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Sample records for baseline biological studies

  1. 1994 Baseline biological studies for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E. [ed.; Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes environmental work performed at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) in 1994 by the Basic Environmental Monitoring and Compliance Program (BECAMP). The DAF is located near the Mojave-Great Basin desert transition zone 27 km north of Mercury. The area immediately around the DAF building complex is a gentle slope cut by 1 to 3 m deep arroyos, and occupied by transitional vegetation. In 1994, construction activities were largely limited to work inside the perimeter fence. The DAF was still in a preoperational mode in 1994, and no nuclear materials were present. The DAF facilities were being occupied so there was water in the sewage settling pond, and the roads and lights were in use. Sampling activities in 1994 represent the first year in the proposed monitoring scheme. The proposed biological monitoring plan gives detailed experimental protocols. Plant, lizard, tortoise, small mammal, and bird surveys were performed in 1994. The authors briefly outline procedures employed in 1994. Studies performed on each taxon are reviewed separately then summarized in a concluding section.

  2. Biological Data for Biological Baseline Studies of Mobile Bay: Benthic Fauna 1980-1981 (NODC Accession 0116100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in late 1979, the Alabama Coastal Area Board (CAB) funded a series of baseline surveys on the coastal resources of Alabama, from which they could develop a...

  3. The 1993 baseline biological studies and proposed monitoring plan for the Device Assembly Facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, B.D.; Hunter, R.B.; Greger, P.D.; Saethre, M.B.

    1995-02-01

    This report contains baseline data and recommendations for future monitoring of plants and animals near the new Device Assembly Facility (DAF) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The facility is a large structure designed for safely assembling nuclear weapons. Baseline data was collected in 1993, prior to the scheduled beginning of DAF operations in early 1995. Studies were not performed prior to construction and part of the task of monitoring operational effects will be to distinguish those effects from the extensive disturbance effects resulting from construction. Baseline information on species abundances and distributions was collected on ephemeral and perennial plants, mammals, reptiles, and birds in the desert ecosystems within three kilometers (km) of the DAF. Particular attention was paid to effects of selected disturbances, such as the paved road, sewage pond, and the flood-control dike, associated with the facility. Radiological monitoring of areas surrounding the DAF is not included in this report.

  4. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  5. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  6. Baseline requirements for assessment of mining impact using biological monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, C.L.; Dostine, P.L. [Office of the Supervising Scientist, Jabiru, NT (Australia). Alligator Rivers Region Research Institute; Faith, D.P. [CSIRO, Div. of Wildlife and Ecology, Lyneham, ACT (Australia)

    1995-03-01

    Biological monitoring programmes for environmental protection should provide for both early detection of possible adverse effects, and assessment of the ecological significance of these effects. Monitoring techniques are required that include responses sensitive to the impact, that can be subjected to rigorous statistical analysis and for which statistical power is high. Such issues in baseline research of `what and how to measure?` and `for how long?` have been the focus of a programme being developed to monitor and assess effects of mining operations on the essentially pristine, freshwater ecosystems of the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) in tropical northern Australia. Application of the BACIP (Before, After, Control, Impact, Paired differences) design, utilizing a form of temporal replication, to univariate (single species) and multivariate (community) data is described. The BACIP design incorporates data from single control and impact sites. We argue for modification of the design for particular studies conducted in streams, to incorporate additional independent control sites from adjacent catchment. Inferential power, by way of (i) more confidently attributing cause to an observed change and (ii) providing information about the ecological significance of the change, will be enhanced using a modified BACIP design. In highly valued environments such as the ARR, monitoring programmes require application of statistical tests with high power to guarantee that an impact no greater than a prescribed amount has gone undetected. A minimum number of baseline years using the BACIP approach would therefore be required in order to achieve some desired level of statistical power. This paper describes the results of power analyses conducted on 2-5 years (depending upon the technique) of baseline data from streams of the ARR and discuss the implications of these results for management. 44 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Hydrogeology baseline study Aurora Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A baseline hydrogeologic study was conducted in the area of Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine in order to develop a conceptual regional hydrogeologic model for the area that could be used to understand groundwater flow conditions. Geologic information was obtained from over 2,000 coreholes and from data obtained between 1980 and 1996 regarding water level for the basal aquifer. A 3-D numerical groundwater flow model was developed to provide quantitative estimates of the potential environmental impacts of the proposed mining operations on the groundwater flow system. The information was presented in the context of a regional study area which encompassed much of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, and a local study area which was defined by the lowlands of the Muskeg River Basin. Characteristics of the topography, hydrology, climate, geology, and hydrogeology of the region are described. The conclusion is that groundwater flow in the aquifer occurs mostly in a westerly direction beneath the Aurora Mine towards its inferred discharge location along the Athabasca River. Baseflow in the Muskeg River is mostly related to discharge from shallow surficial aquifers. Water in the river under baseflow conditions was fresh, of calcium-carbonate type, with very little indication of mineralization associated with deeper groundwater in the Aurora Mine area. 44 refs., 5 tabs., 31 figs

  8. Geological, biological, and chemical data for Benthic Sediment Baseline Study of Mobile Bay from 3 Apr 1980 to 26 Aug 1981 (NODC Accession 0117430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Beginning in late 1979, the Alabama Coastal Area Board (CAB) funded a series of baseline surveys on the coastal resources of Alabama, from which they could...

  9. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS: results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lane

    Full Text Available The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%-35.3% in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%-19.6% in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%-72.9% vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%-23.9%, P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%-56.0% vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%-13.9%, P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%-47.9%, P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%-64.2%, P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%-46.4%, P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%-50.9%, P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%-74.0% in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%-76.8% in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%-41.4% in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%-37.8% in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni, or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively, or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively. MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use, regular HIV testing, and

  10. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  11. Geochemical baseline studies of soil in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni

    2017-04-01

    The soil element concentrations regionally vary a lot in Finland. Mostly this is caused by the different bedrock types, which are reflected in the soil qualities. Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) is carrying out geochemical baseline studies in Finland. In the previous phase, the research is focusing on urban areas and mine environments. The information can, for example, be used to determine the need for soil remediation, to assess environmental impacts or to measure the natural state of soil in industrial areas or mine districts. The field work is done by taking soil samples, typically at depth between 0-10 cm. Sampling sites are chosen to represent the most vulnerable areas when thinking of human impacts by possible toxic soil element contents: playgrounds, day-care centers, schools, parks and residential areas. In the mine districts the samples are taken from the areas locating outside the airborne dust effected areas. Element contents of the soil samples are then analyzed with ICP-AES and ICP-MS, Hg with CV-AAS. The results of the geochemical baseline studies are published in the Finnish national geochemical baseline database (TAPIR). The geochemical baseline map service is free for all users via internet browser. Through this map service it is possible to calculate regional soil baseline values using geochemical data stored in the map service database. Baseline data for 17 elements in total is provided in the map service and it can be viewed on the GTK's web pages (http://gtkdata.gtk.fi/Tapir/indexEN.html).

  12. Base-line studies for DAE establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy has establishments located in various regions of the country and they include front-end fuel cycle facilities, nuclear power stations, back-end fuel cycle facilities and facilities for research and societal applications. These facilities handle naturally occurring radionuclides such as uranium, thorium and a variety of man-made radionuclides. These radionuclides are handled with utmost care so that they do not affect adversely the occupational workers or the members of public residing nearby. There is safety culture of the highest standard existing in all DAE establishments and it matches with the international standards. In addition, there is a perpetual environmental monitoring program carried out by the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) located at all DAE establishments. The environmental data generated by such program is studied regularly by experts to ensure compliance with the regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements in the country are of international standards and ensure adequate protection of workers and members of public. In addition to such continued monitoring program and studies being carried out for the ongoing projects, base-line studies are carried out for all the new projects of the DAE. The purpose of the base-line studies is to establish a detailed base-line data set for a new DAE location well before the foundation stone is laid, so that the data collected when there is no departmental activity can be compared with the data generated later by the ESL. The data so generated is site specific and it varies from place to place depending upon the location of the site, e.g., inland or coastal, the presence of water bodies and pattern of irrigation, the geological characteristics of the location, the local culture and habits of the people, population density and urban or rural background. The data to be recorded as base-line data is generated over a period of at least one year covering all the seasons

  13. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  14. Aurora Mine project - historical resources baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, B.

    1996-01-01

    This volume contains the results of a base line archaeological study of the Aurora Mine Project local study area. It was compiled in support of Syncrude Canada's application to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection to construct and operate it new Aurora Mine, located northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta. The objective of this study was to compile, consolidate, review and analyze the reports for the area compiled over the past 22 years in and adjacent to the local study area (LSA), particularly those of now existing and Syncrude projects, and previously proposed Alsands and OSLO projects. The report is a summary of the human history in the area including pre-contact native archaeological sites, past archaeological studies, the Hinterland site pattern, post-contact native traditional sites, oil sands exploration/development related sites and paleontological sites in the subject area, and areas adjacent to it. 150 refs., 5 tabs., 43 figs

  15. Baseline study of US industry solar exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobius, T M; Levi, R S; Bereny, J A

    1980-10-01

    This study is a detailed aggregate profile of US solar export activity in 1979 based on a survey of all segments of the solar industry. It identifies the dollar volume of exports by technology: (1) solar heating and cooling products; (2) wind products; (3) photovoltaics; (4) solar thermal electric; (5) OTEC and biomass; and (6) support products and services. The study offers to government and industry groups, for the first time, comprehensive information with which to formulate export goals and assistance measures based on the current realities of the solar export marketplace. Specific and aggregate recommendations which can lead to identification of realistic solar export opportunities and development of solar export markets are included.

  16. Exposure pathways and biological receptors: baseline data for the canyon uranium mine, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Darrah, Abigail J.; Drost, Charles A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Nowak, Erika M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; van Riper, Charles; Wolff, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent restrictions on uranium mining within the Grand Canyon watershed have drawn attention to scientific data gaps in evaluating the possible effects of ore extraction to human populations as well as wildlife communities in the area. Tissue contaminant concentrations, one of the most basic data requirements to determine exposure, are not available for biota from any historical or active uranium mines in the region. The Canyon Uranium Mine is under development, providing a unique opportunity to characterize concentrations of uranium and other trace elements, as well as radiation levels in biota, found in the vicinity of the mine before ore extraction begins. Our study objectives were to identify contaminants of potential concern and critical contaminant exposure pathways for ecological receptors; conduct biological surveys to understand the local food web and refine the list of target species (ecological receptors) for contaminant analysis; and collect target species for contaminant analysis prior to the initiation of active mining. Contaminants of potential concern were identified as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, and zinc for chemical toxicity and uranium and associated radionuclides for radiation. The conceptual exposure model identified ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and dietary transfer (bioaccumulation or bioconcentration) as critical contaminant exposure pathways. The biological survey of plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals is the first to document and provide ecological information on .200 species in and around the mine site; this study also provides critical baseline information about the local food web. Most of the species documented at the mine are common to ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and pinyon–juniper Pinus–Juniperus spp. forests in northern Arizona and are not considered to have special conservation status by state or federal agencies; exceptions

  17. Chronological changes in baseline disease activity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who received biologic DMARDs between 2003 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Eri; Tanaka, Eiichi; Ochiai, Moeko; Shimizu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Akiko; Shidara, Kumi; Hoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki; Inoue, Eisuke; Seto, Yohei; Nakajima, Ayako; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Momohara, Shigeki; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2015-05-01

    The use of biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increasing since 2003. In this study, we evaluated changes in the characteristics of patients receiving biologic DMARDs daily, in Japan. The characteristics of all RA patients who received any biologic DMARD at the Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, within 1 year after its approval in Japan, were retrospectively evaluated. The periods of patient enrollment for each biologic agent were: infliximab (IFX), 2003-2004; etanercept (ETN), 2005-2006; tocilizumab (TCZ), 2008-2009; adalimumab (ADA), 2008-2009; abatacept (ABT), 2010-2011; and golimumab (GLM), 2011-2012. We retrospectively collected individual patient characteristics, concomitant medication usage, and disease activity assessed by disease activity score 28 (DAS28) at the time of administration, from the medical records. The retention rate for each agent at 6 months after treatment initiation was also assessed. The numbers of patients who received each biologic DMARD at our institute within 1 year after its approval were: IFX, 49; ETN, 50; TCZ, 62; ADA, 52; ABT, 40; and GLM, 77. From 2003 to 2012, the proportion of patients with prior use of any biologic DMARD increased, as did concomitant use and dose of methotrexate (MTX); however, corticosteroid use and doses decreased. DAS28, at the time of treatment initiation, gradually decreased. At the time of IFX administration, 75% and 25% of patients had high and moderate disease activity respectively, compared to 25% and 58% respectively, of patients who received GLM. No significant difference was observed in the retention rate of biologic DMARDs at 6 months (range, 75.0% to 89.6%). Baseline disease activity of RA patients who received biologic DMARDs between 2003 and 2012 has changed from high to moderate in daily practice in Japan.

  18. Study of biological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    The several types of biological compartments are studied such as monocompartmental system, one-compartment balanced system irreversible fluxes, two closed compartment system, three compartment systems, catenary systems and mammilary systems [pt

  19. Aquatic biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Aquatic biology studies focused on studying the hydrothermal effects of Par Pond reservoir on periphyton, plankton, zooplankton, macrophytes, human pathogens, and microbial activity; the variability between the artificial streams of the Flowing Streams Laboratory and Upper Three Runs Creek; and the bacterial production of methane in Savannah River Plant aquatic systems

  20. Baseline peripheral blood leukocytosis: Biological marker predicts outcome in oropharyngeal cancer, regardless of HPV-status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouw, Zeno A R; Paul de Boer, Jan; Navran, Arash; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim

    2018-03-01

    To study the prognostic value of abnormalities in baseline complete blood count in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) treated with (chemo) radiation. The prognostic value of baseline complete blood count on outcome in 234 patients with OPC treated between 2010 and 2015 was examined in multivariate analysis together with other conventional prognostic variables including HPV-status, tumor stage, tumor and nodal size. The 3-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant control (DC) of the whole group were 74%, 64%, 79%, and 88%, respectively. Leukocytosis and HPV-status were the only significant prognosticators for OS and DFS at the multivariate analysis. Patients without leukocytosis had a significantly better DC compared to those with leukocytosis (92% and 70%, respectively, p HPV-negative OPC had significantly worse LRC compared to HPV-positive patients (67% and 90%, respectively, p HPV-positive group with leukocytosis compared to those without leukocytosis were 69% and 95%, respectively (p HPV-negative patients were 41% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.010). This is the first study to date reporting the independent impact of leukocytosis and HPV-status on outcome of patients with OPC. The poor outcome of patients with leukocytosis is mainly caused by the worse DC. The significant impact of leukocytosis on outcome was even more pronounced in HPV-positive patients. These biomarkers could help identifying patients with poor prognosis at baseline requiring intensification of local and/or systemic treatment while treatment de-intensification might be offered to the low-risk group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A baseline limnological study of Wagendrift Dam (Thukela basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic features of the physical and biological limnology of Wagendrift Dam, a moderately large impoundment on the Boesmans River, were studied between July 1989 and May 1990. This man-made lake showed a typical monomictic pattern of summer stratification (November through April) and holomictic winter circulation ...

  2. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  3. An environmental radionuclide baseline study near three Canadian naval ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, E.J.; Cole, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes an environmental radionuclide baseline study undertaken for the Department of National Defence in Canada. The purpose of the project was to establish levels of radionuclides present in the environment around areas where nuclear propelled vessels may be berthed. Specifically, this report describes environmental baselines near Halifax (Nova Scotia), Esquimalt (British Columbia), and Nanoose Bay (British Columbia). Valued ecosystem component samples were taken from dairy farms, beef producers, market gardens, vegetables, tree fruits and berries within the study areas, as well as marine bivalves (mussels and clams), salmon, seaweed, and food from native fisheries. Numerous naturally occurring isotopes were detected and quantified. The only non-naturally occurring isotope positively identified was in the form of trace quantities of 131 I, measured in the Halifax study zone (attributed to local hospital cancer therapy). 137 Cs is the only other anthropogenic radionuclide detected. Its origin may be the combination of fallout from the Chernobyl accident and fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. The results indicate that nuclear-powered vessels have not resulted in activity levels that would contribute a significant radiation exposure to the public, the biota, and the environment within the three study zones

  4. Ecological baseline studies in Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons County of Los Alamos, New Mexico. A two-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxx, T.S. [comp.

    1995-11-01

    During the summers of 1993 and 1994, the Biological Resource Evaluations Team (BRET) of the Environmental Protection Group (ESH-8) conducted baseline studies within two canyon systems, Los Alamos and Guaje Canyons. Biological data was collected within each canyon to provide background and baseline information for Ecological Risk models. Baseline studies included establishment of permanent vegetation plots within each canyon along the elevational gradient. Then, in association with the various vegetation types, surveys were conducted for ground dwelling insects, birds, and small mammals. The stream channels associated with the permanent vegetation plots were characterized and aquatic macroinvertebrates collected within the stream monthly throughout a six-month period. The Geographic Position System (GPS) in combination with ARC INFO was used to map the study areas. Considerable data was collected during these surveys and are summarized in individual chapters.

  5. U Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of U Plant. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation that was undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. U Plant refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separation facility constructed during World War II. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO 3 ) Plant constructed at the same time as 221-U as an adjunct to the original plutonium separation process but which, like 221-U, was converted for other missions. Waste sites are associated primarily with U Plant's 1952 through 1958 Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission and the U0 3 Plant's ongoing U0 3 mission. Waste sites include cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, a waste vault, and the lines and encasements that connect them. It also includes the U Pond and its feed ditches and an underground tank farm designed for high-level liquid wastes

  6. Z plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of the development of a Aggregate Area Management Study of Z Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical description and operational history of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted in support of this report

  7. Compression phase study of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, Ph; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)

    2008-02-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al (2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 052702). We study here the robustness of this target during the compression phase and define pulse shape tolerances for a successful fuel assembly. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter allows one to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbations due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g cm{sup -2} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g cm{sup -2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60.

  8. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sink KM

    2014-08-01

    adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7 had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001. The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the area of prevention of cognitive decline, the LIFE Study will also likely serve as a model for exercise and other behavioral intervention trials in older adults. Keywords: exercise, physical activity, older adults, dementia

  9. Strategies for baseline/environmental impact studies in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odu, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to assess the environmental impact of site activities and ecosystem change brought about by stress, basic baseline data are necessary to characterize the normal environment so that environmental quality control programs can be developed with a firm ecological base. The program and methodology adopted in our field surveys to assess the character, magnitude and extent of pollutant effects on soil, vegetation and water, as a basis for economic assessment of pollutant effects on agriculture, forestry and the aquatic system and for preparing environmental impact statements, are presented. These techniques were modified and adopted in the environmental impact study of the Isampou Manifold Oil Spill, a study which circumstances made necessary seven years after the oil spill. Reliance on the extent of pollution soon after the incidence was based on the determination of total hydrocarbons at creek bottoms as well as on the determinations of nickel/vanadium ratios. Hydrocarbon contents of creek banks and creek bottoms were within biogenic levels at the time of field sampling. Ni/V ratios were high in heavy impact areas and decreased in areas of medium and very light impact areas. Use of the Ni/V ratio as evidence of past oil pollution agreed closely with a sketch of the extent of crude oil pollution drawn by the Shell Petroleum Development Company seven years earlier. There were nor abnormal vegetation features. The presence of 10-15 years old Musanga cecropioides at the edge of the manifold slot and creeks indicated that vegetation above water level was not affected by the oil spillage. The physico-chemical properties of the waters, plankton composition and density of the species found, as well as the presence of endroproct bryozoan in the benthos showed that the aquatic system had by the time of sample collection, completely recovered from the oil spillage

  10. Baseline predictors of missed visits in the Look AHEAD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To identify baseline attributes associated with consecutively missed data collection visits during the first 48 months of Look AHEAD—a randomized, controlled trial in 5,145 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes designed to determine the long-term health benefits of weight loss achi...

  11. Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients Commencing Biologic Therapy Have High Baseline Levels of Comorbidity: A Report from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, John; Schachna, Lionel; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Staples, Margaret; Murphy, Bridie; Bond, Molly; Briggs, Andrew; Lassere, Marissa; March, Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Aims. To compare the baseline characteristics of a population-based cohort of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) commencing biological therapy to the reported characteristics of bDMARD randomised controlled trials (RCTs) participants. Methods. Descriptive analysis of AS participants in the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD) who were commencing bDMARD therapy. Results. Up to December 2008, 389 patients with AS were enrolled in ARAD. 354 (91.0%) had taken bDMARDs at some time, and 198 (55.9%) completed their entry questionnaire prior to or within 6 months of commencing bDMARDs. 131 (66.1%) had at least one comorbid condition, and 24 (6.8%) had a previous malignancy (15 nonmelanoma skin, 4 melanoma, 2 prostate, 1 breast, cervix, and bowel). Compared with RCT participants, ARAD participants were older, had longer disease duration and higher baseline disease activity. Conclusions. AS patients commencing bDMARDs in routine care are significantly different to RCT participants and have significant baseline comorbidities. PMID:20107564

  12. The Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteristics...

  13. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyemi Kolawole S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans experience significant tobacco-related health disparities despite the fact that over half of African American smokers are light smokers (use ≤10 cigarettes per day. African Americans have been under-represented in smoking cessation research, and few studies have evaluated treatment for light smokers. This paper describes the study design, measures, and baseline characteristics from Kick It at Swope III (KIS-III, the first treatment study of bupropion for African American light smokers. Methods Five hundred forty African American light smokers were randomly assigned to receive bupropion (150mg bid (n = 270 or placebo (n = 270 for 7 weeks. All participants received written materials and health education counseling. Participants responded to survey items and provided blood samples for evaluation of phenotype and genotype of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 enzymes involved in nicotine and bupropion metabolism. Primary outcome was cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at Week 26 follow-up. Results Of 2,628 individuals screened, 540 were eligible, consented, and randomized to treatment. Participants had a mean age of 46.5 years and 66.1% were women. Participants smoked an average of 8.0 cigarettes per day, had a mean exhaled carbon monoxide of 16.4ppm (range 1-55 and a mean serum cotinine of 275.8ng/ml. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence was 3.2, and 72.2% of participants smoked within 30 minutes of waking. The average number of quit attempts in the past year was 3.7 and 24.2% reported using pharmacotherapy in their most recent quit attempt. Motivation and confidence to quit were high. Conclusion KIS-III is the first study designed to examine both nicotine and bupropion metabolism, evaluating CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 phenotype and genotype in conjunction with psychosocial factors, in the context of treatment of African American light smokers. Of 1629 smokers screened for study participation, only

  14. Design, baseline characteristics, and retention of African American light smokers into a randomized trial involving biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Faseru, Babalola; Mayo, Matthew S; Krebill, Ron; Snow, Tricia S; Bronars, Carrie A; Nollen, Nicole L; Choi, Won S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Salzman, Gary A; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2011-01-25

    African Americans experience significant tobacco-related health disparities despite the fact that over half of African American smokers are light smokers (use ≤ 10 cigarettes per day). African Americans have been under-represented in smoking cessation research, and few studies have evaluated treatment for light smokers. This paper describes the study design, measures, and baseline characteristics from Kick It at Swope III (KIS-III), the first treatment study of bupropion for African American light smokers. Five hundred forty African American light smokers were randomly assigned to receive bupropion (150 mg bid) (n = 270) or placebo (n = 270) for 7 weeks. All participants received written materials and health education counseling. Participants responded to survey items and provided blood samples for evaluation of phenotype and genotype of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 enzymes involved in nicotine and bupropion metabolism. Primary outcome was cotinine-verified 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at Week 26 follow-up. Of 2,628 individuals screened, 540 were eligible, consented, and randomized to treatment. Participants had a mean age of 46.5 years and 66.1% were women. Participants smoked an average of 8.0 cigarettes per day, had a mean exhaled carbon monoxide of 16.4 ppm (range 1-55) and a mean serum cotinine of 275.8 ng/ml. The mean Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence was 3.2, and 72.2% of participants smoked within 30 minutes of waking. The average number of quit attempts in the past year was 3.7 and 24.2% reported using pharmacotherapy in their most recent quit attempt. Motivation and confidence to quit were high. KIS-III is the first study designed to examine both nicotine and bupropion metabolism, evaluating CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 phenotype and genotype in conjunction with psychosocial factors, in the context of treatment of African American light smokers. Of 1629 smokers screened for study participation, only 18 (1.1%) were ineligible to participate in the study

  15. Long-term sea surface temperature baselines - time series, spatial covariation and implications for biological processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Schiedek, D.

    2007-01-01

    at coastal sites co-varied strongly with each other and with opportunistically measured offshore temperatures despite separation distances between measuring locations of 20-1200 km. This covariance is probably due to the influence of large-scale atmospheric processes on regional temperatures...... questions at large spatial scales, such as the response of species distributions and phenologies to climate change. In this study we investigate the spatial synchrony of long-term sea surface temperatures in the North Sea-Baltic Sea region as measured daily at four coastal sites (Marsdiep, Netherlands...

  16. Are sawfishes still present in Mozambique? A baseline ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth H. Leeney

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sawfishes (Pristidae were formerly abundant in the western Indian Ocean, but current data on sawfish presence and distribution are lacking for most of the region. This paper summarises historical records of sawfishes in Mozambican waters and presents the findings of the first assessment of the presence and status of sawfishes in Mozambique. A countrywide baseline assessment was undertaken between May and July 2014, using interviews with artisanal, semi-industrial and industrial fishers, fish traders and fisheries monitoring staff as the primary source of information on sawfish distribution, recent catches, socio-economic value and cultural importance. Additional interviews were conducted via email or telephone with individuals running sport fishing operations or who otherwise had considerable experience interacting with the fishing sectors or the marine environment in Mozambique. Where encountered, sawfish rostra were photographed and a series of measurements and associated data were collected. In total, 200 questionnaire surveys and seven interviews with recreational fishing and dive operators were conducted, and 19 rostra were documented from museum archives and private collections, belonging to two sawfish species, the Largetooth Sawfish (Pristis pristis and Green Sawfish (P. zijsron. The most recent captures of sawfishes were reported to have occurred in 2014. Two key sites were identified where both recent encounters were reported and numerous Largetooth Sawfish rostra were documented. Gill nets were the fishing gear most commonly attributed to sawfish catches. Sawfishes did not hold any cultural importance in Mozambique, but they have at least some socio-economic importance to artisanal fishers, primarily through the sale of their fins. The meat did not appear to be held in high regard and was usually consumed locally. Sampling and further research is now required to confirm the presence of sawfishes and to assess the primary threats to

  17. Retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos: um estudo "baseline" Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anete Rissin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e analisar fatores associados ao retardo estatural em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo "baseline", que analisou 2.040 crianças, verificando possíveis associações entre o retardo estatural (índice altura/idade The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index < 2 scores Z and variables in six hierarchical blocks: socio-economic, residence, sanitary, maternal, biological and healthcare access. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with the robust standard error option, obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95% and the respective significant probability values. Among non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  18. Biological study in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Kiyoto; Yoshikawa, Akane; Natsubori, Takanobu; Koike, Shinsuke; Nagai, Tatsuya; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Yukika; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with enormous morbidity, mortality, personal disability, and social cost. Although considerable research on schizophrenia has been performed, the etiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. In recent years, imaging and genetic technologies have been developed dramatically. Disturbances in glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We attempted an integrative review, of studies pertaining to recent advances of schizophrenia research with a focus on neuroimaging and genetic studies. Additionally, we present the preliminary findings of the clinical research in our outpatient unit, specialized for early intervention, at the University of Tokyo Hospital. (author)

  19. Geothermal environmental studies, Heber Region, Imperial Valley, California. Environmental baseline data acquisition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been studying the feasibility of a Low Salinity Hydrothermal Demonstration Plant as part of its Geothermal Energy Program. The Heber area of the Imperial Valley was selected as one of the candidate geothermal reservoirs. Documentation of the environmental conditions presently existing in the Heber area is required for assessment of environmental impacts of future development. An environmental baseline data acquisition program to compile available data on the environment of the Heber area is reported. The program included a review of pertinent existing literature, interviews with academic, governmental and private entities, combined with field investigations and meteorological monitoring to collect primary data. Results of the data acquisition program are compiled in terms of three elements: the physical, the biological and socioeconomic settings.

  20. REPORT OF THE US LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARGER, V.; FINLEY, D.; LAUGHTON, C.; PORDES, S.; MARCHIONNI, A.; RAMEIKA, R.; SAOULIDOU, N.; ZWASKA, R.; BISHAI, M.; DIWAN, M.; DIERCKXSENS, M.; KIRK, H.; KAHN, S.; SIMOS, N.; MARCIANO, W.; PARSA, Z.; VIREN, B.; ET AL.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability is not likely to be challenged anywhere else in the world for at least two decades into the future. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermilab and, as the study evolved, it also provides responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the study results and conclusions are provided in this report and its appendices. A summary of the conclusions is provided in the Executive Summary

  1. REPORT OF THE US LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT STUDY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARGER,V.; FINLEY, D.; LAUGHTON, C.; PORDES, S.; MARCHIONNI, A.; RAMEIKA, R.; SAOULIDOU, N.; ZWASKA, R.; BISHAI, M.; DIWAN, M.; DIERCKXSENS, M.; KIRK, H.; KAHN, S.; SIMOS, N.; MARCIANO, W.; PARSA, Z.; VIREN, B.; ET AL.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability is not likely to be challenged anywhere else in the world for at least two decades into the future. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermilab and, as the study evolved, it also provides responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the study results and conclusions are provided in this report and its appendices. A summary of the conclusions is provided in the Executive Summary.

  2. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  3. Credible baseline analysis for multi-model public policy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, S.C.; Gass, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The nature of public decision-making and resource allocation is such that many complex interactions can best be examined and understood by quantitative analysis. Most organizations do not possess the totality of models and needed analytical skills to perform detailed and systematic quantitative analysis. Hence, the need for coordinated, multi-organization studies that support public decision-making has grown in recent years. This trend is expected not only to continue, but to increase. This paper describes the authors' views on the process of multi-model analysis based on their participation in an analytical exercise, the ORNL/MITRE Study. One of the authors was the exercise coordinator. During the study, the authors were concerned with the issue of measuring and conveying credibility of the analysis. This work led them to identify several key determinants, described in this paper, that could be used to develop a rating of credibility.

  4. A baseline study on inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Inorganic chemicals and microorganisms are common in human environments and at high levels poisoning from the chronic effects have occasionally occurred. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether the levels of inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants in boreholes and open wells ...

  5. Dog Food Consumption in the Caribbean: A Baseline Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dogs in the Caribbean have been traditionally viewed as low maintenance pets which are fed leftovers from the household. Changes in the lifestyle of Caribbean families have resulted in changes in their eating patterns. These changes can be expected to have consequences for the feeding of dogs, which may require households to switch to commercial dog food. This paper reports the finding of a survey of groups involved with pets and animal welfare in the Caribbean conducted on behalf of the Pet Food Institute, a non-profit industry association. The study examined perspectives on how dogs are fed in the Caribbean and activities conducted to educate pet owners and the public. Use of household scraps and commercial dog food was associated with household income, except in the case of some high income dependent territories. The findings indicate that while many animal welfare groups in the Caribbean provide educational programs, not all of these provide recommendations on feeding pets and so they neglect to provide information on an important aspect of animal welfare.

  6. Future Circular Collider Study FCC-he Baseline Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bruning, Oliver; Klein, Max; Pellegrini, Dario; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Initial considerations are presented on the FCC-he, the electron-hadron collider con guration within the Future Circular Collider study. This note considers arguments for the choice of the electron beam energy based on physics, ep scattering kinematics and cost. The default con guration for the electron accelerator, as for the LHeC, is chosen to be a multi-turn energy recovery linac external to the proton beam tunnel. The main accelerator parameters of the FCC-he are discussed, assuming the concurrent operation of ep with the 100TeV cms energy pp collider. These are compared with the LHeC design concept, for increased performance as for a Higgs facility using the HL-LHC, and also the high energy HE-LHC ep collider configuration. Initial estimates are also provided for the luminosity performance of electron-ion colliders for the 60 GeV electron ERL when combined with the LHC, the HE-LHC and the FCC ion beams.

  7. Use of octopus as a bioindicator species: Baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdway, D.A.; Butty, J.S.; Brennan, S.E.; Ahokas, J.T. [RMIT-Univ., Victoria (Australia). Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology

    1995-12-31

    The Australian octopus Octopus pallidus, is abundant, territorial, has a large digestive gland. This study was undertaken to assess octopii as a potential bioindicator species by establishing the efficacy of capturing octopi using traplines, and determining the impact of various modifying factors on the activities of digestive gland mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzymes including ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) and total P-450. Trap success rates in Port Phillip Bay were 15--28% for the ``potentially contaminated`` site and 85% for the reference site. Cytochrome P-450 showed significant seasonal differences, with no site or sex differences. Mean ({+-} SE) Autumn P-450 values of 74.8 ({+-}5.5) pmol/mg protein were higher than Winter values of 51.2 ({+-}7.6), which were higher than Spring values of 21.8 ({+-}4.0) pmol/mg protein. Summer P-450 values of 61.4 ({+-} 9.8) pmol/mg protein were only different from Spring values. Mean ({+-} SE) Spring ECOD activity of 3.3 ({+-} 0.7) pmol/min/mg protein was lower than Summer, Autumn and Winter ECOD values of 8.9 ({+-} 1.6) 6.5 ({+-} 1.2) and 8.6 ({+-} 2.3) pmol/min/mg protein respectively. Females had roughly half the ECOD activities of males (3.8 {+-} 0.8 compared to 7.4 {+-} 0.9 pmol/min/mg protein). All octopi digestive gland EROD activities were low (roughly 0.2 pmol/min/mg protein) with no sex, site nor seasonal differences. Potential for using octopus as a bioindicator appears promising but sensitivity to chemical exposure has yet to be determined.

  8. Baseline aquatic ecology: a case study of Dahanu thermal power station in west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    Baseline ecological studies of three creeks surrounded to a 500 MW coal based thermal power station that has been installed at Dahanu in west coast of India have been studied. Water samples were collected in summer, post-monsoon and winter seasons from surface, middle and bottom of the water columns at left and right banks and centre of the creeks, during high tide and low tide, and also during day and night for characterization of physico-chemical (temperature, transparency, pH, salinity, dissolved solids, suspended solids, alkalinity, nutrients etc. including heavy metals), microbiological and biological (phytoplankton, primary productivity, zooplankton, meiobenthos and nekton, viz. macrobenthos, fish, prawn, molluscs etc.) parameters. Studies revealed that abiotic features of the creeks were comparable to other similar type of ecosystems in India. Besides detritus, the ecosystem comprised of five trophic levels, viz. producer and consumers 1 through 4. While computing biomass of each trophic level, semialternating pattern of pyramids were obtained. Meiobenthos, comprising of 25 parent of the total biomass of fauna, had a significant role in the ecosystem. Index of biotic integrity, incorporating 25 attributes, was employed to evaluate the impact of predicted rise (2.3 degC) of ambient water temperature on creek biota. Evaluation revealed a marginal positive impact of the project on the ecosystem. (author)

  9. [Linear growth retardation in children under five years of age: a baseline study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissin, Anete; Figueiroa, José Natal; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2011-10-01

    The scope of this study was to describe the prevalence of, and analyze factors associated with, linear growth retardation in children. The baseline study analyzed 2040 children under the age of five, establishing a possible association between growth delay (height/age index sanitary, maternal, biological and healthcare access. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with the robust standard error option, obtaining adjusted prevalence ratios with a CI of 95% and the respective significant probability values. Among non-binary variables, there was a positive association with roof type and number of inhabitants per room and a negative association with income per capita, mother's schooling and birth weight. The adjusted analysis also indicated water supply, visit from the community health agent, birth delivery location, internment for diarrhea, or for pneumonia and birth weight as significant variables. Several risk factors were identified for linear growth retardation pointing to the multi-causal aspects of the problem and highlighting the need for control measures by the various hierarchical government agents.

  10. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  11. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D 2 ) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D 2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D 2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3 H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3 H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABA A receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D 2 ) and the ion-channel type (GABA A ). (J.P.N.)

  12. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  13. Developing dementia prevention trials: baseline report of the Home-Based Assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Mary; Egelko, Susan; Donohue, Michael; Ferris, Steven; Kaye, Jeffrey; Hayes, Tamara L; Mundt, James C; Sun, Chung-Kai; Paparello, Silvia; Aisen, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the baseline experience of the multicenter, Home-Based Assessment study, designed to develop methods for dementia prevention trials using novel technologies for test administration and data collection. Nondemented individuals of 75 years of age or more were recruited and evaluated in-person using established clinical trial outcomes of cognition and function, and randomized to one of 3 assessment methodologies: (1) mail-in questionnaire/live telephone interviews [mail-in/phone (MIP)]; (2) automated telephone with interactive voice recognition; and (3) internet-based computer Kiosk. Brief versions of cognitive and noncognitive outcomes were adapted to each methodology and administered at baseline and repeatedly over a 4-year period. "Efficiency" measures assessed the time from screening to baseline, and staff time required for each methodology. A total of 713 individuals signed consent and were screened; 640 met eligibility and were randomized to one of 3 assessment arms; and 581 completed baseline. Dropout, time from screening to baseline, and total staff time were highest among those assigned to internet-based computer Kiosk. However, efficiency measures were driven by nonrecurring start-up activities suggesting that differences may be mitigated over a long trial. Performance among Home-Based Assessment instruments collected through different technologies will be compared with established outcomes over this 4-year study.

  14. Organic Contamination Baseline Study: In NASA JSC Astromaterials Curation Laboratories. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for OSIRIS-REx and other future sample return missions concerned with analyzing organics, we conducted an Organic Contamination Baseline Study for JSC Curation Labsoratories in FY12. For FY12 testing, organic baseline study focused only on molecular organic contamination in JSC curation gloveboxes: presumably future collections (i.e. Lunar, Mars, asteroid missions) would use isolation containment systems over only cleanrooms for primary sample storage. This decision was made due to limit historical data on curation gloveboxes, limited IR&D funds and Genesis routinely monitors organics in their ISO class 4 cleanrooms.

  15. Describing schools the way they are : reflecting on a baseline study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article critically engages with the conceptual framework of a baseline study and investigates some of the assumptions underlying its design. The discussion focuses on two central questions : Firstly, what is the value of descriptive data? Secondly, what significance should be given to the data in relation to the ...

  16. Revised CDM baseline study on fuel use and manure management at household level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buysman, E.; Bryan, S.; Pino, M.

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters. In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP's 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang. The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene. The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.

  17. Market study: Biological isolation garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The biological isolation garment was originally designed for Apollo astronauts to wear upon their return to earth from the moon to avoid the possibility of their contaminating the environment. The concept has been adapted for medical use to protect certain patients from environmental contamination and the risk of infection. The nature and size of the anticipated market are examined with certain findings and conclusions relative to clinical acceptability and potential commercial viability of the biological isolation garment.

  18. Baseline pressure errors (BPEs) extensively influence intracranial pressure scores: results of a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is a cornerstone in the surveillance of neurosurgical patients. The ICP is measured against a baseline pressure (i.e. zero - or reference pressure). We have previously reported that baseline pressure errors (BPEs), manifested as spontaneous shift or drifts in baseline pressure, cause erroneous readings of mean ICP in individual patients. The objective of this study was to monitor the frequency and severity of BPEs. To this end, we performed a prospective, observational study monitoring the ICP from two separate ICP sensors (Sensors 1 and 2) placed in close proximity in the brain. We characterized BPEs as differences in mean ICP despite near to identical ICP waveform in Sensors 1 and 2. Methods The study enrolled patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in need of continuous ICP monitoring as part of their intensive care management. The two sensors were placed close to each other in the brain parenchyma via the same burr hole. The monitoring was performed as long as needed from a clinical perspective and the ICP recordings were stored digitally for analysis. For every patient the mean ICP as well as the various ICP wave parameters of the two sensors were compared. Results Sixteen patients were monitored median 164 hours (ranges 70 – 364 hours). Major BPEs, as defined by marked differences in mean ICP despite similar ICP waveform, were seen in 9 of them (56%). The BPEs were of magnitudes that had the potential to alter patient management. Conclusions Baseline Pressure Errors (BPEs) occur in a significant number of patients undergoing continuous ICP monitoring and they may alter patient management. The current practice of measuring ICP against a baseline pressure does not comply with the concept of State of the Art. Monitoring of the ICP waves ought to become the new State of the Art as they are not influenced by BPEs. PMID:24472296

  19. Association between magnetic resonance imaging patterns and baseline disease features in multiple myeloma: analyzing surrogates of tumour mass and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Elias K.; Merz, Maximilian; Shah, Sofia; Hillengass, Michaela; Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk; Raab, M.S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kloth, Jost K.; Weber, Marc-Andre [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University Hospital of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, Stefan [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT) Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillengass, Jens [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    To assess associations between bone marrow infiltration patterns and localization in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and baseline clinical/prognostic parameters in multiple myeloma (MM). We compared baseline MM parameters, MRI patterns and localization of focal lesions to the mineralized bone in 206 newly diagnosed MM patients. A high tumour mass (represented by International Staging System stage III) was significantly associated with severe diffuse infiltration (p = 0.015) and a higher number of focal lesions (p = 0.006). Elevated creatinine (p = 0.003), anaemia (p < 0.001) and high LDH (p = 0.001) correlated with severe diffuse infiltration. A salt and pepper diffuse pattern had a favourable prognosis. A higher degree of destruction of mineralized bone (assessed by X-ray or computed tomography) was associated with an increasing number of focal lesions on MRI (p < 0.001). Adverse cytogenetics (del17p/gain1q21/t(4;14)) were associated with diffuse infiltration (p = 0.008). The presence of intraosseous focal lesions exceeding the mineralized bone had a borderline significant impact on prognosis. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration on MRI correlates with adverse cytogenetics, lowered haemoglobin values and high tumour burden in newly diagnosed MM whereas an increasing number of focal lesions correlates with a higher degree of bone destruction. Focal lesions exceeding the cortical bone did not adversely affect the prognosis. (orig.)

  20. Emotion-focused therapy for social anxiety disorder: Results from a multiple-baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Ben; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Alon, Eve

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of emotion-focused therapy (EFT) for adults suffering from social anxiety disorder (SAD). Using a nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design, 12 patients (mean age = 26.75 years, SD = 5.15; 7 males) meeting criteria for SAD were treated with up to 28 sessions of EFT. EFT was based on an empathic relationship, 2-chair work for self-criticism, empty-chair work for unresolved feelings, and focusing. Patients were randomized to wait 4, 8, or 12 weeks between the intake and the first therapy session. Intake assessment included the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI; Sheehan et al. 1998), the clinician-administered Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS; Liebowitz, 1987), and various self-report questionnaires. The LSAS was also administered at the end of the baseline period and at posttreatment. The MINI was administered again at posttreatment. Self-reports were administered throughout the baseline, before each therapy session, and at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. One patient dropped out prematurely. Of the 11 completers, 7 did not meet criteria for SAD at the end of treatment. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that LSAS scores did not change during baseline, significantly improved during treatment (Cohen's d = -2.37), and remained improved during follow-up. Mixed regression models showed that SAD symptoms and self-criticism did not change during baseline, significantly improved during treatment, and remained improved during follow-up. Self-reassurance improved significantly during the follow-up phase. This study provides initial evidence supporting the efficacy of EFT for SAD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea. Study design and baseline results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jin [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Preventive Medicine; Ha, Mina [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Preventive Medicine; Hwang, Seung-sik [Inha Univ. School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine; and others

    2015-08-15

    To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea. The cohort participants were enrolled through a self-administered questionnaire survey administered from April 2012 to May 2013. Survey data were linked with radiation dosimetry, a cancer registry, and health insurance data by personal identification numbers. A nationwide representative survey was also conducted using a stratified random sampling design with face-to-face interviews. A total of 12,387 radiologic technologists were enrolled, which accounted for approximately 63 % of all diagnostic radiologic technologists working in South Korea. For nationwide survey, 585 workers were interviewed using the detailed questionnaire, and buccal cells were also collected by scraping the inside of the cheek. The majority of study subjects were under 50-year-old and male workers. The average annual effective dose of radiation declined both men (from 2.75 to 1.43 mSv) and women (from 1.34 to 0.95 mSv) over the period of 1996-2011. A total of 99 cancers (66 cancers in men and 33 in women) were reported from 1992 to 2010. The standardized incidence ratio of all cancer combined was significantly lower in men (SIR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.58-0.96) than general population, but the ratios for thyroid cancer were significantly higher than expected among both men and women. This cohort provides comprehensive information on work activities and health status of diagnostic radiologic technologists. In addition, the nationwide representative sample provides unique opportunities compared with previous radiologic technologist studies.

  2. The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea: study design and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-sik; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Jin, Young-Woo; Jeong, Meeseon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Cha, Eun Shil; Ko, Yousun; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Jung-Eun

    2015-08-01

    To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea. The cohort participants were enrolled through a self-administered questionnaire survey administered from April 2012 to May 2013. Survey data were linked with radiation dosimetry, a cancer registry, and health insurance data by personal identification numbers. A nationwide representative survey was also conducted using a stratified random sampling design with face-to-face interviews. A total of 12,387 radiologic technologists were enrolled, which accounted for approximately 63% of all diagnostic radiologic technologists working in South Korea. For nationwide survey, 585 workers were interviewed using the detailed questionnaire, and buccal cells were also collected by scraping the inside of the cheek. The majority of study subjects were under 50-year-old and male workers. The average annual effective dose of radiation declined both men (from 2.75 to 1.43 mSv) and women (from 1.34 to 0.95 mSv) over the period of 1996-2011. A total of 99 cancers (66 cancers in men and 33 in women) were reported from 1992 to 2010. The standardized incidence ratio of all cancer combined was significantly lower in men (SIR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96) than general population, but the ratios for thyroid cancer were significantly higher than expected among both men and women. This cohort provides comprehensive information on work activities and health status of diagnostic radiologic technologists. In addition, the nationwide representative sample provides unique opportunities compared with previous radiologic technologist studies.

  3. The radiologic technologists' health study in South Korea. Study design and baseline results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-sik

    2015-01-01

    To describe the study design, methods, and baseline results of a prospective cohort of radiologic technologists which we have initiated in South Korea. The cohort participants were enrolled through a self-administered questionnaire survey administered from April 2012 to May 2013. Survey data were linked with radiation dosimetry, a cancer registry, and health insurance data by personal identification numbers. A nationwide representative survey was also conducted using a stratified random sampling design with face-to-face interviews. A total of 12,387 radiologic technologists were enrolled, which accounted for approximately 63 % of all diagnostic radiologic technologists working in South Korea. For nationwide survey, 585 workers were interviewed using the detailed questionnaire, and buccal cells were also collected by scraping the inside of the cheek. The majority of study subjects were under 50-year-old and male workers. The average annual effective dose of radiation declined both men (from 2.75 to 1.43 mSv) and women (from 1.34 to 0.95 mSv) over the period of 1996-2011. A total of 99 cancers (66 cancers in men and 33 in women) were reported from 1992 to 2010. The standardized incidence ratio of all cancer combined was significantly lower in men (SIR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.58-0.96) than general population, but the ratios for thyroid cancer were significantly higher than expected among both men and women. This cohort provides comprehensive information on work activities and health status of diagnostic radiologic technologists. In addition, the nationwide representative sample provides unique opportunities compared with previous radiologic technologist studies.

