14. Genotypic Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Recovered at Baseline from Phase 3 Pneumonia Clinical Trials for Ceftobiprole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Costello, Andrew J; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N; Flamm, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    Baseline methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from patients with nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia collected during Phase 3 trials for ceftobiprole were characterized. Eighty-four unique isolates from patients enrolled in Europe (50.0%), Asia-Western Pacific region (APAC; 20.2%), North America (19.0%), Latin America (8.3%), and South Africa (2.4%) were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution and isolates screened for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. SCCmec and agr types were determined. Strains were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa typing. Clonal complexes (CCs) were assigned based on spa and/or multilocus sequence typing. Most isolates were CC5-MRSA-I/II/IV (44.0%; 37/84), followed by CC8-MRSA-IV (22.6%; 19/84) and CC239-MRSA-III (21.4%; 18/84). Other MRSA formed seven clonal clusters. Isolates from North America were associated with USA100, while those from South America belonged to the Cordobes/Chilean CC. A greater clonal diversity was observed in Europe; however, each country had CC5, CC8, or CC239 as prevalent lineages. Isolates from APAC were CC5-MRSA-II (47.1%; 8/17) or CC239-MRSA-III (47.1%; 8/17). Isolates carrying SCCmec I and III had ceftobiprole MIC50 values of 2 μg/ml, while those isolates with SCCmec II and IV had MIC50 values of 1 μg/ml. Ceftobiprole inhibited 96% and 100.0% of the isolates at ≤ 2 and ≤ 4 μg/ml, respectively. These isolates represented common circulating MRSA clones. Ceftobiprole demonstrated in vitro activity with a slight variation of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) according to SCCmec or clonal type.

  15. First Results from the CHARA Array VII: Long-Baseline Interferometric Measurements of Vega Consistent with a Pole-On, Rapidly Rotating Star

    CERN Document Server

    Aufdenberg, J P; Berger, D H; Brummelaar, T A; Folco, E D; Foresto, V C; Kervella, P; McAlister, H A; Merand, A; Ridgway, S T; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N H

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained high-precision interferometric measurements of Vega with the CHARA Array and FLUOR beam combiner in the K' band at projected baselines between 103m and 273m. The measured visibility amplitudes beyond the first lobe are significantly weaker than expected for a slowly rotating star characterized by a single effective temperature and surface gravity. Our measurements, when compared to synthetic visibilities and synthetic spectrophotometry from a Roche-von Zeipel gravity-darkened model atmosphere, provide strong evidence for the model of Vega as a rapidly rotating star viewed very nearly pole-on. Our best fitting model indicates that Vega is rotating at ~91% of its angular break-up rate with an equatorial velocity of 275 km/s. Together with the measured vsin(i), this velocity yields an inclination for the rotation axis of 5 degrees. For this model the pole-to-equator effective temperature difference is 2250 K, a value much larger than previously derived from spectral line analyses. The derived eq...

  16. Indoor air quality in the Karns research houses: baseline measurements and impact of indoor environmental parameters on formaldehyde concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, T. G.; Fung, K. W.; Tromberg, B. J.; Hawthorne, A. R.

    1985-12-01

    Baseline indoor air quality measurements, a nine-month radon study, and an environmental parameters study examining the impact of indoor temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) levels on formaldehyde (CH2O) concentrations have been performed in three unoccupied research homes located in Karns, Tennessee. Inter-house comparison measurements of (1) CH2O concentration, (2) CH20 emission rates from primary CH20 emission sources, (3) radon and radon daughter concentrations, and (4) air exchange rates indicate that the three homes are similar. The results of the nine-month radon study indicate indoor concentrations consistently below the EPA recommended level of 4 pCi/L. Evidence was found that crawl-space concentrations may be reduced using heat pump systems whose outdoor units circulate fresh air through the crawl-spaoe. The modeled results of the environmental parameters study indicate approximate fourfold increases in CH20 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.27 ppm for seasonal T and RH conditions of 20°C, 30% RH and 29°C, 80% RH, respectively. Evaluation of these environmental parameters study data with steady-state CH2O concentration models developed from laboratory studies of the environmental dependence of CH2O emissions from particleboard underlayment indicate good correlations between the laboratory and field studies.

  17. 21-cm Observations with the NASA ADAS 18-meter Antenna System: Baseline Astronomical Observations and Measurements of Performance Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, B. K.; Combs, M. S.; Kruth, J.

    2001-12-01

    Herein we report astronomical observations made with the NASA Advanced Data Acquisition System (ADAS). The NASA ADAS antenna, located at NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center's Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia, is an 18-meter X-band antenna system that has been primarily used for satellite tracking and served as the telecommunication station for the NASA IUE satellite until ca. 1997. A joint NASA-Morehead State University (MSU)-Kentucky NSF EPSCoR venture has been initiated to upgrade and relocate the antenna system to MSU's Astrophysics Laboratory where it will provide a research instrument and active laboratory for undergraduate students as well as be engaged in satellite tracking missions. As part of the relocation efforts, many systems will be upgraded including replacement of a hydrostatic azimuth bearing with a high-precision electromechanical bearing, a new servo system, and Ku-capable reflector surface. It is widely believed that there are still contributions that small aperture centimeter-wave instruments can make utilizing three primary observing strategies: 1.) longitudinal studies of RF variations in cosmic phenomena, 2.) surveys of large areas of sky, and 3.) fast reactions to transient phenomena. MSU faculty and staff along with NASA engineers re-outfitted the ADAS system with RF systems and upgraded servo controllers during the spring and summer of 2001. Empirical measurements of primary system performance characteristics were made including G/T (at S- and L bands), noise figures, pointing and tracking accuracies, and drive speeds and accelerations. Baseline astronomical observations were made with the MSU L-band receiver using a 6 MHz bandwidth centered at 1420 MHz (21-cm) and observing over a range of frequencies (up to 2.5 MHz, tunable over the 6 MHz window) with a 2048-channel back-end spectrometer, providing up to 1 KHz frequency resolution. Baseline observations of radio sources herein reported include Cygnus A, 3C 157, 3C 48 and the Andromeda

  18. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.; Leith, C.; Canavan, G.; Marion, J.; Wood, L.

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate baseline exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will at least somewhat uncertain.

  19. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively &apos

  20. Using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverick, Graham; Szturm, Tony; Wu, Christine Q

    2014-12-01

    Entropy measures have been widely used to quantify the complexity of theoretical and experimental dynamical systems. In this paper, the value of using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion is demonstrated based on their construct validity, predictive validity in a simple model of human walking and convergent validity in an experimental study. Results show that four of the five considered entropy measures increase meaningfully with the increased probability of falling in a simple passive bipedal walker model. The same four entropy measures also experienced statistically significant increases in response to increasing age and gait impairment caused by cognitive interference in an experimental study. Of the considered entropy measures, the proposed quantized dynamical entropy (QDE) and quantization-based approximation of sample entropy (QASE) offered the best combination of sensitivity to changes in gait dynamics and computational efficiency. Based on these results, entropy appears to be a viable candidate for assessing the stability of human locomotion.

  1. Employing individual measures of baseline glucocorticoids as population-level conservation biomarkers: considering within-individual variation in a breeding passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madliger, Christine L.; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Labile physiological variables, such as stress hormones [i.e. glucocorticoids (GCs)], allow individuals to react to perturbations in their environment and may therefore reflect the effect of disturbances or positive conservation initiatives in advance of population-level demographic measures. Although the application of GCs as conservation biomarkers has been of extensive interest, few studies have explicitly investigated whether baseline GC concentrations respond to disturbances consistently across individuals. However, confirmation of consistent responses is of paramount importance to assessing the ease of use of GCs in natural systems and to making valid interpretations regarding population-level change (or lack of change) in GC concentrations. We investigated whether free-ranging female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) display individually specific changes in baseline glucocorticoid concentrations naturally over the breeding season (from incubation to offspring provisioning) and in response to a manipulation of foraging profitability (representing a decrease in access to food resources). We show that baseline GC concentrations are repeatable within individuals over reproduction in natural conditions. However, in response to a reduction in foraging ability, baseline GC concentrations increase at the population level but are not repeatable within individuals, indicating a high level of within-individual variation. Overall, we suggest that baseline GCs measured on a subset of individuals may not provide a representative indication of responses to environmental change at the population level, and multiple within-individual measures may be necessary to determine the fitness correlates of GC concentrations. Further validation should be completed across a variety of taxa and life-history stages. Moving beyond a traditional cross-sectional approach by incorporating repeated-measures methods will be necessary to assess the suitability of baseline GCs as biomarkers of

  2. Analysis of antenna position measurements and weather station network data during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Todd R; Broguiere, Dominique; Fomalont, Ed B; Dent, William R F; Phillips, Neil; Rabanus, David; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In a radio interferometer, the determination of geometrical antenna positions relies on accurate calibration of the dry and wet delay of the atmosphere above each antenna. For the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), which has baseline lengths up to 16 kilometers, the geography of the site forces the height above mean sea level of the more distant antenna pads to be significantly lower than the central array. Thus, both the ground level meteorological values and the total water column can be quite different between antennas in the extended configurations. During 2015, a network of six additional weather stations was installed to monitor pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, in order to test whether inclusion of these parameters could improve the repeatability of antenna position determinations in these configurations. We present an analysis of the data obtained during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of Oct. through Nov. 2015. The repeatability of antenna position measurem...

  3. Directional reflectance characterization facility and measurement methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, B. T.; Haner, D. A.; Menzies, R. T.; Esproles, C.; Brothers, A. M.

    1996-08-01

    A precision reflectance characterization facility, constructed specifically for the measurement of the bidirectional reflectance properties of Spectralon panels planned for use as in-flight calibrators on the NASA Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) instrument is described. The incident linearly polarized radiation is provided at three laser wavelengths: 442, 632.8, and 859.9 nm. Each beam is collimated when incident on the Spectralon. The illuminated area of the panel is viewed with a silicon photodetector that revolves around the panel (360 ) on a 30-cm boom extending from a common rotational axis. The reflected radiance detector signal is ratioed with the signal from a reference detector to minimize the effect of amplitude instabilities in the laser sources. This and other measures adopted to reduce noise have resulted in a bidirectional reflection function (BRF) calibration facility with a measurement precision with regard to a BRF measurement of 0.002 at the 1 confidence level. The Spectralon test piece panel is held in a computer-controlled three-axis rotational assembly capable of a full 360 rotation in the horizontal plane and 90 in the vertical. The angular positioning system has repeatability and resolution of 0.001 . Design details and an outline of the measurement methodology are presented.

  4. The Tully-Fisher Relation as a Measure of Luminosity Evolution A Low Redshift Baseline for Evolving Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, E J; Bromley, B C; Van Zee, L; Kenyon, S J; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.; Zee, Liese van; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    We use optical rotation curves to investigate the R-band Tully-Fisher properties of a sample of 90 spiral galaxies in close pairs. The galaxies follow the Tully-Fisher relation remarkably well, with the exception of eight distinct 3-sigma outliers. Although most of the outliers show signs of recent star formation, gasdynamical effects are probably the dominant cause of their anomalous Tully-Fisher properties. Four outliers with small emission line widths have very centrally concentrated line emission and truncated rotation curves; the central emission indicates recent gas infall after a close galaxy-galaxy pass. These four galaxies may be local counterparts to compact, blue galaxies at intermediate redshift. The remaining galaxies have a negligible offset from the reference Tully-Fisher relation, but a shallower slope (2.6-sigma significance) and a 25% larger scatter. We characterize the non-outlier sample with measures of distortion and star formation to search for third parameter dependence in the residuals...

  5. Radiant Energy Measurements from a Scaled Jet Engine Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle for a Baseline Code Validation Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.

    1994-01-01

    A non-flowing, electrically heated test rig was developed to verify computer codes that calculate radiant energy propagation from nozzle geometries that represent aircraft propulsion nozzle systems. Since there are a variety of analysis tools used to evaluate thermal radiation propagation from partially enclosed nozzle surfaces, an experimental benchmark test case was developed for code comparison. This paper briefly describes the nozzle test rig and the developed analytical nozzle geometry used to compare the experimental and predicted thermal radiation results. A major objective of this effort was to make available the experimental results and the analytical model in a format to facilitate conversion to existing computer code formats. For code validation purposes this nozzle geometry represents one validation case for one set of analysis conditions. Since each computer code has advantages and disadvantages based on scope, requirements, and desired accuracy, the usefulness of this single nozzle baseline validation case can be limited for some code comparisons.

  6. Magic Baseline Beta Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, Sanjib Kumar; Raychaudhuri, Amitava

    2007-01-01

    We study the physics reach of an experiment where neutrinos produced in a beta-beam facility at CERN are observed in a large magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL) at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). The CERN-INO distance is close to the so-called "magic" baseline which helps evade some of the parameter degeneracies and allows for a better measurement of the neutrino mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{13}$.

  7. The KASKA project - a Japanese medium-baseline reactor-neutrino oscillation experiment to measure the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ -

    CERN Document Server

    Kuze, M

    2005-01-01

    A new reactor-neutrino oscillation experiment, KASKA, is proposed to measure the unknown neutrino-mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ using the world's most powerful Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. It will measure a very small deficit of reactor-neutrino flux using three identical detectors, two placed just close to the sources and one at a distance of about 1.8km. Its conceptual design and physics reach are discussed.

  8. The orbit of Phi Cygni measured with long-baseline optical interferometry - Component masses and absolute magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Hummel, C. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Mozurkewich, D.; Vivekanand, M.; Simon, R. S.; Denison, C. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Pan, X.-P.

    1992-01-01

    The orbit of the double-lined spectroscopic binary Phi Cygni, the distance to the system, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of its components are presented via measurements with the Mar III Optical Interferometer. On the basis of a reexamination of the spectroscopic data of Rach & Herbig (1961), the values and uncertainties are adopted for the period and the projected semimajor axes from the present fit to the spectroscopic data and the values of the remaining elements from the present fit to the Mark III data. The elements of the true orbit are derived, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of the components, and the distance to the system are calculated.

  9. Fine-scale structure of the quasar 3C 279 Measured with 1.3 mm very long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ru-Sen; Akiyama, Kazunori; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Algaba, Juan C; Bower, Geoffrey C; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Chamberlin, Richard; Crew, Geoffrey; Cappallo, Roger J; Dexter, Matt; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gurwell, Mark A; Ho, Paul T P; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Loinard, Laurent; MacMahon, David; Marrone, Daniel P; Marscher, Alan P; Moran, James M; Plambeck, Richard; Pradel, Nicolas; Primiani, Rurik; Tilanus, Remo P J; Titus, Michael; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2013-01-01

    We report results from 5-day VLBI observations of the well-known quasar 3C 279 at 1.3 mm (230 GHz) in 2011. The measured nonzero closure phases on triangles including stations in Arizona, California and Hawaii indicate that the source structure is spatially resolved. We find an unusual inner jet direction at scales of $\\sim$1 parsec extending along the northwest-southeast direction (PA = $127^{\\circ}\\pm3^{\\circ}$), as opposed to other (previously) reported measurements on scales of a few parsecs showing inner jet direction extending to the southwest. The 1.3 mm structure corresponds closely with that observed in the central region of quasi-simultaneous super-resolution VLBA images at 7 mm. The closure phase changed significantly on the last day when compared with the rest of observations, indicating that the inner jet structure may be variable on daily timescales. The observed new direction of the inner jet shows inconsistency with the prediction of a class of jet precession models. Our observations indicate ...

  10. First Parallax Measurements Towards a 6.7 GHz Methanol Maser with the Australian Long Baseline Array - Distance to G339.884-1.259

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, V; Reid, M J; Brunthaler, A; Sanna, A; McCallum, J; Reynolds, C; Bignall, H E; Phillips, C J; Dodson, R; Rioja, M; Caswell, J L; Chen, X; Dawson, J R; Fujisawa, K; Goedhart, S; Green, J A; Hachisuka, K; Honma, M; Menten, K; Shen, Z Q; Voronkov, M A; Walsh, A J; Xu, Y; Zhang, B; Zheng, X W

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted the first parallax and proper motion measurements of 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission using the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA). The parallax of G339.884$-$1.259 measured from five epochs of observations is 0.48$\\pm $0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of $2.1^{+0.4}_{-0.3}$ kpc, placing it in the Scutum spiral arm. This is consistent (within the combined uncertainty) with the kinematic distance estimate for this source at 2.5$\\pm $0.5 kpc using the latest Solar and Galactic rotation parameters. We find from the Lyman continuum photon flux that the embedded core of the young star is of spectral type B1, demonstrating that luminous 6.7 GHz methanol masers can be associated with high-mass stars towards the lower end of the mass range.

  11. Comparison of torque measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy in characterization of a wet granulation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Rantanen, Jukka

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare impeller torque measurements and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the characterization of the water addition phase of a wet granulation process. Additionally, the effect of hydrate formation during granulation on the impeller torque was investigated...... recorded at-line. The torque and the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances increased with increasing water content. A plateau in the NIR baseline-corrected water absorbances was observed for wet masses containing MCC. This was at the region of optimal water amount for granulation according to the torque....... In addition, the hydrate formation during granulation affected the granulation liquid requirement. The liquid requirement was different for monohydrate formed during granulation compared to one formed in high relative humidity before the granulation. The results suggest that NIR spectroscopy may be applicable...

  12. Categorical characterizations of operator-valued measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Roumen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most general type of measurement in quantum physics is modeled by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM. Mathematically, a POVM is a generalization of a measure, whose values are not real numbers, but positive operators on a Hilbert space. POVMs can equivalently be viewed as maps between effect algebras or as maps between algebras for the Giry monad. We will show that this equivalence is an instance of a duality between two categories. In the special case of continuous POVMs, we obtain two equivalent representations in terms of morphisms between von Neumann algebras.

  13. Baseline comparison of three health utility measures and the feeling thermometer among participants in the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisch Dennis W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health utility (HU measures are used as overall measures of quality of life and to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs in economic analyses. We compared baseline values of three HUs including Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D, and Health Utilities Index, Mark II and Mark III (HUI2 and HUI3 and the feeling thermometer (FT among type 2 diabetes participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD trial. We assessed relationships between HU and FT values and patient demographics and clinical variables. Methods ACCORD was a randomized clinical trial to test if intensive controls of glucose, blood pressure and lipids can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular disease (CVD events in type 2 diabetes patients with high risk of CVD. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL sub-study includes 2,053 randomly selected participants. Interclass correlations (ICCs and agreement between measures by quartile were used to evaluate relationships between HU’s and the FT. Multivariable regression models specified relationships between patient variables and each HU and the FT. Results The ICCs were 0.245 for FT/SF-6D, 0.313 for HUI3/SF-6D, 0.437 for HUI2/SF-6D, 0.338 for FT/HUI2, 0.337 for FT/HUI3 and 0.751 for HUI2/HUI3 (P P P  Conclusions The agreements between the different HUs were poor except for the two HUI measures; therefore HU values derived different measures may not be comparable. The FT had low agreement with HUs. The relationships between HUs and demographic and clinical measures demonstrate how severity of diabetes and other clinical and demographic factors are associated with HUs and FT measures. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620

  14. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  15. CCD Color Camera Characterization for Image Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, P.J.; Groen, F.C.A.; Schutte, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we will analyze a range of different types of cameras for its use in measurements. We verify a general model of a charged coupled device camera using experiments. This model includes gain and offset, additive and multiplicative noise, and gamma correction. It is shown that for sever

  16. Photovoltaics characterization: A survey of diagnostic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. [Center for Measurements and Characterization, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The advancement of the photovoltaic technology is closely linked to the standard evaluation of the product, the diagnosis of problems, the validation of materials and cell properties, and the engineering and documentation of the ensemble of device properties from internal interfaces through power outputs. The focus of this paper is on some of the more common, visible, and important techniques dealing with physical-chemical through electro-optical parameters, which are linked intimately to the performance quality of materials and devices. Two areas, defined by their spatial-resolution qualities, are emphasized: macroscale and microscale measurement technologies. The importance, strengths, and limitations of these techniques are stressed, especially their significance to photovoltaics. Included are several techniques that have been developed specifically to address problems and requirements for photovoltaics. The regime of measurement literally covers arrays through atoms. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

  17. Measurement techniques for radiological characterization of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, M.

    1996-09-18

    Once the decision is taken to characterize a contaminated site, appropriate measurement techniques must be selected. The choice will depend on the available information, on the nature and extent of the contamination, as well as on available resources (staff and budget). Some techniques are described on the basis of examples of characterization projects (e.g. Olen area in Belgium).

  18. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs plastic debris which were contaminated in industrialized coastal zones may have rapidly transported to the remote islands before they would reach equilibrium (i.e., desorption completed). Because POPs concentrations in the other media are at trace levels in these remote environments, the sporadic high concentrations of POPs in the plastic debris may pose threat to the

  19. Characterization of CAST Poly-Si using DLTS Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, I.G. [Electronics Telecommunications Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-09-01

    In this experiments DLTS measurements were used to characterize the cast poly-Si. Peaks from the DLTS measurements show the defect levels and defect concentrations. Carbon peak with 0.35 eV above the valence band and other continuous peaks were found in cast poly-Si. Measured DLTS peaks are modeled using energy distribution and good agreements between the experiments and the modeling were achieved. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  20. FY 1992 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dippo, P.C [ed.

    1993-03-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/NREL goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility that Is capable of providing information on the full range of PV components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of Pv technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. The Measurements and Characterization Branch encompasses seven coordinated research groups, providing integrated research and development that covers all aspects of photovoltaic materials/devices characterization.

  1. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  2. Characterizing baseline concentrations, proportions, and processes controlling deposition of river-transported bitumen-associated polycyclic aromatic compounds at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Matthew C; Wiklund, Johan A; Van Opstal, Stacey R; Wolfe, Brent B; Hall, Roland I

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate knowledge of baseline conditions challenges ability for monitoring programs to detect pollution in rivers, especially where there are natural sources of contaminants. Here, we use paleolimnological data from a flood-prone lake ("SD2", informal name) in the Slave River Delta (SRD, Canada), ∼ 500 km downstream of the Alberta oil sands development and the bitumen-rich McMurray Formation to identify baseline concentrations and proportions of "river-transported bitumen-associated indicator polycyclic aromatic compounds" (indicator PACs; Hall et al. 2012) and processes responsible for their deposition. Results show that indicator PACs are deposited in SD2 by Slave River floodwaters in concentrations that are 45 % lower than those in sediments of "PAD31compounds", a lake upstream in the Athabasca Delta that receives Athabasca River floodwaters. Lower concentrations at SD2 are likely a consequence of sediment retention upstream as well as dilution by sediment influx from the Peace River. In addition, relations with organic matter content reveal that flood events dilute concentrations of indicator PACs in SD2 because the lake receives high-energy floods and the lake sediments are predominantly inorganic. This contrasts with PAD31 where floodwaters increase indicator PAC concentrations in the lake sediments, and concentrations are diluted during low flood influence intervals due to increased deposition of lacustrine organic matter. Results also show no significant differences in concentrations and proportions of indicator PACs between pre- (1967) and post- (1980s and 1990 s) oil sands development high flood influence intervals (t = 1.188, P = 0.279, d.f. = 6.136), signifying that they are delivered to the SRD by natural processes. Although we cannot assess potential changes in indicator PACs during the past decade, baseline concentrations and proportions can be used to enhance ongoing monitoring efforts.

  3. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C. [eds.

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy`s Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  4. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  5. COMMIT in 7-SEAS/BASELInE: Operation of and Observations from a Novel, Mobile Laboratory for Measuring In-Situ Properties of Aerosols and Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantina, Peter; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Loftus, Adrian M.; Kuo, Ferret; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Sayer, Andrew M.; Wang, Shen-Hsiang; Lin, Neng-Huei; Hsu, N. Christina; Janjai, Serm; Chantara, Somporn; Nguyen, Anh X.

    2016-01-01

    Trace gases and aerosols (particularly biomass-burning aerosols) have important implications for air quality and climate studies in Southeast Asia (SEA). This paper describes the purpose, operation, and datasets collected from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (NASA/GSFC) Chemical, Optical, and Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT) laboratory, a mobile platform designed to measure trace gases and optical/microphysical properties of naturally occurring and anthropogenic aerosols. More importantly, the laboratory houses a specialized humidification system to characterize hygroscopic growth/enhancement, a behavior that affects aerosol properties and cloud-aerosol interactions and is generally underrepresented in the current literature. A summary of the trace gas and optical/microphysical measurements is provided, along with additional detail and analysis of data collected from the hygroscopic system during the 2015 Seven South-East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) field campaign. The results suggest that data from the platform are reliable and will complement future studies of aerosols and air quality in SEA and other regions of interest.

  6. Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

    Rectangular waveguide methods are appealing for measuring isotropic and anisotropic materials because of high signal strength due to field confinement, and the ability to control the polarization of the applied electric field. As a stepping stone to developing methods for characterizing materials with fully-populated anisotropic tensor characteristics, techniques are presented in this dissertation to characterize isotropic, biaxially anisotropic, and gyromagnetic materials. Two characterization techniques are investigated for each material, and thus six different techniques are described. Additionally, a waveguide standard is introduced which may be used to validate the measurement of the permittivity and permeability of materials at microwave frequencies. The first characterization method examined is the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) technique for the extraction of isotropic parameters of a sample completely filling the cross-section of a rectangular waveguide. A second technique is proposed for the characterization of an isotropic conductor-backed sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. If the sample is conductor-backed, and occupies the entire cross-section, a transmission measurement is not available, and thus a method must be found for providing two sufficiently different reflection measurements.The technique proposed here is to place a waveguide iris in front of the sample, exposing the sample to a spectrum of evanescent modes. By measuring the reflection coefficient with and without an iris, the necessary two data may be obtained to determine the material parameters. A mode-matching approach is used to determine the theoretical response of a sample placed behind the waveguide iris. This response is used in a root-searching algorithm to determine permittivity and permeability by comparing to measurements of the reflection coefficient. For the characterization of biaxially anisotropic materials, the first method considers an extension of the NRW technique

  7. Measurement uncertainty in colour characterization of printed textile materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Milić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of uncertainty of spectrophotometric measurement of printed textile materials is one of the majorunsolved technical problems in textile colourimetry today. Textile manufacturers are often trying to maintain colourdifference tolerances which are within the range or even less than the uncertainty of the measurement systemcontrolling them. In this paper, two commercial spectrophotometers with different measuring geometries (GretagMacbethEye-One Pro with 450/0° geometry and ChinSpec HP200 with d/8° geometry were comparativelyinvestigated in terms of measurement uncertainty in colour characterization of textile products. Results of the studyindicate that, the despite of different measuring geometry, instruments had the similar measurement repeatabilitybehaviour (repeatability of readings from different parts of the same sample in the case of used digitally printedpolyester materials. The important influence on measurement variability had the material preparation method (werethe materials triple folded, placed on a black backing or a white backing. On the other hand, instruments showeddifference concerning the inter-model agreement. Although this difference was not confirmed as significant withvisual assessment, observers evaluated the measurement readings from the Eye-One Pro spectrophotometer as moreaccurate colour appearance characterization of textile materials.

  8. The Influence of Casting Conditions on the Microstructure of As-Cast U-10Mo Alloys: Characterization of the Casting Process Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-12-13

    Sections of eight plate castings of uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) were sent from Y-12 to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for microstructural characterization. This report summarizes the results from this study.

  9. Altered baseline brain activity in experts measured by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF): a resting state fMRI study using expertise model of acupuncturists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Minghao; Li, Jun; Shi, Xinfa; Gao, Shudan; Fu, Shijun; Liu, Zongquan; Liang, Fanrong; Gong, Qiyong; Shi, Guangming; Tian, Jie

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that expertise modulates evoked brain activity in response to specific stimuli. Recently, researchers have begun to investigate how expertise influences the resting brain. Among these studies, most focused on the connectivity features within/across regions, i.e., connectivity patterns/strength. However, little concern has been given to a more fundamental issue whether or not expertise modulates baseline brain activity. We investigated this question using amplitude of low-frequency (expertise model, i.e., acupuncturists, due to their robust proficiency in tactile perception and emotion regulation. After the psychophysical and behavioral expertise screening procedure, 23 acupuncturists and 23 matched non-acupuncturists (NA) were enrolled. Our results explicated higher ALFF for acupuncturists in the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the contralateral hand representation of the primary somatosensory area (SI) (corrected for multiple comparisons). Additionally, ALFF of VMPFC was negatively correlated with the outcomes of the emotion regulation task (corrected for multiple comparisons). We suggest that our study may reveal a novel connection between the neuroplasticity mechanism and resting state activity, which would upgrade our understanding of the central mechanism of learning. Furthermore, by showing that expertise can affect the baseline brain activity as indicated by ALFF, our findings may have profound implication for functional neuroimaging studies especially those involving expert models, in that difference in baseline brain activity may either smear the spatial pattern of activations for task data or introduce biased results into connectivity-based analysis for resting data.

  10. Accuracy characterization and measurement point planning for workpiece localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Limin; LUO Honggen; DING Han

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of accuracy characterization and measurement point planning for 3-D workpiece localization in the presence of part surface errors and measurement errors. Two frame-invariant functions of the infinitesimal rigid body displacement are defined to quantify the localization accuracy required by manufacturing processes. Then, two kinds of frame-invariant indices are derived to characterize the sensitivities of the accuracy measures to the sampling errors at the measurement points. With a dense set of discrete points on the workpiece datum surfaces pre-defined as candidates for measurement, planning of probing points for accurate recovery of part location is modeled as a combinatorial problem focusing on minimizing the accuracy sensitivity index. Based on an interchange rule, a greedy algorithm is developed to efficiently find a near-optimal solution. It is also shown that if the number of the measurement points is sufficiently large, there is no need to optimize their positions. Example confirms the validity of the presented indices and algorithm.

  11. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  12. Semiconductor Surface Characterization Using Transverse Acoustoelectric Voltage versus Voltage Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Das, R. T. Webster and B. Davari, "SAW Characterization of Photo- Voltaic Solar Cell", Electrochemical Society Extended Abstracts, Vol. 79-1, Spring...Measurement of Carrier Generation Rate in Semiconductors", presented at the 153rd Meeting of the Electrochemical Society , Seattle, Washington, May 21-26...Ion-implanted Silicon by Surface Acoustic Waves", presented at the Electrochemical Society Meeting, May 6-11, 1979, Boston, Massachusetts. 6. P. Das, M

  13. Wind Turbine Wake Characterization from Temporally Disjunct 3-D Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Doubrawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scanning LiDARs can be used to obtain three-dimensional wind measurements in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer. In this work, metrics characterizing wind turbine wakes are derived from LiDAR observations and from large-eddy simulation (LES data, which are used to recreate the LiDAR scanning geometry. The metrics are calculated for two-dimensional planes in the vertical and cross-stream directions at discrete distances downstream of a turbine under single-wake conditions. The simulation data are used to estimate the uncertainty when mean wake characteristics are quantified from scanning LiDAR measurements, which are temporally disjunct due to the time that the instrument takes to probe a large volume of air. Based on LES output, we determine that wind speeds sampled with the synthetic LiDAR are within 10% of the actual mean values and that the disjunct nature of the scan does not compromise the spatial variation of wind speeds within the planes. We propose scanning geometry density and coverage indices, which quantify the spatial distribution of the sampled points in the area of interest and are valuable to design LiDAR measurement campaigns for wake characterization. We find that scanning geometry coverage is important for estimates of the wake center, orientation and length scales, while density is more important when seeking to characterize the velocity deficit distribution.

  14. Wind Turbine Wake Characterization from Temporally Disjunct 3-D Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doubrawa, Paula; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Wang, Hui; Pryor, S. C.; Churchfield, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Scanning LiDARs can be used to obtain three-dimensional wind measurements in and beyond the atmospheric surface layer. In this work, metrics characterizing wind turbine wakes are derived from LiDAR observations and from large-eddy simulation (LES) data, which are used to recreate the LiDAR scanning geometry. The metrics are calculated for two-dimensional planes in the vertical and cross-stream directions at discrete distances downstream of a turbine under single-wake conditions. The simulation data are used to estimate the uncertainty when mean wake characteristics are quantified from scanning LiDAR measurements, which are temporally disjunct due to the time that the instrument takes to probe a large volume of air. Based on LES output, we determine that wind speeds sampled with the synthetic LiDAR are within 10% of the actual mean values and that the disjunct nature of the scan does not compromise the spatial variation of wind speeds within the planes. We propose scanning geometry density and coverage indices, which quantify the spatial distribution of the sampled points in the area of interest and are valuable to design LiDAR measurement campaigns for wake characterization. We find that scanning geometry coverage is important for estimates of the wake center, orientation and length scales, while density is more important when seeking to characterize the velocity deficit distribution.

  15. Measurements and characterization in photovoltaics: Lessons learned for TPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    1997-03-01

    The NREL measurements and characterization activities, with origins in the late 1970s, have evolved with and within the DOE Photovoltaics Program—specifically to support that effort. These centralized facilities, established for reasons of technical and economical advantages for the program, have included four major functions or approaches: (1) analytical measurement service; (2) standardized evaluations (performance through materials); (3) collaborative research; and, (4) measurement technique development. Each of these are described in terms of their importance and contributions to program and project support. The current facilities and activities are highlighted, and the growth and change of these support efforts are historically delineated. The evolution and contributions of these laboratories to photovoltaics provide some lessons and models for the emerging TPV program. The utility of centralized measurement and characterization functions for technology development is assessed in terms of methods of operation, prioritization and customer satisfaction, program unity and focus, response time, and proprietary data and materials. Specifics relating to materials and measurement standards, centralized data bases, client interactions, program directions, and expectations are cited in terms of both successes and deficiencies for these program-support efforts. The return on investment for estimated in terms of benefits to the program compared to alternative approaches.

  16. Measurements and characterization in photovoltaics: Lessons learned for TPV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The NREL measurements and characterization activities, with origins in the late 1970s, have evolved with and within the DOE Photovoltaics Program{emdash}specifically to support that effort. These centralized facilities, established for reasons of technical and economical advantages for the program, have included four major functions or approaches: (1) analytical measurement service; (2) standardized evaluations (performance through materials); (3) collaborative research; and, (4) measurement technique development. Each of these are described in terms of their importance and contributions to program and project support. The current facilities and activities are highlighted, and the growth and change of these support efforts are historically delineated. The evolution and contributions of these laboratories to photovoltaics provide some lessons and models for the emerging TPV program. The utility of centralized measurement and characterization functions for technology development is assessed in terms of methods of operation, prioritization and customer satisfaction, program unity and focus, response time, and proprietary data and materials. Specifics relating to materials and measurement standards, centralized data bases, client interactions, program directions, and expectations are cited in terms of both successes and deficiencies for these program-support efforts. The return on investment for estimated in terms of benefits to the program compared to alternative approaches. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Measuring health system strengthening: application of the balanced scorecard approach to rank the baseline performance of three rural districts in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroad Mutale

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. METHODOLOGY: The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. RESULTS: Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58% and highest in Luangwa district (77%. Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively. Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff -0.40, p = 0.02. Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04 and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03. CONCLUSION: The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service

  18. Altered baseline brain activity in experts measured by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF: a resting state fMRI study using expertise model of acupuncturists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao eDong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that expertise modulates evoked brain activity in response to specific stimuli. Recently, researchers have begun to investigate how expertise influences the resting brain. Among these studies, most focused on the connectivity features within/across regions, i.e. connectivity patterns/strength. However, little concern has been given to a more fundamental issue whether or not expertise modulates baseline brain activity. We investigated this question using amplitude of low-frequency (<0.08Hz fluctuation (ALFF as the metric of brain activity and a novel expertise model, i.e. acupuncturists, due to their robust proficiency in tactile perception and emotion regulation. After the psychophysical and behavioral expertise screening procedure, 23 acupuncturists and 23 matched non-acupuncturists (NA were enrolled. Our results explicated higher ALFF for acupuncturists in the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC and the contralateral hand representation of the primary somatosensory area (SI (corrected for multiple comparisons. Additionally, ALFF of VMPFC was negatively correlated with the outcomes of the emotion regulation task (corrected for multiple comparisons. We suggest that our study may reveal a novel connection between the neuroplasticity mechanism and resting state activity, which would upgrade our understanding of the central mechanism of learning. Furthermore, by showing that expertise can affect the baseline brain activity as indicated by ALFF, our findings may have profound implication for functional neuroimaging studies especially those involving expert models, in that difference in baseline brain activity may either smear the spatial pattern of activations for task data or introduce biased results into connectivity-based analysis for resting data.

  19. Optimal Measures for Characterizing Water-rich Super-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-01-01

    The detection and atmospheric characterization of super-Earths is one of the major frontiers of exoplanetary science. Currently, extensive efforts are underway to detect molecules, particularly H2O, in super-Earth atmospheres. In the present work, we develop a systematic set of strategies to identify and observe potentially H2O-rich super-Earths that provide the best prospects for characterizing their atmospheres using existing instruments. Firstly, we provide analytic prescriptions and discuss factors that need to be taken into account while planning and interpreting observations of super-Earth radii and spectra. We discuss how observations in different spectral bandpasses constrain different atmospheric properties of a super-Earth, including radius and temperature of the planetary surface as well as the mean molecular mass, the chemical composition and thermal profile of the atmosphere. In particular, we caution that radii measured in certain bandpasses can induce biases in the interpretation of the interio...

  20. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  1. Bayesian flaw characterization from eddy current measurements with grain noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Jerry A.; Aldrin, John C.; Shell, Eric; Oneida, Erin

    2017-02-01

    The Bayesian approach to inference from measurement data has the potential to provide highly reliable characterizations of flaw geometry by quantifying the confidence in the estimate results. The accuracy of these confidence estimates depends on the accuracy of the model for the measurement error. Eddy current measurements of electrically anisotropic metals, such as titanium, exhibit a phenomenon called grain noise in which the measurement error is spatially correlated even with no flaw present. We show that the most commonly used statistical model for the measurement error, which fails to account for this correlation, results in overconfidence in the flaw geometry estimates from eddy current data, thereby reducing the effectiveness of the Bayesian approach. We then describe a method of modeling the grain noise as a Gaussian process (GP) using spectral mixture kernels, a type of non-parametric model for the covariance kernel of a GP This provides a broadly applicable, data-driven way of modeling correlation in measurement error. Our results show that incorporation of this noise model results in a more reliable estimate of the flaw and better agreement with the available validation data.

  2. High temperature Hall measurement setup for thin film characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, L.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.

    2016-07-01

    Hall measurement using the van der Pauw technique is a common characterization approach that does not require patterning of contacts. Measurements of the Hall voltage and electrical resistivity lead to the product of carrier mobility and carrier concentration (Hall coefficient) which can be decoupled through transport models. Based on the van der Paw method, we have developed an automated setup for Hall measurements from room temperature to ˜500 °C of semiconducting thin films of a wide resistivity range. The resistivity of the film and Hall coefficient is obtained from multiple current-voltage (I-V) measurements performed using a semiconductor parameter analyzer under applied constant "up," zero, and "down" magnetic field generated with two neodymium permanent magnets. The use of slopes obtained from multiple I-Vs for the three magnetic field conditions offer improved accuracy. Samples are preferred in square shape geometry and can range from 2 mm to 25 mm side length. Example measurements of single-crystal silicon with known doping concentration show the accuracy and reliability of the measurement.

  3. Characterizing heralded single-photon sources with imperfect measurement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, M; Soellner, I; Bocquillon, E; Couteau, C; Laflamme, R; Weihs, G [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: mrazavi@iqc.ca

    2009-06-14

    Any characterization of a single-photon source is not complete without specifying its second-order degree of coherence, i.e., its g{sup (2)} function. An accurate measurement of such coherence functions commonly requires high-precision single-photon detectors, in whose absence only time-averaged measurements are possible. It is not clear, however, how the resulting time-averaged quantities can be used to properly characterize the source. In this paper, we investigate this issue for a heralded source of single photons that relies on continuous-wave parametric down-conversion. By accounting for major shortcomings of the source and the detectors-i.e., the multiple-photon emissions of the source, the time resolution of photodetectors and our chosen width of coincidence window-our theory enables us to infer the true source properties from imperfect measurements. Our theoretical results are corroborated by an experimental demonstration using a PPKTP crystal pumped by a blue laser that results in a single-photon generation rate about 1.2 millions per second per milliwatt of pump power. This work takes an important step towards the standardization of such heralded single-photon sources.

  4. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  5. Antenna Characterization for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin M.; Miranda, Felix A.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Durham, Timothy E.; Vanhille, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of the antenna for the Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurements (WISM) under development for the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), is discussed. A current sheet antenna, consisting of a small, 6x6 element, dual-linear polarized array with integrated beamformer, feeds an offset parabolic reflector, enabling WISM operation over an 8 to 40 GHz frequency band. An overview of the test program implemented for both the feed and the reflector antenna is given along with select results for specific frequencies utilized by the radar and radiometric sensors of the WISM.

  6. Characterizing Self-Heating Dynamics Using Cyclostationary Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, SangHoon; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2016-01-01

    Self-heating in surrounding gate transistors can degrade its on-current performance and reduce lifetime. If a transistor heats/cools with time-constants less than the inverse of the operating frequency, a predictable, frequency-independent performance is expected; if not, the signal pattern must be optimized for highest performance. Typically, time-constants are measured by expensive, ultra-fast instruments with high temporal resolution. Instead, here we demonstrate an alternate, inexpensive, cyclostationary measurement technique to characterize self-heating (and cooling) with sub-microsecond resolution. The results are independently confirmed by direct imaging of the transient heating/cooling of the channel temperature by the thermoreflectance (TR) method. A routine use of the proposed technique will help improve the surrounding gate transistor design and shorten the design cycle.

  7. A new measure to characterize multifractality of sleep electroencephalogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qianli; NING Xinbao; WANG Jun; BIAN Chunhua

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for nonlinear dynamic analysis, such as correlation dimension,Lyapunov exponent, approximate entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, using a single parameter, cannot fully describe the extremely sophisticated behavior of electroencephalogram (EEG). The multifractal formalism reveals more "hidden" information of EEG by using singularity spectrum to characterize its nonlinear dynamics. In this paper, the zero-crossing time intervals of sleep EEG were studied using multifractal analysis. A new multifractal measure △asα was proposed to describe the asymmetry of singularity spectrum, and compared with the singularity strength range △α that was normally used as a degree indicator of multifractality. One-way analysis of variance and multiple comparison tests showed that the new measure we proposed gave better discrimination of sleep stages, especially in the discrimination between sleep and awake, and between sleep stages 3and 4.

  8. Spectral characterization of dielectric materials using terahertz measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jeffrey M.

    The performance of modern high frequency components and electronic systems are often limited by the properties of the materials from which they are made. Over the past decade, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of new, high performance dielectrics for use in high frequency systems. The development of these materials requires novel broadband characterization, instrumentation, and extraction techniques, from which models can be formulated. For this project several types of dielectric sheets were characterized at terahertz (THz) frequencies using quasi-optical (free-space) techniques. These measurement systems included a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS, scalar), a Time Domain Spectrometer (TDS, vector), a Scalar Network Analyzer (SNA), and a THz Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). Using these instruments the THz spectral characteristics of dielectric samples were obtained. Polarization based anisotropy was observed in many of the materials measured using vector systems. The TDS was the most informative and flexible instrument for dielectric characterization at THz frequencies. To our knowledge, this is the first such comprehensive study to be performed. Anisotropy effects within materials that do not come into play at microwave frequencies (e.g. ~10 GHz) were found, in many cases, to increase measured losses at THz frequencies by up to an order of magnitude. The frequency dependent properties obtained during the course of this study included loss tangent, permittivity (index of refraction), and dielectric constant. The results were largely consistent between all the different systems and correlated closely to manufacturer specifications over a wide frequency range (325 GHz-1.5 THz). Anisotropic behavior was observed for some of the materials. Non-destructive evaluation and testing (NDE/NDT) techniques were used throughout. A precision test fixture was developed to accomplish these measurements. Time delay, insertion loss, and S-parameters were

  9. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  10. Distance and Proper Motion Measurement of the Red Supergiant, PZ Cas, in Very Long Baseline Interferometry H2O Maser Astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kusuno, Kozue; Imai, Hiroshi; Oyama, Tomoaki

    2013-01-01

    We present the very long baseline interferometry H2O maser monitoring observations of the red supergiant, PZ Cas, at 12 epochs from 2006 April to 2008 May. We fitted maser motions to a simple model composed of a common annual parallax and linear motions of the individual masers. The maser motions with the parallax subtracted were well modeled by a combination of a common stellar proper motion and a radial expansion motion of the circumstellar envelope. We obtained an annual parallax of 0.356+/-0.026 mas and a stellar proper motion of {\\mu}*{\\alpha}cos{\\delta}=-3.7+/-0.2 and {\\mu}*{\\delta}=-2.0+/-0.3 mas/yr eastward and northward, respectively. The annual parallax corresponds to a trigonometric parallax of 2.81+0.22-0.19 kpc. By rescaling the luminosity of PZ Cas in any previous studies using our trigonometric parallax, we estimated the location of PZ Cas on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and found that it approaches a theoretically evolutionary track around an initial mass of ~25M(sun). The sky position and th...

  11. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  12. Characterization of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda M, L. de; Federico, C. A.; Caldas, L. V. E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Air crews, as pilots and flight attendants, are subjected to cosmic ray doses which can be higher than the average doses on workers from the nuclear industry. The diversity of particles of high energies present in the radiation field on board of air crafts turns the determination of the incident dose difficult, and requires special care regarding dosimetric systems to be used in this kind of radiation field. The Brazilian Air Force, through its Institute for Advanced Studies (Instituto de Estudos Avancados, IEAv/DCTA) in conjunction with the Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP) are working on this subject since 2008. A prototype of a radiation detector for aircraft measurements was previously built and tested in flight and laboratory conditions. The detector is able of measuring a quantity known as absorbed dose (using passive dosimeters), which will subsequently be correlated to the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose received by air crews. In this context, a theoretical approach through Monte Carlo simulations with the computational codes MCNP5 and MCNPX was used to model and characterize the detector response at such experimental conditions. This work presents the preliminary results of the computational modeling, with special emphasis on the comparison between the absorbed doses measured and simulated, and its relationship with the ambient dose equivalent and the effective dose for this detector. (author)

  13. Combining Remote Sensing with in situ Measurements for Riverine Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calantoni, J.; Palmsten, M. L.; Simeonov, J.; Dobson, D. W.; Zarske, K.; Puleo, J. A.; Holland, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    At the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory we are employing a wide variety of novel remote sensing techniques combined with traditional in situ sampling to characterize riverine hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Surface currents were estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) using imagery from visible to infrared bands, from both fixed and airborne platforms. Terrestrial LIDAR has been used for subaerial mapping from a fixed platform. Additionally, LIDAR has been combined with hydrographic surveying (multibeam) in mobile scanning mode using a small boat. Hydrographic surveying (side scan) has also been performed using underwater autonomous vehicles. Surface drifters have been deployed in combination with a remotely operated, floating acoustic Doppler current profiler. Other fixed platform, in situ sensors, such as pencil beam and sector scanning sonars, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and water level sensors have been deployed. We will present an overview of a variety of measurements from different rivers around the world focusing on validation examples of remotely sensed quantities with more traditional in situ measurements. Finally, we will discuss long-term goals to use remotely sensed data within an integrated environmental modeling framework.