  4. The Childhood and Adolescent Migraine Prevention (CHAMP) Study: A Report on Baseline Characteristics of Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott W; Hershey, Andrew D; Coffey, Christopher S; Chamberlin, Leigh A; Ecklund, Dixie J D; Sullivan, Stephanie M; Klingner, Elizabeth A; Yankey, Jon W; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Korbee, Leslie L; Costigan, Michele L; Riss, Holly H; Porter, Linda L

    2016-04-04

    To describe baseline headache characteristics of children and adolescents participating in a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, comparative effectiveness study of amitriptyline, topiramate, and placebo for the prevention of migraine (CHAMP Study). Children and adolescents (age 8-17 years old, inclusive) diagnosed with migraine with or without aura, having headaches at least four times per month were enrolled from 2012 through 2014. The trial involved a baseline period (minimum of 28 days) during which prospective diaries were completed and demographics and headache features obtained. A total of 488 children and adolescents (mean age 14.0 ± 2.4 years) agreed to participate in the trial, with 361 randomized and 127 not randomized. Randomized subjects had a 5.5 ± 3.1 year history of headaches, with 15.1 ± 7.1 headache days per month (based upon retrospective report at screening visit). Prospective diaries reported 11.5 ± 6.1 headache days per 28 day baseline. Across this 28 day period, reported headache days per week were stable (about 3 headache days per week). Recording of individual headache features by diary (n = 4136 headache days) showed characteristics consistent with migraine (mean duration 10.5 ± 8.1 hours, mean severity 6.0 ± 2.1, 60% throbbing, 55% with activity worsening headaches, 55% with photophobia, and 47% with phonophobia). Baseline data from the CHAMP Study suggested that the randomized sample was representative of the real world population of children and adolescents that present for treatment of migraine. Headaches in children and adolescents recorded during a 28 day prospective baseline period in this multi-site comparative effectiveness study did not change over the course of the baseline period, even though a clear diagnosis, recommendation for effective acute treatment, and standardized education about healthy habits occurred prior to the diary collection period. © 2016 American

  5. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: The Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Veloso, Gilson G; Franco, Oscar H; Ruiter, Rikje; de Keyser, Catherina E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno C; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2016-03-15

    Animal studies have shown that glutamine supplementation may decrease colon carcinogenesis, but any relation with glutamine or its precursors has not been studied in humans. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether dietary glutamic acid intake was associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in community-dwelling adults. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the association could be modified by the body mass index (BMI). This study was embedded in the Rotterdam study, which included a prospective cohort from 1990 onward that consisted of 5362 subjects who were 55 years old or older and were free of CRC at the baseline. Glutamic acid was calculated as a percentage of the total protein intake with a validated food frequency questionnaire at the baseline. Incident cases of CRC were pathology-based. During follow-up, 242 subjects developed CRC. Baseline dietary glutamic acid intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing CRC (hazard ratio [HR] per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.99). After stratification for BMI, the risk reduction for CRC by dietary glutamic acid was 42% for participants with a BMI ≤ 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.85), whereas no association was found in participants with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) (HR per percent increase in glutamic acid of protein, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.73-1.31). Our data suggest that baseline dietary glutamic acid intake is associated with a lower risk of developing CRC, but this association may be mainly present in nonoverweight subjects. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Baseline predictors of worsening apathy in Parkinson's disease: A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Natalie; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Acharyya, Sanchalika; Chander, Russell J; Ng, Aloysius; Au, Wing Lok; Tan, Louis C S

    2016-02-01

    Apathy is one of the most common behavioural disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD) and contributes significantly to a reduced quality of life in PD patients. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of 89 mild PD patients over 18 months, measuring apathy symptoms at 6-monthly intervals using the Starkstein Apathy Scale, as well as measures of motor and non-motor symptoms, cognitive function, and functional disability at baseline. Mixed-effects models were used to characterise the individual trajectories of apathy symptom severity, and linear regression with stepwise elimination procedure was used to select significant baseline predictors. Clinically significant levels of apathy were present in 42.7% of our sample at baseline, with symptom severity remaining relatively stable on average over the course of 18 months. Male gender, lower educational attainment, higher depression symptom severity, more severe functional disability, and the presence of dyskinesias at study entry predicted increasing apathy over the subsequent 18 months. Patients with these factors are at risk for progression of apathy, which may be prevented by treating depression and functional disability. Further studies are needed to address both the specific neurobiological pathways and psychosocial factors underpinning apathy in PD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Developing protocols for geochemical baseline studies: An example from the Coles Hill uranium deposit, Virginia, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, Denise M.; Schreiber, Madeline E.; Seal, Robert R.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Aylor, Joseph G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We outline protocols for baseline geochemical surveys of stream sediments and water. • Regression on order statistics was used to handle non-detect data. • U concentrations in stream water near this unmined ore were below regulatory standards. • Concentrations of major and trace elements were correlated with stream discharge. • Methods can be applied to other extraction activities, including hydraulic fracturing. - Abstract: In this study, we determined baseline geochemical conditions in stream sediments and surface waters surrounding an undeveloped uranium deposit. Emphasis was placed on study design, including site selection to encompass geological variability and temporal sampling to encompass hydrological and climatic variability, in addition to statistical methods for baseline data analysis. The concentrations of most elements in stream sediments were above analytical detection limits, making them amenable to standard statistical analysis. In contrast, some trace elements in surface water had concentrations that were below the respective detection limits, making statistical analysis more challenging. We describe and compare statistical methods appropriate for concentrations that are below detection limits (non-detect data) and conclude that regression on order statistics provided the most rigorous analysis of our results, particularly for trace elements. Elevated concentrations of U and deposit-associated elements (e.g. Ba, Pb, and V) were observed in stream sediments and surface waters downstream of the deposit, but concentrations were below regulatory guidelines for the protection of aquatic ecosystems and for drinking water. Analysis of temporal trends indicated that concentrations of major and trace elements were most strongly related to stream discharge. These findings highlight the need for sampling protocols that will identify and evaluate the temporal and spatial variations in a thorough baseline study

  8. Baseline neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geda, Yonas E; Roberts, Rosebud O; Mielke, Michelle M; Knopman, David S; Christianson, Teresa J H; Pankratz, Vernon S; Boeve, Bradley F; Sochor, Ondrej; Tangalos, Eric G; Petersen, Ronald C; Rocca, Walter A

    2014-05-01

    The authors conducted a prospective cohort study to estimate the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment in cognitively normal elderly (aged ≥70 years) individuals with or without neuropsychiatric symptoms at baseline. The research was conducted in the setting of the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. A classification of normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia was adjudicated by an expert consensus panel based on published criteria. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using Cox proportional hazards model, with age as a time scale. Baseline Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire data were available for 1,587 cognitively normal persons who underwent at least one follow-up visit. The cohort was followed to incident mild cognitive impairment (N=365) or censoring variables (N=179) for a median of 5 years. Agitation (hazard ratio=3.06, 95% CI=1.89-4.93), apathy (hazard ratio=2.26, 95% CI=1.49-3.41), anxiety (hazard ratio=1.87, 95% CI=1.28-2.73), irritability (hazard ratio=1.84, 95% CI=1.31-2.58), and depression (hazard ratio=1.63, 95% CI=1.23-2.16), observed initially, increased risk for later mild cognitive impairment. Delusion and hallucination did not. A secondary analysis, limited in significance by the small number of study participants, showed that euphoria, disinhibition, and nighttime behaviors were significant predictors of nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment but not amnestic mild cognitive impairment. By contrast, depression predicted amnestic mild cognitive impairment (hazard ratio=1.74, 95% CI=1.22-2.47) but not nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment. An increased incidence of mild cognitive impairment was observed in community-dwelling elderly adults who had nonpsychotic psychiatric symptoms at baseline. These baseline psychiatric symptoms were of similar or greater magnitude as biomarkers (genetic and structural MRI) in increasing the risk of incident mild cognitive impairment.

  9. Nuclear biological studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursaget, J.

    1961-01-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [fr

  10. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  11. Regional variations in baseline characteristics of cardiac rhythm device recipients: The PANORAMA observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kandari, Fawziah; Erglis, Andrejs; Sweidan, Raed; Dannheimer, Ingrid; Sepsi, Milan; Bénézet, Juan; Padour, Michal; Naik, Ajay; Escudero, Jaime; West, Teena; Holbrook, Reece; Lorgat, Faizel

    2014-09-01

    The PANORAMA study was designed to collect concurrent data on subjects from different worldwide regions implanted with CRM devices. In this prospective, multi-center study, we analyzed baseline data on 8586 subjects implanted with CRM devices with no additional selection criteria (66% pacemaker (IPG), 16% implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD), 17% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and CRM devices from a range of geographies that are not typically reported in literature. We found significant variations in clinical characteristics and implant practices. Long term follow-up data will help evaluate if these variations require adjustments to outcome expectations.

  12. Design Study for a Future Laguna-LBNO Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Alabau-Gonzalvo, J; Antoniou, F; Benedikt, M; Calviani, M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Ferrari, A; Garoby, R; Gerigk, F; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Kosmicki, A; Lazaridis, C; Osborne, J; Papaphillippou, Y; Parfenova, A; Shaposhnikova, E; Steerenberg, R; Velten, P; Vincke, H

    2013-01-01

    The Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics (LAGUNA) study [1] investigated seven pre-selected underground sites in Europe (Finland, France, Italy, Poland, Romania, Spain and UK), capable of housing large volume detectors for terrestrial, accelerator generated and astrophysical neutrino research. The study was focused on geo-technical assessment of the sites, concluding that no show-stoppers exist for the construction of the required large underground caverns in the chosen sites. The LAGUNA-LBNO FP7/EC-funded design study extends the LAGUNA study in two key aspects: the detailed engineering of detector construction and operation, and the study of a long-baseline neutrino beam from CERN, and possibly other accelerator centres in Europe. Based on the findings of the LAGUNA study, the Pyh¨asalmi mine in Finland is chosen as prime site for the far detector location. The mine offers the deepest underground location in Europe (-1400 m) and a baseline of 2’300 km from CERN (Fig. 1). ...

  13. Asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in community (APAC) study in China: objectives, design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Li, Yang; Xu, Liang; Xu, Jie; Wang, Anxin; Wang, Anxing; Gao, Xiang; Wu, Shouling; Wei, Wen Bin; Zhao, Xingquan; Jonas, Jost B

    2013-01-01

    The population-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study was designed to examine prevalence and associations of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities (APA) in a general population. In this report, the objectives, design and baseline data of the APAC study are described. The study included 5,440 participants (40.1% women) with an age of 40+ years who were randomly selected from the population of the Kailuan Study which included 101,510 employees and retirees of the Kailuan Co. Ltd, a large coal mine industry located in Tangshan, Hebei, China. Exclusion criteria were previous cerebral stroke, transient ischemic attacks and coronary heart disease. In 2010 and 2011, information on potential cardiovascular risk factors was collected and all participants underwent transcranial Doppler sonography, measurement of the ankle brachial index, and bilateral carotid duplex sonography. In a first follow-up examination in 2012/2013, retinal photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were additionally performed. In a planned long-term follow-up, data from clinical examinations and laboratory tests and the occurrence of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events will be collected to build up a predicting model for the risk of ischemic events. At baseline, mean age of the participants was 55.2 ± 11.8 years, and men showed a significantly (PAPAC is the first study to prospectively evaluate the relationship between intracranial arterial stenosis, retinal nerve fiber layer changes, retinal microvascular signs, and the eventual development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events.

  14. Design and baseline data from the Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jeff C; Beale, Eleanor E; Beach, Scott R; Celano, Christopher M; Belcher, Arianna M; Moore, Shannon V; Suarez, Laura; Gandhi, Parul U; Motiwala, Shweta R; Gaggin, Hanna; Januzzi, James L

    2015-09-01

    Positive psychological constructs, especially optimism, have been linked with superior cardiovascular health. However, there has been minimal study of positive constructs in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), despite the prevalence and importance of this condition. Furthermore, few studies have examined multiple positive psychological constructs and multiple cardiac-related outcomes within the same cohort to determine specifically which positive construct may affect a particular cardiac outcome. The Gratitude Research in Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) study examines the association between optimism/gratitude 2weeks post-ACS and subsequent clinical outcomes. The primary outcome measure is physical activity at 6months, measured via accelerometer, and key secondary outcome measures include levels of prognostic biomarkers and rates of nonelective cardiac rehospitalization at 6months. These relationships will be analyzed using multivariable linear regression, controlling for sociodemographic, medical, and negative psychological factors; associations between baseline positive constructs and subsequent rehospitalizations will be assessed via Cox regression. Overall, 164 participants enrolled and completed the baseline 2-week assessment; the cohort had a mean age of 61.5+/?10.5years and was 84% men; this was the first ACS for 58% of participants. The GRACE study will determine whether optimism and gratitude are prospectively and independently associated with physical activity and other critical outcomes in the 6months following an ACS. If these constructs are associated with superior outcomes, this may highlight the importance of these constructs as independent prognostic factors post-ACS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Baseline Predictors of Treatment Outcomes in Children With Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Silvia S; Starke, Jeffrey R; Miller, Ann C; Cruz, Andrea T; Del Castillo, Hernán; Valdivia, William José; Tunque, Gabriela; García, Fanny; Contreras, Carmen; Lecca, Leonid; Alarcón, Valentina A; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2016-10-15

    Globally, >30 000 children fall sick with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis every year. Without robust pediatric data, clinical management follows international guidelines that are based on studies in adults and expert opinion. We aimed to identify baseline predictors of death, treatment failure, and loss to follow-up among children with MDR tuberculosis disease treated with regimens tailored to their drug susceptibility test (DST) result or to the DST result of a source case. This retrospective cohort study included all children ≤15 years old with confirmed and probable MDR tuberculosis disease who began tailored regimens in Lima, Peru, between 2005 and 2009. Using logistic regression, we examined associations between baseline patient and treatment characteristics and (1) death or treatment failure and (2) loss to follow-up. Two hundred eleven of 232 (90.9%) children had known treatment outcomes, of whom 163 (77.2%) achieved cure or probable cure, 29 (13.7%) were lost to follow-up, 10 (4.7%) experienced treatment failure, and 9 (4.3%) died. Independent baseline predictors of death or treatment failure were the presence of severe disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-15.26) and z score ≤-1 (aOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.20-9.54). We did not identify any independent predictors of loss to follow-up. High cure rates can be achieved in children with MDR tuberculosis using tailored regimens containing second-line drugs. However, children faced significantly higher risk of death or treatment failure if they had severe disease or were underweight. These findings highlight the need for early interventions that can improve treatment outcomes for children with MDR tuberculosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Impact of Baseline Assessment Modality on Enrollment and Retention in a Facebook Smoking Cessation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Jacobs, Megan A; Zawistowski, Grace; Brookover, Jody; Stanton, Cassandra A; Graham, Amanda L

    2015-07-16

    Few studies have addressed enrollment and retention methods in online smoking cessation interventions. Fully automated Web-based trials can yield large numbers of participants rapidly but suffer from high rates of attrition. Personal contact with participants can increase recruitment of smokers into cessation trials and improve participant retention. To compare the impact of Web-based (WEB) and phone (PH) baseline assessments on enrollment and retention metrics in the context of a Facebook smoking cessation study. Participants were recruited via Facebook and Google ads which were randomly displayed to adult smokers in the United States over 27 days from August to September 2013. On each platform, two identical ads were randomly displayed to users who fit the advertising parameters. Clicking on one of the ads resulted in randomization to WEB, and clicking on the other ad resulted in randomization to PH. Following online eligibility screening and informed consent, participants in the WEB arm completed the baseline survey online whereas PH participants completed the baseline survey by phone with a research assistant. All participants were contacted at 30 days to complete a follow-up survey that assessed use of the cessation intervention and smoking outcomes. Participants were paid $15 for follow-up survey completion. A total of 4445 people clicked on the WEB ad and 4001 clicked on the PH ad: 12.04% (n=535) of WEB participants and 8.30% (n=332) of PH participants accepted the online study invitation (PFacebook app (66/114, 57.9% WEB vs 17/35, 49% PH) or that completed the 30-day follow-up survey (49/114, 43.0% WEB vs 16/35, 46% PH). A total of $6074 was spent on ads, generating 3,834,289 impressions and resulting in 8446 clicks (average cost $0.72 per click). Per participant enrollment costs for advertising alone were $27 WEB and $87 PH. A more intensive phone baseline assessment protocol yielded a lower rate of enrollment, equivalent follow-up rates, and higher

  17. The POWERPLAY workplace physical activity and nutrition intervention for men: Study protocol and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sharp, Paul; Bottorff, Joan L; Stolp, Sean; Oliffe, John L; Johnson, Steven T; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Errey, Sally; Christian, Holly; Healy, Theresa; Medhurst, Kerensa; Lamont, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Many health promotion programs hold little "manly" appeal and as a consequence fail to influence men's self-health practices. That said, the workplace can provide an important delivery point for targeted health promotion programs by supporting positive aspects of masculinity. The purpose of this article is to, a) describe the intervention design and study protocol examining the feasibility of a gender-sensitive workplace health promotion intervention focusing on physical activity and healthy eating in male-dominated rural and remote worksites, and b) report baseline findings. This study is a non-randomized quasi-experimental intervention trial examining feasibility and acceptability, and estimated intervention effectiveness. The POWERPLAY program was developed through consultations with men and key workplace personnel, and by drawing on a growing body of men's health promotion research. The program includes masculine print-based messaging, face-to-face education sessions, friendly competition, and self-monitoring concerning physical activity and healthy eating. Male participants (N=139) were recruited from four worksites in northern British Columbia, Canada. Baseline data were collected via computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey which assessed physical activity, dietary behavior and workplace environment. This protocol will also be used to collect follow-up data at 6months. A process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, will be undertaken to assess feasibility and acceptability among participants and worksites. Study outcomes will guide intervention refinement and further testing in a sufficiently powered randomized control trial. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Agincourt demographic and health study--site description, baseline findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollman, S M; Herbst, K; Garenne, M; Gear, J S; Kahn, K

    1999-08-01

    To present baseline results from first-phase demographic and health surveillance in the Agincourt field site, Bushbuckridge. To contrast findings with international data, and comment on their relevance to health development. Multi-round, prospective community-based study. Baseline census, 1992. A subdistrict in South Africa's rural north-east, adjacent to the border with Mozambique. Entire population of the Agincourt subdistrict. Baseline variables for each resident included age, sex, months spent at home during 1991, mother alive/dead, highest educational standard achieved, and refugee status. A full demographic profile was constructed. In 1992 the subdistrict contained 57,609 persons, 26.4% of whom were Mozambican, with a population density of 148 persons per km2. Forty-four per cent were under 15 years of age, and the dependency ratio was 93%. Fertility was declining, along with a moderate decline in adult female mortality. The approximate total fertility rate was 4.0; teenage parenting was common and almost 40% of 19-year-olds had at least one child. Over 60% of men and 14% of women in the 30-49-year age group were migrants, resulting in a high proportion of single-parent households. Despite improvements, most children experienced delays in reaching primary school, and less than half made the transition to secondary school. Educational levels among Mozambican children were lower than those of local children. Agincourt contains a complex mix of communities comprising migrant workers, Mozambicans and a more stable permanent population. The area shares features with sub-Saharan Africa, although the mortality and fertility transitions have progressed further. Reliable, local information is essential for managing decentralised health systems.

  19. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D

    2017-01-02

    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  20. Chemical biology approaches for studying posttranslational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aerin; Cho, Kyukwang; Park, Hee-Sung

    2017-09-13

    Posttranslational modification (PTM) is a key mechanism for regulating diverse protein functions, and thus critically affects many essential biological processes. Critical for systematic study of the effects of PTMs is the ability to obtain recombinant proteins with defined and homogenous modifications. To this end, various synthetic and chemical biology approaches, including genetic code expansion and protein chemical modification methods, have been developed. These methods have proven effective for generating site-specific authentic modifications or structural mimics, and have demonstrated their value for in vitro and in vivo functional studies of diverse PTMs. This review will discuss recent advances in chemical biology strategies and their application to various PTM studies.

  1. Baseline Study of Women in South Africa with Postgraduate Physics Degrees (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Diane J.

    2009-04-01

    A baseline study was conducted of women in South Africa who obtained BSc (Honours), MSc, or PhD degrees in physics and astronomy between 1995 and 2005. The first step involved identifying and contacting the women, using snowball sampling. These women were then asked to complete a questionnaire by e-mail. Responses to the questionnaire yielded information about the types of schools they attended, attitudes of their teachers, family history of studying science, influences on choosing to study physics, role models and mentors, employment history and aspects of a job that are important to them, experiences of gender bias, and suggestions for improving the situation for women in physics. This information is very valuable in designing programs, projects, and advocacy to encourage and retain women in physics, from school level to senior management. The methodology and questions developed can be useful to participants interested in obtaining similar information for their own countries.

  2. Asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in community (APAC study in China: objectives, design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The population-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC Study was designed to examine prevalence and associations of asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities (APA in a general population. In this report, the objectives, design and baseline data of the APAC study are described. METHODS: The study included 5,440 participants (40.1% women with an age of 40+ years who were randomly selected from the population of the Kailuan Study which included 101,510 employees and retirees of the Kailuan Co. Ltd, a large coal mine industry located in Tangshan, Hebei, China. Exclusion criteria were previous cerebral stroke, transient ischemic attacks and coronary heart disease. In 2010 and 2011, information on potential cardiovascular risk factors was collected and all participants underwent transcranial Doppler sonography, measurement of the ankle brachial index, and bilateral carotid duplex sonography. In a first follow-up examination in 2012/2013, retinal photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were additionally performed. In a planned long-term follow-up, data from clinical examinations and laboratory tests and the occurrence of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events will be collected to build up a predicting model for the risk of ischemic events. RESULTS: At baseline, mean age of the participants was 55.2 ± 11.8 years, and men showed a significantly (P<0.001 higher prevalence of arterial hypertension (55.5% vs. 36.5% and hyperlipidemia (50.7% vs. 46.0% and a higher blood homocysteine concentration (18.68 ± 10.28 µmol/L versus 11.69 ± 6.40 µmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: The APAC is the first study to prospectively evaluate the relationship between intracranial arterial stenosis, retinal nerve fiber layer changes, retinal microvascular signs, and the eventual development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular events.

  3. Digital curation of research data experiences of a baseline study in Germany

    CERN Document Server

    Strathmann, Stefan; Oßwald, Achim; Ludwig, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of research data today and for the future is well documented and discussed, in Germany as well as internationally. Ensuring that research data are accessible, sharable, and re-usable over time is increasingly becoming an essential task for researchers and research infrastructure institutions. Some reasons for this development include the following: - research data are documented and could therefore be validated - research data could be the basis for new research questions - research data could be re-analyzed by using innovative digital methods - research data could be used by other disciplines Therefore, it is essential that research data are curated, which means they are kept accessible and interpretable over time. In Germany, a baseline study was undertaken analyzing the situation in eleven research disciplines in 2012. The results were then published in a German-language edition. To address an international audience, the German-language edition of the study has been translated and abridged. T...

  4. Baseline studies in the Elwha River ecosystem prior to dam removal: Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Freilich, Jerry; Schreiner, Edward G.

    2008-01-01

    The planned removal of two dams that have been in place for over 95 years on the Elwha River provides a unique opportunity to study dam removal effects. Among the largest dams ever considered for removal, this project is compelling because 83% of the watershed lies undisturbed in Olympic National Park. Eighteen million cubic meters of sediment have accumulated in and will be released from the reservoirs, and there is potential for rehabilitating depressed Pacific salmon runs. Researchers from academia, non-profit organizations, federal and state governments, and the Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe are currently assessing baseline ecological conditions of the Elwha River as part of dam removal studies. We introduce dam removal topics, provide a brief history of the dams, and summarize the ecology of the Elwha River basin as an introduction to a special issue devoted to research in the watershed.

  5. Baseline Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients Enrolled in LURN: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Anne P; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Smith, Abigail R; Helfand, Brian T; Gore, John L; Clemens, J Quentin; Yang, Claire C; Siddiqui, Nazema Y; Lai, H Henry; Griffith, James W; Andreev, Victor P; Liu, Gang; Weinfurt, Kevin; Amundsen, Cindy L; Bradley, Catherine S; Kusek, John W; Kirkali, Ziya

    2017-10-28

    We described and compared the frequency and type of lower urinary tract symptoms reported by men and women at the time that they were recruited from urology and urogynecology clinics into the Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study. At 6 research sites treatment seeking men and women were enrolled who reported any lower urinary tract symptoms at a frequency more than rarely during the last month on the LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms) Tool. At baseline the study participants underwent a standardized clinical evaluation and completed validated questionnaires. Urological tests were performed, including pelvic/rectal examination, post-void residual urine measurement and urinalysis. A total of 545 women and 519 men were enrolled in the study. Mean ± SD age was 58.8 ± 14.1 years. At baseline nocturia, frequency and a sensation of incomplete emptying were similar in men and women but men experienced more voiding symptoms (90% vs 85%, p = 0.007) and women reported more urgency (85% vs 66%, p urinary incontinence than men (82% vs 51% p incontinence in 57%. Only 1% of men reported stress incontinence but they had other urinary incontinence, including post-void dribbling in 44% and urgency incontinence in 46%. Older participants had higher odds of reporting symptoms of nocturia and urgency. In this large, treatment seeking cohort of men and women lower urinary tract symptoms varied widely by gender and age. Men reported more voiding symptoms and nonstress or urgency urinary incontinence while women reported more incontinence overall and urgency. Older participants had greater odds of urgency and nocturia. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Who is our cohort: recruitment, representativeness, baseline risk and retention in the "Watch Me Grow" study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Susan; Eapen, Valsamma; Axelsson, Emma; Hendry, Alexandra; Jalaludin, Bin; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Overs, Bronwyn; Descallar, Joseph; Eastwood, John; Einfeld, Stewart; Silove, Natalie; Short, Kate; Beasley, Deborah; Črnčec, Rudi; Murphy, Elisabeth; Williams, Katrina

    2016-03-24

    The "Watch Me Grow" (WMG) study examines the current developmental surveillance system in South West Sydney. This paper describes the establishment of the study birth cohort, including the recruitment processes, representativeness, follow-up and participants' baseline risk for future developmental risk. Newborn infants and their parents were recruited from two public hospital postnatal wards and through child health nurses during the years 2011-2013. Data was obtained through a detailed participant questionnaire and linked with the participant's electronic medical record (EMR). Representativeness was determined by Chi-square analyses of the available clinical, psychosocial and sociodemographic EMR data, comparing the WMG participants to eligible non-participants. Reasons for non-participation were also elicited. Participant characteristics were examined in six, 12, and 18-month follow-ups. The number of infants recruited totalled 2,025, with 50 % of those approached agreeing to participate. Reasons for parents not participating included: lack of interest, being too busy, having plans to relocate, language barriers, participation in other research projects, and privacy concerns. The WMG cohort was broadly representative of the culturally diverse and socially disadvantaged local population from which it was sampled. Of the original 2025 participants enrolled at birth, participants with PEDS outcome data available at follow-up were: 792 (39 %) at six months, 649 (32 %) at 12 months, and 565 (28 %) at 18 months. Participants with greater psychosocial risk were less likely to have follow-up outcome data. Almost 40 % of infants in the baseline cohort were exposed to at least two risk factors known to be associated with developmental risk. The WMG study birth cohort is a valuable resource for health services due to the inclusion of participants from vulnerable populations, despite there being challenges in being able to actively follow-up this population.

  7. [The Octabaix study. Baseline assessment and 5 years of follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Padrós, Gloria; Badia, Teresa; Almeda, Jesús; Octabaix, Grupo Estudio

    This is a review of a prospective, community-based study with a follow-up period of 5years. It is a study of 328 participants aged 85 at baseline, of which 62% were female, 53% widows, and a third of them living alone. High blood pressure was observed in 75.9%, dyslipidaemia in 51.2%, and diabetes in 17.7%. At baseline the median Barthel Index was 95, the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination was 28, the Charlson index 1, the Mini Nutritional Assessment 25, the Gijón test 10, the visual analogue scale of the Quality of Life Test was 60, and with a mean of 6.1 prescription drugs. A lower quality of life was also associated with female gender, a phenotype of frailty, heart failure, and a high level of social risk. At 5years of follow-up, the mortality rate was high, with 138 (42.1%) of the population sample dying at the end of the period. It represents an annual mortality rate of 8.4%. Thus, a common denominator of this review has been the high importance of functionality and overall comorbidity factors associated with mortality in this very old age group, compared to other more traditional factors in younger populations. Several studies of frailty have also been assessed in this group, as well as falls, nutritional risk, diabetes and successful aging, including important aspects to better understand this population group. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Second Baseline Study in the Citronen Fjord Area North Greenland 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, C.

    period samples were collected of seaweed (Laminaria sp), fish (Fourhorned sculpin), river sediments, Arctic willow, Entired-leafed mountain avens, grasses and faeces from Muskox, Alpine hare and Collared lemming. These samples have been prepared for storage, and are now stored at the National...... Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment together with the samples from the first baseline study in 1994. Sea water and fresh water were sampled and analysed for dissolved zinc. The total amount of zinc discharged from the Eastern River during the period from 22 June to 13 August...... was about 2000 kgs. This is in the same order of magnitude as found in 1994 and 1995, despite a shorter sampling period and lack of peak zinc concentrations in 1997. Zinc concentrations in sea water below 2 meters in the Citronen Fjord were comparable to concentrations in 1994, and this level...

  9. Determinants of societal costs in Alzheimer's disease: GERAS study baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodel, Richard; Belger, Mark; Reed, Catherine; Wimo, Anders; Jones, Roy W; Happich, Michael; Argimon, Josep M; Bruno, Giuseppe; Vellas, Bruno; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-08-01

    To identify the main factors associated with societal costs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in community-dwelling patients across three European countries. Baseline cost data from a prospective, observational study were used. Assessments included patients' cognition, activities of daily living (ADLs) and behavioral symptoms, and caregiver burden. Cost calculations (2010) from the societal perspective were based on patient/caregiver resource use. Generalized linear models estimated factors associated with costs. Mean monthly costs per patient differed for France (€1881), Germany (€2349), and the UK (€2016), with informal care costs accounting for 50% to 61%. Independent factors associated with costs across all countries were ADL total score, patient living arrangements, caregiver working status, and caregiver burden (all P caregiver factors, including factors associated with informal care, should be included when evaluating care options for patients with AD. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study design and baseline findings from the progression of ocular findings (PROOF) natural history study of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Peter J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E; Hardten, David R; Conway, Taryn; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2017-12-28

    The aim of this research is to initiate a 5-year natural history study of dry eye disease (DED) using objectively assessed and patient-reported outcomes, to explore the hypothesis that DED is a progressive condition that has substantive and measurable impacts not only on the ocular surface, but on quality of life and visual functioning. Our objective for this report is to examine the baseline data. A multicenter, prospective, controlled, observational study of Level 2 (mild-to-moderate) DED patients based on International Task Force Delphi Panel severity grading, and controls, documented baseline measures (including tear film biomarkers and quality of life). Tear cytokine concentrations were also measured in the tear film. Patients were using artificial tears as needed. Two hundred seventeen DED patients and 67 gender- and age-matched controls were enrolled. A majority were females and Caucasian and groups did not differ significantly in terms of gender, race, or age. Differences between DED and matched controls, at baseline, included mean scores for Ocular Surface Disease Index (31.7 vs 4.1, P vision was reported as moderate/severe/very severe at baseline in 57.6% of DED patients vs.10.5% of normal controls (P vision, productivity, and visits to eye care practitioners in mild to moderate DED patients compared to normal subjects of similar ages and genders. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00833235 on January 30, 2009.

  11. A Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER: Screening Experience and Baseline Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagaay A Margot

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PROSPER was designed to investigate the benefits of treatment with pravastatin in elderly patients for whom a typical doctor might consider the prescription of statin therapy to be a realistic option. Methods The PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the hypothesis that treatment with pravastatin (40 mg/day will reduce the risk of coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or non-fatal stroke in elderly men and women with pre-existing vascular disease or with significant risk of developing this condition. Results In Scotland, Ireland, and the Netherlands, 23,770 individuals were screened, and 5,804 subjects (2,804 men and 3,000 women, aged 70 to 82 years (average 75 years and with baseline cholesterol 4.0–9.0 mmol/l, were randomised. Randomised subjects had similar distributions with respect to age, blood pressure, and body mass index when compared to the entire group of screenees, but had a higher prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and a history of vascular disease. The average total cholesterol level at baseline was 5.4 mmol/l (men and 6.0 mmol/l (women. Conclusions Compared with previous prevention trials of cholesterol-lowering drugs, the PROSPER cohort is significantly older and for the first time includes a majority of women. The study, having achieved its initial goal of recruiting more than 5,500 elderly high-risk men and women, aims to complete all final subject follow-up visits in the first half of 2002 with the main results being available in the fourth quarter of 2002.

  12. A Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER): Screening Experience and Baseline Characteristics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ford, Ian

    2002-05-20

    BACKGROUND: PROSPER was designed to investigate the benefits of treatment with pravastatin in elderly patients for whom a typical doctor might consider the prescription of statin therapy to be a realistic option. METHODS: The PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) is a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the hypothesis that treatment with pravastatin (40 mg\\/day) will reduce the risk of coronary heart disease death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and fatal or non-fatal stroke in elderly men and women with pre-existing vascular disease or with significant risk of developing this condition. RESULTS: In Scotland, Ireland, and the Netherlands, 23,770 individuals were screened, and 5,804 subjects (2,804 men and 3,000 women), aged 70 to 82 years (average 75 years) and with baseline cholesterol 4.0-9.0 mmol\\/l, were randomised. Randomised subjects had similar distributions with respect to age, blood pressure, and body mass index when compared to the entire group of screenees, but had a higher prevalence of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and a history of vascular disease. The average total cholesterol level at baseline was 5.4 mmol\\/l (men) and 6.0 mmol\\/l (women). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with previous prevention trials of cholesterol-lowering drugs, the PROSPER cohort is significantly older and for the first time includes a majority of women. The study, having achieved its initial goal of recruiting more than 5,500 elderly high-risk men and women, aims to complete all final subject follow-up visits in the first half of 2002 with the main results being available in the fourth quarter of 2002.

  13. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  14. Photonic engineering for biological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    My dissertation focuses on designing and developing prototypes of optical tools in the laboratory that can facilitate practical medical therapies. More specifically, this dissertation examines two novel biophotonic techniques: (1) a frequency multiplexed confocal microscope with the potential to provide rational therapy of congestive heart failure (CHF), and (2) the "optical comb" with the potential to improve results of retina reattachment surgery and accelerate post surgical recovery. Next, I will discuss the background, design and initial experimental results of each study individually. Part I: The Frequency Multiplexed Confocal Microscope. To overcome the limitations of existing confocal microscope technology, this dissertation proposes a non-scanning, real-time, high resolution technique (a multi-point frequency multiplexed confocal microscope) to measure 3-D intracellular calcium ion concentration in a living cardiac myocyte. This method can be also applied to measure the intracellular sodium ion concentration, or other ions in which high quantum-yield fluorescent probes are available. The novelty of the proposed research lies in the introduction of carrier frequency multiplexing techniques which can differentiate fluorescence emitted at different spatial locations in cardiac myocyte by their modulated frequency. It therefore opens the possibility to visualize the transient dynamics of intracellular dynamics at multiple locations in cells simultaneously, which will shine a new light on our understanding of CHF. The procedure for frequency multiplexing proposed is described below. Multiple incident laser beams are focused onto different locations in an isolated rat cardiac myocyte with each beam modulated at a different carrier frequency. The fluorescence emission at each location therefore bears the same modulated frequency as the stimulation laser beam. Each fluorescence signal is sent to the photo multiplier tube (PMT) after being spatially filtered by a

  15. Determining a pre-mining radiological baseline from historic airborne gamma surveys: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beraldo, Annamarie; Pfitzner, Kirrilly; Esparon, Andrew; Doering, Che

    2014-01-15

    Knowing the baseline level of radioactivity in areas naturally enriched in radionuclides is important in the uranium mining context to assess radiation doses to humans and the environment both during and after mining. This information is particularly useful in rehabilitation planning and developing closure criteria for uranium mines as only radiation doses additional to the natural background are usually considered 'controllable' for radiation protection purposes. In this case study we have tested whether the method of contemporary groundtruthing of a historic airborne gamma survey could be used to determine the pre-mining radiological conditions at the Ranger mine in northern Australia. The airborne gamma survey was flown in 1976 before mining started and groundtruthed using ground gamma dose rate measurements made between 2007 and 2009 at an undisturbed area naturally enriched in uranium (Anomaly 2) located nearby the Ranger mine. Measurements of (226)Ra soil activity concentration and (222)Rn exhalation flux density at Anomaly 2 were made concurrent with the ground gamma dose rate measurements. Algorithms were developed to upscale the ground gamma data to the same spatial resolution as the historic airborne gamma survey data using a geographic information system, allowing comparison of the datasets. Linear correlation models were developed to estimate the pre-mining gamma dose rates, (226)Ra soil activity concentrations, and (222)Rn exhalation flux densities at selected areas in the greater Ranger region. The modelled levels agreed with measurements made at the Ranger Orebodies 1 and 3 before mining started, and at environmental sites in the region. The conclusion is that our approach can be used to determine baseline radiation levels, and provide a benchmark for rehabilitation of uranium mines or industrial sites where historical airborne gamma survey data are available and an undisturbed radiological analogue exists to groundtruth the data. © 2013.

  16. Establishing multiple omics baselines for three Southeast Asian populations in the Singapore Integrative Omics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Woei-Yuh; Tantoso, Erwin; Begum, Husna; Zhou, Lihan; Zou, Ruiyang; He, Cheng; Chan, Sze Ling; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Wong, Lai-Ping; Xu, Wenting; Moong, Don Kyin Nwe; Lim, Yenly; Li, Bowen; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Peterson, Trevor A; Bielawny, Tomasz; Meikle, Peter J; Mundra, Piyushkumar A; Lim, Wei-Yen; Luo, Ma; Chia, Kee-Seng; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Brunham, Liam R; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Too, Heng Phon; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus R; Little, Peter; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2017-09-21

    The Singapore Integrative Omics Study provides valuable insights on establishing population reference measurement in 364 Chinese, Malay, and Indian individuals. These measurements include > 2.5 millions genetic variants, 21,649 transcripts expression, 282 lipid species quantification, and 284 clinical, lifestyle, and dietary variables. This concept paper introduces the depth of the data resource, and investigates the extent of ethnic variation at these omics and non-omics biomarkers. It is evident that there are specific biomarkers in each of these platforms to differentiate between the ethnicities, and intra-population analyses suggest that Chinese and Indians are the most biologically homogeneous and heterogeneous, respectively, of the three groups. Consistent patterns of correlations between lipid species also suggest the possibility of lipid tagging to simplify future lipidomics assays. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study is expected to allow the characterization of intra-omic and inter-omic correlations within and across all three ethnic groups through a systems biology approach.The Singapore Genome Variation projects characterized the genetics of Singapore's Chinese, Malay, and Indian populations. The Singapore Integrative Omics Study introduced here goes further in providing multi-omic measurements in individuals from these populations, including genetic, transcriptome, lipidome, and lifestyle data, and will facilitate the study of common diseases in Asian communities.

  17. Adult Spasticity International Registry Study: methodology and baseline patient, healthcare provider, and caregiver characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard E. Francisco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine the utilization patterns and effectiveness of onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox® for treatment of spasticity in clinical practice. Design: An international, multicentre, prospective, observational study at selected sites in North America, Europe, and Asia. Patients: Adult patients with newly diagnosed or established focal spasticity, including those who had previously received treatment with onabotulinum-toxin A. Methods: Patients were treated with onabotulinumtoxinA, approximately every 12 weeks, according to their physician’s usual clinical practice over a period of up to 96 weeks, with a final follow-up interview at 108 weeks. Patient, physician and caregiver data were collected. Results: Baseline characteristics are reported. Of the 745 patients enrolled by 75 healthcare providers from 54 sites, 474 patients had previously received onabotulinumtoxinA treatment for spasticity. Lower limb spasticity was more common than upper limb spasticity, with stroke the most common underlying aetiology. The Short-Form 12 (SF-12 health survey scores showed that patients’ spasticity had a greater perceived impact on physical rather than mental aspects. Conclusion: The data collected in this study will guide the development of administration strategies to optimize the effectiveness of onabotulinumtoxinA in the management of spasticity of various underlying aetiologies.

  18. A comparative study of long-baseline superbeams within LAGUNA for large $\\theta_{13}$

    CERN Document Server

    Coloma, Pilar; Pascoli, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The Daya Bay and RENO experiments have recently observed a non-zero $\\theta_{13}$ at more than $5\\sigma$ CL. This has important consequences for future neutrino oscillation experiments. We analyze these within the LAGUNA design study which considers seven possible locations for a European neutrino observatory for proton decay, neutrino, and astroparticle physics. The megaton-scale detector would be an ideal target for a CERN-based neutrino beam with baselines ranging from 130 km to 2300 km. We perform a detailed study to assess the physics reach of the three detector options - a 440 kton water \\v{C}erenkov, a 100 kton liquid argon and a 50 kton liquid scintillator detector - at each of the possible locations, taking into account the recent measurement of $\\theta_{13}$. We study the impact of the beam properties and detector performances on the sensitivity to CP-violation and the mass hierarchy. We find that a liquid argon or water \\v{C}erenkov detector can make a $3\\sigma$ discovery of CP violation for $60%-7...

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican middle-class urban population. The Lindavista Study. Baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Alejandra; Ceballos-Reyes, Guillermo; Gutiérrez-Salmean, Gabriela; Samaniego-Méndez, Virginia; Vela-Huerta, Agustín; Alcocer, Luis; Zárate-Chavarría, Elisa; Mendoza-Castelán, Emma; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martínez-Marroquín, Yolanda; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Meaney, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to describe the cardiovascular risk factors affecting a Mexican urban middle-class population. A convenience sample of 2602 middle class urban subjects composed the cohort of the Lindavista Study, a prospective study aimed to determine if conventional cardiovascular risks factors have the same prognosis impact as in other populations. For the baseline data, several measurements were done: obesity indexes, smoking, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides. This paper presents the basal values of this population, which represents a sample of the Mexican growing urban middle-class. The mean age in the sample was 50 years; 59% were females. Around 50% of the entire group were overweighed, while around 24% were obese. 32% smoked; 32% were hypertensive with a 20% rate of controlled pressure. 6% had diabetes, and 14% had impaired fasting glucose; 66% had total cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dL; 62% showed HDL-c levels150 mg/dL, and 34% levels of LDL-c ≥ 160 mg/dL. Half of the population studied had the metabolic syndrome. These data show a population with a high-risk profile, secondary to the agglomeration of several cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  1. Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Bacopoulos; James David Lambert; Mary Hertz; Luis Montoya; Terry Smith

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-...

  2. [Baseline clinical characteristics and management of patients included in IBERICAN study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Escobar, C; Llisterri, J L; Rodríguez Roca, G; Badimón, J J; Vergara, J; Prieto, M Á; Serrano, A; Cinza, S; Murillo, C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in Spain, as well as the quality of the follow-up in clinical practice. In this study the baseline data of the first interim analysis of IBERICAN are shown (n=830). IBERICAN is a multicenter, longitudinal and observational population-based study of patients daily attended in primary care setting according to clinical practice in Spain. Subjects between 18 and 85 years daily attended in primary care setting are being included consecutively. Treatment of patients will be performed according only to clinical criteria of investigators. Blood pressure control was defined according to 2013 European guidelines of hypertension; LDL-cholesterol control was defined according to 2012 European guidelines of cardiovascular prevention; diabetes control was defined as HbA1ccardiovascular risk factors with a poor control. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. The Energy Balance Study: The Design and Baseline Results for a Longitudinal Study of Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Paluch, Amanda E.; Baruth, Meghan; Crowley, E. Patrick; Jaggers, Jason R.; Prasad, Vivek K.; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hebert, James R.; O'Connor, Daniel P.; Archer, Edward; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The Energy Balance Study (EBS) was a comprehensive study designed to determine over a period of 12 months the associations of caloric intake and energy expenditure on changes in body weight and composition in a population of healthy men and women. Method: EBS recruited men and women aged 21 to 35 years with a body mass index between 20…

  4. Yield and bias in defining a cohort study baseline from electronic health record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassy, Jason L; Ho, Yuk-Lam; Honerlaw, Jacqueline; Cho, Kelly; Gaziano, J Michael; Wilson, Peter W F; Gagnon, David R

    2018-02-01

    Despite growing interest in using electronic health records (EHR) to create longitudinal cohort studies, the distribution and missingness of EHR data might introduce selection bias and information bias to such analyses. We aimed to examine the yield and potential for these healthcare process biases in defining a study baseline using EHR data, using the example of cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) measurements. We created a virtual cohort study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) from patients with eligible cholesterol profiles in the New England (NE) and Southeast (SE) networks of the Veterans Health Administration in the United States. Using clinical data from the EHR, we plotted the yield of patients with BP measurements within an expanding timeframe around an index date of cholesterol testing. We compared three groups: (1) patients with BP from the exact index date; (2) patients with BP not on the index date but within the network-specific 90th percentile around the index date; and (3) patients with no BP within the network-specific 90th percentile. Among 589,361 total patients in the two networks, 146,636 (61.0%) of 240,479 patients from NE and 289,906 (83.1%) of 348,882 patients from SE had BP measurements on the index date. Ninety percent had BP measured within 11 days of the index date in NE and within 5 days of the index date in SE. Group 3 in both networks had fewer available race data, fewer comorbidities and CVD medications, and fewer health system encounters. Requiring same-day risk factor measurement in the creation of a virtual CVD cohort study from EHR data might exclude 40% of eligible patients, but including patients with infrequent visits might introduce bias. Data visualization can inform study-specific strategies to address these challenges for the research use of EHR data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Determining a pre-mining radiological baseline from historic airborne gamma surveys: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beraldo, Annamarie; Pfitzner, Kirrilly; Esparon, Andrew; Doering, Che

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the baseline level of radioactivity in areas naturally enriched in radionuclides is important in the uranium mining context to assess radiation doses to humans and the environment both during and after mining. This information is particularly useful in rehabilitation planning and developing closure criteria for uranium mines as only radiation doses additional to the natural background are usually considered ‘controllable’ for radiation protection purposes. In this case study we have tested whether the method of contemporary groundtruthing of a historic airborne gamma survey could be used to determine the pre-mining radiological conditions at the Ranger mine in northern Australia. The airborne gamma survey was flown in 1976 before mining started and groundtruthed using ground gamma dose rate measurements made between 2007 and 2009 at an undisturbed area naturally enriched in uranium (Anomaly 2) located nearby the Ranger mine. Measurements of 226 Ra soil activity concentration and 222 Rn exhalation flux density at Anomaly 2 were made concurrent with the ground gamma dose rate measurements. Algorithms were developed to upscale the ground gamma data to the same spatial resolution as the historic airborne gamma survey data using a geographic information system, allowing comparison of the datasets. Linear correlation models were developed to estimate the pre-mining gamma dose rates, 226 Ra soil activity concentrations, and 222 Rn exhalation flux densities at selected areas in the greater Ranger region. The modelled levels agreed with measurements made at the Ranger Orebodies 1 and 3 before mining started, and at environmental sites in the region. The conclusion is that our approach can be used to determine baseline radiation levels, and provide a benchmark for rehabilitation of uranium mines or industrial sites where historical airborne gamma survey data are available and an undisturbed radiological analogue exists to groundtruth the data. - Highlights:

  6. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases: study design and baseline characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Na

    Full Text Available Diet and nutrition have been reported to be associated with many common chronic diseases and blood-based assessment would be vital to investigate the association and mechanism, however, blood-based prospective studies are limited. The Harbin Cohort Study on Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Non-communicable Diseases was set up in 2010. From 2010 to 2012, 9,734 participants completed the baseline survey, including demographic characteristics, dietary intake, lifestyles and physical condition, and anthropometrics. A re-survey on 490 randomly selected participants was done by using the same methods which were employed in the baseline survey. For all participants, the mean age was 50 years and 36% of them were men. Approximately 99.4 % of cohort members donated blood samples. The mean total energy intake was 2671.7 kcal/day in men and 2245.9 kcal/day in women, the mean body mass index was 25.7 kg/m2 in men and 24.6 kg/m2 in women, with 18.4% being obese (≥ 28 kg/m2, 12.7% being diabetic, and 29.5% being hypertensive. A good agreement was obtained for the physical measurements between the baseline survey and re-survey. The resources from the cohort and its fasting and postprandial blood samples collected both at baseline and in each follow-up will be valuable and powerful in investigating relationship between diet, nutrition and chronic diseases and discovering novel blood biomarkers and the metabolism of these biomarkers related to chronic diseases.

  7. Studying cell biology in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Angel; Lechler, Terry

    2015-11-15

    Advances in cell biology have often been driven by studies in diverse organisms and cell types. Although there are technical reasons for why different cell types are used, there are also important physiological reasons. For example, ultrastructural studies of vesicle transport were aided by the use of professional secretory cell types. The use of tissues/primary cells has the advantage not only of using cells that are adapted to the use of certain cell biological machinery, but also of highlighting the physiological roles of this machinery. Here we discuss advantages of the skin as a model system. We discuss both advances in cell biology that used the skin as a driving force and future prospects for use of the skin to understand basic cell biology. A unique combination of characteristics and tools makes the skin a useful in vivo model system for many cell biologists. © 2015 Morrow and Lechler. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Does baseline innate immunity change with age? A multi-year study in great tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Anke; Eens, Marcel; Van Dongen, Stefan; Müller, Wendt

    2017-06-01

    Throughout their life animals progressively accumulate mostly detrimental changes in cells, tissues and their functions, causing a decrease in individual performance and ultimately an increased risk of death. The latter may be amplified if it also leads to a deterioration of the immune system which forms the most important protection against the permanent threat of pathogens and infectious diseases. Here, we investigated how four baseline innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin and concentrations of nitric oxide) changed with age in free-living great tits (Parus major). We applied both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches as birds were sampled for up to three years of their lives. Three out of the four selected innate immune parameters were affected by age. However, the shape of the response curves differed strongly among the innate immune parameters. Natural antibody levels increased during early life until mid-age to decrease thereafter when birds aged. Complement activity was highest in young birds, while levels slightly decreased with increasing age. Haptoglobin levels on the other hand, showed a linear, but highly variable increase with age, while nitric oxide concentrations were unaffected by age. The observed differences among the four studied innate immune traits not only indicate the importance of considering several immune traits at the same time, but also highlight the complexity of innate immunity. Unraveling the functional significance of the observed changes in innate immunity is thus a challenging next step. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Depression in primary care patients with coronary heart disease: baseline findings from the UPBEAT UK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walters

    Full Text Available An association between depression and coronary heart disease is now accepted but there has been little primary care research on this topic. The UPBEAT-UK studies are centred on a cohort of primary patients with coronary heart disease assessed every six months for up to four years. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and associations of depression in this cohort at baseline.Participants with coronary heart disease were recruited from general practice registers and assessed for cardiac symptoms, depression, quality of life and social problems.803 people participated. 42% had a documented history of myocardial infarction, 54% a diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or angina. 44% still experienced chest pain. 7% had an ICD-10 defined depressive disorder. Factors independently associated with this diagnosis were problems living alone (OR 5.49, 95% CI 2.11-13.30, problems carrying out usual activities (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.93-7.14, experiencing chest pain (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.58-6.76, other pains or discomfort (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.42-8.10, younger age (OR 0.95 per year 95% CI 0.92-0.98.Problems living alone, chest pain and disability are important predictors of depression in this population.

  10. Ecological baseline study of the Yakima Firing Center proposed land acquisition: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.; Beedlow, P.A.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Dauble, D.D.; Fitzner, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides baseline environmental information for the property identified for possible expansion of the Yakima Firing Center. Results from this work provide general descriptions of the animals and major plant communities present. A vegetation map derived from a combination of on-site surveillance and remotely sensed imagery is provided as part of this report. Twenty-seven wildlife species of special interest (protected, sensitive, furbearer, game animal, etc.), and waterfowl, were observed on the proposed expansion area. Bird censuses revealed 13 raptorial species (including four of special interest: bald eagle, golden eagle, osprey, and prairie falcon); five upland game bird species (sage grouse, California quail, chukar, gray partridge, and ring-necked pheasant); common loons (a species proposed for state listing as threatened); and five other species of special interest (sage thrasher, loggerhead shrike, mourning dove, sage sparrow, and long-billed curlew). Estimates of waterfowl abundance are included for the Priest Rapids Pool of the Columbia River. Six small mammal species were captured during this study; one, the sagebrush vole, is a species of special interest. Two large animal species, mule deer and elk, were noted on the site. Five species of furbearing animals were observed (coyote, beaver, raccoon, mink, and striped skunk). Four species of reptiles and one amphibian were noted. Fisheries surveys were conducted to document the presence of gamefish, and sensitive-classified fish and aquatic invertebrates. Rainbow trout were the only fish collected within the boundaries of the proposed northern expansion area. 22 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Studies on Semantic Systems Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Current "one disease, one target and one drug" drug development paradigm is under question as relatively few drugs have reached the market in the last two decades. Increasingly research focus is being placed on the study of drug action against biological systems as a whole rather than against a single component (called "Systems…

  12. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2

  13. Inflatable penile prosthesis implant length with baseline characteristic correlations: preliminary analysis of the PROPPER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nelson; Henry, Gerard; Karpman, Edward; Brant, William; Jones, LeRoy; Khera, Mohit; Kohler, Tobias; Christine, Brian; Rhee, Eugene; Kansas, Bryan; Bella, Anthony J

    2017-12-01

    "Prospective Registry of Outcomes with Penile Prosthesis for Erectile Restoration" (PROPPER) is a large, multi-institutional, prospective clinical study to collect, analyze, and report real-world outcomes for men implanted with penile prosthetic devices. We prospectively correlated co-morbid conditions and demographic data with implanted penile prosthesis size to enable clinicians to better predict implanted penis size following penile implantation. We present many new data points for the first time in the literature and postulate that radical prostatectomy (RP) is negatively correlated with penile corporal length. Patient demographics, medical history, baseline characteristics and surgical details were compiled prospectively. Pearson correlation coefficient was generated for the correlation between demographic, etiology of ED, duration of ED, co-morbid conditions, pre-operative penile length (flaccid and stretched) and length of implanted penile prosthesis. Multivariate analysis was performed to define predictors of implanted prosthesis length. From June 2011 to June 2017, 1,135 men underwent primary implantation of penile prosthesis at a total of 11 study sites. Malleable (Spectra), 2-piece Ambicor, and 3-piece AMS 700 CX/LGX were included in the analysis. The most common patient comorbidities were CV disease (26.1%), DM (11.1%), and PD (12.4%). Primary etiology of ED: RP (27.4%), DM (20.3%), CVD (18.0%), PD (10.3%), and Priapism (1.4%), others (22.6%). Mean duration of ED is 6.2¡À4.1 years. Implant length was weakly negatively correlated with White/Caucasian (r=-0.18; Pprosthesis length is negatively correlated with some ethnic groups, prostatectomy, and incontinence. Positive correlates include CV disease, preoperative stretched penile length, and flaccid penile length.