  14. Characterization and calibration of 2nd generation slope measuring profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Frank; Buchheim, Jana; Zeschke, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    High spectral resolution and nanometer sized foci of 3rd generation SR beamlines can only be achieved by means of ultra precise optical elements. The improved brilliance and the coherence of free electron lasers (FEL) even push the accuracy limits and make the development of a new generation of ultra precise reflective optical elements mandatory. Typical elements are wave front preserving plane mirrors (lengths of up to 1 m, residual slope errors ˜0.05 μrad (rms) and values of 0.1 nm (rms) for the micro-roughness) and curved optical elements like spheres, toroids or elliptical cylinder (residual slope error ˜0.25 μrad (rms) and better). These challenging specifications and the ongoing progress in finishing technology need to be matched by improved accuracy metrology instruments. We will discuss the results of recent developments in the field of metrology made in the BESSY-II-optics laboratory (BOL) at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (HZB), by the use of vertical angle comparator (VAC) in use to calibrate the nanometer optical component measuring machine (NOM). The BESSY-NOM represents an ultra accurate type of slope measuring instruments characterized by an accuracy of 0.05 μrad (rms) for plane substrates and 0.2 μrad (rms) for significant curved surfaces.

  15. Compound-specific δ15N amino acid measurements in littoral mussels in the California upwelling ecosystem: a new approach to generating baseline δ15N Isoscapes for coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokhshoori, Natasha L; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    We explored δ(15)N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA) in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus) as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial δ(15)N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE), determining bulk δ(15)N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk δ(15)N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ∼ 7‰ to ∼ 12‰, R(2) = 0.759). In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The δ(15)N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline δ(15)N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low δ(15)N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC), with (15)N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in δ(15)N values of phenylalanine (δ(15)NPhe), the best AA proxy for baseline δ(15)N values. We hypothesize δ(15)N(Phe) values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated δ(15)N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used δ(15)N(Phe) values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production δ(15)N values. We propose that δ(15)N(Phe) isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline δ(15)N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives.

  16. Compound-specific δ15N amino acid measurements in littoral mussels in the California upwelling ecosystem: a new approach to generating baseline δ15N Isoscapes for coastal ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L Vokhshoori

    Full Text Available We explored δ(15N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial δ(15N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE, determining bulk δ(15N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk δ(15N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ∼ 7‰ to ∼ 12‰, R(2 = 0.759. In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The δ(15N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline δ(15N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low δ(15N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC, with (15N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in δ(15N values of phenylalanine (δ(15NPhe, the best AA proxy for baseline δ(15N values. We hypothesize δ(15N(Phe values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated δ(15N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used δ(15N(Phe values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production δ(15N values. We propose that δ(15N(Phe isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline δ(15N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives.

  17. Retinal vascular lesions in patients of Caucasian and Asian origin with type 2 diabetes - Baseline results from the ADVANCE Retinal Measurements (AdRem) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Ronald P.; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy; Hughes, Alun D.; Stanton, Alice; Lu, Juming; Patel, Anushka; Thom, Simon A. McG.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Vingerling, Johannes R.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The objective of this study was to describe prevalent vascular retinal lesions among patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the ADVANCE Retinal Measurements (AdRem) study, a substudy of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVAN

  18. Therapeutic magnetic microcarriers characterization by measuring magnetophoretic attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Ibacache, Guillermo

    Micro/nano robots are considered a promising approach to conduct minimally invasive interventions. We have proposed to embed magnetic nanoparticles in therapeutic or diagnostic agents in order to magnetically control them. A modified clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner is used to provide the driving force that allows these magnetically embedded microcarriers to navigate the vascular human network. By using specific Magnetic Resonance (MR) gradient sequences this method has been validated in previous research works. Magnetophoresis is the term used to describe the fact that a magnetic particle changes its trajectory under the influence of a magnetic force while being carried by a fluid flow. This movement depends on the particle's magnetic characteristics, the particle's geometric shape, the fluid flow's attributes and other factors. In our proposed method, magnetic microcarriers can be produced in several different ways, and so their response will differ to the same magnetic force and fluid flow conditions. The outcome of the therapeutic treatment using our method depends on the adequate selection of the therapeutic and/or diagnosis agents to be used. The selected therapeutic and/or diagnosis magnetic microcarrier also influences the selection of the MR gradient sequence that best fit for a given treatment. This master's thesis presents the design of a device intended to assess the magnetophoretic properties of magnetic therapeutic microcarriers and/or diagnostic agents. Such characterization is essential for determining the optimal sequences of magnetic gradients to deflect their trajectory through relatively complex vascular networks in order to reach a pre-defined target. A microfluidic device was fabricated to validate the design. Magnetophoretic velocities are measured and a simple tracking method is proposed. The preliminary experimental results indicate that, despite some limitations, the proposed technique has the potential to be appropriate

  19. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  20. Measurement of Coordinate Parameter by Multi-baseline Digital Close-range Photogrammetry System and Data Analysis for Jujube%枣树坐标参数的数字近景摄影测量及数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田璐洋; 李春友; 孟平; 张劲松

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to explore the measurement of coordinate parameter by multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system. [ Method ] The 3-dimensional coordinate of 8-year-old Jujube was measured by using Lensphoto multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system, and through comparing with measured data of total station, the error and accuracy of photogrammetry data were analyzed.[ Result ] The absolute error of X, Y and Z coordinate was 0 - 0.014,0 - 0. 018 and 0 - 0. 004 m respectively, and the relative error of X, Y and Z coordinate was less than 0. 145%. The significance test of pairs for the photogrammetry data and measured data of total station indicated that the space coordinate data of stumpage were accurately measured by using the multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry method,and the photogrammetry data meet the need of space coordinate measurement for virtual plant growth simulation. [ Conclusion ] This study has provided theoretical basis for the growth measurement of virtual plant growth simulation.%[目的]研究枣树坐标参数的数字近景摄影测量.[方法]应用Lensphoto多基线数字近景摄影测量系统,对8年生枣树的三维坐标参数进行了近景摄影测量,并将摄影测量数据与全站仪测量数据进行了比较.[结果]对于较多小细枝的枣树,X、Y、Z坐标的绝时误差分别为0~0.014、0~0.018、0~0.004 m,相对误差均低于0.145%.摄影测量坐标值和真值配对数据的显著性检验和线性回归分析表明,该测量方法能够获得真实可靠的数据,做到精准监测,满足虚拟植物生长模拟的坐标数据测定要求.[结论]为虚拟植物模拟的树木生长观测提供了理论依据.

  1. Measurement of Coordinate Parameter by Multi-baseline Digital Close-range Photogrammetry System and Data Analysis for Jujube%枣树坐标参数的数字近景摄影测量及数据分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田璐洋; 李春友; 孟平; 张劲松

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore the measurement of coordinate parameter by multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system. [Method] The 3-dimensional coordinate of 8-year-old Jujube was measured by using Lensphoto multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system, and through comparing with measured data of Total Station, the error and accuracy of photogrammetry data were analyzed.[Result] The absolute error of X, Y and Z coordinate was 0 - 0.014, 0 - 0.018 and 0 - 0.004 m respectively, and the relative error of X, Y and Z coordinate was less than 0.145%. The significance test of pairs for the photogrammetry data and measured data of Total Station indicated that the space coordinate data of stumpage were accurately measured by using the multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry method, and the photogrammetry data meet the need of space coordinate measurement for virtual plant growth simulation. [Conclusion] This study had provided theoretical basis for the growth measurement of virtual plant growth simulation.%[目的]研究枣树坐标参数的数字近景摄影测量.[方法]应用Lensphoto多基线数字近景摄影测量系统,对8年生枣树的三维坐标参数进行了近景摄影测量,并将摄影测量数据与全站仪测量数据进行了比较.[结果]对于较多小细枝的枣树,X、Y、Z坐标的绝对误差分别为0~0.014、0~0.018、0~0.004 m,相对误差均低于0.145%.摄影测量坐标值和真值配对数据的显著性检验和线性回归分析表明,该测量方法能够获得真实可靠的数据,做到精准监测,满足虚拟植物生长模拟的坐标数据测定要求.[结论]为虚拟植物模拟的树木生长观测提供了理论依据.

  2. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements

  3. Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.

  4. Progress in nanoparticles characterization:Sizing and zeta potential measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renliang Xu

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of various nanoparticles is on the center stage in nanotechnology development. The subjects for nanoparticles characterization are focused on particle size and particle surface charge determinations. This article summarizes the latest development in particle size analysis using dynamic light scattering and surface charge determination using electrophoretic light scattering for nano- or even sub-nanoparticles in concentrated suspensions.

  5. Accuracy characterization and measurement point planning for workpiece localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    [1]Ding, H., Zhu, L. M., Xiong, Z. H., A survey on coordinate measurement, geometric modeling and PR or NC code generation from measured data points, Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2003, 39(11): 28-37.[2]Zhu, L. M., Xiong, Z. H., Ding, H. et al., A distance function based approach for localization and profile error evaluation of complex surface, Transactions of ASME, Journal of Manufacturing Science & Engineering, 2004, 126(3): 542-554.[3]Zhu, L. M., Ding, H., Application of kinematic geometry to computational metrology: distance function based heirarchical algorithms for cylindricity evaluation, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 2003, 43(2): 203-215.[4]Li, Z., Gou, J., Chu, Y., Geometric algorithms for workpiece localization, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 1998, 14: 864-878.[5]Sourlier, D., Bucher, A., Surface-independent, theoretically exact bestfit for arbitrary sculptured, complex, or standard geometries, Precision Engineering, 1995, 17: 101-113.[6]Forbes, A. B., Least-squares best-fit geometric elements, in Algorithms for Approximation II (ed. Mason, J. C., Cox, M. G.), London: Chapman and Hall, 1990, 311-319.[7]Hong, J. W., Tan, X. L., Method and apparatus for determining position and orientation of mechanical objects, U.S. Patent 5208763, 1990.[8]Yan, Z. C., Meng, C. H., Uncertainty analysis and variation reduction of three-dimensional coordinate metrology, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 1999, 39: 1199-1261.[9]Yau, H. T., Uncertainty analysis in geometric best fit, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 1998, 38: 1323-1342.[10]Murray, R. M., Li, Z., Sastry, S. S., A Mathematical Introduction to Robotic Manipulation, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1994.[11]Wang, M. Y., Characterizations of localization accuracy of fixtures, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 2002, 18(6): 976-981.[12]Chu, Y. X., Gou, J. B., Li, Z. X

  6. Characterization of Si nanostructures using internal quantum efficiency measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZAIDI,SALEEM H.

    2000-04-01

    Hemispherical reflectance and internal quantum efficiency measurements have been employed to evaluate the response of Si nanostructured surfaces formed by using random and periodic reactive ion etching techniques. Random RIE-textured surfaces have demonstrated solar weighted reflectance of {approx} 3% over 300--1,200-nm spectral range even without the benefit of anti-reflection films. Random RIE-texturing has been found to be applicable over large areas ({approximately} 180 cm{sup 2}) of both single and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Due to the surface contamination and plasma-induced damage, RIE-textured surfaces did not initially provide increased short circuit current as expected from the enhanced absorption. Improved processing combined with wet-chemical damage removal etches resulted in significant improvement in the short circuit current with IQEs comparable to the random, wet-chemically textured surfaces. An interesting feature of the RIE-textured surfaces was their superior performance in the near IR spectral range. The response of RIE-textured periodic surfaces can be broadly classified into three distinct regimes. One-dimensional grating structures with triangular profiles are characterized by exceptionally low, polarization-independent reflective behavior. The reflectance response of such surfaces is similar to a graded-index anti-reflection film. The IQE response from these surfaces is severely degraded in the UV-Visible spectral region due to plasma-induced surface damage. One-dimensional grating structures with rectangular profiles exhibit spectrally selective absorptive behavior with somewhat similar IQE response. The third type of grating structure combines broadband anti-reflection behavior with significant IQE enhancement in 800--1,200-nm spectral region. The hemispherical reflectance of these 2D grating structures is comparable to random RIE-textured surfaces. The IQE enhancement in the long wavelength spectral region can be attributed to

  7. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  8. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-09-30

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of September 30, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that dellinate the differences between this revision and revision 4 (May 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  9. Baseline Hearing Measurements in Alaskan Belugas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Marine mammal research permit #14245), Alaska Department of Fish and Game, the Georgia Aquarium and the Alaska Sealife Center. The work involved...restrained animals using auditory evoked potential (AEP) methods (Fig 1). Representatives from NMML, ADF&G, Georgia Aquarium and others were simultaneously...PROJECTS 1) Beluga tagging Health Assessment- NMML/ Georgia Aquarium . Collaborators: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Alaska Sealife Center

  10. Baseline Noise Measurements at Vandenberg AFB, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    rl1 P1 ~ ~ ’ ai 10 10ih hihi hiWfNW N N N WI h q N N N N N NN N NPWNW * ~ ~ ~ i 0 n im w wi..1- oniiiiiihhh.1P -W h ~ ih w i hi i - Ma Mn i hhhi N N I...CCCMCC0ACC. 4 4;; l;1;9 4CPI* ACCA . 9 ; 4 1 4 #mr nvvr.&%0naof w# ed .4 in l-4P" a a .4 mIAPl~ PlC C4 toi v rm--0ow.in .4 m t a A Cr l %n .Cl w o m a m ww...011U 1 1444110 1I5I511 V4 12 1" 1".W~ fl r.i f s M nwi 1 d1C0.4 t- *1 w 40 . 14 f0 I 1 * -W n v w in in An - P1 o, 00 u X Mu "Ag M mwN4 mf m4 400 05Nf

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  12. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  13. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  14. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Padros, Gloria; Montero, Abelardo; Gimenez-Argente, Carme; Corbella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years. Methods Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin. Results Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02), and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (PTinetti gait scale) (P<0.001), less percentage of heart failure (P=0.03) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P=0.03), and took less chronic prescription drugs (P=0.002) than nonsurvivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a decreased score in the Lawton index (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.91) and higher comorbidity conditions (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 1.08–1.33) as independent predictors of mortality at 5 years in the studied population. Conclusion The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and the global comorbidity assessed at baseline were the predictors of death, identified in our 85-year-old community-dwelling subjects after 5 years of follow-up. PMID:27143867

  15. Generation and characterization of biological aerosols for laser measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Barr, E.B.

    1995-12-01

    Concerns for proliferation of biological weapons including bacteria, fungi, and viruses have prompted research and development on methods for the rapid detection of biological aerosols in the field. Real-time instruments that can distinguish biological aerosols from background dust would be especially useful. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a laser-based, real-time instrument for rapid detection of biological aerosols, and ITRI is working with SNL scientists and engineers to evaluate this technology for a wide range of biological aerosols. This paper describes methods being used to generate the characterize the biological aerosols for these tests. In summary, a biosafe system has been developed for generating and characterizing biological aerosols and using those aerosols to test the SNL laser-based real-time instrument. Such tests are essential in studying methods for rapid detection of airborne biological materials.

  16. Material Characterization Improvement in High Temperature Rectangular Waveguide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    house for work when I wanted to spend time with you! Thank you for being so well behaved. To Dr. Havrilla , my advisor and best professor, who put up...his analysis has left-right gaps, with the sample in the center. Havrilla has used 7 a perturbational method to compensate for small gaps in a PFW, but...NY, 2001. 17. Havrilla , M. J. Analytical and Experimental Techniques for the Electromagnetic Characterization of Materials. Ph.D. thesis, Michigan

  17. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  18. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  19. Characterization of perovskite solar cells: Towards a reliable measurement protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zimmermann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead halide perovskite solar cells have shown a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency with reported record efficiencies of over 20% making this material very promising as a low cost alternative to conventional inorganic solar cells. However, due to a differently severe “hysteretic” behaviour during current density-voltage measurements, which strongly depends on scan rate, device and measurement history, preparation method, device architecture, etc., commonly used solar cell measurements do not give reliable or even reproducible results. For the aspect of commercialization and the possibility to compare results of different devices among different laboratories, it is necessary to establish a measurement protocol which gives reproducible results. Therefore, we compare device characteristics derived from standard current density-voltage measurements with stabilized values obtained from an adaptive tracking of the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage as well as characteristics extracted from time resolved current density-voltage measurements. Our results provide insight into the challenges of a correct determination of device performance and propose a measurement protocol for a reliable characterisation which is easy to implement and has been tested on varying perovskite solar cells fabricated in different laboratories.

  20. Characterization of perovskite solar cells: Towards a reliable measurement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Eugen; Wong, Ka Kan; Müller, Michael; Hu, Hao; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Kohlstädt, Markus; Würfel, Uli; Mastroianni, Simone; Mathiazhagan, Gayathri; Hinsch, Andreas; Gujar, Tanaji P.; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Pfadler, Thomas; Schmidt-Mende, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Lead halide perovskite solar cells have shown a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency with reported record efficiencies of over 20% making this material very promising as a low cost alternative to conventional inorganic solar cells. However, due to a differently severe "hysteretic" behaviour during current density-voltage measurements, which strongly depends on scan rate, device and measurement history, preparation method, device architecture, etc., commonly used solar cell measurements do not give reliable or even reproducible results. For the aspect of commercialization and the possibility to compare results of different devices among different laboratories, it is necessary to establish a measurement protocol which gives reproducible results. Therefore, we compare device characteristics derived from standard current density-voltage measurements with stabilized values obtained from an adaptive tracking of the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage as well as characteristics extracted from time resolved current density-voltage measurements. Our results provide insight into the challenges of a correct determination of device performance and propose a measurement protocol for a reliable characterisation which is easy to implement and has been tested on varying perovskite solar cells fabricated in different laboratories.

  1. PSF and MTF Measurement Methods for Thick CCD Sensor Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Kotov, I.; Frank, J.; O' Connor, P.; Radeka, V.; Lawrence, D.M.

    2010-06-30

    Knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) of the sensors to be used in the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) camera is essential for optimal extraction of subtle galaxy shape distortions caused by gravitational weak lensing. We have developed a number of techniques for measuring the PSF of candidate CCD sensors to be used in the LSST camera, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The two main optical PSF measurement techniques that we use are the direct Virtual Knife Edge (VKE) scan as developed by Karcher, et al. and the indirect interference fringe method after Andersen and Sorensen that measures the modulation transfer function (MTF) directly. The PSF is derived from the MTF by Fourier transform. Other non-optical PSF measurement techniques that we employ include {sup 55}Fe x-ray cluster image size measurements and statistical distribution analysis, and cosmic ray muon track size measurements, but are not addressed here. The VKE technique utilizes a diffraction-limited spot produced by a Point-Projection Microscope (PPM) that is scanned across the sensor with sub-pixel resolution. This technique closely simulates the actual operating condition of the sensor in the telescope with the source spot size having an f/number close to the actual telescope design value. The interference fringe method uses a simple equal-optical-path Michelson-type interferometer with a single-mode fiber source that produces interference fringes with 100% contrast over a wide spatial frequency range sufficient to measure the MTF of the sensor directly. The merits of each measurement technique and results from the various measurement techniques on prototype LSST sensors are presented and compared.

  2. Optical Measurement System for Motion Characterization of Surface Mount Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song; AN Bing; ZHANG Tong-jun; XIE Yong-jun

    2006-01-01

    Advanced testing methods for the dynamics of mechanical microdevices are necessary to develop reliable,marketable microelectromechanical systems. A system for measuring the nanometer motions of microscopic structures has been demonstrated. Stop-action images of a target have been obtained with computer microvision,microscopic interferometry,and stroboscopic illuminator. It can be developed for measuring the in-plane-rigid-body motions,surface shapes,out-of-plane motions and deformations of microstructures. A new algorithm of sub-pixel step length correlation template matching is proposed to extract the in-plane displacement from vision images. Hariharan five-step phase-shift interferometry algorithm and unwrapping algorithms are adopted to measure the out-of-plane motions. It is demonstrated that the system can measure the motions of solder wetting in surface mount technology(SMT).

  3. Evaluation of current tropospheric mapping functions by Deep Space Network very long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovers, O. J.; Lanyi, G. E.

    1994-01-01

    To compare the validity of current algorithms that map zenith tropospheric delay to arbitrary elevation angles, 10 different tropospheric mapping functions are used to analyze the current data base of Deep Space Network Mark 3 intercontinental very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) data. This analysis serves as a stringent test because of the high proportion of low-elevation observations necessitated by the extremely long baselines. Postfit delay and delay-rate residuals are examined, as well as the scatter of baseline lengths about the time-linear model that characterizes tectonic motion. Among the functions that utilize surface meteorological data as input parameters, the Lanyi 1984 mapping shows the best performance both for residuals and baselines, through the 1985 Davis function is statistically nearly identical. The next best performance is shown by the recent function of Niell, which is based on an examination of global atmospheric characteristics as a function of season and uses no weather data at the time of the measurements. The Niell function shows a slight improvement in residuals relative to Lanyi, but also an increase in baseline scatter that is significant for the California-Spain baseline. Two variants of the Chao mapping function, as well as the Chao tables used with the interpolation algorithm employed in the Orbit Determination Program software, show substandard behavior for both VLBI residuals and baseline scatter. The length of the California-Australia baseline (10,600 km) in the VLBI solution can vary by as much as 5 to 10 cm for the 10 mapping functions.

  4. In vivo characterization of ischemic small intestine using bioimpedance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand-Amundsen, R J; Tronstad, C; Kalvøy, H; Gundersen, Y; Krohn, C D; Aasen, A O; Holhjem, L; Reims, H M; Martinsen, Ø G; Høgetveit, J O; Ruud, T E; Tønnessen, T I

    2016-02-01

    The standard clinical method for the assessment of viability in ischemic small intestine is still visual inspection and palpation. This method is non-specific and unreliable, and requires a high level of clinical experience. Consequently, viable tissue might be removed, or irreversibly damaged tissue might be left in the body, which may both slow down patient recovery. Impedance spectroscopy has been used to measure changes in electrical parameters during ischemia in various tissues. The physical changes in the tissue at the cellular and structural levels after the onset of ischemia lead to time-variant changes in the electrical properties. We aimed to investigate the use of bioimpedance measurement to assess if the tissue is ischemic, and to assess the ischemic time duration. Measurements were performed on pigs (n = 7) using a novel two-electrode setup, with a Solartron 1260/1294 impedance gain-phase analyser. After induction of anaesthesia, an ischemic model with warm, full mesenteric arterial and venous occlusion on 30 cm of the jejunum was implemented. Electrodes were placed on the serosal surface of the ischemic jejunum, applying a constant voltage, and measuring the resulting electrical admittance. As a control, measurements were done on a fully perfused part of the jejunum in the same porcine model. The changes in tan δ (dielectric parameter), measured within a 6 h period of warm, full mesenteric occlusion ischemia in seven pigs, correlates with the onset and duration of ischemia. Tan δ measured in the ischemic part of the jejunum differed significantly from the control tissue, allowing us to determine if the tissue was ischemic or not (P < 0.0001, F = (1,75.13) 188.19). We also found that we could use tan δ to predict ischemic duration. This opens up the possibility of real-time monitoring and assessment of the presence and duration of small intestinal ischemia.

  5. Single-baseline-interferometry-based Orbit Measurement and Determination Test of GEO Satellite%基于单基线干涉测量的GEO卫星轨道测定与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天鹏; 曹建峰; 唐歌实; 戴一堂; 陈略; 孙靖; 韩松涛; 路伟涛; 王美

    2016-01-01

    As a kind of passive measurement, the interferometry has a natural advantage to track a non-cooperative spatial target. Through applying a 5.5km-baseline interferometry system, a differential interferometry test is done on a GEO satellite. After introducing group-delay-aided phase delay, the measured noise of the interferometry delay is about 9.4ps (root mean square of the linear fitting residuals in each 300 seconds). Following a differential observation as "2-hour-calibration~13-hour-tracking~2-hour-calibration", the accuracy of the interferometry delay is about 0.267ns (rms). The maximum difference between solved orbit and precise ephemeris is about 35.7km. Results show that the single-baseline interferometry can converge to the solution of GEO satellite orbit, which would bring a high-accuracy orbit even as passive monitoring.%干涉测量具有被动式测量特点,对空间非合作目标轨道监测具有天然优势.利用5.5公里基线干涉测量系统,针对GEO卫星开展了差分干涉测量实验.引入群时延辅助的相时延处理技术,GEO卫星干涉测量噪声约9.4ps.基于"2小时标校-13小时跟踪-2小时标校"的长时差分观测模式,GEO卫星干涉测量误差约0.267ns,定轨解算星历与精密星历最大径向偏差为35.7公里.结果表明,单基线干涉测量可以收敛解算GEO卫星轨道,实现较高精度的GEO卫星轨道被动式监测.

  6. Characterizing entanglement with global and marginal entropic measures

    CERN Document Server

    Adesso, G; De Siena, S; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Siena, Silvio De

    2003-01-01

    We qualify the entanglement of arbitrary mixed states of bipartite quantum systems by comparing global and marginal mixednesses quantified by different entropic measures. For systems of two qubits we discriminate the class of maximally entangled states with fixed marginal mixednesses, and determine an analytical upper bound relating the entanglement of formation to the marginal linear entropies. This result partially generalizes to mixed states the quantification of entaglement with marginal mixednesses holding for pure states. We identify a class of entangled states that, for fixed marginals, are globally more mixed than product states when measured by the linear entropy. Such states cannot be discriminated by the majorization criterion.

  7. Display measuring system СМ-100 for LCD characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sorokin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Creation of new liquid crystal displays and their adaptation for different external environments are impossible without correct diagnosing of wide range of electro-optical effects inherent to nematic, smectic and cholesteric liquid crystal materials. The modern universal display measuring complexes allow to solve this problem. Among different display measuring complexes those are wide used in the world for scientific centers and enterprises in Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine the complex CM-100, which has been developed in Institute of Semiconductor Phisics of NAS of Ukraine, is the most suitable.

  8. Measurements and Characterizations of Mechanical Properties of Human Skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han Wook; Park, Yon Kyu

    A skin is an indispensible organ for humans because it contributes to metabolism using its own biochemical functions and protects the human body from external stimuli. Recently, mechanical properties such as a thickness, a friction and an elastic coefficient have been used as a decision index in the skin physiology and in the skin care market due to the increased awareness of wellbeing issues. In addition, the use of mechanical properties is known to have good discrimination ability in the classification of human constitutions, which are used in the field of an alternative medicine. In this study, a system that measures mechanical properties such as a friction and an elastic coefficient is designed. The equipment consists of a load cell type (manufactured by the authors) for the measurements of a friction coefficient, a decompression tube for the measurement of an elastic coefficient. Using the proposed system, the mechanical properties of human skins from different constitutions were compared, and the relative repeatability error for measurements of mechanical properties was determined to be less than 2%. Combining the inspection results of medical doctors in the field of an alternative medicine, we could conclude that the proposed system might be applicable to a quantitative constitutional diagnosis between human constitutions within an acceptable level of uncertainty.

  9. Extended measurement setup for transient TEM waveguide characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briest, Niklas; Garbe, Heyno; Potthast, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    This paper discusses a field measurement method, based on a two-antenna setup, to qualify the transmission of transient signals inside a GTEM cell. The transmission characteristic of the GTEM1250 is evaluated by the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and is presented with a heatmap. Due to deviations of the uncertainty contribution of the field homogeneity, the frequency band around 100 MHz is evaluated and its effect to the PCC is discussed. Therefore, a comparable narrowband transient signal, a damped sinusoidal (DS) is used. Furthermore, a detailed discussion focussing on nonlinear and distorting effects of the GTEM1250 is performed. The measurements in time domain (TD) identify comparable high secondary E-field components in the propagation direction, which are characteristic for higher order modes. Based on the same setup, another measurement is performed in frequency domain (FD) and relates the phase response of the GTEM cell to the above mentioned effects. According to the measured phase response the propagation time is discussed to investigate the distorting effects caused by higher order modes.

  10. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  11. Remote Characterization of Biomass Measurements: Case Study of Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.

    2010-01-01

    Accurately quantifying forest biomass is of crucial importance for climate change studies. By quantifying the amount of above and below ground biomass and consequently carbon stored in forest ecosystems, we are able to derive estimates of carbon sequestration, emission and storage and help close the carbon budget. Mangrove forests, in addition to providing habitat and nursery grounds for over 1300 animal species, are also an important sink of biomass. Although they only constitute about 3% of the total forested area globally, their carbon storage capacity -- in forested biomass and soil carbon -- is greater than that of tropical forests (Lucas et al, 2007). In addition, the amount of mangrove carbon -- in the form of litter and leaves exported into offshore areas is immense, resulting in over 10% of the ocean's dissolved organic carbon originating from mangroves (Dittmar et al, 2006) The measurement of forest above ground biomass is carried out on two major scales: on the plot scale, biomass can be measured using field measurements through allometric equation derivation and measurements of forest plots. On the larger scale, the field data are used to calibrate remotely sensed data to obtain stand-wide or even regional estimates of biomass. Currently, biomass can be calculated using average stand biomass values and optical data, such as aerial photography or satellite images (Landsat, Modis, Ikonos, SPOT, etc.). More recent studies have concentrated on deriving forest biomass values using radar (JERS, SIR-C, SRTM, Airsar) and/or lidar (ICEsat/GLAS, LVIS) active remote sensing to retrieve more accurate and detailed measurements of forest biomass. The implementation of a generation of new active sensors (UAVSar, DesdynI, Alos/Palsar, TerraX) has prompted the development of new tecm'liques of biomass estimation that use the combination of multiple sensors and datasets, to quantify past, current and future biomass stocks. Focusing on mangrove forest biomass estimation

  12. Vehicular-to-vehicular channel characterization and measurement results

    OpenAIRE

    CAMPUZANO CANDEL, ANDRÉS JOSÉ; FERNÁNDEZ GONZÁLEZ, HERMAN ANTONIO; BALAGUER ANDRÉS, DAVID; Vila Jiménez, Antonio; Bernardo Clemente, Bernardo; Rodrigo Peñarrocha, Vicent Miquel; Reig, Juan; Valero-Nogueira, Alejandro; Rubio Arjona, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular-to-Vehicular (V2V) communications are receiving considerable attention due to the introduction of the intelligent transportation system (ITS) concept. To design, evaluate and optimize ITS applications oriented to vehicular safety based on wireless systems, the knowledge of the propagation channel is vital, in particular the path loss. From a narrowband V2V channel measurements campaign carried out in a suburban area of the city of Valencia (Spain), this paper...

  13. Advanced optical measurements for characterizing photophysical properties of single nanoparticles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Ronen; Davis, Ryan W.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan Marie; Wheeler, David Roger

    2009-09-01

    Formation of complex nanomaterials would ideally involve single-pot reaction conditions with one reactive site per nanoparticle, resulting in a high yield of incrementally modified or oriented structures. Many studies in nanoparticle functionalization have sought to generate highly uniform nanoparticles with tailorable surface chemistry necessary to produce such conjugates, with limited success. In order to overcome these limitations, we have modified commercially available nanoparticles with multiple potential reaction sites for conjugation with single ssDNAs, proteins, and small unilamellar vesicles. These approaches combined heterobifunctional and biochemical template chemistries with single molecule optical methods for improved control of nanomaterial functionalization. Several interesting analytical results have been achieved by leveraging techniques unique to SNL, and provide multiple paths for future improvements for multiplex nanoparticle synthesis and characterization. Hyperspectral imaging has proven especially useful for assaying substrate immobilized fluorescent particles. In dynamic environments, temporal correlation spectroscopies have been employed for tracking changes in diffusion/hydrodynamic radii, particle size distributions, and identifying mobile versus immobile sample fractions at unbounded dilution. Finally, Raman fingerprinting of biological conjugates has been enabled by resonant signal enhancement provided by intimate interactions with nanoparticles and composite nanoshells.

  14. Searching for neutrino oscillation parameters in long baseline experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vihonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Developing neutrino astronomy requires a good understanding of the neutrino oscillations mechanism. The European strategy for neutrino oscillation physics sets a high priority on future long baseline neutrino experiments with the aim to measure the intrinsic parameters that govern the neutrino oscillations. In this work we take a look at the next generation of long baseline experiments and discuss their prospects in future research.

  15. New dicationic piperidinium hexafluorophosphate ILs, synthesis, characterization and dielectric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boumediene Haddad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new class of dicationic ionic liquids (ILs were synthesized for electrochemical applications at high temperatures. The syntheses are based on a dialkylation reaction of N-alkylpiperidine followed by anion exchange. The structures of ILs, based on piperidinium combined with hexafluorophosphate anion, were identified by using 1H, 13C, 19F, 31P NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. ILs’ thermal properties were investigated in the temperature range from −50 to 350 °C by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. In the frequency of 10−2–106 Hz range, dielectric measurements were performed on ILs’ samples at various temperatures from −80 to 20 °C, i.e. around the glass transition temperature. The peak relaxation was observed near to this temperature. Also, the conductivity was investigated and the energy activation determined. The temperature dependence of the relaxation times was shown to be governed by the Arrhenius equation.

  16. Baseline Removal From EMG Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    a time-varying baseline contamination. Acknowledgements: Work funded by the Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarrra and by a Spanish MEC...Name(s) and Address(es) Departamento de Ingenieria Electra y Electronica Universidad Publica de Navarra Pamplona, Spain Performing Organization Report

  17. Characterizations of bivariate models using dynamic Kullbak-Leibler discrimination measures

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, J.; S. M. Sunoj; Linu, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper the residual Kullback-Leibler discrimination information measure is extended to conditionally specified models. The extension is used to characterize some bivariate distributions. These distributions are also characterized in terms of proportional hazard rate models and weighted distributions. Moreover, we also obtain some bounds for this dynamic discrimination function by using the likelihood ratio order and some preceding results. correspondence: ...

  18. Measurement-based characterization of multipixel avalanche photodiodes for scintillating detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Dziewiecki, M

    2012-01-01

    Multipixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD) are recently gaining popularity in high energy physics experiments as an attractive replacement for photomultiplier tubes, which have been extensively used for many years as a part of various scintillating detectors. Their low price, small dimensions and another features facilitating their use (like mechanical shock resistance, magnetic field immunity or moderate supply voltage) make the MAPDs a good choice for commercial use as well, what is reflected in growing number of producers as well as MAPD models available on the market. This dissertation presents Author’s experience with MAPD measurements and modelling, gained during his work on the T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) long-baseline neutrino experiment, carried out by an international collaboration in Japan. First, operation principle of the MAPD, definitions of various parameters and measurement methods are discussed. Then, a device for large-scale MAPD measurements and related data processing methods are described. Fina...

  19. From micro- to nanosized particles: Selected characterization methods and measurable parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nayla Sabbagh-Kupelwieser; Anne Maisser; Wladyslaw W.Szymanski

    2011-01-01

    Airborne micro- and nanoparticles-aerosols - play an important role in many natural phenomena and in a variety of industrial processes, as well as the public health issue. They may be of natural or anthropogenic origin; their presence in an environment might be intentional or due to undesirable release. In any case, merely the particle detection and characterization, ideally in real-time, provide an insight into the potential burden allowing also controlling and abatement measures. Due to the broad size range it is not possible to characterize the entire particle spectrum with only one method. This contribution discusses selected optical techniques based on elastic light scattering, which are suitable for characterization of micrometer sized particles and particular electrical techniques allowing measurement of nanoparticles.It is shown that combination of instruments measuring different properties of the same nanoparticles offers derivative parameters contributing to more complete characterization of aerosols.

  20. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  1. Uncertainties of size measurements in electron microscopy characterization of nanomaterials in foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dudkiewicz, Agnieszka; Boxall, Alistair B. A.; Chaudhry, Qasim;

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy is a recognized standard tool for nanomaterial characterization, and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for the size measurement of nanomaterials in food. Despite this, little data have been published assessing the reliability of the method, especially for size...... measurement of nanomaterials characterized by a broad size distribution and/or added to food matrices. This study is a thorough investigation of the measurement uncertainty when applying electron microscopy for size measurement of engineered nanomaterials in foods. Our results show that the number of measured...... particles was only a minor source of measurement uncertainty for nanomaterials in food, compared to the combined influence of sampling, sample preparation prior to imaging and the image analysis. The main conclusion is that to improve the measurement reliability, care should be taken to consider...

  2. Evidence of functional declining and global comorbidity measured at baseline proved to be the strongest predictors for long-term death in elderly community residents aged 85 years: a 5-year follow-up evaluation, the OCTABAIX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formiga F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Francesc Formiga,1,2 Assumpta Ferrer,3 Gloria Padros,4 Abelardo Montero,1,2 Carme Gimenez-Argente,1 Xavier Corbella1,2,5 On behalf of the Octabaix study members 1Internal Medicine Department, Geriatric Unit, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut Català de la Salut, 2Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute, IDIBELL, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, 3Primary Care Centre “El Plà”, Direcció d’Atenció Primària Costa de Ponent, Institut Català de la Salut, Sant Feliu de Llobregat, 4South Metropolitan Clinical Laboratory, Direcció d’Atenció Primària Costa de Ponent, Institut Català de la Salut, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, 5Albert J Jovell Institute of Public Health and Patients, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain Objective: To investigate the predictive value of functional impairment, chronic conditions, and laboratory biomarkers of aging for predicting 5-year mortality in the elderly aged 85 years.Methods: Predictive value for mortality of different geriatric assessments carried out during the OCTABAIX study was evaluated after 5 years of follow-up in 328 subjects aged 85 years. Measurements included assessment of functional status comorbidity, along with laboratory tests on vitamin D, cholesterol, CD4/CD8 ratio, hemoglobin, and serum thyrotropin.Results: Overall, the mortality rate after 5 years of follow-up was 42.07%. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who survived were predominantly female (P=0.02, and they showed a significantly better baseline functional status for both basic (P<0.001 and instrumental (P<0.001 activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index, better cognitive performance (Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (P<0.001, lower comorbidity conditions (Charlson (P<0.001, lower nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment (P<0.001, lower risk of falls (Tinetti gait scale (P<0.001, less percentage of heart failure (P=0

  3. Using Complexity Measure to Characterize Information Transmission of Human Brain Cortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐京华; 吴祥宝

    1994-01-01

    The information transmission among various parts of the cortex are computed with the the-ory of mutual information from the data of the electroencephalogram(EEG)time series of normal humansubjects.The intensities of these transmissions are characterized by the"complexity"measures.These mea-sures have revealed to be sensitively related to the functional conditions of human beings.

  4. A transparent Pyrex μ-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionigi, Fabio; Nielsen, Morten Godtfred; Pedersen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    -vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ∼0.4 and ∼4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical...... characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex μ-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic...

  5. A characterization of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies: case studies in food companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Araújo Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The postponement strategy is more and more used by companies with the increasing complexity and variety of products, currently required by the market. In essence, the postponement is used to delay as much as possible the final configuration and/or movement of products and services, until the demand known. Despite the increasing attention to the subject, little is known about is implementation, especially in the Brazilian food industry. This research aims to investigate how the postponement strategy is applied to food companies and what performance measures that can be used to evaluate the results of this application. To meet these goals were developed six exploratory case studies in orange juice and fruits processing companies. The results allow comparing the performance measures found in the literature with those obtained in empirical research and systematize them in order to obtain a list of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies.

  6. Characterization of the Caliban and Prospero Critical Assemblies Neutron Spectra for Integral Measurements Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Jacquet, X.; Cartier, J.

    2014-04-01

    Caliban and Prospero are two highly enriched uranium metallic core reactors operated on the CEA Center of Valduc. These critical assemblies are suitable for integral experiments, such as fission yields measurements or perturbation measurements, which have been carried out recently on the Caliban reactor. Different unfolding methods, based on activation foils and fission chambers measurements, are used to characterize the reactor spectra and especially the Caliban spectrum, which is very close to a pure fission spectrum.

  7. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, M. V.; Galymov, V.; Qian, X.; Rubbia, A.

    2016-10-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology, with a focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  8. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  9. Revisiting the BCS, a measurement system for characterizing the optics of solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, J. W.

    The Beam Characterization System is being employed at the Sandia's National Solar Thermal Test Facility to characterize the optical performance of heliostats, point-focus solar collectors, and their optical sub-elements as part of the on-going task to develop solar thermal technologies. With this measurement system, images of concentrated solar flux are acquired using digital imaging and processed to obtain such measures of the collector's optical performance as beam power, flux distribution, and beam diameter. Key system elements are a diffusely reflective target for imaging collector beams, meteorological instrumentation including a flux gauge to measure flux at one point in the beam, and a calibration technique to establish a pixel-intensity to flux-density conversion factor for the image. The system is employed in a variety of collector tests such as beam quality, tracking error, and wind effects. The paper describes the Beam Characterization System and its components and presents, for illustration, sample test results. An analysis of the Beam Characterization System's sources of measurement error is presented. Lastly, measurement techniques that employ the BCS to align heliostats and to measure or estimate collector surface slope errors are described.

  10. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  11. Baseline and benchmark model development for hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Edward T., Jr.

    The hotel industry currently faces rising energy costs and requires the tools to maximize energy efficiency. In order to achieve this goal a clear definition of the current methods used to measure and monitor energy consumption is made. Uncovering the limitations to the most common practiced analysis strategies and presenting methods that can potentially overcome those limitations is the main purpose. Techniques presented can be used for measurement and verification of energy efficiency plans and retrofits. Also, modern energy modeling tool are introduced to demonstrate how they can be utilized for benchmarking and baseline models. This will provide the ability to obtain energy saving recommendations and parametric analysis to explore energy savings potential. These same energy models can be used in design decisions for new construction. An energy model is created of a resort style hotel that over one million square feet and has over one thousand rooms. A simulation and detailed analysis is performed on a hotel room. The planning process for creating the model and acquiring data from the hotel room to calibrate and verify the simulation will be explained. An explanation as to how this type of modeling can potentially be beneficial for future baseline and benchmarking strategies for the hotel industry. Ultimately the conclusion will address some common obstacles the hotel industry has in reaching their full potential of energy efficiency and how these techniques can best serve them.

  12. Mexico City air quality research initiative. Volume IV. Characterization and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    This volume describes the methods and the data gathered in an attempt to measure and characterize the meteorological factors and the concentration of different pollutants in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. The main objective of this document was to provide input for the simulation models and to obtain information that could be used to test and improve the models` performance. Four field campaigns were conducted, as well as routine monitoring, in order to obtain a database of atmospheric dynamics and air pollution characteristics. Sections include Airborne measurements, Remote sensing measurements, and Traditional (in situ) measurements.

  13. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  14. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  15. Computer signal processing for ultrasonic attenuation and velocity measurements for material property characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.

    1979-01-01

    This report deals with instrumentation and computer programming concepts that have been developed for ultrasonic materials characterization. Methods that facilitate velocity and attenuation measurements are described. The apparatus described is based on a broadband, buffered contact probe using a pulse-echo approach for simultaneously measuring velocity and attenuation. Instrumentation, specimen condition, and signal acquisition and acceptance criteria are discussed. Typical results with some representative materials are presented.

  16. Characterization of biogas bibliography measures on sites; Caracterisation des Biogaz bibliographie mesures sur sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulleau, J.

    2002-10-15

    The aim of this study is to define the pollutants emissions related to the combustion of biogas of different sources: motors, furnaces, flares...The project is presented in three parts: a bibliographic study on the chemical characterization of the biogas, a first series of measures on production sites and a second series of measures on a site of valorization and destruction of biogas. (A.L.B.)

  17. Combining measurements to estimate properties and characterization extent of complex biochemical mixtures; applications to Heparan Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradines, Joël R.; Beccati, Daniela; Lech, Miroslaw; Ozug, Jennifer; Farutin, Victor; Huang, Yongqing; Gunay, Nur Sibel; Capila, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Complex mixtures of molecular species, such as glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans, have important biological and therapeutic functions. Characterization of these mixtures with analytical chemistry measurements is an important step when developing generic drugs such as biosimilars. Recent developments have focused on analytical methods and statistical approaches to test similarity between mixtures. The question of how much uncertainty on mixture composition is reduced by combining several measurements still remains mostly unexplored. Mathematical frameworks to combine measurements, estimate mixture properties, and quantify remaining uncertainty, i.e. a characterization extent, are introduced here. Constrained optimization and mathematical modeling are applied to a set of twenty-three experimental measurements on heparan sulfate, a mixture of linear chains of disaccharides having different levels of sulfation. While this mixture has potentially over two million molecular species, mathematical modeling and the small set of measurements establish the existence of nonhomogeneity of sulfate level along chains and the presence of abundant sulfate repeats. Constrained optimization yields not only estimations of sulfate repeats and sulfate level at each position in the chains but also bounds on these levels, thereby estimating the extent of characterization of the sulfation pattern which is achieved by the set of measurements.

  18. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  19. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  20. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB) - Webinar Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; Porro, Gian; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-13

    This deck was presented for the 2016 Annual Technology Baseline Webinar. The presentation describes the Annual Technology Baseline, which is a compilation of current and future cost and performance data for electricity generation technologies.

  1. Interpretation of photocurrent correlation measurements used for ultrafast photoconductive switch characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, R. H.; Birkelund, Karen; Holst, T.;

    1996-01-01

    Photocurrent correlation measurements used for the characterization of ultrafast photoconductive switches based on GaAs and silicon-on-sapphire are demonstrated. The correlation signal arises from the interplay of the photoexcited carriers, the dynamics of the bias field and a subsequent rechargi...

  2. Characterization of MOSFET dosimeters for low-dose measurements in maxillofacial anthropomorphic phantoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koivisto, J.H.; Wolff, J.E.; Kiljunen, T.; Schulze, D.; Kortesniemi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize reinforced metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters to assess the measurement uncertainty, single exposure low-dose limit with acceptable accuracy, and the number of exposures required to attain the corresponding limit of the t

  3. Characterization methodology for Difficult To Measure nuclides in the Type B rad waste from the ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Youngyong; Hong, Kwonpyo; Oh, Wanho; Kang, Munja; Na, Byungchan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In general, it is not possible to directly detect beta rays from the rad waste in the field measurement due to their extremely low penetration through the materials. Only lab-scale measurements with proper shield and detecting system are available for the nondestructive assay. However, the disposal sites in many countries require the determination of inventories of the difficult to-measure (DTM) nuclides in the waste before their acceptance for disposal. Many sites that generate rad wastes thus are adapting the indirect method to characterize the DTM nuclides in the rad waste to be disposed. The rad waste from the operation of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) will be sent to the hot cell building (HCB) after packing it to the basket and they are then treated into the disposal form as well as characterized through the nondestructive assay. The rad waste properties from the ITER are that high density material such as a steel, a copper, and a tungsten accounts for the main substance and many nuclides due to the neutron irradiation including the DTM nuclides exists in that waste. Therefore, the ITER is also facing with the problem for the characterization of DTM nuclides. The scaling factor for the radiological relationship between the gamma and the beta nuclides is one of the indirect measurements to characterize the DTM nuclides in the waste. The methodology of the scaling factor to apply this method to the characterization the Type B rad waste from the ITER are presented in this paper. There are several types of the in-vessel components (IVCs) in a Tokamak which will be activated by neutron and they will be divided into different types of the rad waste such as the divertor cassette, blanket module, and port plugs. In this paper, the characterization of DTM nuclides will be focused on the rad waste from a blanket module out of IVCs.

  4. Should Studies of Diabetes Treatment Stratification Correct for Baseline HbA1c?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus G Jones

    Full Text Available Baseline HbA1c is a major predictor of response to glucose lowering therapy and therefore a potential confounder in studies aiming to identify other predictors. However, baseline adjustment may introduce error if the association between baseline HbA1c and response is substantially due to measurement error and regression to the mean. We aimed to determine whether studies of predictors of response should adjust for baseline HbA1c.We assessed the relationship between baseline HbA1c and glycaemic response in 257 participants treated with GLP-1R agonists and assessed whether it reflected measurement error and regression to the mean using duplicate 'pre-baseline' HbA1c measurements not included in the response variable. In this cohort and an additional 2659 participants treated with sulfonylureas we assessed the relationship between covariates associated with baseline HbA1c and treatment response with and without baseline adjustment, and with a bias correction using pre-baseline HbA1c to adjust for the effects of error in baseline HbA1c.Baseline HbA1c was a major predictor of response (R2 = 0.19,β = -0.44,p<0.001.The association between pre-baseline and response was similar suggesting the greater response at higher baseline HbA1cs is not mainly due to measurement error and subsequent regression to the mean. In unadjusted analysis in both cohorts, factors associated with baseline HbA1c were associated with response, however these associations were weak or absent after adjustment for baseline HbA1c. Bias correction did not substantially alter associations.Adjustment for the baseline HbA1c measurement is a simple and effective way to reduce bias in studies of predictors of response to glucose lowering therapy.

  5. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Design and characterization of a multi-frequency bioimpedance measurement prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia Neto, O. E.; Porto, R. W.; Aya, J. C. C.

    2012-12-01

    A multi-frequency bioimpedance measurement prototype is proposed, validated and characterized. It consists of an Improved Howland Current Source controlled by voltage, a load voltage sensing scheme through a discrete 3-opamp instrumentation amplifier, a phase and quadrature demodulation setup through analog multipliers, and digitization and processing of the signals using a digital benchtop multimeter. The electrical characterization of the measurement channel was done for resistive loads only, on four different circuits. Measurements were made on 10 frequencies, from 100 kHz to 1 MHz, with 10 load resistances, from 100 Ω to 1 kΩ, to obtain linearity, absolute error and frequency response. The best performance among the four circuits was a maximum absolute error of 5.55 %, and -1.93 % of load current variation at the worst case scenario.

  7. Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jonghee; Park, HyunJoo; Choi, Chulhee; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of white blood cells (WBCs) is crucial for blood analyses and disease diagnoses. However, current standard techniques rely on cell labeling, a process which imposes significant limitations. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) optical measurements and the label-free characterization of mouse WBCs using optical diffraction tomography. 3D refractive index (RI) tomograms of individual WBCs are constructed from multiple two-dimensional quantitative phase images of samples illuminated at various angles of incidence. Measurements of the 3D RI tomogram of WBCs enable the separation of heterogeneous populations of WBCs using quantitative morphological and biochemical information. Time-lapse tomographic measurements also provide the 3D trajectory of micrometer-sized beads ingested by WBCs. These results demonstrate that optical diffraction tomography can be a useful and versatile tool for the study of WBCs.

  8. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  9. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  10. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwalla, S.K.; Aittola, M.; Alekou, A.; Andrieu, B.; Antoniou, F.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Autiero, D.; Besida, O.; Balik, A.; Ballett, P.; Bandac, I.; Banerjee, D.; Bartmann, W.; Bay, F.; Biskup, B.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Borriello, E.; Brancus, I.; Bravar, A.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Caiulo, D.; Calin, M.; Calviani, M.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Cata-Danil, G.; Chakraborty, S.; Charitonidis, N.; Chaussard, L.; Chesneanu, D.; Chipesiu, F.; Crivelli, P.; Dawson, J.; De Bonis, I.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Delbart, A.; Di Luise, S.; Duchesneau, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Eliseev, A.; Emery, S.; Enqvist, T.; Enqvist, K.; Epprecht, L.; Erykalov, A.N.; Esanu, T.; Franco, D.; Friend, M.; Galymov, V.; Gavrilov, G.; Gendotti, A.; Giganti, C.; Gilardoni, S.; Goddard, B.; Gomoiu, C.M.; Gornushkin, Y.A.; Gorodetzky, P.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Horikawa, S.; Huitu, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jipa, A.; Kainulainen, K.; Karadzhov, Y.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kopylov, A.N.; Korzenev, A.; Kosyanenko, S.; Kryn, D.; Kudenko, Y.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Lazanu, I.; Lazaridis, C.; Levy, J.M.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Margineanu, R.M.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Mari, C.; Matveev, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Mirizzi, A.; Mitrica, B.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Narita, S.; Nesterenko, D.A.; Nguyen, K.; Nikolics, K.; Noah, E.; Novikov, Yu.; Oprima, A.; Osborne, J.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pascoli, S.; Patzak, T.; Pectu, M.; Pennacchio, E.; Periale, L.; Pessard, H.; Popov, B.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Resnati, F.; Ristea, O.; Robert, A.; Rubbia, A.; Rummukainen, K.; Saftoiu, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sanchez-Galan, F.; Sarkamo, J.; Saviano, N.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Slupecki, M.; Smargianaki, D.; Stanca, D.; Steerenberg, R.; Sterian, A.R.; Sterian, P.; Stoica, S.; Strabel, C.; Suhonen, J.; Suvorov, V.; Toma, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsenov, R.; Tuominen, K.; Valram, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Vannucci, F.; Vasseur, G.; Velotti, F.; Velten, P.; Venturi, V.; Viant, T.; Vihonen, S.; Vincke, H.; Vorobyev, A.; Weber, A.; Wu, S.; Yershov, N.; Zambelli, L.; Zito, M.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  11. Optical Characterization of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injector for Gas Turbine Combustors: Velocity and Fuel Drop Size Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Christopher M.; Anderson, Robert C.; Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.

    2010-01-01

    Performance of a multipoint, lean direct injection (MP-LDI) strategy for low emission aero-propulsion systems has been tested in a Jet-A fueled, lean flame tube combustion rig. Operating conditions for the series of tests included inlet air temperatures between 672 and 828 K, pressures between 1034 and 1379 kPa and total equivalence ratios between 0.41 and 0.45, resulting in equilibrium flame temperatures approaching 1800 K. Ranges of operation were selected to represent the spectrum of subsonic and supersonic flight conditions projected for the next-generation of commercial aircraft. This document reports laser-based measurements of in situ fuel velocities and fuel drop sizes for the NASA 9-point LDI hardware arranged in a 3 3 square grid configuration. Data obtained represent a region of the flame tube combustor with optical access that extends 38.1-mm downstream of the fuel injection site. All data were obtained within reacting flows, without particle seeding. Two diagnostic methods were employed to evaluate the resulting flow path. Three-component velocity fields have been captured using phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), and two-component velocity distributions using planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). Data from these techniques have also offered insight into fuel drop size and distribution, fuel injector spray angle and pattern, turbulence intensity, degree of vaporization and extent of reaction. This research serves to characterize operation of the baseline NASA 9- point LDI strategy for potential use in future gas-turbine combustor applications. An additional motive is the compilation of a comprehensive database to facilitate understanding of combustor fuel injector aerodynamics and fuel vaporization processes, which in turn may be used to validate computational fluid dynamics codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC), among others.

  12. EQUIVALENT BASELINE AND INTERFEROMETRIC PHASE OF CLUSTER SATELLITE SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Min; Zhang Chuanwu; Huang Shunji

    2005-01-01

    The change of the equivalent baseline and interferometric phase of cluster SAR satellites is analyzed when the constellation circles around the Earth and the satellites rotate around the center at the same time. The letter provides assessment of baseline error and phase error which influence the precision of height measurement in the across-track interferometric mode. The mathematical model of cluster satellite movement is built, simulation analyses and the curve of height error are presented. The simulation results show that height measurement error can be compensated by the formulae derived in this letter, therefore, the Digital Elevation Models (DEM's) are recovered accurately.

  13. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  14. Characterizing Geothermal Surface Manifestation Based on Multivariate Geostatistics of Ground Measurements Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq; Nur Heriawan, Mohamad; Saepuloh, Asep

    2016-09-01

    Mt. Wayang Windu is one of geothermal field located in West Java, Indonesia. The characterization of steam spots at surface manifestation zones based on the soil physical measurements of the area is presented in this study. The multivariate geostatistical methods incorporating the soil physical parameter data were used to characterize the zonation of geothermal surface manifestations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of spatial estimation method of multivariate geostatistics using Ordinary Cokriging (COK) to characterize the physical properties of geothermal surface manifestations at Mt. Wayang Windu. The COK method was selected because this method is favorable when the secondary variables has more number than the primary variables. There are four soil physical parameters used as the basis of COK method, i.e. Electrical Conductivity, Susceptibility, pH, and Temperature. The parameters were measured directly at and around geothermal surface manifestations including hot springs, fumaroles, and craters. Each location of surface manifestations was measured about 30 points with 30 x 30 m grids. The measurement results were analyzed by descriptive statistics to identify at the nature of data. The correlation among variables was analyzed using linear regression. When the correlation coefficient among variables is higher, the estimation results is expected to have better Linear Coregionalization Model (LCM). LCM was used to analyze the spatial correlation of each variable based on their variogram and cross-variogram model. In oder to evaluate the performance of multivariate geostatistical using COK method, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was performed. Estimation result using COK method is well applicable for characterizing the surface physics parameters of radar images data.

  15. MALDI-TOF Baseline Drift Removal Using Stochastic Bernstein Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic Bernstein (SB approximation can tackle the problem of baseline drift correction of instrumentation data. This is demonstrated for spectral data: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF data. Two SB schemes for removing the baseline drift are presented: iterative and direct. Following an explanation of the origin of the MALDI-TOF baseline drift that sheds light on the inherent difficulty of its removal by chemical means, SB baseline drift removal is illustrated for both proteomics and genomics MALDI-TOF data sets. SB is an elegant signal processing method to obtain a numerically straightforward baseline shift removal method as it includes a free parameter that can be optimized for different baseline drift removal applications. Therefore, research that determines putative biomarkers from the spectral data might benefit from a sensitivity analysis to the underlying spectral measurement that is made possible by varying the SB free parameter. This can be manually tuned (for constant or tuned with evolutionary computation (for .

  16. Electrical Characterization of Semiconductor Diode Using Alternating Signal Measurements at Forward Bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋; 沈君; 朱传云; 李乐; 王存达

    2003-01-01

    The general analysis of the forward AC behavior of a semiconductor diode under series mode is pre-sented for the first time.A new method without any particular assumption to characterize a diode was developed. This method can accurately measure the dependence of series resistance, junction capacitance, junction vol-tage, ideality factor, and interfacial layer impedance on forward biases. The measurements confirm that the ne-gative capacitance (NC) of Schottky diode is an effect of the junction, and the interfacial layer can be consi-dered as a layer structure with nonlinear resistance and capacitance.

  17. Extreme Value Statistical Characterization of Time Domain Pulse-to-Pulse Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method, based on Extreme Value Theory (EV T), for predicting the worst case repeatability of time domain pulse-to-pulse measurements, modeled as independent and identically distributed random variables, is proposed. The method allows the use of the noise level of a measurement system for predicting the upcoming peak values over a given number of independent observations. The proposed analytical model is compared against simulated distributions generated in Matlab, highlighting satisfying match for any sample size.The simulations are based on a case study on the characterization of a pulsed power supply for the klystron modulators of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN.

  18. Design, construction, characterization and use of a detector to measure time of flight of cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, A. C.; Félix, J.

    2016-10-01

    In the study of cosmic rays, measurements of time of flight and momentum have been used to identify incident particles from its physical properties, like mass. In this poster we present the design, construction, characterization, and operation of a detector to measure time of flight of cosmic rays. The device is comprised of three plates of plastic scintillator arranged in vertical straight line, they are coupled to one photomultiplier tube. The analogical output has been connected to a data acquisition system to obtain the number of digital pulses per millisecond. We present preliminary results.

  19. Comparative characterization of two-electron wavefunctions using information-theory measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, I.A., E-mail: ihoward@vub.ac.b [Department of Chemistry (ALGC), Free University of Brussels (VUB), B-1050, Brussels, Belgium/Member of the QCMM-Alliance Ghent-Brussels (Belgium); Borgoo, A.; Geerlings, P. [Department of Chemistry (ALGC), Free University of Brussels (VUB), B-1050, Brussels, Belgium/Member of the QCMM-Alliance Ghent-Brussels (Belgium); Sen, K.D. [School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)

    2009-08-31

    Information-theory measures, in particular the Shannon entropy, Fisher information and statistical complexity, are used to discuss the variations among several commonly encountered model two-electron correlated wavefunctions. The Hookean, Moshinsky, and three-parameter Chandrasekhar wavefunctions are considered in real and momentum space, with further comparisons to the Hookean-Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunction of Ragot, the numerical HF limit, and the hydrogenic (pure Coulomb) limit. The purpose of the study is to quantitatively analyze the effect of different models for inclusion of electron-electron correlation on information-theoretical measures, including statistical complexity, which characterize the electron distribution in position and momentum space.

  20. Metrological characterization of a large aperture Fizeau for x-ray mirrors measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Freijo Martín, Idoia

    2015-06-01

    The European XFEL is a large facility under construction in Hamburg, Germany. It will provide a transversally fully coherent x-ray radiation with outstanding characteristics: high repetition rate (up to 2700 pulses with a 0.6 milliseconds long pulse train at 10Hz), short wavelength (down to 0.05 nm), short pulse (in the femtoseconds scale) and high average brilliance (1.61025 photons / s / mm2 / mrad2/ 0.1% bandwidth). Due to the very short wavelength and very high pulse energy, all the mirrors need to have high quality surface, to be very long, and at the same time to implement an effective cooling system. Matching these tight specifications and assessing them with high precision optical measurements is very challenging. In order to measure the mirrors and to characterize their interaction with the mechanical mounts, we equipped a Metrology Laboratory with a Large Aperture Fizeau. The system is a classical 100 mm diameter commercial Fizeau, with an additional expander providing a 300 mm diameter. Despite the commercial nature of the system, special care has been done in the polishing of the reference flats and in the expander quality. In this report, we show the preparation of the instrument, the calibration and the performance characterization, together with some preliminary results. We also describe the approach that we want to follow for the x-rays mirrors measurements. The final goal will be to characterize very long mirrors, almost 1 meter long, with nanometer accuracy.

  1. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzie, D.E.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, T. J.; Thakur, D. B.; Van der Meer, T. H.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon nano structures is achieved using thermal catalytic chemical vapor deposition process (TCCVD) on a 50 μm pure nickel (Ni270) wire. The micro wire samples covered with CNF layers were subjected to a uniform flow from a nozzle. Heat transfer measurement was achieved by a controlled heat dissipation through the micro wire to attain a constant temperature during the flow. This measurement technique is adopted from hot wire anemometry calibration method. Synthesis of carbon nano structures, heat transfer surface characterization and measurement technique are evaluated. Preliminary results indicate that an average enhancement in Nusselt Number of 17% is achieved.

  3. Ultrahigh precision nonlinear reflectivity measurement system for saturable absorber mirrors with self-referenced fluence characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsila, Lasse; Härkönen, Antti; Hyyti, Janne; Guina, Mircea; Steinmeyer, Günter

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of nonlinear optical reflectivity of saturable absorber devices is discussed. A setup is described that enables absolute accuracy of reflectivity measurements better than 0.3%. A repeatability within 0.02% is shown for saturable absorbers with few-percent modulation depth. The setup incorporates an in situ knife-edge characterization of beam diameters, making absolute reflectivity estimations and determination of saturation fluences significantly more reliable. Additionally, several measures are discussed to substantially improve the reliability of the reflectivity measurements. At its core, the scheme exploits the limits of state-of-the-art digital lock-in technology but also greatly benefits from a fiber-based master-oscillator power-amplifier source, the use of an integrating sphere, and simultaneous comparison with a linear reflectivity standard.

  4. Stable isotope measurements of carbon fractions (OC/EC) in airborne particulate: A new dimension for source characterization and apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L.; Brook, J. R.; Zhang, W.; Li, S. M.; Graham, L.; Ernst, D.; Chivulescu, A.; Lu, G.

    A method to measure 13C/ 12C ratios of individual carbon fractions of airborne particular matter (PM) from filter samples using a stepwise thermal desorption/combustion OC/EC analyzer (via thermal optical transmission, (TOT) coupled with gas chromatography separation, followed by isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) analysis has been developed. In the TOT instrument, carbon fractions are released at different temperature ranges and different redox conditions. Organic carbon fraction (OC) was released at a relatively low temperature ( T=550 °C), whereas, elemental carbon or black carbon fraction (EC or BC) was released at a high temperature ( T>800 °C) via combustion. A temperature step of 870 °C without oxygen was chosen to remove the impact of carbonate carbon (CC) and possible cross-impact from OC and EC. All the fractions were collected cryogenically and subject to carbon isotope measurements via GC-IRMS. To evaluate the precision, accuracy and linearity range of the measurements, the different types of blanks and standards were investigated, including OC (i.e. glucose, sucrose, n-Alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), CC (i.e. carbonates) and EC (i.e. carbon black and graphite). The overall precision and the accuracy of the method is ˜0.3‰. The method was applied to Pacific2001 aerosol samples from the Greater Vancouver area in Canada. The results show that good baseline separations in thermographs can be achieved for individual carbon fractions (i.e. OC and EC) using optimized temperature plateau and retention times; relative small difference in carbon isotopic composition between OC and EC ( ΔC=δ13C-δ13C) were found in tunnel samples, whereas, the largest Δ 13C OC-EC were obtained in forest air samples; the Δ 13C OC-EC in ambient PM is likely dependant upon the dominant sources present in the vicinity of the sampling sites; the distribution of 13C/ 12C ratios of OC/EC can provide useful information for source characterization

  5. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Mark Christopher [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  6. LBCS: The LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, N.; Tagore, A.; Deller, A.; Moldón, J.; Varenius, E.; Morabito, L.; Wucknitz, O.; Carozzi, T.; Conway, J.; Drabent, A.; Kapinska, A.; Orrù, E.; Brentjens, M.; Blaauw, R.; Kuper, G.; Sluman, J.; Schaap, J.; Vermaas, N.; Iacobelli, M.; Cerrigone, L.; Shulevski, A.; ter Veen, S.; Fallows, R.; Pizzo, R.; Sipior, M.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; van Haarlem, M. P.; Heald, G.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Intema, H.; Juette, E.; Kuniyoshi, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, G. M.; Maat, P.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Munk, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D. J.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wise, M. W.; Yatawatta, S.; Zarka, P.

    2016-11-01

    We outline the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey (LBCS), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (≳ 50 - 100 mJy) at frequencies around 110-190 MHz on scales of a few hundred milliarcseconds. At least for the 200-300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas - typically a few degrees - around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200-600 km, with good calibrators on the longest baselines appearing only at the rate of 0.5 per sq. deg. Coherence times decrease from 1-3 min on 200-km baselines to about 1 min on 600-km baselines, suggesting that ionospheric phase variations contain components with scales of a few hundred kilometres. The longest median coherence time, at just over 3 min, is seen on the DE609 baseline, which at 227 km is close to being the shortest. We see median coherence times of between 80 and 110 s on the four longest baselines (580-600 km), and about 2 min for the other baselines. The success of phase transfer from calibrator to target is shown to be influenced by distance, in a manner that suggests a coherence patch at 150-MHz of the order of 1 deg. Although source structures cannot be measured in these observations, we deduce that phase transfer is affected if the calibrator source structure is not known. We give suggestions for calibration strategies and choice of calibrator sources, and describe the access to

  7. Characterizing and Filling Data Gaps in ARM Measurements for Carbon Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, R. A.; Hargrove, W. W.; Jager, H. I.; Brandt, C. C.; Hanan, N.

    2003-12-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data archive includes many of the measurements needed by carbon modelers to predict carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems, but data gaps limit the use of ARM data as input for simulation models. Because the DOE ARM Program records actual measurements, circumstances unavoidably arise when instrument and storage failures create gaps in the temporal stream of measurements. Most temporal gaps are short in duration and affect only one or a few related parameters. However, some rare failures, such as wide-area power outages or ice storms, occasionally affect many measurement streams at one or more ARM facilities simultaneously. We have statistically characterized the frequency of univariate temporal gap lengths in various ARM measurements, and have devised approaches for filling such data gaps in space and time. To make ARM measurements suitable as model input, we identified and eliminated outliers, removed values with known QA problems, aggregated the measurements to an appropriate temporal scale (hours), and filled gaps in the data record using univariate imputation methods across time and space. We have prepared a set of hourly aggregated, gap-filled products from ARM SIRS and SMOS data collected at the SGP site from 1996 through 2001. These products were designed to facilitate the use of ARM measurements as climate drivers for carbon simulations. In cases where no raw data were available, we imputed a replacement value from adjacent hours or sites. ARM measurements differed widely in predictability. Temperature and vapor pressure were easiest to impute, but precipitation was a challenge. Shortwave radiation was more difficult to impute than longwave radiation. Successful imputation created reasonable values and patterns that were indistinguishable from the surrounding measurements. The difficulty of imputation for each measurement could help prioritize instrument repair and operational triage during data collection.

  8. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  9. Experimental and Measurement Uncertainty Associated with Characterizing Slurry Mixing Performance of Pulsating Jets at Multiple Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2015-09-10

    Understanding how uncertainty manifests itself in complex experiments is important for developing the testing protocol and interpreting the experimental results. This paper describes experimental and measurement uncertainties, and how they can depend on the order of performing experimental tests. Experiments with pulse-jet mixers in tanks at three scales were conducted to characterize the performance of transient-developing periodic flows in Newtonian slurries. Other test parameters included the simulant, solids concentration, and nozzle exit velocity. Critical suspension velocity and cloud height were the metrics used to characterize Newtonian slurry flow associated with mobilization and mixing. During testing, near-replicate and near-repeat tests were conducted. The experimental results were used to quantify the combined experimental and measurement uncertainties using standard deviations and percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) The uncertainties in critical suspension velocity and cloud height tend to increase with the values of these responses. Hence, the %RSD values are the more appropriate summary measure of near-replicate testing and measurement uncertainty.

  10. 2D X-ray scanner and its uses in laboratory reservoir characterization measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D.; Doggett, K.

    1997-08-01

    X-ray techniques are used in petroleum laboratories for a variety of reservoir characterization measurements. This paper describes the configuration of a 2D X-ray scanner and many of the ways in which it simplifies and improves accuracy`s of laboratory measurements. Linear X-ray scanners are most often used to provide descriptions of fluid saturations within core plugs during flow tests. We configured our linear scanner for both horizontal and vertical movement. Samples can be scanned horizontally, vertically, or according to horizontal and vertical grids. X-ray measurements are fast, allowing measurements of two- and three-phase fluid saturations during both steady- and unsteady-state flow processes. Rock samples can be scanned while they are subjected to stress, pore pressure, and temperature conditions simulating those of a petroleum reservoir. Many types of measurements are possible by selecting appropriate X-ray power settings, dopes, filters, and collimator configurations. The scanner has been used for a variety of applications besides fluid saturation measurements. It is useful for measuring porosity distributions in rocks, concentrations of X-ray dopes within flow streams during tracer tests, gap widths in fracture flow cells, fluid interface levels in PVT cells and fluid separators, and other features and phenomena.

  11. Characterizing Molecular Structure by Combining Experimental Measurements with Density Functional Theory Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Encarnacion, Juan M.

    2016-06-01

    In this talk, the power and synergy of combining experimental measurements with density functional theory computations as a single tool to unambiguously characterize the molecular structure of complex atomic systems is shown. Here, we bring three beautiful cases where the interaction between the experiment and theory is in very good agreement for both finite and extended systems: 1) Characterizing Metal Coordination Environments in Porous Organic Polymers: A Joint Density Functional Theory and Experimental Infrared Spectroscopy Study 2) Characterization of Rhenium Compounds Obtained by Electrochemical Synthesis After Aging Process and 3) Infrared Study of H(D)2 + Co4+ Chemical Reaction: Characterizing Molecular Structures. J.M. López-Encarnación, K.K. Tanabe, M.J.A. Johnson, J. Jellinek, Chemistry-A European Journal 19 (41), 13646-13651 A. Vargas-Uscategui, E. Mosquera, J.M. López-Encarnación, B. Chornik, R. S. Katiyar, L. Cifuentes, Journal of Solid State Chemistry 220, 17-21

  12. Multi-baseline Digital Close-range Photogrammetry Technology in Oral Facial Three-dimensional Imaging and Measurement%多基线数字近景摄影测量技术在口腔颜面部三维成像和测量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭春

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨多基线数字近景摄影测量技术在口腔颜面部三维成像和测量中的应用。方法:应用普通数码相机对口腔颜面部进行拍摄并获得多幅重叠无序的照片,采用多基线数字近景摄影系统对照片进行处理。结果:对颜面部组织长度及宽度测量上与传统手工测量方法相比无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论:多基线数字近景摄影测量技术操作简单、测量准确、对设备要求低,可用于口腔颜面部三维成像的测量中。%Objective: To investigate the multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry technology in oral facial three-dimensional imaging and measurement.Methods:Ordinary digital camera on oral facial plaster model shoot and get multiple overlapping photos disorder, the use of multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry system for photo processing. Results: No statistically significant difference (P>0.05) based on the facial bone length and width measurements compared with traditional manual measurement methods. Conclusion: Simple multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry technology, accurate measurement of low equipment requirements and can be used three-dimensional imaging of oral facial measurements.

  13. TAPIR--Finnish national geochemical baseline database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarva, Jaana; Tarvainen, Timo; Reinikainen, Jussi; Eklund, Mikael

    2010-09-15

    In Finland, a Government Decree on the Assessment of Soil Contamination and Remediation Needs has generated a need for reliable and readily accessible data on geochemical baseline concentrations in Finnish soils. According to the Decree, baseline concentrations, referring both to the natural geological background concentrations and the diffuse anthropogenic input of substances, shall be taken into account in the soil contamination assessment process. This baseline information is provided in a national geochemical baseline database, TAPIR, that is publicly available via the Internet. Geochemical provinces with elevated baseline concentrations were delineated to provide regional geochemical baseline values. The nationwide geochemical datasets were used to divide Finland into geochemical provinces. Several metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn) showed anomalous concentrations in seven regions that were defined as metal provinces. Arsenic did not follow a similar distribution to any other elements, and four arsenic provinces were separately determined. Nationwide geochemical datasets were not available for some other important elements such as Cd and Pb. Although these elements are included in the TAPIR system, their distribution does not necessarily follow the ones pre-defined for metal and arsenic provinces. Regional geochemical baseline values, presented as upper limit of geochemical variation within the region, can be used as trigger values to assess potential soil contamination. Baseline values have also been used to determine upper and lower guideline values that must be taken into account as a tool in basic risk assessment. If regional geochemical baseline values are available, the national guideline values prescribed in the Decree based on ecological risks can be modified accordingly. The national geochemical baseline database provides scientifically sound, easily accessible and generally accepted information on the baseline values, and it can be used in various

  14. Characterization of a Be(p,xn) neutron source for fission yields measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Mattera, A; Hjalmarsson, A; Lantz, M; Pomp, S; Rakopoulos, V; Solders, A; Valldor-Blücher, J; Gorelov, D; Penttilä, H; Rinta-Antila, S; Prokofiev, A V; Passoth, E; Bedogni, R; Gentile, A; Bortot, D; Esposito, A; Introini, M V; Pola, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on measurements performed at The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) to characterize a proton-neutron converter for independent fission yield studies at the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility (Jyv\\"askyl\\"a, Finland). A 30 MeV proton beam impinged on a 5 mm water-cooled Beryllium target. Two independent experimental techniques have been used to measure the neutron spectrum: a Time of Flight (TOF) system used to estimate the high-energy contribution, and a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer able to provide precise results from thermal energies up to 20 MeV. An overlap between the energy regions covered by the two systems will permit a cross-check of the results from the different techniques. In this paper, the measurement and analysis techniques will be presented together with some preliminary results.

  15. Full optical characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays using local viewing angle and imaging measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Bignon, Thibault; Collomb-Patton, Véronique

    2012-03-01

    Two commercial auto-stereoscopic 3D displays are characterized a using Fourier optics viewing angle system and an imaging video-luminance-meter. One display has a fixed emissive configuration and the other adapts its emission to the observer position using head tracking. For a fixed emissive condition, three viewing angle measurements are performed at three positions (center, right and left). Qualified monocular and binocular viewing spaces in front of the display are deduced as well as the best working distance. The imaging system is then positioned at this working distance and crosstalk homogeneity on the entire surface of the display is measured. We show that the crosstalk is generally not optimized on all the surface of the display. Display aspect simulation using viewing angle measurements allows understanding better the origin of those crosstalk variations. Local imperfections like scratches and marks generally increase drastically the crosstalk, demonstrating that cleanliness requirements for this type of display are quite critical.

  16. Characterization of dielectric barrier discharge in air applying current measurement, numerical simulation and emission spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Awakowicz, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air is characterized applying current measurement, numerical simulation and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). For OES, a non-calibrated spectrometer is used. This diagnostic method is applicable when cross-sectional area of the active plasma volume and current density can be determined. The nitrogen emission in the spectral range of 380 nm- 406 nm is used for OES diagnostics. Electric field in the active plasma volume is determined applying the measured spectrum, well-known Frank-Condon factors for nitrogen transitions and numerically- simulated electron distribution functions. The measured electric current density is used for determination of electron density in plasma. Using the determined plasma parameters, the dissociation rate of nitrogen and oxygen in active plasma volume are calculated, which can be used by simulation of the chemical kinetics.

  17. Ultrasonic sensor properties characterized by a PC-controlled scanning measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning; Prange; Dierks; Daur

    2000-03-01

    The use of ultrasonic sensors for process control is currently widespread for flow, level or distance measurements. Recently, interest has increased, too in the application of ultrasonic sensors to concentration measurements in complex liquids. In this application there are high demands for a defined and stable quality of the properties of both the sensor transfer function and the sound field characteristic. For a detailed investigation and characterization of ultrasonic sensor propertiess, an efficient PC-controlled measuring system was developed by the Institut fur Automation und Kommunikation (IFAK). In this contribution, this high performance approach is presented to make visible the vibrating ultrasonic sensor surface as well as the sound field in front of acoustic sensors in liquids.

  18. Pixelated Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photo-Diode Characterization through Dark Current Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Amaudruz, Pierre-André; Gilhully, Colleen; Goertzen, Andrew; James, Lloyd; Kozlowski, Piotr; Retière, Fabrice; Shams, Ehsan; Sossi, Vesna; Stortz, Greg; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Thompson, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    PIXELATED geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes(PPDs), often called silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are emerging as an excellent replacement for traditional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in a variety of detectors, especially those for subatomic physics experiments, which requires extensive test and operation procedures in order to achieve uniform responses from all the devices. In this paper, we show for two PPD brands, Hamamatsu MPPC and SensL SPM, that the dark noise rate, breakdown voltage and rate of correlated avalanches can be inferred from the sole measure of dark current as a function of operating voltage, hence greatly simplifying the characterization procedure. We introduce a custom electronics system that allows measurement for many devices concurrently, hence allowing rapid testing and monitoring of many devices at low cost. Finally, we show that the dark current of Hamamastu Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) is rather independent of temperature at constant operating voltage, hence the current measure...

  19. A rotating field automated measurement system for the characterization of ferromagnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirinhas Ramos, H.; Silva Girão, P.

    1991-04-01

    This paper presents an automated measurement system which uses general purpose IEEE-488 controlled devices for the characterization, according to a Preisach-type model, of ferromagnetic materials subjected to magnetic fields of variable amplitude and direction. For that purpose, the measurement of component values in two orthogonal directions of both magnetic field and magnetic induction are required. The magnetic induction in the sample is obtained by using analog integration of the resulting induced electromotive forces in two test coils when the magnetizing current is changed. The magnetic field inside the sample is obtained by measuring the electromotive forces induced in two air core sensing coils placed on both surfaces of the sample. Besides hardware and software details, this paper presents results of tests conducted on ferromagnetic materials commonly used in electrical apparatus.

  20. An embedded measurement system for the electrical characterization of EGFET as a pH sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Batista, Pablo

    2014-02-01

    This work presents the development of an electronic system for the electrical characterization of pH sensors based on the extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET). We designed an electronic circuit with a microcontroller (PIC15F14K50) as the main component in order to provide two programmable output voltages as well as circuits to measure electric current and voltages. The instrument performance analysis was carried out using a glass electrode as a sensitive membrane for investigating the EGFET operation as a pH sensor. The results show that the system is an alternative to the commercial equipment for the electrical characterization of sensors based on field effect devices. In addition, some of the key features expected of this electronic module are: low cost, flexibility, portability and communication with a personal computer using a USB port.

  1. Reflexion measurements for inverse characterization of steel diffusion bond mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Cachon, Lionel; Rigal, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes a non-destructive testing method aimed at securing high manufacturing quality of the innovative compact heat exchanger developed under the framework of the CEA R&D program dedicated to the Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration (ASTRID). The heat exchanger assembly procedure currently proposed involves high temperature and high pressure diffusion welding of stainless steel plates. The aim of the non-destructive method presented herein is to characterize the quality of the welds obtained through this assembly process. Based on a low-frequency model developed by Baik and Thompson [1], pulse-echo normal incidence measurements are calibrated according to a specific procedure and allow the determination of the welding interface stiffness using a nonlinear fitting procedure in the frequency domain. Performing the characterization of plates after diffusion welding using this method allows a useful assessment of the material state as a function of the diffusion bonding process.

  2. Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Kesaano, Maureen; Moll, Karen; Smith, Terence; Gerlach, Robin; Carlson, Ross; Miller, Charles D.; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith; Gardner, Robert D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: Microalgal biofilm based technologies are of keen interest due to their high biomass concentrations and ability to utilize renewable resources, such as light and CO2. While photoautotrophic biofilms have long been used for wastewater remediation applications, biofuel production represents a relatively new and under-represented focus area. However, the direct measurement and characterization of fundamental parameters required for physiological analyses are challenging due to biofilm heterogeneity. This study evaluated oxygenic photosynthesis and biofuel precursor molecule production using a novel rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) operated at field- and laboratory-scales for wastewater remediation and biofuel production, respectively. Clear differences in oxygenic-photosynthesis, respiration and biofuel-precursor capacities were observed between the two systems and different conditions based on light and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen depletion was not found to have the same effect on lipid accumulation compared to prior planktonic studies. Physiological characterizations of these microalgal biofilms identify potential areas for future process optimization.

  3. A METHODOLOGY TO INTEGRATE MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge O. Parra; Chris L. Hackert; Lorna L. Wilson

    2002-09-20

    The work reported herein represents the third year of development efforts on a methodology to interpret magnetic resonance and acoustic measurements for reservoir characterization. In this last phase of the project we characterize a vuggy carbonate aquifer in the Hillsboro Basin, Palm Beach County, South Florida, using two data sets--the first generated by velocity tomography and the second generated by reflection tomography. First, we integrate optical macroscopic (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, as well as petrography, as a first step in characterizing the aquifer pore system. This pore scale integration provides information with which to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well log signatures for NMR well log calibration, interpret ultrasonic data, and characterize flow units at the field scale between two wells in the aquifer. Saturated and desaturated NMR core measurements estimate the irreducible water in the rock and the variable T{sub 2} cut-offs for the NMR well log calibration. These measurements establish empirical equations to extract permeability from NMR well logs. Velocity and NMR-derived permeability and porosity relationships integrated with velocity tomography (based on crosswell seismic measurements recorded between two wells 100 m apart) capture two flow units that are supported with pore scale integration results. Next, we establish a more detailed picture of the complex aquifer pore structures and the critical role they play in water movement, which aids in our ability to characterize not only carbonate aquifers, but reservoirs in general. We analyze petrography and cores to reveal relationships between the rock physical properties that control the compressional and shear wave velocities of the formation. A digital thin section analysis provides the pore size distributions of the rock matrix, which allows us to relate pore structure to permeability and to characterize flow units at the

  4. Characterization of Upper-Troposphere Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX Using LASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrare, Richard; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Barrick, J. D. W.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Kooi, S. A.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M. B.; Goldsmith, John E M.; Lesht, B. M.; Podolske, J. R.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Turner, David D.; Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B. B.; Tobin, D. C.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Miloshevich, Larry M.; di Girolamo, P.

    2004-12-01

    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere water vapor (UTWV) measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors over the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern Oklahoma. LASE was deployed from the NASA DC-8 aircraft and measured water vapor over the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) site during seven flights between November 27 and December 10, 2000. Initially, the DOE ARM SGP Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman lidar (CARL) UTWV profiles were about 5-7% wetter than LASE in the upper troposphere, and the Vaisala RS80-H radiosonde profiles were about 10% drier than LASE between 8-12 km. Scaling the Vaisala water vapor profiles to match the precipitable water vapor (PWV) measured by the ARM SGP microwave radiometer (MWR) did not change these results significantly. By accounting for an overlap correction of the CARL water vapor profiles and by employing schemes designed to correct the Vaisala RS80-H calibration method and account for the time response of the Vaisala RS80H water vapor sensor, the average differences between the CARL and Vaisala radiosonde upper troposphere water vapor profiles are reduced to about 5%, which is within the ARM goal of mean differences of less than 10%. The LASE and DC-8 in situ Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH) UTWV measurements generally agreed to within about 3 to 4%. The DC-8 in situ frost point cryogenic hygrometer and Snow White chilled mirror measurements were drier than the LASE, Raman lidars, and corrected Vaisala RS80H measurements by about 10-25% and 10-15%, respectively. Sippican (formerly VIZ manufacturing) carbon hygristor radiosondes exhibited large variabilities and poor agreement with the other measurements. PWV derived from the LASE profiles agreed to within about 3% on average with

  5. Dissociation between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) andWistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats in baseline performance and methylphenidate response on measures of attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity in a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.

    2009-10-08

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely accepted rodent model of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and methylphenidate (MP) is a central nervous systemstimulant that has been shown to have a dose-related positive effect on attention task performance in humans with ADHD. The current study was undertaken to compare SHR to its typical control strain, Wistar-Kyoto(WKY) rats, on the performance of a Visual Stimulus Position Discrimination Task (VSPDT) as well as of the responsiveness of the two rat strains to MP treatment. The rats were initially trained on the VSPDT, in which a light cue was presented randomly at three different cue-light intervals (1 s, 300 ms and 100 ms) over one of two levers, and presses on the lever corresponding to the light cue were reinforced with a food pellet. Once rats reached stable performance, the treatment phase of the study began, during which they received daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg of MP in a randomized order immediately prior to being tested on the VSPDT. Baseline performance accuracy on the VSPDT did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, a striking strain dissociation was evident in the response of the two strains to treatment; VSPDT performance was substantially disrupted by the 5 and 10 mg/kg dose in the WKY rats but only mildly in the SHR rats. Response omissions were also increased only in WKY rats. Finally, both strains had increased locomotor activity in the operant chamber following MP treatment. These findings point to an important difference in response tendency toMP in the two strains that supports a view that a critical difference between these strains may suggest neurochemical and neuroadaptive differences associated with the behavioral impairments of ADHD.

  6. Spatially telescoping measurements for improved characterization of groundwater-surface water interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Colin; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Welker, Jeffery M.

    2012-01-01

    The suite of measurement methods available to characterize fluxes between groundwater and surface water is rapidly growing. However, there are few studies that examine approaches to design of field investigations that include multiple methods. We propose that performing field measurements in a spatially telescoping sequence improves measurement flexibility and accounts for nested heterogeneities while still allowing for parsimonious experimental design. We applied this spatially telescoping approach in a study of ground water-surface water (GW-SW) interaction during baseflow conditions along Lucile Creek, located near Wasilla, Alaska. Catchment-scale data, including channel geomorphic indices and hydrogeologic transects, were used to screen areas of potentially significant GW-SW exchange. Specifically, these data indicated increasing groundwater contribution from a deeper regional aquifer along the middle to lower reaches of the stream. This initial assessment was tested using reach-scale estimates of groundwater contribution during baseflow conditions, including differential discharge measurements and the use of chemical tracers analyzed in a three-component mixing model. The reach-scale measurements indicated a large increase in discharge along the middle reaches of the stream accompanied by a shift in chemical composition towards a regional groundwater end member. Finally, point measurements of vertical water fluxes -- obtained using seepage meters as well as temperature-based methods -- were used to evaluate spatial and temporal variability of GW-SW exchange within representative reaches. The spatial variability of upward fluxes, estimated using streambed temperature mapping at the sub-reach scale, was observed to vary in relation to both streambed composition and the magnitude of groundwater contribution from differential discharge measurements. The spatially telescoping approach improved the efficiency of this field investigation. Beginning our assessment

  7. Characterization of a MOSkin detector for in vivo skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, M. J.; Wong, J. H. D.; Ng, K. H., E-mail: ngkh@um.edu.my [Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia and University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Jong, W. L. [Clinical Oncology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Cutajar, D. L.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The MOSkin is a MOSFET detector designed especially for skin dose measurements. This detector has been characterized for various factors affecting its response for megavoltage photon beams and has been used for patient dose measurements during radiotherapy procedures. However, the characteristics of this detector in kilovoltage photon beams and low dose ranges have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to characterize the MOSkin detector to determine its suitability for in vivo entrance skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures. Methods: The calibration and reproducibility of the MOSkin detector and its dependency on different radiation beam qualities were carried out using RQR standard radiation qualities in free-in-air geometry. Studies of the other characterization parameters, such as the dose linearity and dependency on exposure angle, field size, frame rate, depth-dose, and source-to-surface distance (SSD), were carried out using a solid water phantom under a clinical x-ray unit. Results: The MOSkin detector showed good reproducibility (94%) and dose linearity (99%) for the dose range of 2 to 213 cGy. The sensitivity did not significantly change with the variation of SSD (±1%), field size (±1%), frame rate (±3%), or beam energy (±5%). The detector angular dependence was within ±5% over 360° and the dose recorded by the MOSkin detector in different depths of a solid water phantom was in good agreement with the Markus parallel plate ionization chamber to within ±3%. Conclusions: The MOSkin detector proved to be reliable when exposed to different field sizes, SSDs, depths in solid water, dose rates, frame rates, and radiation incident angles within a clinical x-ray beam. The MOSkin detector with water equivalent depth equal to 0.07 mm is a suitable detector for in vivo skin dosimetry during interventional radiology procedures.

  8. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  9. Eleventh symposium on energy engineering sciences: Proceedings. Solid mechanics and processing: Analysis, measurement and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Eleventh Symposium on Energy Engineering Sciences was held on May 3--5, 1993, at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois. These proceedings include the program, list of participants, and the papers that were presented during the eight technical sessions held at this meeting. This symposium was organized into eight technical sessions: Surfaces and interfaces; thermophysical properties and processes; inelastic behavior; nondestructive characterization; multiphase flow and thermal processes; optical and other measurement systems; stochastic processes; and large systems and control. Individual projects were processed separately for the databases.

  10. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  11. Characterization of pigment-leached antifouling coatings using BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this work BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry are used to characterize leached layers formed when seawater-soluble pigments (Cu2O and ZnO) dissolve during accelerated leaching of simple antifouling coatings. Measurements on single-pigment coatings show that an increasing...... fraction of Cu2O or ZnO pigment particles becomes unavailable for dissolution when the concentration of the pigment decreases in the coating and the interparticle distance in the binder matrix becomes larger. Experimental data for a coating initially containing a mixture of Cu2O and TiO2 pigments suggest...... that a substantial fraction of the smaller and inert TiO2 particles may be lost from the coating upon dissolution of the larger Cu2O particles. This inert particle translocation effect is important to take into account when interpreting polishing and leaching data and when developing mathematical models...

  12. Characterization of GEM foils and materials simulation, measurements and interferometric monitoring tools

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The GE1/1 CMS project consists of 144 GEM chambers of about 0.5 qm active area each, based on the triple GEMs technology, to be installed in the very forward region of the CMS endcap during the long shutdown of LHC in 2108-2019. GE1/1 chambers will be operated for decades in harsh environment, and are expected to perform consistently providing good space and time resolution and excellent rate capabilities. An extensive material science simulation and measurement campaign is in progress to characterize GEM materials, with main focus on the GEM foils. Results are presented on full Finite Element Analysis simulations, measurement of tensile properties and humidity absorption coefficients, both for unused and irradiated samples. Preliminary results are shown on interferometric methods based on Moirè fringes for the monitoring of GEM foils mechanical properties during chamber construction.

  13. Optimal design and experimental measurement of the subharmonic characterizations of encapsulated microbubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Yujin; WAN Mingxi; WANG Suping; CHEN Hong; ZHANG Guolu

    2006-01-01

    Based on a theoretical motion equation of encapsulated microbubbles within an ultrasound field, the subharmonic characterizations of microbubbles are optimally designed and analyzed by a computer aided design system. The effects of size, shell elasticity and acoustic pressure on subharmonic response of microbubbles are calculated theoretically to obtain the optimal parameters for nondestructive subharmonic imaging. In addition, microbubbles with different shell elasticity are prepared, and their subharmonic responses are measured in vitro.The results of theoretical calculation and acoustic measurement show that good subharmonic enhancement can be obtained by using the encapsulated microbubbles with the mean size of 3μm, which were prepared from the surfactant solution with the proper ratio of shell material.It is also shown that the best operating acoustic pressure is 200 to 400 kPa for nondestructive subharmonic imaging based on such kind of microbubbles.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of 3C-silicon carbide micro sensor for wireless blood pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Nupur

    A potentially implantable single crystal 3C-SiC pressure sensor for blood pressure measurement was designed, simulated, fabricated, characterized and optimized. This research uses a single crystal 3C-SiC, for the first time, to demonstrate its application as a blood pressure measurement sensor. The sensor, which uses the epitaxial grown 3C-SiC membrane to measure changes in pressure, is designed to be wireless, biocompatible and linear. The SiC material was chosen for its superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties; the capacitive sensor uses a 3C-SiC membrane as one of the electrodes; and, the sensor system is wireless for comfort and to allow for convenient reading of real-time pressure data (wireless communication is enabled by connecting the sensor parallel to a planar inductor). Together, the variable capacitive sensor and planar inductor create a pressure sensitive resonant circuit. The sensor system described above allows for implantation into a human patient's body, after which the planar inductor can be coupled with an external inductor to receive data for real-time blood pressure measurement. Electroplating, thick photo-resist characterization, RIE etching, oxidation, CVD, chemical mechanical polishing and wafer bonding were optimized during the process of fabricating the sensor system and, in addition to detailing the sensor system simulation and characterization; the optimized processes are detailed in the dissertation. This absolute pressure sensor is designed to function optimally within the human blood pressure range of 50-350mmHg. The layout and modeling of the sensor uses finite element analysis (FEA) software. The simulations for membrane deflection, stress analysis and electro-mechanical analysis are performed for 100 μm2 and 400μm2sensors. The membrane deflection-pressure, capacitance-pressure and resonant frequency-pressure graphs were obtained, and detailed in the dissertation, along with the planar inductor simulation for

  15. Characterization of a complex near-surface structure using well logging and passive seismic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Beatriz; Macau, Albert; Gabàs, Anna; Figueras, Sara

    2016-04-01

    We combine geophysical well logging and passive seismic measurements to characterize the near-surface geology of an area located in Hontomin, Burgos (Spain). This area has some near-surface challenges for a geophysical study. The irregular topography is characterized by limestone outcrops and unconsolidated sediments areas. Additionally, the near-surface geology includes an upper layer of pure limestones overlying marly limestones and marls (Upper Cretaceous). These materials lie on top of Low Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments (sandstones, clays, gravels). In any case, a layer with reduced velocity is expected. The geophysical data sets used in this study include sonic and gamma-ray logs at two boreholes and passive seismic measurements: three arrays and 224 seismic stations for applying the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V). Well-logging data define two significant changes in the P-wave-velocity log within the Upper Cretaceous layer and one more at the Upper to Lower Cretaceous contact. This technique has also been used for refining the geological interpretation. The passive seismic measurements provide a map of sediment thickness with a maximum of around 40 m and shear-wave velocity profiles from the array technique. A comparison between seismic velocity coming from well logging and array measurements defines the resolution limits of the passive seismic techniques and helps it to be interpreted. This study shows how these low-cost techniques can provide useful information about near-surface complexity that could be used for designing a geophysical field survey or for seismic processing steps such as statics or imaging.