  14. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud; Elsborg, Peter; W Helge, Jørn

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h 2 , fat 44 ± 7 %) women ( n = 55) and men ( n = 29) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1-3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (-500 to -700 kCal/day) and education in healthy lifestyle in classes/groups. The participants' body weight and composition (Dual Energy X-ray absorptiometry), volitional skills (questionnaire), physical activity level (heart rate accelerometer/questionnaire) and maximal oxygen uptake (indirect calorimetry) are to be monitored before, after, and 3 and 12 months after the intervention. At the 12-month follow-up, three different groups will be established: Clinical weight loss maintenance (> 10% weight loss from baseline), moderate weight loss maintenance (1-10% weight loss) and no weight loss (or weight regain). A linear mixed model analysis will be used to compare levels of volitional skills, physical activity and maximal oxygen uptake over time, between the three groups. Correlational analyses will be used to investigate possible associations between volition, maximal oxygen uptake, physical activity level and weight loss maintenance. If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate.

  15. South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes Study: Methods and Baseline Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Cubasch

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In low- and middle-income, HIV-endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, morbidity and mortality from the common epithelial cancers of the developed world are rising. Even among HIV-infected individuals, access to antiretroviral therapy has enhanced life expectancy, shifting the distribution of cancer diagnoses toward non–AIDS-defining malignancies, including breast cancer. Building on our prior research, we recently initiated the South African Breast Cancer and HIV Outcomes study. Methods: We will recruit a cohort of 3,000 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer at hospitals in high (average, 20% HIV prevalence areas, in Johannesburg, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, and Empangeni. At baseline, we will collect information on demographic, behavioral, clinical, and other factors related to access to health care. Every 3 months in year 1 and every 6 months thereafter, we will collect interview and chart data on treatment, symptoms, cancer progression, comorbidities, and other factors. We will compare survival rates of HIV-infected and uninfected women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and their likelihood of receiving suboptimal anticancer therapy. We will identify determinants of suboptimal therapy and context-specific modifiable factors that future interventions can target to improve outcomes. We will explore molecular mechanisms underlying potentially aggressive breast cancer in both HIV-infected and uninfected patients, as well as the roles of pathogens, states of immune activation, and inflammation in disease progression. Conclusion: Our goals are to contribute to development of evidence-based guidelines for the management of breast cancer in HIV-positive women and to improve outcomes for all patients with breast cancer in resource-constrained settings.

  16. The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study: Baseline Data from a Prospective Observational African Sub-Saharan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Zengin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study is a prospective observational study investigating bone and muscle ageing in men and women from a poor, subsistence farming community of The Gambia, West Africa. Musculoskeletal diseases, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia, form a major part of the current global non-communicable disease burden. By 2050, the vast majority of the world’s ageing population will live in low- and middle-income countries with an estimated two-fold rise in osteoporotic fracture. The study design was to characterise change in bone and muscle outcomes and to identify possible preventative strategies for fracture and sarcopenia in the increasing ageing population. Men and women aged ≥40 years from the Kiang West region of The Gambia were recruited with stratified sampling by sex and age. Baseline measurements were completed in 488 participants in 2012 who were randomly assigned to follow-up between 1.5 and 2 years later. Follow-up measurements were performed on 465 participants approximately 1.7 years after baseline measurements. The data set comprises a wide range of measurements on bone, muscle strength, anthropometry, biochemistry, and dietary intake. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on health, lifestyle, musculoskeletal pain, and reproductive status. Baseline cross-sectional data show preliminary evidence for bone mineral density and muscle loss with age. Men had greater negative differences in total body lean mass with age than women following adjustments for body size. From peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans, greater negative associations between bone outcomes and age at the radius and tibia were shown in women than in men. Ultimately, the findings from The Gambian Bone and Muscle Ageing Study will contribute to the understanding of musculoskeletal health in a transitioning population and better characterise fracture and sarcopenia incidence in The Gambia with an aim to the

  17. KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for the baseline study in monitoring of gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-rock; Chun, Jong-hwa

    2013-04-01

    For the baseline study in the monitoring gas hydrate test production in the Ulleung Basin, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has developed the KIGAM Seafloor Observation System (KISOS) for seafloor exploration using unmanned remotely operated vehicle connected with a ship by a cable. The KISOS consists of a transponder of an acoustic positioning system (USBL), a bottom finding pinger, still camera, video camera, water sampler, and measuring devices (methane, oxygen, CTD, and turbidity sensors) mounted on the unmanned ROV, and a sediment collecting device collecting sediment on the seafloor. It is very important to monitoring the environmental risks (gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge) which may be occurred during the gas hydrate test production drilling. The KISOS will be applied to solely conduct baseline study with the KIGAM seafloor monitoring system (KIMOS) of the Korean gas hydrate program in the future. The large scale of environmental monitoring program includes the environmental impact assessment such as seafloor disturbance and subsidence, detection of methane gas leakage around well and cold seep, methane bubbles and dissolved methane, change of marine environments, chemical factor variation of water column and seabed, diffusion of drilling mud and production water, and biological factors of biodiversity and marine habitats before and after drilling test well and nearby areas. The design of the baseline survey will be determined based on the result of SIMAP simulation in 2013. The baseline survey will be performed to provide the gas leakage and production water/drilling mud discharge before and after gas hydrate test production. The field data of the baseline study will be evaluated by the simulation and verification of SIMAP simulator in 2014. In the presentation, the authors would like introduce the configuration of KISOS and applicability to the seafloor observation for the gas hydrate test production in

  18. The steroids for corneal ulcers trial: study design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V; Ray, Kathryn J; Hong, Kevin C; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Lee, Salena M; Zegans, Michael E; McLeod, Stephen D; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R

    2012-02-01

    To provide comprehensive trial methods and baseline data for the Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial and to present epidemiological characteristics such as risk factors, causative organisms, and ulcer severity. Baseline data from a 1:1 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial comparing prednisolone phosphate, 1%, with placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and had been taking moxifloxacin for 48 hours. The primary outcome for the trial is best spectacle-corrected visual acuity at 3 months from enrollment. This report provides comprehensive baseline data, including best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, infiltrate size, microbiological results, and patient demographics, for patients enrolled in the trial. Of 500 patients enrolled, 97% were in India. Two hundred twenty patients (44%) were agricultural workers. Median baseline visual acuity was 0.84 logMAR (Snellen, 20/125) (interquartile range, 0.36-1.7; Snellen, 20/50 to counting fingers). Baseline visual acuity was not significantly different between the United States and India. Ulcers in India had larger infiltrate/scar sizes (P = .04) and deeper infiltrates (P = .04) and were more likely to be localized centrally (P = .002) than ulcers enrolled in the United States. Gram-positive bacteria were the most common organisms isolated from the ulcers (n = 366, 72%). The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial will compare the use of a topical corticosteroid with placebo as adjunctive therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Patients enrolled in this trial had diverse ulcer severity and on average significantly reduced visual acuity at presentation. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00324168.

  19. Baseline study of the Mokolo and Lephalala rivers in the Waterberg area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Klerk, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available ). Agriculture and stream water quality: A biological evaluation of erosion control practices. Environmental Management, 8: 333-344. Margalef, R. (1951). Diversidad de especies en las comunidades naturales. Publicaciones del Instituto de Biologia Aplicada de...

  20. Impact of baseline severity of aortic valve stenosis on effect of intensive lipid lowering therapy (from the SEAS study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, Eva; Rossebø, Anne Bjørhovde; Pedersen, Terje Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective studies have suggested a beneficial effect of lipid-lowering treatment on the progression of aortic stenosis (AS) in milder stages of the disease. In the randomized, placebo-controlled Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study, 4.3 years of combined treatment...... with simvastatin 40 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg did not reduce aortic valve events (AVEs), while ischemic cardiovascular events (ICEs) were significantly reduced in the overall study population. However, the impact of baseline AS severity on treatment effect has not been reported. Baseline and outcomes data in 1...

  1. Studying the physics potential of long-baseline experiments in terms of new sensitivity parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mandip

    2016-01-01

    We investigate physics opportunities to constraint the leptonic CP-violation phase δ CP through numerical analysis of working neutrino oscillation probability parameters, in the context of long-baseline experiments. Numerical analysis of two parameters, the “transition probability δ CP phase sensitivity parameter (A M )” and the “CP-violation probability δ CP phase sensitivity parameter (A CP ),” as functions of beam energy and/or baseline have been carried out. It is an elegant technique to broadly analyze different experiments to constrain the δ CP phase and also to investigate the mass hierarchy in the leptonic sector. Positive and negative values of the parameter A CP , corresponding to either hierarchy in the specific beam energy ranges, could be a very promising way to explore the mass hierarchy and δ CP phase. The keys to more robust bounds on the δ CP phase are improvements of the involved detection techniques to explore lower energies and relatively long baseline regions with better experimental accuracy.

  2. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roik

    Full Text Available Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29-33°C and salinity (39 PSU exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2-4 mg L-1. While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.

  3. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan G.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29–33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2–4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region. PMID:27828965

  4. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna Krystyna

    2016-11-09

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29–33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2–4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.

  5. Year-Long Monitoring of Physico-Chemical and Biological Variables Provide a Comparative Baseline of Coral Reef Functioning in the Central Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Roder, Cornelia; Ziegler, Maren; Kremb, Stephan G; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs in the central Red Sea are sparsely studied and in situ data on physico-chemical and key biotic variables that provide an important comparative baseline are missing. To address this gap, we simultaneously monitored three reefs along a cross-shelf gradient for an entire year over four seasons, collecting data on currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chlorophyll-a, turbidity, inorganic nutrients, sedimentation, bacterial communities of reef water, and bacterial and algal composition of epilithic biofilms. Summer temperature (29-33°C) and salinity (39 PSU) exceeded average global maxima for coral reefs, whereas DO concentration was low (2-4 mg L-1). While temperature and salinity differences were most pronounced between seasons, DO, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and sedimentation varied most between reefs. Similarly, biotic communities were highly dynamic between reefs and seasons. Differences in bacterial biofilms were driven by four abundant families: Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Flammeovirgaceae, and Pseudanabaenaceae. In algal biofilms, green crusts, brown crusts, and crustose coralline algae were most abundant and accounted for most of the variability of the communities. Higher bacterial diversity of biofilms coincided with increased algal cover during spring and summer. By employing multivariate matching, we identified temperature, salinity, DO, and chlorophyll-a as the main contributing physico-chemical drivers of biotic community structures. These parameters are forecast to change most with the progression of ocean warming and increased nutrient input, which suggests an effect on the recruitment of Red Sea benthic communities as a result of climate change and anthropogenic influence. In conclusion, our study provides insight into coral reef functioning in the Red Sea and a comparative baseline to support coral reef studies in the region.

  6. Environmental baseline study of the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project area of New Mexico: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, H.G. (ed.)

    1977-09-01

    Exploratory drilling operations are being conducted for a Waste Isolation Pilot Program in southeastern New Mexico. Prior to the establishment of such a program, an environmental study was initiated to serve as a baseline for evaluation of the impact of future activities in the Los Medanos area. Much of this area has been influenced by human activities over a long period, and hence the baseline data only reflects the present, relatively disturbed condition of the environment. The study covers air resources, soils, and biotic resources. 23 tables, 6 figs. (DLC)

  7. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine

    2006-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establishment of the Community target for reduction of Salmonella in laying hens in accordance with Article 4 of Regulation No 2160/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the control of salmo...

  8. Biological Studies of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Roger K.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Shin, Lisa M.; Orr, Scott P.; Gilbertson, Mark W.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Preface Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known, viz., an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness, or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular, and molecular levels. The present review attempts to present the current state of this understanding, based upon psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, endocrinological, genetic, and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models. PMID:23047775

  9. Sampling designs for geochemical baseline studies in the Colorado oil shale region: a manual for practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klusman, R. W.; Ringrose, C. D.; Candito, R. J.; Zuccaro, B.; Rutherford, D. W.; Dean, W. E.

    1980-06-01

    This manual presents a rationale for sampling designs, and results of geochemical baseline studies in the Colorado portion of the oil-shale region. The program consists of a systematic trace element study of soils, stream sediments, and plants carried out in a way to be conservative of human and financial resources and yield maximum information. Extension of this approach to other parameters, other locations, and to environmental baseline studies in general is a primary objective. A baseline for any geochemical parameter can be defined as the concentration of that parameter in a given medium such as soil, the range of its concentration, and the geographic scale of variability. In air quality studies, and to a lesser extent for plants, the temporal scale of variability must also be considered. In studies of soil, the temporal variablility does not become a factor until such time that a study is deemed necessary to evaluate whether or not there have been changes in baseline levels as a result of development. The manual is divided into five major parts. The first is a suggested sampling protocol which is presented in an outline form for guiding baseline studies in this area. The second section is background information on the physical features of the area of study, trace elements of significance occurring in oil shale, and the sample media used in these studies. The third section is concerned primarily with sampling design and its application to the geochemical studies of the oil shale region. The last sections, in the form of appendices, provide actual data and illustrate in a systematic manner, the calculations performed to obtain the various summary data. The last segment of the appendices is a more academic discussion of the geochemistry of trace elements and the parameters of importance influencing their behavior in natural systems.

  10. IS BASELINE STRAIN INDEX A PROGNOSTIC FACTOR FOR SMALL UNILATERAL SUPRASPINATUS TENDON TEARS? A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cappiello

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. From prospectively report the 2-year follow-up clinical and real-time sonoelastography (RTSE outcomes of a group of patients affected by small unilateral supraspinatus tendon tears. Our hypothesis was that patients with lower baseline strain indexes would have worst outcomes at follow-up. Methods. We recruited patients suffering by a unilateral rotator cuff tear. All patients have prospectively scrutinized. Patients were initially managed non-operatively, after at least 3 months of failed conservative treatment patients went under surgery. Our clinical evaluation and follow up was done by: complete physical examination; VAS for pain; Quick DASH; Constant–Murley score; Simple Shoulder Test; ASES score and UCLA score. The mechanical properties of tissues were evalutated by Conventional ultrasounds and RTSE and they were estimated uging the Strain index. Results. Forty-three patients were available for evaluation at 2 years. Fifteen had undergone surgery (operative group, while 28 recovered from pain and dysfunction with conservative management andhad not required surgery (non-operative group. Patients in both groups significantly improved at follow-up, and no differences were found in all considered clinical outcomes. The biomechanical properties of repaired tendons were maintained, while non-operatively treated tendons softened over time. Baseline and follow-up strain indexes were linearly correlated with clinical outcomes at 2 years. Conclusions. Baselinestrain index could be associated with post-operative functional outcomes at 2-year follow-up. The biomechanical properties of surgically repaired tendons were maintained, while non-operatively treated tendons softened over time. At least in this cohort of patients, baseline strain index did not suggest who could be managed conservatively and who will need surgery.

  11. BASELINE DEVELOPMENT USING THE CRITICAL DECISION AND DOE ORDER 413.3 FRAMEWORKS: A CASE STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, M.L.; Duffy, M.A.; Gantos, N.J.; Zadeh, B.

    2003-01-01

    From 1943 through 1986, Battelle Memorial Institute performed nuclear research and development on behalf of various Federal government agencies, primarily for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies. This work was performed in Battelle's privately owned facilities in Columbus, Ohio, and a research park located at an 11-acre facility 16 miles west of Columbus, in a rural area near the village of West Jefferson, Ohio. Under the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP), Battelle is now engaged in cleaning up the West Jefferson site on a cost-sharing basis with the DOE. The BCLDP mission is to decontaminate Battelle facilities in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner, returning the facilities to a condition suitable for use without radiological restriction. The Columbus Environmental Management Project (CEMP), reporting to the DOE Ohio Field Office, is the DOE organization that is responsible for overseeing the BCLDP. CEMP requested preparation of a technical baseline, suitable for independent validation, establishing the scope, cost, and schedule for completing the project. Concurrent with this request, the DOE Office of Environmental Management issued DOE Order 413.3, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, for review and, shortly thereafter, published the first drafts of companion documents titled Program and Project Management Manual and Project Management Practices. These two documents suggest or require the use of a variety of techniques and tools for planning and executing DOE cleanup programs. Accordingly, Battelle successfully developed a project baseline for obtaining approval of Critical Decision 2/3 (CD-2/3) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 413.3 and the technical approaches described in the companion documents. This paper addresses three fundamental questions:(1) What were the planned baseline development methodology and its implementation

  12. Hyperactive night and day? Actigraphy studies in adult ADHD: a baseline comparison and the effect of methylphenidate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.M.; Kooij, J.J.S.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Someren, E.J.W. van

    2007-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate parameters of sleep, activity, and circadian rhythm, as well as the effects of methylphenidate on these variables, in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: 1) Baseline group comparison; 2) Double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over medication trial. SETTING: Data collection

  13. Ready or Not...: Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills in this Economic Downturn--A Canadian Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Janet; Yerichuk, Deanna; Murray-Smith, Nick

    2009-01-01

    In March 2009, Movement for Canadian Literacy (MCL) commissioned "Resources for Results", a private research and evaluation firm, to conduct a baseline study to explore the effects of the recent economic downturn on literacy and essential skills programs across Canada. The "Resources for Results" research team interviewed 35…

  14. Operationalizing clean development mechanism baselines: A case study of China's electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Paul A.

    The global carbon market is rapidly developing as the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol draws closer and Parties to the Protocol with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets seek alternative ways to reduce their emissions. The Protocol includes the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a tool that encourages project-based investments to be made in developing nations that will lead to an additional reduction in emissions. Due to China's economic size and rate of growth, technological characteristics, and its reliance on coal, it contains a large proportion of the global CDM potential. As China's economy modernizes, more technologies and processes are requiring electricity and demand for this energy source is accelerating rapidly. Relatively inefficient technology to generate electricity in China thereby results in the electrical sector having substantial GHG emission reduction opportunities as related to the CDM. In order to ensure the credibility of the CDM in leading to a reduction in GHG emissions, it is important that the baseline method used in the CDM approval process is scientifically sound and accessible for both others to use and for evaluation purposes. Three different methods for assessing CDM baselines and environmental additionality are investigated in the context of China's electrical sector: a method based on a historical perspective of the electrical sector (factor decomposition), a method structured upon a current perspective (operating and build margins), and a simulation of the future (dispatch analysis). Assessing future emission levels for China's electrical sector is a very challenging task given the complexity of the system, its dynamics, and that it is heavily influenced by internal and external forces, but of the different baseline methods investigated, dispatch modelling is best suited for the Chinese context as it is able to consider the important regional and temporal dimensions of its economy and its future development

  15. Industrial Hazardous Waste Management In Egypt-the baseline study: An Updated review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farida M, S.

    1999-01-01

    Increased industrialization over the past decades in Egypt has resulted in an increased and uncontrolled generation of industrial hazardous waste. This was not accompanied by any concerted efforts to control these wastes. Consequently, no system for handling or disposing of industrial wastes, in general, and industrial hazardous wastes, in specific, exists. In 1993, a baseline report was formulated to assess the overall problem of industrial hazardous waste management in Egypt. Consequently, recommendations for priority actions were identified and the main components of a national hazardous waste system under the provision of Law 4/ 1994 were presented. This paper provides an updated review of this report in light of the proposed technical, legal and institutional guidelines to help in the realization of such a needed waste management system in Egypt

  16. Baseline studies in the desert ecosystem at East Mesa Geothermal Test Site, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Lunt, O.R.; Ackerman, T.A.; Kinnear, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    Baseline data reported herein for soil, vegetation, and small mammal components of the East Mesa desert ecosystem represent a collection period from October 1975 to September 1977. Inasmuch as changes in salt balance from geothermal brine sources are of potential impact upon the ecosystem, considerable analytical effort was given to the determination of element constituents in soil, plant, and animal samples. A preliminary synthesis of data was done to investigate the heterogeneity of element constituents among the sampled population and to summarize results. Findings indicate that periodic sampling and chemical analysis of vegetation around an industrialized geothermal energy source is probably the best way to monitor the surrounding ecosystem for assuring containment of any resource pollutants.

  17. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  18. Lead (Pb Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley E Sharpe

    Full Text Available We examined the potential use of lead (Pb isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1 geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb, and 2 a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr and oxygen (δ18O, a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  19. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, George D.; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A.; Emery, Kitty F.; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region. PMID:27806065

  20. Self-hypnosis in chronic pain. A multiple baseline study of five highly hypnotisable subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, F R; Large, R G; Beale, I L

    1989-06-01

    The efficacy of self-hypnosis in the treatment of chronic pain was evaluated using a multiple baseline design for five patients referred to the Auckland Hospital Pain Clinic. Subjects were selected for high hypnotisability using the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale. Daily records of pain intensity, sleep quality, medication requirements, and self-hypnosis practice were completed. At four research interviews the Health Locus of Control survey, the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Illness Self Concept Repertory Grid (ISCRG) were administered. Subjects also reported on daily activities and quality of life. Postal follow-up assessment occurred after 2 years. Two subjects reported overall improvement, two demonstrated little change in condition, although self-hypnosis was effective on some occasions, and one subject experienced deterioration in her condition. The patients showed an increase in personal locus of control and a shift of self-concept away from physical illness on the ISCRG. The results suggest that self-hypnosis can be a highly effective technique for some patients with chronic pain but not for all. Selection criteria and clinical factors other than hypnotisability need to be considered in further research, since even highly hypnotisable subjects may derive limited benefit from self-hypnosis.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic survey of northern peruvian plants: baselines for paleodietary and paleoecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, Paul; White, Christine D; Longstaffe, Fred J; Millaire, Jean-François; Vásquez Sánchez, Víctor F

    2013-01-01

    The development of isotopic baselines for comparison with paleodietary data is crucial, but often overlooked. We review the factors affecting the carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopic compositions of plants, with a special focus on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of twelve different species of cultivated plants (n = 91) and 139 wild plant species collected in northern Peru. The cultivated plants were collected from nineteen local markets. The mean δ(13)C value for maize (grain) was -11.8±0.4 ‰ (n = 27). Leguminous cultigens (beans, Andean lupin) were characterized by significantly lower δ(15)N values and significantly higher %N than non-leguminous cultigens. Wild plants from thirteen sites were collected in the Moche River Valley area between sea level and ∼4,000 meters above sea level (masl). These sites were associated with mean annual precipitation ranging from 0 to 710 mm. Plants growing at low altitude sites receiving low amounts of precipitation were characterized by higher δ(15)N values than plants growing at higher altitudes and receiving higher amounts of precipitation, although this trend dissipated when altitude was >2,000 masl and MAP was >400 mm. For C(3) plants, foliar δ(13)C was positively correlated with altitude and precipitation. This suggests that the influence of altitude may overshadow the influence of water availability on foliar δ(13)C values at this scale.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic survey of northern peruvian plants: baselines for paleodietary and paleoecological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Szpak

    Full Text Available The development of isotopic baselines for comparison with paleodietary data is crucial, but often overlooked. We review the factors affecting the carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopic compositions of plants, with a special focus on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of twelve different species of cultivated plants (n = 91 and 139 wild plant species collected in northern Peru. The cultivated plants were collected from nineteen local markets. The mean δ(13C value for maize (grain was -11.8±0.4 ‰ (n = 27. Leguminous cultigens (beans, Andean lupin were characterized by significantly lower δ(15N values and significantly higher %N than non-leguminous cultigens. Wild plants from thirteen sites were collected in the Moche River Valley area between sea level and ∼4,000 meters above sea level (masl. These sites were associated with mean annual precipitation ranging from 0 to 710 mm. Plants growing at low altitude sites receiving low amounts of precipitation were characterized by higher δ(15N values than plants growing at higher altitudes and receiving higher amounts of precipitation, although this trend dissipated when altitude was >2,000 masl and MAP was >400 mm. For C(3 plants, foliar δ(13C was positively correlated with altitude and precipitation. This suggests that the influence of altitude may overshadow the influence of water availability on foliar δ(13C values at this scale.

  3. Organic Contamination Baseline Study in NASA Johnson Space Center Astromaterials Curation Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allen, Carlton C.; Allton, Judith H.

    2014-01-01

    Future robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and comets will require curating astromaterial samples with minimal inorganic and organic contamination to preserve the scientific integrity of each sample. 21st century sample return missions will focus on strict protocols for reducing organic contamination that have not been seen since the Apollo manned lunar landing program. To properly curate these materials, the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office under the Astromaterial Research and Exploration Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center houses and protects all extraterrestrial materials brought back to Earth that are controlled by the United States government. During fiscal year 2012, we conducted a year-long project to compile historical documentation and laboratory tests involving organic investigations at these facilities. In addition, we developed a plan to determine the current state of organic cleanliness in curation laboratories housing astromaterials. This was accomplished by focusing on current procedures and protocols for cleaning, sample handling, and storage. While the intention of this report is to give a comprehensive overview of the current state of organic cleanliness in JSC curation laboratories, it also provides a baseline for determining whether our cleaning procedures and sample handling protocols need to be adapted and/or augmented to meet the new requirements for future human spaceflight and robotic sample return missions.

  4. Proteomics in studying cancer stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Onno; Emmink, Benjamin L; Knol, Jaco; van Houdt, Winan J; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Jimenez, Connie R

    2012-06-01

    Normal multipotent tissue stem cells (SCs) are the driving force behind tissue turnover and repair. The cancer stem cell theory holds that tumors also contain stem-like cells that drive tumor growth and metastasis formation. However, very little is known about the regulation of SC maintenance pathways in cancer and how these are affected by cancer-specific genetic alterations and by treatment. Proteomics is emerging as a powerful tool to identify the signaling complexes and pathways that control multi- and pluri-potency and SC differentiation. Here, the authors review the novel insights that these studies have provided and present a comprehensive strategy for the use of proteomics in studying cancer SC biology.

  5. The GERAS Study: a prospective observational study of costs and resource use in community dwellers with Alzheimer's disease in three European countries--study design and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimo, Anders; Reed, Catherine C; Dodel, Richard; Belger, Mark; Jones, Roy W; Happich, Michael; Argimon, Josep M; Bruno, Giuseppe; Novick, Diego; Vellas, Bruno; Haro, Josep Maria

    2013-01-01

    To address socioeconomic challenges associated with its increasing prevalence, data are needed on country-level resource use and costs associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). GERAS is an 18-month observational study being conducted in France, Germany, and the U.K. (with an 18-month extension in France and Germany), aimed at determining resource use and total costs associated with AD, stratified by AD severity at baseline. Resource use information and time spent on informal care by non-professional caregivers was obtained using the Resource Utilization in Dementia instrument. Total baseline societal costs were based on four cost components: patient health care costs, patient social care costs, caregiver health care costs, and caregiver informal care costs. Overall, 1,497 community-dwelling patients with AD were analyzed at baseline. Estimated mean monthly total societal costs per patient at baseline differed significantly between groups with mild, moderate, and moderately severe/severe AD (p caregiver health care costs increased with AD severity. Informal caregiver costs were the largest cost component accounting for about half to just over 60% of total societal costs, depending on country and AD severity group. In conclusion, GERAS study baseline results showed that country-specific costs increase with AD severity. Informal care costs formed the greatest proportion of total societal costs, increasing with AD severity independent of costing method. Longitudinal data will provide information on cost trends with disease progression.

  6. The Concept of Biological/Ecological interaction: contributions to studies in Epistemology of Biology and Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvia Eloá Maricato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Epistemology of biology has been the subject of many discussions in the field of Science and Biology education. This study aimed to bring new elaborations to enrich these discussions, highlighting its importance and how this epistemology canbe inserted in Science and Biology education. The presented investigation is anchored on three main pillars:(i some reflections on epistemologyof biology; (iithe importance and vagueness of the concept of biological/ecological interaction in literature; (iii the empirical investigation on epistemologyof biology by this research group. The semiotic analysis allowed us to infer that the research subjects: expressed to understand the importance, amplitude and centrality of this concept to the Biology Knowledge; evolved from a starting vision in which it was only understood the biological interactions with the external environment to one in which we start to understand the biological interactions in several levels of organization thus, advancing from a syncretic/abductive thinking to a deductive reasoning, going through the inductive one; and are concerned on how to teach the studied concept to their future students. This analysisallowed some reflections that can contribute to a creation of a solid epistemology of biology in its many contexts, with the main focus on initial teacher training.

  7. Job dissatisfaction and the older worker: baseline findings from the Health and Employment After Fifty study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Stefania; Coggon, David; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T

    2016-08-01

    Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. Labour force participation might be promoted by tackling sources of job dissatisfaction. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of job dissatisfaction in older British workers, to explore which perceptions of work contribute most importantly, and to assess possible impacts on health. Participants aged 50-64 years were recruited from 24 English general practices. At baseline, those currently in work (N=5437) reported on their demographic and employment circumstances, overall job satisfaction, perceptions of their work that might contribute to dissatisfaction, and their general health, mood and well-being. Associations of job dissatisfaction with risk factors and potential health outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally by logistic regression, and the potential contributions of different negative perceptions to overall dissatisfaction were summarised by population attributable fractions (PAFs). Job dissatisfaction was more common among men, below age 60 years, those living in London and the South East, in the more educated and in those working for larger employers. The main contributors to job dissatisfaction among employees were feeling unappreciated and/or lacking a sense of achievement (PAF 55-56%), while in the self-employed, job insecurity was the leading contributor (PAF 79%). Job dissatisfaction was associated with all of the adverse health outcomes examined (ORs of 3-5), as were most of the negative perceptions of work that contributed to overall dissatisfaction. Employment policies aimed at improving job satisfaction in older workers may benefit from focussing particularly on relationships in the workplace, fairness, job security and instilling a sense of achievement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the ASPREE (ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, John J; Woods, Robyn L; Nelson, Mark R; Murray, Anne M; Reid, Christopher M; Kirpach, Brenda; Storey, Elsdon; Shah, Raj C; Wolfe, Rory S; Tonkin, Andrew M; Newman, Anne B; Williamson, Jeff D; Lockery, Jessica E; Margolis, Karen L; Ernst, Michael E; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Stocks, Nigel; Fitzgerald, Sharyn M; Trevaks, Ruth E; Orchard, Suzanne G; Beilin, Lawrence J; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Gibbs, Peter; Johnston, Colin I; Grimm, Richard H

    2017-10-12

    There are no primary prevention trials of aspirin with relevant geriatric outcomes in elderly people. ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) is a placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin that will determine whether 5 years of daily 100-mg enteric-coated aspirin extends disability-free and dementia-free life in a healthy elderly population and whether these benefits outweigh the risks. Set in primary care, this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial has a composite primary endpoint of death, incident dementia or persistent physical disability. Participants aged 70+ years (non-minorities) or 65+ years (U.S. minorities) were free of cardiovascular disease, dementia, or physical disability and without a contraindication to, or indication for, aspirin. Baseline data include physical and lifestyle, personal and family medical history, hemoglobin, fasting glucose, creatinine, lipid panel, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, cognition (3MS, HVLT-R, COWAT, SDMT), mood (CES-D-10), physical function (gait speed, grip strength), Katz activities of daily living and quality of life (SF-12). Recruitment ended in December 2014 with 16,703 Australian and 2,411 U.S. participants, a median age of 74 (range 65-98) years and 56% women. Approximately 55% of the U.S. cohort were from minority groups; 9% of the total cohort. Proportions with hypertension, overweight, and chronic kidney disease were similar to age-matched populations from both countries although lower percentages had diabetes, dyslipidemia, and osteoarthritis. Findings from ASPREE will be generalizable to a healthier older population in both countries and will assess whether the broad benefits of daily low-dose aspirin in prolonging independent life outweigh the risks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Baseline studies of terrestrial outdoor gamma dose rate levels in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farai, I.P.; Jibiri, N.N.

    2000-01-01

    The outdoor γ radiation exposure dose rates due to the radioactivity concentration of 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in the soil across different environments in Nigeria have been carried out using the low-cost method of in situ γ ray spectrometry. Measurements were made in 18 cities, spread across the three major zones of the country. The radioactivity concentrations of these radionuclides in the soil were used to determine their γ radiation absorbed dose rates in the air. The range of average total dose rate due to the three radionuclides in the Eastern zone is between 0.025 and 0.081 μGy.h -1 with an average of 0.040 ± 0.006 μGy.h -1 , 0.041 and 0.214 μGy.h -1 with a mean of 0.089 ± 0.014 μGy.h -1 for the Western zone and between 0.066 and 0.222 μGy.h -1 with a mean of 0.102 ± 0.032 μGy.h -1 for the Northern zone. The average annual outdoor effective dose equivalents of 51 ± 8 μSv.y -1 , 114 ± 18 μSv.y -1 and 130 ± 41 μSv.y -1 have been estimated for the Eastern, Western and Northern zones, respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalent for the country has been estimated to be 98 ± 15 μSv.y -1 and the collective effective dose equivalent as 9.7 x 103 man.Sv.y -1 . Measurements have been taken as representing the baseline values of natural radioactivity as no artificial radionuclide was detected at any of the sites surveyed. (author)

  10. Pyrolysis oil upgrading using supercritical water, with tetralin and 1-methylnaphtalene as a baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isa, Khairuddin Md

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis oil upgrading under supercritical water, tetralin and 1-MN above 400 °C. • The highest feedstock conversion of 90 wt.% with SCW and tetralin. • Produced heavy oil with relatively low oxygen content (∼15%) with SCW and tetralin. • 1-MN-tetralin (mass ratio 80%:20%) gave the same product conversion as the runs with tetralin ∼90 wt.%. - Abstract: The upgrading of pyrolysis oil to bio-fuel in high conversion was investigated using supercritical water (SCW) above 400 °C with the 75 mL reactor for 1 h. Tetralin and 1-methylnaphtalene provided a baseline product conversion as a good hydrogen donor and non-hydrogen donor (eventhough with much lower mass to solvent mass ratio). Experiments under SCW indicate that conversions increased with increasing pyrolysis oil to water mass ratio at high water ratio, these giving the highest products conversion of 91 wt.%, with 28 wt.% heavy oil recovered, 23 wt.% gas yield, 27 wt.% water generated and approximately 13−14 wt.% of light oil produced. Tetralin runs gave similar product conversion of 90 wt.% but with lower sample to solvent mass ratio (1:2), and 1-methylnaphtalene yielded much lower conversion 70 wt.% using the same sample to solvent mass ratio. A combination of 1-methylnaphtalene/tetralin gave the same feedstock conversion (90 wt.%), suggesting that only a small amount of hydrogen needed to produce high conversion. The oxygen contents of the heavy oil recovered were 16% for SCW, with H/C atomic ratios of 1.1. The heating value of upgraded oil was increased to 33 MJ/kg compared to 18.5 MJ/kg of initial pyrolysis oil. The heavy oil with similar product conversion (90 wt.%) using tetralin and much lower solvent to oil ratios had slightly lower oxygen content (14%), and the H content was increased from 7.0 wt.% to 7.3 wt.%.

  11. Structural Studies of Biological Solids Using NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2011-03-01

    High-resolution structure and dynamics of biological molecules are important in understanding their function. While studies have been successful in solving the structures of water-soluble biomolecules, it has been proven difficult to determine the structures of membrane proteins and fibril systems. Recent studies have shown that solid-state NMR is a promising technique and could be highly valuable in studying such non-crystalline and non-soluble biosystems. I will present strategies to study the structures of such challenging systems and also about the applications of solid-state NMR to study the modes of membrane-peptide interactions for a better assessment of the prospects of antimicrobial peptides as substitutes to antibiotics in the control of human disease. Our studies on the mechanism of membrane disruption by LL-37 (a human antimicrobial peptide), analogs of the naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide magainin2 extracted from the skin of the African frog Xenopus Laevis, and pardaxin will be presented. Solid-state NMR experiments were used to determine the secondary structure, dynamics and topology of these peptides in lipid bilayers. Similarities and difference in the cell-lysing mechanism, and their dependence on the membrane composition, of these peptides will be discussed. Atomic-level resolution NMR structures of amyloidogenic proteins revealing the misfolding pathway and early intermediates that play key roles in amyloid toxicity will also be presented.

  12. A baseline study of the health status of the residents in Kalapana, Hawaii, January--June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David B.; Arbeit, William, R.

    1988-08-01

    A community health survey was conducted during the first five months of 1987 in Kalapana, Hawaii. Some 676 residents were interviewed during the study, which represents some 82% of all households in the community. The goal was to obtain base-line data on the health status of all community residents and ambient air quality, in order to evaluate any changes in health status of residents after geothermal development in the area.

  13. Lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naudin, Sabine; Li, Kuanrong; Jaouen, Tristan

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence suggested a weak relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. In this study, the association between lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and the risk of PC was evaluated, including the type of alcoholic beverages and potential interaction with smoking...... alcohol intakes were positively associated with PC risk, with more apparent risk estimates for beer and spirits/liquors than wine intake. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  14. Field and Model Study to Define Baseline Conditions of Beached Oil Tar Balls along Florida’s First Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bacopoulos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal data are currently the best data available to describe baseline conditions of beached oil tar balls on Florida’s First Coast beaches. This study combines field methods and numerical modeling to define a data-driven knowledge base of oil tar ball baseline conditions. Outcomes from the field study include an established methodology for field data collection and laboratory testing of beached oil tar balls, spatial maps of collected samples and analysis of the data as to transport/wash-up trends. Archives of the electronic data, including GPS locations and other informational tags, and collected samples are presented, as are the physical and chemical analyses of the collected samples. The thrust of the physical and chemical analyses is to differentiate the collected samples into highly suspect oil tar balls versus false/non-oil tar ball samples. The numerical modeling involves two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of astronomic tides. Results from the numerical modeling include velocity residuals that show ebb-dominated residual currents exiting the inlet via an offshore, counter-rotating dual-eddy system. The tidally derived residual currents are used as one explanation for the observed transport trends. The study concludes that the port activity in the St. Johns River is not majorly contributing to the baseline conditions of oil tar ball wash-up on Florida’s First Coast beaches.

  15. Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study: Study Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hannae; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) study was developed to evaluate health status and related factors in farmers. Methods Farmers in Kangwon Province, South Korea, were recruited. Baseline characteristics were determined using questionnaires about sociodemographic and health characteristics and agricultural work-related factors. In addition, laboratory examinations (lumbar spinal radiography and serologic testing) were conducted. Results The FARM study covers eight rural areas and recruited 1013 subjects (534 women; mean [standard deviation {SD}] age, 57.2 [7.5] years). Musculoskeletal pain in multiple areas was reported by 925 subjects (91.3%), and low back pain (63.8%) was the most frequent site of pain. Farmer’s Stress Inventory (mean [SD], 77.7 [10.2]; range, 28–112] and subjective stress index (mean [SD], 5.3 [2.4]; range, 0–10) were above median scale values, reflecting a stressful condition, while the EuroQol-5D-3L index and the EuroQol-Visual Analog Scale scores were high (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.1]; range −0.171–1 and mean [SD], 67.7 [18.7]; range 0–100, respectively), reflecting good life quality. In total, 53% of participants had worked in farming for more than 30 years, and workers involved in dry-field farming comprised the largest subgroup (41.5%). Most participants (94.3%) had no more than a high school education, and families with annual income below 20 million won constituted the largest subgroup (36.3%). Conclusions The FARM study may provide data on the current health status and related sociodemographic and agricultural work-related risk factors in Korean farmers, with the goal of providing a scientific basis for developing coping interventions and preventive strategies. PMID:26235456

  16. Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study: Study Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hannae; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) study was developed to evaluate health status and related factors in farmers. Farmers in Kangwon Province, South Korea, were recruited. Baseline characteristics were determined using questionnaires about sociodemographic and health characteristics and agricultural work-related factors. In addition, laboratory examinations (lumbar spinal radiography and serologic testing) were conducted. The FARM study covers eight rural areas and recruited 1013 subjects (534 women; mean [standard deviation {SD}] age, 57.2 [7.5] years). Musculoskeletal pain in multiple areas was reported by 925 subjects (91.3%), and low back pain (63.8%) was the most frequent site of pain. Farmer's Stress Inventory (mean [SD], 77.7 [10.2]; range, 28-112] and subjective stress index (mean [SD], 5.3 [2.4]; range, 0-10) were above median scale values, reflecting a stressful condition, while the EuroQol-5D-3L index and the EuroQol-Visual Analog Scale scores were high (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.1]; range -0.171-1 and mean [SD], 67.7 [18.7]; range 0-100, respectively), reflecting good life quality. In total, 53% of participants had worked in farming for more than 30 years, and workers involved in dry-field farming comprised the largest subgroup (41.5%). Most participants (94.3%) had no more than a high school education, and families with annual income below 20 million won constituted the largest subgroup (36.3%). The FARM study may provide data on the current health status and related sociodemographic and agricultural work-related risk factors in Korean farmers, with the goal of providing a scientific basis for developing coping interventions and preventive strategies.

  17. Baseline marine biological survey at the Peacock Point outfall and other point-source discharges on Wake Atoll, Pacific Ocean in 1998-06 (NODC Accession 0000247)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC) in support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored a marine biological survey at Wake...

  18. Self-rated health in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: baseline data from the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nielsen, Anni B S; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    , but the validity and the influence on other factors on SRH among cognitively impaired persons remain unknown. This study reports how patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) report SRH and which factors influence SRH. The study was based on baseline data from 321 home living patients with mild AD who...... participated in the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY). Analysis using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) models revealed that good/excellent SRH among patients with mild AD were associated with longer education, lack of other chronic conditions, higher scores of quality of life (QOL), lower...

  19. Carotid intima-media thickness in low-risk individuals with asymptomatic atherosclerosis: baseline data from the METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, John R; Grobbee, Diederick E; O'Leary, Daniel H; Bots, Michiel L; Evans, Gregory W; Palmer, Mike K; Riley, Ward A; Raichlen, Joel S

    2007-03-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is an index for changes in atherosclerosis burden and changes in CIMT may relate to clinical events. We present baseline data from the METEOR study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of rosuvastatin 40 mg on changes in CIMT. We set out to compare differences in CIMT between several subgroups of individuals. A total of 984 individuals aged 45-70 years (men) or 55-70 (women) were randomized. Participants were required to have: maximum CIMT > or = 1.2- or = 2 mm. Overall, mean age was 57 years and mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 152 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). Body mass index (BMI), triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were all higher in US individuals, whereas smoking, hypertension and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in Europeans. Mean CIMT levels were the same in both populations, and the percentage of individuals with > or = 2 CHD risk factors was similar. Increased baseline CIMT (> 2 mm) was related to increasing age, male gender, smoking, hypertension and lipid levels. In this global trial, differences in baseline characteristics between participants from the USA and Europe are apparent. However, a strong association between CIMT and several cardiovascular risk factors was observed across the two continents.

  20. Association Between Sleep Characteristics and Incident Dementia Accounting for Baseline Cognitive Status: A Prospective Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokenberger, Kathleen; Ström, Peter; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Johansson, Anna L V; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    Although research has shown that sleep disorders are prevalent among people with dementia, the temporal relationship is unclear. We investigated whether atypical sleep characteristics were associated with incident dementia while accounting for baseline cognitive functioning. Screening Across the Lifespan Twin (SALT) study participants were 11,247 individuals from the Swedish Twin Registry who were at least 65 years at baseline (1998-2002). Sleep and baseline cognitive functioning were assessed via the SALT telephone screening interview. Data on dementia diagnoses came from national health registers. Cox regression was performed to estimate hazard ratios for dementia. After 17 years of follow-up, 1,850 dementia cases were identified. Short (≤6 hours) and extended (>9 hours) time in bed (TIB) compared to the middle reference group (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.85; hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.24, respectively) and rising at 8:00 AM or later compared to earlier rising (hazard ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.24) were associated with higher dementia incidence. Bedtime, sleep quality, restorative sleep, and heavy snoring were not significant predictors. Findings stratified by baseline cognitive status indicated that the association between short TIB and dementia remained in those cognitively intact at the start. Short and extended TIB and delayed rising among older adults predicted increased dementia incidence in the following 17 years. The pattern of findings suggests that extended TIB and late rising represent prodromal features whereas short TIB appeared to be a risk factor for dementia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Tensions and Opportunities: A Baseline Study of Teachers' Views of Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Erminia; Nazir, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports on a study designed to produce a portrait of teachers' self-reported views of environmental education in Ontario. The mixed method study consisted of an on-line survey (N = 377), supplemented by a series of in depth interviews with a volunteer sample (N = 24) of the survey respondents. In addition to providing a reasonable and…

  2. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  3. Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Abhijit; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Allen, Naomi E.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Appleby, Paul N.; Almquist, Martin; Schmidt, Julie A.; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha L.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kühn, Tilman; Katze, Verena A.; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tsironis, Christos; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Arriola, Larraitz; Gavrila, Diana; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. Methods: The association between

  4. Baseline Study Methodology for Future Phases of Research on Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide a basis for industry adoption of advanced technologies, the Control Room Upgrades Benefits Research Project will investigate the benefits of including advanced technologies as part of control room modernization This report describes the background, methodology, and research plan for the first in a series of full-scale studies to test the effects of advanced technology in NPP control rooms. This study will test the effect of Advanced Overview Displays in the partner Utility’s control room simulator

  5. Developmental biology and the study of malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A F

    1976-05-01

    Experimental work on abnormal conditions of incubation in the chick has been undertaken to acquire a scientific approach to malformations. More precise experiments on causing abnormalities had a common origin with experimental embryology. Progress in experimental teratology during the last 50 years is reviewed in a commentary on the 4 principles formulated by Stockard in 1921. The results of cytogenetical studies in man and in other organisms have led to the tracing of some relationships between them. Present knowledge concerning malformations of the neural tube, originating either experimentally, spontaneously, or phenotypically, has been presented and the teratological implications of some recent theories on the expression of the genotype are discussed in particular reference to problems of hormones as teratogens, the implication of carbohydrate metabolism, and teratogenesis. It is speculated that teratogenesis is possibly related to cationic balance in early development and that 1 factor retarding progress in the understanding of malformations is the tendency toward the development of teratology in an adequately close relationship with other branches of cell biology.

  6. MRI-defined subcortical ischemic vascular disease: baseline clinical and neuropsychological findings. The LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Kalska, Hely; Ylikoski, Raija

    2009-01-01

    of global cognitive function, psychomotor speed, attention and executive functions, verbal fluency, and working memory. CONCLUSION: In this population of nondisabled older adults with WML, SIVD was related to specific clinical and functional characteristics. Neuropsychological features included psychomotor...... slowing as well as deficits in attention and executive functions....... infarcts. Empirical studies validating these imaging criteria are still few. The purpose of the study was to describe the clinical and cognitive characteristics of the MRI-defined SIVD in a mixed sample of functionally independent elderly subjects with WML. METHODS: The subjects of the Leukoaraiosis...

  7. Lung cancer risk test trial: study design, participant baseline characteristics, bronchoscopy safety, and establishment of a biospecimen repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E L; Levin, A; Safi, F; Lu, M; Baugh, A; Zhang, X; Yeo, J; Khuder, S A; Boulos, A M; Nana-Sinkam, P; Massion, P P; Arenberg, D A; Midthun, D; Mazzone, P J; Nathan, S D; Wainz, R; Silvestri, G; Tita, J; Willey, J C

    2016-01-22

    The Lung Cancer Risk Test (LCRT) trial is a prospective cohort study comparing lung cancer incidence among persons with a positive or negative value for the LCRT, a 15 gene test measured in normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBEC). The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, primary endpoint, and safety; baseline characteristics of enrolled individuals; and establishment of a bio-specimen repository. Eligible participants were aged 50-90 years, current or former smokers with 20 pack-years or more cigarette smoking history, free of lung cancer, and willing to undergo bronchoscopic brush biopsy for NBEC sample collection. NBEC, peripheral blood samples, baseline CT, and medical and demographic data were collected from each subject. Over a two-year span (2010-2012), 403 subjects were enrolled at 12 sites. At baseline 384 subjects remained in study and mean age and smoking history were 62.9 years and 50.4 pack-years respectively, with 34% current smokers. Obstructive lung disease (FEV1/FVC repository was established. The demographic composition of the enrolled group is representative of the population for which the LCRT is intended. Specifically, based on baseline population characteristics we expect lung cancer incidence in this cohort to be representative of the population eligible for low-dose Computed Tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening. Collection of NBEC by bronchial brush biopsy/bronchoscopy was safe and well-tolerated in this population. These findings support the feasibility of testing LCRT clinical utility in this prospective study. If validated, the LCRT has the potential to significantly narrow the population of individuals requiring annual low-dose helical CT screening for early detection of lung cancer and delay the onset of screening for individuals with results indicating low lung cancer risk. For these individuals, the small risk incurred by undergoing once in a lifetime bronchoscopic sample collection for LCRT may be offset by a

  8. A baseline study of drug prescribing practices in a Nigerian military ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Military facilities provide health care services to an important segment of both themilitary and civil population. Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate drug prescribing practices at a Nigerian military hospital (MilitaryHospital, Ikoyi, Lagos) and tomake recommendations for its improvement.UsingWHOrational drug use ...