  16. Characterization of prerusted steels in some Ibero-American atmospheres by electrochemical potential noise measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, E. [INETI/IMP Lab. de Tintas e Revestimentos, Lisboa (Portugal); Mariaca, L.; Rodriguez, A.; Chavarin, J.U.; Veloz, M.A. [IIE Dept. de Fisicoquimica Aplicada, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the MICAT project (Ibero-American Map of Atmospheric Corrosiveness) was to foster collaborative ventures between groups conducting research on atmospheric corrosion. Overall, 14 Ibero-American countries, including Spain and Portugal, are involved with a network of 71 test stations distributed throughout the region and on 4 continents. These test stations represent a broad spectrum of climatological and atmospheric pollution conditions. The objective of the MICAT electrochemical studies was to characterize the protective properties of the corrosion products formed during atmospheric exposure at the different test sites. Prerusted carbon steel specimens at different locations were immersed in a sodium sulfate solution. Some specimens were rust pretreated in phosphoric acid solution with additions of aluminum hydroxide (rust converters) electrochemically evaluated. Electrochemical noise measurements (ENM) and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements were performed for different times of immersion. Corrosion rates were related to the presence of the oxides that were initially formed. For specimens rusted in marine atmospheres, the presence of chlorides in the corrosion products promotes localized attack. As to the different rust-converted specimens, ENM revealed the pretreatment evolution and corrosion performance over time. ENM was able to characterize and evaluate the protective properties of oxides and pretreatments according to the nature and environmental conditions to which specimens were exposed.

  17. Optical Tip Clearance Measurements as a Tool for Rotating Disk Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on the vibrational behavior of a rotating disk by means of three optical fiber sensors is presented. The disk, which is a scale model of the real disk of an aircraft engine, was assembled in a wind tunnel in order to simulate real operation conditions. The pressure difference between the upstream and downstream sides of the disk causes an airflow that might force the disk to vibrate. To characterize this vibration, a set of parameters was determined by measuring the tip clearance of the disk: the amplitude, the frequency and the number of nodal diameters in the disk. All this information allowed the design of an upgraded prototype of the disk, whose performance was also characterized by the same method. An optical system was employed for the measurements, in combination with a strain gauge mounted on the disk surface, which served to confirm the results obtained. The data of the strain gauge coincided closely with those provided by the optical fiber sensors, thus demonstrating the suitability of this innovative technique to evaluate the vibrational behavior of rotating disks.

  18. Optical Tip Clearance Measurements as a Tool for Rotating Disk Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Iker; Zubia, Joseba; Beloki, Josu; Arrue, Jon; Durana, Gaizka; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon

    2017-01-15

    An experimental investigation on the vibrational behavior of a rotating disk by means of three optical fiber sensors is presented. The disk, which is a scale model of the real disk of an aircraft engine, was assembled in a wind tunnel in order to simulate real operation conditions. The pressure difference between the upstream and downstream sides of the disk causes an airflow that might force the disk to vibrate. To characterize this vibration, a set of parameters was determined by measuring the tip clearance of the disk: the amplitude, the frequency and the number of nodal diameters in the disk. All this information allowed the design of an upgraded prototype of the disk, whose performance was also characterized by the same method. An optical system was employed for the measurements, in combination with a strain gauge mounted on the disk surface, which served to confirm the results obtained. The data of the strain gauge coincided closely with those provided by the optical fiber sensors, thus demonstrating the suitability of this innovative technique to evaluate the vibrational behavior of rotating disks.

  19. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N=172 in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  20. Measuring the food environment: a systematic technique for characterizing food stores using display counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics-such as the number and placement of display stands-on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  1. Non-intrusive measurement and hydrodynamics characterization of gas-solid fluidized beds: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyuan; Yan, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Gas-solid fluidization is a well-established technique to suspend or transport particles and has been applied in a variety of industrial processes. Nevertheless, our knowledge of fluidization hydrodynamics is still limited for the design, scale-up and operation optimization of fluidized bed reactors. It is, therefore, essential to characterize the two-phase flow behaviours in gas-solid fluidized beds and monitor the fluidization processes for control and optimization. A range of non-intrusive techniques have been developed or proposed for measuring the fluidization dynamic parameters and monitoring the flow status without disturbing or distorting the flow fields. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the non-intrusive measurement techniques and the current state of knowledge and experience in the characterization and monitoring of gas-solid fluidized beds. These techniques are classified into six main categories as per sensing principles, electrostatic, acoustic emission and vibration, visualization, particle tracking, laser Doppler anemometry and phase Doppler anemometry as well as pressure-fluctuation methods. Trends and future developments in this field are also discussed.

  2. Optical Tip Clearance Measurements as a Tool for Rotating Disk Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Iker; Zubia, Joseba; Beloki, Josu; Arrue, Jon; Durana, Gaizka; Aldabaldetreku, Gotzon

    2017-01-01

    An experimental investigation on the vibrational behavior of a rotating disk by means of three optical fiber sensors is presented. The disk, which is a scale model of the real disk of an aircraft engine, was assembled in a wind tunnel in order to simulate real operation conditions. The pressure difference between the upstream and downstream sides of the disk causes an airflow that might force the disk to vibrate. To characterize this vibration, a set of parameters was determined by measuring the tip clearance of the disk: the amplitude, the frequency and the number of nodal diameters in the disk. All this information allowed the design of an upgraded prototype of the disk, whose performance was also characterized by the same method. An optical system was employed for the measurements, in combination with a strain gauge mounted on the disk surface, which served to confirm the results obtained. The data of the strain gauge coincided closely with those provided by the optical fiber sensors, thus demonstrating the suitability of this innovative technique to evaluate the vibrational behavior of rotating disks. PMID:28098845

  3. Investigation of measurement distortion and application of finite element modeling to magnetic material characterization in a closed-circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Barry Kevin

    While open-circuit magnetic measurements are noted to involve distortions related to the image effect and, most significantly, the sample's demagnetizing factor, closed-circuit measurements are generally considered to be free of these distortions. However, it has been reported and observed within this research that for certain sample geometries and materials operating near the magnetic saturation of the electromagnet poles, there are observed distortions of up to 40.7% of the maximum magnetization at a field level of 25 kiloOersteds for a cylindrical sample with an L/D ratio of 0.2. This observed distortion in the magnetic measurement in a closed-circuit has been referred to in the literature as an "apparent image effect" error. The intent of this research is to apply finite element modeling (FEM) to replicate original experimental and published data for cylindrical samples of both hard and soft magnetic material and to observe the phenomenology of the error within the results of the model. The hard magnetic material of interest is NdFeB and the soft magnetic material used is 1018 steel. Additionally, the sample data base is extended to rectangular prisms with data generated both experimentally and with FEM. Using a validated model it is possible to develop a corrective methodology and equations to address the magnetization measurement errors noted at high field levels within both the first and third quadrants of the hysteresis curve. The methodology developed through this research produced corrective surfaces with two dimensional polynomial fits with average adjusted R-values of 0.97. As a fault study secondary to the development of the corrective methodology, this project investigated the significance of the sample's surface mating to the poles of the hysteresigraph. It was determined that a 5° partial misalignment air gap has only approximately 0.5% variation in magnetization, 4thMmax, from the baseline of an ungapped sample. It is indicated that the sample gap

  4. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  5. Error Modeling and Analysis for InSAR Spatial Baseline Determination of Satellite Formation Flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Tu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial baseline determination is a key technology for interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR missions. Based on the intersatellite baseline measurement using dual-frequency GPS, errors induced by InSAR spatial baseline measurement are studied in detail. The classifications and characters of errors are analyzed, and models for errors are set up. The simulations of single factor and total error sources are selected to evaluate the impacts of errors on spatial baseline measurement. Single factor simulations are used to analyze the impact of the error of a single type, while total error sources simulations are used to analyze the impacts of error sources induced by GPS measurement, baseline transformation, and the entire spatial baseline measurement, respectively. Simulation results show that errors related to GPS measurement are the main error sources for the spatial baseline determination, and carrier phase noise of GPS observation and fixing error of GPS receiver antenna are main factors of errors related to GPS measurement. In addition, according to the error values listed in this paper, 1 mm level InSAR spatial baseline determination should be realized.

  6. NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  7. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  8. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  9. A measurement-based X-ray source model characterization for CT dosimetry computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Mitchell; Poirier, Yannick; Tambasco, Mauro

    2015-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to show that the nominal peak tube voltage potential (kVp) and measured half-value layer (HVL) can be used to generate energy spectra and fluence profiles for characterizing a computed tomography (CT) X-ray source, and to validate the source model and an in-house kV X-ray dose computation algorithm (kVDoseCalc) for computing machine- and patient-specific CT dose. Spatial variation of the X-ray source spectra of a Philips Brilliance and a GE Optima Big Bore CT scanner were found by measuring the HVL along the direction of the internal bow-tie filter axes. Third-party software, Spektr, and the nominal kVp settings were used to generate the energy spectra. Beam fluence was calculated by dividing the integral product of the spectra and the in-air NIST mass-energy attenuation coefficients by in-air dose measurements along the filter axis. The authors found the optimal number of photons to seed in kVDoseCalc to achieve dose convergence. The Philips Brilliance beams were modeled for 90, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. The GE Optima beams were modeled for 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. Relative doses measured using a Capintec Farmer-type ionization chamber (0.65 cc) placed in a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and irradiated by the Philips Brilliance, were compared to those computed with kVDoseCalc. Relative doses in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom (E2E SBRT Phantom) irradiated by the GE Optima were measured using a (0.015 cc) PTW Freiburg ionization chamber and compared to computations from kVDoseCalc. The number of photons required to reduce the average statistical uncertainty in dose to < 0.3% was 2 × 105. The average percent difference between calculation and measurement over all 12 PMMA phantom positions was found to be 1.44%, 1.47%, and 1.41% for 90, 120, and 140 kVp, respectively. The maximum percent difference between calculation and measurement for all energies, measurement positions, and phantoms was

  10. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed along with maps combining

  11. Cosmic-muon characterization and annual modulation measurement with Double Chooz detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahão, T; Anjos, J E dos; Appel, S; Baussan, E; Bekman, I; Bezerra, T J C; Bezrukov, L; Blucher, E; Brugière, T; Buck, C; Busenitz, J; Cabrera, A; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Cerrada, M; Chauveau, E; Chimenti, P; Corpace, O; Crespo-Anadón, J I; Dawson, J V; Dhooghe, J; Djurcic, Z; Dracos, M; Etenko, A; Fallot, M; Franco, D; Franke, M; Furuta, H; Gil-Botella, I; Giot, L; Givaudan, A; Gögger-Neff, M; Gómez, H; Gonzalez, L F G; Goodman, M; Hara, T; Haser, J; Hellwig, D; Hourlier, A; Ishitsuka, M; Jochum, J; Jollet, C; Kale, K; Kampmann, P; Kaneda, M; Kaplan, D M; Kawasaki, T; Kemp, E; de Kerret, H; Kryn, D; Kuze, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lane, C; Laserre, T; Lastoria, C; Lhuillier, D; Lima, H; Lindner, M; López-Castaño, J M; LoSecco, J M; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Maeda, J; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Matsubara, T; Mention, G; Meregaglia, A; Miletic, T; Nagasaka, Y; Navas-Nicolás, D; Novella, P; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Onillon, A; Oralbaev, A; Palomares, C; Pepe, I; Pronost, G; Reinhold, B; Rybolt, B; Sakamoto, Y; Santorelli, R; Schönert, S; Schoppmann, S; Sharankova, R; Sibille, V; Sinev, V; Skorokhvatov, M; Soiron, M; Soldin, P; Stahl, A; Stancu, I; Stokes, L F F; Strait, M; Suekane, F; Sukhotin, S; Sumiyoshi, T; Sun, Y; Svoboda, B; Tonazzo, A; Veyssiere, C; Vivier, M; Wagner, S; Wiebusch, C; Wurm, M; Yang, G; Yermia, F; Zimmer, V

    2016-01-01

    A study on cosmic muons has been performed for the two identical near and far neutrino detectors of the Double Chooz experiment, placed at $\\sim$120 and $\\sim$300 m.w.e. underground respectively, including the corresponding simulations using the MUSIC simulation package. This characterization has allowed to measure the muon flux reaching both detectors to be (3.64 $\\pm$ 0.04) $\\times$ 10$^{-4}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ for the near detector and (7.00 $\\pm$ 0.05) $\\times$ 10$^{-5}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ for the far one. The seasonal modulation of the signal has also been studied observing a positive correlation with the atmospheric temperature, leading to an effective temperature coefficient of $\\alpha_{T}$ = 0.212 $\\pm$ 0.024 and 0.355 $\\pm$ 0.019 for the near and far detectors respectively. These measurements, in good agreement with expectations based on theoretical models, represent one of the first measurements of this coefficient in shallow depth installations.

  12. Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Wallenburg, Marika A.; Li, Shu-Hong; Weisel, Richard D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Ren-Ke; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to structural remodeling of the myocardium, in particular to the loss of cardiomyocytes due to necrosis and an increase in collagen with scar formation. Stem cell regenerative treatments have been shown to alter this remodeling process, resulting in improved cardiac function. As healthy myocardial tissue is highly fibrous and anisotropic, it exhibits optical linear birefringence due to the different refractive indices parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. Accordingly, changes in myocardial structure associated with infarction and treatment-induced remodeling will alter the anisotropy exhibited by the tissue. Polarization-based linear birefringence is measured on the myocardium of adult rat hearts after myocardial infarction and compared with hearts that had received mesenchymal stem cell treatment. Both point measurement and imaging data show a decrease in birefringence in the region of infarction, with a partial rebound back toward the healthy values following regenerative treatment with stem cells. These results demonstrate the ability of optical polarimetry to characterize the micro-organizational state of the myocardium via its measured anisotropy, and the potential of this approach for monitoring regenerative treatments of myocardial infarction.

  13. Real-time measurements to characterize dynamics of emulsion interface during simulated intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanjie; Nitin, N

    2016-05-01

    Efficient delivery of bioactives remains a critical challenge due to their limited bioavailability and solubility. While many encapsulation systems are designed to modulate the digestion and release of bioactives within the human gastrointestinal tract, there is limited understanding of how engineered structures influence the delivery of bioactives. The objective of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative method to measure structural changes in emulsion interface during simulated intestinal digestion and to correlate these changes with the release of free fatty acids (FFAs). Fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) was used for rapid in-situ measurement of the structural changes in emulsion interface during simulated intestinal digestion. By using FRET, changes in the intermolecular spacing between the two different fluorescent probes labeled emulsifier were characterized. Changes in FRET measurements were compared with the release of FFAs. The results showed that bile salts and pancreatic lipase interacted immediately with the emulsion droplets and disrupted the emulsion interface as evidenced by reduction in FRET efficacy compared to the control. Similarly, a significant amount of FFAs was released during digestion. Moreover, addition of a second layer of polymers at emulsion interface decreased the extent of interface disruption by bile salts and pancreatic lipase and impacted the amount or rate of FFA release during digestion. These results were consistent with the lower donor/acceptor ratio of the labeled probes from the FRET result. Overall, this study provides a novel approach to analyze the dynamics of emulsion interface during digestion and their relationship with the release of FFAs.

  14. Characterization of dual-phase steel microstructure by combined submicrometer EBSD and EPMA carbon measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard, Philippe T; Schwedt, Alexander; Ramazani, Ali; Prahl, Ulrich; Richter, Silvia

    2013-08-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) measurements are combined to characterize an industrial produced dual-phase steel containing some bainite fraction. High-resolution carbon mappings acquired on a field emission electron microprobe are utilized to validate and improve the identification of the constituents (ferrite, martensite, and bainite) performed by EBSD using the image quality and kernel average misorientation. The combination eliminates the ambiguity between the identification of bainite and transformation-induced dislocation zones, encountered if only the kernel average misorientation is considered. The detection of carbon in high misorientation regions confirms the presence of bainite. These results are corroborated by secondary electron images after nital etching. Limitations of this combined method due to differences between the spatial resolution of EBSD and EPMA are assessed. Moreover, a quantification procedure adapted to carbon analysis is presented and used to measure the carbon concentration in martensite and bainite on a submicrometer scale. From measurements on reference materials, this method gives an accuracy of 0.02 wt% C and a precision better than 0.05 wt% C despite unavoidable effects of hydrocarbon contamination.

  15. Measurement system for an in-vitro characterization of the biomechanics and hemodynamics of arterial bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Bagnasco, D.; Balay, G.; Cymberknop, L.; Armentano, R. L.; Negreira, C. A.

    2013-03-01

    Arterial behaviour in-vivo is influenced, amongst other factors, by the interaction between blood flow and the arterial wall endothelium, and the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall. This interaction plays an important role in pathogenic mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. To quantify these interactions both from biomechanical and hemodynamical standpoints, a complete characterization and modelling of the arterial wall, blood flow, shear wall and circumferential wall stresses are needed. The development of a new multi-parameter measurement system (distances, pressures, flows, velocity profiles, temperature, viscosity) for an in-vitro characterization of the biomechanics and hemodynamics in arterial bifurcations (specially in carotid bifurcations) is described. This set-up represents an improvement relative to previous set-ups developed by the group FCIEN-FMED and is presently under development. Main subsystems interactions and environment-system interactions were identified and compensated to improve system's performance. Several interesting problems related with signal acquisition using a variety of sensors and some experimental results are shown and briefly discussed. Experimental data allow construction of meshes and parameter estimation of the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall, as well as boundary conditions, all suitable to be employed in CFD and FSI numerical simulation.

  16. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state.

  17. A METHODOLOGY TO INTEGRATE MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge O. Parra; Chris L. Hackert; Lorna L. Wilson

    2002-09-20

    The work reported herein represents the third year of development efforts on a methodology to interpret magnetic resonance and acoustic measurements for reservoir characterization. In this last phase of the project we characterize a vuggy carbonate aquifer in the Hillsboro Basin, Palm Beach County, South Florida, using two data sets--the first generated by velocity tomography and the second generated by reflection tomography. First, we integrate optical macroscopic (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray computed tomography (CT) images, as well as petrography, as a first step in characterizing the aquifer pore system. This pore scale integration provides information with which to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well log signatures for NMR well log calibration, interpret ultrasonic data, and characterize flow units at the field scale between two wells in the aquifer. Saturated and desaturated NMR core measurements estimate the irreducible water in the rock and the variable T{sub 2} cut-offs for the NMR well log calibration. These measurements establish empirical equations to extract permeability from NMR well logs. Velocity and NMR-derived permeability and porosity relationships integrated with velocity tomography (based on crosswell seismic measurements recorded between two wells 100 m apart) capture two flow units that are supported with pore scale integration results. Next, we establish a more detailed picture of the complex aquifer pore structures and the critical role they play in water movement, which aids in our ability to characterize not only carbonate aquifers, but reservoirs in general. We analyze petrography and cores to reveal relationships between the rock physical properties that control the compressional and shear wave velocities of the formation. A digital thin section analysis provides the pore size distributions of the rock matrix, which allows us to relate pore structure to permeability and to characterize flow units at the

  18. Guide for radiological characterization and measurements for decommissioning of US Department of Energy surplus facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denahm, D. H.; Barnes, M. G.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.; Gilbert, R. O.; Hoenes, G. R.; Jamison, J. D.; McMurray, B. J.; Watson, E. C.

    1983-08-01

    This Guide describes the elements of radiological characterization at DOE excess facilities in preparation for, during, and subsequent to decommissioning operations. It is the intent of this Guide and accompanying appendices to provide the reader (user) with sufficient information to carry out that task with a minimum of confusion and to provide a uniform basis for evaluating site conditions and verifying that decommissioning operations are conducted according to a specific plan. Some areas of particular interest in this Guide are: the need to involve appropriate staff from the affected states in the early planning stages of decommissioning; the need for and suggested methods of radiological site characterization to complete a decommissioning project, including: historical surveys, environmental pathway analyses, statistical sampling design, and choosing appropriate instrumentation and measurements; the need for and emphasis on quality assurance, documentation and records retention; the establishment of a Design Objective approach to applying site-specific contamination limits based on the ALARA philosophy; the establishment of a ''de minimis'' or minimum dose level of concern for decommissioning operations based on existing standards, experience and ALARA considerations.

  19. Visual characterization and quantitative measurement of artemisinin-induced DNA breakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Huaihong [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yang Peihui [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: typh@jnu.edu.cn; Chen Jianan [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liang Zhihong [Experiment and Technology Center, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chen Qiongyu [Institute of Genetic Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai Jiye [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-05-01

    DNA conformational change and breakage induced by artemisinin, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have been visually characterized and quantitatively measured by the multiple tools of electrochemistry, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and DNA electrophoresis. Electrochemical and spectroscopic results confirm that artemisinin can intercalate into DNA double helix, which causes DNA conformational changes. AFM imaging vividly demonstrates uneven DNA strand breaking induced by QHS interaction. To assess these DNA breakages, quantitative analysis of the extent of DNA breakage has been performed by analyzing AFM images. Basing on the statistical analysis, the occurrence of DNA breaks is found to depend on the concentration of artemisinin. DNA electrophoresis further validates that the intact DNA molecules are unwound due to the breakages occur at the single strands. A reliable scheme is proposed to explain the process of artemisinin-induced DNA cleavage. These results can provide further information for better understanding the anticancer activity of artemisinin.

  20. Surface topography characterization using an atomic force microscope mounted on a coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, H.N; Kofod, N

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...... areas traced in single scans of 40 mu m x 40 mu m. The results show that surface mapping on industrial surfaces is possible using the Least Mean Square alignment provided by the AFM software....... values in the order of 1 nm. The positioning repeatability of the two horizontal axes of the CMM was determined to +/-1 mu m. Sets of four 20 mu m x 20 mu m areas were traced on fiat objects, combining the data into single 40 mu m x 40 mu m areas, and comparing the roughness values to those for the same...

  1. Characterization of sediment and measurement of groundwater levels and temperatures, Camas National Wildlife Refuge, eastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Rattray, Gordon W.

    2016-11-02

    The Camas National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in eastern Idaho, established in 1937, contains wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows that are essential resting and feeding habitat for migratory birds and nesting habitat for waterfowl. Initially, natural sources of water supported these habitats. However, during the past few decades, climate change and changes in surrounding land use have altered and reduced natural groundwater and surface water inflows such that the wetlands, ponds, and wet meadows are now maintained through water management and groundwater pumping. These water management activities have proven to be inefficient and costly, prompting the Refuge to develop alternative water management options that are more efficient and less expensive. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is studying the hydrogeology at the Refuge to provide information for developing alternative water management options.The hydrogeologic studies at the Refuge included characterizing the type, distribution, and hydraulic conductivity of surficial sediments and measuring water levels and temperatures in monitoring wells. Four monitoring wells and seven soil probe coreholes were drilled at the Refuge. Seven water level and temperature data loggers were installed in the wells and water levels and temperatures were continuously recorded from November 2014 to June 2016. Sediment cores were collected from the coreholes and sediment type and distribution were characterized from drillers’ notes, geophysical logs, corehole samples, and particle grain-size analysis. The hydraulic conductivities of sediments were estimated using the measured average grain size and the assumed textural maturity of the sediment, and ranged from about 20 to 290 feet per day.

  2. Characterization approaches using ground-penetrating radar and hydrological measurements in variably saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalsky, Michael Brendan

    Modeling the flow of water or the transport of contaminants through the subsurface requires the characterization of soil properties including permeability, porosity, and water retention. Such hydrological parameters are commonly heterogeneous, and uncertainty in their spatial distributions makes it difficult to construct hydrological models from only point measurements, which are commonly limited since their collection is expensive, time consuming and invasive. The application of geophysical methods offers a promising alternative for inferring hydrological properties in the subsurface. The focus of this dissertation is on a variety of applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR), a geophysical method that provides data non-invasively (or minimally invasively) with high spatial resolution and at low cost. While GPR data are increasingly used in shallow subsurface characterization, relations between such data and subsurface flow processes are poorly understood. The research presented in this dissertation stems from the need for (1) a better understanding of GPR data in relation to non-uniform and transient distributions of pore water, and (2) an approach relating GPR attributes, possibly in combination with additional data types, to hydrological parameters. An overview of GPR methods is given, including reviews of previous applications and of techniques for simulating GPR measurements, and is followed by a series of case studies. Comparison of real field data and simulations performed with an outcrop-derived model under various states of water saturation shows that the detectability of some sedimentary units depends on in-situ moisture conditions. Then, the simultaneous simulation of GPR surveys and transient flow shows that time-lapsed measurements offer information that might be useful for inferring hydrological parameter distributions in the vadose zone. An inverse technique is then presented which allows for the estimation of actual flow parameters using GPR

  3. Treatment decisions based on scalar and functional baseline covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Adam; Petkova, Eva; Ogden, R Todd; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2015-12-01

    The amount and complexity of patient-level data being collected in randomized-controlled trials offer both opportunities and challenges for developing personalized rules for assigning treatment for a given disease or ailment. For example, trials examining treatments for major depressive disorder are not only collecting typical baseline data such as age, gender, or scores on various tests, but also data that measure the structure and function of the brain such as images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), or electroencephalography (EEG). These latter types of data have an inherent structure and may be considered as functional data. We propose an approach that uses baseline covariates, both scalars and functions, to aid in the selection of an optimal treatment. In addition to providing information on which treatment should be selected for a new patient, the estimated regime has the potential to provide insight into the relationship between treatment response and the set of baseline covariates. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of "advantage learning" to include both scalar and functional covariates. We describe our method and how to implement it using existing software. Empirical performance of our method is evaluated with simulated data in a variety of settings and also applied to data arising from a study of patients with major depressive disorder from whom baseline scalar covariates as well as functional data from EEG are available.

  4. The Fermilab Short-Baseline Program: MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The MicroBooNE experiment is the first of three detectors of the Fermilab short-baseline neutrino program that started operation in the Booster Neutrino Beamline in October 2015 [1]. When completed, the three-detector lineup will explore short-baseline neutrino oscillations and will be sensitive to sterile neutrino scenarios. MicroBooNE in itself is now starting its own physics program, with the measurement of neutrino-argon cross sections in the ~1GeV range being one of its main physics goals. These proceedings describe the status of the detector, the start of operation, and the automated reconstruction of the first neutrino events observed with MicroBooNE. Prospects for upcoming cross section measurements are also given.

  5. Dual-fission chamber and neutron beam characterization for fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Gooden, M.E., E-mail: megooden@tunl.duke.edu [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27605 (United States); Howell, C.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Kelley, J.H. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27605 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Arnold, C.W.; Bond, E.M.; Bredeweg, T.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Moody, W.A.; Rundberg, R.S.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D.J.; Wilhelmy, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becker, J.A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.A.; Stoyer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-09-01

    A program has been initiated to measure the energy dependence of selected high-yield fission products used in the analysis of nuclear test data. We present out initial work of neutron activation using a dual-fission chamber with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and gamma-counting method. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of energies from 0.5 to 15 MeV using the TUNL 10 MV FM tandem to provide high-precision and self-consistent measurements of fission product yields (FPY). The final FPY results will be coupled with theoretical analysis to provide a more fundamental understanding of the fission process. To accomplish this goal, we have developed and tested a set of dual-fission ionization chambers to provide an accurate determination of the number of fissions occurring in a thick target located in the middle plane of the chamber assembly. Details of the fission chamber and its performance are presented along with neutron beam production and characterization. Also presented are studies on the background issues associated with room-return and off-energy neutron production. We show that the off-energy neutron contribution can be significant, but correctable, while room-return neutron background levels contribute less than <1% to the fission signal.

  6. Design and characterization of novel all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array dedicated to physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczyłowska-Mamińska, Renata; Kloch, Monika; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Bala, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    A novel construction of all-solid-state potentiometric sensor array designed for physiological measurements has been presented. The planar construction and elimination of liquid phase creates broad opportunities for the modifications in the sensing part of the sensor. The designed construction is based on all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes integrated with the ionic-liquid based reference electrode. Work parameters of the sensor arrays were characterized. It has been shown that presented sensor design indicates high sensitivity (55.2±1mV/dec, 56.3±2mV/dec, 58.4±1mV/dec and 53.5±1mV/pH for sodium-, potassium-, chloride- and pH-selective electrodes, respectively in 10(-5)-10(-1.5)M range of primary ions), low response time (t95 did not exceed 10s), high potential stability (potential drift in 28-h measurement was ca. ±2mV) and potential repeatability ca. ±1mV. The system was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of K(+), Cl(-), Na(+) and pH in the model physiological solution and for the ion flux studies in human colon epithelium Caco-2 cell line as well.

  7. Rapid measurement of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity for areal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.; Schmidt, K.M.; Perkins, K.S.; Stock, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To provide an improved methodology for characterizing the field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) over broad areas with extreme spatial variability and ordinary limitations of time and resources, we developed and tested a simplified apparatus and procedure, correcting mathematically for the major deficiencies of the simplified implementation. The methodology includes use of a portable, falling-head, small-diameter (???20 cm) single-ring infiltrometer and an analytical formula for Kfs that compensates both for nonconstant falling head and for the subsurface radial spreading that unavoidably occurs with small ring size. We applied this method to alluvial fan deposits varying in degree of pedogenic maturity in the arid Mojave National Preserve, California. The measurements are consistent with a more rigorous and time-consuming Kfs measurement method, produce the expected systematic trends in Kfs when compared among soils of contrasting degrees of pedogenic development, and relate in expected ways to results of widely accepted methods. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Inflow Characterization and Aerodynamics Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.; Fingersh, L.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Post processing techniques for aerodynamic data acquired from a Siemens SWT-2.3-101 turbine have been developed and applied in this paper. The turbine is installed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as part of Cooperative Research And Development Agreement between Siemens Wind Power and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The results indicate that the use of these corrections is essential for accurate analysis of the data. An example of local inflow angles, velocities, and inflow velocity over the rotor plane derived from measurements from a 5-hole probe is also presented. Finally the pressure measurements are used to characterize unsteady phenomenon, namely, rotational augmentation and dynamic stall on an inboard station. The results show that the rotational augmentation can considerably increase the attached flow regime compared to the 2D CFD results. The dynamic stall event was seen to significantly delay the stall. Furthermore, the nondimensionalized vortex convection derived from the dynamic stall event was found to agree well with results from others studies.

  9. Multifrequency simultaneous bioimpedance measurements using multitone burst signals for dynamic tissue characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, B.; Bragos, R.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we present the keypoints to perform multifrequency simultaneous bioimpedance measurements using multitone signals. Concerning the frequency distribution, tones are spread over 1kHz to 1MHz range using a custom frequency distribution which we called Bilateral Quasi Logarithmic (BQL). BQL concentrates a higher number of tones around the impedance relaxation and contains a frequency plan algorithm. It minimizes the intermodulation effects due to non-linearities behaviours of the DUT and electrodes by slightly shifting the original tones in order to guarantee a guard bandwith. Regarding the multitone phase distribution, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been developed to minimize multitone Crest Factor (CF). This allow us to maximize the resultant Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the acquisition system. This paper also presents the relation between parameters such as sampling frequency and ADC bits with the SNR and the effect in the overall amplitude and phase error when using multitone signals as excitation waveforms. Finally, we present characterization results from a measurement system based on a modular PXI architecture.

  10. Characterization of Microfluidic Devices by Measurements with μ-PIV and CLSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlter, Michael; Hoffmann, Marko; Rbiger, Norbert

    Microfluidic devices are successfully in use for several applications in chemical engineering and biotechnology. Nevertheless, there is still no breakthrough for microprocess engineering because of a huge lack in understanding of the mechanisms on microscales for momentum transfer, hydrodynamics and mass transfer. Some important questions concern the design of a junction to reach acceptable mixing qualities with minimum pressure drop and narrow residence time distribution even under laminar flow conditions. The micro-particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) have been used for the characterization of momentum and mass transfer at the Institute of Environmental Process Engineering to evaluate microfluidic devices. The calculation of three-dimensional flow and concentration fields is possible with two-dimensional measurement data for common stationary cases. Streamlines out of velocity gradients and isosurfaces out of fields of the same concentration are providing a helpful impression of the performance of microdevices based on highly reliable measurement data. A quantitative analysis of the velocity and concentration fields allows the calculation of residence-time distribution and mixing quality, which enables the adjustment of microreactor geometries for the demands of chemical, and biochemical reactions.

  11. Degeneracies in long-baseline neutrino experiments from nonstandard interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jiajun; Whisnant, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We study parameter degeneracies that can occur in long-baseline neutrino appearance experiments due to nonstandard interactions (NSI). For a single off-diagonal NSI parameter, and neutrino and antineutrino measurements at a single L/E, there exists a continuous four-fold degeneracy (related to the mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{23}$ octant) that renders the mass hierarchy, octant, and CP phase unknowable. Even with a combination of NO$\

  12. GPS dynamic cycle slip detection and correction with baseline constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenkun; Huang Ahunji

    2009-01-01

    When the cycle slips take place in the attitude determination of a moving platform, the precision of the attitude will be impaired badly. A method of cycle slip detection and correction is proposed, which is suitable to the dynamic measurement using GPS carrier phase: the cycle slips detection is first achieved by triple difference observables, then the cycle slips correction is performed with baseline length constraint. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective to the dynamic cycle slips problem.

  13. Linking solar and long baseline terrestrial neutrino experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedov, E K; Branco, G C; Rebelo, M N

    2000-04-17

    We show that, in the framework of three light neutrino species with hierarchical masses and assuming no fine tuning between the entries of the neutrino mass matrix, one can use the solar neutrino data to obtain information on the element U(e3) of the lepton mixing matrix. Conversely, a measurement of U(e3) in atmospheric or long baseline accelerator or reactor neutrino experiments would help discriminate between possible oscillation solutions of the solar neutrino problem.

  14. Characterization of sulphate scaling formation damage from laboratory measurements to predict well productivity decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrikovetsky, P.G.; Monteiro, R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo (LENEP); Moraes, G.P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Ensino Descentralizada (UNED-Macae); Lopes Junior, R.P. [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios da Bacia de Campos; Rosario, F.F.; Bezerra, M.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Barium sulphate scaling is a chronicle disaster during offshore waterflood project where injected and formation waters are incompatible, and their mixing causes salt precipitation. It was detected in several fields of Campos Basin. The mathematical model for sulphate precipitation contains two empirical parameters: the reaction kinetics coefficient that characterizes how fast the precipitation is going on, and the formation damage coefficient showing which permeability impairment the precipitation causes. Knowledge of these two parameters is essential for reliable prediction of the well productivity decline during sea/produced water injection. These parameters are empirical and depend on rock properties; therefore they should be determined from laboratory coreflood tests by forcing the injected and formation waters through rock. Despite these tests have been presented in numerous papers, there were no attempts to determine the model coefficients from laboratory data in order to perform the laboratory-data-based reservoir simulation. A new method for simultaneous determination of both coefficients from the coreflood data is developed. The method determines the kinetic coefficient from ion concentration measurements at the core effluent; then the formation damage coefficient is determined from the pressure drop measurements. The laboratory procedures are routine, the data are available in the literature. The method is based on inverse problem for reactive flow in rocks. The inverse solution is obtained from the exact quasi steady state concentration profile during coreflood. The proposed method furnishes unique values for two coefficients, and the solution is stable with respect to small perturbations of the measured values. The laboratory data on sulphate scaling by CENPES/PETROBRAS, Brazil, and Herriot-Watt University, UK, were treated, and the data were used for prediction of productivity decline in Campos Basin reservoir. The well behaviour forecast and history

  15. Impedance measurement for microstructure characterization and internal surface estimation of macroporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RoyChaudhuri, C. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103 (India); Jana, M.; Bandopadhyay, N.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103 (India)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, a simple and convenient method based on impedance measurement has been proposed for the first time to evaluate the average porosity, pore radius, and internal surface area of macroporous silicon structure fabricated by electrochemical method. The porosity and the average pore radius have been obtained by developing a geometrical model and applying the generalized effective medium approximation theory to the dc and ac impedance measurement of both unoxidized and thermally oxidized macroporous silicon. The internal surface area per unit volume is then computed from the porosity and the pore radius using the same model. The method has been applied to a wide range of porosity from 30 to 58% fabricated on p-type <100> silicon with a resistivity of 10-20 {omega} cm. Experimental verification of porosity, mean pore radius, and internal surface area have been performed by standard gravimetric technique and by top-view and cross-section SEM imaging, respectively. A typical mean pore radius, porosity, and internal surface area of a macroporous silicon sample has been obtained to be 1.52 {mu}m, 54.2%, and 3565.7 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3}, respectively, from the impedance measurement and 1.5 {mu}m, 55%, and 3666.7 cm{sup 2}/cm{sup 3} from SEM and gravimetric analysis which shows that the results are within 2% of the values obtained by conventional methods. The advantages of this method over the other recently reported techniques for similar characterization have been discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Physicochemical characterization of the human nail: I. Pressure sealed apparatus for measuring nail plate permeabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, K A; Flynn, G L; Marvel, J R

    1981-02-01

    Diffusion characteristics of the nail plate are necessary in providing the baselines for rational topical management of nail infections. In order to develop such baselines a unique stainless steel diffusion cell has been designed. The cell permits the exposure of 0.38 cm2 of nail plate to a bathing medium which is stirred by small motors mounted above the cell. The diffusion of water, methanol and ethanol at constant temperature (37 degrees C), has been examined over periods up to 4 h. Average permeability coefficients of water, methanol and ethanol were determined as 16.5 +/- 5.9 X 10(-3) cm hr-1, 5.6 X 10(-3) cm hr-1 and 5.8 +/- 3.1 X 10(-3) cm hr-1 respectively. Moreover rates of diffusion across the nail were inversely proportional to nail thickness. Based on methanol data, nail plate barrier property appears stable for long periods of aqueous immersion.

  17. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  18. Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in Army Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    and mechanisms are identified. Based on this analysis, baselines sensor technologies are determined to prognosticate these types failure causes early...Current/voltage sensor measured at sensor terminals; Fluid level sensor Excessive slippage and clutch chatter Internal transmission failure ... TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sensor Technology Baseline Study for Enabling Condition Based Maintenance Plus in

  19. Characterization of soluble bromide measurements and a case study of BrO observations during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A focus of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was examination of bromine photochemistry in the spring time high latitude troposphere based on aircraft and satellite measurements of bromine oxide (BrO and related species. The NASA DC-8 aircraft utilized a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS to measure BrO and a mist chamber (MC to measure soluble bromide. We have determined that the MC detection efficiency to molecular bromine (Br2, hypobromous acid (HOBr, bromine oxide (BrO, and hydrogen bromide (HBr as soluble bromide (Br was 0.9±0.1, 1.06+0.30/−0.35, 0.4±0.1, and 0.95±0.1, respectively. These efficiency factors were used to estimate soluble bromide levels along the DC-8 flight track of 17 April 2008 from photochemical calculations constrained to in situ BrO measured by CIMS. During this flight, the highest levels of soluble bromide and BrO were observed and atmospheric conditions were ideal for the space-borne observation of BrO. The good agreement (R2 = 0.76; slope = 0.95; intercept = −3.4 pmol mol−1 between modeled and observed soluble bromide, when BrO was above detection limit (>2 pmol mol−1 under unpolluted conditions (NO<10 pmol mol−1, indicates that the CIMS BrO measurements were consistent with the MC soluble bromide and that a well characterized MC can be used to derive mixing ratios of some reactive bromine compounds. Tropospheric BrO vertical column densities (BrOVCD derived from CIMS BrO observations compare well with BrOTROPVCD from OMI on 17 April 2008.

  20. Modeling nonlinear errors in surface electromyography due to baseline noise: a new methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Laura Frey; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Avin, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The surface electromyographic (EMG) signal is often contaminated by some degree of baseline noise. It is customary for scientists to subtract baseline noise from the measured EMG signal prior to further analyses based on the assumption that baseline noise adds linearly to the observed EMG signal. The stochastic nature of both the baseline and EMG signal, however, may invalidate this assumption. Alternately, "true" EMG signals may be either minimally or nonlinearly affected by baseline noise. This information is particularly relevant at low contraction intensities when signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) may be lowest. Thus, the purpose of this simulation study was to investigate the influence of varying levels of baseline noise (approximately 2-40% maximum EMG amplitude) on mean EMG burst amplitude and to assess the best means to account for signal noise. The simulations indicated baseline noise had minimal effects on mean EMG activity for maximum contractions, but increased nonlinearly with increasing noise levels and decreasing signal amplitudes. Thus, the simple baseline noise subtraction resulted in substantial error when estimating mean activity during low intensity EMG bursts. Conversely, correcting EMG signal as a nonlinear function of both baseline and measured signal amplitude provided highly accurate estimates of EMG amplitude. This novel nonlinear error modeling approach has potential implications for EMG signal processing, particularly when assessing co-activation of antagonist muscles or small amplitude contractions where the SNR can be low.

  1. Characterization of Candidate Materials for Remote Recession Measurements of Ablative Heat Shield Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bradley D.; Winter, Michael; Panerai, Francesco; Martin, Alexandre; Bailey, Sean C. C.; Stackpoole, Margaret; Danehy, Paul M.; Splinter, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A method of remotely measuring surface recession of a material sample in a plasma flow through emission spectroscopy of the post shock layer was characterized through experiments in the NASA Langley HYMETS arc jet facility. Different methods for delivering the seed products into the Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) material samples were investigated. Three samples were produced by seeding the PICA material with combinations of Al, Si, HfO2, VB2, Al2O3, SiO2, TiC, HfC, NaCl, and MgCl2 through infusing seed materials into a core of PICA, or through encapsulating seed material in an epoxy disk, mechanically bonding the disk to a PICA sample. The PICA samples seeded with the candidate tracers were then tested at surface temperatures near 2400 K under low pressure air plasma. The emission of Al, Ti, V, Na, and Mg in the post-shock layer was observed in the UV with a high resolution imaging spectrometer viewing the whole stagnation line from the side, and from UV to NIR with a fiber-coupled miniaturized spectrometer observing the sample surface in the wavelength range from 200 nm to 1,100 nm from the front through a collimator. Al, Na, and Mg were found to be emitting in the post-shock spectra even before the recession reached the seeding depth - therefore possibly characterizing the pyrolysis process rather than the recession itself. The appearance of Ti and V emission in the spectra was well correlated with the actual recession which was monitored through a video of the front surface of the sample. The applicability of a seed material as an indicator for recession appears to be related to the melting temperature of the seed material. Future parametric studies will be carried out in low power plasma facilities at the University of Kentucky.

  2. Application of Fast Dynamic Allan Variance for the Characterization of FOGs-Based Measurement While Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxi; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Tao; Lin, Tie; Li, Xianmu

    2016-01-01

    The stability of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) in measurement while drilling (MWD) could vary with time because of changing temperature, high vibration, and sudden power failure. The dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR) is a sliding version of the Allan variance. It is a practical tool that could represent the non-stationary behavior of the gyroscope signal. Since the normal DAVAR takes too long to deal with long time series, a fast DAVAR algorithm has been developed to accelerate the computation speed. However, both the normal DAVAR algorithm and the fast algorithm become invalid for discontinuous time series. What is worse, the FOG-based MWD underground often keeps working for several days; the gyro data collected aboveground is not only very time-consuming, but also sometimes discontinuous in the timeline. In this article, on the basis of the fast algorithm for DAVAR, we make a further advance in the fast algorithm (improved fast DAVAR) to extend the fast DAVAR to discontinuous time series. The improved fast DAVAR and the normal DAVAR are used to responsively characterize two sets of simulation data. The simulation results show that when the length of the time series is short, the improved fast DAVAR saves 78.93% of calculation time. When the length of the time series is long (6×105 samples), the improved fast DAVAR reduces calculation time by 97.09%. Another set of simulation data with missing data is characterized by the improved fast DAVAR. Its simulation results prove that the improved fast DAVAR could successfully deal with discontinuous data. In the end, a vibration experiment with FOGs-based MWD has been implemented to validate the good performance of the improved fast DAVAR. The results of the experience testify that the improved fast DAVAR not only shortens computation time, but could also analyze discontinuous time series. PMID:27941600

  3. 40 CFR 80.90 - Conventional gasoline baseline emissions determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... using the facility's oxygenated individual baseline fuel parameter values for summer and winter (per... using the oxygenated individual baseline fuel parameter values for summer and winter (per § 80.91... baseline NOX emissions shall be determined using the baseline individual baseline fuel parameter values...

  4. Efficient baseline gathering and damage detection in guided wave structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, A. J.; Putkis, O.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    Guided wave structural health monitoring (SHM) has been proposed as a technique to allow permanently attached sensors to provide information about the state of a structure. Typical approaches rely on gathering information about the baseline state of the structure and using this data with subtraction to highlight changes to the system. This relies on the baseline data accurately representing the conditions that the system will experience. In reality this is difficult to ensure and may result in either large periods out of service or poor performance. In addition the size of the baseline set can become prohibitively large. This paper describes an alternative approach that produces an efficient continuously evolving baseline. The paper considers how damage detection performance can be characterized within this framework and presents a series of metrics to do this. The result is a new way of considering the baseline problem with practical applications to the long term inspection of structures.

  5. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  6. Development and application of a statistical methodology to evaluate the predictive accuracy of building energy baseline models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area Div.; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area Div.

    2014-03-01

    This paper documents the development and application of a general statistical methodology to assess the accuracy of baseline energy models, focusing on its application to Measurement and Verification (M&V) of whole-­building energy savings. The methodology complements the principles addressed in resources such as ASHRAE Guideline 14 and the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. It requires fitting a baseline model to data from a ``training period’’ and using the model to predict total electricity consumption during a subsequent ``prediction period.’’ We illustrate the methodology by evaluating five baseline models using data from 29 buildings. The training period and prediction period were varied, and model predictions of daily, weekly, and monthly energy consumption were compared to meter data to determine model accuracy. Several metrics were used to characterize the accuracy of the predictions, and in some cases the best-­performing model as judged by one metric was not the best performer when judged by another metric.

  7. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  8. How Valid Are the Portland Baseline Essays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Erich

    1991-01-01

    Portland, Oregon's "African-American Baseline Essays," widely used in creating multicultural curricula, inaccurately depicts ancient Egyptians as black people and Olmec civilization as derived from African influences. The authors advance racial theories long abandoned by mainline Africa scholars, attribute mystical powers to pyramids,…

  9. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  10. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    This publication has been prepared by GBP, IOI, CSIR-NIO and IUCN in order to serve as guidance to those who are planning to carry out a port biological baseline survey, in particular in the context of Ballast Water Management. It has been drafted...

  11. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...

  12. Characterization of the CTS 12 and 14 GHz communications links - Preliminary measurements and evaluation. [Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Communications Link Characterization Experiment is designed to characterize the radio frequency links of the Communications Technology Satellite. The experiment is twofold: (1) it will study the natural characteristics in the CTS frequency bands (14 GHz uplink, and 12 GHz downlink) including attenuation and signal degradation due primarily to absorption and scattering induced by precipitation, and (2) it will perform environmental measurements for the characterization of man-made, earth-based signals which could interfere with the uplink frequency bands of the satellite.

  13. Characterization of VHF radar observations associated with equatorial Spread F by narrow-band optical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sekar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The VHF radars have been extensively used to investigate the structures and dynamics of equatorial Spread F (ESF irregularities. However, unambiguous identification of the nature of the structures in terms of plasma depletion or enhancement requires another technique, as the return echo measured by VHF radar is proportional to the square of the electron density fluctuations. In order to address this issue, co-ordinated radar backscatter and thermospheric airglow intensity measurements were carried out during March 2003 from the MST radar site at Gadanki. Temporal variations of 630.0-nm and 777.4-nm emission intensities reveal small-scale ("micro" and large-scale ("macro" variations during the period of observation. The micro variations are absent on non-ESF nights while the macro variations are present on both ESF and non-ESF nights. In addition to the well-known anti-correlation between the base height of the F-region and the nocturnal variation of thermospheric airglow intensities, the variation of the base height of the F-layer, on occasion, is found to manifest as a bottomside wave-like structure, as seen by VHF radar on an ESF night. The micro variations in the airglow intensities are associated with large-scale irregular plasma structures and found to be in correspondence with the "plume" structures obtained by VHF radar. In addition to the commonly observed depletions with upward movement, the observation unequivocally reveals the presence of plasma enhancements which move downwards. The observation of enhancement in 777.4-nm airglow intensity, which is characterized as plasma enhancement, provides an experimental verification of the earlier prediction based on numerical modeling studies.

  14. Emotions evoked by the sound of music: characterization, classification, and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Marcel; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R

    2008-08-01

    One reason for the universal appeal of music lies in the emotional rewards that music offers to its listeners. But what makes these rewards so special? The authors addressed this question by progressively characterizing music-induced emotions in 4 interrelated studies. Studies 1 and 2 (n=354) were conducted to compile a list of music-relevant emotion terms and to study the frequency of both felt and perceived emotions across 5 groups of listeners with distinct music preferences. Emotional responses varied greatly according to musical genre and type of response (felt vs. perceived). Study 3 (n=801)--a field study carried out during a music festival--examined the structure of music-induced emotions via confirmatory factor analysis of emotion ratings, resulting in a 9-factorial model of music-induced emotions. Study 4 (n=238) replicated this model and found that it accounted for music-elicited emotions better than the basic emotion and dimensional emotion models. A domain-specific device to measure musically induced emotions is introduced--the Geneva Emotional Music Scale.

  15. Characterization of rheumatoid arthritis subtypes using symptom profiles, clinical chemistry and metabolomics measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman A van Wietmarschen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. METHODS: In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. RESULTS: The questionnaire items 'Red joints', 'Swollen joints', 'Warm joints' suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP and rheumatoid factor (RHF levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function. CONCLUSION: Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient.

  16. Combined Characterization of the Time Response of Impression Materials via Traditional and FTIR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Derchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the temporal response of four dental impression materials, namely three siloxanes (Imprint 4, Flexitime, Aquasil and one polyether (Impregum. The null hypothesis was that the nominal working times are confirmed by instrumental laboratory tests. We also aimed to identify alternative techniques with strong physical-chemical background for the assessment of temporal response. Traditional characterization was carried out by shark fin test device and durometer at both ambient and body temperature. Additionally, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was performed at room temperature. From shark fin height and Shore hardness versus time the working time and the setting time of the materials were evaluated, respectively. These were in reasonable agreement with the nominal values, except for Impregum, which showed longer working time. Spectroscopy confirmed the different character of the two types of materials, and provided for Imprint 4 and Aquasil an independent evaluation of both evolution times, consistent with the results of the other techniques. Shark fin test and durometer measurements showed deviations in setting time, low sensitivity to temperature for Flexitime, and longer working time at higher temperature for Impregum. Deviations of working time appear in operating conditions from what specified by the manufacturers. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy can provide insight in the correlation between material properties and their composition and structure.

  17. Optical characterization of liposomes by right angle light scattering and turbidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, K; Murase, O; Sugishita, K; Yoneyama, S; Akada, K; Ueha, M; Nakamura, A; Kobayashi, S

    2000-07-31

    Liposomes have frequently been used as models of biomembranes or vehicles for drug delivery. However, the systematic characterization of lipid vesicles by right angle light scattering and turbidity has not been carried out despite the usefulness of such studies for size estimation. In this study, liposomes of various sizes were prepared by sonication and extrusion. The mean cumulant radii of the vesicles were determined by dynamic light scattering. The lamellarities were estimated based on fluorescence quenching of N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)dipalmitoyl-L-alpha-phosph ati dylethanolamine by sodium dithionite. Right angle light scattering intensity and optical density at 436 nm per unit lipid concentration were measured as a function of vesicle radius. With a vesicle radius < or =100 nm, the optical parameters could be well explained by the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye theory in which the liposomes were modeled as homogeneous spheres with mean refractive indices determined by the volume fractions of lipids in vesicles.

  18. The NEO PI-R as a Premorbid Baseline Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    trainees, they identified three bipolar profiles: (1) high histrionic , narcissistic, and antisocial; (2) moderate narcissistic, histrionic , and high...compulsivity; and (3) high compulsivity and low histrionic . 3 Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited...statistically significant for Cluster B ( histrionic or narcissistic or both) traits. This points to the importance of making comparisons of aviators

  19. ALMA Long Baseline Campaigns: Phase Characteristics of Atmosphere at Long Baselines in the Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Fomalont, Edward B.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Barkats, Denis; Hills, Richard E.; Kawabe, Ryohei; Maud, Luke T.; Nikolic, Bojan; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Vlahakis, Catherine; Whyborn, Nicholas D.

    2017-03-01

    We present millimeter- and submillimeter-wave phase characteristics measured between 2012 and 2014 of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array long baseline campaigns. This paper presents the first detailed investigation of the characteristics of phase fluctuation and phase correction methods obtained with baseline lengths up to ∼15 km. The basic phase fluctuation characteristics can be expressed with the spatial structure function (SSF). Most of the SSFs show that the phase fluctuation increases as a function of baseline length, with a power-law slope of ∼0.6. In many cases, we find that the slope becomes shallower (average of ∼0.2–0.3) at baseline lengths longer than ∼1 km, namely showing a turn-over in SSF. These power law slopes do not change with the amount of precipitable water vapor (PWV), but the fitted constants have a weak correlation with PWV, so that the phase fluctuation at a baseline length of 10 km also increases as a function of PWV. The phase correction method using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) works well, especially for the cases where PWV > 1 {mm}, which reduces the degree of phase fluctuations by a factor of two in many cases. However, phase fluctuations still remain after the WVR phase correction, suggesting the existence of other turbulent constituent that cause the phase fluctuation. This is supported by occasional SSFs that do not exhibit any turn-over; these are only seen when the PWV is low (i.e., when the WVR phase correction works less effectively) or after WVR phase correction. This means that the phase fluctuation caused by this turbulent constituent is inherently smaller than that caused by water vapor. Since in these rare cases there is no turn-over in the SSF up to the maximum baseline length of ∼15 km, this turbulent constituent must have scale height of 10 km or more, and thus cannot be water vapor, whose scale height is around 1 km. Based on the characteristics, this large scale height turbulent constituent is

  20. Configurations of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, Vernon; Chatterjee, Animesh; Gandhi, Raj; Marfatia, Danny; Masud, Mehedi

    2014-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the ability of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) to answer outstanding questions in the neutrino sector. We consider the sensitivities to the mass hierarchy, the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and to CP violation using data from beam and atmospheric neutrinos. We evaluate the dependencies on the precision with which $\\theta_{13}$ will be measured by reactor experiments, on the detector size, beam power and exposure time, on detector magnetization, and on the systematic uncertainties achievable with and without a near detector. We find that a 35 kt LBNE with a near detector will resolve the eight-fold degeneracy that is intrinsic to long baseline experiments and will meet the primary goals of oscillation physics that it is designed for.

  1. Characterization of an INVS Model IV Neutron Counter for High Precision ($\\gamma,n$) Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, C W; Karwowski, H J; Rich, G C; Tompkins, J R; Howell, C R

    2010-01-01

    A neutron counter designed for assay of radioactive materials has been adapted for beam experiments at TUNL. The cylindrical geometry and 64% maximum efficiency make it well suited for ($\\gamma,n$) cross-section measurements near the neutron emission threshold. A high precision characterization of the counter has been made using neutrons from several sources. Using a combination of measurements and simulations, the absolute detection efficiency of the neutron counter was determined to an accuracy of $\\pm$ 3% in the neutron energy range between 0.1 and 1 MeV. It is shown that this efficiency characterization is generally valid for a wide range of targets.

  2. Characterization of positional errors and their influence on micro four-point probe measurements on a 100 nm Ru film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Daniel; Hansen, Ole; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard;

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film sheet resistance measurements at high spatial resolution and on small pads are important and can be realized with micrometer-scale four-point probes. As a result of the small scale the measurements are affected by electrode position errors. We have characterized the electrode position...... errors in measurements on Ru thin film using an Au-coated 12-point probe. We show that the standard deviation of the static electrode position error is on the order of 5 nm, which significantly affects the results of single configuration measurements. Position-error-corrected dual......-configuration measurements, however, are shown to eliminate the effect of position errors to a level limited either by electrical measurement noise or dynamic position errors. We show that the probe contact points remain almost static on the surface during the measurements (measured on an atomic scale) with a standard...

  3. LCD panel characterization by measuring full Jones matrix of individual pixels using polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongchan; Yu, Hyeonseung; Park, Jung-Hoon; Park, YongKeun

    2014-10-06

    We present measurements of the full Jones matrix of individual pixels in a liquid-crystal display (LCD) panel. Employing a polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy based on Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the complex amplitudes of the light passing through individual LCD pixels are precisely measured with respect to orthogonal bases of polarization states, from which the full Jones matrix components of individual pixels are obtained. We also measure the changes in the Jones matrix of individual LCD pixels with respect to an applied bias. In addition, the complex optical responses of a LCD panel with respect to arbitrary polarization states of incident light were characterized from the measured Jones matrix.

  4. Does Baseline Heart Rate Variability Reflect Stable Positive Emotionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Jackson, Bryonna A; Sopko, Rachel S

    2014-11-01

    Several recent studies have found significant correlations, medium in effect size, between baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and measures of positive functioning, such as extraversion, agreeableness, and trait positive affectivity. Other research, however, has suggested an optimal level of HRV and found nonlinear effects. In the present study, a diverse sample of 239 young adults completed a wide range of measures that reflect positive psychological functioning, including personality traits, an array of positive emotions (measured with the Dispositional Positive Emotions Scale), and depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (measured with the DASS and CESD). HRV was measured with a 6-minute baseline period and quantified using many common HRV metrics (e.g., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, root mean square of successive differences, and others), and potentially confounding behavioral and lifestyle variables (e.g., BMI, caffeine and nicotine use, sleep quality) were assessed. Neither linear nor non-linear effects were found, and the effect sizes were small and near zero. The findings suggest that the cross-sectional relationship between HRV and positive experience deserves more attention and meta-analytic synthesis.

  5. An X-Band Waveguide Measurement Technique for the Accurate Characterization of Materials with Low Dielectric Loss Permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Kenneth W; Reid, David R; Bean, Jeffrey A; Ellis, Jeremy D; Morris, Andrew P; Marsh, Jeramy M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a new X-band waveguide (WR90) measurement method that permits the broadband characterization of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimens with improved accuracy. An electrically-long polypropylene specimen that partially fills the cross-section is inserted into the waveguide and the transmitted scattering parameter (S21) is measured. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic simulations, coupled with a genetic algorithm, to match the experimental S21 measurement. The sensitivity of the technique to sample length was explored by simulating specimen lengths from 2.54 to 15.24 cm, in 2.54 cm increments. Analysis of our simulated data predicts the technique will have the sensitivity to measure loss tangent values on the order of 10e-3 for materials such as polymers with relatively low real permittivity values. The ability to accurately characterize low-loss dielectric material specimens of polypropylene is demonstrated experimentally. ...

  6. Experimental Demonstration of Direct Path State Characterization by Strongly Measuring Weak Values in a Matter-Wave Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkmayr, Tobias; Geppert, Hermann; Lemmel, Hartmut; Waegell, Mordecai; Dressel, Justin; Hasegawa, Yuji; Sponar, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    A method was recently proposed and experimentally realized for characterizing a quantum state by directly measuring its complex probability amplitudes in a particular basis using so-called weak values. Recently, Vallone and Dequal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 040502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.040502] showed theoretically that weak measurements are not a necessary condition to determine the weak value. Here, we report a measurement scheme used in a matter-wave interferometric experiment in which the neutron path system's quantum state was characterized via direct measurements, using both strong and weak interactions. Experimental evidence is given that strong interactions outperform weak ones for tomographic accuracy. Our results are not limited to neutron interferometry, but can be used in a wide range of quantum systems.

  7. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  8. Dissipative Effect in Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Roberto L N

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using Lindblad Master Equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the probabilities behavior. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each decoherence parameters change the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using numeric and analytic approach.

  9. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  10. The Gambia Impact Evaluation Baseline Report

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Government of The Gambia is implementing the Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Results Project (MCNHRP) to increase the utilization of community nutrition and primary maternal and child health services. In collaboration with the Government, the World Bank is conducting an impact evaluation (IE) to assess the impact of the project on key aspects of maternal and child nutrition and health. The baseline survey for the MCNHRP IE took place between November 2014 and February 2015. It c...

  11. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  12. An in-situ soil structure characterization methodology for measuring soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Endre; Kriston, András; Juhász, András; Sulyok, Dénes

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  13. Measurements of volatile organic compounds in rural area of Yangtze River Delta region: Measurement comparison and source characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, S.; Saito, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Inomata, S.; Kanaya, Y.; Yamaji, K.; Xiaole, P.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in ambient air were measured by three different methods in a city of Rudong in May and June 2010. Intercomparison of VOCs measurements was made among in-situ measurements and canister analyses with a gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). For 18 VOCs measured by GC/FID/MS, canister analyses and in-situ measurements were in reasonably good agreement (R2 > 0.90). However, alkenes and aromatics in canister samples were found to be lower than in-situ measurements likely due to adsorption of low volatile compounds onto the wall surface inside canisters. For comparison of GC/MS with PTR-MS, the correlations for isoprene, benzene, C8 aromatics, and C9 aromatics were highly significant (R2 ≥ 0.93) with each other. However, there were quantitative differences between GC/MS and PTR-MS. For example, isoprene measured by PTR-MS indicates existence of interferences from C5 alcohols, C5 aldehydes, and furan. During the latter part of the field campaign, elevated concentrations of VOCs and CO were observed when intensive burning of crop residues took place near the sampling site. The concentrations of ethane, propane, ethane, isoprene, acetone, acetaldehyde, and aromatics varied in the range between 0 and 30 ppbv. The observed VOCs concentrations are compared to model results by a regional chemistry-transport model for Asia. The modeled concentrations underestimated the observed concentrations by a factor of 10 for NMHCs, 100 for aromatics, 10 for oxygenated VOCs, implying that current emissions inventories miss a number of sources for these VOCs.

  14. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  15. Extreme UV and X-ray scattering measurements from a rough LiF crystal surface characterized by electron micrography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alehyane; Arbaoui; Barchewitz

    1989-01-01

    XUV and X-ray scattering by a LiF crystal is measured. The angular distribution of the scattered radiation (ADSR) reveals characteristic features, side peaks or asymmetry. The surface of the sample is statistically characterized by a microdensitometer analysis of electron micrographs resolving th...

  16. Interaction-Point Phase-Space Characterization using Single-Beam and Luminous-Region Measurements at PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozanecki, W; /Saclay; Bevan, A.J.; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Viaud, B.F.; /Montreal U.; Cai, Y.; Fisher, A.S.; O' Grady, C.; Lindquist, B.; Roodman, A.; J.M.Thompson, M.Weaver; /SLAC

    2008-09-09

    We present an extensive experimental characterization of the e{sup {+-}} phase space at the interaction point of the SLAC PEP-II B-Factory, that combines a detailed mapping of luminous-region observables using the BABAR detector, with stored-beam measurements by accelerator techniques.

  17. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  18. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  19. Characterization of Carbon Dioxide Washout Measurement Techniques in the Mark-III Space Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, J.; Bekdash, O.; Meginnis, I.

    2016-01-01

    Providing adequate carbon dioxide (CO2) washout is essential to the reduction of risk in performing suited operations. Long term CO2 exposure can lead to symptoms such as headache, lethargy, dizziness, and in severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and death. Thus maintaining adequate CO2 washout in both ground testing and during in flight EVAs is a requirement of current and future suit designs. It is necessary to understand the inspired CO2 of suit wearers such that future requirements for space suits appropriately address the risk of inadequate washout. Testing conducted by the EVA Physiology Laboratory at the NASA Johnson Space Center aimed to characterize a method for noninvasively measuring inspired oronasal CO2 under pressurized suited conditions in order to better inform requirements definition and verification techniques for future CO2 washout limits in space suits. Prior work conducted by the EPL examined several different wearable, respirator style, masks that could be used to sample air from the vicinity surround the nose and mouth of a suited test subject. Previously published studies utilized these masks, some being commercial products and some novel designs, to monitor CO2 under various exercise and flow conditions with mixed results for repeatability and/or consistency between subjects. Based on a meta-analysis of those studies it was decided to test a nasal cannula as it is a commercially available device that is placed directly in the flow path of the user as they breathe. A nasal cannula was used to sample air inhaled by the test subjects during both rest and exercise conditions. Eight subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill or operating an arm ergometer to reach target metabolic rates of 1000, 2000, and 3000 BTU/hr. Suit pressure was maintained at 4.3 psid for all tests, with supply flow rates of 6, 4, and 2 actual cubic feet per minute depending on the test condition. Each test configuration was conducted twice with subjects breathing

  20. Stream geomorphic and habitat data from a baseline study of Underwood Creek, Wisconsin, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin M.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Blount, James D.

    2015-12-07

    Geomorphic and habitat data were collected along Underwood Creek as part of a larger study of stream water quality conditions in the greater Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area. The data were collected to characterize baseline physical conditions in Underwood Creek prior to a potential discharge of wastewater return flow to the stream from the city of Waukesha, Wis. Geomorphic and habitat assessments were conducted in the summer and fall of 2012 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. The assessments used a transect based, reach scale assessment at a total of eight reaches—six reaches along Underwood Creek and two reaches along the Menomonee River upstream and downstream of its confluence with Underwood Creek. The reach scale assessment was an updated version of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program habitat assessment integrated with an intensive geomorphic assessment. Channel cross sections and longitudinal profiles were surveyed along each of the eight reaches, and discharge and water temperature were measured. Additionally, a geomorphic river walk-through was completed along a 10 kilometer reach that spanned the individual assessment reaches and the sections of channel between them. The assessments and river walk-through described channel and bank stability, channel shape and size, sediment and riparian conditions along these areas of Underwood Creek and the Menomonee River. Since the time of the data collection, focus has turned to other Lake Michigan tributary watersheds for possible Waukesha return-flow discharges; however, the data collected for this effort remains a valuable asset for the baseline characterization, design, and prioritization of planned stream rehabilitation activities in Underwood Creek. The data files presented in this report include a variety of formats including geographic information system files, spreadsheets, photos, and scans of field forms.

  1. Characterization of Residual Stresses in Ferrous Components by Magnetic Anisotropy Measurements Using a Hall Effect Sensor Array Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. C. H.

    2011-06-01

    A new surface sensor probe comprising an angular array of Hall effect sensors has been developed for characterization of residual stresses in ferrous materials by means of stress-induced magnetic anisotropy measurements. The sensor probe applies a radially spreading ac magnetic field to a test sample, and detects stray fields in different directions simultaneously to determine the principal stress axes. In situ measurements were conducted on a annealed steel plate under four-point bending stresses to evaluate the probe performance. The ratio of stray field signals measured along and perpendicular to the stress axis varies linearly with the surface stress, indicating the possibility of characterizing residual stresses in ferrous components using the sensor array probe.

  2. Baseline Risk Assessment Supporting Closure at Waste Management Area C at the Hanford Site Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Kristin M. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-07

    The Office of River Protection under the U.S. Department of Energy is pursuing closure of the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Waste Management Area (WMA) C under the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO). A baseline risk assessment (BRA) of current conditions is based on available characterization data and information collected at WMA C. The baseline risk assessment is being developed as a part of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS) at WMA C that is mandatory under Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and RCRA corrective action. The RFI/CMS is needed to identify and evaluate the hazardous chemical and radiological contamination in the vadose zone from past releases of waste from WMA C. WMA C will be under Federal ownership and control for the foreseeable future, and managed as an industrial area with restricted access and various institutional controls. The exposure scenarios evaluated under these conditions include Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) Method C, industrial worker, maintenance and surveillance worker, construction worker, and trespasser scenarios. The BRA evaluates several unrestricted land use scenarios (residential all-pathway, MTCA Method B, and Tribal) to provide additional information for risk management. Analytical results from 13 shallow zone (0 to 15 ft. below ground surface) sampling locations were collected to evaluate human health impacts at WMA C. In addition, soil analytical data were screened against background concentrations and ecological soil screening levels to determine if soil concentrations have the potential to adversely affect ecological receptors. Analytical data from 12 groundwater monitoring wells were evaluated between 2004 and 2013. A screening of groundwater monitoring data against background concentrations and Federal maximum concentration levels was used to determine vadose zone

  3. A fast statistical significance test for baseline correction and comparative analysis in phase locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjan Dinesh Rana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Human perception, cognition, and action are supported by a complex network of interconnected brain regions. There is an increasing interest in measuring and characterizing these networks as a function of time and frequency, and inter-areal phase locking is often used to reveal these networks. This measure assesses the consistency of phase angles between the electrophysiological activity in two areas at a specific time and frequency. Noninvasively, the signals from which phase locking is computed can be measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG. However, due to the lack of spatial specificity of reconstructed source signals in MEG and EEG, inter-areal phase locking may be confounded by false positives resulting from crosstalk. Traditional phase locking estimates assume that no phase locking exists when the distribution of phase angles is uniform. However, this conjecture is not true when crosstalk is present. We propose a novel method to improve the reliability of the phase-locking measure by sampling phase angles from a baseline, such as from a prestimulus period or from resting-state data, and by contrasting this distribution against one observed during the time period of interest.

  4. Comparison of baseline results for the TI-4100 and Trimble 4000SDT geodetic GPS receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    1992-10-01

    Many GPS networks which were initially surveyed with Texas Instruments TI-4100 receivers have now been resurveyed with mixtures of TI-4100 and Trimble 4000 receivers or exclusively with Trimble receivers. In order to make confident tectonic interpretation of displacements observed between such surveys, it is necessary to understand any biases which may be introduced by using different receiver types or by mixing receivers within a network. Therefore, one of the primary objectives of the Ecuador 1990 GPS campaign (February 1990) was to provide a direct long baseline comparison between the TI-4100 and Trimble 4000SDT GPS receivers. p ]During this campaign, TI and Trimble receivers were co-located at each end of a 1323 kilometer baseline (Jerusalen to Baltra). Solutions for this baseline show no variation with receiver type. Zero-length baseline solutions showed no evidence for any intrinsic bias caused by mixing the two receiver types. Short baseline solutions indicate a bias of -34±10 mm in the baseline vertical component; the sign of the bias indicates that either the assumed phase center location for the TI is too low or the assumed location for the Trimble is too high. The bias is explainable if the phase centers of the Trimble SDT and SST antennas are similarly located. p ]Solutions for baselines measured with codeless receivers (such as the Trimble) should be as precise as those for baselines measured with P-code receivers (such as the TI) as long as it is possible to resolve ambiguities. Resolution of the widelane ambiguity is the limiting factor in ambiguity resolution with any codeless receiver, and in the February 1990 campaigns it was not successful fore baselines longer than 100 km. Without explicit modeling of the ionospheric effect on the widelane, ambiguity resolution with codeless receivers will not be successful for baselines longer than about 100 km, depending on the local ionospheric conditions.

  5. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  6. Long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2000-01-01

    A nu /sub mu / disappearance effect has been seen in atmospheric neutrino experiments. This has led to the "evidence for neutrino oscillations". The next problem in neutrino physics is to perform the right experiment(s) to elucidate in a comprehensive way the pattern of neutrino masses and mixings. The long baseline experiments will play a fundamental role at settling definitively the question of flavor oscillation and at measuring with good precision the oscillation parameters. The CERN-NGS beam coupled with the proposed ICANOE and OPERA detectors is the only programme capable of sensitive tau and electron appearance searches. (14 refs).

  7. Implications of 3+1 short-baseline neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunti, Carlo, E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Laveder, Marco, E-mail: laveder@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-12-06

    We present an upgrade of the 3+1 global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data obtained with the addition of KARMEN and LSND {nu}{sub e}+{sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}N{sub g.s.}+e{sup -} scattering data. We discuss the implications for the measurements of the effective neutrino mass in {beta}-decay and neutrinoless double-{beta}-decay experiments. We find respective predicted ranges of about 0.1-0.7 eV and 0.01-0.1 eV.

  8. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  9. Optimization of the CLIC Baseline Collimation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resta-Lopez, Javier; /Oxford U., JAI; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; /Daresbury; Fernandez-Hernando, Juan; /Daresbury; Jackson, Frank; /Daresbury; Dalena, Barbara; /CERN; Schulte, Daniel; /CERN; Tomas, Rogelio; /CERN; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2012-07-06

    Important efforts have recently been dedicated to the improvement of the design of the baseline collimation system of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Different aspects of the design have been optimized: the transverse collimation depths have been recalculated in order to reduce the collimator wakefield effects while maintaining a good efficiency in cleaning the undesired beam halo; the geometric design of the spoilers have also been reviewed to minimize wakefields; in addition, the optics design have been polished to improve the collimation efficiency. This paper describes the current status of the CLIC collimation system after this optimization.

  10. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation, Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-11-01

    As discussed in the program plan for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, this program has been implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the current state of knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The objective of the program is to install a series of observation well clusters (wells installed in each major water bearing formation at the same site) at key locations across the plant site in order to: (1) provide detailed information on the lithology, stratigraphy, and groundwater hydrology, (2) provide observation wells to monitor the groundwater quality, head relationships, gradients, and flow paths.

  11. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  12. An X-band waveguide measurement technique for the accurate characterization of materials with low dielectric loss permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenneth W.; Scott, Mark M.; Reid, David R.; Bean, Jeffrey A.; Ellis, Jeremy D.; Morris, Andrew P.; Marsh, Jeramy M.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we present a new X-band waveguide (WR90) measurement method that permits the broadband characterization of the complex permittivity for low dielectric loss tangent material specimens with improved accuracy. An electrically long polypropylene specimen that partially fills the cross-section is inserted into the waveguide and the transmitted scattering parameter (S21) is measured. The extraction method relies on computational electromagnetic simulations, coupled with a genetic algorithm, to match the experimental S21 measurement. The sensitivity of the technique to sample length was explored by simulating specimen lengths from 2.54 to 15.24 cm, in 2.54 cm increments. Analysis of our simulated data predicts the technique will have the sensitivity to measure loss tangent values on the order of 10-3 for materials such as polymers with relatively low real permittivity values. The ability to accurately characterize low-loss dielectric material specimens of polypropylene is demonstrated experimentally. The method was validated by excellent agreement with a free-space focused-beam system measurement of a polypropylene sheet. This technique provides the material measurement community with the ability to accurately extract material properties of low-loss material specimen over the entire X-band range. This technique could easily be extended to other frequency bands.

  13. Comparison of RABITT and FROG measurements in the temporal characterization of attosecond pulse trains

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyung Taec; Park, Mi Na; Imran, Tayyab; Umesh, G; Nam, Chang Hee

    2007-01-01

    The attosecond high harmonic pulses obtained from a long Ar-filled gas cell were characterized by two techniques - the reconstruction of attosecond beating by interference of two-photon transition (RABITT) and frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) methods. The pulse durations obtained by RABITT and FROG methods agreed within 10 %.

  14. Characterization of Rheumatoid Arthritis Subtypes Using Symptom Profiles, Clinical Chemistry and Metabolomics Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wietmarschen, H.A. van; Dai, W.; Kooij, A.J. van der; Reijmers, T.H.; Schroën, Y.; Wang, M.; Xu, Z.; Wang, X.; Kong, H.; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Meulman, J.J.; Greef, J. van der

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalize

  15. Characterization of quasi-phase-matching gratings in quadratic media through double-pass second-harmonic power measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steffen Kjær; Baldi, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme for nondestructive characterization of quasi-phase-matching grating structures and temperature gradients through inverse Fourier theory using second-harmonic-generation experiments is proposed. By inserting a mirror to reflect the signals back through the sample, we show how it is po......A new scheme for nondestructive characterization of quasi-phase-matching grating structures and temperature gradients through inverse Fourier theory using second-harmonic-generation experiments is proposed. By inserting a mirror to reflect the signals back through the sample, we show how...... it is possible to retrieve the relevant information by measuring only the generated second-harmonic power, avoiding more complicated phase measurements. The potential of the scheme is emphasized through theoretical and numerical investigations in the case of periodically poled lithium niobate bulk crystals...

  16. Evaluation of the Predictive Accuracy of Five Whole Building Baseline Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This report documents the relative and absolute performance of five baseline models used to characterize whole­building energy consumption. The Pulse Adaptive Model1, multi-­parameter change-­point, mean-week, day-­time-emperature, and LBNL models were evaluated according to a number of statistical ‘goodness of fit’ metrics, to determine their accuracy in characterizing the energy consumption of a set of 29 buildings. The baseline training period, prediction horizon, and predicted energy quantity (daily, weekly, and monthly energy consumption) were varied, and model predictions were compared to interval meter data to determine the accuracy of each model. Three combinations of baseline training periods and prediction horizons were considered: 6 months of training to generate a 12-­month prediction; 9 months of training to generate a 7-month prediction; and 12 months of training to generate a 6- month prediction.

  17. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  18. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  19. Metrological Characterization of an Improved DSP-Based On-line Integrator for Magnetic Measurements at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Spiezia, G

    2007-01-01

    An improved on-line version of the self-calibrating digital instrument for flux measurements on superconductive magnets for particle accelerators, prototyped at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in cooperation with the University of Sannio, is proposed. The instrument acquires voltage arising from rotating coils transducers. Then, the samples are online integrated and suitably processed in order to achieve flux analysis time down to 2.0 ìs, with resolution of 50 ns. Details about hardware and firmware conception, on-line measurement principle, and preliminary results of metrological characterization of the prototype are provided.

  20. Aerodynamic noise characterization of a full-scale wind turbine through high-frequency surface pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and characterize the high-frequency surface pressure fluctuations on a full-scale wind turbine blade and in particular the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. As these fluctuations are highly correlated to the sources of both turbulent inflow noise...... wind turbine with a 80 m diameter rotor as well as measurements of an airfoil section tested in a wind tunnel. The turbine was extensively equipped in order to monitor the local inflow onto the rotating blades. Further a section of the 38 m long blade was instrumented with 50 microphones flush......-mounted relative to the blade surface. The measurements of surface pressure spectra are compared with the results of two engineering models for trailing edge noise and for turbulent inflow noise. The measured pressure fluctuations are related to the local inflow angle and are also compared to measurements...

  1. Turbulent wind field characterization and re-generation based on pitot tube measurements mounted on a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge;

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to estimate the undisturbed inflow field of a wind turbine based on measurements obtained from one or more five-hole pitot tubes mounted directly on the blades. Based on the measurements, the disturbance caused by the wind turbine is estimated using aerodymanic...... the measured wind speeds at the recording position. In the theoretical part of this study a quite good agreement is seen between load sensors on a turbine model exposed to the reference and the re-generated turbulence field. Finally the method is applied to full scale measurements and reasonable wind shear...... profiles are derived. It is expected that this method will lead to a new and effective experimental method to characterize the incoming flow field to a wind turbine and thus contribute to the understanding of wind turbine loads....

  2. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Collier, Hughbert A.; Bennett, Michael

    2002-01-29

    The objective of this project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate NMR techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This is accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging are being linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of the core and theoretical model.

  3. Measurement and characterization of the path loss for ear-to-ear wireless communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Baqer; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    loss increases as the frequency increases. We measured the path loss ∣PL∣ at 1 GHz to approximately 33 dB for the tangential magnetic dipole and 45 dB for the normal magnetic dipole. These measurements show the importance of the orientation with respect to the surface of the head. We were able to gain...... 12 dB for the same antenna just by choosing different orientation. The significance of the feeding cables was demonstrated in the measurements with bow-tie dipoles (ant. 4 and 5), where the measurements show smaller path loss than for the low frequency cases. By using numerical simulations we were...

  4. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Ph.D., Jorge O.

    2002-06-10

    The objective of the project was to develop an advanced imaging method, including pore scale imaging, to integrate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and acoustic measurements to improve predictability of the pay zone in hydrocarbon reservoirs. This will be accomplished by extracting the fluid property parameters using NMR laboratory measurements and the elastic parameters of the rock matrix from acoustic measurements to create poroelastic models of different parts of the reservoir. Laboratory measurement techniques and core imaging were linked with a balanced petrographical analysis of cores and theoretical modeling.

  5. Versatile light-emitting-diode-based spectral response measurement system for photovoltaic device characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, Behrang H; Roller, John; Dougherty, Brian; Yoon, Howard W

    2012-07-01

    An absolute differential spectral response measurement system for solar cells is presented. The system couples an array of light emitting diodes with an optical waveguide to provide large area illumination. Two unique yet complementary measurement methods were developed and tested with the same measurement apparatus. Good agreement was observed between the two methods based on testing of a variety of solar cells. The first method is a lock-in technique that can be performed over a broad pulse frequency range. The second method is based on synchronous multifrequency optical excitation and electrical detection. An innovative scheme for providing light bias during each measurement method is discussed.

  6. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  7. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  8. Octant degeneracy, CPV phase at Long Baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work by two of us, we have studied, how CP violation discovery potential can be improved at long baseline neutrino experiments (LBNE/DUNE), by combining with its ND (near detector) and reactor experiments. In this work, we discuss how this study can be further analysed to resolve entanglement of the quadrant of CPV phase and Octant of atmospheric mixing angle {\\theta}23, at LBNEs. The study is done for both NH (Normal hierarchy) and IH (Inverted hierarchy). We further show how leptogenesis can enhance this effect of resolving this entanglement. A detailed analytic and numerical study of baryogenesis through leptogenesis is performed in this framework in a model independent way. We then compare our result of the baryon to photon ratio with the the current observational data of the baryon asymmetry.

  9. The OPERA long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilquet, G.

    2008-05-01

    OPERA is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to observe the appearance of vτ in a pure vμ beam in the parameter space indicated by the atmospheric neutrinos oscillation signal. The detector is situated in the underground LNGS laboratory under 3 800 water meter equivalent at a distance of 730 km from CERN where the CNGS neutrino beam to which it is exposed originates. It consists of two identical 0.68 kilotons lead/nuclear emulsion targets, each instrumented with a tracking device and complemented by a muon spectrometer. The concept and the status of the detector are described and the first results obtained with cosmic rays and during two weeks of beam commissioning in 2006 are reported.

  10. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  11. Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.

  12. Radio sources - Very, Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. H.

    1983-03-01

    With resolution of a thousandth of an arcsecond, the radio technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) provides astronomers with their highest-resolution view of the universe. Data taken with widely-separated antennas are combined, with the help of atomic clocks, to form a Michelson interferometer whose size may be as great as the earth's diameter. Extraordinary phenomena, from the birth of stars as signaled by the brilliant flashes of powerful interstellar masers to the 'faster-than-light' expansion of the cores of distant quasars, are being explored with this technique. However, earth-bound VLBI suffers from several restrictions due to the location of the component antennas at fixed places on the earth's surface. The use of one or more antennas in space in concert with ground-based equipment will greatly expand the technical and scientific capabilities of VLBI, leading to a more complete and even higher resolution view of cosmic phenomena.

  13. Reactive flow modeling of small scale detonation failure experiments for a baseline non-ideal explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittell, David E.; Cummock, Nick R.; Son, Steven F.

    2016-08-01

    Small scale characterization experiments using only 1-5 g of a baseline ammonium nitrate plus fuel oil (ANFO) explosive are discussed and simulated using an ignition and growth reactive flow model. There exists a strong need for the small scale characterization of non-ideal explosives in order to adequately survey the wide parameter space in sample composition, density, and microstructure of these materials. However, it is largely unknown in the scientific community whether any useful or meaningful result may be obtained from detonation failure, and whether a minimum sample size or level of confinement exists for the experiments. In this work, it is shown that the parameters of an ignition and growth rate law may be calibrated using the small scale data, which is obtained from a 35 GHz microwave interferometer. Calibration is feasible when the samples are heavily confined and overdriven; this conclusion is supported with detailed simulation output, including pressure and reaction contours inside the ANFO samples. The resulting shock wave velocity is most likely a combined chemical-mechanical response, and simulations of these experiments require an accurate unreacted equation of state (EOS) in addition to the calibrated reaction rate. Other experiments are proposed to gain further insight into the detonation failure data, as well as to help discriminate between the role of the EOS and reaction rate in predicting the measured outcome.

  14. In Vivo Measurement and Characterization of a Novel Formulation of [177Lu]-DOTA-Octreotate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Bailey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Lutetium-177 can be made with high specific activity and with no other isotopes of lutetium present, referred to as “No Carrier Added” (NCA 177Lu. We have radiolabelled DOTA-conjugated peptide DOTA‐(Tyr3‐octreotate with NCA 177Lu (“NCA-LuTATE” and used it in nearly 40 therapeutic administrations for subjects with neuroendocrine tumours or meningiomas. In this paper, we report on our initial studies on aspects of the biodistribution and dosimetry of NCA-LuTATE from gamma camera 2D whole body (WB and quantitative 3D SPECT (qSPECT 177Lu imaging. Methods: Thirteen patients received 39 NCA-LuTATE injections. Extensive WB planar and qSPECT imaging was acquired at approximately 0.5, 4, 24 and 96 h to permit estimates of clearance and radiation dose estimation using MIRD-based methodology (OLINDA-EXM. Results:The average amount of NCA-Lutate administered per cycle was 7839±520 MBq. Bi-exponential modelling of whole body clearance showed half lives for the fast & slow components of t½=2.1±0.6 h and t½=58.1±6.6 h respectively. The average effective dose to kidneys was 3.1±1.0 Gy per cycle. In eight patients completing all treatment cycles the average total dose to kidneys was 11.7±3.6 Gy. Conclusions: We have shown that NCA-LuTATE has an acceptable radiation safety profile and is a suitable alternative to Carrier-Added 177Lu formulations. The fast component of the radiopharmaceutical clearance was closely correlated with baseline renal glomerular filtration rate, and this had an impact on radiation dose to the kidneys. In addition, it has less radioactive waste issues and requires less peptide per treatment.

  15. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  16. Non-intrusive measurement and hydrodynamics characterization of gas–solid fluidized beds: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jingyuan; Yan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Gas-solid fluidization is a well-established technique to suspend or transport particles and has been applied in a variety of industrial processes. Nevertheless, our knowledge of fluidization hydrodynamics is still limited for the design, scale-up and operation optimization of fluidized bed reactors. It is therefore essential to characterize the two-phase flow behaviours in gas-solid fluidized beds and monitor the fluidization processes for control and optimization. A range of non-intrusive t...

  17. Systematic characterization of optical beam deflection measurement system for micro and nanomechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Klop, W.A.; Eschen, M.; Dool, T.C. van den; Koster, N.B.; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2014-01-01

    Optical beam deflection (OBD) measurement method is very popular in various types of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and micro/nanomechanical sensors to measure a mechanical motion. This paper reports the detail design and implementation of a very low drift (2 nm over 1000 s), high bandwidth (40 MHz

  18. Measurement-based Channel Characterization for 5G Wireless Communications on Campus Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mi, Yang; He, Ruisi; Ai, Bo

    2017-01-01

    GHz according to the requirements and scenarios of 5G communication. Channel measurements were conducted on campus of Beijing Jiaotong University, China at two key optional frequency bands below 6 GHz. By using the measured data, we analyzed key channel parameters at 460MHz and 3.5GHz, such as power...

  19. Practical resolution requirements of measurement instruments for precise characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boher, Pierre; Leroux, Thierry; Collomb-Patton, Véronique; Bignon, Thibault

    2014-03-01

    Different ways to evaluate the optical performances of auto-stereoscopic 3D displays are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the crosstalk measurements that can be performed by measuring, either the precise angular emission at one or few locations on the display surface, or the full display surface emission from very specific locations in front of the display. Using measurements made in the two ways with different instruments on different auto-stereoscopic displays, we show that measurement instruments need to match the resolution of the human eye to obtain reliable results in both cases. Practical requirements in terms of angular resolution for viewing angle measurement instruments and in terms of spatial resolution for imaging instruments are derived and verified on practical examples.

  20. Laser-Ranging Long Baseline Differential Atom Interferometers for Space

    CERN Document Server

    Chiow, Sheng-wey; Yu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    High sensitivity differential atom interferometers are promising for precision measurements in science frontiers in space, including gravity field mapping for Earth science studies and gravitational wave detection. We propose a new configuration of twin atom interferometers connected by a laser ranging interferometer (LRI-AI) to provide precise information of the displacements between the two AI reference mirrors and a means to phase-lock the two independent interferometer lasers over long distances, thereby further enhancing the feasibility of long baseline differential atom interferometers. We show that a properly implemented LRI-AI can achieve equivalent functionality to the conventional differential atom interferometer measurement system. LRI-AI isolates the laser requirements for atom interferometers and for optical phase readout between distant locations, thus enabling optimized allocation of available laser power within a limited physical size and resource budget. A unique aspect of LRI-AI also enables...

  1. Precise geodesy with the Very Long Baseline Array

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid; Gipson, John; MacMillan, Dan; Ma, Chopo; Fomalont, Ed; Walker, R Craig; Carabajal, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    We report on a program of regular measurements between 1994 and 2007 which used the Very Long Baseline Array and up to 10 additional stations. One of the goals of these sessions was to monitor positions of the array at 1 millimeter level of accuracy and to tie the VLBA into the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The large number of stations and the many competing goals made scheduling these sessions manually difficult, and lead to advances in scheduling software. We describe the analysis of these data, which is non-standard, and involves translating the data into a form useful for geodetic VLBI. We also describe several interesting geophysical results including measured station displacement due to crustal motion, earthquakes, and antenna tilt. In terms of both formal errors and observed scatter, these sessions are among the very best geodetic VLBI sessions.

  2. Intercomparison and closure calculations using measurements of aerosol species and optical properties during the Yosemite Aerosol Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, William C.; Day, Derek E.; Carrico, Christian; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; McMeeking, Gavin; Lee, Taehyoung; Carrillo, Jacqueline; Schichtel, Bret

    2005-07-01

    Physical and optical properties of inorganic aerosols have been extensively studied, but less is known about carbonaceous aerosols, especially as they relate to the non-urban settings such as our nation's national parks and wilderness areas. Therefore an aerosol characterization study was conceived and implemented at one national park that is highly impacted by carbonaceous aerosols, Yosemite. The primary objective of the study was to characterize the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a carbon-dominated aerosol, including the ratio of total organic matter weight to organic carbon, organic mass scattering efficiencies, and the hygroscopic characteristics of a carbon-laden ambient aerosol, while a secondary objective was to evaluate a variety of semi-continuous monitoring systems. Inorganic ions were characterized using 24-hour samples that were collected using the URG and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) monitoring systems, the micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) cascade impactor, as well as the semi-continuous particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) technology. Likewise, carbonaceous material was collected over 24-hour periods using IMPROVE technology along with the thermal optical reflectance (TOR) analysis, while semi-continuous total carbon concentrations were measured using the Rupprecht and Patashnick (R&P) instrument. Dry aerosol number size distributions were measured using a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and optical particle counter, scattering coefficients at near-ambient conditions were measured with nephelometers fitted with PM10 and PM2.5 inlets, and "dry" PM2.5 scattering was measured after passing ambient air through Perma Pure Nafion® dryers. In general, the 24-hour "bulk" measurements of various aerosol species compared more favorably with each other than with the semi-continuous data. Semi-continuous sulfate measurements correlated well with the 24-hour measurements, but were biased low by

  3. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  4. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...

  5. Characterization of the minimal penalty of a convex risk measure with applications to Levy processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Hernández, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The minimality of the penalization function associated with a convex risk measure is analyzed in this paper. First, in a general static framework, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a penalty function defined in a convex and closed subset of the absolutely continuous measures with respect to some reference measure $\\mathbb{P}$ to be minimal. When the probability space supports a L\\'{e}vy process, we establish results that guarantee the minimality property of a penalty function described in terms of the coefficients associated with the density processes. The set of densities processes is described and the convergence of its quadratic variation is analyzed.

  6. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, William C. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  7. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-01

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the νμ → νe appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  8. Production, Characterization, and Measurement of H(D) Beams on the ORNL Merged-Beams Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. D. [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Kvale, Thomas Jay [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Strasser, S. M. [Albion College; Seely, D. G. [Albion College; Havener, Charles C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Total cross section measurements of electron capture processes are being studied for low-energy, Aq++H(D) collisions using the Ion-Atom Merged-Beams apparatus at the Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). On this apparatus, a modified Faraday cup detector is used to measure the intensity of the neutral beam. The conversion of the measured electrical current to the true neutral particle beam current is necessary to accurately determine the true cross section values. Inherent in this conversion process is the number of secondary electrons (gamma) emitted from the surface of the detector upon impact of an atom. The method employed to determine gamma and its role in the absolute electron capture measurements at ORNL-MIRF are presented. With a recent upgrade to the apparatus, the neutral beam H(D) production technique has been improved and is discussed in detail in this paper.

  9. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Characterization of Closely Spaced Modes and Mistuning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that the advanced non-contacting stress measurement system (NSMS) was able to address closely spaced modes and...

  10. Characterizing the dynamics of quantum discord under phase damping with POVM measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋峰建; 叶剑锋; 闫新虎; 吕海江

    2015-01-01

    In the analysis of quantum discord, the minimization of average entropy traditionally involved over orthogonal projec-tive measurements may be attained at more optimal decompositions by using the positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) measurements. Taking advantage of the quantum steering ellipsoid in combination with three-element POVM optimization, we show that, for a family of two-qubit X states locally interacting with Markovian non-dissipative environments, the decay rates of quantum discord show smooth dynamical evolutions without any sudden change. This is in contrast to two-element orthogonal projective measurements, in which case the sudden change of the decay rates of quantum and classical decoher-ences may be a common phenomenon. Notwithstanding this, we find that a subset of X states (including the Bell diagonal states) involving POVM optimization can still preserve the sudden change character as usual.

  11. Blade Vibration Measurement System for Characterization of Closely Spaced Modes and Mistuning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are several ongoing challenges in non-contacting blade vibration and stress measurement systems that can address closely spaced modes and blade-to-blade...

  12. Characterization of Turbulence in Wind Turbine Wakes under Different Stability Conditions from Static Doppler LiDAR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie-Marie Kumer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wake characteristics are of great importance for wind park performance and turbine loads. While wind tunnel experiments provided a solid base for the basic understanding of the structure and dynamics of wind turbine wakes, the consequent step forward to characterize wakes is full-scale measurements in real atmospheric boundary layer conditions under different stability regimes. Scanning Doppler LiDAR measurements have proven to be a flexible and useful tool for such measurements. However, their advantage of measuring spatial fluctuation is accompanied by the limited temporal resolution of individual sampling volumes within the scanned area. This study presents results from LiDAR Doppler Beam Swing (DBS measurements and highlights the potential of information retrieved from a spectral analysis of wake measurements. Data originate from three Windcube v1 and sonic anemometers, collected during the Wind Turbine Wake Experiment–Wieringermeer. Despite the ongoing research on the reliability of turbulence retrievals based on DBS data, our results show wake peak frequencies consistent with sonic anemometer measurements. The energy spectra show rather distinct maxima during stable conditions, which broaden during unstable and neutral conditions. Investigations on the effect of blade pitch on downstream wind speed and turbulence intensity profiles indicate the potential for the development of stability-dependent wind farm control strategies.

  13. Housing Stock Characterization Study: An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  14. Ultrasonic transmission measurements in the characterization of viscoelasticity utilizing polymeric waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bause, Fabian; Rautenberg, Jens; Feldmann, Nadine; Webersen, Manuel; Claes, Leander; Gravenkamp, Hauke; Henning, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    For the numerical simulation of acoustic wave propagation in (measurement) systems and their design, the use of reliable material models and material parameters is a central issue. Especially in polymers, acoustic material parameters cannot be evaluated based on quasistatically measured parameters, as are specified in data sheets by the manufacturers. In this work, a measurement method is presented which quantifies, for a given polymeric material sample, a complex-valued and frequency-dependent material model. A novel three-dimensional approach for modeling viscoelasticity is introduced. The material samples are designed as hollow cylindrical waveguides to account for the high damping characteristics of the polymers under test and to provide an axisymmetric structure for good performance of waveguide modeling and reproducible coupling conditions arising from the smaller coupling area in the experiment. Ultrasonic transmission measurements are carried out between the parallel faces of the sample. To account for the frequency dependency of the material properties, five different transducer pairs with ascending central frequency from 750~\\text{kHz} to 2.5~\\text{MHz} are used. After passing through the sample, each of the five received signals contains information on the material parameters which are determined in an inverse procedure. The solution of the inverse problem is carried out by iterative comparison of an innovative forward SBFEM-based simulations of the entire measurement system with the experimentally determined measurement data. For a given solution of the inverse problem, an estimate of the measurement uncertainty of each identified material parameter is calculated. Moreover, a second measurement setup, based on laser-acoustic excitation of Lamb modes in plate-shaped specimens, is presented. Using this setup, the identified material properties can be verified on samples with a varied geometry, but made from the same material.