  9. Baseline for food waste generation - A case study in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, A. R.; Mokhlis, N. A. Mohd; Zainun, N. Y.

    2017-11-01

    Increasing population and economy status have contributed to the increasing volume of solid wastes produced in Malaysia and it creates problems on the existing solid waste management system. Ineffective waste management system was one of the issues that often discussed. The purpose of this study was to suggest the best method for managing food waste in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) cafeterias. The scope of the study was to identify the type and quantity of waste generated in each cafeteria. The study area was carried out at six cafeteria in UTHM including residential college cafeteria which are Tun Dr. Ismail (TDI), Tun Fatimah (TF) and Tun Syed Nasir (TSN), G3’s cafeteria, Arked, and Dr. Munie’s cafeteria located at the Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering (FKAAS). In this study, food waste was quantified in unit of kilogram (kg). Results of the study showed that total food waste in selected UTHM’s cafeterias was 6197.5 kg for two months. Food waste generated in G3’s cafeteria was the highest value with 1823.5 kg among another cafeteria. This is due to strategic location for students and staff to take meals, the variety of food sold and reasonable price were major factors of generating food waste. Meanwhile, the Dr. Munie's Cafeteria located in FKAAS recorded the least total production of food waste as staffs and students take their meals at others cafeterias. Through literature review, there are list of methods on waste management were identified and composting method was suggested for food waste management in UTHM since the waste was produce in very large quantity.

  10. Effects of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) labeling: study design and baseline sample characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Tuttle, Laura; Olsson, Emily; Gras-Najjar, Julie; Gizlice, Ziya; Hales, Derek; Linnan, Laura; Lin, Feng-Chang; Noar, Seth M; Ammerman, Alice

    2017-09-12

    Obesity and physical inactivity are responsible for more than 365,000 deaths per year and contribute substantially to rising healthcare costs in the US, making clear the need for effective public health interventions. Calorie labeling on menus has been implemented to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased has been minimal. In this project, we tested the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) food labels on actual point-of-decision food purchasing behavior as well as physical activity. Using a two-group interrupted time series cohort study design in three worksite cafeterias, one cafeteria was assigned to the intervention condition, and the other two served as controls. Calories from food purchased in the cafeteria were assessed by photographs of meals (accompanied by notes made on-site) using a standardized calorie database and portion size-estimation protocol. Primary outcomes will be average calories purchased and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by individuals in the cohorts. We will compare pre-post changes in study outcomes between study groups using piecewise generalized linear mixed model regressions (segmented regressions) with a single change point in our interrupted time-series study. The results of this project will provide evidence of the effectiveness of worksite cafeteria menu labeling, which could potentially inform policy intervention approaches. Labels that convey information in a more readily understandable manner may be more effective at motivating behavior change. Strengths of this study include its cohort design and its robust data capture methods using food photographs and accelerometry.

  11. Effects of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE labeling: study design and baseline sample characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Viera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and physical inactivity are responsible for more than 365,000 deaths per year and contribute substantially to rising healthcare costs in the US, making clear the need for effective public health interventions. Calorie labeling on menus has been implemented to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased has been minimal. Methods In this project, we tested the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE food labels on actual point-of-decision food purchasing behavior as well as physical activity. Using a two-group interrupted time series cohort study design in three worksite cafeterias, one cafeteria was assigned to the intervention condition, and the other two served as controls. Calories from food purchased in the cafeteria were assessed by photographs of meals (accompanied by notes made on-site using a standardized calorie database and portion size-estimation protocol. Primary outcomes will be average calories purchased and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA by individuals in the cohorts. We will compare pre-post changes in study outcomes between study groups using piecewise generalized linear mixed model regressions (segmented regressions with a single change point in our interrupted time-series study. The results of this project will provide evidence of the effectiveness of worksite cafeteria menu labeling, which could potentially inform policy intervention approaches. Discussion Labels that convey information in a more readily understandable manner may be more effective at motivating behavior change. Strengths of this study include its cohort design and its robust data capture methods using food photographs and accelerometry.

  12. Study of tunnelling through water-bearing fracture zones. Baseline study on technical issues with NE-1 as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanting Chang; Swindell, Robert; Bogdanoff, Ingvar; Lindstroem, Beatrice; Termen, Jens [WSP Sweden, Stockholm (Sweden) ; Starsec, Peter [SGI, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2005-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for the management of Sweden's nuclear waste. SKB is investigating various designs for the construction of an underground deep repository for spent nuclear fuel at 500-600 m depths. For the construction of an access tunnel for such a deep repository, the possibility of encountering a water-bearing fracture zone cannot be discounted. Such a zone named NE-1 (deformation zone in accordance to SKB's terminology) was encountered during the construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) and difficulties with large water inflows were reported. With the aim to assess the feasibility of different technical solutions, SKB commissioned a baseline study into the passage of an access tunnel through a water-bearing fracture zone at three different depths (200 m, 400 m and 600 m). The objectives of this baseline study are to: Increase the knowledge of possible technical solutions for tunnelling through water-bearing fractures zones with the characteristics of the brittle deformation zone NE-1 at different depths, namely 200, 400 and 600 metres; Form a reference document to assist the engineering design and construction work for the passage through such a water-bearing fracture zone; To highlight the engineering parameters that should be obtained to facilitate design for the passage through water-bearing fracture zones.The study has been carried out in the following five stages: A. Compilation of the relevant data for deformation zone NE-1; B. Problem identification and proposal of technical solutions; C. Identification of hazards to be involved in the tunnel excavation; D. Recommendations and conclusions for further investigations; E. Documentation of the results in a final report. The analyses will be expressed in statistical/probabilistic terms where appropriate. In order to specify the precondition that will be valid for this study, a descriptive model of the water-bearing fracture zone is

  13. Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aryati; Zulaily, Nurzaime; Abdul Manan, Nor Saidah; Shahril, Mohd Razif; Syed Saadun Tarek Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah Wafa; Mohd Amin, Rahmah; Syed Abdullah, Engku Fadzli Hasan; Ahmed, Amran

    2017-01-05

    Body weight is highly associated with overall health status. Being severely thin or obese may impose the risk of many health problems. Early detection of body mass index (BMI) status may help to reduce the associated comorbidities. Although many studies in the literature have investigated the BMI of school adolescents in Malaysia, the data on status of body weight among school adolescents in suburban states like Terengganu is limited. This study aimed to describe the body weight status of the whole population of school adolescents in all seven districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Using a cross-sectional study design, body weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated and classified using WHO BMI-for-age Z-score. Data was obtained using the National Fitness Standard (SEGAK) assessment, which was uploaded in a specific Health Monitoring System (HEMS). From a total of 62,567 school adolescents, 50.7% were boys and 49.3% were girls. Girls had significantly higher BMI than boys in age groups of 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 years old. Among boys and girls, there were significant differences in mean BMI of school adolescents between rural and urban school locations in all age groups (p population demand further investigation.

  14. A DECADE-BASELINE STUDY OF THE PLASMA STATES OF EJECTA KNOTS IN CASSIOPEIA A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, John; Dewey, Daniel; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Heine, Sarah N. T.; Canizares, C. R.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Sato, Kosuke, E-mail: enectali@mit.edu, E-mail: jmrv@mit.edu [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    We present the analysis of 21 bright X-ray knots in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant from observations spanning 10 yr. We performed a comprehensive set of measurements to reveal the kinematic and thermal state of the plasma in each knot, using a combined analysis of two high energy resolution High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) and four medium energy resolution Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) sets of spectra. The ACIS electron temperature estimates agree with the HETG-derived values for approximately half of the knots studied, yielding one of the first comparisons between high resolution temperature estimates and ACIS-derived temperatures. We did not observe the expected spectral evolution-predicted from the ionization age and density estimates for each knot-in all but three of the knots studied. The incompatibility of these measurements with our assumptions has led us to propose a dissociated ejecta model, with the metals unmixed inside the knots, which could place strong constraints on supernova mixing models.

  15. Design, rationale, and baseline demographics of SEARCH I: a prospective cluster-randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Frank Albers,1 Asif Shaikh,2 Ahmar Iqbal,31Medical Affairs Respiratory, 2Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Field Based Medicine-Respiratory, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA; 3Respiratory Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Questionnaires are available to identify patients at risk for several chronic diseases, including COPD, but are infrequently utilized in primary care. COPD is often underdiagnosed, while at the same time the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends against spirometric screening for COPD in asymptomatic adults. Use of a symptom-based questionnaire and subsequent handheld spirometric device depending on the answers to the questionnaire is a promising approach to identify patients at risk for COPD. Screening, Evaluating and Assessing Rate CHanges of diagnosing respiratory conditions in primary care 1 (SEARCH I was a prospective cluster-randomized study in 168 US primary care practices evaluating the effect of the COPD-Population Screener (COPD-PS™ questionnaire. The effect of this questionnaire alone or sequentially with the handheld copd-6TM device was evaluated on new diagnoses of COPD and on respiratory diagnostic practice patterns (including referrals for pulmonary function testing, referrals to pulmonologists, new diagnoses of COPD, and new respiratory medication prescriptions. Participating practices entered a total of 9704 consecutive consenting subjects aged ≥ 40 years attending primary care clinics. Study arm results were compared for new COPD diagnosis rates between usual care and (1 COPD-PS plus copd-6 and (2 COPD-PS alone. A cluster-randomization design allowed comparison of the intervention effects at the practice level instead of individuals being the subjects of the intervention. Regional principal investigators controlled the flow of study information to sub-investigators at participating practices to reduce observation bias (Hawthorne effect. The

  16. Testing communities that care: the rationale, design and behavioral baseline equivalence of the community youth development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Arthur, Michael W; Egan, Elizabeth; Brown, Eric C; Abbott, Robert D; Murray, David M

    2008-09-01

    Recent advances in prevention science provide evidence that adolescent health and behavior problems can be prevented by high-quality prevention services. However, many communities continue to use prevention strategies that have not been shown to be effective. Studying processes for promoting the dissemination and high-quality implementation of prevention strategies found to be effective in controlled research trials has become an important focus for prevention science. The Communities That Care prevention operating system provides manuals, tools, training, and technical assistance to activate communities to use advances in prevention science to plan and implement community prevention services to reduce adolescent substance use, delinquency, and related health and behavior problems. This paper describes the rationale, aims, intervention, and design of the Community Youth Development Study, a randomized controlled community trial of the Communities That Care system, and investigates the baseline comparability of the 12 intervention and 12 control communities in the study. Results indicate baseline similarity of the intervention and control communities in levels of adolescent drug use and antisocial behavior prior to the Communities That Care intervention. Strengths and limitations of the study's design are discussed.

  17. Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2005-06-01

    Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated.

  18. Phytochemical and biological studies of bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Nagashima, Fumihiro

    2013-07-01

    The bryophytes contain the Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses) and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). Of these, the Marchantiophyta have a cellular oil body which produce a number of mono-, sesqui- and di-terpenoids, aromatic compounds like bibenzyl, bis-bibenzyls and acetogenins. Most sesqui- and di-terpenoids obtained from liverworts are enantiomers of those found in higher plants. Many of these compounds display a characteristic odor, and can have interesting biological activities. These include: allergenic contact dermatitis, antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral, cytotoxic, insecticidal, insect antifeedant, superoxide anion radical release, 5-lipoxygenase, calmodulin, hyaluronidase, cyclooxygenase, DNA polymerase β, and α-glucosidase and NO production inhibitory, antioxidant, piscicidal, neurotrophic and muscle relaxing activities among others. Each liverwort biosynthesizes unique components, which are valuable for their chemotaxonomic classification. Typical chemical structures and biological activity of the selected liverwort constituents as well as the hemi- and total synthesis of some biologically active compounds are summarized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Visual field progression in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study the impact of treatment and other baseline factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musch, David C; Gillespie, Brenda W; Lichter, Paul R; Niziol, Leslie M; Janz, Nancy K

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate factors associated with visual field (VF) progression, using all available follow-up through 9 years after treatment initiation, in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS). Longitudinal follow-up of participants enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Six hundred seven newly diagnosed glaucoma patients. In a randomized clinical trial, 607 subjects with newly diagnosed open-angle glaucoma initially were treated with either medication or trabeculectomy. After treatment initiation and early follow-up, subjects were evaluated clinically at 6-month intervals. Study participants in both arms of the CIGTS were treated aggressively in an effort to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) to a level at or below a predetermined, eye-specific target pressure. Visual field progression was analyzed using repeated measures models. Visual field progression, measured by Humphrey 24-2 full-threshold testing and assessed by the change in the mean deviation (MD), and an indicator of substantial worsening of the VF (MD decrease of > or =3 dB from baseline), assessed at each follow-up visit. Follow-up indicated minimal change from baseline in each initial treatment group's average MD. However, at the 8-year follow-up examination, substantial worsening (> or =3 dB) of MD from baseline was found in 21.3% and 25.5% of the initial surgery and initial medicine groups, respectively. The effect of initial treatment on subsequent VF loss was modified by time (Ppresentation, but detrimental for patients with diabetes, are noteworthy and warrant independent confirmation. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  20. Using the Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) Method for Mapping Deep Groundwater Tables in Mars Analog Environments: a Baseline Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to explore the use of electromagnetic geophysical techniques for mapping deep groundwater tables in Mars analog environments. In order to provide a baseline for such studies, and to evaluate the appropriateness of the Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) method in mapping deep groundwater tables, a field study was carried out in an area in the desert approximatelt 30 miles southwest of Tucson Arizona. The field area was chosen for its convenient logistics and access to technical support, as well as for its appropriateness as a baseline Mars analog site. DISCUSSION: The surface conditions at the site are less than ideal if the main motivation is to look for analogs for surface working conditions on Mars, due to a fairly dense cover of cacti and thorny brush. However, in a situation like in the present study, where the subsurface analog is of more interest, vegetation cover is only a logistical issue. The subsurface in the field area is quite conductive, a result of its clay-rich soil, and this may at first thought seem to make it a less than ideal location for Mars analog studies. The contrary is the case, however: In having to deal with the very conductive environment at the field area location for this baseline study, it is ensured that results and conclusions drawn from this work regarding issues such as working in a conductive environment and achieving certain depths of investigation can indeed be applied to planning field studies elsewhere. Further, the study is also designed to observe the effects of powerline noise on electromagnetic data, again presenting a very-difficult case, and further aiding in building a baseline case that is overall appropriately more difficult than most field studies will be (in terms of achieving good signal-to-noise ratios and depths of investigation). The field survey consisted of 40 in-loop TEM stations, divided into 3 lines, for 4 line-km of data. The survey was carried out by a crew of one

  1. Cancer Awareness and Barriers to Seeking Medical Help Among Syrian Refugees in Jordan: a Baseline Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qadire, Mohammad; Aljezawi, Ma'en; Al-Shdayfat, Noha

    2017-08-04

    Refugees in Jordan have an increased burden of cancer due to hard conditions and low income. An increase in awareness of the early signs of cancer could prompt early diagnosis. The current study aims to explore the level of cancer knowledge and barriers to seeking care among Syrian refugees in Jordan. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. Two hundred and forty-one Syrian refugees living in the north of Jordan completed the Cancer Awareness Measure. The mean age was 27.9 (SD 9.1) years, ranging from 18 to 47 years. More than half (56%) of the participants were female. Participants were able to recognize a low number of symptoms (mean 4.4, SD 2.3) and risk factors (4.7 (out of 11), SD 1.9). The most commonly reported barrier was having no medical insurance (83.4%). Refugees' knowledge of symptoms and risk factors was generally unsatisfactory. Barriers to seeking medical care were prevalent. Much work is needed to overcome barriers and enhance knowledge that can hinder early diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance: Study rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. Methods: We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h2, fat 44 ± 7 %) women (n = 55) and men (n = 29) for an interdisc......Aims: To investigate the relationship between volition, physical activity and weight loss maintenance. Methods: We recruited 84 sedentary (maximal oxygen uptake: 25 ± 5 ml/min), overweight and obese (Body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 7 m/h2, fat 44 ± 7 %) women (n = 55) and men (n = 29......) for an interdisciplinary prospective study with follow-up. The change in lifestyle and weight loss is promoted via a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention at a private health school. The intervention consists of supervised training (1–3 hours/day), a healthy hypo-caloric diet (−500 to −700 kCal/day) and education...... maintenance. Conclusions: If specific volitional skills are identified as predictors of adherence to physical activity and success in clinical weight loss maintenance, these can be trained in future intensive lifestyle interventions in order to optimize the success rate....

  3. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  4. Enhancing organizational capacity to provide cancer control programs among Latino churches: design and baseline findings of the CRUZA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Torres, Maria Idali; Tom, Laura S; Rustan, Sarah; Leyva, Bryan; Negron, Rosalyn; Linnan, Laura A; Jandorf, Lina; Ospino, Hosffman

    2015-04-09

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have been successful in delivering health promotion programs for African Americans, though few studies have been conducted among Latinos. Even fewer have focused on organizational change, which is required to sustain community-based initiatives. We hypothesized that FBOs serving Latinos would be more likely to offer evidence-based strategies (EBS) for cancer control after receiving a capacity enhancement intervention to implement health programs, and designed the CRUZA trial to test this hypothesis. This paper describes the CRUZA design and baseline findings. We identified Catholic parishes in Massachusetts that provided Spanish-language mass (n = 65). A baseline survey assessed organizational characteristics relevant to adoption of health programs, including readiness for adoption, "fit" between innovation and organizational mission, implementation climate, and organizational culture. In the next study phase, parishes that completed the baseline assessment will be recruited to a randomized cluster trial, with the parish as the unit of analysis. Both groups will receive a Program Manual and Toolkit. Capacity Enhancement parishes will also be offered technical support, assistance forming health committees and building inter-institutional partnerships, and skills-based training. Of the 49 parishes surveyed at baseline (75%), one-third (33%) reported having provided at least one health program in the prior year. However, only two program offerings were cancer-specific. Nearly one-fifth (18%) had an active health ministry. There was a high level of organizational readiness to adopt cancer control programs, high congruence between parish missions and CRUZA objectives, moderately conducive implementation climates, and organizational cultures supportive of CRUZA programming. Having an existing health ministry was significantly associated with having offered health programs within the past year. Relationships between health program

  5. Polyketide stereocontrol: a study in chemical biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira J. Weissman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of reduced polyketides in bacteria by modular polyketide synthases (PKSs proceeds with exquisite stereocontrol. As the stereochemistry is intimately linked to the strong bioactivity of these molecules, the origins of stereochemical control are of significant interest in attempts to create derivatives of these compounds by genetic engineering. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding this key aspect of the biosynthetic pathways. Given that much of this information has been obtained using chemical biology tools, work in this area serves as a showcase for the power of this approach to provide answers to fundamental biological questions.

  6. Postgraduate studies in radiation biology in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Lohmann, P.H.M.; Zeeland, A.A. van; Natarajan, A.T.; Schibilla, H.; Chadwick, K.; Kellerer, A.M.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    1998-01-01

    The present system of radiobiological research in universities and research centres is no longer able to train radiobiologists who have a comprehensive understanding of the entire field of radiation biology including both 'classical' and molecular radiation biology. However, such experts are needed in view of the role radiation protection plays in our societies. No single institution in Europe could now run a 1-year, full-time course which covers all aspects of the radiobiological basis of radiation protection. Therefore, a cooperative action of several universities from different EU member states has been developed and is described herein. (orig.)

  7. Longitudinal cohort survey of women's smoking behaviour and attitudes in pregnancy: study methods and baseline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Sophie; Bowker, Katharine; Cooper, Sue; Naughton, Felix; Ussher, Michael; Pickett, Kate E; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Sutton, Stephen; Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; Coleman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To report the methods used to assemble a contemporary pregnancy cohort for investigating influences on smoking behaviour before, during and after pregnancy and to report characteristics of women recruited. Design Longitudinal cohort survey. Setting Two maternity hospitals, Nottingham, England. Participants 3265 women who attended antenatal ultrasound scan clinics were offered cohort enrolment; those who were 8–26 weeks pregnant and were currently smoking or had recently stopped smoking were eligible. Cohort enrollment took place between August 2011 and August 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measures Prevalence of smoking at cohort entry and at two follow-up time points (34–36 weeks gestation and 3 months postnatally); response rate, participants’ sociodemographic characteristics. Results 1101 (33.7%, 95% CI 32.1% to 35.4%) women were eligible for inclusion in the cohort, and of these 850 (77.2%, 95% CI 74.6% to 79.6%) were recruited. Within the cohort, 57.4% (N=488, 95% CI 54.1% to 60.7%) reported to be current smokers. Current smokers were significantly younger than ex-smokers (p<0.05), more likely to have no formal qualifications and to not be in current paid employment compared to recent ex-smokers (p<0.001). Conclusions This contemporary cohort, which seeks very detailed information on smoking in pregnancy and its determinants, includes women with comparable sociodemographic characteristics to those in other UK cross-sectional studies and cohorts. This suggests that future analyses using this cohort and aimed at understanding smoking behaviour in pregnancy may produce findings that are broadly generalisable. PMID:24833689

  8. Incidence of school failure according to baseline leisure-time physical activity practice: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi, Airton J; Clark, Valerie L; Reichert, Felipe F; Araújo, Cora L P; Assunção, Maria C; Menezes, Ana M B; Horta, Bernardo L; Hallal, Pedro C

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the prospective association between leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age and incidence of school failure from 11 to 15 years of age. The sample comprised >4,300 adolescents followed up from birth to 15 years of age participating in a birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil. The incidence of school failure from age 11 to 15 years was calculated by first excluding from the analyses all subjects who experienced a school failure before 11 years of age, and then categorizing as "positive" all those who reported repeating a grade at school from 11 to 15 years of age. Leisure-time physical activity was measured using a validated questionnaire. The incidence of school failure was 47.9% among boys and 38.2% among girls. Adolescents in the top quartile of leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age had a higher likelihood of school failure (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.75) compared with the least active adolescents. In adjusted analyses stratified by sex, boys in the top quartile of leisure-time physical activity practice at 11 years of age were also more likely to have failed at school from age 11 to 15 years (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.33). Adolescents allocating >1,000 min/wk to leisure-time physical activity were more likely to experience a school failure from 11 to 15 years of age. Although this finding does not advocate against physical activity promotion, it indicates that excess time allocated to physical activity may jeopardize school performance among adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving palliative care through teamwork (IMPACTT) in nursing homes: Study design and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Ladwig, Susan; Ye, Zhiqiu; Norton, Sally A; Mukamel, Dana B

    2017-05-01

    The 2014 Institute of Medicine report recommended that healthcare providers caring for individuals with advanced illness have basic palliative care competencies in communication, inter-professional collaboration, and symptom management. Nursing homes, where one in three American decedents live and die, have fallen short of these competency goals. We implemented an intervention study to examine the efficacy of nursing home-based integrated palliative care teams in improving the quality of care processes and outcomes for residents at the end of life. This paper describes the design, rationale, and challenges of a two-arm randomized controlled trial of nursing home-based palliative care teams in 31 facilities. The impact of the intervention on residents' outcomes is measured with four risk-adjusted quality indicators: place of death (nursing home or hospital), number of hospitalizations, and self-reported pain and depression in the last 90-days of life. The effect of the intervention is also evaluated with regard to staff satisfaction and impact on care processes (e.g. palliative care competency, communication, coordination). Both secondary (e.g. the Minimum Data Set) and primary (e.g. staff surveys) data are employed to examine the effect of the intervention. Several challenges in conducting a complex, nursing home-based intervention have been identified. While sustainability of the intervention without research funding is not clear, we surmise that without changes to the payment model that put palliative care services in this care setting on par with the more "skilled" care, it will not be reasonable to expect any widespread efforts to implement facility-based palliative care services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adiponectin is associated with cardiovascular disease in male renal transplant recipients: baseline results from the LANDMARK 2 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudge David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is a major adipocyte-derived protein with insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. Adiponectin levels correlate inversely with renal function and higher levels are predictive of lower cardiovascular disease (CVD in patients with normal renal function and chronic kidney disease. No data exists on the association between adiponectin and CVD in renal transplant recipients (RTR. Methods Standard biochemistry, clinical data and adiponectin were collected from 137 RTR recruited to the LANDMARK 2 study at baseline. The LANDMARK 2 study is an ongoing randomized controlled study that compares the outcome of aggressive risk factor modification for cardiovascular disease versus standard post-transplant care in renal transplant recipients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus. Results Mean patient age was 53.4 ± 12 years and the median post-transplantation period was 5 (0.5-31.9 years. Mean serum adiponectin level was 12.3 ± 7.1 μg/mL. On univariate analysis, adiponectin was positively associated with female gender (P = 0.01 and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (P Conclusion In conclusion, adiponectin is positively correlated with inflammation, dyslipidemia and abnormal glucose tolerance in RTR. Furthermore, hypoadiponectinemia correlated with increased baseline CVD in male RTR.

  11. Study of biocompatible and biological materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pecheva, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an overview on biomineralization, biological, biocompatible and biomimetic materials. It reveals the use of biomaterials alone or in composites, how their performance can be improved by tailoring their surface properties by external factors and how standard surface modification techniques can be applied in the area of biomaterials to beneficially influence their growth on surfaces.

  12. 15N in biological nitrogen fixation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.

    1986-05-01

    A bibliography with 298 references on the use of the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N in the research on the biological fixation of dinitrogen is presented. The literature pertaining to this bibliography covers the period from 1975 to the middle of 1985. (author)

  13. The RecordAF study: design, baseline data, and profile of patients according to chosen treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, John

    2010-01-01

    in 21 countries across Europe, America, and Asia; recruitment was completed in April 2008. The primary objectives were to prospectively assess the therapeutic success and clinical outcomes in rhythm- and rate-control strategies. The study design and patient baseline data are reported. A total of 5......The REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation (RecordAF) is the first worldwide, 1-year observational, longitudinal study of the management of paroxysmal/persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) in recently diagnosed patients. The study was conducted at 532 sites......,814 patients with AF were registered, and 5,604 were eligible for evaluation. Rhythm- and rate-control strategies were applied to 55% and 45% of patients, respectively, at study inclusion. Rhythm-control patients mainly received class III agents (45%) or beta blockers (51%), except for sotalol, and rate...

  14. Treatment with the first TNF inhibitor in rheumatoid arthritis patients in the Hellenic Registry of Biologic Therapies improves quality of life especially in young patients with better baseline functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Flouri, Irini; Drosos, Alexandros A; Boki, Kyriaki; Settas, Loukas; Zisopoulos, Dimitrios; Skopouli, Fotini N; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Iliopoulos, Alexios; Kyriopoulos, John; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Athanasakis, Konstantinos; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos

    2016-01-01

    To assess in daily practice in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) the effect of treatment with first tumour necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi) in quality of life (Qol), disease activity and depict possible baseline predictors for gains in Qol. Patients followed prospectively by the Hellenic Registry of Biologic Therapies were analysed. Demographics were recorded at baseline, while RA-related characteristics at baseline and every 6 months. Paired t-tests were used to detect divergences between patient-reported (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), EuroQol (EQ-5D)) and clinical tools (Disease Activity Score-28 joints (DAS28)). Clinical versus self-reported outcomes were examined via cross-tabulation analysis. Multiple regression analysis was performed for identifying baseline predictors of improvements in QALYs. We analysed 255 patients (age (mean±SD) 57.1±13.0, disease duration 9.2±9.1 years, prior non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs 2.3±1.2). Baseline EQ-5D, HAQ and DAS28 were 0.36 (0.28), 1.01 (0.72) and 5.9 (1.3), respectively, and were all significantly improved after 12 months (0.77 (0.35), 0.50 (0.66), 3.9 (1.5), respectively, p<0.05 for all). 90% of patients who improved from high to a lower DAS28 status (low-remission or moderate) had clinically important improvement in Qol (phi-coefficient=0.531,p<0.05). Independent predictors of gains in Qol were lower baseline HAQ, VAS global and younger age (adjusted R2=0.27). In daily practice TNFi improve both disease activity and Qol for the first 12 months of therapy. 90% of patients who improved from high to a lower DAS28 status had clinically important improvement in Qol. Younger patients starting with lower HAQ and VAS global are more likely to benefit.

  15. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  16. Smooth or attached solid indeterminate nodules detected at baseline CT screening in the NELSON study: cancer risk during 1 year of follow-up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, D.M.; Zaag-Loonen, H.J. van der; Oudkerk, M.; Wang, Y.; Vliegenthart, R.; Scholten, E.T.; Verschakelen, J.; Prokop, M.; Koning, H.J. de; Klaveren, R.J.J. van

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine whether baseline nodule characteristics at 3-month and 1-year volume doubling time (VDT) are predictive for lung cancer in solid indeterminate noncalcified nodules (NCNs) detected at baseline computed tomographic (CT) screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study,

  17. Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD study: baseline characteristics and short-term effects of fenofibrate [ISRCTN64783481

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD Study is examining the effects of long-term fibrate therapy on coronary heart disease (CHD event rates in patients with diabetes mellitus. This article describes the trial's run-in phase and patients' baseline characteristics. Research design and methods FIELD is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 63 centres in 3 countries evaluating the effects of fenofibrate versus placebo on CHD morbidity and mortality in 9795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were to have no indication for lipid-lowering therapy on randomization, but could start these or other drugs at any time after randomization. Follow-up in the study was to be for a median duration of not less than 5 years and until 500 major coronary events (fatal coronary heart disease plus nonfatal myocardial infarction had occurred. Results About 2100 patients (22% had some manifestation of cardiovascular disease (CVD at baseline and thus high risk status. Less than 25% of patients without CVD had a (UKPDS determined calculated 5-year CHD risk of 30, most were men, two-thirds were aged over 60 years, and substantial proportions had NCEP ATP III features of the metabolic syndrome independent of their diabetes, including low HDL (60%, high blood pressure measurement or treatment for hypertension (84%, high waist measurement (68%, and raised triglycerides (52%. After a 6-week run-in period before randomisation with all participants receiving 200 mg comicronized fenofibrate, there were declines in total and LDL cholesterol (10% and triglycerides (26% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (6.5%. Conclusion The study will show the effect of PPAR-alpha agonist action on CHD and other vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes including substantial numbers with low to moderate CVD risk but with the various components of the metabolic syndrome. The main results of the study will be reported in

  18. Psychomotor Dance Therapy Intervention (DANCIN) for people with dementia in care homes: a multiple-baseline single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, A; Freeston, M; Rochester, L; Hughes, J C; James, I A

    2016-10-01

    A Psychomotor DANCe Therapy INtervention (DANCIN) using Latin Ballroom (Danzón) in care homes has previously been shown to enhance well-being for both residents with dementia and staff. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of this approach on the mood and behavior of individual people living with mild to moderate dementia. A multiple-baseline single-case study across two care homes and one nursing home with 3-6 weeks baseline, 12-weeks DANCIN (30 minutes/twice-weekly sessions), and 12-weeks follow-up was conducted. Seventeen items from the Dementia Mood Assessment Scale (DMAS) outcome measure were adapted with input from senior staff to match participants' behavior and mood symptoms. Daily monitoring diaries were collected from trained staff on reporting individualized items for ten residents. Data were analyzed, using a non-parametric statistical method known as Percentage of All Non-Overlapping Data (PAND) which provides Phi effect size (ES). Medication use, falls, and life events were registered. Seven residents participated throughout DANCIN whilst three became observers owing to health deterioration. One participant showed adverse effects in three DMAS items. Nine participants, dancers and observers, showed a small to medium magnitude of change (PAND) in 21 DMAS items, indicating a decrease in the frequency of behavior and mood indices which were regarded as problematic; eight items showed no change. Despite methodological challenges, the DANCIN model has the potential to facilitate and sustain behavior change and improve mood (e.g. decrease irritability, increase self-esteem) of the residents living with dementia. The study was conducted in two care homes and one nursing home, strengthening the interventions' validity. Findings suggest DANCIN is appropriate for a larger controlled feasibility study.

  19. DETECTION OF FAST RADIO TRANSIENTS WITH MULTIPLE STATIONS: A CASE STUDY USING THE VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, David R.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Majid, Walid A.; Brisken, Walter F.; Deller, Adam T.; Tingay, Steven J.; Wayth, Randall B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations reveal an important new class of transient radio phenomena that occur on submillisecond timescales. Often, transient surveys' data volumes are too large to archive exhaustively. Instead, an online automatic system must excise impulsive interference and detect candidate events in real time. This work presents a case study using data from multiple geographically distributed stations to perform simultaneous interference excision and transient detection. We present several algorithms that incorporate dedispersed data from multiple sites, and report experiments with a commensal real-time transient detection system on the Very Long Baseline Array. We test the system using observations of pulsar B0329+54. The multiple-station algorithms enhanced sensitivity for detection of individual pulses. These strategies could improve detection performance for a future generation of geographically distributed arrays such as the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder and the Square Kilometre Array.

  20. Design Study of a 100 GeV Beam Transfer Line from the SPS for a Short Baseline Neutrino Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Kosmicki, A; Kowalska, M; Velotti, F

    2013-01-01

    A short baseline neutrino facility at CERN is presently under study. It is considered to extract a 100 GeV beam from the second long straight section of the SPS into the existing transfer channel TT20, which leads to the North Area experimental zone. A new transfer line would branch off the existing TT20 line around 600 m downstream of the extraction, followed by an S-shaped horizontal bending arc to direct the beam with the correct angle onto the defined target location. This paper describes the optimisation of the line geometry with respect to the switch regions in TT20, the integration into the existing facilities and the potential refurbishment of existing magnets. The optics design is shown, and the requirements for the magnets, power converters and instrumentation hardware are discussed.

  1. Relationship between nodule count and lung cancer probability in baseline CT lung cancer screening : The NELSON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Walter, Joan E.; Peters, Robin B.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; de Koning, Harry J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between nodule count and lung cancer probability in baseline low-dose CT lung cancer screening. Materials and Methods: Included were participants from the NELSON trial with at least one baseline nodule (3392 participants [45% of screen-group], 7258 nodules).

  2. A study on microbiology of biological film layer in rotating biological contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkataraman, R. [IIT-Madras, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Space; Ramanujam, T.K. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, IIT, Madras (India)

    1998-03-01

    Experimental studies were carried out for upgrading the secondary treated domestic sewage effluent using the Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC) as an unit process in the premises of the existing water reclamation plant of Satellite Centre Building Complex of Indian Space Research Organisation at Bangalore. As part of these studies, a brief study was carried out on the microbiological aspects of the biological slime layer developed in the RBC. This study included observations on the development of the biological film on wetted disc surfaces of RBC, measurement of the thickness of the biological film, a discussion on significance of biofilm thickness in substrate removal, effect of wastewater characteristics on the thickness of biofilm and determination of MLSS/MLVSS ratio of biological film obtained in RBC reactor used for upgrading the secondary effluent. The results of these studies are presented in this paper. The results of identification of species of micro-organisms predominant in the biological slime layer in the RBC used for upgradation of secondary treated effluent are discussed separately in another paper. (orig.) With 6 figs., 4 tabs., 14 refs.

  3. Computerised modelling for developmental biology : an exploration with case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertens, Laura M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in developmental biology rely on the construction and analysis of models. This research presents a broad view of modelling approaches for developmental biology, with a focus on computational methods. An overview of modelling techniques is given, followed by several case studies. Using

  4. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR BIOLOGI SEL PADA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI UIN ALAUDDIN MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    Muriati, St

    2015-01-01

    Learning in UIN Alauddin is still limited knowledge to students, while, one mission to improve the quality of educators Biology in terms of belief, moral and scientific attitudes have not been implemented. This is caused by a lack of learning resources that connects Biology Science and its relation to scientific Qur'an. Cell Biology as subjects that reveal about the phenomenon of the smallest unit of life, it can be studied with scientific Qur'an. Therefore, it is necessary to develop teachin...

  5. Alzheimer Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Moderate Baseline Differences and Predict Longitudinal Change in Attentional Control and Episodic Memory Composites in the Adult Children Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Balota, David A.; Fagan, Anne M.; Duchek, Janet M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.S.; Morris, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cognitive measures that are sensitive to biological markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology are needed in order to (a) facilitate preclinical staging, (b) identify individuals who are at the highest risk for developing clinical symptoms and (c) serve as endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. The present study assesses the utility of two cognitive composite scores of attentional control and episodic memory as markers for preclinical AD pathology in a group of cognitively normal older adults (N = 238), as part of the Adult Children Study. Method All participants were given a baseline cognitive assessment and follow-up assessments every 3 years over an 8-year period, as well as a lumbar puncture within two years of the initial assessment to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and a PET-PIB scan for amyloid imaging. Results Results indicated that attentional control was correlated with levels of Aβ42 at the initial assessment whereas episodic memory was not. Longitudinally, individuals with high CSF tau exhibited a decline in both attention and episodic memory over the course of the study. Conclusion These results indicate that measures of attentional control and episodic memory can be utilized to evaluate cognitive decline in preclinical AD and provide support that CSF tau may be a key mechanism driving longitudinal cognitive change. PMID:26416094

  6. Alzheimer Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Moderate Baseline Differences and Predict Longitudinal Change in Attentional Control and Episodic Memory Composites in the Adult Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A; Fagan, Anne M; Duchek, Janet M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Morris, John C

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive measures that are sensitive to biological markers of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology are needed to (a) facilitate preclinical staging, (b) identify individuals who are at the highest risk for developing clinical symptoms, and (c) serve as endpoints for evaluating the efficacy of interventions. The present study assesses the utility of two cognitive composite scores of attentional control and episodic memory as markers for preclinical AD pathology in a group of cognitively normal older adults (N = 238), as part of the Adult Children Study. All participants were given a baseline cognitive assessment and follow-up assessments every 3 years over an 8-year period, as well as a lumbar puncture within 2 years of the initial assessment to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and amyloid tracer Pittsburgh compound-B scan for amyloid imaging. Results indicated that attentional control was correlated with levels of Aβ42 at the initial assessment whereas episodic memory was not. Longitudinally, individuals with high CSF tau exhibited a decline in both attention and episodic memory over the course of the study. These results indicate that measures of attentional control and episodic memory can be used to evaluate cognitive decline in preclinical AD and provide support that CSF tau may be a key mechanism driving longitudinal cognitive change.

  7. Most Trial Eligibility Criteria and Patient Baseline Characteristics Do Not Modify Treatment Effect in Trials Using Targeted Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Epidemiological Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Wulf Christensen

    Full Text Available To determine if variations in trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics could be considered effect modifiers of the treatment response when testing targeted therapies (biological agents and targeted synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs for rheumatoid arthritis (RA.We conducted a meta-epidemiological study of all trials evaluating a targeted therapy approved by regulatory authorities for treating RA. The database search was completed on December 11th 2013. Eligible trials reported ACR20 data at months 3-6 and used an add-on design. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated from the response rates and compared among the trial eligibility criteria/patient baseline characteristics of interest. Comparisons are presented as the Ratio of Odds Ratios (ROR.Sixty-two trials (19,923 RA patients were included in the primary analyses using ACR20 response. Overall, targeted therapies constituted an effective treatment (OR 3.96 95% confidence interval (CI 3.41 to 4.60. The majority of the trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics did not modify treatment effect. The added benefit of targeted therapies was lower in trials including "DMARD-naïve" patients compared with trials including "DMARD inadequate responders" (ROR = 0.45, 95%CI 0.31 to 0.66 and trials including "targeted therapy inadequate responders" (0.50, 95%CI 0.29 to 0.87, test for interaction: p = 0.0002. Longer mean disease duration was associated with a higher likelihood of responding to treatment (β = 1.05, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.11 OR's per year; p = 0.03. Analyses conducted using DAS28-remission as the outcome supported the above-mentioned findings.Our results suggest that a highly selective inclusion is not associated with greater treatment effect, as might otherwise be expected. The added benefit of a targeted therapy was lower in trials including patients who were DMARD-naïve and trials including patients with shorter disease durations.

  8. ALOUD biological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants study - Association of biological determinants with study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 15 March). ALOUD biological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants study - Association of biological determinants with study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning &

  9. Microbubble generation by piezotransducer for biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Alkhazal, M.; Cho, M.; Xiao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Bubbles induced by blast waves or shocks are speculated to be the major cause of damages in biological cells in mild traumatic brain injuries. Microbubble collapse was found to induce noticeable cell detachment from the cell substrate, changes in focal adhesion and biomechanics. To better understand the bubble mechanism, we would like to construct a system, which allows us to clearly differentiate the impact of bubbles from that of shocks. Such a generator needs to be low profile in order to place under a microscope. A piezoelectric transducer system was designed to meet the need. The system uses either a flat or a spherical focusing piezoelectric transducer to produce microbubbles in a cuvette loaded with cell-culture medium. The transducer is placed on the side of the cuvette with its axis lining horizontally. A cover slip is placed on the top of the cuvette. The impact of the waves to the cells is minimized as the cover slip is parallel to the direction of the wave. Only bubbles from the medium reach the cover slip and interact with cells. The effect of bubbles therefore can be separated that of pressure waves. The bubbles collected on a cover slip range in size from 100 μm to 10 μm in radius, but the dominant size is 20-30 μm.

  10. Communities advancing the studies of Tribal nations across their lifespan: Design, methods, and baseline of the CoASTAL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Kate; Boushey, Carol; Roberts, Sparkle M; Morris, J Glenn; Grattan, Lynn M

    2016-07-01

    The CoASTAL cohort represents the first community cohort assembled to study a HAB related illness. It is comprised of three Native American tribes in the Pacific NW for the purpose of studying the health impacts of chronic, low level domoic acid (DA) exposure through razor clam consumption. This cohort is at risk of domoic acid (DA) toxicity by virtue of their geographic location (access to beaches with a history of elevated DA levels in razor clams) and the cultural and traditional significance of razor clams in their diet. In this prospective, longitudinal study, Wave 1 of the cohort is comprised of 678 members across the lifespan with both sexes represented within child, adult and geriatric age groups. All participants are followed annually with standard measures of medical and social history; neuropsychological functions, psychological status, and dietary exposure. DA concentration levels are measured at both public and reservation beaches where razor clams are sourced and multiple metrics have been piloted to further determine exposure. Baseline data indicates that all cognitive and psychological functions are within normal limits. In addition there is considerable variability in razor clam exposure. Therefore, the CoASTAL cohort offers a unique opportunity to investigate the potential health effects of chronic, low level exposure to DA over time.

  11. Revisit of Machine Learning Supported Biological and Biomedical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Tian; Wang, Lu; Zeng, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Generally, machine learning includes many in silico methods to transform the principles underlying natural phenomenon to human understanding information, which aim to save human labor, to assist human judge, and to create human knowledge. It should have wide application potential in biological and biomedical studies, especially in the era of big biological data. To look through the application of machine learning along with biological development, this review provides wide cases to introduce the selection of machine learning methods in different practice scenarios involved in the whole biological and biomedical study cycle and further discusses the machine learning strategies for analyzing omics data in some cutting-edge biological studies. Finally, the notes on new challenges for machine learning due to small-sample high-dimension are summarized from the key points of sample unbalance, white box, and causality.

  12. Does baseline carotid intima-media thickness modify the effect of rosuvastatin when compared with placebo on carotid intima-media thickness progression? The METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, John R; Bots, Michiel L; Evans, Gregory W; Palmer, Mike K; O'Leary, Daniel H; Grobbee, Diederick E; Raichlen, Joel S

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have used carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurement to study atherosclerosis and the efficacy of interventions. The placebo-controlled Measuring Effects on intima-media Thickness: an Evaluation Of Rosuvastatin (METEOR) study showed significant reduction in the progression rate of maximum CIMT with 2 years of lipid treatment in asymptomatic individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis. The present post-hoc subgroup analysis of METEOR was carried out to determine whether the effect of rosuvastatin treatment varied according to baseline CIMT level. To assess the relationship between efficacy of treatment with rosuvastatin versus placebo and baseline CIMT, we analyzed the effects on the primary CIMT endpoint in participants stratified by baseline quartiles of CIMT (Q1-Q4) using all individuals with a baseline reading and at least one post-baseline CIMT reading. Statistical analysis was carried out using a multilevel repeated-measures linear mixed effects model. In total, 876 participants were included in the analysis. In all quartiles, progression of mean maximum CIMT was significantly slower in rosuvastatin-treated individuals as compared with placebo controls. Although the magnitude of the treatment effect appeared larger in those with the highest baseline CIMT, statistical testing indicated that the magnitude of the treatment effect did not vary significantly with levels of baseline CIMT. This subgroup analysis of the METEOR study showed that in middle-aged adults with sub-clinical atherosclerosis, rosuvastatin treatment resulted in significant reduction in mean maximum CIMT progression in four quartiles of baseline CIMT, with no evidence for difference in benefit across levels of baseline CIMT.

  13. Distributed Mission Operations Within-Simulator Training Effectiveness Baseline Study. Volume 5. Using the Pathfinder Methodology to Assess Pilot Knowledge Structure Changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schreiber, Brian T; DiSalvo, Pam; Stock, William A; Bennett, Jr., Winston

    2006-01-01

    ...) Within Simulator Training Effectiveness Baseline Study as described in Volume I, Summary Report, of AFRL-HE-AZ-TR-2006-0015, the current work examined pilots who participated in a Pathfinder data...

  14. Baseline Characteristics in PRIORITY Study: Proteomics and Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonism for Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte, Nete

    have included 1811 patients. The high- and low-risk populations differ in terms of gender, age, diabetes duration, UACR and eGFR (table). Univariate regression analyses of CKD273 vs each baseline variable demonstrated weak associations (R2 of 0.03, p ... and eGFR. In a logistic regression model predicting CKD273 risk strata, including all baseline variables, eGFR and UACR remain statistically significant (p

  15. The effect of baseline pressure errors on an intracranial pressure-derived index: results of a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to characterize the intracranial pressure-volume reserve capacity, the correlation coefficient (R) between the ICP wave amplitude (A) and the mean ICP level (P), the RAP index, has been used to improve the diagnostic value of ICP monitoring. Baseline pressure errors (BPEs), caused by spontaneous shifts or drifts in baseline pressure, cause erroneous readings of mean ICP. Consequently, BPEs could also affect ICP indices such as the RAP where in the mean ICP is incorporated. Methods A prospective, observational study was carried out on patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) undergoing ICP monitoring as part of their surveillance. Via the same burr hole in the scull, two separate ICP sensors were placed close to each other. For each consecutive 6-sec time window, the dynamic mean ICP wave amplitude (MWA; measure of the amplitude of the single pressure waves) and the static mean ICP, were computed. The RAP index was computed as the Pearson correlation coefficient between the MWA and the mean ICP for 40 6-sec time windows, i.e. every subsequent 4-min period (method 1). We compared this approach with a method of calculating RAP using a 4-min moving window updated every 6 seconds (method 2). Results The study included 16 aSAH patients. We compared 43,653 4-min RAP observations of signals 1 and 2 (method 1), and 1,727,000 6-sec RAP observations (method 2). The two methods of calculating RAP produced similar results. Differences in RAP ≥0.4 in at least 7% of observations were seen in 5/16 (31%) patients. Moreover, the combination of a RAP of ≥0.6 in one signal and 0.2 was significantly associated with the frequency of BPEs (5 mmHg ≤ BPE <10 mmHg). Conclusions Simultaneous monitoring from two separate, close-by ICP sensors reveals significant differences in RAP that correspond to the occurrence of BPEs. As differences in RAP are of magnitudes that may alter patient management, we do not advocate the use of RAP in the management of

  16. Data on subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate concentrations in the Study of Health in Pomerania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we provide subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P concentrations for healthy individuals within the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND cohort. After exclusion of subjects with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, elevated liver enzymes and/or chronic kidney disease stadium III or IV, four subgroups were defined according to different limits for body mass index (BMI, alterations in blood lipid levels and smoking status. Tables show respective clinical and laboratory parameters stratified by gender. Serum S1P concentrations are also stratified by age groups. The data presented herein is related to the research article entitled “Reference intervals for serum sphingosine-1-phosphate in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania” (E. Moritz, D. Wegner, S. Groß, M. Bahls, M. Dörr, S.B. Felix, T. Ittermann, S. Oswald, M. Nauck, N. Friedrich, R.H. Böger, G. Daum, E. Schwedhelm, B.H. Rauch, Clin Chim Acta. 468 (2017 25–31 [1].

  17. Data on subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate concentrations in the Study of Health in Pomerania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Eileen; Wegner, Danilo; Groß, Stefan; Bahls, Martin; Dörr, Marcus; Felix, Stephan B; Ittermann, Till; Oswald, Stefan; Nauck, Matthias; Friedrich, Nele; Böger, Rainer H; Daum, Günter; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2017-06-01

    In this data article, we provide subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) concentrations for healthy individuals within the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)-TREND cohort. After exclusion of subjects with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, elevated liver enzymes and/or chronic kidney disease stadium III or IV, four subgroups were defined according to different limits for body mass index (BMI), alterations in blood lipid levels and smoking status. Tables show respective clinical and laboratory parameters stratified by gender. Serum S1P concentrations are also stratified by age groups. The data presented herein is related to the research article entitled "Reference intervals for serum sphingosine-1-phosphate in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania" (E. Moritz, D. Wegner, S. Groß, M. Bahls, M. Dörr, S.B. Felix, T. Ittermann, S. Oswald, M. Nauck, N. Friedrich, R.H. Böger, G. Daum, E. Schwedhelm, B.H. Rauch, Clin Chim Acta. 468 (2017) 25-31) [1].

  18. Characteristics of Dutch and Swiss primary care COPD patients - baseline data of the ICE COLD ERIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeling, Lara; Puhan, Milo A; Muggensturm, Patrick; Zoller, Marco; Ter Riet, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIVE EFFORT ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC) is a prospective cohort study with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from Switzerland and The Netherlands designed to develop and validate practical COPD risk indices that predict the clinical course of COPD patients in primary care. This paper describes the characteristics of the cohorts at baseline. Standardized assessments included lung function, patient history, self-administered questionnaires, exercise capacity, and a venous blood sample for analysis of biomarkers and genetics. A total of 260 Dutch and 151 Swiss patients were included. Median age was 66 years, 57% were male, 38% were current smokers, 55% were former smokers, and 76% had at least one and 40% had two or more comorbidities with cardiovascular disease being the most prevalent one. The use of any pulmonary and cardiovascular drugs was 84% and 66%, respectively. Although lung function results (median forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV(1)] was 59% of predicted) were similar across the two cohorts, Swiss patients reported better COPD-specific health-related quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire) and had higher exercise capacity. COPD patients in the ICE COLD ERIC study represent a wide range of disease severities and the prevalence of multimorbidity is high. The rich variation in these primary care cohorts offers good opportunities to learn more about the clinical course of COPD.