  15. Housing Stock Characterization Study. An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  16. Thermal Conductivity Measurement Setup for Low Temperature Characterization of Laser Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    temperature for typical dielectrics Temperature is not the only factor that can influence thermal conductivity; the purity of the dielectric solid also plays...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We have developed a setup for accurately measuring the thermal conductivity κ of solid dielectric samples in the...and low thermal losses across the sample. Initial benchmark κ measurements of an undoped single-crystal yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) sample show

  17. Characterization of co-doped (In, N): ZnO by indigenous thermopower measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Anil; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2016-05-01

    The thermopower measurement of (In, N) co-doped ZnO thin films have been carried out using indigenous high and low temperature thermopower measurement system. The compact thermopower measurement system has been designed, developed, tested in house. The sensitivity and accuracy of indigenous thermopower system have been investigated by measuring thermopower of standard samples like Cu, Ni, Sb etc. It has been also investigated by the comparison of carrier concentration using Hall Effect and Thermopower measurement of these (In, N) co-doped ZnO thin films. The constant temperature gradient between hot and cold junction has been maintained by using the temperature controller. The room temperature and low temperature Seebeck coefficient measurements were performed on these co-doped ZnO samples. A series of experiments have been performed to detect the p-type conductivity in co-doped ZnO thin films, particularly at low temperature. The negative Seebeck coefficient observed down to 40 K established the n-type behavior in these co-doped samples.

  18. Retrievals from GOMOS stellar occultation measurements using characterization of modeling errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the development of the inversion algorithm for the GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Star instrument on board the Envisat satellite. The proposed algorithm takes accurately into account the wavelength-dependent modeling errors, which are mainly due to the incomplete scintillation correction in the stratosphere. The special attention is paid to numerical efficiency of the algorithm. The developed method is tested on a large data set and its advantages are demonstrated. Its main advantage is a proper characterization of the uncertainties of the retrieved profiles of atmospheric constituents, which is of high importance for data assimilation, trend analyses and validation.

  19. Retrievals from GOMOS stellar occultation measurements using characterization of modeling errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the development of the inversion algorithm for the GOMOS (Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Star instrument on board the Envisat satellite. The proposed algorithm takes accurately into account the wavelength-dependent modeling errors, which are mainly due to the incomplete scintillation correction in the stratosphere. The special attention is paid to numerical efficiency of the algorithm. The developed method is tested on a large data set and its advantages are demonstrated. Its main advantage is a proper characterization of the uncertainties of the retrieved profiles of atmospheric constituents, which is of high importance for data assimilation, trend analyses and validation.

  20. 10 CFR 850.20 - Baseline beryllium inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baseline beryllium inventory. 850.20 Section 850.20 Energy... Baseline beryllium inventory. (a) The responsible employer must develop a baseline inventory of the... inventory, the responsible employer must: (1) Review current and historical records; (2) Interview...

  1. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  2. EMD-based GPS baseline solution and validation test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jing-xiang; WANG Jin-ling; XU Chang-hui

    2008-01-01

    A GPS baseline solution model is presented, based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), which has the advantage of eliminating the error effects outside the model. The EMD technique is a new signal processing method for non-linear time series, which decomposes a time series into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The decomposition procedure is adaptive and data-driven which is suitable for non-linear data series analysis. A multi-scale decomposition and reconstruction architecture is defined on the basis of the EMD theory and the error mitigation model is demonstrated as well. A standard of the scale selection for the elimination of errors, outside the model, was given in terms of the mean of the accumulated standardized modes. Thereafter, the scheme of the GPS baseline solution based on the EMD is suggested. The float solution residuals of the Double-Difference (DD) observation equation are used to extract the errors outside the model applied to modify the GPS DD measurements. Then the float solution was given again and the fixed solution was obtained by a Lambda algorithm. Three schemes are designed to test the proposed model and the experimental results show that the proposed model dramatically improves the relia- bility of ambiguity resolution after the elimination of errors outside the model.

  3. Study of neutrino oscillations in long-baseline accelerator experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudenko, Yurii G [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-30

    A review of the title subject is given. The phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in the framework of the so-called neutrino Standard Model ({nu}SM) with three active neutrinos is considered. The recently completed long-baseline accelerator experiment K2K and currently in-progress MINOS and OPERA experiments are described in detail. The oscillation parameters obtained from the global analysis of all oscillation data are given. The short-baseline experiment MiniBooNE and its results on the search for light sterile neutrinos are discussed in detail. Considerable attention is given to searching for {nu}{sub {mu}{yields}{nu}e} oscillations and measuring the {theta}{sub 13} angle in muon neutrino experiments. The concept of the off-axis neutrino beam is reviewed. The T2K experiment, collecting statistics since early 2010, is described for its details and objectives. The NO{nu}A experiment under construction and the next-generation beta beam and neutrino factory experiments are also discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  4. Geometric measures of quantum correlations: characterization, quantification, and comparison by distances and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roga, W.; Spehner, D.; Illuminati, F.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate and compare three distinguished geometric measures of bipartite quantum correlations that have been recently introduced in the literature: the geometric discord, the measurement-induced geometric discord, and the discord of response, each one defined according to three contractive distances on the set of quantum states, namely the trace, Bures, and Hellinger distances. We establish a set of exact algebraic relations and inequalities between the different measures. In particular, we show that the geometric discord and the discord of response based on the Hellinger distance are easy to compute analytically for all quantum states whenever the reference subsystem is a qubit. These two measures thus provide the first instance of discords that are simultaneously fully computable, reliable (since they satisfy all the basic Axioms that must be obeyed by a proper measure of quantum correlations), and operationally viable (in terms of state distinguishability). We apply the general mathematical structure to determine the closest classical-quantum state of a given state and the maximally quantum-correlated states at fixed global state purity according to the different distances, as well as a necessary condition for a channel to be quantumness breaking.

  5. Steps towards the hyperfine splitting measurement of the muonic hydrogen ground state: pulsed muon beam and detection system characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczak, A; Bakalov, D; Baldazzi, G; Bertoni, R; Bonesini, M; Bonvicini, V; Campana, G; Carbone, R; Cervi, T; Chignoli, F; Clemenza, M; Colace, L; Curioni, A; Danailov, M; Danev, P; D'Antone, I; De, A; De, C; De, M; Furini, M; Fuschino, F; Gadejisso-Tossou, K; Guffanti, D; Iaciofano, A; Ishida, K; Iugovaz, D; Labanti, C; Maggi, V; Margotti, A; Marisaldi, M; Mazza, R; Meneghini, S; Menegolli, A; Mocchiutti, E; Moretti, M; Morgante, G; Nardò, R; Nastasi, M; Niemela, J; Previtali, E; Ramponi, R; Rachevski, A; P., L; Rossella, M; Rossi, P L; Somma, F; Stoilov, M; Stoychev, L; Tomaselli, A; Tortora, L; Vacchi, A; Vallazza, E; Zampa, G; Zuffa, M

    2016-01-01

    The high precision measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the muonic-hydrogen atom ground state with pulsed and intense muon beam requires careful technological choices both in the construction of a gas target and of the detectors. In June 2014, the pressurized gas target of the FAMU experiment was exposed to the low energy pulsed muon beam at the RIKEN RAL muon facility. The objectives of the test were the characterization of the target, the hodoscope and the X-ray detectors. The apparatus consisted of a beam hodoscope and X-rays detectors made with high purity Germanium and Lanthanum Bromide crystals. In this paper the experimental setup is described and the results of the detector characterization are presented.

  6. Experimental Characterization of Ultra-Wideband Channel Parameter Measurements in an Underground Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nkakanou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results for an ultra-wideband (UWB channel parameters in an underground mining environment over a frequency range of 3 GHz to 10 GHz are reported. The measurements were taken both in LOS and NLOS cases in two different size mine galleries. In the NLOS case, results were acquired for different corridor obstruction angles. The results were obtained during an extensive measurement campaign in the UWB frequency, and the measurement procedure allows both the large- and small-scale parameters such as the path loss exponent, coherence bandwidth, and so forth, to be quantified. The capacity of the UWB channel as a function of the physical depth of the mine gallery has also been recorded for comparison purposes.

  7. Simultaneous measurements of multiple flow parameters for scramjet characterization using tunable diode-laser sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Yu, Xilong; Gu, Hongbin; Li, Zhi; Zhao, Yan; Ma, Lin; Chen, Lihong; Chang, Xinyu

    2011-12-20

    This paper reports the simultaneous measurements of multiple flow parameters in a scramjet facility operating at a nominal Mach number of 2.5 using a sensing system based on tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The TDLAS system measures velocity, temperature, and water vapor partial pressure at three different locations of the scramjet: the inlet, the combustion region near the flame stabilization cavity, and the exit of the combustor. These measurements enable the determination of the variation of the Mach number and the combustion mode in the scramjet engine, which are critical for evaluating the combustion efficiency and optimizing engine performance. The results obtained in this work clearly demonstrated the applicability of TDLAS sensors in harsh and high-speed environments. The TDLAS system, due to its unique virtues, is expected to play an important role in the development of scramjet engines.

  8. Characterization of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic coatings by luminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T., E-mail: teru@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Yoshino, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Hishinuma, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Zhang, D. [School of Physical Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kada, W. [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Sato, F.; Iida, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-Oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagasaki, T. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Muroga, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    Cathodoluminescence and ion beam induced luminescence measurements were performed on Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings fabricated by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD), Metal Organic Decomposition (MOD) and RF sputtering methods to examine relations between luminescence spectra and their crystallinities. In luminescence spectra of all the measurements, peaks were observed in three bands of 380-420 nm, 530-580 nm and 640-690 nm. Cathodoluminescence intensities in the band of 640-690 nm increased with substrate temperatures in the fabrication processes and are considered to be significantly sensitive to the crystallinity. Change in luminescence spectra under ion beam irradiations also supported the relation. By using the relations between the spectra and crystallinities, luminescence measurements would be effective for nondestructive inspection and analysis of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings with a high spatial resolution.

  9. Characterizing Far-infrared Laser Emissions and the Measurement of Their Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael; Zink, Lyndon R

    2015-12-18

    The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy, and Terahertz imaging. For about 45 years, the generation of coherent, far-infrared radiation has been accomplished using the optically pumped molecular laser. Once far-infrared laser radiation is detected, the frequencies of these laser emissions are measured using a three-laser heterodyne technique. With this technique, the unknown frequency from the optically pumped molecular laser is mixed with the difference frequency between two stabilized, infrared reference frequencies. These reference frequencies are generated by independent carbon dioxide lasers, each stabilized using the fluorescence signal from an external, low pressure reference cell. The resulting beat between the known and unknown laser frequencies is monitored by a metal-insulator-metal point contact diode detector whose output is observed on a spectrum analyzer. The beat frequency between these laser emissions is subsequently measured and combined with the known reference frequencies to extrapolate the unknown far-infrared laser frequency. The resulting one-sigma fractional uncertainty for laser frequencies measured with this technique is ± 5 parts in 10(7). Accurately determining the frequency of far-infrared laser emissions is critical as they are often used as a reference for other measurements, as in the high-resolution spectroscopic investigations of free radicals using laser magnetic resonance. As part of this investigation, difluoromethane, CH2F2, was used as the far-infrared laser medium. In all, eight far-infrared laser frequencies were measured for the first time with frequencies ranging from 0.359 to 1.273 THz. Three of these laser emissions were discovered during this investigation and are reported with their optimal operating pressure, polarization with respect to the CO2 pump laser, and strength.

  10. Integrated, Multi-Scale Characterization of Imbibition and Wettability Phenomena Using Magnetic Resonance and Wide-Band Dielectric Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukul M. Sharma; Steven L. Bryant; Carlos Torres-Verdin; George Hirasaki

    2007-09-30

    The petrophysical properties of rocks, particularly their relative permeability and wettability, strongly influence the efficiency and the time-scale of all hydrocarbon recovery processes. However, the quantitative relationships needed to account for the influence of wettability and pore structure on multi-phase flow are not yet available, largely due to the complexity of the phenomena controlling wettability and the difficulty of characterizing rock properties at the relevant length scales. This project brings together several advanced technologies to characterize pore structure and wettability. Grain-scale models are developed that help to better interpret the electric and dielectric response of rocks. These studies allow the computation of realistic configurations of two immiscible fluids as a function of wettability and geologic characteristics. These fluid configurations form a basis for predicting and explaining macroscopic behavior, including the relationship between relative permeability, wettability and laboratory and wireline log measurements of NMR and dielectric response. Dielectric and NMR measurements have been made show that the response of the rocks depends on the wetting and flow properties of the rock. The theoretical models can be used for a better interpretation and inversion of standard well logs to obtain accurate and reliable estimates of fluid saturation and of their producibility. The ultimate benefit of this combined theoretical/empirical approach for reservoir characterization is that rather than reproducing the behavior of any particular sample or set of samples, it can explain and predict trends in behavior that can be applied at a range of length scales, including correlation with wireline logs, seismic, and geologic units and strata. This approach can substantially enhance wireline log interpretation for reservoir characterization and provide better descriptions, at several scales, of crucial reservoir flow properties that govern oil

  11. Characterizing the impact of urban emissions on regional aerosol particles; airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Freney

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The MEGAPOLI experiment took place in July 2009. The aim of this campaign was to study the aging and reactions of aerosol and gas-phase emissions in the city of Paris. Three ground-based measurement sites and several mobile platforms including instrument equipped vehicles and the ATR-42 aircraft were involved. We present here the variations in particle- and gas-phase species over the city of Paris using a combination of high-time resolution measurements aboard the ATR-42 aircraft. Particle chemical composition was measured using a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS giving detailed information of the non-refractory submicron aerosol species. The mass concentration of BC, measured by a particle absorption soot photometer (PSAP, was used as a marker to identify the urban pollution plume boundaries. Aerosol mass concentrations and composition were affected by air-mass history, with air masses that spent longest time over land having highest fractions of organic aerosol and higher total mass concentrations. The Paris plume is mainly composed of organic aerosol (OA, black carbon and nitrate aerosol, as well as high concentrations of anthropogenic gas-phase species such as toluene, benzene, and NOx. Using BC and CO as tracers for air-mass dilution, we observe the ratio of ΔOA / ΔBC and ΔOA / ΔCO increase with increasing photochemical age (−log(NOx / NOy. Plotting the equivalent ratios for the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF resolved species (LV-OOA, SV-OOA, and HOA illustrate that the increase in OA is a result of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Within Paris the changes in the ΔOA / ΔCO are similar to those observed during other studies in Mexico city, Mexico and in New England, USA. Using the measured VOCs species together with recent organic aerosol formation yields we predicted ~ 50% of the measured organics. These airborne measurements during the MEGAPOLI experiment show that urban emissions contribute to the

  12. Calorimetric Measuring Systems for Characterizing High Frequency Power Losses in Power Electronic Components and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim; Ritchie, Andrew Ewen

    2002-01-01

    two different calorimetric measuring systems, one for power losses up to 50 W and one for power losses up to 1500 W. These differ in size and also the systems which can be analysed. The basic concept of calorimetry is discussed and the overall performance of the two systems is specified. Methods...... to calibrate such systems are proposed and different applications of the system are given. Two practical examples end the description of the research. It is concluded that such systems have a relative long time-constant but they are accurate and useful for precise power loss measurement....

  13. Resetting predator baselines in coral reef ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Darcy; Conklin, Eric; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Pollock, Kydd; Pollock, Amanda; Kendall, Bruce E.; Gaines, Steven D.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    What did coral reef ecosystems look like before human impacts became pervasive? Early efforts to reconstruct baselines resulted in the controversial suggestion that pristine coral reefs have inverted trophic pyramids, with disproportionally large top predator biomass. The validity of the coral reef inverted trophic pyramid has been questioned, but until now, was not resolved empirically. We use data from an eight-year tag-recapture program with spatially explicit, capture-recapture models to re-examine the population size and density of a key top predator at Palmyra atoll, the same location that inspired the idea of inverted trophic biomass pyramids in coral reef ecosystems. Given that animal movement is suspected to have significantly biased early biomass estimates of highly mobile top predators, we focused our reassessment on the most mobile and most abundant predator at Palmyra, the grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos). We estimated a density of 21.3 (95% CI 17.8, 24.7) grey reef sharks/km2, which is an order of magnitude lower than the estimates that suggested an inverted trophic pyramid. Our results indicate that the trophic structure of an unexploited reef fish community is not inverted, and that even healthy top predator populations may be considerably smaller, and more precarious, than previously thought. PMID:28220895

  14. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xucheng

    1996-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window.

  15. Gated integrator with signal baseline subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.

    1996-12-17

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator includes an opamp having differential inputs. A signal to be integrated is applied to one of the differential inputs through a first input network, and a signal indicative of the DC offset component of the signal to be integrated is applied to the other of the differential inputs through a second input network. A pair of electronic switches in the first and second input networks define an integrating period when they are closed. The first and second input networks are substantially symmetrically constructed of matched components so that error components introduced by the electronic switches appear symmetrically in both input circuits and, hence, are nullified by the common mode rejection of the integrating opamp. The signal indicative of the DC offset component is provided by a sample and hold circuit actuated as the integrating period begins. The symmetrical configuration of the integrating circuit improves accuracy and speed by balancing out common mode errors, by permitting the use of high speed switching elements and high speed opamps and by permitting the use of a small integrating time constant. The sample and hold circuit substantially eliminates the error caused by the input signal baseline offset during a single integrating window. 5 figs.

  16. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    CERN Document Server

    Moldón, J; Wucknitz, O; Jackson, N; Drabent, A; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Kapińska, A D; McKean, P; Morabito, L; Varenius, E; Zarka, P; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Offringa, A R; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; White, S; Wise, M W; Yatawatta, S; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for International LOFAR is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods. We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full International LOFAR array. Sources were pre-selected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results. Over 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to sho...

  17. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  18. Lorentz symmetry and Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; lambert, S

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model extension (SME). Recently, post-fit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars lead to an upper limit at the $10^{-4}$ level on the time-time coefficient $\\bar s^{TT}$ of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then we implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of $\\bar s^{TT}$ and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and with analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on $\\bar s^{TT}=(-5\\pm 8)\\times 10^{-5}$, directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor 5 pr...

  19. 100-B area technical baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R.W.

    1994-09-01

    This document supports the environmental remediation effort of the 100-B Area by providing remediation planners with key data that characterize the 100-B and 100-C Reactor sites. It provides operational histories of the 100-B and 100-C Reactors and each of their associated liquid and solid waste sites.

  20. Production and characterization of a nitrogen-implanted Fe standard to calibrate PIGE measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, C. L.; Silva, T. F.; Added, N.; Santos, H. C.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2014-11-01

    Three calibration standard was produced by ion implantation of nitrogen in samples of Armco iron (99.7% iron). The samples was irradiated with nitrogen ion beams at several different energies (between 4 keV and 40 keV), and the ion doses were adjusted to obtain an uniform depth profile, using simulations with SRIM code. Two standards, one thick and other a foil (1.62mg/cm2), was irradiated at same time with total nominal dose of 6.6×10-16 atoms/cm2 distributed in a region of 100 nm in depth, with an average concentration of 9.0% nitrogen in iron. The third sample uses the same profile, but with a small dose, 1.1×10-16 atoms/cm2 and average concentration of 1.5% nitrogen. The characterization of the implanted samples was done using RBS and NRA techniques to quantification of nitrogen.

  1. Sandia capabilities for the measurement, characterization, and analysis of heliostats for CSP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, Charles E.; Christian, Joshua Mark; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Gill, David Dennis; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Kolb, William J.; Moss, Timothy A.; Smith, Edward J.; Yellowhair, Julius

    2013-07-01

    The Concentrating Solar Technologies Organization at Sandia National Laboratories has a long history of performing important research, development, and testing that has enabled the Concentrating Solar Power Industry to deploy full-scale power plants. Sandia continues to pursue innovative CSP concepts with the goal of reducing the cost of CSP while improving efficiency and performance. In this pursuit, Sandia has developed many tools for the analysis of CSP performance. The following capabilities document highlights Sandias extensive experience in the design, construction, and utilization of large-scale testing facilities for CSP and the tools that Sandia has created for the full characterization of heliostats. Sandia has extensive experience in using these tools to evaluate the performance of novel heliostat designs.

  2. Single-walled carbon nanotube/polyaniline/n-silicon solar cells: fabrication, characterization, and performance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tune, Daniel D; Flavel, Benjamin S; Quinton, Jamie S; Ellis, Amanda V; Shapter, Joseph G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon nanotube-silicon solar cells are a recently investigated photovoltaic architecture with demonstrated high efficiencies. Silicon solar-cell devices fabricated with a thin film of conductive polymer (polyaniline) have been reported, but these devices can suffer from poor performance due to the limited lateral current-carrying capacity of thin polymer films. Herein, hybrid solar-cell devices of a thin film of polyaniline deposited on silicon and covered by a single-walled carbon nanotube film are fabricated and characterized. These hybrid devices combine the conformal coverage given by the polymer and the excellent electrical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube films and significantly outperform either of their component counterparts. Treatment of the silicon base and carbon nanotubes with hydrofluoric acid and a strong oxidizer (thionyl chloride) leads to a significant improvement in performance.

  3. Characterization of the precipitates in Al-Li(8090) alloy using thermal measurements and TEM examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, A.; Afify, N.

    2002-04-01

    Variation of thermophysical properties of Al-Li (8090) quenched from the solid solution state (803 K) during heating (10 K/min) has been used to determine the temperatures at which the phase transformations take place. Transmission electron microscopic examinations were used to characterize the developed precipitates. It has been shown that the thermal properties can be used as a powerful tool for detecting phase transformations. Microstructural examinations after aging at 373, 438, 563 and 673 K revealed the formation of GP zones, δ‧-(Al 3Li), T B-(Al 7Cu 4Li) and T 2-(Al 6CuLi 3) precipitates, respectively. δ‧-particles and T B-(Al 7Cu 4Li) were observed to be nucleated intragranularly, whereas T 2-particles were observed to grow on the grain boundaries.

  4. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten Huus; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter Alshede;

    2010-01-01

    cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used...... was measured at baseline. The increase in 25(OH)D level after UVB exposure was negatively correlated with baseline 25(OH)D level (P...

  5. Exploitation of cloud top characterization from three-channel IR measurements in a physical PMW rain retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Torricella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall intensity estimates by passive microwave (PMW measurements from space perform generally better over the sea surface with respect to land, due to the problems in separating true rain signatures from those produced by surfaces having similar spectral behaviour (e.g. snow, ice, desert and semiarid grounds. The screening procedure aimed at recognizing the various surface types and delimit precipitation is based on tests that rely on PMW measurements only and global thresholds. The shortcoming is that the approach tries to discard spurious precipitating features (often detected over the land-sea border thus leading to no-rain conservative tests and thresholds. The TRMM mission, with its long record of simultaneous data from the Visible and Infrared Radiometer System (VIRS, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI and rain profiles from the Precipitation Radar (PR allows for unambiguous testing of the usefulness of cloud top characterization in rain detection. An intense precipitation event over the North Africa is analysed exploiting a night microphysical RGB scheme applied to VIRS measurements to classify and characterize the components of the observed scenario and to discriminate the various types of clouds. This classification is compared to the rain intensity maps derived from TMI by means of the Goddard profiling algorithm and to the near-surface rain intensities derived from PR. The comparison allows to quantify the difference between the two rain retrievals and to assess the usefulness of RGB analysis in identifying areas of precipitation.

  6. Application of water vapor sorption measurements for porosity characterization of hardened cement pastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2014-01-01

    data were reviewed. Water vapor sorption measurements were then applied to two hardened cement pastes and one model porous material MCM-41. The specific surface area was calculated based on different equations accounting for multilayer adsorption and the PSD was analyzed from both the absorption...

  7. Towards convective heat transfer enhancement: surface modification, characterization and measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taha, T.J.; Thakur, D.B.; Meer, van der T.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, heat transfer surface modification and heat transfer measurement technique is developed. Heat transfer investigation was aimed to study the effect of carbon nano fibers (extremely high thermal conductive material) on the enhancement level in heat transfer. Synthesis of these carbon nan

  8. A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel C. Perkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseball and softball pitch types are distinguished by the path and speed of the ball which, in turn, are determined by the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center at the instant of release from the pitcher’s hand. While radar guns and video-based motion capture (mocap resolve ball speed, they provide little information about how the angular velocity of the ball and the velocity of the ball center develop and change during the throwing motion. Moreover, mocap requires measurements in a controlled lab environment and by a skilled technician. This study addresses these shortcomings by introducing a highly miniaturized, wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU that is embedded in both baseballs and softballs. The resulting “ball-embedded” sensor resolves ball dynamics right on the field of play. Experimental results from ten pitches, five thrown by one softball pitcher and five by one baseball pitcher, demonstrate that this sensor technology can deduce the magnitude and direction of the ball’s velocity at release to within 4.6% of measurements made using standard mocap. Moreover, the IMU directly measures the angular velocity of the ball, which further enables the analysis of different pitch types.

  9. Polycrystalline VO{sub 2} film characterization by quantum capacitance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhe; Knighton, Talbot, E-mail: talbot.knighton@wayne.edu; Tarquini, Vinicio; Huang, Jian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States); Torres, David; Wang, Tongyu; Sepúlveda, Nelson [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-09-07

    Capacitance measurement is performed using a home-built bridge on quasi two-dimensional vanadium dioxide films grown on silicon-dioxide/p-doped silicon substrates. Correlated effects appearing in the quantum capacitance are obtained as a function of temperature at low frequencies. The thermodynamic density of states reveals the opening band gap in the insulating monoclinic phase.

  10. Characterization of small antennas for hearing aids by several measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Zhang, Jiaying; Khatun, Afroza;

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of electrically small loop antennas were measured by different techniques and the results were compared in-between. The techniques employed were: a single-probe spherical near-field technique, a multi-probe spherical near-field technique, a reverberation chamber, and a Wheeler cap...

  11. Fast RF-CV characterization through high-speed 1-port S-parameter measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, R.W.; Steeneken, P.G.; Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Stulemeijer, J.; Schmitz, J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel method to measure the capacitance-voltage relation of an electronic device. The approach is accurate, very fast, and cost-effective compared to the existing off-the-shelf solutions. Capacitances are determined using a single-frequency 1-port S-parameter setup constructed from disc

  12. Fast RF-CV characterization through High-Speed 1-port S-Parameter measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, Rodolf W.; Steeneken, Peter G.; Tiggelman, Mark P.J.; Stulemeijer, Jiri; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast radio frequency–capacitancevoltage (RF-CV) method to measure the CV relation of an electronic device. The approach is more accurate, much faster, and more cost effective compared to the existing off-the-shelf solutions. Capacitances are determined using a single-frequency 1-port S-

  13. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program eighth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1974-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Major preparations for engine heat balance tests by NASA were completed. EPA laboratories completed Baseline vehicle emissions, noise, and odor tests. Assembly of the program endurance engine is nearing completion. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) verified steady state emissions to be extremely low. Initial engine tests of Vendor A ceramic regenerator cores with an elastomeric drive verified performance predictions. Efforts towards developing a non-nickel oxide regenerator seal show extreme sensitivity to porosity differences between cores of different suppliers. All three preprototype integrated control systems were built. Modifications are being worked out to achieve a stable low speed operation. Two prototype compressor turbine wheels made from the reuseable pattern process are being inspected and processed for testing. The engine housing modified for operation at higher cycle temperatures and pressures was received. The baseline engine converted to free rotor is completing test cell check out. The modified vehicle is ready for engine installation. The upgraded engine characterization was updated to include the latest information on V.I.G.V., rotors, and bearings. The upgraded engine housing is being modeled physically and analytically for design and stress studies. An accessory drive system for the upgraded engine was selected, and a final layout is in process.

  14. A disjunct eddy accumulation system for the measurement of BVOC fluxes: instrument characterizations and field deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, are emitted in large amounts from forests. Quantification of the flux of BVOCs is critical in the evaluation of the impact of these compounds on the concentrations of atmospheric oxidants and on the production of secondary organic aerosol. A disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA sampler system was constructed for the measurement of speciated BVOC fluxes. Unlike traditional eddy covariance (EC, the relatively new technique of disjunct sampling differs by taking short, discrete samples that allow for slower sampling frequencies. Disjunct sample airflow is directed into cartridges containing sorbent materials at sampling rates proportional to the magnitude of the vertical wind. Compounds accumulated on the cartridges are then quantified by thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Herein, we describe our initial tests to evaluate the disjunct sampler including the application of vertical wind measurements to create optimized sampling thresholds. Measurements of BVOC fluxes obtained from DEA during its deployment above a mixed hardwood forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI during the 2009 CABINEX field campaign are reported. Daytime (09:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m. LT isoprene fluxes, when averaged over the footprint of the tower, were 1.31 mg m−2 h−1 which are comparable to previous flux measurements at this location. Speciated monoterpene fluxes are some of the first to be reported from this site. Daytime averages were 26.7 μg m−2 h−1 for α-pinene and 10.6 μg m−2 h−1 for β-pinene. These measured concentrations and fluxes were compared to the output of an atmospheric chemistry model, and were found to be consistent with our knowledge of the variables that control BVOCs fluxes at this site.

  15. A disjunct eddy accumulation system for the measurement of BVOC fluxes: instrument characterizations and field deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Edwards

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, are emitted in large amounts from forests. Quantification of the flux of BVOCs is critical in the evaluation of the impact of these compounds on the concentrations of atmospheric oxidants and on the production of secondary organic aerosol. A disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA sampler system was constructed for the measurement of speciated BVOC fluxes. Unlike traditional eddy covariance (EC, the relatively new technique of disjunct sampling differs by taking short, discrete samples that allows for slower sampling frequencies. Disjunct sample airflow is directed into cartridges containing sorbent materials at sampling rates proportional to the magnitude of the vertical wind. Compounds accumulated on the cartridges are then quantified by thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Herein, we describe our initial tests to evaluate the disjunct sampler including the application of using vertical wind measurements to create optimized sampling thresholds. Measurements of BVOC fluxes obtained from DEA during its deployment above a mixed hardwood forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI during the 2009 CABINEX field campaign are reported. Daytime (09:00 a.m. to 05:00 p.m. isoprene fluxes, when averaged over the footprint of the tower were 1.31 mg m−2 h−1 which is comparable to previous flux measurements at this location. Speciated monoterpene fluxes are some of the first to be reported from this site. Daytime averages were 26.7 μg m−2 h−1 for α-pinene and 10.6 μg m−2 h−1 for β-pinene. These measured concentrations and fluxes were compared to the output of an atmospheric chemistry model, and were found to be consistent with our knowledge of the variables that control BVOCs fluxes at this site.

  16. Robust estimation of fractal measures for characterizing the structural complexity of the human brain: optimization and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Joaquín; Sporns, Olaf; Cheng, Hu; Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Wang, Yang; Josa, Santiago; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Mathews, Vincent P; Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Avena-Koenigsberger, Andrea; Saykin, Andrew J; Pastor, María A

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution isotropic three-dimensional reconstructions of human brain gray and white matter structures can be characterized to quantify aspects of their shape, volume and topological complexity. In particular, methods based on fractal analysis have been applied in neuroimaging studies to quantify the structural complexity of the brain in both healthy and impaired conditions. The usefulness of such measures for characterizing individual differences in brain structure critically depends on their within-subject reproducibility in order to allow the robust detection of between-subject differences. This study analyzes key analytic parameters of three fractal-based methods that rely on the box-counting algorithm with the aim to maximize within-subject reproducibility of the fractal characterizations of different brain objects, including the pial surface, the cortical ribbon volume, the white matter volume and the gray matter/white matter boundary. Two separate datasets originating from different imaging centers were analyzed, comprising 50 subjects with three and 24 subjects with four successive scanning sessions per subject, respectively. The reproducibility of fractal measures was statistically assessed by computing their intra-class correlations. Results reveal differences between different fractal estimators and allow the identification of several parameters that are critical for high reproducibility. Highest reproducibility with intra-class correlations in the range of 0.9-0.95 is achieved with the correlation dimension. Further analyses of the fractal dimensions of parcellated cortical and subcortical gray matter regions suggest robustly estimated and region-specific patterns of individual variability. These results are valuable for defining appropriate parameter configurations when studying changes in fractal descriptors of human brain structure, for instance in studies of neurological diseases that do not allow repeated measurements or for disease

  17. MRI characterization of temporal lobe epilepsy using rapidly measurable spatial indices with hemisphere asymmetries and gender features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Siddhartha; Chakrabarti, Nilkanta [University of Calcutta, Department of Physiology and UGC-CPEPA Centre for ' ' Electro-physiological and Neuro-imaging studies including Mathematical Modelling' ' , Kolkata (India); Sarkar, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Sumit; Basu, Swadhapriya [IPGME and R, SSKM Hospital, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Kolkata (India); Mulpuru, Sai Krishna [National Brain Research Centre, National Neuro-Imaging Facility, Manesar (India); Tiwary, Basant K. [Pondicherry University, Centre for Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry (India); Roy, Prasun Kumar [National Brain Research Centre, Computational Neuroimaging Division, Manesar (India); National Brain Research Centre, Clinical Neuroscience Unit, Gurgaon (India)

    2015-09-15

    The paucity of morphometric markers for hemispheric asymmetries and gender variations in hippocampi and amygdalae in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) calls for better characterization of TLE by finding more useful prognostic MRI parameter(s). T1-weighted MRI (3 T) morphometry using multiple parameters of hippocampus-parahippocampus (angular and linear measures, volumetry) and amygdalae (volumetry) including their hemispheric asymmetry indices (AI) were evaluated in both genders. The cutoff values of parameters were statistically estimated from measurements of healthy subjects to characterize TLE (57 patients, 55 % male) alterations. TLE had differential categories with hippocampal atrophy, parahippocampal angle (PHA) acuteness, and several other parametric changes. Bilateral TLE categories were much more prevalent compared to unilateral TLE categories. Female patients were considerably more disposed to bilateral TLE categories than male patients. Male patients displayed diverse categories of unilateral abnormalities. Few patients (both genders) had combined bilateral appearances of hippocampal atrophy, amygdala atrophy, PHA acuteness, and increase in hippocampal angle (HA) where medial distance ratio (MDR) varied among genders. TLE had gender-specific and hemispheric dominant alterations in AI of parameters. Maximum magnitude of parametric changes in TLE includes (a) AI increase in HA of both genders, (b) HA increase (bilateral) in female patients, and (c) increase in ratio of amygdale/hippocampal volume (unilateral, right hemispheric), and AI decrease in MDR, in male patients. Multiparametric MRI studies of hippocampus and amygdalae, including their hemispheric asymmetry, underscore better characterization of TLE. Rapidly measurable single-slice parameters (HA, PHA, MDR) can readily delineate TLE in a time-constrained clinical setting, which contrasts with customary three-dimensional hippocampal volumetry that requires many slice computation. (orig.)

  18. Use of environmental magnetic measurements to characterize and correlate tephra -- A case study in Iceland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Dunsheng; J. Bloemendal; R. C. Chiverrell; J. A. Dearing; JIN Ming

    2004-01-01

    A set of environmental magnetic parameters (i.e. magnetic susceptibility, χARM, IRMs, hysteresis loops and thermomagnetic curves) has been applied to two soil sections from SE Iceland. Results demonstrate that the main magnetic minerals in the tephras are ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g. magnetite) and canted antiferromagnetic minerals (e.g. haematite), with abundant paramagnetic material also present. Cross plots of Mrs/Ms vs. (B0)cr/(B0)c and χfd% vs. χARM/SIRM indicate that the main magnetic grain sizes in tephras are pseudo single domain (PSD) and multidomain (MD). Initial correlation of tephra layers was achieved, using all the measured magnetic parameters, by use of the multivariate statistical measures of Similarity Coefficient (SC) and Euclidean Distance (ED). This demonstrates that magnetic techniques can potentially assist in the identification and correlation of distal tephra.

  19. ZnO(CdS)/CIS/Mo solar cells characterized by modulation capacitance voltage measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinh, N.D.; Scheer, R.; Kliefoth, K.; Fuessel, W.; Fuhs, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Berlin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    From Modulation Capacitance Voltage (MCV) measurements the authors determined a voltage V{sub s} of several hundred mV at the depletion region in CuInS{sub 2} under PV generator and short circuit working conditions. In this solar cell type electron transport through shallow gap states in the CdS interlayer enhances interface recombination which increases the dark current. The CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells show a different behavior. In darkness, electron emission into the depletion region over a barrier of more than 500 mV was measured, and voltage losses while working as PV generator remain nearly constant below 60 mV. The authors interpret these results by a blocking CuInS{sub 2}/Mo contact and a band spike at the CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} junction.

  20. Multidimensional characterization of stochastic dynamical systems based on multiple perturbations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryvohuz, Maksym, E-mail: mkryvohu@uci.edu; Mukamel, Shaul [Chemistry Department, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Generalized nonlinear response theory is presented for stochastic dynamical systems. Experiments in which multiple measurements of dynamical quantities are used along with multiple perturbations of parameters of dynamical systems are described by generalized response functions (GRFs). These constitute a new type of multidimensional measures of stochastic dynamics either in the time or the frequency domains. Closed expressions for GRFs in stochastic dynamical systems are derived and compared with numerical non-equilibrium simulations. Several types of perturbations are considered: impulsive and periodic perturbations of temperature and impulsive perturbations of coordinates. The present approach can be used to study various types of stochastic processes ranging from single-molecule conformational dynamics to chemical kinetics of finite-size reactors such as biocells.

  1. Experimental Characterization of Correlation-Functions of Random Surfaces by Speckle Measurement and Complementary Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程传福; 刘曼; 滕树云; 宋洪胜; 陈建平; 徐至展

    2003-01-01

    A method for the extracting the correlation functions of random surfaces is proposed by using the image speckle intensity. Theoretically, we analyse the integral expression of average intensity of the image speckles, and compare it with the pair of Fourier-Bessel-transform-and-the-inversion of the exponential function of the height-height correlation function of the random surfaces. Then the algorithm is proposed numerically to complement the lacking Bessel function factor in the expression of the average speckle intensity, which changes the intensity data into the pair of the Fourier-Bessel-transform. Experimentally, we measure the average image speckle intensities versus the radius of the filtering aperture in the 4 f system and extract the height-height correlation function by using the proposed algorithm. The results of the practical measurements for three surface samples and the comparison with those by atomic force microscopy validate the feasibility of this method.

  2. Characterization and Validation of Requirements Management Measures Using Correlation and Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arun Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Requirements engineering is one of the challenging and crucial phase in the development of softwareproducts. One of the key reasons found in literature survey the failure of software projects due to poorproject management and requirement management activity. This paper mainly addresses 1. Formulate amixed organization structure of both traditional approaches and agile approaches, to apply KMpractices for both the approaches to achieve requirements issues such as missing and inconsistency ofrequirements and improve the project management activities in a global software developmentenvironment. 2. Propose requirements metrics to measure and manage software process during thedevelopment of information systems. The major contribution of this paper is well-founded methods tomanage the project and effective requirements management metrics to measure changing requirementswhile giving particular attention to the requirements engineering issues such as completeness andconsistency. Two hypotheses have been formulated and tested this problem through statistical techniquesand validate the same.

  3. Aerosol characterization study using multi-spectrum remote sensing measurement techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen, Crystal Chanea; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tezak, Matthew S; Servantes, Brandon Lee

    2013-09-01

    A unique aerosol flow chamber coupled with a bistatic LIDAR system was implemented to measure the optical scattering cross sections and depolarization ratio of common atmospheric particulates. Each of seven particle types (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, black carbon and Arizona road dust) was aged by three anthropogenically relevant mechanisms: 1. Sulfuric acid deposition, 2. Toluene ozonolysis reactions, and 3. m-Xylene ozonolysis reactions. The results of pure particle scattering properties were compared with their aged equivalents. Results show that as most particles age under industrial plume conditions, their scattering cross sections are similar to pure black carbon, which has significant impacts to our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate. In addition, evidence emerges that suggest chloride-containing aerosols are chemically altered during the organic aging process. Here we present the direct measured scattering cross section and depolarization ratios for pure and aged atmospheric particulates.

  4. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig.

  5. Thermal Flexure Measurement and Inverse Characterization for a Tri-layer Thin Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuaLu; Alireza Shirazi; Ahmad Varvani-Farahani

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a new study on a tri-layer thin plate.Shadow moiré implemented with an advanced phase unwrapping technique is employed to obtain actual flexural deformation of a real-life plate sample subjected to thermal loads.An analytical model is re-formulated to provide the plate with global closed-form solutions of the plate deflection as well as the interfacial stress and strain.With the measurements and the solutions available,an inverse iterative approach is developed to evaluate and maximize the correlation between the measured and the predicted thermal flexure,leading to ascertained materials' constitutive and thermal behaviour.The inverse search algorithm starts with estimated ranges of material property parameters and progressively updates them to finally approach the respective true values.The established model solutions along with the optimized material properties matrix enable an accurate evaluation of the interfacial stresses/strains for the specific plate sample.

  6. Characterization of emissions from a desktop 3D printer and indoor air measurements in office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinle, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Emissions from a desktop 3D printer based on fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology were measured in a test chamber and indoor air was monitored in office settings. Ultrafine aerosol (UFA) emissions were higher while printing a standard object with polylactic acid (PLA) than with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer (2.1 × 10(9) vs. 2.4 × 10(8) particles/min). Prolonged use of the printer led to higher emission rates (factor 2 with PLA and 4 with ABS, measured after seven months of occasional use). UFA consisted mainly of volatile droplets, and some small (100-300 nm diameter) iron containing and soot-like particles were found. Emissions of inhalable and respirable dust were below the limit of detection (LOD) when measured gravimetrically, and only slightly higher than background when measured with an aerosol spectrometer. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were in the range of 10 µg/min. Styrene accounted for more than 50% of total VOC emitted when printing with ABS; for PLA, methyl methacrylate (MMA, 37% of TVOC) was detected as the predominant compound. Two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), fluoranthene and pyrene, were observed in very low amounts. All other analyzed PAH, as well as inorganic gases and metal emissions except iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn), were below the LOD or did not differ from background without printing. A single 3D print (165 min) in a large, well-ventilated office did not significantly increase the UFA and VOC concentrations, whereas these were readily detectable in a small, unventilated room, with UFA concentrations increasing by 2,000 particles/cm(3) and MMA reaching a peak of 21 µg/m(3) and still being detectable in the room even 20 hr after printing.

  7. Absorption spectroscopy characterization measurements of a laser-produced Na atomic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, C.H.; Bailey, J.E.; Lake, P.W.; Filuk, A.B.; Adams, R.G.; McKenney, J.

    1996-06-01

    This work describes a pulsed Na atomic beam source developed for spectroscopic diagnosis of a high-power ion diode on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. The goal is to produce a {approximately} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3}-density Na atomic beam that can be injected into the diode acceleration gap to measure electric and magnetic fields from the Stark and Zeeman effects through laser-induced-fluorescence or absorption spectroscopy. A {approximately} 10 ns fwhm, 1.06 {micro}m, 0.6 J/cm{sup 2} laser incident through a glass slide heats a Na-bearing thin film, creating a plasma that generates a sodium vapor plume. A {approximately} 1 {micro}sec fwhm dye laser beam tuned to 5,890 {angstrom} is used for absorption measurement of the Na I resonant doublet by viewing parallel to the film surface. The dye laser light is coupled through a fiber to a spectrograph with a time-integrated CCD camera. A two-dimensional mapping of the Na vapor density is obtained through absorption measurements at different spatial locations. Time-of-flight and Doppler broadening of the absorption with {approximately} 0.1 {angstrom} spectral resolution indicate that the Na neutral vapor temperature is about 0.5 to 2 eV. Laser-induced-fluorescence from {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3} Na I 3s-3p lines observed with a streaked spectrograph provides a signal level sufficient for {approximately} 0.06 {angstrom} wavelength shift measurements in a mock-up of an ion diode experiment.

  8. Macroscopic characterization of cell electroporation in biological tissue based on electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Lionel F.; Mir, Lluis M.

    2004-11-01

    A method is described to experimentally determine the temporal evolution of state variables involved in the electroporation of biological tissue, i.e., the transmembrane voltage and the macroscopic current flowing in the electropores. Indeed, the electrical parameters of the extracellular, intracellular, and unaltered membrane contributions as well as the electropores electrical characteristics can be deduced from the measurement of the tissue bioimpedance and from the variations of both the macroscopic voltage applied to the tissue and the delivered current.

  9. Dosimetric characterization of a brachytherapy applicator using MCNP5 modelisation and in-phantom measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardy, I; Ródenas, J; van Dycke, M; Gallardo, S; Ceccolini, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    A gynaecological applicator consisting of a metallic intra-uterine tube with a plastic vaginal applicator and an HDR Ir-192 source have been simulated with MCNP5 (Monte Carlo code). A solid phantom has been designed to perform measurements around the applicator with radiochromic films. The isodose curves obtained are compared with curves calculated with the F4MESH tally of MCNP5 with a good agreement. A pinpoint ionization chamber has been used to evaluate dose at some reference points.

  10. Parallel Measurements of Light Scattering and Characterization of Marine Particles in Water: An Evaluation of Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    turbid estuary of the Tijuana River to clear oligotrophic waters. To further expand the range of water types, additional field measurements are... Tijuana River to clear oligotrophic ocean water. As part of a NASA funded project, we sampled coastal waters on a regular basis to examine temporal... Beach and Scripps Pier. The two starred samples in panel A represent experiments with 100 μm microspheres, from which reliable concentration estimates

  11. The application of magnetic measurements for the characterization of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S; Richardson, N; Bennett, M; Hoon, S R

    2015-01-01

    The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry.The aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tire wear residues have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. Samples have been analyzed utilizing a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tires) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.

  12. Multifrequency impedance measurement technique for wireless characterization of microbiological cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissenwasser, J.; Vellekoop, M. J.; Kapferer, W.; Lepperdinger, G.; Heer, R.

    2011-11-01

    An impedance measurement system with probe signal frequencies up to 50 kHz with AC-probe voltages below 30 mV rms was integrated for wireless and battery-free monitoring of microbiological cell cultures. The here presented modular design and the use of state-of-the-art components greatly eases adoptions to a wide range of biotechnological applications without the need of bulky LCR-meters or potentiostats. The device had a power consumption of less than 2.5 mA at a 3.3 V single power supply and worked trouble-free within the humid environment of a cell culture incubator. Measurements on lumped RC-elements showed an error of less than 1% for absolute values and less than 1° regarding the phase of the complex impedance. The performance of sensor devices with interdigitated electrode structures for the measurement of adherent cell cultures was tested in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline solution in the humid atmosphere of an incubator for biological cell cultures.