  19. Characteristics of Dutch and Swiss primary care COPD patients – baseline data of the ICE COLD ERIC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebeling, Lara; Puhan, Milo A; Muggensturm, Patrick; Zoller, Marco; ter Riet, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    Introduction International Collaborative Effort on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC) is a prospective cohort study with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from Switzerland and The Netherlands designed to develop and validate practical COPD risk indices that predict the clinical course of COPD patients in primary care. This paper describes the characteristics of the cohorts at baseline. Material and methods Standardized assessments included lung function, patient history, self-administered questionnaires, exercise capacity, and a venous blood sample for analysis of biomarkers and genetics. Results A total of 260 Dutch and 151 Swiss patients were included. Median age was 66 years, 57% were male, 38% were current smokers, 55% were former smokers, and 76% had at least one and 40% had two or more comorbidities with cardiovascular disease being the most prevalent one. The use of any pulmonary and cardiovascular drugs was 84% and 66%, respectively. Although lung function results (median forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] was 59% of predicted) were similar across the two cohorts, Swiss patients reported better COPD-specific health-related quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire) and had higher exercise capacity. Discussion COPD patients in the ICE COLD ERIC study represent a wide range of disease severities and the prevalence of multimorbidity is high. The rich variation in these primary care cohorts offers good opportunities to learn more about the clinical course of COPD. PMID:22135502

  20. Indirect comparisons of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in CML: case study using baseline population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbach Tran Carpiuc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Kimbach Tran Carpiuc1, Gianantonio Rosti2, Fausto Castagnetti2, Maarten Treur3, Jennifer Stephens11Pharmerit North America LLC, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Hematology and Oncology, S Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy; 3Pharmerit Europe, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: The use of indirect comparisons to evaluate the relative effectiveness between two or more treatments is widespread in the literature and continues to grow each year. Appropriate methodologies will be essential for integrating data from various published clinical trials into a systematic framework as part of the increasing emphasis on comparative effectiveness research. This article provides a case study example for clinicians using the baseline study population characteristics and response rates of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors in imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic myelogenous leukemia followed by a discussion of indirect comparison methods that are being increasingly implemented to address challenges with these types of comparisons.Keywords: comparative effectiveness research, meta-analysis, BCR–ABL-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia, imatinib mesylate, nilotinib, dasatinib 

  1. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  2. Baseline characteristics and enrichment results of the Study Of diabetic Nephropathy with AtRasentan (SONAR) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Andress, Dennis L; Bakris, George; Brennan, John J; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Hou, Fan Fan; Kitzman, Dalane W; Kohan, Donald; Makino, Hirofumi; McMurray, John; Perkovic, Vlado; Tobe, Sheldon; Wigderson, Melissa; Yi, Tingting; Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2018-03-31

    The SONAR trial uses an enrichment design based on the individual response to the selective endothelin receptor antagonist atrasentan on efficacy (the degree of the individual response in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, UACR), and safety/tolerability (signs of sodium retention and acute increases in serum creatinine) to assess the effects of this agent on major renal outcomes. The patient population and enrichment results are described here. Patients with type 2 diabetes with estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) between 25 and 75 ml/min/1.73m 2 and UACR between 300 and 5000 mg/g were enrolled. After a run-in period, eligible patients received 0.75 atrasentan for 6 weeks. A total of 2648 responder patients in whom UACR decreased ≥30% compared to baseline were enrolled as well as 1020 non-responders with less than 30% UACR decrease. Patients who experienced more than 3 kg weight gain and in whom brain natriuretic peptide exceeded ≥300 pg/mL, or who experienced an increase in serum creatinine >20% and 0.5 mg/dL were not randomized. Baseline characteristics were similar between atrasentan responders and non-responders. At entry into the study, median UACR was 802 mg/g in responders and 920 mg/g in non-responders. After 6 weeks treatment with atrasentan, UACR change in responders was -48.8% (95%CI -49.8% to -47.9%) and in non-responders was -1.2% (95%CI -6.4% to 3.9%). Changes in other renal risk markers were similar between responders and non-responders apart from a marginally greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and eGFR in responders. The enrichment period has successfully identified a population with a profound UACR reduction without clinical signs of sodium retention in whom a large atrasentan effect on clinically important renal outcomes is possible. The SONAR trial aims to establish whether atrasentan confers renal protection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of ECH to the Study of Transport in ITER Baseline Scenario-like Discharges in DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinsker R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent DIII-D experiments in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS have shown strong increases in fluctuations and correlated reduction of confinement associated with entering the electron-heating-dominated regime with strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH. The addition of 3.2 MW of 110 GHz EC power deposited at ρ∼0.42 to IBS discharges with ∼3 MW of neutral beam injection causes large increases in low-k and medium-k turbulent density fluctuations observed with Doppler backscatter (DBS, beam emission spectroscopy (BES and phase-contrast imaging (PCI diagnostics, correlated with decreases in the energy, particle, and momentum confinement times. Power balance calculations show the electron heat diffusivity χe increases significantly in the mid-radius region 0.4<ρ<0.8, which is roughly the same region where the DBS and BES diagnostics show the increases in turbulent density fluctuations. Confinement of angular momentum is also reduced during ECH. Studies with the TGYRO transport solver show that the model of turbulent transport embodied in the TGLF code quantitatively reproduces the measured transport in both the neutral beam (NB-only and in the NB plus EC cases. A simple model of the decrease in toroidal rotation with EC power is set forth, which exhibits a bifurcation in the rotational state of the discharge.

  4. Association between Cognitive Status and Physical Activity: Study Profile on Baseline Survey of the My Mind Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gagliardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of people with dementia is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, but it seems that there is a relationship between an active lifestyle and cognitive decline. The present study aimed to compare the characteristics and engagement in the physical activity (PA of three groups of Italian elderly with different cognitive statuses at baseline phase. Methods: Data were examined using the results from the “My Mind Project” on 305 community-dwelling Italians. The sample was comprised of 93 subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, 109 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 103 healthy elderly (HE. Results: Classification of subjects on the basis of Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE score showed that 47% of HE performed the highest level of physical activity while 40% of AD performed the lowest level. MCI subjects were distributed quite homogeneously across the levels (p < 0.001. Physical activity such as walking and light sports was carried out mainly and more frequently by HE as compared to the others (p < 0.05. As regards functional status, AD presented worse conditions in basic and instrumental activities of daily living than the other groups (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our results evidenced that subjects with cognitive decline had the tendency to engage in PA less than HE. In particular, age and education negatively affected engagement in PA.

  5. Sample size and power calculation for molecular biology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Sample size calculation is a critical procedure when designing a new biological study. In this chapter, we consider molecular biology studies generating huge dimensional data. Microarray studies are typical examples, so that we state this chapter in terms of gene microarray data, but the discussed methods can be used for design and analysis of any molecular biology studies involving high-dimensional data. In this chapter, we discuss sample size calculation methods for molecular biology studies when the discovery of prognostic molecular markers is performed by accurately controlling false discovery rate (FDR) or family-wise error rate (FWER) in the final data analysis. We limit our discussion to the two-sample case.

  6. Differences in resource use and costs of dementia care between European countries: baseline data from the ICTUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, A; Jonsson, L; Rapp, T; Reynish, E; Ousset, P J; Andrieu, S; Cantet, C; Winblad, B; Vellas, B; Wimo, A

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to estimate the costs of formal and informal care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, to compare care costs across European countries and identify potential differences in cost patterns between countries and regions. The ICTUS study is a prospective, naturalistic observational study conducted in specialised memory clinics in 12 European countries. In total, 1385 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease were enrolled at baseline. All subjects had a reliable informant (primary caregiver) and informed consent was obtained from patients or their primary caregiver. Resource utilization data was captured with the RUD Lite (Resource Utilization in Dementia) instrument and caregiver burden with the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI). Patient disease severity was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), Katz´ index (PADL), Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale and Neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI). The mean annual cost of care per patient was estimated to €7,820 (95% CI: €7,194-€8,446), whereof 54% were costs of informal care, 16% direct medical costs and 30% community care costs. There were substantial differences in total resource utilization and also in the balance between formal and informal care between Northern, Western and Southern Europe. PADL scores were strongly associated with formal care costs while IADL scores correlated strongly with informal care costs. Costs of Alzheimer's disease are high across European countries. Activities of daily living is an important determinant of care costs. Formal care service use is lower and informal care higher in Southern Europe compared to Western and Northern Europe. Differences in resource utilization patterns are important to consider in international studies of dementia care costs as well as in economic evaluations of new treatments for dementia.

  7. The rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Younger Women (WHIMS-Y).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Espeland, Mark A; Snively, Beverly; Shumaker, Sally A; Rapp, Stephen R; Shupe, Jill; Robinson, Jennifer G; Sarto, Gloria E; Resnick, Susan M

    2013-06-13

    The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Younger (WHIMS-Y) was designed to assess the effect of prior random assignment to hormone therapy (HT) (conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) alone or CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)) on global cognitive function in younger middle-aged women relative to placebo. WHIMS-Y was an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) HT trial and enrolled 1361 women who were aged 50-55 years and postmenopausal at WHI enrollment. WHIMS-Y will examine whether an average of 5.4 years of HT during early menopause has longer term protective effects on global cognitive function and if these effects vary by regimen, time between menopause and study initiation, and prior use of HT. We present the study rationale and design. We describe enrollment, adherence to assigned WHI therapy, and compare risk factor characteristics of the WHIMS-Y cohort at the time of WHI enrollment to similar aged women in the WHI HT who did not enroll in WHIMS-Y. Challenges of WHIMS-Y include lower than expected and differential enrollment. Strengths of WHIMS-Y include balance in baseline risk factors between treatment groups, standardized and masked data collection, and high rates of retention and on-trial adherence and exposure. In addition, the telephone-administered cognitive battery showed adequate construct validity. WHIMS-Y provided an unprecedented chance to examine the hypothesis that HT may have protective effects on cognition in younger postmenopausal women aged 50-55 years. Integrated into the WHI, WHIMS-Y optimized the experience of WHI investigators to ensure high retention and excellent quality assurance across sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Hormone Therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Baseline factors predictive of serious suicidality at follow-up: findings focussing on age and gender from a community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Anstey, Kaarin J; Salim, Agus; Rodgers, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Although often providing more reliable and informative findings relative to other study designs, longitudinal investigations of prevalence and predictors of suicidal behaviour remain uncommon. This paper compares 12-month prevalence rates for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt at baseline and follow-up; identifies new cases and remissions; and assesses the capacity of baseline data to predict serious suicidality at follow-up, focusing on age and gender differences. Meth...

  9. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  10. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  11. In vitro study of biofilm growth on biologic prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Charles; Smith, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Biologic prosthetics are increasingly used for the repair of abdominal wall hernia defects but can become infected as a result of peri- or early post-operative bacterial contamination. Data evaluating biofilm formation on biologic prosthetics is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different biologic prosthetics on the growth behavior of two different bacterial species and their ability to form biofilms. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomrnonas aeruginosa were incubated on disks of two biologic prosthetics-human acellular dermis (ADM), and porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). The bacteria were allowed to attach to the prosthetics and propagate into mature biofilms for 24 hours at 370C. Images of biofilms were obtained using confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The number of viable cells and the biofilm biomass were quantified by colony forming units (CFUs) and crystal violet staining respectively. Analysis of variance was performed to compare the mean values for the different prosthetics. Each biologic matrix had a distinct surface characteristic. SEM visualized mature biofilms characterized by highly organized multi-cellular structures on surface of both biologic prosthetics. Quantification of bacterial growth over time showed that ADM had the lowest CFUs and biofilm biomass at 24 hours post-inoculation compared to SIS for both bacterial strains. MRSA and P. aeruginosa can form mature biofilms on biologic prosthetics but the relative abundance of the biofilm varies on different prosthetic constructs. Biologic material composition and manufacturing methods may influence bacterial adherence.

  12. Evidence of major genes for plasma HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Després, J-P; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed major gene effects for baseline HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, and their training responses (post-training minus baseline) in 527 individuals from 99 White families and 326 individuals from 113 Black families in the HERITAGE Family Study. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, and the training response phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI, and their respective baseline values, within each of the sex-by-generation-by-race groups, prior to genetic analyses. In Whites, we found that LDL-C at baseline and HDL-C training response were under influence of major recessive genes (accounting for 2--30 % of the variance) and multifactorial (polygenic and familial environmental) effects. Interactions of these major genes with sex, age, and BMI were tested, and found to be nonsignificant. In Blacks, we found that baseline HDL-C was influenced by a major dominant gene without a multifactorial component. This major gene effect accounted for 45 % of the variance, and exhibited no significant genotype-specific interactions with age, sex, and BMI. Evidence of major genes for the remaining phenotypes at baseline and in response to endurance training were not found in both races, though some were influenced by major effects that did not follow Mendelian expectations or were with ambiguous transmission from parents to offspring. In summary, major gene effects that influence baseline plasma HDL-C and LDL-C levels as well as changes in HDL-C levels in response to regular exercise were detected in the current study.

  13. short communication electrophoretic studies on biologically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Paper electrophoresis is used for the study of equilibria in binary complex systems in solution. The ... with a-aminobutenoic acid and hydroxyproline were determined at an ionic strength of 0.1 M and 35 ºC. The ... The level of the hollow base plate in the instrument was made horizontal using a spirit level and.

  14. Biological Studies on a Live Volcano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes scientific research on an Earthwatch expedition to study Arenal, one of the world's most active volcanoes, in north central Costa Rica. The purpose of the two-week project was to monitor and understand the past and ongoing development of a small, geologically young, highly active stratovolcano in a tropical, high-rainfall environment.…

  15. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  16. Utilizing population variation, vaccination, and systems biology to study human immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The move toward precision medicine has highlighted the importance of understanding biological variability within and across individuals in the human population. In particular, given the prevalent involvement of the immune system in diverse pathologies, an important question is how much and what information about the state of the immune system is required to enable accurate prediction of future health and response to medical interventions. Towards addressing this question, recent studies using vaccination as a model perturbation and systems-biology approaches are beginning to provide a glimpse of how natural population variation together with multiplexed, high-throughput measurement and computational analysis can be used to uncover predictors of immune response quality in humans. Here I discuss recent developments in this emerging field, with emphasis on baseline correlates of vaccination responses, sources of immune-state variability, as well as relevant features of study design, data generation, and computational analysis. PMID:26187853

  17. Utilizing population variation, vaccination, and systems biology to study human immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, John S

    2015-08-01

    The move toward precision medicine has highlighted the importance of understanding biological variability within and across individuals in the human population. In particular, given the prevalent involvement of the immune system in diverse pathologies, an important question is how much and what information about the state of the immune system is required to enable accurate prediction of future health and response to medical interventions. Towards addressing this question, recent studies using vaccination as a model perturbation and systems-biology approaches are beginning to provide a glimpse of how natural population variation together with multiplexed, high-throughput measurement and computational analysis can be used to uncover predictors of immune response quality in humans. Here I discuss recent developments in this emerging field, with emphasis on baseline correlates of vaccination responses, sources of immune-state variability, as well as relevant features of study design, data generation, and computational analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Deep sequencing analysis of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at baseline and time of failure in patients receiving rilpivirine in the phase III studies ECHO and THRIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eygen, Veerle; Thys, Kim; Van Hove, Carl; Rimsky, Laurence T; De Meyer, Sandra; Aerssens, Jeroen; Picchio, Gaston; Vingerhoets, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Minority variants (1.0-25.0%) were evaluated by deep sequencing (DS) at baseline and virological failure (VF) in a selection of antiretroviral treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients from the rilpivirine ECHO/THRIVE phase III studies. Linkage between frequently emerging resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) was determined. DS (llIumina®) and population sequencing (PS) results were available at baseline for 47 VFs and time of failure for 48 VFs; and at baseline for 49 responders matched for baseline characteristics. Minority mutations were accurately detected at frequencies down to 1.2% of the HIV-1 quasispecies. No baseline minority rilpivirine RAMs were detected in VFs; one responder carried 1.9% F227C. Baseline minority mutations associated with resistance to other non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were detected in 8/47 VFs (17.0%) and 7/49 responders (14.3%). Baseline minority nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) RAMs M184V and L210W were each detected in one VF (none in responders). At failure, two patients without NNRTI RAMs by PS carried minority rilpivirine RAMs K101E and/or E138K; and five additional patients carried other minority NNRTI RAMs V90I, V106I, V179I, V189I, and Y188H. Overall at failure, minority NNRTI RAMs and NRTI RAMs were found in 29/48 (60.4%) and 16/48 VFs (33.3%), respectively. Linkage analysis showed that E138K and K101E were usually not observed on the same viral genome. In conclusion, baseline minority rilpivirine RAMs and other NNRTI/NRTI RAMs were uncommon in the rilpivirine arm of the ECHO and THRIVE studies. DS at failure showed emerging NNRTI resistant minority variants in seven rilpivirine VFs who had no detectable NNRTI RAMs by PS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antypas, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The difference between intracellular and extracellular proton relaxation rates provides the basis for the determination of the mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC) in red blood cells. The observed water T 1 relaxation data from red blood cell samples under various conditions were fit to the complete equation for the time-dependent decay of magnetization for a two-compartment system including chemical exchange. The MHC for each sample was calculated from the hematocrit and the intracellular water fraction as determined by NMR. The binding of the phosphorylcholine (PC) analogue, 2-(trimethylphosphonio)-ethylphosphate (phosphoryl-phosphocholine, PPC) to the PC binding myeloma proteins TEPC-15, McPC 603, and MOPC 167 was studied by 31 P NMR

  20. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    Environment Facility (GEF), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to assist developing countries to reduce the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens in ships’ ballast water... and sediments and to assist the countries in implementing the International Convention on Ballast Water Management. For more information, please visit http://globallast.imo.org. The International Ocean Institute (IOI) was founded in 1972 by Professor Elisabeth...

  1. Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study (CANVAS)--a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Bruce; Perkovic, Vlado; de Zeeuw, Dick; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Fulcher, Greg; Stein, Peter; Desai, Mehul; Shaw, Wayne; Jiang, Joel; Vercruysse, Frank; Meininger, Gary; Matthews, David

    2013-08-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibition is a novel mode of treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin lowered blood glucose, blood pressure, and body weight, with increased risk of urogenital infections in Phase 2 studies. Effects on macrovascular complications of diabetes remain to be determined. CANVAS is a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effects of canagliflozin on the risk of cardiovascular disease and to assess safety and tolerability in patients with inadequately controlled T2DM and increased cardiovascular risk. The first of 2 planned phases randomized 4,330 individuals to placebo, canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg (1:1:1) with planned follow-up of about 2 years to substantiate potential cardiovascular protection by assessing key biomarkers and to achieve initial safety objectives. By the end of mid-September 2012, a total of 7174 patient-years of follow-up were accrued. Mean baseline age was 62 years, duration of diabetes 13 years; hemoglobin A1c 8.2%, fasting plasma glucose 9.3 mmol/L, and body mass index 32 kg/m(2). Of the participants, 34% are female and 57% had a history of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Participants will be followed up to achieve primary safety and tolerability objectives and to investigate secondary outcomes. The planned second phase will not be undertaken. CANVAS will define the effects of canagliflozin on biomarkers and provide data on cardiovascular safety against established regulatory parameters. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  3. A systems BIOlogy Study to TAilored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure: rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of BIOSTAT-CHF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Anker, Stefan D.; Cleland, John G.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Filippatos, Gerasimos; van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L.; Lang, Chim C.; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Ng, Leong; Ponikowski, Piotr; Samani, Nilesh J.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Zannad, Faiz; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Metra, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Despite major improvements in pharmacological and device treatments, heart failure remains a syndrome with high morbidity and mortality, poor quality of life, and high health-care costs. Given the extensive heterogeneity among patients with heart failure, substantial differences in the response to

  4. A systems BIOlogy Study to TAilored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure : rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of BIOSTAT-CHF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, Adriaan A.; Anker, Stefan D.; Cleland, John G.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Filippatos, Gerasimos; van der Harst, Pim; Hillege, Hans L.; Lang, Chim C.; ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Ng, Leong; Ponikowski, Piotr; Samani, Nilesh J.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Zannad, Faiz; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Metra, Marco

    AimsDespite major improvements in pharmacological and device treatments, heart failure remains a syndrome with high morbidity and mortality, poor quality of life, and high health-care costs. Given the extensive heterogeneity among patients with heart failure, substantial differences in the response

  5. Study of phosphors determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rosangela Magda de.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, phosphors determination by neutron activation analysis in milk and bone samples was studied employing both instrumental and radiochemical separation methods. The analysis with radiochemistry separation consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, dissolution of the samples, hold back carrier, addition precipitation of phosphorus with ammonium phosphomolibdate (A.M.P.) and phosphorus-32 by counting by using Geiger-Mueller detector. The instrumental analysis consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, transfer of the samples into a counting planchet and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus-32, after a suitable decay period. After the phosphorus analysis methods were established they were applied to both commercial milk and animal bone samples, and data obtained in the instrumental and radiochemical separation methods for each sample, were compared between themselves. In this work, it became possible to obtain analysis methods for phosphorus that can be applied independently of the sample quantity available, and the phosphorus content in the samples or interference that can be present in them. (author). 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Micro-heterogeneity of malaria transmission in the Peruvian Amazon: a baseline assessment underlying a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Guzman-Guzman, Mitchel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Ramirez, Roberson; Manrique, Paulo; Carrasco-Escobar, Gabriel; Puemape, Carmen; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2017-08-04

    Understanding the dynamics of malaria transmission in diverse endemic settings is key for designing and implementing locally adapted and sustainable control and elimination strategies. A parasitological and epidemiological survey was conducted in September-October 2012, as a baseline underlying a 3-year population-based longitudinal cohort study. The aim was to characterize malaria transmission patterns in two contrasting ecological rural sites in the Peruvian Amazon, Lupuna (LUP), a riverine environment, and Cahuide (CAH), associated with road-linked deforestation. After a full population census, 1941 individuals 3 years and older (829 in LUP, 1112 in CAH) were interviewed, clinically examined and had a blood sample taken for the detection of malaria parasites by microscopy and PCR. Species-specific parasite prevalence was estimated overall and by site. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed risk factors for parasite infection by PCR, while SaTScan detected spatial clusters of PCR-positive individuals within each site. In addition, data from routine malaria surveillance in the period 2009-2012 were obtained. Parasite prevalence by PCR was higher in CAH than in LUP for Plasmodium vivax (6.2% vs. 3.9%) and for Plasmodium falciparum (2.6% vs. 1.2%). Among PCR-confirmed infections, asymptomatic (Asy) parasite carriers were always more common than symptomatic (Sy) infections for P. vivax (Asy/Sy ratio: 2/1 in LUP and 3.7/1 in CAH) and for P. falciparum (Asy/Sy ratio: 1.3/1 in LUP and 4/1 in CAH). Sub-patent (Spat) infections also predominated over patent (Pat) infections for both species: P. vivax (Spat/Pat ratio: 2.8/1 in LUP and 3.7/1 in CAH) and P. falciparum malaria (Spat/Pat ratio: 1.9/1 in LUP and 26/0 in CAH). For CAH, age, gender and living in a household without electricity were significantly associated with P. vivax infection, while only age and living in a household with electricity was associated with P. falciparum infection. For LUP, only

  7. Biochemical and physiological modifications in tissues of Sardina pilchardus: spatial and temporal patterns as a baseline for biomonitoring studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva Nunes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sardina pilchardus is a marine species common in the North Atlantic Ocean, and is subjected to diffuse anthropogenic chemical contamination and seasonal fluctuations in biotic and abiotic parameters that may alter its physiology and condition. Biological material is easily available through commercial fisheries, which could facilitate its use as a bioindicator species. The aim of the present work was to address its potential inclusion in biomonitoring studies, considering a combinatory approach through the use of enzymatic biomarkers and somatic indices, by assessing spatial and temporal patterns in a metapopulation along the west coast of Portugal. Our results showed significant variability of the biochemical and physiological profile of the fish, mainly concordant between sampling sites. Large differences for most markers were found across periods of the year, showing the importance of seasonality, which was mostly related to the reproductive cycle. Hence, environmental scientists should acknowledge seasonality as a strong driving force for physiological adaptations, influencing biochemical markers that are normally used to identify effects of chemical contamination. The here-obtained set of data suggests that S. pilchardus may be successfully included in oceanic biomonitoring studies, when one considers that the contribution of seasonal factors may exceed the influence of eventual anthropogenic contamination.

  8. Characteristics of Dutch and Swiss primary care COPD patients - baseline data of the ICE COLD ERIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siebeling L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lara Siebeling1, Milo A Puhan2,3, Patrick Muggensturm4, Marco Zoller5, Gerben ter Riet11Department of General Practice, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Horten Center for Patient-oriented Research, University of Zurich, 4Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 5Department of General Practice, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandIntroduction: International Collaborative Effort on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC is a prospective cohort study with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients from Switzerland and The Netherlands designed to develop and validate practical COPD risk indices that predict the clinical course of COPD patients in primary care. This paper describes the characteristics of the cohorts at baseline.Material and methods: Standardized assessments included lung function, patient history, self-administered questionnaires, exercise capacity, and a venous blood sample for analysis of biomarkers and genetics.Results: A total of 260 Dutch and 151 Swiss patients were included. Median age was 66 years, 57% were male, 38% were current smokers, 55% were former smokers, and 76% had at least one and 40% had two or more comorbidities with cardiovascular disease being the most prevalent one. The use of any pulmonary and cardiovascular drugs was 84% and 66%, respectively. Although lung function results (median forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] was 59% of predicted were similar across the two cohorts, Swiss patients reported better COPD-specific health-related quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire and had higher exercise capacity.Discussion: COPD patients in the ICE COLD ERIC study represent a wide range of disease severities and the prevalence of multimorbidity is high

  9. Shifting human resources for health in the context of ART provision: qualitative and quantitative findings from the Lablite baseline study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misheck J. Nkhata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lablite is an implementation project supporting and studying decentralized antiretroviral therapy (ART rollout to rural communities in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Task shifting is one of the strategies to deal with shortage of health care workers (HCWs in ART provision. Evaluating Human Resources for Health (HRH optimization is essential for ensuring access to ART. The Lablite project started with a baseline survey whose aim was to describe and compare national and intercountry delivery of ART services including training, use of laboratories and clinical care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October 2011 and August 2012 in a sample of 81 health facilities representing different regions, facility levels and experience of ART provision in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Using a questionnaire, data were collected on facility characteristics, human resources and service provision. Thirty three (33 focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs in a subset of facilities in Malawi and Zimbabwe. Results The survey results showed that in Malawi and Uganda, primary care facilities were run by non-physician clinical officers/medical assistants while in Zimbabwe, they were run by nurses/midwives. Across the three countries, turnover of staff was high especially among nurses. Between 10 and 20% of the facilities had at least one clinical officer/medical assistant leave in the 3 months prior to the study. Qualitative results show that HCWs in ART and non-ART facilities perceived a shortage of staff for all services, even prior to the introduction of ART provision. HCWs perceived the introduction of ART as having increased workload. In Malawi, the number of people on ART and hence the workload for HCWs has further increased following the introduction of Option B+ (ART initiation and life-long treatment for HIV positive pregnant and lactating women, resulting in extended working times and concerns that the quality of

  10. Shifting human resources for health in the context of ART provision: qualitative and quantitative findings from the Lablite baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhata, Misheck J; Muzambi, Margaret; Ford, Deborah; Chan, Adrienne K; Abongomera, George; Namata, Harriet; Mambule, Ivan; South, Annabelle; Revill, Paul; Grundy, Caroline; Mabugu, Travor; Chiwaula, Levison; Hakim, James; Kityo, Cissy; Reid, Andrew; Katabira, Elly; Sodhi, Sumeet; Gilks, Charles F; Gibb, Diana M; Seeley, Janet; Cataldo, Fabian

    2016-11-16

    Lablite is an implementation project supporting and studying decentralized antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout to rural communities in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Task shifting is one of the strategies to deal with shortage of health care workers (HCWs) in ART provision. Evaluating Human Resources for Health (HRH) optimization is essential for ensuring access to ART. The Lablite project started with a baseline survey whose aim was to describe and compare national and intercountry delivery of ART services including training, use of laboratories and clinical care. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October 2011 and August 2012 in a sample of 81 health facilities representing different regions, facility levels and experience of ART provision in Malawi, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Using a questionnaire, data were collected on facility characteristics, human resources and service provision. Thirty three (33) focus group discussions were conducted with HCWs in a subset of facilities in Malawi and Zimbabwe. The survey results showed that in Malawi and Uganda, primary care facilities were run by non-physician clinical officers/medical assistants while in Zimbabwe, they were run by nurses/midwives. Across the three countries, turnover of staff was high especially among nurses. Between 10 and 20% of the facilities had at least one clinical officer/medical assistant leave in the 3 months prior to the study. Qualitative results show that HCWs in ART and non-ART facilities perceived a shortage of staff for all services, even prior to the introduction of ART provision. HCWs perceived the introduction of ART as having increased workload. In Malawi, the number of people on ART and hence the workload for HCWs has further increased following the introduction of Option B+ (ART initiation and life-long treatment for HIV positive pregnant and lactating women), resulting in extended working times and concerns that the quality of services have been affected. For some HCWs

  11. Insights from Systems Biology in Physiological Studies: Learning from Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Imenez Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology presents an integrated view of biological systems, focusing on the relations between elements, whether functional or evolutionary, and providing a rich framework for the comprehension of life. At the same time, many low-throughput experimental studies are performed without influence from this integrated view, whilst high-throughput experiments use low-throughput results in their validation and interpretation. We propose an inversion in this logic, and ask which benefits could be obtained from a holistic view coming from high-throughput studies―and systems biology in particular―in interpreting and designing low-throughput experiments. By exploring some key examples from the renal and adrenal physiology, we try to show that network and modularity theory, along with observed patterns of association between elements in a biological system, can have profound effects on our ability to draw meaningful conclusions from experiments.

  12. A systematic study on drug-response associated genes using baseline gene expressions of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Yun; Wang, Fayou; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-03-01

    We have studied drug-response associated (DRA) gene expressions by applying a systems biology framework to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia data. More than 4,000 genes are inferred to be DRA for at least one drug, while the number of DRA genes for each drug varies dramatically from almost 0 to 1,226. Functional enrichment analysis shows that the DRA genes are significantly enriched in genes associated with cell cycle and plasma membrane. Moreover, there might be two patterns of DRA genes between genders. There are significantly shared DRA genes between male and female for most drugs, while very little DRA genes tend to be shared between the two genders for a few drugs targeting sex-specific cancers (e.g., PD-0332991 for breast cancer and ovarian cancer). Our analyses also show substantial difference for DRA genes between young and old samples, suggesting the necessity of considering the age effects for personalized medicine in cancers. Lastly, differential module and key driver analyses confirm cell cycle related modules as top differential ones for drug sensitivity. The analyses also reveal the role of TSPO, TP53, and many other immune or cell cycle related genes as important key drivers for DRA network modules. These key drivers provide new drug targets to improve the sensitivity of cancer therapy.

  13. A systematic study on drug-response associated genes using baseline gene expressions of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Yun; Wang, Fayou; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-03-10

    We have studied drug-response associated (DRA) gene expressions by applying a systems biology framework to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia data. More than 4,000 genes are inferred to be DRA for at least one drug, while the number of DRA genes for each drug varies dramatically from almost 0 to 1,226. Functional enrichment analysis shows that the DRA genes are significantly enriched in genes associated with cell cycle and plasma membrane. Moreover, there might be two patterns of DRA genes between genders. There are significantly shared DRA genes between male and female for most drugs, while very little DRA genes tend to be shared between the two genders for a few drugs targeting sex-specific cancers (e.g., PD-0332991 for breast cancer and ovarian cancer). Our analyses also show substantial difference for DRA genes between young and old samples, suggesting the necessity of considering the age effects for personalized medicine in cancers. Lastly, differential module and key driver analyses confirm cell cycle related modules as top differential ones for drug sensitivity. The analyses also reveal the role of TSPO, TP53, and many other immune or cell cycle related genes as important key drivers for DRA network modules. These key drivers provide new drug targets to improve the sensitivity of cancer therapy.

  14. Following Lives Undergoing Change (Flux) study: Implementation and baseline prevalence of drug use in an online cohort study of gay and bisexual men in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Mohamed A; Jin, Fengyi; Degenhardt, Louisa; Lea, Toby; Maher, Lisa; Grierson, Jeffrey; Mackie, Brent; Pastorelli, Marcus; Batrouney, Colin; Bath, Nicky; Bradley, Jack; Prestage, Garrett P

    2017-03-01

    Drug use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) is higher than most populations. The use of crystal methamphetamine, erectile dysfunction medication (EDM), and amyl nitrite have been associated with sexual risk behaviour and HIV infection among gay and bisexual men (GBM). This paper describes an online prospective observational study of licit and illicit drug use among GBM and explores baseline prevalence of drug use in this sample. Capturing these data poses challenges as participants are required to disclose potentially illegal behaviours in a geographically dispersed country. To address this issue, an entirely online and study specific methodology was chosen. Men living in Australia, aged 16.5 years of age or older, who identified as homosexual or bisexual or had sex with at least one man in the preceding 12 months were eligible to enrol. Between September 2014 and July 2015, a total of 2250 participants completed the baseline questionnaire, of whom, 1710 (76.0%) consented to six-monthly follow-up. The majority (65.7%) were recruited through Facebook targeted advertising. At baseline, over half (50.5%) the men reported the use of any illicit drug in the previous six months, and 28.0% had used party drugs. In the six months prior to enrolment, 12.0% had used crystal methamphetamine, 21.8% had used EDM, and 32.1% had used amyl nitrite. Among the 1710 men enrolled into the cohort, 790 men had used none of these drugs. Ease of entry and minimal research burden on participants helped ensure successful recruitment into this online cohort study. Study outcomes will include the initiation and cessation of drug use, associated risk behaviours, and health consequences, over time. Results will provide insights into the role gay community plays in patterns of drug use among GBM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The ICTUS Study: A Prospective longitudinal observational study of 1,380 AD patients in Europe. Study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynish, E; Cortes, F; Andrieu, S; Cantet, C; Olde Rikkert, M; Melis, R; Froelich, L; Frisoni, G B; Jönsson, L; Visser, P J; Ousset, P J; Vellas, B

    2007-01-01

    The long-term objective of the ICTUS study is to identify milestones in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and to develop a model to predict disease course in individual AD patients in Europe. The secondary objectives are to describe the patterns of prescribing, and the socioeconomic impact of AD in Europe. Between 2003 and 2005 1,380 patients with probable AD were recruited in specialised (secondary care) clinics in 12 European countries. Their mean age was 76 years and they had a mean of 8.0 +/- (SD) 4.6 years of education. Thirty-five percent were male. The mean MMSE score was 20.4 +/- (SD) 4.0. Forty-three percent had very mild dementia (CDR 0.5) and 44% had mild dementia (CDR 1). All patients completed baseline evaluation and biannual follow-up is ongoing. The goals of the current study are to describe the specific methods for recruitment in this crosscultural setting and the characteristics of the inception ICTUS cohort, including clinical features, co-morbidity, neuropsychological performance, neuropsychiatric symptoms, functional impairment and social burden. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Abnormal baseline brain activity in patients with neuromyelitis optica: A resting-state fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Duan Yunyun; Jia Xiuqin; Wang Fei; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen; Dong Huiqing; Ye Jing; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Recent immunopathologic and MRI findings suggest that tissue damage in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is not limited to spinal cord and optic nerve, but also in brain. Baseline brain activity can reveal the brain functional changes to the tissue damages and give clues to the pathophysiology of NMO, however, it has never been explored by resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). We used regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index in resting-state fMRI to investigate how baseline brain activity changes in patients with NMO. Methods: Resting-state fMRIs collected from seventeen NMO patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched normal controls were compared to investigate the ALFF difference between the two groups. The relationships between ALFF in regions with significant group differences and the EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale), disease duration were further explored. Results: Our results showed that NMO patients had significantly decreased ALFF in precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and lingual gyrus; and increased ALFF in middle frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus and thalamus, compared to normal controls. Moderate negative correlations were found between the EDSS and ALFF in the left middle frontal gyrus (r = -0.436, p = 0.040) and the left caudate (r = -0.542, p = 0.012). Conclusion: The abnormal baseline brain activity shown by resting-state fMRI in NMO is relevant to cognition, visual and motor systems. It implicates a complex baseline brain status of both functional impairments and adaptations caused by tissue damages in these systems, which gives clues to the pathophysiology of NMO.

  17. Terrestrial gamma radiation dose study to determine the baseline for environmental radiological health practices in Melaka state, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Sahrone, Sallehudin; Wagiran, Husin

    2005-01-01

    Environmental terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured throughout Melaka, Malaysia, over a period of two years, with the objective of establishing baseline data on the background radiation level. Results obtained are shown in tabular, graphic and cartographic form. The values of terrestrial gamma radiation dose rate vary significantly over different soil types and for different underlying geological characteristics present in the study area. The values ranged from 54 ± 5 to 378 ± 38 nGy h -1 . The highest terrestrial gamma dose rates were measured over soil types of granitic origin and in areas with underlying geological characteristics of an acid intrusive (undifferentiated) type. An isodose map of terrestrial gamma dose rate in Melaka was drawn by using the GIS application 'Arc View'. This was based on data collected using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector survey meter. The measurements were taken at 542 locations. Three small 'hot spots' were found where the dose rates were more than 350 nGy h -1 . The mean dose rates in the main population areas in the mukims (parishes) of Bukit Katil, Sungai Udang, Batu Berendam, Bukit Baru and Bandar Melaka were 154 ± 15, 161 ± 16, 160 ± 16, 175 ± 18 and 176 ± 18 nGy h -1 , respectively. The population-weighted mean dose rate throughout Melaka state is 172 ± 17 nGy h -1 . This is lower than the geographical mean dose rate of 183 ± 54 nGy h -1 . The lower value arises from the fact that most of the population lives in the central area of the state where the lithology is dominated by sedimentary rocks consisting of shale, mudstone, phyllite, slate, hornfels, sandstone and schist of Devonian origin which have lower associated dose rates. The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.21 mSv. This value is higher than the world average of 0.07 mSv

  18. Relationship between baseline white-matter changes and development of late-life depressive symptoms: 3-year results from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorczuk, A; Firbank, M J; Pantoni, L

    2010-01-01

    -disabled older adults. METHOD: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly (LADIS) study, a longitudinal multi-centre pan-European study, 639 older subjects underwent baseline structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical assessments. Baseline severity of white-matter changes was quantified.......09) or incident depression (p=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the vascular depression hypothesis and strongly implicate white-matter changes in the pathogenesis of late-life depression. Furthermore, the findings indicate that, over time, part of the relationship between white-matter changes and depression...

  19. Evidence of major genes for exercise heart rate and blood pressure at baseline and in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, P; Borecki, I B; Rankinen, T; Pérusse, L; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2003-10-01

    Major gene effects on exercise heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) measured at 50 W and 80 % maximal oxygen uptake (VO (2)max) were assessed in 99 White families in the HERITAGE Family Study. Exercise HR and BP were measured both before and after 20 weeks of endurance training. The baseline phenotypes were adjusted for the effects of age and BMI, whereas the training responses (post-training minus baseline) were adjusted for the effects of age, BMI and the corresponding baseline values, within four sex-by-generation groups. Baseline exercise HR at 50 W was under the influence of a major recessive gene and a multifactorial component, which accounted for 30 % and 27 % of the variance, respectively. The training response was found to be under the influence of a major dominant gene, which accounted for 27 % of the variance. These significant major gene effects were independent of the effects of cigarette smoking, baseline VO (2)max, and the resting HR levels. No significant interactions were found between genotype and age, sex, or BMI. No major gene effect was found for exercise BP. Instead, we found the baseline exercise BP at 50 W and 80 % VO (2)max and the training response at 50 W were solely influenced by multifactorial effects, which accounted for about 50 %, 40 % and 20 % of the variance, respectively. No familial resemblance was found for training responses in exercise HR or BP at 80 % VO (2)max. Segregation analysis also was carried out for exercise HR in Whites pooled with a small sample of Blacks in HERITAGE. Similar major effects were found, but the transmission from parents to offspring did not follow Mendelian expectations, suggesting sample heterogeneity. In conclusion, submaximal exercise HR at baseline and in response to endurance training was influenced by putative major genes, with no evidence of interactions with sex, age or BMI, in contrast to a multifactorial etiology for exercise BP.

  20. Rationale, design and baseline results of the Treatment Optimisation in Primary care of Heart failure in the Utrecht region (TOPHU) study : a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Mark J.; Hoes, Arno W.; Mosterd, Arend; Landman, Marcel A.; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Rutten, Frans H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is mainly detected and managed in primary care, but the care is considered suboptimal. We present the rationale, design and baseline results of the Treatment Optimisation in Primary care of Heart failure in the Utrecht region (TOPHU) study. In this study we assess the

  1. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  2. Methane emission from ruminants and solid waste: A critical analysis of baseline and mitigation projections for climate and policy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.

    2012-12-01

    Current and projected estimates of methane (CH4) emission from anthropogenic sources are numerous but largely unexamined or compared. Presented here is a critical appraisal of CH4 projections used in climate-chemistry and policy studies. We compare emissions for major CH4 sources from several groups, including our own new data and RCP projections developed for climate-chemistry models for the next IPCC Assessment Report (AR5). We focus on current and projected baseline and mitigation emissions from ruminant animals and solid waste that are both predicted to rise dramatically in coming decades, driven primarily by developing countries. For waste, drivers include increasing urban populations, higher per capita waste generation due to economic growth and increasing landfilling rates. Analysis of a new global data base detailing waste composition, collection and disposal indicates that IPCC-based methodologies and default data overestimate CH4 emission for the current period which cascades into substantial overestimates in future projections. CH4 emission from solid waste is estimated to be ~10-15 Tg CH4/yr currently rather than the ~35 Tg/yr often reported in the literature. Moreover, emissions from developing countries are unlikely to rise rapidly in coming decades because new management approaches, such as sanitary landfills, that would increase emissions are maladapted to infrastructures in these countries and therefore unlikely to be implemented. The low current emission associated with solid waste (~10 Tg), together with future modest growth, implies that mitigation of waste-related CH4 emission is a poor candidate for slowing global warming. In the case of ruminant animals (~90 Tg CH4/yr currently), the dominant assumption driving future trajectories of CH4 emission is a substantial increase in meat and dairy consumption in developing countries to be satisfied by growing animal populations. Unlike solid waste, current ruminant emissions among studies exhibit a

  3. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 1. Baseline Studies. Volume VIII. Summary of Baseline Studies and Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    technology on an ecosystem are derived from the established fields of limnology , botany, water chemistry, and aquatic biology. Since the required expertise... Margalef 1957), and the Evenness Index of Pielou (Pielou 1966b). Summary of results 49. On an abundance basis, bluegill, blue-spotted sunfish, and redear...CE, Vicksburg, Miss. Margalef , D. 1957. "Information Theory in Ecology," General Systems, Vol 3, pp 36-71, translated from Hem. R. Acad. Cienc

  4. An ecosystem approach to determining effects of prescribed fire on southwestern borderlands oak savannas: A baseline study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Daniel G. Neary; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2007-01-01

    Many traditional land management activities and supporting research have concentrated on one or two resources, with limited evaluations of interactions among other potential values. An ecosystem approach to land management requires an evaluation of the blend of physical and biological factors needed to assure productive, healthy ecosystems. Ideally, social and economic...

  5. Baseline Quality of Life and Risk of Stroke in the ALLHAT Study (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Tanzila; Auchus, Alexander P; Oparil, Suzanne; Wright, Clinton B; Wright, Jackson; Furlan, Anthony J; Sila, Cathy A; Davis, Barry R; Pressel, Sara; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Einhorn, Paula T; Lerner, Alan J

    2017-11-01

    The visual analogue scale is a self-reported, validated tool to measure quality of life (QoL). Our purpose was to determine whether baseline QoL predicted strokes in the ALLHAT study (Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) and evaluate determinants of poststroke change in QoL. In the ALLHAT study, among the 33 357 patients randomized to treatment arms, 1525 experienced strokes; 1202 (79%) strokes were nonfatal. This study cohort includes 32 318 (97%) subjects who completed the baseline visual analogue scale QoL estimate. QoL was measured on a visual analogue scale and adjusted using a Torrance transformation (transformed QoL [TQoL]). Kaplan-Meier curves and adjusted proportional hazards analyses were used to estimate the effect of TQoL on the risk of stroke, on a continuous scale (0-1) and by quartiles (≤0.81, >0.81≤0.89, >0.89≤0.95, >0.95). We analyzed the change from baseline to first poststroke TQoL using adjusted linear regression. After adjusting for multiple stroke risk factors, the hazard ratio for stroke events for baseline TQoL was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.98) per 0.1 U increase. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% increased stroke risk (hazard ratio=1.20 [95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.44]) compared with the reference highest quartile TQoL. Poststroke TQoL change was significant within all treatment groups ( P ≤0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that baseline TQoL was the strongest predictor of poststroke TQoL with similar results for the untransformed QoL. The lowest baseline TQoL quartile had a 20% higher stroke risk than the highest quartile. Baseline TQoL was the only factor that predicted poststroke change in TQoL. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000542. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  7. Histomorphometric analyses of area fraction of different ratios of Bio-Oss(®) and bone prior to grafting procedures - An in vitro study to demonstrate a baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aludden, Hanna; Dahlin, Anna; Starch-Jensen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the area fraction of different ratios of Bio-Oss(®) and bone, prior to grafting in an in vitro model to demonstrate a histomorphometric baseline. METHODS: Bio-Oss(®) particles were mixed with autogenous bone from pig jaw in three different ra...

  8. Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Child and an Adolescent with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability: A Multiple Baseline across Subjects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevissen, Liesbeth; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; de Jongh, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. Methods: One child and one adolescent with MBID, who met diagnostic criteria…

  9. Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in a child and an adolescent with mild to borderline intellectual disability : A multiple baseline across subjects study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mevissen, L.; Didden, R.; Korzilius, H.; de Jongh, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study explored the effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in persons with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) using a multiple baseline across subjects design. Methods: One child and one

  10. Off-Range Beaked Whale Studies (ORBS): Baseline Data and Tagging Development for Northern Bottlenose Whales (Hyperoodon ampulatus) off Jan Mayen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Off-Range Beaked Whale Studies (ORBS): Baseline Data...and Tagging Development for Northern Bottlenose Whales (Hyperoodon ampulatus) off Jan Mayen, Norway Patrick Miller Sea Mammal Research Unit... whales are affected by naval sonar is important for the US Navy as information is required for accurate environmental assessments. A number of recent

  11. Integrating biological indicators in a Soil Monitoring Network to improve soil quality diagnosis - a study case in Southern Belgium (Wallonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Inken; Chartin, Caroline; van Wesemael, Bas; Carnol, Monique

    2017-04-01

    Soil organisms and their activities are essential for soil ecosystem functioning and are thus pertinent indicators of soil quality. Recent efforts have been undertaken to include biological indicators of soil quality into regional/national monitoring networks. The aim of this study was to establish baseline values for six biological indicators and two eco-physiological quotients for agricultural soils in the CARBIOSOL network and to assess small scale spatial and seasonal variability. Potential respiration, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, net nitrogen mineralization, metabolic diversity of soil bacteria, earthworm abundance, microbial quotient and metabolic quotient were measured at 60 sites across contrasting agricultural regions (different soil types and climate) and land use types (grasslands and croplands). Eleven additional cropland sites, the same biological indicators were measured at four sampling points within the same farm plot at four dates during the vegetation period (April, June, August, October of 2016) to assess temporal variability and small-scale spatial variability. Four of the six selected biological indicators (potential respiration, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen as well as metabolic diversity of soil bacteria) were significantly higher under grassland than under cropland. Ranges of values were generally wider under grasslands than under croplands. Agricultural region did not significantly influence the biological indicators tested. Date of sampling had a significant effect on five of the six selected biological indicators (potential respiration, microbial nitrogen, metabolic diversity of soil bacteria, and net nitrogen mineralization). Temporal variability within one year was slightly higher than variability within one farm plot, with the biological indicators having the highest seasonal variability also showing the highest small-scale spatial variability. This study defined baseline values for agricultural soils at the scale of

  12. [Application of network biology on study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sai-Sai; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2018-01-01

    With the completion of the human genome project, people have gradually recognized that the functions of the biological system are fulfilled through network-type interaction between genes, proteins and small molecules, while complex diseases are caused by the imbalance of biological processes due to a number of gene expression disorders. These have contributed to the rise of the concept of the "multi-target" drug discovery. Treatment and diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine are based on holism and syndrome differentiation. At the molecular level, traditional Chinese medicine is characterized by multi-component and multi-target prescriptions, which is expected to provide a reference for the development of multi-target drugs. This paper reviews the application of network biology in traditional Chinese medicine in six aspects, in expectation to provide a reference to the modernized study of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR KINETIC STUDIES OF BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiwei; Bi, Cong; Li, Zhao; Podariu, Maria; Hage, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The rates at which biological interactions occur can provide important information concerning the mechanism and behavior of these processes in living systems. This review discusses several analytical methods that can be used to examine the kinetics of biological interactions. These techniques include common or traditional methods such as stopped-flow analysis and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, as well as alternative methods based on affinity chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. The general principles and theory behind these approaches are examined, and it is shown how each technique can be utilized to provide information on the kinetics of biological interactions. Examples of applications are also given for each method. In addition, a discussion is provided on the relative advantages or potential limitations of each technique regarding its use in kinetic studies. PMID:25700721

  14. Biological, Histological and Ultra-Structural Studies of Female Mullet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological, Histological and Ultra-Structural Studies of Female Mullet, Mugil cephalus , Ovaries Collected from Different Habitats during Annual Reproductive Cycle. ... 35 and 52 cm, respectively; whereas, the total number of ripe ova in brackish water fish ranged from 0.57±0.14 to 3.81±0.59 x106 for the same length groups.

  15. Studies on bacterial flora and biological control agent of Cydia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, in order to find a more effective and safe biological control agent against Cydia pomonella, we investigated the bacterial flora and tested them for insecticidal effects on this insect. According to morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, bacterial flora were identified as Proteus rettgeri (Cp1), ...