  13. Use of alpha, beta, and gamma diversity measures to characterize seed dispersal by animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Douglas G; Smouse, Peter E; Karubian, Jordan; Sork, Victoria L

    2012-12-01

    Seed dispersal shapes ecological and evolutionary dynamics of plant populations. Here, we extend classical diversity measures to study the impact of disperser behavior on seed dispersal. We begin by extending our previous diversity structure approach, which partitioned seed source diversity within and among dispersal sites, into the more general framework of traditional diversity measures. This statistical approach allows an assessment of the extent to which foraging behavior shapes α and γ diversity, as well as the divergence in seed sources among dispersal sites, which we call δ. We also introduce tests to facilitate comparisons of diversity among dispersal sites and seed vectors and to compare overall diversity among sampled systems. We then apply these tools to investigate the diversity blend of parentage resulting from seed dispersal by two avian seed vectors with very different social and foraging behaviors: (1) acorn woodpeckers, transporting Quercus agrifolia acorns, and (2) long-wattled umbrellabirds, transporting Oenocarpus bataua palm nuts. Using these diversity and divergence measures, we test the hypothesis that different foraging behaviors generate distinctive diversity partitions for the two focal tree species. This approach provides a new tool for assessment of the impact of dispersal agents on the seed source structure of plant populations, which can be extended to include the impact of virtually any propagule vector for a range of systems.

  14. Measurement of New Energetic Parameters for the Objective Characterization of AN Opera House

    Science.gov (United States)

    STANZIAL, D.; BONSI, D.; PRODI, N.

    2000-04-01

    Following a rigorous approach to the energetic analysis of sound fields, the measurement of new quantities for the physical description of the behavior of sound in enclosed spaces has been carried out inside an Italian opera house. A first set of measures has been performed during the steady state, allowing the study of the new discovered property calledsound intensity polarization , which accounts for the amount of energy oscillating thorugh the measurement point. Then, in order to accomplish a complete statistical study of the transient field behaviour, the full set of quantities involved in the energy continuity equation (total sound energy density and intensity) has been obtained by means of the extension of the classical Schroeder's method to the quantities depending also on the air particle velocity solution of the wave equation. Finally, two newly defined field indicators, accounting for the local amount of sound energy radiation and the balance between the potential and kinetic parts of the total sound energy density, have been investigated.

  15. Spectral characterization of Compact Toroidal Hybrid plasmas in preparation for Thomson scattering measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, M. M.; Loch, S. D.; Maurer, D. A.; Pearce, A. J.; Traverso, P. J.

    2014-10-01

    A Thomson scattering system is in development for the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment to provide localized, internal electron temperature and density measurements. Thomson scattering yields accurate information on the internal plasma electron pressure profile, which will aid in the equilibrium reconstruction of CTH plasmas using the V3FIT code. The expected Thomson scattered signal is approximately 1015 times less than the incident laser light, and can be overwhelmed by stray laser light, background plasma emission, and intrinsic detector noise. Background plasma emission measurements in the visible spectral region near the planned laser wavelength of 532 nm are underway using a Holospec f/1.8 spectrometer and an And or iStar image intensified CCD camera to quantify line and continuum background levels. In addition, impurity line identification and plans for a separate line-of-sight averaged impurity temperature and density measurement capability employing the Thomson spectrometer are in progress. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG-02-00ER54610 and by the Auburn University Undergraduate Research Fellowship.

  16. Multifrequency impedance measurement technique for wireless characterization of microbiological cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissenwasser, J; Vellekoop, M J; Kapferer, W; Lepperdinger, G; Heer, R

    2011-11-01

    An impedance measurement system with probe signal frequencies up to 50 kHz with AC-probe voltages below 30 mV rms was integrated for wireless and battery-free monitoring of microbiological cell cultures. The here presented modular design and the use of state-of-the-art components greatly eases adoptions to a wide range of biotechnological applications without the need of bulky LCR-meters or potentiostats. The device had a power consumption of less than 2.5 mA at a 3.3 V single power supply and worked trouble-free within the humid environment of a cell culture incubator. Measurements on lumped RC-elements showed an error of less than 1% for absolute values and less than 1° regarding the phase of the complex impedance. The performance of sensor devices with interdigitated electrode structures for the measurement of adherent cell cultures was tested in the presence of phosphate-buffered saline solution in the humid atmosphere of an incubator for biological cell cultures.

  17. Characterization of the hot electron population with bremsstrahlung and backscatter measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Felicie; Hohenberger, Matthias; Michel, Pierre; Divol, Laurent; Doeppner, Tilo; Dewald, Edward; Bachmann, Benjamin; Ralph, Joseph; Turnbull, David; Goyon, Clement; Thomas, Cliff; Landen, Otto; Moody, John

    2016-10-01

    In indirect-drive ignition experiments, the hot electron population, produced by laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by the interaction of the hot electrons with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the upgraded filter-fluorescer x-ray diagnostic (FFLEX), a 10-channel, time-resolved hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20- to 500-keV range, provides measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum. It typically shows a two-temperature distribution of the hot electron population inside the hohlraum. In SRS, where the laser is coupled to an electron plasma wave, the backscattered spectrum, measured with the NIF full-aperture backscatter system (FABS), is used to infer the plasma wave phase velocity. We will present FFLEX time-integrated and time-resolved measurements of the hot electron population low-temperature component. We will correlate them with electron plasma wave phase velocities inferred from FABS spectra for a range of recent shots performed at the National Ignition Facility. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Short-baseline neutrino oscillations, Planck, and IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    We examine a framework with light new physics, which couples to the Standard Model only via neutrino mixing. Taking the hints from the short-baseline anomalies seriously and combining them with modern cosmological data and recent IceCube measurements, we obtain surprisingly effective constraints on the hidden force: keV $\\lesssim M \\lesssim0.3$ GeV for the mediator mass and $g_{h}>10^{-6}-10^{-3}$ for the coupling constant. Flavor equilibration between the hidden and active neutrinos can be delayed until temperatures of $\\sim 1$ MeV, but not below $\\sim 100$ keV. This scenario can be tested with next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background, IceCube, and oscillation experiments.

  19. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  20. Characterization of kraft pulp mill particulate emissions—A summary of existing measurements and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, John E.; Blosser, Russell O.

    Particulate matter emission sources at a kraft pulp mill include kraft recovery furnaces, lime kilns, smelt dissolving tanks and power boilers. Chemical and physical characteristics of these paniculate emissions are reviewed. Measurements of particle size distributions for these sources made with cascade impactors and microscopic counting techniques both before and after paniculate control devices such as multiple cyclones, wet scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitalors are discussed. In general, particles with equivalent diameters less than 3 jim comprise the bulk of the controlled paniculate emissions from all sources. Sodium sulfate is the dominant paniculate emission from kraft recovery furnaces, smelt dissolving tanks and lime kilns. Results from a field investigation of the relationship between human observations of near-stack plume opacity and measured in-stack paniculate concentrations and opacities are summarized. Trained cenified panels of observers were used in the investigation to estimate plume opacities from two kraft recovery furnaces, a combination wood/coal-fired boiler, and a combination wood/oil-fired boiler at four different pulp mill locations. Plume opacities were varied from near-zero to 45 % by adjustment of the paniculate control equipment operation. The effects of different background viewing conditions, observer positions, observer experience levels, and plume characteristics are enumerated. It is concluded that there can be substantial variations between measured in-stack opacities and human perceptions of near-stack plume opacities. The degree of agreement between the human judgements and measured in-stack opacities is significantly affected by the background viewing conditions. It is further shown that even with a panel of six or seven trained observers with similar visual acuity, there can be significant departures of individual opacity readings from the panel mean opacity. Although this investigation deals with questions of human

  1. Baseline Water Demand at Forward Operating Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Cluster, 2010- 11. Interview by Garth Anderson, Camp Phoenix, Afghanistan. Buchart Horn GmbH. 2004. Base camp solid waste characterization study. US...water use and water con- servation/ waste . Nonetheless, the observed rate of use at the area desig- nated as Cairo West was 13 gpcd at Bright Star 83...incorporated into all con- tingency base camps where feasible. Figures 6 and 7 show Camp Leather - neck graywater storage and new water storage tanks

  2. Production and characterization of a nitrogen-implanted Fe standard to calibrate PIGE measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C. L.; Silva, T. F.; Added, N.; Santos, H. C.; Tabacniks, M. H. [Institute of Physics - University of São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-11

    Three calibration standard was produced by ion implantation of nitrogen in samples of Armco iron (99.7% iron). The samples was irradiated with nitrogen ion beams at several different energies (between 4 keV and 40 keV), and the ion doses were adjusted to obtain an uniform depth profile, using simulations with SRIM code. Two standards, one thick and other a foil (1.62mg/cm{sup 2}), was irradiated at same time with total nominal dose of 6.6×10{sup −16} atoms/cm{sup 2} distributed in a region of 100 nm in depth, with an average concentration of 9.0% nitrogen in iron. The third sample uses the same profile, but with a small dose, 1.1×10{sup −16} atoms/cm{sup 2} and average concentration of 1.5% nitrogen. The characterization of the implanted samples was done using RBS and NRA techniques to quantification of nitrogen.

  3. Web-based evaluation of Parkinson's disease subjects: objective performance capacity measurements and subjective characterization profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V; Stewart, R Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is classified as a progressively degenerative movement disorder, affecting approximately 0.2% of the population and resulting in decreased performance in a wide variety of activities of daily living. Motivated by needs associated with the conduct of multi-center clinical trials, early detection, and the optimization of routine management of individuals with PD, we have developed a three-tiered approach to evaluation of PD and other neurologic diseases/disorders. One tier is characterized as 'web-based evaluation', consisting of objective performance capacity tests and subjective questionnaires that target history and symptom evaluation. Here, we present the initial evaluation of three representative, self-administered, objective, web-based performance capacity tests (simple visual-hand response speed, rapid alternating movement quality, and upper extremity neuromotor channel capacity). Twenty-one subjects (13 with PD, 8 without neurologic disease) were evaluated. Generally good agreement was obtained with lab-based tests executed with an experienced test administrator. We conclude that objective performance capacity testing is a feasible component of a web-based evaluation for PD, providing a sufficient level of fidelity to be useful.

  4. A characterization of Arctic aerosols on the basis of aerosol optical depth and black carbon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Stone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aerosols, transported from distant source regions, influence the Arctic surface radiation budget. When deposited on snow and ice, carbonaceous particles can reduce the surface albedo, which accelerates melting, leading to a temperature-albedo feedback that amplifies Arctic warming. Black carbon (BC, in particular, has been implicated as a major warming agent at high latitudes. BC and co-emitted aerosols in the atmosphere, however, attenuate sunlight and radiatively cool the surface. Warming by soot deposition and cooling by atmospheric aerosols are referred to as “darkening” and “dimming” effects, respectively. In this study, climatologies of spectral aerosol optical depth AOD (2001–2011 and Equivalent BC (EBC (1989–2011 from three Arctic observatories and from a number of aircraft campaigns are used to characterize Arctic aerosols. Since the 1980s, concentrations of BC in the Arctic have decreased by more than 50% at ground stations where in situ observations are made. AOD has increased slightly during the past decade, with variations attributed to changing emission inventories and source strengths of natural aerosols, including biomass smoke and volcanic aerosol, further influenced by deposition rates and airflow patterns.

  5. Global Characterization of Biomass-Burning Patterns using Satellite Measurements of Fire Radiative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Giglio, Louis; Wooster, Martin J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is the most practical means of measuring energy release from large open-air biomass burning. Satellite measurement of fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) enables distinction between fires of different strengths. Based on a 1-km resolution fire data acquired globally by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites from 2000 to 2006, instanteaneous FRP values ranged between 0.02 MW and 1866 MW, with global daily means ranging between 20 and 40 MW. Regionally, at the Aqua-MODIS afternoon overpass, the mean FRP values for Alaska, Western US, Western Australia, Quebec and the rest of Canada are significantly higher than these global means, with Quebec having the overall highest value of 85 MW. Analysis of regional mean FRP per unit area of land (FRP flux) shows that a peak fire season in certain regions, fires can be responsible for up to 0.2 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day. Zambia has the highest regional monthly mean FRP flux of approximately 0.045 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day and season, while the Middle East has the lowest value of approximately 0.0005 W/m(sup 2). A simple scheme based on FRP has been devised to classify fires into five categories, to facilitate fire rating by strength, similar to earthquakes and hurricanes. The scheme uses MODIS measurements of FRP at 1-km resolution as follows: catagory 1 (less than 100 MW), category 2 (100 to less than 500 MW), category 3 (500 to less than 1000 MW), category 4 (1000 to less than 1500 MW), catagory 5 (greater than or equal to 1500 MW). In most regions of the world, over 90% of fires fall into category 1, while only less than 1% fall into each of categories 3 to 5, although these proportions may differ significantly from day to day and by season. The frequency of occurence of the larger fires is region specific, and could not be explained by ecosystem type alone. Time-series analysis of the propertions of higher category

  6. Characterization of Fault Roughness at Various Scales: Implications of Three-Dimensional High Resolution Topography Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Candela, Thibault; Bouchon, Michel; Marsan, David; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Voisin, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Accurate description of the topography of active faults surfaces represents an important geophysical issue because this topography is strongly related to the stress distribution along fault planes, and therefore to processes implicated in earthquake nucleation, propagation, and arrest. With the recent development of Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) apparatus, it is now possible to measure accurately the 3D topography of rough surfaces with a comparable resolution in all directions, both at field and laboratory scales. In the present study, we have investigated the scaling properties including possible anisotropy properties of several outcrops of two natural fault surfaces (Vuache strike-slip fault, France, and Magnola normal fault, Italy) in limestones.

  7. Shear Wave Speed Measurements Using Crawling Wave Sonoelastography and Single Tracking Location Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging for Tissue Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormachea, Juvenal; Lavarello, Roberto J; McAleavey, Stephen A; Parker, Kevin J; Castaneda, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Elastography provides tissue stiffness information that attempts to characterize the elastic properties of tissue. However, there is still limited literature comparing elastographic modalities for tissue characterization. This study focuses on two quantitative techniques using different vibration sources that have not been compared to date: crawling wave sonoelastography (CWS) and single tracking location shear wave elasticity imaging (STL-SWEI). To understand each technique's performance, shear wave speed (SWS) was measured in homogeneous phantoms and ex vivo beef liver tissue. Then, the contrast, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and lateral resolution were measured in an inclusion and two-layer phantoms. The SWS values obtained with both modalities were validated with mechanical measurements (MM) which serve as ground truth. The SWS results for the three different homogeneous phantoms (10%, 13%, and 16% gelatin concentrations) and ex vivo beef liver tissue showed good agreement between CWS, STL-SWEI, and MM as a function of frequency. For all gelatin phantoms, the maximum accuracy errors were 2.52% and 2.35% using CWS and STL-SWEI, respectively. For the ex vivo beef liver, the maximum accuracy errors were 9.40% and 7.93% using CWS and STL-SWEI, respectively. For lateral resolution, contrast, and CNR, both techniques obtained comparable measurements for vibration frequencies less than 300 Hz (CWS) and distances between the push beams ( ∆x ) between 3 mm and 5.31 mm (STL-SWEI). The results obtained in this study agree over an SWS range of 1-6 m/s. They are expected to agree in perfectly linear, homogeneous, and isotropic materials, but the SWS overlap is not guaranteed in all materials because each of the three methods have unique features.

  8. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of bovine UQCC and its association with body measurement traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Zhao, Shuanping

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex chaperone (UQCC) involved in the development and maintenance of bone and cartilage is an important candidate gene for body measurement traits selection through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The expression of UQCC is upregulated in many human and animal ...... measurement traits in bovine reproduction and breeding, and provide data for establishing of an animal model using cattle to study big animal body type....... models of height as well as other stature indexes. We have cloned the cDNA sequence coding UQCC gene in bovine. Genomic structural analysis indicated that bovine UQCC shares a high similarity with human UQCC. Furthermore, Real-Time PCR analysis show that the expression of bovine UQCC is remarkably...... effects on the BL (p = 0.0047) and CD (p = 0.0454. Regarding association analysis of combination of the two SNPs, there are significant effects on the BL (p = 0.0215), CD (p = 0.0282) and PBW (p = 0.0329) in the total population. The results suggest that the UQCC gene is a candidate gene of body...

  9. Development and characterization of a high speed linear- moving-stage for multispectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, M.; Preissler, M.; Fütterer, R.; Zhang, C.; Celestre, R.; Notni, G.

    2016-11-01

    Multispectral imaging is one of the key topics in the upcoming years, a lot of measurement tasks can be solved using the additional spectral information. For the separation of these additional information bands plenty technologies were developed in the last decades. All of them have characteristic advantages and disadvantages. One working principle is the use of a filter wheel containing different filters between the image sensor and the lens. The additional element inside the light propagation path as well as the lens imperfections lead to chromatic aberrations. To compensate the resulting focus error some investigation were made. One option is the movement of the image sensor stage to a better focus position. Therefore high precision moving stage with high movement speed are characteristic parameters which have to be considered during the construction. In this paper a linear motor stage paired with two high precision linear bearings were connected together to achieve the demanded requirements. For the evaluation of this new approach, several measurements determining the dynamic as well as the static specifications were made to proof the achieved characteristics and will be shown in the paper. With this approach, a miniaturised precision system inside the multispectral imager a precision repeatability of less than four microns can be achieved.

  10. Thermal and elastic characterization of glassy carbon thin films by photoacoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markushev, D. D.; Ordonez-Miranda, J.; Rabasović, M. D.; Chirtoc, M.; Todorović, D. M.; Bialkowski, S. E.; Korte, D.; Franko, M.

    2017-01-01

    A portable photoacoustic device is designed and applied to measure thermal diffusivity and linear thermal expansion coefficient of glassy carbon by means of the standard photoacoustic model involving both the thermal diffusion and thermoelastic contributions. This is done by measuring the evolution of the open-cell photoacoustic signal within the modulation frequency interval of 20 Hz-10 kHz, for four samples with thicknesses of 180μm, 140μm, 100μm, and 60μm. A proper fitting procedure of the theoretical amplitude and phase to their corresponding experimental counterparts yielded an average thermal diffusivity of 0.68mm^2·s^-1 and expansion coefficient of 4.3× 10^{-6} K-1 which are in good agreement with their values reported in the literature for glassy carbon. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the theoretical amplitude does not properly describe the thermoelastic behavior of the samples thinner than l ≤ 100 μm, due to their strong bending and vibrations driven by the highly disordered fullerene microstructure of glassy carbon followed by the increasing non-homogeneity effects violating 1D heat conduction.

  11. Low-speed flowfield characterization by infrared measurements of surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartenberg, E.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Mcree, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental program was aimed at identifying areas in low speed aerodynamic research where infrared imaging systems can make significant contributions. Implementing a new technique, a long electrically heated wire was placed across a laminar jet. By measuring the temperature distribution along the wire with the IR imaging camera, the flow behavior was identified. Furthermore, using Nusselt number correlations, the velocity distribution could be deduced. The same approach was used to survey wakes behind cylinders in a wind-tunnel. This method is suited to investigate flows with position dependent velocities, e.g., boundary layers, confined flows, jets, wakes, and shear layers. It was found that the IR imaging camera cannot accurately track high gradient temperature fields. A correlation procedure was devised to account for this limitation. Other wind-tunnel experiments included tracking the development of the laminar boundary layer over a warmed flat plate by measuring the chordwise temperature distribution. This technique was applied also to the flow downstream from a rearward facing step. Finally, the IR imaging system was used to study boundary layer behavior over an airfoil at angles of attack from zero up to separation. The results were confirmed with tufts observable both visually and with the IR imaging camera.

  12. Development of novel electrical characterization methods and measurements of G4-DNA and DNA Derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Livshits, Gideon I

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation presents an investigation into the electrical properties of two types of G4-DNA and several DNA-based molecules, targeting them as candidates for molecular wires and devices. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) comparison of co-deposited tetra- and intra-molecular G4-DNA reveals variations in morphology and different sensitivity to the applied electric field, suggesting that the folding orientation of the strands affects the molecular structure, i.e. either the tetrad unit or the tetrad-tetrad stacking or both, and therefore the charge mobility. Tetra-molecular G4-DNA is found to be twice as polarizable as intra-molecular G4-DNA, suggesting it has greater charge mobility. These promising results motivated direct electrical transport measurements on tetra-molecular G4-DNA using a special conductive AFM setup, profiling the conductance along the molecule. Reproducible currents of tens to over 100 pA were measured in many tetra-molecular G4-DNA molecules over ...

  13. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hielscher, A.H.; Mourant, J.R.; Bigio, I.J.

    2000-01-04

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser ({lambda} = 543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4 x 4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  14. Characterization of highly scattering media by measurement of diffusely backscattered polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hielscher, Andreas H. (Brooklyn, NY); Mourant, Judith R. (Los Alamos, NM); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.

  15. Geoelectric Characterization of Thermal Water Aquifers Using 2.5D Inversion of VES Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulai, Á.; Szűcs, P.; Turai, E.; Baracza, M. K.; Fejes, Z.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a short theoretical summary of the series expansion-based 2.5D combined geoelectric weighted inversion (CGWI) method and highlights the advantageous way with which the number of unknowns can be decreased due to the simultaneous characteristic of this inversion. 2.5D CGWI is an approximate inversion method for the determination of 3D structures, which uses the joint 2D forward modeling of dip and strike direction data. In the inversion procedure, the Steiner's most frequent value method is applied to the automatic separation of dip and strike direction data and outliers. The workflow of inversion and its practical application are presented in the study. For conventional vertical electrical sounding (VES) measurements, this method can determine the parameters of complex structures more accurately than the single inversion method. Field data show that the 2.5D CGWI which was developed can determine the optimal location for drilling an exploratory thermal water prospecting well. The novelty of this research is that the measured VES data in dip and strike direction are jointly inverted by the 2.5D CGWI method.

  16. Assessing Model Characterization of Single Source Secondary Pollutant Impacts Using 2013 SENEX Field Study Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kirk R; Woody, Matthew C

    2017-03-15

    Aircraft measurements made downwind from specific coal fired power plants during the 2013 Southeast Nexus field campaign provide a unique opportunity to evaluate single source photochemical model predictions of both O3 and secondary PM2.5 species. The model did well at predicting downwind plume placement. The model shows similar patterns of an increasing fraction of PM2.5 sulfate ion to the sum of SO2 and PM2.5 sulfate ion by distance from the source compared with ambient based estimates. The model was less consistent in capturing downwind ambient based trends in conversion of NOX to NOY from these sources. Source sensitivity approaches capture near-source O3 titration by fresh NO emissions, in particular subgrid plume treatment. However, capturing this near-source chemical feature did not translate into better downwind peak estimates of single source O3 impacts. The model estimated O3 production from these sources but often was lower than ambient based source production. The downwind transect ambient measurements, in particular secondary PM2.5 and O3, have some level of contribution from other sources which makes direct comparison with model source contribution challenging. Model source attribution results suggest contribution to secondary pollutants from multiple sources even where primary pollutants indicate the presence of a single source.

  17. Geoelectric Characterization of Thermal Water Aquifers Using 2.5D Inversion of VES Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulai, Á.; Szűcs, P.; Turai, E.; Baracza, M. K.; Fejes, Z.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a short theoretical summary of the series expansion-based 2.5D combined geoelectric weighted inversion (CGWI) method and highlights the advantageous way with which the number of unknowns can be decreased due to the simultaneous characteristic of this inversion. 2.5D CGWI is an approximate inversion method for the determination of 3D structures, which uses the joint 2D forward modeling of dip and strike direction data. In the inversion procedure, the Steiner's most frequent value method is applied to the automatic separation of dip and strike direction data and outliers. The workflow of inversion and its practical application are presented in the study. For conventional vertical electrical sounding (VES) measurements, this method can determine the parameters of complex structures more accurately than the single inversion method. Field data show that the 2.5D CGWI which was developed can determine the optimal location for drilling an exploratory thermal water prospecting well. The novelty of this research is that the measured VES data in dip and strike direction are jointly inverted by the 2.5D CGWI method.

  18. Directed weighted network structure analysis of complex impedance measurements for characterizing oil-in-water bubbly flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Xue, Le; Zhang, Shan-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Characterizing the flow structure underlying the evolution of oil-in-water bubbly flow remains a contemporary challenge of great interests and complexity. In particular, the oil droplets dispersing in a water continuum with diverse size make the study of oil-in-water bubbly flow really difficult. To study this issue, we first design a novel complex impedance sensor and systematically conduct vertical oil-water flow experiments. Based on the multivariate complex impedance measurements, we define modalities associated with the spatial transient flow structures and construct modality transition-based network for each flow condition to study the evolution of flow structures. In order to reveal the unique flow structures underlying the oil-in-water bubbly flow, we filter the inferred modality transition-based network by removing the edges with small weight and resulting isolated nodes. Then, the weighted clustering coefficient entropy and weighted average path length are employed for quantitatively assessing the original network and filtered network. The differences in network measures enable to efficiently characterize the evolution of the oil-in-water bubbly flow structures.

  19. Characterization of solvent-extractable organics in urban aerosols based on mass spectrum analysis and hygroscopic growth measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Toshiyuki; Mochida, Michihiro

    2011-11-01

    To characterize atmospheric particulate organics with respect to polarity, aerosol samples collected on filters in the urban area of Nagoya, Japan, in 2009 were extracted using water, methanol, and ethyl acetate. The extracts were atomized and analyzed using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer. The atmospheric concentrations of the extracted organics were determined using phthalic acid as a reference material. Comparison of the organic carbon concentrations measured using a carbon analyzer and the HR-ToF-AMS suggests that organics extracted with water (WSOM) and ethyl acetate (EASOM) or those extracted with methanol (MSOM) comprise the greater part of total organics. The oxygen-carbon ratios (O/C) of the extracted organics varied: 0.51-0.75 (WSOM), 0.37-0.48 (MSOM), and 0.27-0.33 (EASOM). In the ion-group analysis, WSOM, MSOM, and EASOM were clearly characterized by the different fractions of the CH and CO(2) groups. On the basis of the hygroscopic growth measurements of the extracts, κ of organics at 90% relative humidity (κ(org)) were estimated. Positive correlation of κ(org) with O/C (r 0.70) was found for MSOM and EASOM, but no clear correlation was found for WSOM.

  20. Prospect of a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment HIPA to Beijing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H; He, J; Kuang, H; Lu, Y; Ma, Y; Shan, L; Shen, C; Wang, Y; Yang, C; Zhang, X; Zhu, Q; Qing, C; Xiong, Z; Yang, J M; Zhang, Z; Chen, J; Ye, Y; Lee, S C; Wong, H T; Whisnant, K; Young Bing Lin; Chen, Hesheng; Ding, Linkai; He, Jingtang; Kuang, Haohuai; Lu, Yusheng; Ma, Yuqian; Shan, Lianyou; Shen, Changquan; Wang, Yifang; Yang, Changgen; Zhang, Xinmin; Zhu, Qingqi; Qing, Chengrui; Xiong, Zhaohua; Yang, Jin Min; Zhang, Zhaoxi; Chen, Jiaer; Ye, Yanlin; Whisnant, Kerry; Young, Bing-Lin

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the prospects of a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment from HIPA to Beijing. The current understanding of neutrino oscillations, both theoretically and experimentally, are summarized. The figure of merits for interested physics measurements are defined and compared at different distances: 300 km, 700 km, 2100 km and 3000 km. We conclude that a baseline more than 2100 km is optimal. A large water cerenkov calorimeter was proposed and its performance is satisfactory from a Monte Carlo simulation study. Such a large detector can do many other measurements on cosmic-rays physics and astrophysics.

  1. The baseline paradox of optical interferometry. Application to the GRAVITY astrometric error budget

    CERN Document Server

    Lacour, S; Gillessen, S; Pfuhl, O; Woillez, J; Bonnet, H; Perrin, G; Lazareff, B; Rabien, S; Lapeyrere, V; Clenet, Y; Kok, Y

    2014-01-01

    A basic principle of long baseline interferometry is that an optical path difference (OPD) directly translate into an astrometric measurement. In the simplest case, the OPD is equal to the scalar product between the vector linking the two telescopes and the normalized vector pointing toward the star. However, in some circumstances, a too simple approximation interpretation of this scalar product leads to seemingly conflicting results, called here "the baseline paradox". For micro-arcsecond accuracy astrometry, we have to model in full the metrology measurement. It involves a complex system subject to many optical effects: from pure baseline errors to static, quasi-static and high order optical aberrations. The goal of this paper is to present the strategy used by GRAVITY to minimize the biases introduced by these defects. It is possible to give an analytical formula on how the baselines and tip-tilt errors affect the astrometric measurement. This formula depends on the limit-points of three type of baselines:...

  2. Wildfire smoke in the Siberian Arctic in summer: source characterization and plume evolution from airborne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present airborne measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2, carbon monoxide (CO, ozone (O3, equivalent black carbon (EBC and ultra fine particles over North-Eastern Siberia in July 2008 performed during the YAK-AEROSIB/POLARCAT experiment. During a "golden day" (11 July 2008 a number of biomass burning plumes were encountered with CO mixing ratio enhancements of up to 500 ppb relative to a background of 90 ppb. Number concentrations of aerosols in the size range 3.5–200 nm peaked at 4000 cm−3 and the EBC content reached 1.4 μg m−3. These high concentrations were caused by forest fires in the vicinity of the landing airport in Yakutsk where measurements in fresh smoke could be made during the descent. We estimate a combustion efficiency of 90 ± 3% based on CO and CO2 measurements and a CO emission factor of 65.5 ± 10.8 g CO per kilogram of dry matter burned. This suggests a potential increase in the average northern hemispheric CO mixing ratio of 3.0–7.2 ppb per million hectares of Siberian forest burned. For BC, we estimate an emission factor of 0.52 ± 0.07 g BC kg−1, comparable to values reported in the literature. The emission ratio of ultra-fine particles (3.5–200 nm was 26 cm−3 (ppb CO−1, consistent with other airborne studies.

    The transport of identified biomass burning plumes was investigated using the FLEXPART Lagrangian model. Based on sampling of wildfire plumes from the same source but with different atmospheric ages derived from FLEXPART, we estimate that the e-folding lifetimes of EBC and ultra fine particles (between 3.5 and 200 nm in size against removal and growth processes are 5.1 and 5.5 days respectively, supporting lifetime estimates used in various modelling studies.

  3. Characterization of stacked-crystal PET detector designs for measurement of both TOF and DOI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmall, Jeffrey P.; Surti, Suleman; Karp, Joel S.

    2015-05-01

    A PET detector with good timing resolution and two-level depth-of-interaction (DOI) discrimination can be constructed using a single-ended readout of scintillator stacks of Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr3), with various Cerium dopant concentrations, including pure Cerium Bromide (CeBr3). The stacked crystal geometry creates a unique signal shape for interactions occurring in each layer, which can be used to identify the DOI, while retaining the inherently good timing properties of LaBr3 and CeBr3. In this work, single pixel elements are used to optimize the choice of scintillator, coupling of layers, and type of photodetector, evaluating the performance using a fast, single-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a single 4 × 4 mm2 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). We also introduce a method to quantify and evaluate the DOI discrimination accuracy. From signal shape measurements using fast waveform sampling, we found that in addition to differences in signal rise times, between crystal layers, there were also differences in the signal fall times. A DOI accuracy of 98% was achieved using our classification method for a stacked crystal pair, consisting of a 15 mm long LaBr3(Ce:20%) crystal on top of a 15 mm long CeBr3 crystal, readout using a PMT. A DOI accuracy of 95% was measured with a stack of two, identical, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals. The DOI accuracy of this crystal pair was reduced to 91% when using a SiPM for readout. For the stack of two, 12 mm long, CeBr3 crystals, a coincidence timing resolution (average of timing results from the top and bottom layer) of 199 ps was measured using a PMT, and this was improved to 153 ps when using a SiPM. These results show that with stacked LaBr3/CeBr3 scintillators and fast waveform sampling nearly perfect DOI accuracy can be achieved with excellent timing resolution—timing resolution that is only minimally degraded compared to results from a single CeBr3 crystal of comparable length to the stacked crystals. The

  4. Inter-rater reliability of measures to characterize the tobacco retail environment in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of a data collection instrument to assess the tobacco retail environ- ment in Mexico, after major marketing regulations were implemented. Materials and methods. In 2013, two data collectors independently evaluated 21 stores in two census tracts, through a data collection instrument that assessed the presence of price promotions, whether single cigarettes were sold, the number of visible advertisements, the pre- sence of signage prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to minors, and characteristics of cigarette pack displays. We evaluated the inter-rater reliability of the collected data, through the calculation of metrics such as intraclass correlation coefficient, percent agreement, Cohen’s kappa and Krippendorff’s alpha. Results. Most measures demonstrated substantial or perfect inter-rater reliability. Conclusions. Our results indicate the potential utility of the data collection instrument for future point-of-sale research.

  5. A Methodology to Integrate Magnetic Resonance and Acoustic Measurements for Reservoir Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Jorge O.; Hackert, Chris L.; Ni, Qingwen; Collier, Hughbert A.

    2000-09-22

    This report contains eight sections. Some individual subsections contain lists of references as well as figures and conclusions when appropriate. The first section includes the introduction and summary of the first-year project efforts. The next section describes the results of the project tasks: (1) implementation of theoretical relations between effect dispersion and the stochastic medium, (2) imaging analyses using core and well log data, (3) construction of dispersion and attenuation models at the core and borehole scales in poroelastic media, (4) petrophysics and a catalog of core and well log data from Siberia Ridge field, (5) acoustic/geotechnical measurements and CT imaging of core samples from Florida carbonates, and (6) development of an algorithm to predict pore size distribution from NMR core data. The last section includes a summary of accomplishments, technology transfer activities and follow-on work for Phase II.

  6. Boundary layer characterization and acoustic measurements of flow-aligned trailing edge serrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce León, Carlos; Merino-Martínez, Roberto; Ragni, Daniele; Avallone, Francesco; Snellen, Mirjam

    2016-12-01

    Trailing edge serrations designed to reduce airfoil self-noise are retrofitted on a NACA 0018 airfoil. An investigation of the boundary layer flow statistical properties is performed using time-resolved stereoscopic PIV. Three streamwise locations over the edge of the serrations are compared. An analysis of the results indicates that, while there is no upstream effect, the flow experiences significant changes as it convects over the serrations and toward its edges. Among the most important, a reduced shear stress and modifications of the turbulence spectra suggest beneficial changes in the unsteady surface pressure that would result in a reduction of trailing edge noise. Microphone array measurements are additionally performed to confirm that noise reduction is indeed observed by the application of the chosen serration design over the unmodified airfoil.

  7. Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Todoriki, Setsuko; Yunoki, Akira; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-05-01

    We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Optical Characterization of a Hollow Fiber Raman Probe toward Non-Invasive Measurements of Living Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Morita, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Matsuura, Yuji; Katsumoto, Yukiteru; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2009-02-01

    The use of a hollow fiber as a Raman probe, which gives strong advantage of a free link in space, was confirmed to be a versatile and standard analytical method, since Raman data obtained through a hollow fiber probe assures a sufficient link to conventional Raman data. In this paper, we confirmed that a Raman spectrum given by the hollow fiber probe becomes identical to a Raman spectrum measured by a conventional approach, if one is multiplied by an optimized coefficient. In addition, Raman signal intensity changes were related to various types of curved geometries of the probe. The Raman signal intensity value at a curved geometry of the probe, which is one of the most frequently used positions, became 0.35 compared to the value at the standard position of the probe (straight lined).

  9. Methods for the measurement and characterization of erosion in enamel and dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, N; Hara, A; Shellis, R P; Ganss, C

    2011-01-01

    The advantages, limitations and potential applications of available methods for studying erosion of enamel and dentine are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on the influence of histological differences between the dental hard tissue and the stage of the erosive lesion. No method is suitable for all stages of the lesion. Factors determining the applicability of the methods are: surface condition of the specimen, type of the experimental model, nature of the lesion, need for longitudinal measurements and type of outcome. The most suitable and most widely used methods are: chemical analyses of mineral release and enamel surface hardness for early erosion, and surface profilometry and microradiography for advanced erosion. Morphological changes in eroded dental tissue have usually been characterised by scanning electron microscopy. Novel methods have also been used, but little is known of their potential and limitations. Therefore, there is a need for their further development, evaluation, consolidation and, in particular, validation.

  10. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of ESA SMOS Mission, the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) has been selected as a core validation site. Its reasonable homogeneous characteristics make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products before attempting other more complex areas. Close to SMOS....... For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April - May 2008, a control area of 10 × 10 km2 was chosen at the VAS study area where a network of ground soil moisture (SM) measuring stations is being set up based on an original definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units attending to climatic...... of the following instruments: (i) L-band EMIRAD radiometer (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) L-band HUT-2D imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish Institute of Maritime Research, FIMR...

  11. New measurement technique for dispersion characterizing optical fibers using low-coherence spectral interferometry with a Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlubina, Petr

    1999-08-01

    Low-coherence spectral interferometry with channelled spectrum detection, extensively used for dispersion characterizing optical fibers, utilizes the fact that the spectral interference between two modes of an optical fiber shows up at its output as a periodic modulation of the source spectrum with the period dependent on the group optical path difference (OPD) between modes. However, this measurement technique cannot be used to measure intermodal dispersion in the optical fiber for which the period of modulation is too small to be resolved by a spectrometer. We proposed and realized a new measurement technique utilizing a tandem configuration of a dispersive Michelson interferometer and the two-mode optical fiber in which the intermodal spectral interference can be resolved even if a low-resolution spectrometer is used. In the tandem configuration of the dispersive Michelson interferometer and the two-mode optical fiber, the OPD in the Michelson interferometer is adjusted close to the group OPD between modes of the optical fiber so that the low-frequency spectral modulation that can be processed is produced. Using the Fourier transform method in processing the measured spectral modulations and subtracting the effect of the dispersive Michelson interferometer, the intermodal dispersion of the two-mode optical fiber over a limited spectral region has been obtained.

  12. Characterizing Tropical Forest Structure using Field-based Measurements and a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Ducey, M. J.; Herrick, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable components of forest biometric characteristics, one of which is tree architecture. This structural component is important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on statistically significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.01, RMSE = 1.1 m). Tree density was found to have the least strong statistical relationship (r2 = 0.45, p < 0.01, RMSE = 160.7 n ha-1). We found significant relationship between basal area and lidar metrics (r2 = 0.76, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.68 number ha-1). Models developed for biomass 1 had a higher r-squared value and lower RMSE than that of biomass2 (biomass1: r2 = 0.7, p < 0.01, RMSE = 28.94 Mg ha-1; biomass2: r2 = 0.67, p < 0.01, RMSE = 40.62 Mg ha-1). Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of

  13. Measurement and Characterization of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor Plume Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Jeremy; Hobbs, Chris; Plotkin, Ken; Pilkey, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    Lift-off acoustic environments generated by the future Ares I launch vehicle are assessed by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) acoustics team using several prediction tools. This acoustic environment is directly caused by the Ares I First Stage booster, powered by the five-segment Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRMV). The RSRMV is a larger-thrust derivative design from the currently used Space Shuttle solid rocket motor, the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). Lift-off acoustics is an integral part of the composite launch vibration environment affecting the Ares launch vehicle and must be assessed to help generate hardware qualification levels and ensure structural integrity of the vehicle during launch and lift-off. Available prediction tools that use free field noise source spectrums as a starting point for generation of lift-off acoustic environments are described in the monograph NASA SP-8072: "Acoustic Loads Generated by the Propulsion System." This monograph uses a reference database for free field noise source spectrums which consist of subscale rocket motor firings, oriented in horizontal static configurations. The phrase "subscale" is appropriate, since the thrust levels of rockets in the reference database are orders of magnitude lower than the current design thrust for the Ares launch family. Thus, extrapolation is needed to extend the various reference curves to match Ares-scale acoustic levels. This extrapolation process yields a subsequent amount of uncertainty added upon the acoustic environment predictions. As the Ares launch vehicle design schedule progresses, it is important to take every opportunity to lower prediction uncertainty and subsequently increase prediction accuracy. Never before in NASA s history has plume acoustics been measured for large scale solid rocket motors. Approximately twice a year, the RSRM prime vendor, ATK Launch Systems, static fires an assembled RSRM motor in a horizontal configuration at their test facility

  14. Future Long-Baseline Neutrino Oscillations: View from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, R. J.

    2015-06-01

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE), that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  15. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Robert J., E-mail: wilson@colostate.edu [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1875 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    In late 2012 the US Department of Energy gave approval for the first phase of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) that will conduct a broad scientific program including neutrino oscillations, neutrino scattering physics, search for baryon violation, supernova burst neutrinos and other related astrophysical phenomena. The project is now being reformulated as an international facility hosted by the United States. The facility will consist of an intense neutrino beam produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a highly capable set of neutrino detectors on the Fermilab campus, and a large underground liquid argon time projection chamber at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota 1300 km from Fermilab. With an intense beam and massive far detector, the experimental program at the facility will make detailed studies of neutrino oscillations, including measurements of the neutrino mass hierarchy and Charge-Parity symmetry violation, by measuring neutrino and anti-neutrino mixing separately. At the near site, the high-statistics neutrino scattering data will allow for many cross section measurements and precision tests of the Standard Model. This presentation will describe the configuration developed by the LBNE collaboration, the broad physics program, and the status of the formation of the international facility.

  16. Updated baseline for a staged Compact Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Boland, M J; Giansiracusa, P J; Lucas, T G; Rassool, R P; Balazs, C; Charles, T K; Afanaciev, K; Emeliantchik, I; Ignatenko, A; Makarenko, V; Shumeiko, N; Patapenka, A; Zhuk, I; Abusleme Hoffman, A C; Diaz Gutierrez, M A; Gonzalez, M Vogel; Chi, Y; He, X; Pei, G; Pei, S; Shu, G; Wang, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, F; Zhou, Z; Chen, H; Gao, Y; Huang, W; Kuang, Y P; Li, B; Li, Y; Shao, J; Shi, J; Tang, C; Wu, X; Ma, L; Han, Y; Fang, W; Gu, Q; Huang, D; Huang, X; Tan, J; Wang, Z; Zhao, Z; Laštovička, T; Uggerhoj, U; Wistisen, T N; Aabloo, A; Eimre, K; Kuppart, K; Vigonski, S; Zadin, V; Aicheler, M; Baibuz, E; Brücken, E; Djurabekova, F; Eerola, P; Garcia, F; Haeggström, E; Huitu, K; Jansson, V; Karimaki, V; Kassamakov, I; Kyritsakis, A; Lehti, S; Meriläinen, A; Montonen, R; Niinikoski, T; Nordlund, K; Österberg, K; Parekh, M; Törnqvist, N A; Väinölä, J; Veske, M; Farabolini, W; Mollard, A; Napoly, O; Peauger, F; Plouin, J; Bambade, P; Chaikovska, I; Chehab, R; Davier, M; Kaabi, W; Kou, E; LeDiberder, F; Pöschl, R; Zerwas, D; Aimard, B; Balik, G; Baud, J-P; Blaising, J-J; Brunetti, L; Chefdeville, M; Drancourt, C; Geoffroy, N; Jacquemier, J; Jeremie, A; Karyotakis, Y; Nappa, J M; Vilalte, S; Vouters, G; Bernard, A; Peric, I; Gabriel, M; Simon, F; Szalay, M; van der Kolk, N; Alexopoulos, T; Gazis, E N; Gazis, N; Ikarios, E; Kostopoulos, V; Kourkoulis, S; Gupta, P D; Shrivastava, P; Arfaei, H; Dayyani, M K; Ghasem, H; Hajari, S S; Shaker, H; Ashkenazy, Y; Abramowicz, H; Benhammou, Y; Borysov, O; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Levy, I; Rosenblat, O; D'Auria, G; Di Mitri, S; Abe, T; Aryshev, A; Higo, T; Makida, Y; Matsumoto, S; Shidara, T; Takatomi, T; Takubo, Y; Tauchi, T; Toge, N; Ueno, K; Urakawa, J; Yamamoto, A; Yamanaka, M; Raboanary, R; Hart, R; van der Graaf, H; Eigen, G; Zalieckas, J; Adli, E; Lillestøl, R; Malina, L; Pfingstner, J; Sjobak, K N; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Hoorani, H; Bugiel, S; Dasgupta, R; Firlej, M; Fiutowski, T A; Idzik, M; Kopec, M; Kuczynska, M; Moron, J; Swientek, K P; Daniluk, W; Krupa, B; Kucharczyk, M; Lesiak, T; Moszczynski, A; Pawlik, B; Sopicki, P; Wojtoń, T; Zawiejski, L; Kalinowski, J; Krawczyk, M; Żarnecki, A F; Firu, E; Ghenescu, V; Neagu, A T; Preda, T; Zgura, I-S; Aloev, A; Azaryan, N; Budagov, J; Chizhov, M; Filippova, M; Glagolev, V; Gongadze, A; Grigoryan, S; Gudkov, D; Karjavine, V; Lyablin, M; Olyunin, A; Samochkine, A; Sapronov, A; Shirkov, G; Soldatov, V; Solodko, A; Solodko, E; Trubnikov, G; Tyapkin, I; Uzhinsky, V; Vorozhtov, A; Levichev, E; Mezentsev, N; Piminov, P; Shatilov, D; Vobly, P; Zolotarev, K; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Kacarevic, G; Lukic, S; Milutinovic-Dumbelovic, G; Pandurovic, M; Iriso, U; Perez, F; Pont, M; Trenado, J; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Calero, J; Garcia-Tabares, L; Gavela, D; Gutierrez, J L; Lopez, D; Toral, F; Moya, D; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Vila, I; Argyropoulos, T; Blanch Gutierrez, C; Boronat, M; Esperante, D; Faus-Golfe, A; Fuster, J; Fuster Martinez, N; Galindo Muñoz, N; García, I; Giner Navarro, J; Ros, E; Vos, M; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T; Jacewicz, M; Ögren, J; Olvegård, M; Ruber, R; Ziemann, V; Aguglia, D; Alipour Tehrani, N; Aloev, A; Andersson, A; Andrianala, F; Antoniou, F; Artoos, K; Atieh, S; Ballabriga Sune, R; Barnes, M J; Barranco Garcia, J; Bartosik, H; Belver-Aguilar, C; Benot Morell, A; Bett, D R; Bettoni, S; Blanchot, G; Blanco Garcia, O; Bonnin, X A; Brunner, O; Burkhardt, H; Calatroni, S; Campbell, M; Catalan Lasheras, N; Cerqueira Bastos, M; Cherif, A; Chevallay, E; Constance, B; Corsini, R; Cure, B; Curt, S; Dalena, B; Dannheim, D; De Michele, G; De Oliveira, L; Deelen, N; Delahaye, J P; Dobers, T; Doebert, S; Draper, M; Duarte Ramos, F; Dubrovskiy, A; Elsener, K; Esberg, J; Esposito, M; Fedosseev, V; Ferracin, P; Fiergolski, A; Foraz, K; Fowler, A; Friebel, F; Fuchs, J-F; Fuentes Rojas, C A; Gaddi, A; Garcia Fajardo, L; Garcia Morales, H; Garion, C; Gatignon, L; Gayde, J-C; Gerwig, H; Goldblatt, A N; Grefe, C; Grudiev, A; Guillot-Vignot, F G; Gutt-Mostowy, M L; Hauschild, M; Hessler, C; Holma, J K; Holzer, E; Hourican, M; Hynds, D; Inntjore Levinsen, Y; Jeanneret, B; Jensen, E; Jonker, M; Kastriotou, M; Kemppinen, J M K; Kieffer, R B; Klempt, W; Kononenko, O; Korsback, A; Koukovini Platia, E; Kovermann, J W; Kozsar, C-I; Kremastiotis, I; Kulis, S; Latina, A; Leaux, F; Lebrun, P; Lefevre, T; Linssen, L; Llopart Cudie, X; Maier, A A; Mainaud Durand, H; Manosperti, E; Marelli, C; Marin Lacoma, E; Martin, R; Mazzoni, S; Mcmonagle, G; Mete, O; Mether, L M; Modena, M; Münker, R M; Muranaka, T; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nikiforou, N; Nisbet, D; Nonglaton, J-M; Nuiry, F X; Nürnberg, A; Olvegard, M; Osborne, J; Papadopoulou, S; Papaphilippou, Y; Passarelli, A; Patecki, M; Pazdera, L; Pellegrini, D; Pepitone, K; Perez, F; Perez Codina, E; Perez Fontenla, A; Persson, T H B; Petrič, M; Pitters, F; Pittet, S; Plassard, F; Rajamak, R; Redford, S; Renier, Y; Rey, S F; Riddone, G; Rinolfi, L; Rodriguez Castro, E; Roloff, P; Rossi, C; Rude, V; Rumolo, G; Sailer, A; Santin, E; Schlatter, D; Schmickler, H; Schulte, D; Shipman, N; Sicking, E; Simoniello, R; Skowronski, P K; Sobrino Mompean, P; Soby, L; Sosin, M P; Sroka, S; Stapnes, S; Sterbini, G; Ström, R; Syratchev, I; Tecker, F; Thonet, P A; Timeo, L; Timko, H; Tomas Garcia, R; Valerio, P; Vamvakas, A L; Vivoli, A; Weber, M A; Wegner, R; Wendt, M; Woolley, B; Wuensch, W; Uythoven, J; Zha, H; Zisopoulos, P; Benoit, M; Vicente Barreto Pinto, M; Bopp, M; Braun, H H; Csatari Divall, M; Dehler, M; Garvey, T; Raguin, J Y; Rivkin, L; Zennaro, R; Aksoy, A; Nergiz, Z; Pilicer, E; Tapan, I; Yavas, O; Baturin, V; Kholodov, R; Lebedynskyi, S; Miroshnichenko, V; Mordyk, S; Profatilova, I; Storizhko, V; Watson, N; Winter, A; Goldstein, J; Green, S; Marshall, J S; Thomson, M A; Xu, B; Gillespie, W A; Pan, R; Tyrk, M A; Protopopescu, D; Robson, A; Apsimon, R; Bailey, I; Burt, G; Constable, D; Dexter, A; Karimian, S; Lingwood, C; Buckland, M D; Casse, G; Vossebeld, J; Bosco, A; Karataev, P; Kruchinin, K; Lekomtsev, K; Nevay, L; Snuverink, J; Yamakawa, E; Boisvert, V; Boogert, S; Boorman, G; Gibson, S; Lyapin, A; Shields, W; Teixeira-Dias, P; West, S; Jones, R; Joshi, N; Bodenstein, R; Burrows, P N; Christian, G B; Gamba, D; Perry, C; Roberts, J; Clarke, J A; Collomb, N A; Jamison, S P; Shepherd, B J A; Walsh, D; Demarteau, M; Repond, J; Weerts, H; Xia, L; Wells, J D; Adolphsen, C; Barklow, T; Breidenbach, M; Graf, N; Hewett, J; Markiewicz, T; McCormick, D; Moffeit, K; Nosochkov, Y; Oriunno, M; Phinney, N; Rizzo, T; Tantawi, S; Wang, F; Wang, J; White, G; Woodley, M

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a multi-TeV high-luminosity linear e+e- collider under development. For an optimal exploitation of its physics potential, CLIC is foreseen to be built and operated in a staged approach with three centre-of-mass energy stages ranging from a few hundred GeV up to 3 TeV. The first stage will focus on precision Standard Model physics, in particular Higgs and top-quark measurements. Subsequent stages will focus on measurements of rare Higgs processes, as well as searches for new physics processes and precision measurements of new states, e.g. states previously discovered at LHC or at CLIC itself. In the 2012 CLIC Conceptual Design Report, a fully optimised 3 TeV collider was presented, while the proposed lower energy stages were not studied to the same level of detail. This report presents an updated baseline staging scenario for CLIC. The scenario is the result of a comprehensive study addressing the performance, cost and power of the CLIC accelerator complex as a function of...