  16. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  17. Vitamin D biology and heart failure : Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, vitamin D biology has been studied more extensively than ever before.. The use of vitamin D supplements is common, and so is determination of plasma vitamin D status. Besides its role in bone homeostasis, vitamin D is thought to be an important player in the development and

  18. Biological, histological and ultra-structural studies of female mullet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... This study investigates some biological characters (oocyte diameter, fecundity, histological and ultra structural features) of ... histological and fine structure characteristics, it was possible to understand the functional relationship between .... thick were prepared using glass and diamond knives, and stained.

  19. BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY: A STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. This study was carried out to survey the biotic community of Challawa river water in Kano, Nigeria, using Biological Monitoring Working Party Score (BMWP) and Average Score Per Taxa (ASPT) assessment tools to evaluate the water quality in the field. Using standardized sampling technique insects, insects' ...

  20. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione (GSH) and sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are important pharmacological agents. They provide protection to cells against cytotoxic agents and thus reduce their cytotoxicity. It was of interest to study the biological activity of these two pharmacological active agents. Different strains of bacteria were used and the ...

  1. Review of marine biological studies on the Guyana shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijskes, D.C.

    1968-01-01

    Until recently biological research in the sea off Suriname had not received much attention. There was no fishery in the open sea and there was no incentive to investigate this unknown world. But in the last twenty years, experiments have gradually led to serious study of the subject. Before the

  2. Studies on some aspects of reproductive biology of some important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on some aspects of reproductive biology of some important fish species in Lake Alau in Borno state, Nigeria. M Basu, SD Yusufu, MB Goji. Abstract. No Abstract. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa Vol. 52 (2) 2004: pp. 99-110. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  3. Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can

  4. Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Study of the biology of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) in Mauritius. L Unmole*. Entomology Division. Agricultural Research and Extension. Unit, Reduit. Email: lataunmole@yahoo.com. Paper Accepted on 04 February 2010. ABSTRACT. Maruca vitrata F. is a serious pest of bean (Phaseolus ...

  5. Increased Risk of Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Male Subjects with High Baseline Waist-to-Height Ratio: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyung Geun; Nallamshetty, Shriram; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2016-02-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of baseline WHtR and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean men. A total of 1,048 male participants (mean age, 40.9 years) in a health-screening program in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea who repeated a medical check-up in 2010 and 2014 were recruited. Baseline WHtR was calculated using the value for the waist in 2010 divided by the value for height in 2010. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multi-detector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years greater than 0. During the follow-up period, progression of CAC occurred in 278 subjects (26.5%). The subjects with CAC progression had slightly higher but significant baseline WHtR compared to those who did not show CAC progression (0.51±0.04 vs. 0.50±0.04, P<0.01). The proportion of subjects with CAC progression significantly increased as the baseline WHtR increased from the 1st quartile to 4th quartile groups (18.3%, 18.7%, 28.8%, and 34.2%; P<0.01). The risk for CAC progression was elevated with an odds ratio of 1.602 in the 4th quartile group of baseline WHtR even after adjustment for confounding variables (95% confidence interval, 1.040 to 2.466). Increased baseline WHtR was associated with increased risk for CAC progression. WHtR might be a useful screening tool to identify individuals at high risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  6. Use of Viremia to Evaluate the Baseline Case Fatality Ratio of Ebola Virus Disease and Inform Treatment Studies: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Faye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The case fatality ratio (CFR of Ebola virus disease (EVD can vary over time and space for reasons that are not fully understood. This makes it difficult to define the baseline CFRs needed to evaluate treatments in the absence of randomized controls. Here, we investigate whether viremia in EVD patients may be used to evaluate baseline EVD CFRs.We analyzed the laboratory and epidemiological records of patients with EVD confirmed by reverse transcription PCR hospitalized in the Conakry area, Guinea, between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2015. We used viremia and other variables to model the CFR. Data for 699 EVD patients were analyzed. In the week following symptom onset, mean viremia remained stable, and the CFR increased with viremia, V, from 21% (95% CI 16%-27% for low viremia (V < 104.4 copies/ml to 53% (95% CI 44%-61% for intermediate viremia (104.4 ≤ V < 105.2 copies/ml and 81% (95% CI 75%-87% for high viremia (V ≥ 105.2 copies/ml. Compared to adults (15-44 y old [y.o.], the CFR was larger in young children (0-4 y.o. (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44; 95% CI 1.02-5.86 and older adults (≥ 45 y.o. (OR: 2.84; 95% CI 1.81-4.46 but lower in children (5-14 y.o. (OR: 0.46; 95% CI 0.24-0.86. An order of magnitude increase in mean viremia in cases after July 2014 compared to those before coincided with a 14% increase in the CFR. Our findings come from a large hospital-based study in Conakry and may not be generalizable to settings with different case profiles, such as with individuals who never sought care.Viremia in EVD patients was a strong predictor of death that partly explained variations in CFR in the study population. This study provides baseline CFRs by viremia group, which allow appropriate adjustment when estimating efficacy in treatment studies. In randomized controlled trials, stratifying analysis on viremia groups could reduce sample size requirements by 25%. We hypothesize that monitoring the viremia of hospitalized patients may inform the

  7. Mechanism of action study to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone on bone in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.; Bilezikian, John P.; Wooddell, Margaret; Paul, Gitanjali; Kolatkar, Nikheel S.; Nino, Antonio J.; Miller, Colin G.; Bogado, Cesar E.; Arnaud, Claude D.; Cobitz, Alexander R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Post-hoc analyses have shown an increase incidence of fractures among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with thiazolidinediones (TZDs). The mechanisms by which TZDs may be associated with increased fracture risk is not well understood. This article describes the study design and baseline characteristics for a prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of rosiglitazone on changes in measures of skeletal structure, surrogates of bone strength and metabolism. Methods Postmenopausal women without osteoporosis and diagnosed with T2DM were randomized in a double-blind design to either rosiglitazone or metformin for 52 weeks, then all subjects received open-label metformin for 24 weeks. Study endpoints included changes in bone mineral density (BMD), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), digitized hip radiography (HXR) and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (hrMRI). Serum markers of bone metabolism and indices of glycemic control were assessed within and between treatment groups. Results A total of 226 subjects were randomized. Baseline characteristics included: age 63.8 ± 6.5 years; years postmenopausal 16.9 ± 8.4; duration of diabetes 3.5 (1.8–7.8) years; body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 5.9 kg/m2; and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.4 ± 0.65%. At baseline, mean T-scores were −0.95 ± 0.91 at the femoral neck, −0.02 ± 0.97 at the total hip and −0.55 ± 1.25 at the total spine. Since there are no well recognized techniques to determine bone mass and structure at the distal limbs (cortical bone sites where fractures were reported in RSG subjects), using the femoral neck as a surrogate for these areas may be a potential limitation of the study. Conclusion This is the first randomized trial utilizing multiple techniques to evaluate bone mass, structure, serum markers of bone remodeling, and potential reversibility of changes after discontinuation of rosiglitazone. This

  8. Conservation targets in marine protected area management suffer from shifting baseline syndrome: A case study on the Dogger Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumeridge, Annabel A; Roberts, Callum M

    2017-03-15

    The Dogger Bank is a subtidal hill in the North Sea that is a candidate Special Area of Conservation under the EU Habitats Directive in UK waters. Historical records indicate that the Bank has been subject to human exploitation from before the 16th century but conservation objectives have been developed using recent survey data. This has the potential to significantly underestimate the alteration this ecosystem has experienced, making the Dogger Bank an example of shifting baseline syndrome in protected area management. We compile quantitative and qualitative descriptions from historical records of change in catch rates, fishing effort, price and fish size to show that there have been prolonged declines in abundance of fish on the Bank since the early 19th century. Use of present day data to inform conservation has led to unambitious recovery targets. Historical data, we argue, are an essential input to conservation decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CHIMES-I: sub-group analyzes of the effects of NeuroAiD according to baseline brain imaging characteristics among patients randomized in the CHIMES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose C; Chen, Christopher Li Hsian; Lagamayo, Pedro Danilo J; Geslani, Melodia B; Eow, Gaik Bee; Poungvarin, Niphon; de Silva, Asita; Wong, Lawrence K S; Venketasubramanian, N

    2013-08-01

    The clinical effects of neuroprotective and/or neurorestorative therapies may vary according to location and size of the ischemic injury. Imaging techniques can be useful in stratifying patients for trials that may be beneficial against particular ischemic lesion characteristics. To test the hypothesis that the efficacy of NeuroAiD compared with placebo in improving functional outcome and reducing neurological deficit in patients with cerebral infarction of intermediate severity varies between sub-groups of patients randomized in the main Chinese Medicine Neuroaid Efficacy on Stroke study when categorized according to baseline imaging characteristics. This is a retrospective cohort sub-group analysis of patients who participated in the main Chinese Medicine Neuroaid Efficacy on Stroke study, a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that recruited 1100 patients within 72 h of ischemic stroke onset with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 6-14 and were randomized to either NeuroAiD or placebo taken four capsules three times daily for three months. Review of the baseline images to classify the acute stroke lesions in terms of size, location, and extent of involvement will be performed retrospectively by two readers who will remain blinded as to treatment allocation and outcomes of the subjects. The primary efficacy end-point in the main Chinese Medicine Neuroaid Efficacy on Stroke study is the modified Rankin Scale grades at three-months. Secondary efficacy end-points are the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at three-months; difference of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores between baseline and 10 days and between baseline and three-months; difference of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale sub-scores between baseline and 10 days and between baseline and three-months; modified Rankin Scale at 10 days, one-month, and three-months; Barthel index at three-months; and Mini Mental State Examination at 10 days and

  10. Study of the effects of radon in three biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.; Brena, M.; Rosa, M.E. De la; Villalobos P, R.

    2002-01-01

    The radon and its decay products are responsible of the 3/4 parts of the exposure of the persons to the environmental radiation. The discovery at the end of XIX Century of the illnesses, mainly of cancer, which appeared in the presence of radon, lead to an accelerated growing of the radon studies: monitoring, dosimetry, effects on the persons, etc. Several epidemiological studies of radon in miners and population in general have been realized; advancing in the knowledge about the concentration-lung cancer risk relationship, but with discrepancies in the results depending on the concentration levels. Therefor, studies which consuming time, efforts and money go on doing. The research of the radon effects in biological systems different to human, allows to realize studies in less time, in controlled conditions and generally at lower cost, generating information about the alpha radiation effects in the cellular field. Therefor it was decided to study the response of three biological systems exposed to radon: an unicellular bacteria Escherichia Coli which was exposed directly to alpha particles from an electrodeposited source for determining the sensitivity limit of the chose technique. A plant, Tradescantia, for studying the cytogenetic effect of the system exposed to controlled concentrations of radon. An insect, Drosophila Melanogaster, for studying the genetic effects and the accumulated effects in several generations exposed to radon. In this work the experimental settlements are presented for the expositions of the systems and the biological results commenting the importance of these. (Author)

  11. Use of Arius thalassinus fish in a pollution biomonitoring study, applying combined oxidative stress, hematology, biochemical and histopathological biomarkers: A baseline field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2016-05-15

    The present field study aimed to determine the extent of pollution in the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic using a battery of biomarkers in sea catfish, Arius thalassinus, originating from a reference site in comparison with a polluted site. We reported the concentration of heavy metals in some vital fish organs and their effects on the morphological, hematological, biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers accompanied by the examination of histopathological alterations. The obtained results showed clear signs of stress in fish from a polluted site. Linear correlation analysis exhibited that the biomarkers response could be linked to the detected metals bioaccumulation. In addition, principal component analysis showed a clear separation of sampling sites in two different assemblages. Semi-quantitative analysis for the observed histopathological lesions revealed that gills were the most affected organs with signs of severe alterations. This field investigation provides a baseline data on pollution status in this region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  13. Long Baseline Observatory (LBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Long Baseline Observatory (LBO) comprises ten radio telescopes spanning 5,351 miles. It's the world's largest, sharpest, dedicated telescope array. With an eye...

  14. Baseline glycemic status and mortality in 241,499 Korean metropolitan subjects: A Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Park, Se Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Won-Young

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes and prediabetes subjects have increased risk for mortality. We analyzed the mortality risk due to all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer in Korean subjects participating in a health-screening program according to baseline glycemic status and HbA1c levels. Among 241,499 participants of a health-screening program between 2005 and 2012, the risk of death from all causes, CVD, and cancer was calculated based on the baseline glycemic status (normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes) and HbA1c levels. Uncontrolled diabetes was defined as HbA1c≥7.0%. Vital status and confirmation of the cause of death were based on the analysis of death certificate records from the National Death Index. During 923,343.1 person-years of follow-up, 877 participants died. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for all-cause mortality were 1.58 (95% CI 1.24-2.03) and 2.26 (95% CI 1.78-2.86), respectively. The HRs of subjects with controlled and uncontrolled diabetes to normoglycemic subjects for mortality due to cancer were 1.75 (95% CI 1.23-2.48) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.13-2.45). However, glycemic status was not significantly associated with the risk of mortality due to CVD. The subjects with HbA1c higher than 6.5% showed more than 2-fold increased risk for all-cause mortality and the subjects with HbA1c lower than 5.2% showed increased HR (1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.97) compared with those with HbA1c of 5.5% in subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications. Mortality risk from all causes and cancer significantly increased in diabetes subjects regardless of the glucose control status. In subjects not taking anti-diabetic medications, both high and low HbA1c resulted in increased risk for all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0% followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%. Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients

  16. Healthy Foundations Study: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate biological embedding of early-life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Catherine, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; Jack, Susan M; Atkinson, Leslie; Kobor, Michael; Sheehan, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Waddell, Charlotte; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-01-26

    Adverse early experiences are associated with long-lasting disruptions in physiology, development and health. These experiences may be 'biologically embedded' into molecular and genomic systems that determine later expressions of vulnerability. Most studies to date have not examined whether preventive interventions can potentially reverse biological embedding. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based intervention with demonstrated efficacy in improving prenatal health, parenting and child functioning. The Healthy Foundations Study is an innovative birth cohort which will evaluate the impact of the NFP on biological outcomes of mothers and their infants. Starting in 2013, up to 400 pregnant mothers and their newborns were recruited from the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project-a randomised controlled trial of the NFP, and will be followed to child aged 2 years. Women were recruited prior to 28 weeks' gestation and then individually randomised to receive existing services (comparison group) or NFP plus existing services (intervention group). Hair samples are collected from mothers at baseline and 2 months post partum to measure physiological stress. Saliva samples are collected from infants during all visits for analyses of stress and immune function. Buccal swabs are collected from infants at 2 and 24 months to assess DNA methylation. Biological samples will be related to child outcome measures at age 2 years. The study received ethical approval from seven research ethics boards. Findings from this study will be shared broadly with the research community through peer-reviewed publications, and conference presentations, as well as seminars with our policy partners and relevant healthcare providers. The outcomes of this study will provide all stakeholders with important information regarding how early adversity may lead to health and behavioural disparities and how these may be altered through early interventions. NCT01672060; Pre-results.

  17. Association of low baseline free thyroxin levels with progression of coronary artery calcification over 4 years in euthyroid subjects: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Eun Jin; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-06-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear whether thyroid hormone levels within the normal range are also associated with atherosclerosis measured by coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study aimed to examine the relationship between normal variations in thyroid function and changes in CAC. We conducted a 4-year retrospective study of 2173 apparently healthy men and women with normal thyroid hormone levels. Their free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronin (FT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were measured by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. The CAC score (CACS) of each subject was measured by multidetector computed tomography in both 2010 and 2014. Progression of CAC was defined as a CACS change over 4 years > 0. The mean CACS changes over 4 years by quartiles of baseline FT4 level (lowest to highest) were 12·9, 8·43, 7·82 and 7·81 (P = 0·028). CAC progression was not significantly associated with either the baseline FT3 or TSH levels. The odds ratios (OR) for CAC progression over 4 years (highest vs lowest quartile for baseline FT4) were 0·647 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0·472-0·886) after adjustment for confounding factor, which were attenuated with further adjustment for lipid profiles, homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and hypertension [0·747 (95% CI 0·537-1·038)]. Quartiles of baseline FT3 or TSH level did not show any increased OR for CAC progression after adjustment for confounding factors. In this cohort of euthyroid men and women, a low baseline FT4 level was associated with a high risk of CACS progression over 4 years. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Studies on digoxin derivatives in different biological media by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmasch, Martha; Perez, L.N.; Altschuler, Noe.

    1978-05-01

    The fundamental aim of this study was to develop a methodology to be applied to pharmacological studies, directed to demonstrate the passage of digitalic compounds through the blood-brain barrier. This study was a comparative one between β methyl digoxin (βMD) and digitoxin (Dt). A methodology of radioimmunoassay was developed for different biological media: serum (S), plasma (P) and cerebro spinal fluid (CSF). In addition, the immunochemical behaviour (affinity, displacement, etc.) of βMD was studied when reacted with digoxin (D) and digoxin-antisera, supplied by the commercial kits utilized in these studies. (author) [es

  19. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  20. Quantum mechanical simulation methods for studying biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicout, D.; Field, M.

    1996-01-01

    Most known biological mechanisms can be explained using fundamental laws of physics and chemistry and a full understanding of biological processes requires a multidisciplinary approach in which all the tools of biology, chemistry and physics are employed. An area of research becoming increasingly important is the theoretical study of biological macromolecules where numerical experimentation plays a double role of establishing a link between theoretical models and predictions and allowing a quantitative comparison between experiments and models. This workshop brought researchers working on different aspects of the development and application of quantum mechanical simulation together, assessed the state-of-the-art in the field and highlighted directions for future research. Fourteen lectures (theoretical courses and specialized seminars) deal with following themes: 1) quantum mechanical calculations of large systems, 2) ab initio molecular dynamics where the calculation of the wavefunction and hence the energy and forces on the atoms for a system at a single nuclear configuration are combined with classical molecular dynamics algorithms in order to perform simulations which use a quantum mechanical potential energy surface, 3) quantum dynamical simulations, electron and proton transfer processes in proteins and in solutions and finally, 4) free seminars that helped to enlarge the scope of the workshop. (N.T.)

  1. Area 11 case study of radionuclide movement by storm channel erosion: A baseline method and initial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Gouveia, F.J.; Patton, S.E.; Fry, C.O.

    1993-04-01

    At the Nevada Test Site (NTS), where radionuclide contamination is found in surface soils, there is potential for water erosion to move radionuclides beyond the boundaries of controlled areas and into channels cut by infrequent storms. This loss of control and the increased risk of further movement are issues which require the development of a method for the quantitative monitoring of contamination and calculation of the radionuclide-movement rate. In this report the authors develop a method which is used to measure the amount and rate of movement of americium-241 ( 241 Am) in a storm channel, and which offers special features for establishment of baseline concentrations. This method was applied to the standing problem of the erosion of the plutonium contaminated open-quotes ground zeroclose quotes area of site open-quotes 11Dclose quotes in Area 11 of NTS. By establishing 241 Am concentrations in the storm channel, the concentrations of 239+240 Pu can also be calculated using a previously determined 239+240 Pu/ 241 Am ratio from soil samples collected in Area 11. The method utilizes systematic field surveys with a field instrument for detection of low-energy radiation (FIDLER), and provides a computational method which, when validated, could become a standard procedure for monitoring radionuclide movement in the washes and storm channels throughout the NTS

  2. A randomized trial of visual impairment interventions for nursing home residents: study design, baseline characteristics and visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila K; Friedman, David; Muñoz, Beatriz; Roche, Karen Bandeen; Park, William; Deremeik, James; Massof, Robert; Frick, Kevin D; Broman, Aimee; McGill, Wendy; Gilbert, Donna; German, Pearl

    2003-07-01

    Visual impairment among nursing home residents is higher than in community-dwelling elderly. The provision of eye care services may be beneficial to nursing home patients. Our project, a randomized trial of vision restoration and rehabilitation in nursing home residents, compares usual care to targeted interventions. In this paper, we present the baseline characteristics of our sample within the nursing homes. Twenty-eight nursing homes on Maryland's Eastern Shore were matched in pairs by size and payment type. Each pair was randomized to usual care or targeted intervention. Habitual and best-corrected acuity was attempted, using standard letter symbol/charts and grating acuity charts. Visual impairment was vision in the better eye cognitive impairment. Of those participants eligible to be screened, 40% had severe cognitive impairment (MMSE score 0-9). No measure of acuity could be ascertained on 18% of eligibles. Among the 1305 persons with acuity data, 38% had presenting vision worse than 20/40. After refractive correction, 29% had visual impairment. There was no difference by race or gender in those with visual impairment, although they were older, compared to those without visual loss. The nursing home residents had high rates of both cognitive impairment and visual impairment, creating a challenging environment for visual intervention. By improving access to eye care within the context of the clinical trial, and changing either the magnitude of visual loss or the resultant impact on function, we hope to demonstrate a change in the quality of life for nursing home residents.

  3. Models to study gravitational biology of Mammalian reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Janet; Ronca, April; Grindeland, Richard; Wade, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Mammalian reproduction evolved within Earth's 1-g gravitational field. As we move closer to the reality of space habitation, there is growing scientific interest in how different gravitational states influence reproduction in mammals. Habitation of space and extended spaceflight missions require prolonged exposure to decreased gravity (hypogravity, i.e., weightlessness). Lift-off and re-entry of the spacecraft are associated with exposure to increased gravity (hypergravity). Existing data suggest that spaceflight is associated with a constellation of changes in reproductive physiology and function. However, limited spaceflight opportunities and confounding effects of various nongravitational factors associated with spaceflight (i.e., radiation, stress) have led to the development of ground-based models for studying the effects of altered gravity on biological systems. Human bed rest and rodent hindlimb unloading paradigms are used to study exposure to hypogravity. Centrifugation is used to study hypergravity. Here, we review the results of spaceflight and ground-based models of altered gravity on reproductive physiology. Studies utilizing ground-based models that simulate hyper- and hypogravity have produced reproductive results similar to those obtained from spaceflight and are contributing new information on biological responses across the gravity continuum, thereby confirming the appropriateness of these models for studying reproductive responses to altered gravity and the underlying mechanisms of these responses. Together, these unique tools are yielding new insights into the gravitational biology of reproduction in mammals.

  4. Design and baseline characteristics of the 10 Small Steps Study: a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote healthy behaviour using a lifestyle score and personalised feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parekh Sanjoti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are the leading causes of death globally and are associated with a limited set of common, modifiable health behaviours: tobacco use, physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol and unhealthy diet. General practice offers an ideal avenue for addressing such health behaviours on a population-wide basis. This paper describes the protocol of a multiple health behaviour change intervention designed for implementation in general practice and summarises the baseline characteristics of its participants. Method/Design The 10 Small Steps (10SS study, a randomised controlled trial, involved 4,678 adult general practice patients in Queensland, Australia. Self-reported data were collected to establish the proportion of participants meeting recommended guidelines for ten health behaviours: physical activity, body mass index, alcohol, smoking and six dietary behaviours. Participants were randomised to four groups: contact at baseline only ('single intervention' and corresponding control group and contact at baseline and 3 months ('dual intervention' and corresponding control group. At each contact the participants received a computer-tailored feedback and one page information sheet according to their allocation to intervention or control groups. Change in the intervention group compared to the control group was assessed at 3 and12 months after baseline data collection. Responses were summed to calculate an individual lifestyle score (the Prudence Score, which ranged from 0 to 10. The baseline response was 56.5% (4678 of 8343 invited participants and the study sample was primarily female (68.7% with an average age of 47 years. The mean Prudence Score was 5.8 (95%CI 5.75-5.85. Discussion Baseline data from the 10SS study show that nearly all participants engage in some health behaviours but relatively few adhere simultaneously to a core set of dietary and lifestyle behaviours associated with risk of NCDs. Ample

  5. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14 C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contaminants of soil or water; and labelled pools for studying the biological side-effects of trace contaminants. Priorities were identified

  6. Improving Satellite Compatible Microdevices to Study Biology in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkus, Trevor; Snyder, Jessica; Paulino-Lima, Ivan; Rothschild, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    sense for biochemicals. (3) Developing a modular, semi-autonomous microfluidic device that can be easily adapted for a variety of common biological experiments. This versatility will allow for quicker and cheaper experimentation. These improvements to satellite experiment platforms have the potential to radically increase the return from NASA's biological and field studies with reduced development time, mass, and cost with increased robustness data and interpretation.

  7. Lycium ruthenicum studies: Molecular biology, Phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanqing; Li, Jiaoning; Tao, Weiwei; Zhang, Xia; Gao, Xiaojuan; Yong, Jingjiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Liming; Li, Yongzhou; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2018-02-01

    Lycium ruthenicum has been used as ethnic medicine and nutraceutical food. Existing studies of L. ruthenicum can be classifies into three areas: (1) those in which molecular biology methods were used to study its origin, genetic variation and relationships with other species; (2) those in which phytochemical methods were used to extract, isolate, and identify compounds; and (3) those in which pharmacological methods were used to study active compounds. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of L. ruthenicum studies. This review will provide a useful bibliography for further investigations and applications of L. ruthenicum in medicines and foods. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, L., E-mail: l5tran@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Reist, J.D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Power, M., E-mail: m3power@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish.

  9. Prediction and treatment of asthma in preschool children at risk: study design and baseline data of a prospective cohort study in general practice (ARCADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Aalderen Wim MC

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a difficult diagnosis to establish in preschool children. A few years ago, our group presented a prediction rule for young children at risk for asthma in general practice. Before this prediction rule can safely be used in practice, cross-validation is required. In addition, general practitioners face many therapeutic management decisions in children at risk for asthma. The objectives of the study are: (1 identification of predictors for asthma in preschool children at risk for asthma with the aim of cross-validating an earlier derived prediction rule; (2 compare the effects of different treatment strategies in preschool children. Design In this prospective cohort study one to five year old children at risk of developing asthma were selected from general practices. At risk was defined as 'visited the general practitioner with recurrent coughing (≥ 2 visits, wheezing (≥ 1 or shortness of breath (≥ 1 in the previous 12 months'. All children in this prospective cohort study will be followed until the age of six. For our prediction rule, demographic data, data with respect to clinical history and additional tests (specific immunoglobulin E (IgE, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, peak expiratory flow (PEF are collected. History of airway specific medication use, symptom severity and health-related quality of life (QoL are collected to estimate the effect of different treatment intensities (as expressed in GINA levels using recently developed statistical techniques. In total, 1,938 children at risk of asthma were selected from general practice and 771 children (40% were enrolled. At the time of writing, follow-up for all 5-year olds and the majority of the 4-year olds is complete. The total and specific IgE measurements at baseline were carried out by 87% of the children. Response rates to the repeated questionnaires varied from 93% at baseline to 73% after 18 months follow-up; 89% and 87% performed PEF and FENO

  10. Increased risk of coronary artery calcification progression in subjects with high baseline Lp(a) levels: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Lee, Eun Seo; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-11-01

    Results from previous studies support the association of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels and coronary artery disease risk. In this study, we analyzed the association between baseline Lp(a) levels and future progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in apparently healthy Korean adults. A total of 2611 participants (mean age: 41years, 92% mend) who underwent a routine health check-up in 2010 and 2014 were enrolled. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Baseline Lp(a) was measured by high-sensitivity immunoturbidimetric assay. Progression of CAC was defined as a change in CACS >0 over four years. Bivariate correlation analyses with baseline Lp(a) and other metabolic parameters revealed age, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and CACS to have a significant positive correlation, while body weight, fasting glucose level, blood pressure and triglyceride level were negatively correlated with baseline Lp(a) level. After four years of follow-up, 635 subjects (24.3%) had CAC progression. The participants who had CAC progression were older, composed of more men, more obese, and had higher fasting glucose levels and worse baseline lipid profiles compared to those who did not have CAC progression. The mean serum Lp(a) level was significantly higher in subjects who had CAC progression compared to those who did not (32.5 vs. 28.9mg/dL, p<0.01). When the risk for CAC progression according to baseline Lp(a) was calculated, those with Lp(a) level≥50mg/dL had an odds ratio of 1.333 (95% CI 1.027-1.730) for CAC progression compared to those with Lp(a)<50mg/dL after adjusting for confounding factors. In this study, the subjects who had higher Lp(a) were at significantly higher risk for CAC progression after four years of follow-up, suggesting the role of high Lp(a) in CAC progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Registers in Ankylosing Spondylitis (BSRBR-AS) study: Protocol for a prospective cohort study of the long-term safety and quality of life outcomes of biologic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Gary J; Barnish, Maxwell S; Jones, Elizabeth A; Kay, Lesley; Keat, Andrew; Meldrum, Karen T; Pathan, Ejaz; Sturrock, Roger D; Zabke, Claudia; McNamee, Paul; Jones, Gareth T

    2015-11-11

    Axial spondyloarthropathy typically has its onset in early adulthood and can impact significantly on quality of life. In the UK, biologic anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy is recommended for patients who are unresponsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. There remain several unresolved issues about the long-term safety and quality of life outcomes of biologic treatment in axial spondyloarthropathy. Long-term "real-world" surveillance data are required to complement data from randomised controlled trials. We are conducting a UK-wide prospective cohort study of patients with axial spondyloarthropathy who are naïve to biologic therapy at the time of recruitment. Those about to commence anti-tumour necrosis factor biologic therapy will enter a "biologic" sub-cohort with other patients assigned to a "non-biologic" sub-cohort. The primary objective is to determine whether the use of biologic therapy is associated with an increased risk of serious infection, while secondary objectives are to assess differences in malignancy, serious comorbidity, all-cause mortality but also assess impact on specific clinical domains (physical health, mental health and quality of life) including work outcomes between biologic and non-biologic patient cohorts. Patients will be followed-up for up to 5 years. Data are obtained at baseline and at standard clinical follow-up visits - at 3, 6 and 12 months and then annually for the biologic cohort and annually for the non-biologic cohort. This study will also collect biological samples for genetic analysis. Although biologic therapy is widely used for ankylosing spondylitis patients who are unresponsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the majority of the available safety information comes from rheumatoid arthritis, where increased infection risk has consistently been shown. However, given the typical demographic differences between rheumatoid arthritis and axial spondyloarthropathy patients, it is important to develop an

  12. Design, synthesis and biological study of new antiparasitic spiroarsoranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, P M; Rekik, L; Madaule, Y; Gayral, P; Wolf, J G

    1993-09-01

    Thirty-eight new spiroarsoranes were synthesized after structure-activity relationship studies from the first series. These compounds were predicted to cross more easily the membrane of protozoae or the cuticle of Nematodes and to reach their biological target with efficiency. The spiroarsoranes were evaluated for their antiparasitic properties, on helminths and protozoa models in regard of their parent arsonic acids. The following parasite models were used: Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro; Molinema dessetae infective larvae in vitro, adults and microfilariae in vivo; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infective larvae in vitro. The results obtained on these models indicated that the "spiranization" of arsonic acids produced new compounds with a biological activity 10-fold superior to those of arsonic acids. Nevertheless, each parasite had its own sensitivity to spiroarsoranes. Moreover, in vivo results showed that the lipophilicity of the molecules should be optimal to avoid high toxicity in host such as arsenical encephalopathy.

  13. Study of β-NMR for Liquid Biological Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Beattie, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    β-NMR is an exotic form of NMR spectroscopy that allows for the characterization of matter based on the anisotropic β-decay of radioactive probe nuclei. This has been shown to be an effective spectroscopic technique for many different compounds, but its use for liquid biological samples is relatively unexplored. The work at the VITO line of ISOLDE seeks to employ this technique to study such samples. Currently, preparations are being made for an experiment to characterize DNA G-quadruplexes and their interactions with stabilizing cations. More specifically, the work in which I engaged as a summer student focused on the experiment’s liquid handling system and the stability of the relevant biological samples under vacuum.

  14. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ αD+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs

  15. Biological dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, E.; Silva, A.; Navlet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in hematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes cytokinetic blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=c+ α D+β D 2 where. Y is the number micronuclei per cell and D the dose. the curve is compared with those produced elsewhere

  16. An overview of surface radiance and biology studies in FIFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blad, B. L.; Schimel, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of satellite data to study and to understand energy and mass exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere requires information about various biological processes and how various reflected or emitted spectral radiances are influenced by or manifested in these processes. To obtain such information, studies were conducted by the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) surface radiances and biology (SRB) group using surface, near-surface, helicopter, and aircraft measurements. The two primary objectives of this group were to relate radiative fluxes to biophysical parameters and physiological processes and to assess how various management treatments affect important biological processes. This overview paper summarizes the results obtained by various SRB teams working in nine different areas: (1) measurements of bidirectional reflectance and estimation of hemispherical albedo; (2) evaluation of spatial and seasonal variability reflectance and vegetation indices; (3) determination of surface and radiational factors and their effects on vegetation indices and photosynthetically active radiation relationships; (4) use of surface temperatures to estimate sensible heat flux; (5) controls over photosynthesis and respiration at small scales; (6) soil surface CO2 fluxes and grassland carbon budget; (7) landscape variations in controls over gas exchange and energy partitioning; (8) radiometric response of prairie to management and topography; and (9) determination of nitrogen gas exchanges in a tallgrass prairie.

  17. Unmanned Aircraft Systems complement biologging in spatial ecology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Barasona, Jose Ángel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Vicente, Joaquín; Negro, Juan José

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the spatial ecology and distribution of organisms is important for both basic and applied science. Biologging is one of the most popular methods for obtaining information about spatial distribution of animals, but requires capturing the animals and is often limited by costs and data retrieval. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have proven their efficacy for wildlife surveillance and habitat monitoring, but their potential contribution to the prediction of animal distribution patterns and abundance has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we assess the usefulness of UAS overflights to (1) get data to model the distribution of free-ranging cattle for a comparison with results obtained from biologged (GPS-GSM collared) cattle and (2) predict species densities for a comparison with actual density in a protected area. UAS and biologging derived data models provided similar distribution patterns. Predictions from the UAS model overestimated cattle densities, which may be associated with higher aggregated distributions of this species. Overall, while the particular researcher interests and species characteristics will influence the method of choice for each study, we demonstrate here that UAS constitute a noninvasive methodology able to provide accurate spatial data useful for ecological research, wildlife management and rangeland planning.

  18. Biological effective dose studies in carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Poonam; Ramasubramanian, V.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer of cervix is the second most common cancer worldwide among women. Several treatments related protocols of radiotherapy have been followed over few decades in its treatment for evaluating the response. These physical doses varying on the basics of fractionation size, dose rate and total dose needed to be indicated as biological effective dose (BED) to rationalize these treatments. The curative potential of radiation therapy in the management of carcinoma of the cervix is greatly enhanced by the use of intracavitary brachytherapy. Successful brachytherapy requires the high radiation dose to be delivered to the tumor where as minimum radiation dose reach to surrounding normal tissue. Present study is aimed to evaluate biologically effective dose in patients receiving high dose-rate brachytherapy plus external beam radiotherapy based on tumor cell proliferation values in cancer of the cervix patients. The study includes 30 patients' data as a retrospective analysis. In addition determine extent of a dose-response relationship existing between the biological effective dose at Point A and the bladder and rectum and the clinical outcomes

  19. Baseline Shoulder Ultrasonography Is Not a Predictive Marker of Response to Glucocorticoids in Patients with Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A 12-month Followup Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Maria Concetta; Zoli, Angelo; Peluso, Giusy; Bosello, Silvia; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated whether ultrasound (US) subdeltoid bursitis (SB) and/or biceps tenosynovitis (BT) presence at baseline could represent a predictive marker of response to standard therapy after 12 months of followup, and whether a positive US examination could highlight the need of higher maintenance dosage of glucocorticoids (GC) at 6 and 12 months in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Sixty-six consecutive patients with PMR underwent bilateral shoulder US evaluations before starting therapy and after 12 months of followup. Absence of girdle pain and morning stiffness (clinical remission) and laboratory variables were evaluated. After diagnosis, all patients were treated with prednisone. At baseline, SB and/or BT were present in 46 patients (70%), of whom 33 (72%) became negative while 13 (28%) remained positive at the 12-month US evaluation. All patients rapidly achieved a clinical remission, and at 6 months 26 (39%) also achieved a laboratory variable normalization. According to US positivity at baseline, no difference was found in remission or relapse rate after 12 months. Thirty patients (46%) at 6 months and 7 (11%) at 12 months were still taking more than 5 mg/day of prednisone. According to the US pattern at baseline, no difference was found in the mean GC dose at 6 and 12 months. In patients with PMR, the presence of SB and/or BT on US at diagnosis is not a predictive marker of GC response or of a higher GC dosage to maintain remission in a 12-month prospective followup study.

  20. Gastrointestinal symptoms and association with medication use patterns, adherence, treatment satisfaction, quality of life, and resource use in osteoporosis: baseline results of the MUSIC-OS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, A; Sen, S; Adachi, J D; Adami, S; Cortet, B; Cooper, A L; Geusens, P; Mellström, D; Weaver, J; van den Bergh, J P; Nguyen, A M; Sajjan, S

    2016-03-01

    The Medication Use Patterns, Treatment Satisfaction, and Inadequate Control of Osteoporosis Study (MUSIC-OS) is a prospective, observational study of women with osteoporosis in Europe and Canada. At baseline, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms reported lower adherence to osteoporosis treatment, treatment satisfaction, and health-related quality of life, than those without gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of the study was to examine gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and the association between GI symptoms and treatment adherence, treatment satisfaction, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among osteoporotic women in Europe and Canada. Baseline results are reported here for a prospective study which enrolled postmenopausal, osteoporotic women who were initiating (new users) or continuing (experienced users) osteoporosis treatment at study entry (baseline). A patient survey was administered at baseline and included the occurrence of GI symptoms during 6-month pre-enrolment, treatment adherence (adherence evaluation of osteoporosis (ADEOS), score 0-22), treatment satisfaction (Osteoporosis Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medications (OPSAT-Q), score 0-100) and HRQoL (EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) utility, score 0-1; OPAQ-SV, score 0-100). The association between GI symptoms and ADEOS (experienced users), OPSAT-Q (experienced users), and HRQoL (new and experienced users) was assessed by general linear models adjusted for patient characteristics. A total of 2959 patients (2275 experienced and 684 new users) were included. Overall, 68.1% of patients experienced GI symptoms in the past 6 months. Compared with patients without GI symptoms, patients with GI symptoms had lower mean baseline scores on most measures. The mean adjusted differences were ADEOS, -0.43; OPSAT-Q, -5.68; EQ-5D, -0.04 (new users) and -0.06 (experienced users), all P < 0.01. GI symptoms were also associated with lower OPAQ-SV domain scores: physical function, -4.17 (experienced

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans - A model system for space biology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in studies spanning aspects of development, aging, and radiobiology is reviewed. These topics are interrelated via cellular and DNA repair processes especially in the context of oxidative stress and free-radical metabolism. The relevance of these research topics to problems in space biology is discussed and properties of the space environment are outlined. Exposure to the space-flight environment can induce rapid changes in living systems that are similar to changes occurring during aging; manipulation of these environmental parameters may represent an experimental strategy for studies of development and senescence. The current and future opportunities for such space-flight experimentation are presented.

  2. Biological studies of the U.S. subseabed disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Hessler, R.R.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Talbert, D.M.; Yayanos, A.A.; Jackson, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) of the U.S. is assessing the feasibility of emplacing high level radioactive wastes (HLW) within deep-sea sediments and is developing the means for assessing the feasibility of the disposal practices of other nations. This paper discusses the role and status of biological research in the SDP. Studies of the disposal methods and of the conceived barriers (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that biological knowledge will be principally needed to address the impact of accidental releases of radionuclides. Current experimental work is focusing on the deep-sea ecosystem to determine: (1) the structure of benthic communities, including their microbial component; (2) the faunal composition of deep midwater nekton; (3) the biology of deep-sea amphipods; (4) benthic community metabolism; (5) the rates of bacterial processes; (6) the metabolism of deep-sea animals, and (7) the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. A multi-compartment model is being developed to assess quantitatively, the impact (on the environment and on man) of releases of radionuclides into the sea

  3. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, David D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (φ/ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13 C a , chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  4. Do Neurocognitive SCAT3 Baseline Test Scores Differ Between Footballers (Soccer) Living With and Without Disability? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Ahmed, Osman Hassan; Verhagen, Evert

    2018-01-01

    To determine if baseline Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, third Edition (SCAT3) scores differ between athletes with and without disability. Cross-sectional comparison of preseason baseline SCAT3 scores for a range of England international footballers. Team doctors and physiotherapists supporting England football teams recorded players' SCAT 3 baseline tests from August 1, 2013 to July 31, 2014. A convenience sample of 249 England footballers, of whom 185 were players without disability (male: 119; female: 66) and 64 were players with disability (male learning disability: 17; male cerebral palsy: 28; male blind: 10; female deaf: 9). Between-group comparisons of median SCAT3 total and section scores were made using nonparametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon ranked-sum test. All footballers with disability scored higher symptom severity scores compared with male players without disability. Male footballers with learning disability demonstrated no significant difference in the total number of symptoms, but recorded significantly lower scores on immediate memory and delayed recall compared with male players without disability. Male blind footballers' scored significantly higher for total concentration and delayed recall, and male footballers with cerebral palsy scored significantly higher on balance testing and immediate memory, when compared with male players without disability. Female footballers with deafness scored significantly higher for total concentration and balance testing than female footballers without disability. This study suggests that significant differences exist between SCAT3 baseline section scores for footballers with and without disability. Concussion consensus guidelines should recognize these differences and produce guidelines that are specific for the growing number of athletes living with disability.

  5. FAKTOR RISIKO PENYAKIT JANTUNG KORONER (PJK PADA PEREMPUAN (Baseline Studi Kohor Faktor Risiko PTM (Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD in Women [Baseline Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Non Communicable Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Oemiyati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease was claimed as a leading cause of death in women > 65 years old in Europe. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD was major cause of death in women in the USA, a half of million women dead because of cardiovascular disease every year. Riskesdas 2007 shows that prevalence of cardiovascular disease in women was higher than man based on diagnosis (1.0% versus 0.8% or diagnosis and symptoms (8.1% versus 6.2%. The aim of this study was to explore determinants risk factors of CHD in women (sociodemography, behavior risk factors, and blood examination. Methods: Cross sectional with in depth analysis The sample took from sub set data of cohort study of non-communicable disease in sub district Kebon Kalapa, Central Bogor in Bogor City by Center of Intervention Technology of Public Health. Dependent variable was CHD in women with independent variables were socio demography factors, behavior risk factors, and biomedical risk factors. Samples were 1042 respondents, women who had CHD. The criteria of CHD based on examination of ECG with abnormal results. Data analysis conducted by Chi square and logistic regression. Result: The result of this study shows that determinant factors of CHD in women were menopause OR = 1.5 (95% CI 1.215–2.081; waist circumstances OR = 1.5 (95% CI 1.147–2.221; and triglyceride level OR = 1 (95% CI 1.010–1.253. Conclusion: The women with menopause and central obesity had high risk on CHD. Recommendation: Health promotion should have done to decrease CHD prevalence.

  6. A 'short walk' is longer before radiotherapy than afterwards : a qualitative study questioning the baseline and follow-up design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau-Bloem, E.F.; van Zuuren, F.J.; Koeneman, M.A.; Rapkin, B.D.; Visser, M.R.M.; Koning, C.C.E.; Sprangers, M.A.G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have indirectly demonstrated changes in the content of respondents' QoL appraisal process over time by revealing response-shift effects. This is the first known study to qualitatively examine the assumption of consistency in the content of the cognitive processes

  7. A 'short walk' is longer before radiotherapy than afterwards: a qualitative study questioning the baseline and follow-up design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau-Bloem, Elsbeth F.; van Zuuren, Florence J.; Koeneman, Margot A.; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Visser, Mechteld R. M.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have indirectly demonstrated changes in the content of respondents' QoL appraisal process over time by revealing response-shift effects. This is the first known study to qualitatively examine the assumption of consistency in the content of the cognitive

  8. The RecordAF study: design, baseline data, and profile of patients according to chosen treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, John

    2010-01-01

    The REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation (RecordAF) is the first worldwide, 1-year observational, longitudinal study of the management of paroxysmal/persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) in recently diagnosed patients. The study was conducted at 532 sites...

  9. A Prospective Cohort Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus for Validation of Biomarkers (PROVALID – Study Design and Baseline Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eder

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 and kidney disease in these patients varies widely between European countries. Methods: In addition to store bio-samples the “Prospective cohort study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for validation of biomarkers” collects information on history, physical status, laboratory measurements and medication in 4000 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, being taken care of at the primary level of healthcare in 5 European countries (Austria, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland and Scotland. Next to comparing the rate of loss of eGFR between the countries, a further objective of the PROVALID study is to determine the 5-year cumulative incidence of renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Results: The mean age of the population recruited is 62.9±10 years, 54.6% are male and the mean BMI is 30.9±5.4 kg/m2. Metabolic control (median HBA1c 6.8 % (6.2; 7.5 is achieved via administration of metformin in 67.4% of the patients and insulin in 30.3%. Median systolic and diastolic blood pressure at recruitment is 135 (125; 146 and 80 (72; 85 mmHg, 65.4% of subjects received RAAS blocking agents. Mean eGFR is 80.7±29.2 ml/min/1.73m2 and median baseline albumin/creatinine ratio 8.3 mg (IQR: 3.8 and 25.1. Conclusion: PROVALID will provide information on incidence and progression of renal and cardiovascular disease and therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in different European countries. Thus, in contrast to many other cohort studies we will be able to associate national clinical practise pattern with outcome in this highly vulnerable patient population.

  10. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.

    1987-07-01

    The final report describes the general biology and ecology of the 15 holothurians, 3 asteroids, 2 zoanthids and 1 crustacea species studied in Reports I-XIII, the sampling methods used and the station data. A summary of the histological, histochemical and biochemical results for the species examined is given. The data suggest that the reproductive processes in the deep-sea species examined are highly unlikely to be part of a pathway for the transfer of radionuclides from the deep-sea back to man. (author)

  11. Environmental baseline study of the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project area of New Mexico: a progress report. An addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, H.G.

    1977-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, has been conducting exploratory drilling operations for a Waste Isolation Pilot Program Eddy and Lea counties in southeast New Mexico for almost two years. Prior to the establishment of such a program, an environmental study has been carried out as a baseline for evaluation of the impact of future activities in the Los Medanos area. Data are presented on the geology; topography; climate; vegetation; and population density, diet, and seasonal movements of mammals, lizards, snakes, birds, insects, and ground-dwelling arthropods of the study area

  12. Influence of sample collection and preanalytical sample processing on the analyses of biological markers in the European multicentre study IDEFICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplies, J; Günther, K; Bammann, K; Fraterman, A; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vanaelst, B; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Ahrens, W

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of a standardised sampling protocol and process quality across the different IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) centres on the results of the biochemical measurements. Baseline survey within the community-based intervention study. A total of 16,224 children, aged 2-8 years, enrolled in the IDEFICS baseline survey in 8 European countries. Venous or capillary blood samples were collected from 12,430 children, urine samples from 13,890 children and saliva samples from 14,019 children. A set of quality indicators was recorded for the biological blood, urine and saliva samples collected during the IDEFICS study. Results of blood and urine measurements were analysed and stratified by selected quality indicators. Concentrations of biological markers in blood and urine measured during the IDEFICS baseline survey are associated with several quality indicators assessed in this study. Between-country variations of these biomarkers are described. It was confirmed that fasting has a big influence on the concentration of certain biomarkers. Biomarkers in morning urine samples may be erroneous if the study subjects void during the night or if samples are not taken from the very first morning urine. The analysed data underline that a standardised sampling protocol is of major importance, especially in multicentre studies, but non-compliance is ever present in spite of well-defined standard operation procedures. Deviations from the protocol should therefore always be documented to avoid error pertaining to the concentration of biological markers.

  13. Characteristics of Dutch and Swiss primary care COPD patients - baseline data of the ICE COLD ERIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebeling, Lara; Puhan, Milo A.; Muggensturm, Patrick; Zoller, Marco; ter Riet, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATIVE EFFORT ON CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE: Exacerbation Risk Index Cohorts (ICE COLD ERIC) is a prospective cohort study with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients from Switzerland and The Netherlands designed to develop and validate practical COPD risk

  14. Neural correlates of a reversal learning task with an affectively neutral baseline: an event-related fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remijnse, Peter L.; Nielen, Marjan M. A.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2005-01-01

    Reversal learning may conceptually be dissected into acquiring stimulus-reinforcement associations and subsequently altering behavior by switching to new associations as stimulus-reinforcement contingencies reverse (i.e., affective switching). Previous imaging studies have found regions of the

  15. Predictors of poor cognitive status among older Malaysian adults: baseline findings from the LRGS TUA cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoh, Divya; Shahar, Suzana; Din, Normah Che; Omar, Azahadi; Vyrn, Chin Ai; Razali, Rosdinom; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2017-04-01

    Concepts of successful aging (SA), usual aging (UA), and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been developed to identify older adults at high risk of Alzheimer's diseases (AD), however, the predictors have rarely been investigated in a single study. Thus, this study aims to explore the risk factors of MCI as compared to UA and SA among older adults, in a large community based cohort study in Malaysia. 1993 subjects from four states in Malaysia were recruited. A comprehensive interview-based questionnaire was administered to determine socio-demographic information, followed by assessments to evaluate cognitive function, functional status, dietary intake, lifestyle and psychosocial status. Risk factors of cognitive impairment were assessed using the ordinal logistic regression (OLR). The prevalence of SA, UA and MCI in this study was 11, 73 and 16 % respectively. OLR indicated that higher fasting blood sugar, hyperlipidemia, disability, lower education level, not regularly involved in technical based activities, limited use of modern technologies, lower intake of fruits and fresh fruit juices and not practicing calorie restriction were among the risk factors of poor cognitive performance in this study. This study will be a stepping stone for future researchers to develop intervention strategies to prevent cognitive decline.

  16. Binge eating, mood, and quality of life in youth with type 2 diabetes: baseline data from the today study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfley, Denise; Berkowitz, R; Goebel-Fabbri, A; Hirst, K; Ievers-Landis, C; Lipman, T H; Marcus, M; Ng, D; Pham, T; Saletsky, R; Schanuel, J; Van Buren, D

    2011-04-01

    The current study examines the prevalence of binge eating and its association with adiposity and psychosocial functioning in a large, diverse sample of youth with type 2 diabetes. In the TODAY study, 678 (mean age 14.0 years; 64.9% girls) of the 704 youth randomized to the study completed a self-report measure of eating disorder symptoms and were categorized as nonovereaters, overeaters, subclinical binge eaters, or clinical binge eaters. Youth with clinical (6%) and subclinical (20%) levels of binge eating had significantly higher levels and rates of extreme obesity, global eating disorder and depressive symptoms, and impaired quality of life. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating youth with type 2 diabetes for the presence of binge eating. Future research is needed to determine the cumulative effects of disordered eating, obesity, and psychosocial distress on adherence to lifestyle change recommendations and longitudinal response to treatment.

  17. Biological Detection System Technologies Technology and Industrial Base Study. A Primer on Biological Detection Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... and Canadian military personnel. In light of these concerns both defense departments have increased efforts to develop and field biological agent detection systems to help protect their military forces and fixed assets...

  18. Mixed states vs. pure mania in the french sample of the EMBLEM study: results at baseline and 24 months – European mania in bipolar longitudinal evaluation of medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azorin Jean-Michel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the clinical course and treatment patterns over 24 months of patients experiencing an acute manic/mixed episode within the standard course of care. Methods EMBLEM was a 2-year European prospective, observational study on outcomes of patients experiencing a manic/mixed episode. Adults with bipolar disorder were enrolled within the standard course of care as in/outpatients if they initiated or changed oral medication for treatment of acute mania. After completing 12 weeks of acute phase, patients were assessed every 3–6 months during the maintenance phase. We present the 24 month results, with subgroup analysis for mixed states (MS and pure mania (PM. These subgroup analyses are driven by the high proportion of antidepressants prescribed in this cohort. Results In France, 771 patients were eligible for the maintenance phase. 69% of patients completed the follow up over 24 months. The mean age was 45.5 years (sd = 13.6 with 57% of women. 504 (66% patients were experiencing a PM and 262 (34% a MS at baseline. The main significant differences in MS vs. PM at baseline were: a higher rate of women, and in the previous 12 months, a higher frequency of episodes (manic/mixed and depressive, more suicide attempts, more rapid cycling, fewer social activities and more work impairment. Over the 24 months of follow-up the MS group had a significantly lower recovery than PM (36% vs. 46%, p = 0.006. Overall, 42% of all patients were started on monotherapy and 58% on combination therapy; of those 35% and 30% respectively remained on their initial medication throughout the 24 months. At baseline, 36% were treated with an antidepressant, this proportion remains high throughout the follow-up period, with a significantly higher rate for MS vs. PM at 24 months (55% vs. 27%, p Conclusion In this large sample, MS occur frequently (34%, they are more severe at baseline and have a worse functional prognosis than PM. Although

  19. Baseline High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Predicts Macrovascular and Microvascular Complications of Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Zahra; Ghajar, Alireza; Faghihi-Kashani, Sara; Afarideh, Mohsen; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Esteghamati, Alireza

    2018-04-25

    This prospective study is aimed at examining the predictive value of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) for coronary heart disease (CHD) events and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A population-based study (NCT02958579) was conducted on 1,301 participants with T2DM (mean follow-up of 7.5 years). Risk assessment for vascular events was done at baseline, and serum hs-CRP was measured. End points of this study include CHD events, diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, and diabetic kidney disease. Individuals with unavailable data or hs-CRP >20 mg/L were excluded. The discrimination and reclassification improvement of study end points were tested after addition of hs-CRP to traditional risk factors. Median serum hs-CRP was 2.00 ranging from 0.1 to 17 mg/L. Hazards ratio of each SD increment in baseline hs-CRP was 1.028 (1.024-1.032) for CHD, 1.025 (1.021-1.029) for diabetic neuropathy, 1.037 (1.030-1.043) for diabetic retinopathy, and 1.035 (1.027-1.043) for diabetic kidney disease. The addition of hs-CRP to traditional risk factors of vascular complications of T2DM improved discrimination of all end points (p < 0.001). Net reclassification improvement ranged from 8% for diabetic neuropathy to 31% for diabetic kidney disease (p < 0.05). Baseline hs-CRP predicts both of CHD events and microvascular complications of patients with T2D. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  1. Design, methods, baseline characteristics and interim results of the Catheter Sampled Blood Archive in Cardiovascular Diseases (CASABLANCA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna K. Gaggin

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The CASABLANCA study will examine the role of novel biomarkers and metabolomics for predicting a wide range of cardiovascular, neurologic, and renal complications in patients undergoing angiography. Full results are expected in the latter half of 2014 (ClinicalTrials.Gov # NCT00842868.

  2. Are risk estimates biased in follow-up studies of psychosocial factors with low base-line participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population....

  3. Exposure to flour dust in South African supermarket bakeries: modeling of baseline measurements of an intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Meijster, T.; Lopata, A.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Heederik, D.; Jeebhay, M.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to flour dust has been reported as an important risk factor for allergic respiratory disease among bakery workers. A high prevalence of allergic sensitization and asthma was recently reported in South African supermarket bakeries. The aim of this study was to conduct a

  4. Exposure to flour dust in South African supermarket bakeries: Modeling of baseline measurements of an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R.; Meijster, T.; Lopata, A.; Sander, I.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Heederik, D.; Jeebhay, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to flour dust has been reported as an important risk factor for allergic respiratory disease among bakery workers. A high prevalence of allergic sensitization and asthma was recently reported in South African supermarket bakeries. The aim of this study was to conduct a

  5. Increasing the Use of Prompting Strategies: A Multiple Baseline Study across Pairs of Paraeducators of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a program designed to train paraeducators to use prompting strategies to teach students with moderate to severe intellectual and multiple disabilities. The paraeducator training program contained three components: a) an initial training on using task direction, time delay, most to least prompting, and…

  6. mHealth Intervention Promoting Cardiovascular Health Among African-Americans: Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are promising avenues to promote cardiovascular (CV) health among African-Americans (AAs) and culturally tailored technology-based interventions are emerging for this population. Objective The objectives of this study were to use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to recruit AAs into a pilot intervention study of an innovative mHealth CV health promotion program and to characterize technology use patterns and eHealth literacy (EHL). Methods Community partners from five predominately AA churches in southeast Minnesota collaborated with our academic institution to recruit AA congregants into the pilot study. Field notes as well as communications between the study team and community partners were used to design the recruitment strategy and its implementation with a goal of enrolling 50 participants. At its core, the recruitment strategy included community kickoff events to detail the state-of-the-art nature of the mHealth intervention components, the utility of CV health assessments (physical examination, laboratory studies and surveys) and the participants’ role in advancing our understanding of the efficacy of mHealth interventions among racial/ethnic minority groups. Detailed recruitment data were documented throughout the study. A self-administered, electronic survey measured sociodemographics, technology use and EHL (eHEALS scale). Results A total of 50 participants (70% women) from five AA churches were recruited over a one-month period. The majority (>90%) of participants reported using some form of mobile technology with all utilizing these technologies within their homes. Greater than half (60% [30/50]) reported being “very comfortable” with mobile technologies. Overall, participants had high EHL (84.8% [39/46] with eHEALS score ≥26) with no differences by sex. Conclusions This study illustrates the feasibility and success of a CBPR approach in recruiting AAs into m

  7. Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: Baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Furukawa, Shinya; Arakawa, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Only one Brazilian study has examined the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current cross-sectional study examined this issue in Japan. Study subjects were 1744 pregnant women. Between April 2007 and March 2008, information under study was obtained. Dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis of 33 predefined food groups based on a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score ≥ 16. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, employment, household income, education, and body mass index. Three dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy', characterized by high intake of green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, pulses, seaweed, potatoes, fish, sea products, miso soup, sugar, and shellfish; 'Japanese', characterized by high intake of rice and miso soup; and 'Western', characterized by high intake of beef and pork, processed meat, vegetable oil, chicken, eggs, shellfish, and salt-containing seasonings. The healthy and Japanese patterns were independently inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals, P for trend) between extreme quartiles were 0.56 (0.43-0.73, < 0.0001) and 0.72 (0.55-0.94, 0.008), respectively. No association was observed between the Western pattern and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Information was obtained between the 5th and 39th week of pregnancy. The healthy and Japanese dietary patterns may be inversely associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  9. A mycological baseline study based on a multidisciplinary approach in a coastal area affected by contaminated torrent input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, M; Carbone, C; Cecchi, G; Consani, S; Cutroneo, L; Di Piazza, S; Greco, G; Tolotti, R; Vagge, G; Zotti, M

    2017-06-15

    Fungi include a vast group of eukaryotic organisms able to colonise different natural, anthropised and extreme environments, including marine areas contaminated by metals. The present study aims to give a first multidisciplinary characterisation of marine bottom sediments contaminated by metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn), originating in the water leakage from an abandoned Fe-Cu sulphide mine (Libiola, north-western Italy), and evaluate how the chemical and physical parameters of water and sediments may affect the benthic fungal communities. Our preliminary results showed the high mycodiversity of the marine sediments studied (13 genera and 23 species of marine fungi isolated), and the great physiological adaptability that this mycobiota evolved in reaction to the effects of the ecotoxic bottom sediment contamination, and associated changes in the seawater parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recruitment and baseline characteristics of participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER)-a randomized controlled lifestyle trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Peltonen, Markku; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Mangialasche, Francesca; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia

    2014-09-10

    Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) study population. Potential study participants (age 60-77 years, the dementia risk score ≥ 6) were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496), 48% (n = 2654) attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1). The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD) age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0) points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2) mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0) mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9) mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons.

  11. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER—A Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia Ngandu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER study population. Potential study participants (age 60–77 years, the dementia risk score ≥6 were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496, 48% (n = 2654 attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1. The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0 points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2 mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0 mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9 mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons.

  12. Persistence and concomitant medication in patients with overactive bladder treated with antimuscarinic agents in primary care. An observational baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, A; Navarro-Artieda, R; Ruiz-Torrejón, A; Sáez-Zafra, M; Coll-de Tuero, G

    2016-03-01

    To assess therapeutic persistence and its relationship with concomitant medication in patients treated with fesoterodine versus tolterodine and solifenacin for overactive bladder (OAB) in standard clinical practice conditions. An observational, multicentre retrospective study was performed based on medical registries of patients followed-up in primary care (PC). Three study groups were analysed. Persistence was defined as the time (in months) without withdrawing from the initial therapy or without changing to another medication for at least 30 days after the initial prescription. The concomitant medications were antidepressants, anxiolytic/hypnotic agents, antibiotics, antiseptic agents, laxatives and skin products. We employed the SPSSWIN program version 17 (statistical significance, P<.05). We selected 3094 patients for the study. The median age was 54.0 years and 62.2% were women. The patients treated with fesoterodine shown greater treatment persistence (12 months) when compared with those who took solifenacin and tolterodine (40.2% vs. 34.7% and 33.6%, respectively; P=.008). They also showed a lower use of concomitant medication (1.1 vs. 1.2 and 1.2 drugs, respectively; percentages: 61.6% vs. 67.1% and 70.1%, respectively; P<.03). The patients undergoing OAB treatment with fesoterodine, when compared with those taking solifenacin and tolterodine, were associated with greater treatment persistence and a reduced use of concomitant medication. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Health-promoting factors in medical students and students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: design and baseline results of a comparative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Tautphäus, Yannick; Scherer, Martin; Voltmer, Edgar

    2014-07-04

    The negative impact of medical school on students' general and mental health has often been reported. Compared to students of other subjects, or employed peers, medical students face an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety and burnout. While pathogenetic factors have been studied extensively, less is known about health-promoting factors for medical students' health. This longitudinal study aims to identify predictors for maintaining good general and mental health during medical education. We report here the design of the study and its baseline results. We initiated a prospective longitudinal cohort study at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Two consecutive classes of students, entering the university in 2011 and 2012, were recruited. Participants will be assessed annually for the duration of their course. We use validated psychometric instruments covering health outcomes (general and mental health) and personality traits, as well as self-developed, pre-tested items covering leisure activities and sociodemographic data. At baseline, compared to students of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects (n = 531; 60.8% response rate), a larger proportion of medical students (n = 350; 93.0% response rate) showed good general health (90.9% vs. 79.7%) and a similar proportion was in good mental health (88.3% vs. 86.3%). Medical students scored significantly higher in the personality traits of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness. Neuroticism proved to be a statistically significant negative predictor for mental health in the logistic regression analyses. Satisfaction with life as a dimension of study-related behaviour and experience predicted general health at baseline. Physical activity was a statistically significant predictor for general health in medical students. Baseline data revealed that medical students reported better general and similar mental health compared to STEM students. The annual

  14. Molecular biology in studies of oceanic primary production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRoche, J.; Falkowski, P.G.; Geider, R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing and the use of moored in situ instrumentation has greatly improved our ability to measure phytoplankton chlorophyll and photosynthesis on global scales with high temporal resolution. However, the interpretation of these measurements and their significance with respect to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon relies on their relationship with physiological and biochemical processes in phytoplankton. For example, the use of satellite images of surface chlorophyll to estimate primary production is often based on the functional relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance. A variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, nutrient availability affect the photosynthesis/irradiance (P vs I) relationship in phytoplankton. We present three examples showing how molecular biology can be used to provide basic insight into the factors controlling primary productivity at three different levels of complexity: 1. Studies of light intensity regulation in unicellular alga show how molecular biology can help understand the processing of environmental cues leading to the regulation of photosynthetic gene expression. 2. Probing of the photosynthetic apparatus using molecular techniques can be used to test existing mechanistic models derived from the interpretation of physiological and biophysical measurements. 3. Exploratory work on the expression of specific proteins during nutrient-limited growth of phytoplankton may lead to the identification and production of molecular probes for field studies

  15. Dental health status and patient-reported outcomes at baseline in patients participating in the osteonecrosis of the jaw registry study, SWOG S0702.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poznak, Catherine H; Darke, Amy; Moinpour, Carol M; Bagramian, Robert A; Schubert, Mark M; Gralow, Julie R; Wade, James L; Unger, Joseph M

    2017-04-01

    SWOG S0702 was a cohort study of patients with cancer with bone metastases due to any cancer. Using baseline data from S0702, this report characterizes the oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with advanced cancer. S0702 case report forms captured dental assessment and patient-reported outcome (PRO) data. This analysis compares PRO dental discomfort with selected clinical assessments of dental health. This analysis focuses on the 2294 patients who underwent baseline dental examination prior to study registration, but also reports on the 1235 patients for whom only OHRQol data are available. Dental characteristics including the number of teeth and the presence of gingivitis and periodontal disease were examined for correlation with PRO of oral pain, interference with eating, smiling, speech, or quality of life. The median age of the study participants was 62. Greater than 60% of the 2294 patients with baseline dental assessments had none to mild plaque, calculus, gingivitis, or periodontal disease, suggesting that most of this cohort had good oral hygiene. However, in each of these same categories, approximately 6% had dental findings classified as severe conditions (poor oral hygiene). There was strong evidence that the presence of periodontal disease, gingivitis, and number of teeth was correlated with lower OHRQoL across multiple domains, including pain (mouth or jaw), interference with eating, smiling and speech, and overall quality of life. This report characterizes the oral health and OHRQoL of patients with advanced bone metastases receiving palliative therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00874211.

  16. Factors associated with screening for glucose abnormalities after gestational diabetes mellitus: baseline cohort of the interventional IMPACT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihan, H; Cosson, E; Khiter, C; Vittaz, L; Faghfouri, F; Leboeuf, D; Carbillon, L; Dauphin, H; Reach, G; Valensi, P

    2014-04-01

    Although it is important to screen women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for abnormal post-partum glucose levels, such testing is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to use data from the first observational phase of the IMPACT study to determine rates of screening within 6 months of delivery in a multiethnic cohort, focusing in particular on the effects of social deprivation and the risk of future diabetes. To investigate the frequency of post-partum screening, charts were analyzed, and all women attending four centres located in a deprived area who had had GDM between January 2009 and December 2010 were contacted by phone. The Evaluation of Precarity and Inequalities in Health Examination Centres (EPICES) deprivation index and Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISK) questionnaire were also evaluated. Data were evaluable for 589 of the 719 women contacted (mean age: 33.4 ± 5.2 years; mean body mass index: 27.6 ± 5.4 kg/m(2)), and 196 (33.3%) reported having been screened. On multivariate analysis, factors associated with a lack of screening were smoking [odds ratio (OR): 0.42 (0.20-0.90), P<0.05], low consumption of fruit and vegetables [OR: 0.58 (0.39-0.82), P<0.01] and heavier offspring birth weight (P<0.05), although there were no differences in FINDRISK and EPICES scores between screened and unscreened women. One-third of women who had had GDM reported having been screened for dysglycaemia at 6 months post-partum. However, it is expected that the interventional phase of the IMPACT study will increase screening rates, especially in women with the risk factors associated with lower screening rates during this observational phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Immune-mediated inflammatory diseases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Baseline data from the Aquiles study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; García Sánchez, Valle; Gisbert, Javier P; Lázaro Pérez Calle, José; Luján, Marisol; Gordillo Ábalos, Jordi; Tabernero, Susana; Juliá, Berta; Romero, Cristina; Cea-Calvo, Luis; García-Vicuña, Rosario; Vanaclocha, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) in a cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) enrolled in hospital gastroenterology outpatients units for the AQUILES study, a prospective 2-year follow-up study. We included patients ≥18 years old with a prior or new diagnosis of IBD (Crohn disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC] or indeterminate colitis). Diagnoses were collected in a cross-sectional manner from the clinical records at enrollment of a new patient in the study. We included 526 patients (mean age 40.2 years; 47.3% men, 52.7% women), 300 with CD (57.0%), 218 with UC (41.4%) and 8 with indeterminate colitis. Other types of IMID were present in 71 patients (prevalence: 13.5%, 95% CI: 10.8-16.7): 47 were spondyloarthropathies (prevalence: 8.9%); 18 psoriasis (3.4%); 5 pyoderma gangrenosum (1.0%), and 11 uveitis (2.1%). The prevalence of IMID was higher in patients with CD than in those with UC (17.0% [95% CI: 13.2-21.7] vs 9.2% [95% CI: 6.0-13.8], p=0.011). In the multivariate analysis, the variables associated with the presence of IMID were diagnosis of CD (OR=1.8 [95% CI: 1.1-3.2]) and duration of IBD ≥4 years (OR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.1-4.1] in those with disease duration 4-8 years, and OR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.2-3.9] in those with ≥8 years vs. 4 years since disease onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge about emergency dental trauma management amongst school teachers in Colombia: a baseline study to develop an education strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano-Caldera, Maytté; Mejía-Cardona, Jose Luis; Sanchez, José Hernán Parra; de la Espriella, Catalina Méndez; Morales, Eduardo Covo; Varón, Gustavo Sierra; Díaz, Martha Gómez; Mesa, Natalia Fortich; Villegas, Paola Escobar; Reyes, Patricia Bermúdez; Sanchez, Patricia Rodríguez; Fernández, Pedro Mejia; Gómez-Scarpetta, Ruth Ángela; Alfaro, Vanessa Bernal; Aguirre, Olga Lucia Cifuentes; Soto, Olga Patricia López; Sigurdsson, Asgeir

    2018-03-08

    Dental trauma in school populations has a high frequency and school teachers are often close to the place where such injuries occur. However, many studies have confirmed the lack of knowledge as to how to act in these cases. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge in regard to dental trauma of school teachers in Colombia. A multi-centre, descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in 251 schools using a stratified randomized sampling. A structured hard copy survey was personally delivered to 2,390 school teachers in the selected schools. The survey contained questions related to work experience, teaching level and demographic data, as well as questions related to their knowledge of and attitude towards emergency dental trauma management. The response rate was 96%. Most of the school teachers (95%) had never received training related to dental trauma although, 35% had witnessed at least one case. Out of 2,296 school teachers surveyed, only 5.8% would have replanted an avulsed tooth. An association was found between work experience and appropriate management of an avulsed tooth. No significant differences were found in regard to school location (city), school type (private/public), gender and school teachers' education level. The knowledge of school teachers in Colombia about emergency dental trauma management is inadequate. The findings strongly suggest a need for an education strategy with the involvement of the government, dentistry schools and private organizations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. End-of-life care for persons with advanced Alzheimer disease: design and baseline data from the ALFINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourhashémi, F; Gillette, S; Cantet, C; Stilmunkes, A; Saffon, N; Rougé-Bugat, M E; Vellas, B; Rolland, Y

    2012-05-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Most affected individuals survive to an advanced stage of dementia, which is under-recognized as a terminal illness. Our objectives were to better understand the clinical trajectory of advanced AD and to identify the palliative care needs of these patients. This was an observational prospective study of AD patients in severe stage of disease included after a hospitalization in geriatric wards. They were followed up every three months during 2 years. At each visit, interviews provided data regarding: pain (Elderly Pain Caring Assessment scale), pressure ulcers, eating patterns, daily medications and use of health services. This paper describes the design of the ALFINE study and the characteristics of the recruited cohort. 112 patients were recruited (mean age: 84.03 + 6.96) years; 76.79% were women. Mean time since diagnosis of AD was 5.28 years. Pressure ulcers were observed in 42 patients. Pain assessment with the EPCA showed a mean score of 8.58. One third of patients with an EPCA score of more than 7 (median) had no analgesics. More than half of patients had been treated with antibiotics during the three months before inclusion in the study and 33 patients were still receiving antibiotics at inclusion. Two third of patients had been hospitalized in the month before inclusion. End-of-life care for individuals with end-stage AD is increasingly important because of the rising number of patients with this disease. Health care systems and clinicians should make efforts to ameliorate the suffering of patients and their caregivers.

  20. The RecordAF study: design, baseline data, and profile of patients according to chosen treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, John

    2010-01-01

    ,814 patients with AF were registered, and 5,604 were eligible for evaluation. Rhythm- and rate-control strategies were applied to 55% and 45% of patients, respectively, at study inclusion. Rhythm-control patients mainly received class III agents (45%) or beta blockers (51%), except for sotalol, and rate......-control patients mainly received beta blockers (72%), except for sotalol, or cardiac glycosides (34%). Patients receiving a rhythm-control strategy were younger, had a lower resting heart rate, were more frequently symptomatic, and were more likely to have recently diagnosed AF or paroxysmal AF compared...

  1. Realizing effectiveness across continents with hydroxyurea: Enrollment and baseline characteristics of the multicenter REACH study in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Patrick T; Williams, Thomas N; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Tomlinson, George A; Lane, Adam; Luís Reis da Fonseca, José; Kitenge, Robert; Mochamah, George; Wabwire, Ham; Stuber, Susan; Howard, Thad A; McElhinney, Kathryn; Aygun, Banu; Latham, Teresa; Santos, Brígida; Tshilolo, Léon; Ware, Russell E

    2018-08-01

    Despite its well-described safety and efficacy in the treatment of sickle cell anemia (SCA) in high-income settings, hydroxyurea remains largely unavailable in sub-Saharan Africa, where more than 75% of annual SCA births occur and many comorbidities exist. Realizing Effectiveness Across Continents with Hydroxyurea (REACH, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01966731) is a prospective, Phase I/II open-label trial of hydroxyurea designed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and benefits of hydroxyurea treatment for children with SCA in four sub-Saharan African countries. Following comprehensive training of local research teams, REACH was approved by local Ethics Committees and achieved full enrollment ahead of projections with 635 participants enrolled over a 30-month period, despite half of families living >12 km from their clinical site. At enrollment, study participants (age 5.4 ± 2.4 years) had substantial morbidity, including a history of vaso-occlusive pain (98%), transfusion (68%), malaria (85%), and stroke (6%). Significant differences in laboratory characteristics were noted across sites, with lower hemoglobin concentrations (P Africa; this study will provide vital information to guide safe and effective dosing of hydroxyurea for children with SCA living in Africa. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Baseline Face Detection, Head Pose Estimation, and Coarse Direction Detection for Facial Data in the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paone, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Ferrell, Regina Kay [ORNL; Aykac, Deniz [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Keeping a driver focused on the road is one of the most critical steps in insuring the safe operation of a vehicle. The Strategic Highway Research Program 2 (SHRP2) has over 3,100 recorded videos of volunteer drivers during a period of 2 years. This extensive naturalistic driving study (NDS) contains over one million hours of video and associated data that could aid safety researchers in understanding where the driver s attention is focused. Manual analysis of this data is infeasible, therefore efforts are underway to develop automated feature extraction algorithms to process and characterize the data. The real-world nature, volume, and acquisition conditions are unmatched in the transportation community, but there are also challenges because the data has relatively low resolution, high compression rates, and differing illumination conditions. A smaller dataset, the head pose validation study, is available which used the same recording equipment as SHRP2 but is more easily accessible with less privacy constraints. In this work we report initial head pose accuracy using commercial and open source face pose estimation algorithms on the head pose validation data set.

  3. In early arthritis patients, high HAQ at baseline and DAS28 at three months predict suboptimal outcomes at two years: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanouriakis, Antonis; Papalopoulos, Ioannis; Gergianaki, Irini; Spyrou, Giorgis; Erden, Abdulsamet; Rapsomaniki, Panagiota; Terizaki, Maria; Avgoustidis, Nestor; Repa, Argyro; Kougkas, Nikolaos; Bertsias, George; Boumpas, Dimitrios T; Sidiropoulos, Prodromos I

    2018-02-28

    Early arthritis clinics (EAC) aim to improve rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outcomes by tailoring treatment targeting to remission. Our aim was to analyse disease course and relevant predictors over 2 years in early arthritis; we also assessed the applicability of the "treat-to-target approach" in a real-life EAC. Patients with early arthritis recruited at the EAC of the University Hospital of Heraklion were followed prospectively according to a follow-up protocol for two years, without implementing a pre-specified treatment protocol, to capture real-life practices. Early predictors of "suboptimal outcomes" (high disease activity or HAQ>1.0 at 2 years) and biologic DMARD (bDMARD) initiation were evaluated with multivariate logistic regression. Intensification of treatment at 3 and 6 months and subsequent long-term outcome were also assessed. 251 patients [RA (n=188), undifferentiated arthritis (n=63)] were included. Although both DAS28 and HAQ at 2 years improved significantly compared to baseline in RA patients [mean (SD) DAS28 and median (IQR) HAQ 3.70 (1.32) and 0.44 (0.75) at 2 years, pyears (pyear follow-up in early RA. Despite significant DAS reductions, more than 50% of patients have active disease at two years. Failure to fully implement the treat-to-target strategy in our cohort could account for the low remission rates.

  4. Integrating systematic screening for gender-based violence into sexual and reproductive health services: results of a baseline study by the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, A; Bott, S; Cuca, Y

    2002-09-01

    Three Latin American affiliates of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, Inc. (IPPF/WHR) have begun to integrate gender-based violence screening and services into sexual and reproductive health programs. This paper presents results of a baseline study conducted in the affiliates. Although most staff support integration and many had already begun to address violence in their work, additional sensitization and training, as well as institution-wide changes are needed to provide services effectively and to address needs of women experiencing violence. Copyright 2002 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics

  5. Parental stress, pediatric quality of life, and behavior at baseline and one-year follow-up: Results from the FEBSTAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnar, Ruth C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hesdorffer, Dale C; O'Hara, Kathryn; Conklin, Terrie; Cornett, Karen Mohler; Miazga, Diana; Sun, Shumei

    2017-04-01

    Febrile status epilepticus is a serious and frightening event in the life of the child and parent. It is regarded as a medical emergency with potential long lasting consequences. The purpose of this study was to look at the immediate and long term effects of such an event on parental stress and parents' perception of their child's physical and psychosocial wellbeing. From 2003 to 2010, 199 subjects, age 1 month to 5 years, were recruited as part of a prospective, multicenter study (FEBSTAT) of consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). At one month and one year after the episode of FSE, parents were asked to complete the Parenting Stress Index, short form (PSI/SF), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). In addition to PedsQL and CBCL in the FEBSTAT subjects only, a comparison was made between Columbia Study of First Febrile Seizures subjects with a first simple febrile seizure (SFS) and the FEBSTAT group, including 15 subjects with FSE from the Columbia group, in the area of parental stress which was administered at the same time intervals in both studies. At baseline, the PSI/SF was statistically significantly higher for SFS versus FSE on the parent-child dysfunctional score and the total raw score, however at one year this difference resolved. In the FSE group, significantly higher parental stress over one year was reported in children with abnormal versus normal prior development (p= 0.02). Prior abnormal development was a risk factor at 1 year for lower total PEDSQL (p=0.01) versus prior normal development. Mean scores on the CBCL at baseline and 1 year were within the normal range for both empirically based scales and major risk factors. Parents of children experiencing a SFS experienced more stress at baseline than those with FSE. Families of children in the FEBSTAT cohort with identified development problems at baseline that continued, or progressed over the one year period, reported decreasing QOL

  6. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use among Korean Adults: Baseline Data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in Yeungnam Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyeong; Lee, Yujin; Park, Kyong

    2018-01-06

    Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS) to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants ( n = 586) were selected from the ongoing prospective cohort study of the Korean population, and baseline information on current use of dietary supplements, types of supplements, frequency of use, dosage, duration, and brand name was collected. Dietary information was assessed using a 146-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Approximately one-fourth of the participants were categorized as VMS users. The proportion of VMS use was significantly higher in women ( p = 0.02), older participants ( p = 0.002), and those with a higher income level ( p = 0.03) than in non-users. All vitamin and mineral intakes of both groups met the recommended nutrient intake levels by food consumption alone, except for riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. Approximately 0.7-3.4% of the VMS users had nutrient intake levels that exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A, E, C, iron, and iodine. Excessive use of VMS can lead to an increased risk for adverse health effects. The results of this study provide useful baseline data for establishing guidelines for the appropriate consumption and adequate intake levels of VMS.

  7. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Use among Korean Adults: Baseline Data from the Trace Element Study of Korean Adults in Yeungnam Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyeong Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although dietary supplement use is believed to improve health status, the efficacy and safety of its use remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements (VMS to the total micronutrient intake. Study participants (n = 586 were selected from the ongoing prospective cohort study of the Korean population, and baseline information on current use of dietary supplements, types of supplements, frequency of use, dosage, duration, and brand name was collected. Dietary information was assessed using a 146-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Approximately one-fourth of the participants were categorized as VMS users. The proportion of VMS use was significantly higher in women (p = 0.02, older participants (p = 0.002, and those with a higher income level (p = 0.03 than in non-users. All vitamin and mineral intakes of both groups met the recommended nutrient intake levels by food consumption alone, except for riboflavin, calcium, and magnesium. Approximately 0.7–3.4% of the VMS users had nutrient intake levels that exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels for vitamin A, E, C, iron, and iodine. Excessive use of VMS can lead to an increased risk for adverse health effects. The results of this study provide useful baseline data for establishing guidelines for the appropriate consumption and adequate intake levels of VMS.

  8. Gliotransmission modulates baseline mechanical nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Jeannine C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain is a physiological and adaptive process which occurs to protect organisms from tissue damage and extended injury. Pain sensation beyond injury, however, is a pathological process which is poorly understood. Experimental models of neuropathic pain demonstrate that reactive astrocytes contribute to reduced nociceptive thresholds. Astrocytes release "gliotransmitters" such as D-serine, glutamate, and ATP, which is extracellularly hydrolyzed to adenosine. Adenosine 1 receptor activation in the spinal cord has anti-nociceptive effects on baseline pain threshold, but the source of the endogenous ligand (adenosine in the spinal cord is unknown. In this study we used a transgenic mouse model in which SNARE-mediated gliotransmission was selectively attenuated (called dnSNARE mice to investigate the role of astrocytes in mediating baseline nociception and the development of neuropathic pain. Under baseline conditions, immunostaining in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord showed astrocyte-specific transgene expression in dnSNARE mice, and no difference in expression levels of the astrocyte marker GFAP and the microglia marker Iba1 relative to wild-type mice. The Von Frey filament test was used to probe sensitivity to baseline mechanical pain thresholds and allodynia following the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. DnSNARE mice exhibit a reduced nociceptive threshold in response to mechanical stimulation compared to wild-type mice under baseline conditions, but nociceptive thresholds following spared nerve injury were similar between dnSNARE and wild-types. This study is the first to provide evidence that gliotransmission contributes to basal mechanical nociception.

  9. The status of interprofessional education and interprofessional prevention education in academic health centers: a national baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Annette G; Clay, Maria; Blue, Amy; Evans, Clyde H; Garr, David

    2014-05-01

    Given the emphasis on prevention in U.S. health care reform efforts, the importance of interprofessional education (IPE) that prepares health professions students to be part of effective health care teams is greater than ever. This study examined the prevalence and nature of IPE and interprofessional (IP) prevention education in U.S. academic health centers. The authors extracted a 10-item survey from the longer published IPE Assessment and Planning Instrument. In September 2010, they sent the survey to 346 health professions leaders in health sciences schools and colleges at 100 academic health centers. These institutions were identified via the online membership list of the Association of Academic Health Centers. The authors conducted descriptive statistical analysis and cross-tabulations. Surveys were completed by 127 contacts at 68 universities in 31 states and the District of Columbia. IPE was more prevalent than IP prevention education in all categories of measurement. Respondents affirmed existence of IPE in courses (85.0%) and in clinical rotations/internships (80.3%). The majority reported personnel with responsibility for IPE (68.5%) or prevention education (59.8%) at their institutional unit, and 59.8% reported an IPE office or center. This study provides evidence that IPE and IP prevention education exist in academic health centers, but additional attention should be paid to the development of IP prevention education. Sample syllabi, job descriptions, and policies may be available to support adoption of IPE and IP prevention education. Further effort is needed to increase the integration of IP and prevention education into practice.

  10. Caregiver burden assessed in dementia care networks in Germany: findings from the DemNet-D study baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte Uribe, Franziska; Heinrich, Steffen; Wolf-Ostermann, Karin; Schmidt, Sylvia; Thyrian, Jochen René; Schäfer-Walkmann, Susanne; Holle, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    This paper aimed to describe the burden experienced by informal caregivers supporting a person with dementia (PwD) who lives at home and utilizes a dementia care network (DCN), to investigate the factors that are associated with caregiver burden, and to identify possible differences in caregiver burden among different types of DCNs. This study was part of a multi-center, interdisciplinary evaluation of DCNs in Germany (DemNet-D). Cross-sectional data were collected in face-to-face interviews with people with dementia (PwDs) and their caregivers, and 13 DCNs were represented. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess caregiver burden, challenging PwD behaviors, functional competence and caregiver health status. Based on qualitative data, four DCN governance types were used in a multivariate analysis of burden categories. There were 560 PwD-caregiver dyads enrolled in the study. Informal caregivers (n = 536) reported a low-to-moderate burden associated with PwD characteristics (instrumental activities of daily living, challenging behaviors) and caregiver characteristics (gender) as well as the relationship between the caregivers and PwDs. Women felt more burdened but also showed higher levels of personal development. No differences were observed among the different DCN governance types. DCNs might contribute toward moderate to low caregiver burden. Indicators of positive caregiving aspects can be used by DCNs to advance support structures for informal caregivers drawing upon interventions already established for other community settings. Particular interest should be paid to female and spousal caregivers who might be in in need of greater and/or different kinds of support.

  11. Survey on patient safety culture in the Republic of Moldova: a baseline study in three healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereanu, Carmen; Sampietro, Giuseppe; Sarnataro, Francesco; Siscanu, Dumitru; Palaria, Rodica; Savin, Victor; Cliscovscaia, Tatiana; Pislaru, Valentina; Oglinda, Valeriu; Capmare, Larisa; Ghelase, Mugurel Stefan; Turcanu, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    The Republic of Moldova is a small ex-soviet country in the Central Eastern European group of states, whose official language is Romanian. In countries with limited resources, quality improvement in healthcare and patient safety are very challenging. This study aims to identify which areas of the patient safety culture (PSC) need prompt intervention. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three Moldovan healthcare settings, using the Romanian translation of the US Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture HSOPSC. Descriptive statistics were carried out, based on the responses from n. 929 staff. Percentages of positive responses (PPRs) by item (41 items) and composite (12 PSC areas) were computed. Most respondents were nurses (53%), followed by doctors (35%). The main work areas were: primary care (27%), medical specialties (20%), gynecology and obstetrics (16%), and general surgery (11%). The highest composite PPRs were for: teamwork within units (80%), feedback & communication about error, organizational learning-continuous improvement and supervisor/manager expectations & actions promoting patient safety (78%), and management support for patient safety (75%). The lowest composites were for: frequency of events reported (57%), non-punitive response to errors (53%), communication openness (51%) and staffing (37%). Our results suggest that staffing issues should be tackled to provide safe care. Staff avoid to openly report adverse events and/or discuss errors, likely because a poor understanding of the potential of these events for learning and because of fear of blame or punitive actions. Future research should check psychometrics of the Romanian version of the HSOPSC applied to Moldovan staff.

  12. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, David Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (Φ/Ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13Ca, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  13. The National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) Bariatric Study Cohort: Rationale, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Harmata, Emily E; Pardee, Roy; Saizan, Rosalinde; Malanga, Elisha; Sturtevant, Jessica L; Horgan, Casie E; Anau, Jane; Janning, Cheri D; Wellman, Robert D; Coley, R Yates; Cook, Andrea J; Courcoulas, Anita P; Coleman, Karen J; Williams, Neely A; McTigue, Kathleen M; Arterburn, David; McClay, James

    2017-01-01

    Background Although bariatric procedures are commonly performed in clinical practice, long-term data on the comparative effectiveness and safety of different procedures on sustained weight loss, comorbidities, and adverse effects are limited, especially in important patient subgroups (eg, individuals with diabetes, older patients, adolescents, and minority patients). Objective The objective of this study was to create a population-based cohort of patients who underwent 3 commonly performed bariatric procedures—adjustable gastric band (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG)—to examine the long-term comparative effectiveness and safety of these procedures in both adults and adolescents. Methods We identified adults (20 to 79 years old) and adolescents (12 to 19 years old) who underwent a primary (first observed) AGB, RYGB, or SG procedure between January 1, 2005 and September 30, 2015 from 42 health systems participating in the Clinical Data Research Networks within the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet). We extracted information on patient demographics, encounters with healthcare providers, diagnoses recorded and procedures performed during these encounters, vital signs, and laboratory test results from patients’ electronic health records (EHRs). The outcomes of interest included weight change, incidence of major surgery-related adverse events, and diabetes remission and relapse, collected for up to 10 years after the initial bariatric procedure. Results A total of 65,093 adults and 777 adolescents met the eligibility criteria of the study. The adult subcohort had a mean age of 45 years and was predominantly female (79.30%, 51,619/65,093). Among adult patients with non-missing race or ethnicity information, 72.08% (41,248/57,227) were White, 21.13% (12,094/57,227) were Black, and 20.58% (13,094/63,637) were Hispanic. The average highest body mass index (BMI) recorded in the year prior to surgery was 49 kg

  14. Knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in Malaysia's multi-ethnic society: a baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's organ and tissue donation rates are among the lowest in the world. The study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviors regarding deceased organ donation and transplantation in the diverse ethnic communities in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. A cross-sectional, population-based, computer-assisted telephone interview exploring multi-ethnic participants' knowledge, attitudes, practices and behavioral on deceased organ donation and transplantation was conducted from February to April 2009. Although only 5.5% of the total participants (N = 1174) reported that they have registered to be organ donor, a further 35.2% of those who have not register for organ donation indicated willingness to donate their own. Significant socio-demographic disparities with respect to knowledge and attitudes scores were observed. In particular, Malays (20.7%) indicated lower willingness to donate organs compared to the Chinese (36.6%) and Indians (51.4%) (p Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.03-0.94). Findings assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach out the diverse socio-demographic and ethnic communities with cultural-specific information about organ donation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. The emerging molecular biology toolbox for the study of long noncoding RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Ezio T; Scholefield, Janine; Fanucchi, Stephanie; Mhlanga, Musa M

    2017-10-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in many biological processes. However, due to the unique nature of lncRNAs and the consequential difficulties associated with their characterization, there is a growing disparity between the rate at which lncRNAs are being discovered and the assignment of biological function to these transcripts. Here we present a molecular biology toolbox equipped to help dissect aspects of lncRNA biology and reveal functionality. We outline an approach that begins with a broad survey of genome-wide, high-throughput datasets to identify potential lncRNA candidates and then narrow the focus on specific methods that are well suited to interrogate the transcripts of interest more closely. This involves the use of imaging-based strategies to validate these candidates and observe the behaviors of these transcripts at single molecule resolution in individual cells. We also describe the use of gene editing tools and interactome capture techniques to interrogate functionality and infer mechanism, respectively. With the emergence of lncRNAs as important molecules in healthy and diseased cellular function, it remains crucial to deepen our understanding of their biology.

  16. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people. Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl, which connected to the C(1 position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review.

  17. Baseline factors predictive of serious suicidality at follow-up: findings focussing on age and gender from a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Agus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although often providing more reliable and informative findings relative to other study designs, longitudinal investigations of prevalence and predictors of suicidal behaviour remain uncommon. This paper compares 12-month prevalence rates for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt at baseline and follow-up; identifies new cases and remissions; and assesses the capacity of baseline data to predict serious suicidality at follow-up, focusing on age and gender differences. Methods 6,666 participants aged 20-29, 40-49 and 60-69 years were drawn from the first (1999-2001 and second (2003-2006 waves of a general population survey. Analyses involved multivariate logistic regression. Results At follow-up, prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt had decreased (8.2%-6.1%, and 0.8%-0.5%, respectively. However, over one quarter of those reporting serious suicidality at baseline still experienced it four years later. Females aged 20-29 never married or diagnosed with a physical illness at follow-up were at greater risk of serious suicidality (OR = 4.17, 95% CI = 3.11-5.23; OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 2.09-4.26, respectively. Males aged 40-49 not in the labour force had increased odds of serious suicidality (OR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.6-6.48 compared to their equivalently-aged and employed counterparts. Depressed/anxious females aged 60-69 were nearly 30% more likely to be seriously suicidal. Conclusions There are age and gender differentials in the risk factors for suicidality. Life-circumstances contribute substantially to the onset of serious suicidality, in addition to symptoms of depression and anxiety. These findings are particularly pertinent to the development of effective population-based suicide prevention strategies.

  18. Studies on biological macromolecules by neutron inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Satoru; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering techniques, including quasielastic and elastic incoherent neutron scattering, provide unique tools to directly measure the protein dynamics at a picosecond time scale. Since the protein dynamics at this time scale is indispensable to the protein functions, elucidation of the protein dynamics is indispensable for ultimate understanding of the protein functions. There are two complementary directions of the protein dynamics studies: one is to explore the physical basis of the protein dynamics using 'model' proteins, and the other is more biology-oriented. Examples of the studies on the protein dynamics with neutron inelastic scattering are described. The examples of the studies in the former direction include the studies on the dynamical transitions of the proteins, the relationship between the protein dynamics and the hydration water dynamics, and combined analysis of the protein dynamics with molecular dynamics simulation. The examples of the studies in the latter direction include the elastic incoherent and quasielastic neutrons scattering studies of actin. Future prospects of the studies on the protein dynamics with neutron scattering are briefly described. (author)

  19. Determination of trace metal baseline values in Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira sp., and other marine environmental biomonitors: a quality control method for a study in South Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mecozzi, Mauro; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves and in the brown algae Cystoseira sp. sampled along a 280-km transect in the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the Ustica to Linosa Islands (Sicily, Italy) with the aim to determine their control charts (baseline levels). By applying the Johnson's (Biometrika 36:149-175, 1949) probabilistic method, we determined the metal concentration overlap ranges in a group of five biomonitors. Here, we propose the use of the indexes of bioaccumulation with respect to the lowest (L'i) and the highest (L i) extreme values of the overlap metal concentration ranges. These indexes allow the identification of the most opportune organism (or a suite of them) to better managing particular environmental conditions. Posidonia leaves have generally high L i indexes for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and this suggests its use as biomonitor for baseline marine areas. Our results confirm the high aptitude of Patella as a good biomonitor for Cd levels in seawater. From this study, Ustica resulted with higher levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the other Sicilian Islands.

  20. The use of autecological and environmental parameters for establishing the status of lichen vegetation in a baseline study for a long-term monitoring survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, S.; Asta, J.; Seaward, M.R.D.

    2005-01-01

    In 1997 the ecological characteristics of the epiphytic species (83 lichens and two algae) of an urban area (Grenoble, France) were determined. Seven autecological indices were used to characterize the lichen ecology: illumination index, humidity index, pH of bark, nutrient status of substratum, ecological index of IAP and frequency. Six clusters (A1-A6) were defined using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Seven environmental parameters characterizing the stations and the lichen releves were also used: elevation, parameters of artificiality (urbanization, traffic and local land use), IAP, and the percentage of nitrophytic and acidophytic species. Six clusters (B1-B6) were defined using cluster analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Four clusters (C1-C4) were finally defined using an empirical integrated method combining the autecological and environmental parameters. This final clustering which established the status of the lichen vegetation in 1997 can be reliably used as a baseline study to effectively monitor environmental changes in this urban area. - Ecological clustering which establishes the status of lichen vegetation can be reliably used as a baseline study to monitor environmental changes

  1. The use of autecological and environmental parameters for establishing the status of lichen vegetation in a baseline study for a long-term monitoring survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, S. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement RDDM, USM 505 Case 39, 57 rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris (France)]. E-mail: sgombert@mnhn.fr; Asta, J. [Laboratoire d' Ecologie Alpine, UMR 5553, Equipe Perturbations Environnementales et Xenobiotiques, Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)]. E-mail: juliette.asta@ujf-grenoble.fr; Seaward, M.R.D. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.r.d.seaward@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-06-15

    In 1997 the ecological characteristics of the epiphytic species (83 lichens and two algae) of an urban area (Grenoble, France) were determined. Seven autecological indices were used to characterize the lichen ecology: illumination index, humidity index, pH of bark, nutrient status of substratum, ecological index of IAP and frequency. Six clusters (A1-A6) were defined using cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Seven environmental parameters characterizing the stations and the lichen releves were also used: elevation, parameters of artificiality (urbanization, traffic and local land use), IAP, and the percentage of nitrophytic and acidophytic species. Six clusters (B1-B6) were defined using cluster analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Four clusters (C1-C4) were finally defined using an empirical integrated method combining the autecological and environmental parameters. This final clustering which established the status of the lichen vegetation in 1997 can be reliably used as a baseline study to effectively monitor environmental changes in this urban area. - Ecological clustering which establishes the status of lichen vegetation can be reliably used as a baseline study to monitor environmental changes.

  2. Visual Literacy in Preservice Teachers: a Case Study in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gallardo, José Reyes; García Fernández, Beatriz; Mateos Jiménez, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we explore the competence of preservice teachers (n = 161) in labelling and creating new cross-sectional human diagrams, based on anatomy knowledge depicted in longitudinal sections. Using educational standards to assess visual literacy and ad hoc open questions, results indicate limited skills for both tasks. However, their competence is particularly poor creating diagrams, where shortcomings were observed not only in visual literacy but in content knowledge. We discuss the misconceptions detected during these assessments. Visual literacy training should be strengthened for these students, as it is a skill that is especially important for future teachers to use in learning, assessing, and reflecting on content in science education. This is particularly important in preservice teachers since they should be fluent in the use of visual teaching tools in teaching anatomy and other content in the biology curriculum.

  3. Biochemical studies on certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel kader, S.M.; El Sayed, M.M.; El Malt, E.A.; Shaker, E.S.; Abdel Aziz, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain biologically active nitrogenous compounds such as alkaloids are widely distributed in many wild and medicinal plants such as peganum harmala L. (Phycophyllaceae). However, less literature cited on the natural compounds was extracted from the aerial parts of this plant; therefore this study was conducted on harmal leaves using several solvents. Data indicated that methanol extract was the inhibitoriest effect against some pathogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pyogenus. Chromatographic separation illustrated that presence of four compounds; the most active one was the third compound (3). Elementary analysis (C, H, N) revealed that the primary chemical structure of the active antibacterial compound (C3) was: C17 H21 N3 O7 S with molecular weight 411. Spectroscopic analysis proved that coninical structure was = 1- thioformyl, 8?- D glucoperanoside- Bis- 2, 3 dihydroisopyridino pyrrol. This new compound is represented as a noval ?- carboline alkaloid compound

  4. Study on Flowering Biology of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADE SRI PRANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An observation on flowering behaviour of 20 selected taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott. cultivars was conducted at the Germ Plasm Conservation Garden belonging to the Reserch Centre for Biotechnology of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong, Bogor Regency. The observation included the emergence of inflorescences, the number of inflorescences in a cluster, the opening of the inflorescence, maturity of pistilate and staminate flowers, and pollinating agents that might play role in the pollination process. The study was aimed at elucidating some baseline information that might be used as a base to carry out breeding programme for future cultivar improvement. The study indicated that the 20 cultivar studied may be divided into 3 cultivar groups, namely a Cultivars which fully did not appear to flower during the periode of obeservation, which includes Lampung, Enau, Siriwa, Ketan and Bentul biru, b Cultivars that produced only a few (not more than 3 inflorescences per cluster or per individul plant. This includes cultivars : Bogor, Bentul, Kaliurang and Ketan hitam and c Cultivars that were profusedly flowering (produced a lot of inflorescences, usually 4-5 inflorescences per cluster and several clusters in an individual plant. This includes cultivars : Sutera, Semir, Lampung hitam, Boring, Burkok, Berod, Lampung hitam, Lompong, Ketune dan Kudo. The cultivar Sutera produced flower quite readily, followed by Burkok. Apart from the few inflorescences it produced, the cultivar Kaliurang also produced rather abnormal shape of inflorescence with only a few pollen grains. Taro flowers proved to be protogenic since the atipulate flowers have become receptive 1-2 days prior to anther dehiscence. Pollination was due to the role of (Dacus dorsalis.