  17. Bremsstrahlung measurements for characterization of intense short-pulse, laser produced fast electrons with OMEGA EP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Tyler; Sawada, Hiroshi; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Pandit, Rishi; Chen, Cliff; Beg, Farhat; Chen, Hui; McLean, Harry; Patel, Pravesh; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    Understanding relativistic fast electron generation and transport inside solids is important for applications such as generation of high energy x-ray sources and fast ignition. An experiment was carried out to study the scaling of the fast electron spectrum and bremsstrahlung generation in multi-pico second laser interactions using 1 ps and 10 ps OMEGA EP short-pulse beam to generate fast electrons at a similar peak intensity of 5x1018 W/cm2. The bremsstrahlung produced by collisions of the fast electrons with background ions was recorded using differential filter stacked spectrometers. A preliminary analysis with a Monte Carlo Code ITS shows that the electrons injection having an electron slope 1.8 MeV matched well with the high energy component of the 1 ps and 10 ps bremsstrahlung measurements. Details of the data analysis and modeling with Monte Carlo and a hybrid particle-in-cell codes will be presented at the conference. Work supported by the UNR Office of the Provost and by DOE/OFES under Contract No. DE-SC0008827. This collaborative work was partially supported under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contracts No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and No. DE-FG-02-05ER54834.

  18. Convection of tin in a Bridgman system. I - Flow characterization by effective diffusivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, B.; Narayanan, R.; Anderson, T. J.; Fripp, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    An electrochemical titration method was used to investigate the dynamic states in a cylindrical layer of convecting tin. The liquid tin was contained in a cell, with curved boundaries made of quartz and flat boundaries made of a solid state electrolyte - yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The electrolyte acted as a window through which a trace amount of oxygen could be pumped in or out by the application of a constant voltage. The concentration at the YSZ interface was monitored by operating the electrochemical cell in the galvanic mode. Experimentally determined effective diffusivities of oxygen were compared with the molecular diffusivity. Dynamic states in the convective flow were thus inferred. Temperature measurements were simultaneously made in order to identify the onset of oscillations from a steady convective regime. The experiments were conducted for two different aspect ratios for various imposed temperature gradients and two different orientations with respect to gravity. Transcritical states were identified and comparison to two-dimensional numerical models were made.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Graphene-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Glucose Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjeong; Choi, Hyonkwang; Park, Yunjae; Lee, Wookyoung; Lee, Jewon; Jeon, Minhyon

    2015-10-01

    Glucose in the blood is generally measured by electrochemical method using glucose oxidase (GOx) which acts as enzymes and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite. The rGO, which has low dispersibility, reduces the sensing capability of sensors. In order to solve this problem, the rGO electrodes with the addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) have been reported. However, rGO with low electrical conductivity and mobility is not compatible to the electrochemical system. In this study, graphene with excellent electrical properties was added to PVP protected rGO. The rGO was synthesized using a Hummer and Offeman's method. Graphene was synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with a Cu catalyst. Platinum (Pt) electrodes, Ag/AgCl, and PVP protected rGO were used as working electrode, reference electrode, and counter electrode, respectively. Surface morphology and structural properties of graphene were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Cyclic voltametry (CV) and I-V probe station were used to analyze the performance of the electrodes. Glucose concentration was systematically varied and the reduction current was monitored using I-V probe station.

  20. Characterization of Unsteady Flow Structures Near Leading-Edge Slat. Part 1; PIV Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Luther N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Choudhari, Meelan

    2004-01-01

    A comprehensive computational and experimental study has been performed at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) Program to investigate the unsteady flow near a leading-edge slat of a two-dimensional, high-lift system. This paper focuses on the experimental effort conducted in the NASA Langley Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART) where Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data was acquired in the slat cove and at the slat trailing edge of a three-element, high-lift model at 4, 6, and 8 degrees angle of attack and a freestream Mach Number of 0.17. Instantaneous velocities obtained from PIV images are used to obtain mean and fluctuating components of velocity and vorticity. The data show the recirculation in the cove, reattachment of the shear layer on the slat lower surface, and discrete vortical structures within the shear layer emanating from the slat cusp and slat trailing edge. Detailed measurements are used to examine the shear layer formation at the slat cusp, vortex shedding at the slat trailing edge, and convection of vortical structures through the slat gap. Selected results are discussed and compared with unsteady, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations for the same configuration in a companion paper by Khorrami, Choudhari, and Jenkins (2004). The experimental dataset provides essential flow-field information for the validation of near-field inputs to noise prediction tools.

  1. Characterization of magnetically oriented phospholipid micelles for measurement of dipolar couplings in macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottiger, M; Bax, A

    1998-10-01

    Weak alignment of solute molecules with the magnetic field can be achieved in a dilute liquid crystalline medium, consisting of an aqueous mixture of dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dihexanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC). For a certain range of molar ratios, DMPC and DHPC can form large, disc-shaped particles, commonly referred to as bicelles (Sanders and Schwonek, 1992), which cooperatively align in the magnetic field and induce a small degree of alignment on asymmetrically shaped solute molecules. As a result, dipolar couplings between pairs of 1H, 13C or 15N nuclei are no longer averaged to zero by rotational diffusion and they can be readily measured, providing valuable structural information. The stability of these liquid crystals and the degree of alignment of the solute molecules depend strongly on experimental variables such as the DMPC:DHPC ratio and concentration, the preparation protocol of the DMPC/DHPC mixtures, as well as salt, temperature, and pH. The lower temperature limit for which the liquid crystalline phase is stable can be reduced to 20 degrees C by using a ternary mixture of DHPC, DMPC, and 1-myristoyl-2-myristoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, or a binary mixture of DHPC and ditridecanoyl-phosphatidylcholine. These issues are discussed, with an emphasis on the use of the medium for obtaining weak alignment of biological macromolecules.

  2. Characterization of magnetically oriented phospholipid micelles for measurement of dipolar couplings in macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottiger, Marcel; Bax, Ad [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    1998-10-15

    Weak alignment of solute molecules with the magnetic field can be achieved in a dilute liquid crystalline medium, consisting of an aqueous mixture of dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dihexanoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DHPC). For a certain range of molar ratios, DMPC and DHPC can form large, disc-shaped particles, commonly referred to as bicelles (Sanders and Schwonek, 1992), which cooperatively align in the magnetic field and induce a small degree of alignment on asymmetrically shaped solute molecules. As a result, dipolar couplings between pairs of {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C or {sup 15}N nuclei are no longer averaged to zero by rotational diffusion and they can be readily measured, providing valuable structural information. The stability of these liquid crystals and the degree of alignment of the solute molecules depend strongly on experimental variables such as the DMPC:DHPC ratio and concentration, the preparation protocol of the DMPC/DHPC mixtures, as well as salt, temperature, and pH. The lower temperature limit for which the liquid crystalline phase is stable can be reduced to 20 deg. C by using a ternary mixture of DHPC, DMPC, and 1-myristoyl-2-myristoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, or a binary mixture of DHPC and ditridecanoyl-phosphatidylcholine. These issues are discussed, with an emphasis on the use of the medium for obtaining weak alignment of biological macromolecules.

  3. Reflectance and fluorescence characterization of maize species using field laboratory measurements and lidar remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Duan, Zheng; Ming, Lian; Li, Yiyun; Chen, Ruipeng; Hu, Jiandong; Svanberg, Sune; Han, Yanlai

    2016-07-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is an important technique to study photosynthesis and plants. Information on chlorophyll and other pigments can be obtained. We have been using a mobile laboratory in a Chinese experimental farm setting to study maize (Zea mays L.) leaves by reflectance and fluorescence measurements and correlated the spectroscopic signals to the amount of fertilizer supplied. Further, we studied five different species of maize using the remote monitoring of the fluorescence signatures obtained with the same mobile laboratory, but now in a laser radar remote-sensing configuration. The system separation from the target area was 50 m, and 355 nm pulsed excitation using the frequency-tripled output from an Nd:YAG laser was employed. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were combined to identify the different maize species using their fluorescence spectra. Likewise, the spectral signatures in reflectance and fluorescence frequently allowed us to separate different fertilizer levels applied to plants of the same species.

  4. Bounding the integer bootstrapped GNSS baseline's tail probability in the presence of stochastic uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, Steven E.; Khanafseh, Samer M.; Pervan, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Differential carrier phase applications that utilize cycle resolution need the probability density function of the baseline estimate to quantify its region of concentration. For the integer bootstrap estimator, the density function has an analytical definition that enables probability calculations given perfect statistical knowledge of measurement and process noise. This paper derives a method to upper bound the tail probability of the integer bootstrapped GNSS baseline when the measurement and process noise correlation functions are unknown, but can be upper and lower bounded. The tail probability is shown to be a non-convex function of a vector of conditional variances, whose feasible region is a convex polytope. We show how to solve the non-convex optimization problem globally by discretizing the polytope into small hyper-rectangular elements, and demonstrate the method for a static baseline estimation problem.

  5. Bounding the integer bootstrapped GNSS baseline's tail probability in the presence of stochastic uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, Steven E.; Khanafseh, Samer M.; Pervan, Boris

    2016-11-01

    Differential carrier phase applications that utilize cycle resolution need the probability density function of the baseline estimate to quantify its region of concentration. For the integer bootstrap estimator, the density function has an analytical definition that enables probability calculations given perfect statistical knowledge of measurement and process noise. This paper derives a method to upper bound the tail probability of the integer bootstrapped GNSS baseline when the measurement and process noise correlation functions are unknown, but can be upper and lower bounded. The tail probability is shown to be a non-convex function of a vector of conditional variances, whose feasible region is a convex polytope. We show how to solve the non-convex optimization problem globally by discretizing the polytope into small hyper-rectangular elements, and demonstrate the method for a static baseline estimation problem.

  6. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This final report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is focussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using intense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino experiment, currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design effort for a future Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) in the US. She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that effort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos (νμ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos (νe), using a beam of muon neutrino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K first reported indications of νe appearance, a previously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of νμ disappearance and νe appearance, and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the universe. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This effort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  7. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This is nal report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is fo- cussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using in- tense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino exper- iment [6], currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design e ort for a future Long-Baseline Neu- trino Facility (LBNF) in the US.1 She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that e ort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos ( ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos ( e), using a beam of muon neu- trino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K rst reported indications of e appearance [2], a pre- viously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of disappearance and e appearance [1], and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the uni- verse. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This e ort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  8. Characterization of scatter in digital mammography from use of Monte Carlo simulations and comparison to physical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Stephanie M., E-mail: Stephanie.Leon@uth.tmc.edu; Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Brateman, Libby F. [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the goal of verifying previously published physical measurements characterizing scatter as a function of apparent thickness. A secondary goal was to provide a way of determining what effect tissue glandularity might have on the scatter characteristics of breast tissue. The overall reason for characterizing mammography scatter in this research is the application of these data to an image processing-based scatter-correction program. Methods: MCNPX was used to simulate scatter from an infinitesimal pencil beam using typical mammography geometries and techniques. The spreading of the pencil beam was characterized by two parameters: mean radial extent (MRE) and scatter fraction (SF). The SF and MRE were found as functions of target, filter, tube potential, phantom thickness, and the presence or absence of a grid. The SF was determined by separating scatter and primary by the angle of incidence on the detector, then finding the ratio of the measured scatter to the total number of detected events. The accuracy of the MRE was determined by placing ring-shaped tallies around the impulse and fitting those data to the point-spread function (PSF) equation using the value for MRE derived from the physical measurements. The goodness-of-fit was determined for each data set as a means of assessing the accuracy of the physical MRE data. The effect of breast glandularity on the SF, MRE, and apparent tissue thickness was also considered for a limited number of techniques. Results: The agreement between the physical measurements and the results of the Monte Carlo simulations was assessed. With a grid, the SFs ranged from 0.065 to 0.089, with absolute differences between the measured and simulated SFs averaging 0.02. Without a grid, the range was 0.28–0.51, with absolute differences averaging −0.01. The goodness-of-fit values comparing the Monte Carlo data to the PSF from the physical measurements ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 with a

  9. Water and organic nitrate detection in an AMS. Laboratory characterization and application to ambient measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensah, Amewu A.

    2011-08-12

    Atmospheric aerosols were studied by three different means. Laboratory experiments determined the relative ionization efficiency of water (RIE{sub H2O}) in an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS), simulation chamber experiments gave insight to the reaction products of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) oxidation products, and the findings were applied to two field campaign measurements at Cabauw, NL, in May 2008 and February 2009. Knowing the liquid water content of aerosol particles is vital for the assessment of their climate forcing potential. A value of 2 for RIE{sub H2O} was determined by studying oxalate salts with different amounts of crystal water. BVOCs contribute much more to the global budget of VOCs than anthropogenic ones but oxidation products in terms of secondary organic aerosol often correlate to anthropogenic tracers such as NO{sub x} from fossil fuel burning. In atmospheric simulation chamber experiments, organic nitrates from BVOC-NO{sub 3} oxidation showed higher vapor pressures than pure organic compounds produced in the same reactions. Organic nitrates comprised up to approx. 41 % of the particulate phase. A specific fragmentation ratio of nitrate (NO{sub 2}{sup +}/NO{sup +}) of 0.1 was found by high resolution AMS analysis differing strongly from the value of 0.4 known for the most abundant ambient NO{sub 3} specie (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}). Ambient average particulate mass loadings were 9.72 {mu}g/m{sup 3} dominated by organics (40 %) in 2008 and 5.62 {mu}g/m{sup 3} dominated by nitrate (42 %) in 2009. Data comparison to collocated instruments showed good agreement. Positive Matrix Factorization analysis of the particulate organic fraction distinguished semi and low volatile oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) as well as hydrocarbon like organic aerosol (HOA) in both campaigns. An additional highly oxygenated OA with a mass spectrum very similar to fulvic acid was found in 2008. The average contribution of organic nitrate to the

  10. Structural characterization of H plasma-doped ZnO single crystals by Hall measurements and photoluminescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwand, Wolfgang; Brauer, Gerhard; Cowan, Thomas E. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PO Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Heera, Viton; Schmidt, Heidemarie; Skorupa, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PO Box 510 119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Wenckstern, Holger von; Brandt, Matthias; Benndorf, Gabriele; Grundmann, Marius [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Nominally undoped, hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals have been investigated prior to and after doping in remote H plasma. Characterizations have been made by temperature-dependent Hall effect (TDH) and low temperature photoluminescence measurements. The H content before and after the doping has been determined using nuclear reaction analysis and is compared to the density of shallow donors derived from the TDH measurements. The electrical properties of the as-grown ZnO single crystals are found to differ significantly. This is ascribed to the density ratio of shallow donors and compensating acceptors. PL measurements showed that Al{sub Zn}, Ga{sub Zn}, and interstitial zinc (Zn{sub i}) are prominent shallow donors in the as-grown samples. Remote H plasma treatment produced a metallic conducting near-surface layer thus masking the electrical properties of the bulk. The electrical properties of the investigated samples are very similar after the treatment, independent of the as-grown state, because the density of shallow donors far exceeds that of compensating acceptors in the affected near-surface region. The maximum of the broad near-bandedge emission is found to be located at 3.3595 eV due to the high doping density. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. New Measurements and Calculations to Characterize the Caliban Pulsed Reactor Cavity Neutron Spectrum by the Foil Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, X.; Casoli, P.; Authier, N.; Rousseau, G. [CEA, Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Barsu, C. [Pl. de la fontaine, 25410 Corcelles-Ferrieres (France)

    2011-07-01

    Caliban is a cylindrical metallic core reactor mainly composed of uranium 235. It is operated by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Laboratory located at the French Atomic Energy Commission research center in Valduc. As with other fast burst reactors, Caliban is used extensively for determining the responses of electronic parts or other objects and materials to neutron-induced displacements. Therefore, Caliban's irradiation characteristics, and especially its central cavity neutron spectrum, have to be very accurately evaluated. The foil activation method has been used in the past by the Criticality and Neutron Science Research Laboratory to evaluate the neutron spectrum of the different facilities it operated, and in particular to characterize the Caliban cavity spectrum. In order to strengthen and to improve our knowledge of the Caliban cavity neutron spectrum and to reduce the uncertainties associated with the available evaluations, new measurements have been performed on the reactor and interpreted by the foil activation method. A sensor set has been selected to sample adequately the studied spectrum. Experimental measured reaction rates have been compared to the results from UMG spectrum unfolding software and to values obtained with the activation code Fispact. Experimental and simulation results are overall in good agreement, although gaps exist for some sensors. UMG software has also been used to rebuild the Caliban cavity neutron spectrum from activation measurements. For this purpose, a default spectrum is needed, and one has been calculated with the Monte-Carlo transport code Tripoli 4 using the benchmarked Caliban description. (authors)

  12. Characterization of large area ZnS(Ag) detector for gross alpha and beta activity measurements in tap water plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunardon, M.; Cester, D.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Schotanus, P.; Bodewits, E. [SCIONIX Holland BV, (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    In this work we present the characterization of a large area 200 x 200 mm{sup 2} EJ-444 scintillation detector to be used for monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in tap water plants. Specific tests were performed to determine the best setup to readout the light from the detector side in order to have the possibility to stack many detectors and get a compact device with total active area of the order of 1 m{sup 2}. Alpha/Beta discrimination, efficiency and homogeneity tests were carried out with alpha and beta sources. Background from ambient radioactivity was measured as well. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in drinking water is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  13. MM99.50 - Surface Topography Characterization Using an Atomic Force Microscope Mounted on a Coordinate Measuring Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiffre, Leonardo De; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kofod, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the construction, testing and use of an integrated system for topographic characterization of fine surfaces on parts having relatively big dimensions. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was mounted on a manual three-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) achieving free positioning o...... areas traced in single scans of 40 mu m x 40 mu m. The results show that surface mapping on industrial surfaces is possible using the Least Mean Square alignment provided by the AFM software....... values in the order of 1 nm. The positioning repeatability of the two horizontal axes of the CMM was determined to +/-1 mu m. Sets of four 20 mu m x 20 mu m areas were traced on fiat objects, combining the data into single 40 mu m x 40 mu m areas, and comparing the roughness values to those for the same...

  14. Design and characterization of a 32-channel heterodyne radiometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, X.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y., E-mail: liuyong@ipp.ac.cn; Li, E. Z.; Hu, L. Q.; Gao, X. [Institution of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    A 32-channel heterodyne radiometer has been developed for the measurement of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). This system collects X-mode ECE radiation spanning a frequency range of 104–168 GHz, where the frequency coverage corresponds to a full radial coverage for the case with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.3 T. The frequency range is equally spaced every 2 GHz from 105.1 to 167.1 GHz with an RF bandwidth of ∼500 MHz and the video bandwidth can be switched among 50, 100, 200, and 400 kHz. Design objectives and characterization of the system are presented in this paper. Preliminary results for plasma operation are also presented.

  15. In situ thermal characterization of cooling/crystallizing lavas during rheology measurements and implications for lava flow emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Giordano, D.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Transport properties of natural silicate melts at super-liquidus temperatures are reasonably well understood. However, migration and transport of silicate melts in the Earth's crust and at its surface generally occur at sub-liquidus temperatures and in settings where the melts undergo crystallization under various cooling and/or decompression conditions. In such dynamic situations the occurrence of processes such as the release of latent heat during phase changes, viscous heating, thermal advection and -inertia, and changing heat capacity, all represent potential influences on the state, and thereby on the physico-chemical behavior of the system. To date, rheological data at sub-liquidus temperatures are scarce and cooling-rate dependent, disequilibrium rheological data are virtually absent. In fact, no in situ thermal characterization of liquid or multiphase mixtures during rheological experiments, under either static or dynamic thermal conditions has been presented to date. Here we describe a new experimental setup for in situ thermal characterization of cooling/crystallizing lavas during viscosity measurement at temperatures up to 1600 °C. We use this device to recover in situ, real-time, observations of the combined rheological and thermal evolution of natural, re-melted lava samples during the transient disequilibrium conditions characteristic of lava flows and shallow crustal magma migration and storage systems in nature. We present the calibration procedure and the method employed to recover the thermal evolution of an experimental sample during flow in varying shear regimes, assess the experimental uncertainty and show the ability of the apparatus to measure the release of latent heat of crystallization during transient rheological experiments. We further report the results from a first experimental study on the rheological and thermal evolution of a basaltic lava undergoing continuous cooling at a series of different cooling rates and discuss the

  16. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure.

  17. A Survey of Astronomical Research: An Astronomy for Development Baseline

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, V A R M; Cardenas-Avendano, A

    2013-01-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed research research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a Gross National Income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in `astronomy development' with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop astronomy it should invest in outside expert visits, send their staff abroad to study and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  18. A Survey of Astronomical Research: A Baseline for Astronomical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Russo, P.; Cárdenas-Avendaño, A.

    2013-12-01

    Measuring scientific development is a difficult task. Different metrics have been put forward to evaluate scientific development; in this paper we explore a metric that uses the number of peer-reviewed, and when available non-peer-reviewed, research articles as an indicator of development in the field of astronomy. We analyzed the available publication record, using the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/NASA Astrophysics Database System, by country affiliation in the time span between 1950 and 2011 for countries with a gross national income of less than 14,365 USD in 2010. This represents 149 countries. We propose that this metric identifies countries in "astronomical development" with a culture of research publishing. We also propose that for a country to develop in astronomy, it should invest in outside expert visits, send its staff abroad to study, and establish a culture of scientific publishing. Furthermore, we propose that this paper may be used as a baseline to measure the success of major international projects, such as the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

  19. Combined heart rate variability and dynamic measures for quantitatively characterizing the cardiac stress status during cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Chang, Ya-Ju; Chuang, Li-Ling; Chien, Chun-Tse

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to seek for different ways of measuring cardiac stress in terms of heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) dynamics, and to develop a novel index that can effectively summarize the information reflected by these measures to continuously and quantitatively characterize the cardiac stress status during physical exercise. Standard deviation, spectral measure of HRV as well as a nonlinear detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) based fractal-like behavior measure of HR dynamics were all evaluated on the RR time series derived from windowed electrocardiogram (ECG) data for the subjects undergoing cycling exercise. We recruited eleven young healthy subjects in our tests. Each subject was asked to maintain a fixed speed under a constant load during the pedaling test. We obtained the running estimates of the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN), the high-fidelity power spectral density (PSD) of HRV, and the DFA scaling exponent α, respectively. A trend analysis and a multivariate linear regression analysis of these measures were then performed. Numerical experimental results produced by our analyses showed that a decrease in both SDNN and α was seen during the cycling exercise, while there was no significant correlation between the standard lower frequency to higher frequency (LF-to-HF) spectral power ratio of HRV and the exercise intensity. In addition, while the SDNN and α were both negatively correlated with the Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale value, it seemed that the LF-to-HF power ratio might not have substantial impact on the Borg value, suggesting that the SDNN and α may be further used as features to detect the cardiac stress status during the physical exercise. We further approached this detection problem by applying a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to both feature candidates for the task of cardiac stress stratification. As a result, a time-varying parameter, referred to as the cardiac

  20. Advanced fiber information systems seed coat neps baseline response from diverse mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive literature search has revealed that no papers have been published regarding selectivity calculation of the AFIS seed coat neps (SCN) determination over interfering material in cotton. A prerequisite to selectivity measurements is to identify suitable fiber medium(s) that give baseline ...

  1. Undifferenced and single differenced GNSS noise analysis through a constrained baseline vector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, P.J.; Imparato, D.

    2014-01-01

    GNSS noise characteristics can be obtained by short and zero baseline analysis, for both pseudorange and carrier phase measurements. Differencing observations from a GNSS satellite tracked by two GNSS receivers (connected to the same or different antennas) will explicitly eliminate common errors. I

  2. Using Baseline Studies in the Investigation of Test Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horak, Tania

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of "baseline studies" in investigations of test impact and to illustrate the type of thinking underlying the design and implementation of such studies by reference to a recent study relating to a high-stakes test of English language proficiency. Baseline studies are used to describe an educational…

  3. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline points are used by the BOEM to...

  4. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALMA Partnership, [Unknown; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cox, P.; Amestica, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cotton, W.; Hales, A. S.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kern, J.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Marcelino, N.; Marson, R.; Mignano, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Nikolic, B.; Perez, J. E.; Pérez, L. M.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Butler, B.; Cortes, J.; Cortes, P.; Dhawan, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Mangum, J.; Marconi, G.; Nagai, H.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Gueth, F.; Tatematsu, K.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Karim, A.; Krips, M.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Martin, S.; Maud, L.; Morales, F.; Pietu, V.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Whyborn, N.; Alves, F.; Andreani, P.; Avison, A.; Barta, M.; Bedosti, F.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Bethermin, M.; Biggs, A.; Boissier, J.; Brand, J.; Burkutean, S.; Casasola, V.; Conway, J.; Cortese, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Davis, T. A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Fontani, F.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Fuller, G.; Galvan Madrid, R.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Graves, S. F.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hogerheijde, M.; Jachym, P.; Jimenez Serra, I.; Karlicky, M.; Klaasen, P.; Kraus, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lagos, C.; Longmore, S.; Leurini, S.; Maercker, M.; Magnelli, B.; Marti Vidal, I.; Massardi, M.; Maury, A.; Muehle, S.; Muller, S.; Muxlow, T.; O’Gorman, E.; Paladino, R.; Petry, D.; Pineda, J.; Randall, S.; Richer, J. S.; Rossetti, A.; Rushton, A.; Rygl, K.; Sanchez Monge, A.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Stanke, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Stoehr, F.; Urban, S.; van Kampen, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wang, K.; Wild, W.; Yang, Y.; Iguchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Saito, M.; Inatani, J.; Mizuno, N.; Asayama, S.; Kosugi, G.; Morita, K.-I.; Chiba, K.; Kawashima, S.; Okumura, S. K.; Ohashi, N.; Ogasawara, R.; Sakamoto, S.; Noguchi, T.; Huang, Y.-D.; Liu, S.-Y.; Kemper, F.; Koch, P. M.; Chen, M.-T.; Chikada, Y.; Hiramatsu, M.; Iono, D.; Shimojo, M.; Komugi, S.; Kim, J.; Lyo, A.-R.; Muller, E.; Herrera, C.; Miura, R. E.; Ueda, J.; Chibueze, J.; Su, Y.-N.; Trejo-Cruz, A.; Wang, K.-S.; Kiuchi, H.; Ukita, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Kawabe, R.; Hayashi, M.; Miyama, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kaifu, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Beasley, A. J.; Bhatnagar, S.; Braatz, J. A., III; Brisbin, D. G.; Brunetti, N.; Carilli, C.; Crossley, J. H.; D’Addario, L.; Donovan Meyer, J. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Evans, A. S.; Fisher, P.; Golap, K.; Griffith, D. M.; Hale, A. E.; Halstead, D.; Hardy, E. J.; Hatz, M. C.; Holdaway, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Jewell, P. R.; Kepley, A. A.; Kim, D.-C.; Lacy, M. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Liszt, H. S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Matthews, B.; McKinnon, M.; Mason, B. S.; Moellenbrock, G.; Moullet, A.; Myers, S. T.; Ott, J.; Peck, A. B.; Pisano, J.; Radford, S. J. E.; Randolph, W. T.; Rao Venkata, U.; Rawlings, M. G.; Rosen, R.; Schnee, S. L.; Scott, K. S.; Sharp, N. K.; Sheth, K.; Simon, R. S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried

  5. Adapting the M3 Surveillance Metrics for an Unknown Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Michael Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Abes, Jeff I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jaramillo, Brandon Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The original M3 surveillance metrics assume that the baseline is known. In this article, adapted M3 metrics are presented when the baseline is not known and estimated by available data. Deciding on how much available data is enough is also discussed.

  6. 77 FR 26535 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 26, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions...

  7. 77 FR 31841 - Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hope Gas, Inc.; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on May 16, 2012, Hope Gas, Inc. (Hope Gas) submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of...

  8. Variability analyses, site characterization, and regional [OH] estimates using trace gas measurements from the NOAA Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pollmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trace gas measurements from whole air samples collected weekly into glass flasks at background monitoring sites within the NOAA Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network program (with most of the sites also being World Meteorological Organization (WMO Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW stations were used to investigate the variability-lifetime relationship for site characterization and to estimate regional and seasonal OH concentrations. Chemical species considered include the atmospheric trace gases CO, H2, and CH4, as well as the non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC ethane (C2H6, propane (C3H8, i-butane (i-C4H10, and n-butane (n-C4H10. The correlation between atmospheric variability and lifetime was applied on a global scale spanning 42 sites with observations covering a period of 5 years. More than 50,000 individual flask measurement results were included in this analysis, making this the most extensive study of the variability-lifetime relationship to date. Regression variables calculated from the variability-lifetime relationship were used to assess the “remoteness” of sampling sites and to estimate the effect of local pollution on the measured distribution of atmospheric trace gases. It was found that this relationship yields reasonable results for description of the site remoteness and local pollution influences. Comparisons of seasonal calculated OH concentrations ([OH] from the variability-lifetime relationships with six direct station measurements yielded variable agreement, with deviations ranging from ∼20% to a factor of ∼2–3 for locations where [OH] monitoring results had been reported. [OH] calculated from the variability-lifetime relationships was also compared to outputs from a global atmospheric model. Resutls were highly variable, with approximately half of the sites yielding agreement to within a factor of 2–3, while others showed deviations of up to an order of magnitude, especially during winter.

  9. Pore space characterization in carbonate rocks - Approach to combine nuclear magnetic resonance and elastic wave velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Huber, Edith; Schön, Jürgen; Börner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Pore space features influence petrophysical parameters such as porosity, permeability, elastic wave velocity or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Therefore they are essential to describe the spatial distribution of petrophysical parameters in the subsurface, which is crucial for efficient reservoir characterization especially in carbonate rocks. While elastic wave velocity measurements respond to the properties of the solid rock matrix including pores or fractures, NMR measurements are sensitive to the distribution of pore-filling fluids controlled by rock properties such as the pore-surface-to-pore-volume ratio. Therefore a combination of both measurement principles helps to investigate carbonate pore space using complementary information. In this study, a workflow is presented that delivers a representative average semi-axis length of ellipsoidal pores in carbonate rocks based on the pore aspect ratio received from velocity interpretation and the pore-surface-to-pore-volume ratio Spor as input parameters combined with theoretical calculations for ellipsoidal inclusions. A novel method to calculate Spor from NMR data based on the ratio of capillary-bound to movable fluids and the thickness of the capillary-bound water film is used. To test the workflow, a comprehensive petrophysical database was compiled using micritic and oomoldic Lower Muschelkalk carbonates from Germany. The experimental data indicate that both mud-dominated and grain-dominated carbonates possess distinct ranges of petrophysical parameters. The agreement between the predicted and measured surface-to-volume ratio is satisfying for oomoldic and most micritic samples, while pyrite or significant sample heterogeneity may lead to deviations. Selected photo-micrographs and scanning electron microscope images support the validity of the estimated representative pore dimensions.

  10. Characterization of downwelling radiance measured from a ground-based microwave radiometer using numerical weather prediction model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, M.-H.; Won, H. Y.; Han, D.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ha, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    The ground-based microwave sounding radiometers installed at nine weather stations of Korea Meteorological Administration alongside with the wind profilers have been operating for more than 4 years. Here we apply a process to assess the characteristics of the observation data by comparing the measured brightness temperature (Tb) with reference data. For the current study, the reference data are prepared by the radiative transfer simulation with the temperature and humidity profiles from the numerical weather prediction model instead of the conventional radiosonde data. Based on the 3 years of data, from 2010 to 2012, we were able to characterize the effects of the absolute calibration on the quality of the measured Tb. We also showed that when clouds are present the comparison with the model has a high variability due to presence of cloud liquid water therefore making cloudy data not suitable for assessment of the radiometer's performance. Finally we showed that differences between modeled and measured brightness temperatures are unlikely due to a shift in the selection of the center frequency but more likely due to spectroscopy issues in the wings of the 60 GHz absorption band. With a proper consideration of data affected by these two effects, it is shown that there is an excellent agreement between the measured and simulated Tb. The regression coefficients are better than 0.97 along with the bias value of better than 1.0 K except for the 52.28 GHz channel which shows a rather large bias and variability of -2.6 and 1.8 K, respectively.

  11. Characterization of turbidity in Florida's Lake Okeechobee and Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries using MODIS-Aqua measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Menghua; Nim, Carl J; Son, Seunghyun; Shi, Wei

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes the use of ocean color remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to characterize turbidity in Lake Okeechobee and its primary drainage basins, the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries from 2002 to 2010. Drainage modification and agricultural development in southern Florida transport sediments and nutrients from watershed agricultural areas to Lake Okeechobee. As a result of development around Lake Okeechobee and the estuaries that are connected to Lake Okeechobee, estuarine conditions have also been adversely impacted, resulting in salinity and nutrient fluctuations. The measurement of water turbidity in lacustrine and estuarine ecosystems allows researchers to understand important factors such as light limitation and the potential release of nutrients from re-suspended sediments. Based on a strong correlation between water turbidity and normalized water-leaving radiance at the near-infrared (NIR) band (nL(w)(869)), a new satellite water turbidity algorithm has been developed for Lake Okeechobee. This study has shown important applications with satellite-measured nL(w)(869) data for water quality monitoring and measurements for turbid inland lakes. MODIS-Aqua-measured water property data are derived using the shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithm in order to remotely obtain synoptic turbidity data in Lake Okeechobee and normalized water-leaving radiance using the red band (nL(w)(645)) in the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries. We found varied, but distinct seasonal, spatial, and event driven turbidity trends in Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuary regions. Wind waves and hurricanes have the largest influence on turbidity trends in Lake Okeechobee, while tides, currents, wind waves, and hurricanes influence the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuarine areas.

  12. Measurement and characterization of a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) at a wildlife park conservation center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Susan M.

    Many animals, including the myopic rhinoceros, depend on hearing and smell for navigation and to interpret their environment. For them, the "soundscape" and "scentscape" are equivalent to our landscape. Noise damages humans physiologically, including reproductively, and likely damages other mammals. Rhinos vocalize sonically and infrasonically but audiograms are unavailable. Infrasonic noise tends to be chronic in urban areas, which frequently surround city zoos. Rhinos' biological and social management have been studied but little attention, if any, has been paid to their soundscapes. This project develops a standard by which such soundscapes may be measured, documented, and compared, so that once a wide range of rhino facilities have been similarly investigated, correlations could be sought between their sound metrics and the health and well-being of their animals. The interests of geographers overlap many disciplines, but the questions raised by, and the approaches of geographers frequently differ from those addressed by the original specialists, so a broader understanding of the soundscape and ways to record it may well add value to acoustic studies while simultaneously deepening geographic knowledge. This research asks: How can a soundscape of captive southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) be comprehensively measured and characterized? What does doing so inform about their environment of captivity? How can this method be employed to understand the contrasts of the soundscapes of captivity and natural habitats? To begin to answer these questions, the following goals are addressed: 1. To develop a series of procedures to comprehensively record, measure, analyze, and characterize a broadband white rhino soundscape; 2. To note their vocalizations, and to roughly estimate the bandwidth used by these particular animals; 3. By demonstrating that techniques and language not normally used in the discipline of Geography could broaden its scope and expand

  13. 多基线数字近景摄影测量在街道立面测量中的应用探讨%Discussion on Application of Multi-Baseline Digital Close-Range Photogrammetry System in Street Facade Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡开全; 沈高钰

    2012-01-01

    阐述了采用多基线数字近景摄影测量进行街道立面测量的作业流程和作业方法以及成果数据的编辑和减少外业工作量的检查验收方式。同时,对无法进行多基线摄影的特殊情况,采用外业碎部测量进行辅助测量的作业方式、方法进行了介绍。利用多基线数字近景摄影测量进行街道立面测量,将大量外业工作移到室内,可有效减少外业工作量。%This paper interprets street Facade survey procedure and method using the multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry.The production data editing and inspection with reduced fieldwork are also interpreted.Meanwhile,special instance that couldn't take multi-baseline photographs and method of supplemented survey using fieldwork detail survey are introduced.For much fieldwork are finished indoor,it's available for street facade survey to reduce fieldwork by using multi-baseline digital close-range photogrammetry.

  14. Geophysical and physical measurements applied to characterize an area prone to quick clay landslides in SW Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Romero, Silvia; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Lougheed, Bryan C.; Hellqvist, Magnus

    2014-05-01

    The study of quick clay landslides in Nordic countries, such as Sweden and Norway, is wide and varied. However, the occurrence of catastrophes like those in Munkedal, Sweden, in 2006, demands a more complete characterization of these materials and their extensiveness. The objectives of this research are mainly focused on obtaining information about the properties and behavior of quick clays in an area prone to landslides in southwestern Sweden. Two fieldwork campaigns were carried out in 2011 and 2013, using methods such as 2D and 3D P-wave and S-wave seismic, geoelectrics, controlled-source and radio-magnetotellurics, ground gravity, as well as downhole geophysics (measuring fluid temperature and conductivity, gamma radiation, sonic velocity and resistivity) performed in three boreholes located in the study area. Drill cores recovered using the SONIC technique provided samples for paleontological information, as well as laboratory measurements of physical properties of the subsurface materials to a maximum subsurface depth of about 60 m. The laboratory measurements included grain size analysis, mineral magnetic properties, electric conductivity, pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a reconnaissance study of the fossil content. A correlation study of the downhole geophysical measurements, 2D seismic sections located at the intersection with the boreholes and the sample observations indicated that the presence of quick clays is associated with contacts with coarse-grained materials. Although the PVC casing of the boreholes interferes with the sonic and resistivity measurements, the perforated parts of the PVC casing show significant changes. The most important variations in magnetic susceptibility and conductivity mostly coincide with these coarse-grained layers, supporting the seismic data. Coarse-grained layers are characterized by enhanced magnetic susceptibility and conductivity. Grain size analysis results on subsamples from the

  15. An Analysis Method for Superconducting Resonator Parameter Extraction with Complex Baseline Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A new semi-empirical model is proposed for extracting the quality (Q) factors of arrays of superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The determination of the total internal and coupling Q factors enables the computation of the loss in the superconducting transmission lines. The method used allows the simultaneous analysis of multiple interacting discrete resonators with the presence of a complex spectral baseline arising from reflections in the system. The baseline removal allows an unbiased estimate of the device response as measured in a cryogenic instrumentation setting.

  16. Size characterization of airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with on-line and off-line measurement techniques: an interlaboratory comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motzkus, C., E-mail: charles.motzkus@lne.fr; Mace, T.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Ducourtieux, S.; Delvallee, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE) (France); Dirscherl, K. [Danish Fundamental Metrology (DFM) (Denmark); Hodoroaba, V.-D. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Popov, I. [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Unit for Nanocharacterization (Israel); Popov, O.; Kuselman, I. [National Physical Laboratory of Israel (INPL) (Israel); Takahata, K.; Ehara, K. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) (Japan); Ausset, P.; Maille, M. [Universite Paris-Est Creteil et Universite Paris-Diderot, Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), UMR CNRS 7583 (France); Michielsen, N.; Bondiguel, S.; Gensdarmes, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SCA, LPMA (France); Morawska, L.; Johnson, G. R.; Faghihi, E. M. [Queensland University of Technology (QUT), International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health (ILAQH) (Australia); and others

    2013-10-15

    Results of an interlaboratory comparison on size characterization of SiO{sub 2} airborne nanoparticles using on-line and off-line measurement techniques are discussed. This study was performed in the framework of Technical Working Area (TWA) 34-'Properties of Nanoparticle Populations' of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) in the project no. 3 'Techniques for characterizing size distribution of airborne nanoparticles'. Two types of nano-aerosols, consisting of (1) one population of nanoparticles with a mean diameter between 30.3 and 39.0 nm and (2) two populations of non-agglomerated nanoparticles with mean diameters between, respectively, 36.2-46.6 nm and 80.2-89.8 nm, were generated for characterization measurements. Scanning mobility particle size spectrometers (SMPS) were used for on-line measurements of size distributions of the produced nano-aerosols. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used as off-line measurement techniques for nanoparticles characterization. Samples were deposited on appropriate supports such as grids, filters, and mica plates by electrostatic precipitation and a filtration technique using SMPS controlled generation upstream. The results of the main size distribution parameters (mean and mode diameters), obtained from several laboratories, were compared based on metrological approaches including metrological traceability, calibration, and evaluation of the measurement uncertainty. Internationally harmonized measurement procedures for airborne SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles characterization are proposed.

  17. GLoBES: General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim; Lindner, Manfred; Rolinec, Mark; Winter, Walter

    2007-09-01

    and the slow solar oscillations, which are driven by the respective mass squared differences. In addition, there could be interference effects between these two oscillations, provided that the coupling given by the small mixing angle θ is large enough. Such interference effects include, for example, leptonic CP violation. In order to test the unknown oscillation parameters, i.e. the mixing angle θ, the leptonic CP phase, and the neutrino mass hierarchy, new long-baseline and reactor experiments are proposed. These experiments send an artificial neutrino beam to a detector, or detect the neutrinos produced by a nuclear fission reactor. However, the presence of multiple solutions which are intrinsic to neutrino oscillation probabilities [2-5] affect these measurements. Thus optimization strategies are required which maximally exploit complementarity between experiments. Therefore, a modern, complete experiment simulation and analysis tool does not only need to have a highly accurate beam and detector simulation, but also powerful means to analyze correlations and degeneracies, especially for the combination of several experiments. The GLoBES software package is such a tool [6,7]. Solution method: GLoBES is a flexible software tool to simulate and analyze neutrino oscillation long-baseline and reactor experiments using a complete three-flavor description. On the one hand, it contains a comprehensive abstract experiment definition language (AEDL), which makes it possible to describe most classes of long baseline and reactor experiments at an abstract level. On the other hand, it provides a C-library to process the experiment information in order to obtain oscillation probabilities, rate vectors, and Δχ-values. In addition, it provides a binary program to test experiment definitions very quickly, before they are used by the application software. Restrictions: Currently restricted to discrete sets of sources and detectors. For example, the simulation of an atmospheric

  18. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS OF SCATTER DOSE AT CARDIOLOGIST'S EYES DURING PAEDIATRIC INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY PROCEDURES IN COSTA RICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Carlos; Salazar, Luisa; Retana, Viviana; Santos, Freddy; Salvador, Lourdes; Sáenz, Carlos; Quesada, Cristhian; Gavarrete, Manuel; Picado, Marcela; Arce, Luis

    2017-03-21

    This paper presents the results of the first characterization and experimental measurements of scatter dose at cardiologist's eyes for the only X-ray system that performs all paediatric Interventional cardiology procedures in Costa Rica. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and the scatter dose values were measured on phantoms of 4-20 cm thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate slabs. Image quality was evaluated using DICOM images of a test object Leeds TOR 18-FG, through the numerical parameters signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), high-contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) and figure of merit (FOM). When PMMA thickness is increased and during a move from low fluoroscopy to cine modes, ESAK, SNR, HCSR and FOM values range from 0.44 to 391.0 μGy fr-1; 2.8 to 14.89; 3.17 to 15.54 and 0.51 to 79.94, respectively. The highest scattered dose rates recorded during the simulations were 1.79 and 8.04 mSv h-1 for the high fluoroscopy and cine modes, respectively.

  20. Characterization of uranium bearing material using x-ray fluorescence and direct gamma-rays measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujaini, M., E-mail: madihah@uniten.edu.my; Chankow, N. [Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University Phyathai Rd., Wang Mai, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Yusoff, M. Z.; Hamid, N. A. [College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Uranium ore can be easily detected due to various gamma-ray energies emitted from uranium daughters particularly from {sup 238}U daughters such as {sup 214}Bi, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 226}Ra. After uranium is extracted from uranium ore, only low energy gamma-rays emitted from {sup 235}U may be detected if the detector is placed in close contact to the specimen. In this research, identification and characterization of uranium bearing materials is experimentally investigated using direct measurement of gamma-rays from {sup 235}U in combination with the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. Measurement of gamma-rays can be conducted by using high purity germanium (HPGe) detector or cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector while a {sup 57}Coradioisotope-excited XRF spectrometer using CdTe detector is used for elemental analysis. The proposed technique was tested with various uranium bearing specimens containing natural, depleted and enriched uranium in both metallic and powder forms.