  5. Toward evidence-based diagnosis of myocarditis in children and adolescents: Rationale, design, and first baseline data of MYKKE, a multicenter registry and study platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messroghli, Daniel R; Pickardt, Thomas; Fischer, Marcus; Opgen-Rhein, Bernd; Papakostas, Konstantin; Böcker, Dorothée; Jakob, André; Khalil, Markus; Mueller, Goetz C; Schmidt, Florian; Kaestner, Michael; Udink Ten Cate, Floris E A; Wagner, Robert; Ruf, Bettina; Kiski, Daniela; Wiegand, Gesa; Degener, Franziska; Bauer, Ulrike M M; Friede, Tim; Schubert, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this registry is to provide data on age-related clinical features of suspected myocarditis and to create a study platform allowing for deriving diagnostic criteria and, at a later stage, testing therapeutic interventions in patients with myocarditis. After an initial 6-month pilot phase, MYKKE was opened in June 2014 as a prospective multicenter registry for patients from pediatric heart centers, university hospitals, and community hospitals with pediatric cardiology wards in Germany. Inclusion criteria consisted of ageleading diagnosis at the discretion of the treating physician. By December 31, 2015, fifteen centers across Germany were actively participating and had enrolled 149 patients. Baseline data reveal 2 age peaks (12 years), show higher proportions of males, and document a high prevalence of severe disease courses in pediatric patients with suspected myocarditis. Severe clinical courses and early adverse events were more prevalent in younger patients and were related to severely impaired leftventricular ejection fraction at initial presentation. MYKKE represents a multicenter registry and research platform for children and adolescents with suspected myocarditis that achieve steady recruitment and generate a wide range of real-world data on clinical course, diagnostic workup, and treatment of this group of patients. The baseline data reveal the presence of 2 age peaks and provide important insights into the severity of disease in children with suspected myocarditis. In the future, MYKKE might facilitate interventional substudies by providing an established collaborating network using common diagnostic approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular biological study on genetic stability of the genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tada-aki; Takahashi, Ei-ichi; Tsuji, Hideo; Tsuji, Satsuki

    1989-01-01

    A population cytogenetic study has been performed in 1022 healthy subjects and 547 cancer patients to determine baseline frequencies of autosomal rate fragile sites. Out of 17 rare autosomal fragile sites defined in HBM9 (1985), the following six were detected: fra(2)(q11), fra(10)(q25), fra(11)(q13), fra(11)(q23), fra(16)(q22) and fra(17)(q12). Other three new fragile sites were also detected: fra(8)(q24.1), fra(11)(q15.1) and fra(16)(p12.1). They were all distamycin A-inducible and located at the junctions of G/R-bands. The incidence of these autosomal fragile sites was 5% in both healthy subjects and cancer patients. Distamycin A-induced fragile sites may play a role in the etiology of leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders, and gynecological tumors. The present study also examined the mechanism of fragile X expression associated with fragile X syndrome in thymidine-prototrophic and auxotrophic human-mouse somatic cell hybrids. In these hybrid cells, both low and high thymidylate stresses were found to be effective in inducing fragile X expression, even in a hybrid clone that retained a fragile X chromosome as the only human chromosome. An addition of deoxycytidine completely abolished the effect of high thymidylate stress achieved by excess amounts of thymidine. It is concluded that the expression is an intrinsic property of the fragile X mutation resulting from chromosomal change in a special class of replicons with polypurine/polypyrimidine DNA sequence. (Namekawa, K)

  7. A case study of two exemplary biology teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treagust, David F.

    Research has indicated that most science classrooms are not intellectually demanding and place little emphasis on small group discussions and laboratory activities. However, successful science programs and competent science teaching that can provide models for other science teachers do exist. This study sought to document the teaching practices of two exemplary biology teachers of grades 11 and 12 by means of an interpretive research methodology. Both teachers had a thorough and comprehensive knowledge of the content they were to teach and had a range of teaching strategies that could be used without a great deal of thought. Their expectations for student performance were high, consistent, and firm. Students were expected to complete a high level of academic work in discussions, in problem work, and in laboratory activities, and were encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning. A distinctive feature of these biology classes was the high level of managerial efficiency, where lessons were busy occasions for both teacher and students; students had little opportunity for off-task behavior. Both teachers actively monitored the behavior of both high- and low-ability students by moving around the room and speaking with individuals, while still maintaining control of the entire class. By manipulating questioning and the social environment, both teachers encouraged students to engage in work, gave effective praise to the whole class and to individuals, encouraged student input by referring to it, helped students to effectively use their time, and gave marks for completion of set work. Compared to research with less-successful teachers, these teaching behaviors contributed to exemplary practice.

  8. Teriparatide use during an economic crisis: baseline data from the Greek cohort of the Extended Forsteo Observational Study (ExFOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloumanis, Kyriakos; Kapetanos, George; Bartzis, Nikolaos; Drossinos, Vangelis

    2015-06-05

    The Extended Forsteo Observational Study (ExFOS) is a multinational, non-interventional, prospective, observational study that aims to provide real-life data on patients with osteoporosis treated with teriparatide for up to 24 months. It includes the new indications of osteoporosis in men and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP). We describe the Greek subpopulation enrolled in this study and compare it with a similar cohort from the previous European Forsteo Observational Study (EFOS). Baseline data were collected from the Greek cohort of ExFOS. Data included demographic characteristics, medical and osteoporosis history, disease status, prior use of medications, back pain and quality of life. Baseline data for 439 patients, enrolled at 31 sites, indicated the majority of patients were females (92.3%), elderly [mean (standard deviation; SD) age 70.1 (9.8) years] and slightly overweight [mean (SD) body mass index 26.7 (4.3) kg/m(2)], with very low bone mineral density (mean T-score history of fracture was recorded in 53.8% of female patients in ExFOS versus 74.5% in EFOS. Greek patients prescribed teriparatide in ExFOS had severe osteoporosis with a high risk of fractures and back pain. Female patients shared similarities with EFOS counterparts, reflecting a constant prescribing profile for use of teriparatide, although a noticeable difference in fracture history between the two study cohorts may indicate a change towards prescribing in less severely affected patients. The economic crisis in Greece did not appear to affect patient enrolment. Data are interpreted in the context of an observational setting.

  9. Summary of diamino pyrazoles derived and study their biological activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagui, Marwa

    2016-01-01

    The work involves the synthesis of new heterocyclic structures diamino pyrazoles derivatives that are present in many natural products and products of pharmacological and therapeutic interests and study their biological activities. In order to develop a radiotracer interest and use in diagnostic nuclear medicine, we are interested to synthesis a pyrazole derivative with the precursor [Re(CO)5Br] and studying the antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3.5-diamino pyrazole and even thioamide complex rhenium. The objectives of our workout: 1/ Synthesis of molecules 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide. 2/ Synthesis of 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium complex. 3/ The in vitro study: Bacteriological Tests (Study of antibacterial and antifungal activity of 3,5-diamino pyrazole and thioamide). The first part of this work concerns the chemical synthesis of molecules such as: thioamide, Amp z1 Ampz2 and then we had synthesized the complex 3,5-diamino pyrazole-rhenium. Similarly we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the compounds synthesized by CLHP, CCM and RMN ( 1 H, 13 C). The second part is devoted to the study in vitro of biological activities of the synthesized molecules and complex 3,5 diaminopyrazole-rhenium with concentration 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL. The results allow us to say that the thioamide and Ampz2 have antibacterial activity against S. enterica and Ampz2 has low activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginossa. Other pyrazole derivatives have no significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results also show that the synthesized compounds of concentration 2 mg/mL in relation to the inhibition zones of amoxicillin and DMSO: 1/ Escherichia coli, there is antibacterial activity for thioamide, and the Amp z1-Re Ampz2 compound. 2/ Staphylococcus aureus, the complex Ampz 1-Re and the thioamide have significant antibacterial activity. 3/ Salmonella, we observe that the thioamide molecules, Ampz2 and Amp z1-Re have significant antibacterial activity

  10. Comparison of Infliximab and Adalimumab in Biologic-Naive Patients With Ulcerative Colitis: A Nationwide Danish Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Siddharth; Nyboe Andersen, Nynne; Andersson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We compared the effectiveness and safety of infliximab and adalimumab in biologic-naïve patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), in a nationwide register-based propensity score-matched study of patients in Denmark. METHODS: We collected data from 1719 adults with UC, 15-75 years...... old, in Denmark who were treated with either infliximab or adalimumab as their first biologic agent. We compared rates of all-cause hospitalization, UC-related hospitalization, major abdominal surgery, and serious infections after a variable 2:1 propensity score matching, accounting for baseline...... clinical characteristics, disease severity, healthcare use, and use of UC-related medications. RESULTS: Compared to patients treated with infliximab, patients treated with adalimumab had a higher risk for all-cause hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR], 1.84; 95% CI, 1.18-2.85), with a trend towards higher...

  11. Physico-chemical characterization and biological studies of newly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANJOY SAHA

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... of applications including biological, medicinal analyt- ical in addition to their vital role in organic synthesis and catalysis.22–26 We reported in previous articles the synthesis, characterization and biological influence of. Cu(II), Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes of analogous ionic liquid-supported Schiff bases.27 ...

  12. 2017 Annual Technology Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [Formerly NREL; O' Connor, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-03-26

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory annually provides an organized and centralized set of such cost and performance data. The ATB uses the best information from the Department of Energy national laboratories' renewable energy analysts as well as information from the Energy Information Administration for fuel-based technologies. The ATB has been reviewed by experts and it includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind, offshore wind, utility-scale solar photovoltaics (PV), commercial-scale solar PV, residential-scale solar PV, concentrating solar power, geothermal power, hydropower, coal, natural gas, nuclear, and conventional biopower. This webinar presentation introduces the 2017 ATB.

  13. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" longitudinal survey - Protocol and baseline data for a prospective cohort study of Australian doctors' workforce participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witt Julia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is considerable research on medical workforce supply trends, there is little research examining the determinants of labour supply decisions for the medical workforce. The "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL" study investigates workforce participation patterns and their determinants using a longitudinal survey of Australian doctors. It aims to generate evidence to support developing effective policy responses to workforce issues such as shortages and maldistribution. This paper describes the study protocol and baseline cohort, including an analysis of response rates and response bias. Methods/Design MABEL is a prospective cohort study. All Australian doctors undertaking clinical work in 2008 (n = 54,750 were invited to participate, and annual waves of data collections will be undertaken until at least 2011. Data are collected by paper or optional online version of a questionnaire, with content tailored to four sub-groups of clinicians: general practitioners, specialists, specialists in training, and hospital non-specialists. In the baseline wave, data were collected on: job satisfaction, attitudes to work and intentions to quit or change hours worked; a discrete choice experiment examining preferences and trade-offs for different types of jobs; work setting; workload; finances; geographic location; demographics; and family circumstances. Discussion The baseline cohort includes 10,498 Australian doctors, representing an overall response rate of 19.36%. This includes 3,906 general practitioners, 4,596 specialists, 1,072 specialists in training, and 924 hospital non-specialists. Respondents were more likely to be younger, female, and to come from non-metropolitan areas, the latter partly reflecting the effect of a financial incentive on response for doctors in remote and rural areas. Specialists and specialists in training were more likely to respond, whilst hospital non-specialists were less

  14. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okely Anthony D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an

  15. The baseline and longitudinal changes of PCC connectivity in mild cognitive impairment: a combined structure and resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqun; Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Jin, Guangwei; Song, Haiqing; Han, Ying; Lu, Jie; Li, Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    The baseline and longitudinal changes of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) connectivity were assessed in order to clarify the neural mechanism of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twenty-eight right-handed subjects (14 MCI patients and 14 healthy elders) participated in this study. Clinical and neuropsychological examinations were performed on all the subjects. PCC functional connectivity was studied by examining the correlation between low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in the PCC and those in all the other brain regions. Additionally, we traced all the MCI patients and compared their PCC connectivity in the initial stage and that in 3 years later. We also explored the relationship between the PCC functional connectivity strength and cognitive performances. Our results are as follows: Functional connectivity between the PCC and a set of regions is decreased in MCI patients. Most of these regions are within the default mode network (DMN). Three years later, the regions of superior frontal gyrus (SFG) and middle frontal gyrus (MFG) presented further decreased connectivity to the PCC in MCI. In addition, we also find enhanced functional connectivity between PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), PCC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in MCI patients. At last, our research also shows that the PCC connectivity with some regions significantly correlates with the cognitive performances of patients as measured by mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and California verbal learning test (CVLT) scores. The baseline and longitudinal changes of the PCC connectivity in our study suggest that impairment and compensation coexist in the disease progress of MCI patients.

  16. Visual impairment at baseline is associated with future poor physical functioning among middle-aged women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, Michigan Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Navasuja; Harlow, Sioban; Moroi, Sayoko; Musch, David; Peng, Qing; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the prevalence rates of poor functioning and of disability are increasing among middle-aged individuals. Visual impairment is associated with poor functioning among older adults but little is known about the impact of vision on functioning during midlife. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of visual impairment on future physical functioning among middle-aged women. In this longitudinal study, the sample consisted of 483 women aged 42 to 56 years, from the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. At baseline, distance and near vision were measured using a Titmus vision screener. Visual impairment was defined as visual acuity worse than 20/40. Physical functioning was measured up to 10 years later using performance-based measures, including a 40-foot timed walk, timed stair climb and forward reach. Women with impaired distance vision at baseline had 2.81 centimeters less forward reach distance (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.19, -1.42) and 4.26s longer stair climb time (95% CI: 2.73, 5.79) at follow-up than women without impaired distance vision. Women with impaired near vision also had less forward reach distance (2.26 centimeters, 95% CI: -3.30, -1.21) than those without impaired near vision. Among middle-aged women, visual impairment is a marker of poor physical functioning. Routine eye testing and vision correction may help improve physical functioning among midlife individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ferrara, Napoleone, E-mail: nf@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  18. Molecular toolbox for studying diatom biology in Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaut, Magali; Heijde, Marc; Mangogna, Manuela; Montsant, Anton; Coesel, Sacha; Allen, Andrew; Manfredonia, Alessandro; Falciatore, Angela; Bowler, Chris

    2007-12-30

    Research into diatom biology has now entered the post-genomics era, following the recent completion of the Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum whole genome sequences and the establishment of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) databases. The thorough exploitation of these resources will require the development of molecular tools to analyze and modulate the function of diatom genes in vivo. Towards this objective, we report here the identification of several reference genes that can be used as internal standards for gene expression studies by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in P. tricornutum cells grown over a diel cycle. In addition, we describe a series of diatom expression vectors based on Invitrogen Gateway technology for high-throughput protein tagging and overexpression studies in P. tricornutum. We demonstrate the utility of the diatom Destination vectors for determining the subcellular localization of a protein of interest and for immunodetection. The availability of these new resources significantly enriches the molecular toolbox for P. tricornutum and provides the diatom research community with well defined high-throughput methods for the analysis of diatom genes and proteins in vivo.

  19. [ISCHEMIA - the Largest Ever R andomized Study in Stable Coronary Artery Disease. Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Patients in One Russian Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayganov, S A; Bershteyn, L L; Andreeva, A E; Katamadze, N O; Zbyshevskaya, E V; Kuzmina-Krutetskaya, A M; Volkov, A V; Gumerova, V E; Bitakova, F I

    2017-10-01

    Indications for coronary revascularization in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), presented in the current international guidelines are largely based on the clinical trials conducted sometimes more than 30 years ago. ISCHEMIA is the major multicenter international randomized trial intended to answer the question about the optimal treatment strategy in stable coronary artery disease at the present time. To analyze the most important baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the ISCHEMIA study in one Russian site. The principal inclusion criteria are a positive stress test (in our center, exercise stress echocardiography) of at least moderate risk and obstructive coronary heart disease confirmed by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Main exclusion criteria are a significant stenosis of the left main coronary artery by CCTA, clinical progression/destabilization of the ischemic heart disease, angina of IV CCS class, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) 80% - beta blockers, >80% - ACE inhibitors/ARBs. They are at well controlled resting heart rate (.

  20. Ten-year prediction of osteoporosis from baseline bone mineral density: development of prognostic thresholds in healthy postmenopausal women. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rejnmark, Lars; Nielsen, Stig Pors

    2006-01-01

    Osteopenia is common in healthy women examined in the first year or two following menopause. Short-term fracture risk is low, but we lack algorithms to assess long-term risk of osteoporosis. Because bone loss proceeds at only a few percent per year, we speculated that baseline bone mineral density...... (BMD) would predict a large proportion of 10-year BMD and be useful for deriving predictive thresholds. We aimed to identify prognostic thresholds associated with less than 10% risk of osteoporosis by 10 years in the individual participant, in order to allow rational osteodensitometry and intervention....... We analyzed dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) from 872 women, who participated in the non-HRT arms of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study and had remained on no HRT, bisphosphonates or raloxifene since inclusion 10 years ago. We defined...

  1. Ten-year prediction of osteoporosis from baseline bone mineral density: development of prognostic thresholds in healthy postmenopausal women. The Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Rejnmark, Lars; Nielsen, Stig Pors

    2006-01-01

    Osteopenia is common in healthy women examined in the first year or two following menopause. Short-term fracture risk is low, but we lack algorithms to assess long-term risk of osteoporosis. Because bone loss proceeds at only a few percent per year, we speculated that baseline bone mineral density....... We analyzed dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) from 872 women, who participated in the non-HRT arms of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study and had remained on no HRT, bisphosphonates or raloxifene since inclusion 10 years ago. We defined...... (BMD) would predict a large proportion of 10-year BMD and be useful for deriving predictive thresholds. We aimed to identify prognostic thresholds associated with less than 10% risk of osteoporosis by 10 years in the individual participant, in order to allow rational osteodensitometry and intervention...

  2. Xenografted tissue models for the study of human endometrial biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Satu; Zhu, Liyin; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    The human endometrium undergoes extensive morphological, biochemical and molecular changes under the influence of female sex steroid hormones. Besides the fact that estrogen stimulates endometrial cell proliferation and progesterone inhibits this proliferation and induces differentiation, there is limited knowledge about precise molecular mechanisms underlying human endometrial biology. The importance of paracrine signaling in endometrial physiology explains why in vitro culture of endometrial cells has been challenging. Researchers, therefore, have developed alternative experimental in vivo models for the study of endometrial biology. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent developments and work on these in vivo endometrial research models. The in vivo recombinant tissue models in which wild-type endometrial cells are combined with endometrial cells from a gene-targeted mouse strain followed by xenografting to host mice have been critical in confirming the significance of paracrine signaling between the epithelium and stroma in the growth regulation of the endometrium. Additionally, these studies have uncovered differences between the mouse and human, emphasizing the need for the development of experimental models specifically of the human endometrium. Recently, xenotransplants of human endometrial fragments into the subcutaneous space of host mice and endometrial xenografts of dissociated and recombined epithelial and stromal cells beneath the kidney capsule of immunodeficient host mice have proven to be highly promising tools for in vivo research of endometrial functions. For the first time, the latter approach provides an immense opportunity for the application of genome engineering, such as targeted ablation of endometrial genes for example by using CRISPR/CAS9 system. This research will begin to elucidate the functional role of specific genes in this complex tissue. Another advantage of xenotransplantation and xenograft models of the human

  3. Synthesis of potentially bioactive compounds and tools for biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, F.

    2014-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is one of the most versatile tools for studying structural parameters of organic and bioorganic compounds. It became a highly suitable method to achieve spectra simplification of macromolecules in combination with isotope labeling techniques. This technique is used to study protein structures, folding properties and mechanisms of chemical and biochemical reactions. Proteins typically feature a high molecular mass showing a high number of spin systems, being responsible for increasingly difficult to interpret NMR spectra, which is why it is essential to introduce 13 C- and 15 N- isotopes to obtain reasonable signal intensities. The development of a new synthetic route towards 13 C-isotope labeled Phenylalanine or precursors thereof, starting from inexpensive and easily accessible labeled starting materials, is the main purpose of this work. Label sources such as [ 13 C]-acetic acid, [ 13 C]-formaldehyde, [ 13 C]-allyl alcohol and [ 13 C]-glycine will be used. The synthetic pathway will be carried out in a way where the position-selective incorporation of labeled isotopes can be performed. This important feature of the synthesis may open access towards newly designed NMR-experiments. Key steps for the tested route are ring closing metatheses as well as indium mediated reactions. The second part of this work focuses on the field of sugar chemistry, in particular on the family of deoxy sugars, components of many natural products, found in different plants, fungi and bacteria. Deoxy sugars also participate in a wide range of biological processes. Special focus is given to 3-deoxy sugars and the research of a versatile and flexible synthetic route for their preparation starting from the easily accessible D-glyceraldehyde. These sugars are found on Gram-negative bacteria where they are a key component of the lipopolysaccharides, or where they can take place in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in bacteria and plants. Being able to perform this

  4. The ICTUS Study: A Prospective longitudinal observational study of 1,380 AD patients in Europe. Study design and baseline characteristics of the cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynish, E.; Cortes, F.; Andrieu, S.; Cantet, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Melis, R.J.F.; Froelich, L.; Frisoni, G.B.; Jonsson, L.; Visser, P.J.; Ousset, P.J.; Vellas, B.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term objective of the ICTUS study is to identify milestones in Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression and to develop a model to predict disease course in individual AD patients in Europe. The secondary objectives are to describe the patterns of prescribing, and the socioeconomic impact of AD

  5. Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study-Renal (CANVAS-R): A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Bruce; Perkovic, Vlado; Matthews, David R; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Fulcher, Greg; Meininger, Gary; Erondu, Ngozi; Desai, Mehul; Shaw, Wayne; Vercruysse, Frank; Yee, Jacqueline; Deng, Hsiaowei; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2017-03-01

    The primary aim of the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study-Renal (CANVAS-R) is to determine whether the favourable effects of inhibition of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) on blood glucose, blood pressure and body weight are accompanied by protection against adverse renal outcomes. CANVAS-R is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with type 2 diabetes with a history or high risk of cardiovascular events. Patients were randomly assigned to once-daily placebo or canagliflozin 100 mg (with optional uptitration to 300 mg) for a planned average of 2.5 years of follow-up. The primary outcome is kidney disease progression, defined by class change in albuminuria. The two secondary outcomes are the composite of hospitalized heart failure or cardiovascular death, and cardiovascular death alone. Effects on end-stage renal disease and a range of other outcomes will also be explored. A total of 5812 participants were recruited at 422 sites in 24 countries between January 2014 and May 2015. The mean baseline age was 64 years, mean duration of diabetes was 14 years, mean glycated haemoglobin level was 8.3% and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m 2 . Of these participants, 37% were women, 71% had a history of cardiovascular disease, 22.3% had microalbuminuria and 8.7% had macroalbuminuria. The mean baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 76 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The study will have at least 90% power ( P = .05) to detect a 22% or greater reduction in the risk of progression of albuminuria. The trial should define the potential renoprotective effect of canagliflozin and will provide additional important new data about its effects on vascular outcomes, death and kidney failure. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Predicting Cognitive, Functional, and Diagnostic Change over 4 Years Using Baseline Subjective Cognitive Complaints in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Melissa J; Sachdev, Perminder S; Kochan, Nicole A; Woolf, Claudia; Crawford, John D; Giskes, Katrina; Reppermund, Simone; Trollor, Julian N; Draper, Brian; Delbaere, Kim; Brodaty, Henry

    2015-09-01

    There is limited understanding of the usefulness of subjective cognitive complaint(s) (SCC) in predicting longitudinal outcome because most studies focus solely on memory (as opposed to nonmemory cognitive) complaints, do not collect data from both participants and informants, do not control for relevant covariates, and have limited outcome measures. Therefore the authors investigate the usefulness of participant and informant SCCs in predicting change in cognition, functional abilities, and diagnostic classification of mild cognitive impairment or dementia in a community-dwelling sample over 4 years. Nondemented participants (N = 620) in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study aged between 70 and 90 years completed 15 memory and 9 nonmemory SCC questions. An informant completed a baseline questionnaire that included 15 memory and 4 nonmemory SCC questions relating to the participant. Neuropsychological, functional, and diagnostic assessments were carried out at baseline and again at 4-year follow-up. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were carried out to determine the association between SCC indices and neuropsychological, functional, and diagnostic data while controlling for psychological measures. Once participant characteristics were controlled for, participant complaints were generally not predictive of cognitive or functional decline, although participant memory-specific complaints were predictive of diagnostic conversion. Informant-related memory questions were associated with global cognitive and functional decline and with diagnostic conversion over 4 years. Informant memory complaint questions were better than participant complaints in predicting cognitive and functional decline as well as diagnoses over 4 years. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Systems biology approaches to the study of cardiovascular drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolsky, Y.; Kleemann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Atherogenic lipids and chronic inflammation drive the development of cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. Many cardiovascular drugs target the liver which is involved in the formation of lipid and inflammatory risk factors. With robust systems biology tools and comprehensive

  8. The Implementation of Research-based Learning on Biology Seminar Course in Biology Education Study Program of FKIP UMRAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, T.

    2018-04-01

    Biology Seminar is a course in Biology Education Study Program of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of Maritim Raja Ali Haji (FKIP UMRAH) that requires students to have the ability to apply scientific attitudes, perform scientific writing and undertake scientific publications on a small scale. One of the learning strategies that can drive the achievement of learning outcomes in this course is Research-Based Learning. Research-Based Learning principles are considered in accordance with learning outcomes in Biology Seminar courses and generally in accordance with the purpose of higher education. On this basis, this article which is derived from a qualitative research aims at describing Research-based Learning on Biology Seminar course. Based on a case study research, it was known that Research-Based Learning on Biology Seminar courses is applied through: designing learning activities around contemporary research issues; teaching research methods, techniques and skills explicitly within program; drawing on personal research in designing and teaching courses; building small-scale research activities into undergraduate assignment; and infusing teaching with the values of researchers.

  9. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  10. Single-Molecule Study of Proteins by Biological Nanopore Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongmei; Bi, Sheng; Zhang, Liyu; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Nanopore technology has been developed for detecting properties of proteins through monitoring of ionic current modulations as protein passes via a nanosize pore. As a real-time, sensitive, selective and stable technology, biological nanopores are of widespread concern. Here, we introduce the background of nanopore researches in the area of α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopores in protein conformation detections and protein–ligand interactions. Moreover, several original biological nanopores are also introduced with various features and functions. PMID:25268917

  11. Single-Molecule Study of Proteins by Biological Nanopore Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanopore technology has been developed for detecting properties of proteins through monitoring of ionic current modulations as protein passes via a nanosize pore. As a real-time, sensitive, selective and stable technology, biological nanopores are of widespread concern. Here, we introduce the background of nanopore researches in the area of α-hemolysin (α-HL nanopores in protein conformation detections and protein–ligand interactions. Moreover, several original biological nanopores are also introduced with various features and functions.

  12. A systems biology approach to study systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammation needs a precise control on the sequence and magnitude of occurring events. The high throughput data on the host-pathogen interactions gives us an opportunity to have a glimpse on the systemic inflammation. In this article, a dynamic Candida albicans-zebrafish interactive infectious network is built as an example to demonstrate how systems biology approach can be used to study systematic inflammation. In particular, based on microarray data of C. albicans and zebrafish during infection, the hyphal growth, zebrafish, and host-pathogen intercellular PPI networks were combined to form an integrated infectious PPI network that helps us understand the systematic mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of C. albicans and the immune response of the host. The signaling pathways for morphogenesis and hyphal growth of C. albicans were 2 significant interactions found in the intercellular PPI network. Two cellular networks were also developed corresponding to the different infection stages (adhesion and invasion), and then compared with each other to identify proteins to gain more insight into the pathogenic role of hyphal development in the C. albicans infection process. Important defense-related proteins in zebrafish were predicted using the same approach. This integrated network consisting of intercellular invasion and cellular defense processes during infection can improve medical therapies and facilitate development of new antifungal drugs.

  13. Studies on the biological behaviour of gallium-67 citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sephton, R.G.; Harris, A.

    1975-01-01

    Gallium-67 citrate, though not a universal tumour seeker, has nevertheless a remarkable, unexplained affinity in vivo for some malignant deposits. Its value as a clinical tracer would be enhanced by a clearer understanding of its biological significance. This paper describes studies using gallium-67 in experimental animals and in cell cultures. Mice bearing various transplanted solid tumours (mostly lymphomas and myelomas) have been examined for gallium-67 concentrations in tumour, other soft tissues and bone. Subcellular fractionation confirms intracellular tracer in lysosomes, for gallium-avid and neutral tumours and for liver but, to judge from acid phosphatase burdens of these tissues, gallium-67 uptake may not bear simple correlation with lysosomal activity. Gallium-67 distributions differ between juvenile and mature animals and, in either case, changes favouring soft tissue uptake over bone can occur even within days of tumour inoculation. Mice reacting to allogeneic spleen cell injections (GVH) also show increased soft tissue retention of tracer. Tumour cells exposed in culture to gallium-67 show an increasing uptake with time, reaching 5-10 times the specific activity of the culture medium within 48 hours. For several lines at least, a low (approximately 1%) concentration in the medium of mouse and even human serum can strikingly increase gallium-67 uptake by the cells. Subcellular fractionation shows again a lysosomal spectrum for both stimulated and unstimulated cell-bound gallium. (author)

  14. Studies on the reproductive biology of downy brome (Bromus tectorum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of downy brome to successfully infest crop lands is partially due to its prolific nature. To better understand its reproductive biology, studies investigating (1) effects of temperature and photoperiod on flowering, (2) prevention of downy brome seed information with herbicides, and (3) effects of drought on reproduction, were conducted. Seedling vernalization was more effective than seed vernalization in promoting downy brome flowering. Vernalizing imbibed downy brome caryopses at 3 C for 0 to 30 days did not induce rapid flowering. Downy brome seedlings were exposed to six photoperiod/temperature treatments. After transfer to long days, plants from the short da/3 C treatment flowered within 30 days. DPX-Y6202 and fluazifop-butyl were tested for their ability to prevent seed formation in downy brome. Fluazifop-butyl prevented seed formation over a wider range of application rates and growth stages than did DPX-Y6202. Seed production was prevented most readily by herbicide applications made early in the reproductive cycle. Translocation of radiolabel was greater with 14 C-fluazifop-butyl than with 14 C-DPX-Y6202, particularly into developing spikelets. Microautoradiographic techniques were used to identify mechanisms involved in the prevention of downy brome seed formation by these herbicides. Tissue localization of both herbicides was similar. The highest concentration of radiolabel was found in developing pollen grains, suggesting that the herbicides prevented seed formation by interrupting pollen development or function. Water stress reduced apparent photosynthesis and increased diffusive resistance of flag leaves

  15. Biological Properties of Tocotrienols: Evidence in Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puvaneswari Meganathan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E has been recognized as an essential vitamin since their discovery in 1922. Although the functions of tocopherols are well established, tocotrienols have been the unsung heroes of vitamin E. Due to their structural differences, tocotrienols were reported to exert distinctive properties compared to tocopherols. While most vegetable oils contain higher amount of tocopherols, tocotrienols were found abundantly in palm oil. Nature has made palm vitamin E to contain up to 70% of total tocotrienols, among which alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienols are the major constituents. Recent advancements have shown their biological properties in conferring protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress and immune regulation. Preclinical results of these physiological functions were translated into clinical trials gaining global attention. This review will discuss in detail the evidence in human studies to date in terms of efficacy, population, disease state and bioavailability. The review will serve as a platform to pave the future direction for tocotrienols in clinical settings.

  16. Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Fronza, M; Goettert, M; Geller, F; Luik, S; Flores, E M M; Bittencourt, C F; Zanetti, G D; Heinzmann, B M; Laufer, S; Merfort, I

    2009-04-21

    n-Hexanic and ethanolic extracts from twelve plants (Brugmansia suaveolens Brecht. et Presl., Eupatorium laevigatum Lam., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Iresine herbstii Hook., Kalanchöe tubiflora Hamet-Ahti, Petiveria alliacea L., Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, Piper regnellii DC., Schinus molle L., Sedum dendroideum Moç et Sessé ex DC., Waltheria douradinha St. Hill., Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw.) used in traditional South Brazilian medicine as wound healing agents were investigated in various biological assays, targeting different aspects in this complex process. The extracts were investigated on NF-kappaB DNA binding, p38alpha MAPK, TNF-alpha release, direct elastase inhibition and its release as well as on caspase-3. Fibroblasts migration to and proliferation into the wounded monolayers were evaluated in the scratch assay, the agar diffusion test for antibacterial and the MTT assay for cytotoxic effects. The hydrophilic extracts from Galinsoga parviflora, Petiveria alliacea, Schinus molle, Waltheria douradinha and Xanthium cavanillesii as well as the lipophilic extract of Waltheria douradinha turned out to be the most active ones. These results increase our knowledge on the wound healing effects of the investigated medicinal plants. Further studies are necessary to find out the effective secondary metabolites responsible for the observed effects.

  17. Rationale, design, and baseline findings from a pilot randomized trial of an IVR-Supported physical activity intervention for cancer prevention in the Deep South: The DIAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dori Pekmezi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Telephone-delivered interventions do not require frequent clinic visits, literacy, or costly technology and thus may represent promising approaches to promoting physical activity in the Deep South, a largely rural U.S. region, with generally lower physical activity, income, and education levels. Building on past Interactive Voice Response (IVR system-based HIV studies and extensive formative research (11 focus groups on physical activity intervention needs/preferences in the Deep South, the resulting IVR-supported physical activity intervention is now being tested in a randomized controlled trial with a waitlist control. The sample (n = 63 includes mostly obese (Mean BMI = 30.1 adults (Mean age = 43 years in Birmingham, AL. Both genders (55.6% male and African Americans (58.7% are well-represented. Most participants reported at least some college (92%, full time employment (63.5%, and household income <$50,000 per year (61.9%. Baseline physical activity (Mean = 39.6 min/week, SD = 56.4, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and social support were low. However, high physical activity enjoyment and outcome expectations bode well. Self-report physical activity was associated with physical activity enjoyment (r = 0.36 and social support (friends r = 0.25, p's < 0.05 at baseline. Consequently, these may be important variables to emphasize in our program. Depression and anxiety were negatively correlated with some early indicators of behavior change (e.g., physical activity self-regulation; r's = -0.43 and −0.46, respectively, p's < 0.01 and thus may require additional attention. Such technology-supported strategies have great potential to reach underserved populations and address physical activity-related health disparities in this region.

  18. Assessment on the Prevention of Progression by Rosiglitazone on Atherosclerosis in diabetes patients with Cardiovascular History (APPROACH): study design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Robert E; Cannon, Christopher P; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Nesto, Richard W; Serruys, Patrick W; Van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Kolatkar, Nikheel S; Kravitz, Barbara G; Zalewski, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Peter J

    2008-12-01

    Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has effects on insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors that may favorably impact the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. APPROACH is a double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone with the insulin secretagogue glipizide on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention are randomized to receive rosiglitazone or glipizide for 18 months using a titration algorithm designed to provide comparable glycemic control between treatment groups. The primary end point is change in percent atheroma volume from baseline to study completion in a nonintervened coronary artery, as measured by intravascular ultrasound. Cardiovascular events are adjudicated by an end point committee. A total of 672 patients were randomized. The mean age was 61 years, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) 7.2%, body mass index 29.5 kg/m(2), and median duration of diabetes 4.8 years. At baseline, approximately half of the participants were receiving oral antidiabetic monotherapy (53.9%) with 27.5% receiving dual combination therapy and 17.9% treated with diet and exercise alone. Approximately two thirds of the participants (68%) had dyslipidemia, 79.9% hypertension, and 24% prior myocardial infarction. APPROACH has fully enrolled a high-risk patient population and will compare the glucose-independent effects of rosiglitazone and glipizide on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis, as well as provide additional data on the cardiovascular safety of rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

  19. NMR spectroscopic studies of membrane-bound biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlweg, W.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of this thesis, biological NMR spectroscopy was employed in studying membrane-bound peptides and proteins, for which structural information is still comparatively hard to obtain. Initial work focused on various model peptides bound to membrane-mimicking micelles, studying the protonation state of arginine in a membrane environment. Strong evidence for a cation-π complex was found in TM7, a peptide which forms the seventh transmembrane helix of subunit a of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase). V-ATPase is a physiologically highly relevant proton pump, which is present in intracellular membranes of all eukaryotic organisms, as well as the plasma membrane of several specialized cells. Loss of functional V-ATPase is associated with human diseases such as osteopetrosis, distal renal tubular acidosis or the spreading of cancer. V-ATPase is considered a potential drug target in the treatment of osteoporosis and cancer, or in the development of novel contraceptives. Results from NMR solution structure determination, NMR titration experiments, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiments and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy confirm the existence of a buried cation-? complex formed between arginine residue R735, which is essential for proton transport, and neighbouring tryptophan and tyrosine residues. In vivo experiments in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using selective growth tests and fluorescence microscopy showed that formation of the cation-π complex is essential for V-ATPase function. Deletion of both aromatic residues, as well as only the one tryptophan residue leads to growth defects and inability to maintain vacuolar pH homeostasis. These findings shine new light on the still elusive mechanism of proton transport in V-ATPase, and show that arginine R735 may be directly involved in proton transfer across the membrane. (author) [de

  20. Biology, literacy, and the African American voice: A case study of meaningful learning in the biology classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Keturah

    Under the direction of Sharon Murphy Augustine, Ph.D./Ph.D Curriculum and Instruction There was a substantial performance gap among African Americans and other ethnic groups. Additionally, African American students in a Title I school were at a significantly high risk of not meeting or exceeding on performance tests in science. Past reports have shown average gains in some subject areas, and declines in others (NCES, 2011; GADOE, 2012). Current instructional strategies and the lack of literacy within the biology classroom created a problem for African American high school students on national and state assessments. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American students and teachers in the context of literacy and biology through the incorporation of an interactive notebook and other literacy strategies. The data was collected three ways: field notes for a two week observation period within the biology classroom, student and teacher interviews, and student work samples. During the observations, student work collection, and interviews, I looked for the following codes: active learning, constructive learning, collaborative learning, authentic learning, and intentional learning. In the process of coding for the pre-determined codes, three more codes emerged. The three codes that emerged were organization, studying/student ownership, and student teacher relationships. Students and teachers both solidified the notion that literacy and biology worked well together. The implemented literacy strategies were something that both teachers and students appreciated in their learning of biology. Overall students and teachers perceived that the interactive notebook along Cornell notes, Thinking maps, close reads, writing, lab experiments, and group work created meaningful learning experiences within the biology classroom.

  1. The psychological profile of bariatric patients with and without type 2 diabetes: baseline results of the longitudinal GASMITO-PSYC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L; Smith, Evelyn; Lund, Michael T; Hansen, Merethe; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik L

    2015-01-01

    Some bariatric patients are referred for surgery with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes while others are referred without co-morbid diabetes, but psychological differences between patients with and without type 2 diabetes undergoing bariatric surgery have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to present the baseline results of the longitudinal GASMITO-PSYC study, and to evaluate the psychological differences between bariatric patients with and without type 2 diabetes. A total of 129 Roux-en- Y gastric bypass patients were recruited from the bariatric clinic at a hospital in the suburban Copenhagen area. Participants answered questionnaires concerning personality, mental symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), body image, lifestyle, and physical health including diabetes status on average 11 weeks before surgery. Questionnaires were either sent to the participant's home address or administered at the University of Copenhagen. Patients with type 2 diabetes scored higher on 'physical function' (P = .001), 'physical role' (P = .014), 'physical pain' (P = .021), and 'vitality' (P = .007) than nondiabetic patients after controlling for sex and age. The total study sample differed significantly from Danish test norms reporting higher neuroticism (P = .000), more mental symptoms (P = .000), lower HRQOL (P = .000), and less positive weight-related body image (P = .000). Patients with type 2 diabetes had better physical HRQOL than nondiabetic patients. This study highlights the importance of investigating whether these differences affect surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. HUBUNGAN OBESITAS SENTRAL DENGAN PROFIL LIPID PADA ORANG DEWASA UMUR 25-65 TAHUN DI KOTA BOGOR (Baseline Studi Penyakit Tidak Menular di Kota Bogor, Jawa Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudikno Sudikno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global epidemic of obesity is rapidly becoming a major public health problem in many countries of the world. Rapidly changing diets and lifestyles are trigger to the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of central obesity and the relationship between central obesity and lipid profile in adults aged 25-65 years. This study used baseline data "Cohort Study of Non-Communicable Diseases" that was carried out in 2011-2012 in Bogor City, West Java Province. The study design was cross-sectional. A number of samples analyzed were 4554 subjects. Result of the analysis showed that the prevalence of central obesity was found 51.3 percent. The portion of subjects with high total cholesterol levels was 16 percent. The percentage of high LDL cholesterol levels was 17.6 percent. While the portion of low HDL cholesterol levels was 16.2 percent and the portion of high triglyceride levels was 8.5 percent. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that central obesity in adults aged 25-65 associated with lipid profile after controlling the variables of sex, age, and smoking habits. The need for preventive measures to prevent central obesity and abnormal lipid profiles evolve toward disease complications through the fulfillment of adequate daily physical activity and healthy eating habits.

  3. Epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes in a Mediterranean country; aims, design and baseline characteristics of the Greek study of acute coronary syndromes (GREECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stravopodis Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study GREECS was conducted in order to evaluate the annual incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS and to delineate the role of clinical, biochemical, lifestyle and behavioral characteristics on the severity of disease. In this work we present the design, methodology of the study and various baseline characteristics of people with ACS. Methods/Design A sample of 6 hospitals located in Greek urban and rural regions was selected. In these hospitals we recorded almost all admissions due to ACS, from October 2003 to September 2004. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological and other lifestyle characteristics were recorded. 2172 patients were included in the study (76% were men and 24% women. The crude annual incidence rate was 22.6 per 10,000 people and the highest frequency of events was observed in winter. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.3%. The most common discharged diagnosis for men was Q-wave MI, while for women it was unstable angina. Discussion This study aims to demonstrate current information about the epidemiology of patients who suffer from ACS, in Greece.

  4. Studies on floral biology of passion fruit (passiflora spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Pathak, K.A.; Shukla, R.; Bharali, R.

    2010-01-01

    Floral biology of purple, yellow, giant and Passiflora foetida was studied at the ICAR Research Complex, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram, India during 2005-07. Purple, giant and P. foetida had major bloom during March-April, July-August and September-October. While major bloom in yellow was mainly during May-June and September-October. Purple, giant and P. foetida had the maximum duration of bloom of 42.4, 22.5 and 32.6 days, respectively during March-April with the maximum duration of effective bloom of 12.5 8.6 and 10.4 days in purple, giant and P. foetida, respectively. Yellow had the maximum duration of bloom for 28.4 days and effective bloom of 10.5 days during May-June. Most of the flowers of purple (54.5%) and giant (58.5%) opened between 6-7 hrs, while the maximum per cent of anthesis in yellow (70%) took place between 12-13 hrs. Pollen dehiscence and pollination in purple and giant mainly occurred between 7-8 hrs, while 13-14 hrs was the major period of pollen dehiscence and pollination in yellow. The earliest anthesis (5-6 hrs), anther dehiscence (6-7 hrs) and pollination (6-7 hrs) were recorded in P. foetida. The maximum stigma receptivity was recorded on the day of anthesis in all the passion fruits. Completely curved style was more common in all passion fruits that gave the maximum fruit set. The maximum number of bees observed between 7-8 hrs in purple and giant and between 13-14 hrs in yellow. The most common pollinating bee in purple, giant and yellow was Apis mellifera, while A. cerena was in P. foetida. (author)

  5. The study of HIV and antenatal care integration in pregnancy in Kenya: design, methods, and baseline results of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Turan

    Full Text Available Despite strong evidence for the effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy for improving the health of women living with HIV and for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT, HIV persists as a major maternal and child health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In most settings antenatal care (ANC services and HIV treatment services are offered in separate clinics. Integrating these services may result in better uptake of services, reduction of the time to treatment initiation, better adherence, and reduction of stigma.A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial design was used to evaluate the effects of integrating HIV treatment into ANC clinics at government health facilities in rural Kenya. Twelve facilities were randomized to provide either fully integrated services (ANC, PMTCT, and HIV treatment services all delivered in the ANC clinic or non-integrated services (ANC clinics provided ANC and basic PMTCT services and referred clients to a separate HIV clinic for HIV treatment. During June 2009- March 2011, 1,172 HIV-positive pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The main study outcomes are rates of maternal enrollment in HIV care and treatment, infant HIV testing uptake, and HIV-free infant survival. Baseline results revealed that the intervention and control cohorts were similar with respect to socio-demographics, male partner HIV testing, sero-discordance of the couple, obstetric history, baseline CD4 count, and WHO Stage. Challenges faced while conducting this trial at low-resource rural health facilities included frequent staff turnover, stock-outs of essential supplies, transportation challenges, and changes in national guidelines.This is the first randomized trial of ANC and HIV service integration to be conducted in rural Africa. It is expected that the study will provide critical evidence regarding the implementation and effectiveness of this service delivery strategy, with important implications for programs striving

  6. Mössbauer study of some biological iron complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Some biological complexes containing iron are investigated experimentally at room temperature using the Mössbauer resonance. The complexes show quadrupole doublet and Kramer's degeneracy is found to exist. The electric field gradient, difference in s-electron densities and quadrupole coupling constant ...

  7. Teacher's Study Guide on the Biology of Human Populations: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This teacher's guide is designed to give background information on current biological subjects not usually treated in student texts. The book is divided into five parts, each representing one of the following topics: (1) evolution of human populations; (2) environment of human populations; (3) dynamics of human populations; (4) reproduction in…

  8. Deep learning: Using machine learning to study biological vision

    OpenAIRE

    Majaj, Najib; Pelli, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Today most vision-science presentations mention machine learning. Many neuroscientists use machine learning to decode neural responses. Many perception scientists try to understand recognition by living organisms. To them, machine learning offers a reference of attainable performance based on learned stimuli. This brief overview of the use of machine learning in biological vision touches on its strengths, weaknesses, milestones, controversies, and current directions.

  9. Neutron scattering studies of biological molecules suggest that ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: zaccai@ill.fr. Abstract. The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme condi- tions of temperature, pressure or solvent ...

  10. Systems Biology based studies on anti-inflammatory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty Catharina Maria

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of the ‘omics’ techniques (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and systems biology, has caused fundamental changes in the drug discovery process and many other fields in the life science area. In this thesis we explored the possibilities to apply these holistic

  11. Life at extreme conditions: Neutron scattering studies of biological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The short review concentrates on recent work performed at the neutrons in biology laboratories of the Institut Laue Langevin and Institut de Biologie Structurale in Grenoble. Extremophile organisms have been discovered that require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure or solvent environment for survival.

  12. A descriptive study of biological and psychosocial factors associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association between the BMIs of the biological parents and their adolescent children was investigated using the Fisher's exact test. The data collection included adolescents' demographic information, psychiatric diagnosis, psychiatric medication, nutritional intake, eating habits and the intensity of physical activity such ...

  13. Studies on the fisheries and biology of Oreochromis urolepsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fisheries and some aspects of the biology of Oreochromis urolepsis of the Mtera Reservoir (Tanzania) were examined in August 2002. It was observed that there was no proper management of the reservoir\\'s fisheries. Beach seine fishing dominated the fishery. Nearly all the O. urolepsis caught by this type of gear were ...

  14. Studies on the biology and population parameters of Bulinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation was made into some aspects of biology and population parameters of Bulinus globosus and Bulinus truncatus which are snails implicated in the transmission of urinary schistosomiasis in Agulu Lake Area of Anambra state, Nigeria. These snails were collected from the lake and reared in the laboratory.

  15. Disease history and risk of comorbidity in women's life course: a comprehensive analysis of the Japan Nurses' Health Study baseline survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Kazue; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Katanoda, Kota; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Wakatsuki, Akihiko; Kubota, Toshiro; Mizunuma, Hideki

    2015-03-11

    To classify diseases based on age at peak incidence to identify risk factors for later disease in women's life course. A cross-sectional baseline survey of participants in the Japan Nurses' Health Study. A nationwide prospective cohort study on the health of Japanese nurses. The baseline survey was conducted between 2001 and 2007 (n=49,927). Age at peak incidence for 20 diseases from a survey of Japanese women was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method with the Kernel smoothing technique. The incidence rate and peak incidence for diseases whose peak incidence occurred before the age of 45 years or before the perimenopausal period were selected as early-onset diseases. The OR and 95% CI were estimated to examine the risk of comorbidity between early-onset and other diseases. Four early-onset diseases (endometriosis, anaemia, migraine headache and uterine myoma) were significantly correlated with one another. Late-onset diseases significantly associated (OR>2) with early-onset diseases included comorbid endometriosis with ovarian cancer (3.65 (2.16 to 6.19)), endometrial cancer (2.40 (1.14 to 5.04)) and cerebral infarction (2.10 (1.15 to 3.85)); comorbid anaemia with gastric cancer (3.69 (2.68 to 5.08)); comorbid migraine with transient ischaemic attack (3.06 (2.29 to 4.09)), osteoporosis (2.11 (1.71 to 2.62)), cerebral infarction (2.04 (1.26 to 3.30)) and angina pectoris (2.00 (1.49 to 2.67)); and comorbid uterine myoma with colorectal cancer (2.31 (1.48 to 3.61)). While there were significant associations between four early-onset diseases, women with a history of one or more of the early-onset diseases had a higher risk of other diseases later in their life course. Understanding the history of early-onset diseases in women may help reduce the subsequent risk of chronic diseases in later life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. The MATCH cohort study in the Netherlands: rationale, objectives, methods and baseline characteristics of patients with (long-term) common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, Bauke; Manders, Willeke; Tendolkar, Indira; Hutschemaekers, Giel; Tiemens, Bea

    2017-03-01

    Research in the last decades shows that common mental disorders may be long-term and severely disabling, resulting in severe mental illness (SMI). The percentage of Dutch SMI-patients with common mental disorders receiving mental health services is estimated at 65-70%. However, it is unclear which patients in fact become SMI-patients. We need to know more about the possible course of common mental disorders, understand the origins of chronicity in more detail, and have more insight in related care processes and care use of patients with common mental disorders. The MATCH cohort study is a four-year multicentre naturalistic cohort study, with yearly assessments in primary, secondary, and tertiary services in three large Dutch mental health services. Socio-demographics, mental disorders, course and severity of psychopathology, physiological health indicators, neurocognitive functioning, past and present life events, health care use and contact with mental health services, social functioning and quality of life, and recovery and well-being are assessed. Baseline findings of 283 participating individuals and their key clinicians are described. The sample appears to appropriately represent the distribution of individuals across diagnostic categories in services, and level of care (outpatient, day treatment, inpatient) in the Netherlands and other developed nations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the capacity available to the 'New ParticipACTION': A qualitative study of Canadian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauvin Lise

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of the original ParticipACTION campaign effects focused on individual awareness, recall, and understanding. Less studied has been the impact such campaigns have had on the broader organizational capacity to mobilize and advocate for physical activity. With the relaunch of ParticipACTION, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore baseline organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services within the Canadian context. Methods Using a purposeful sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 49 key informants representing a range of national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Interview data were analysed using a thematic analytic approach. Results Key informants painted a generally positive picture of current organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services in Canada. Will and leadership were clear strengths while infrastructure limitations remained the greatest concern. Some specific challenges included: 1 funding issues: the absence of core funding in a climate of shifting funding priorities; 2 the difficulty of working without a national physical activity policy (lack of leadership; 3 inconsistent provincial and educational sector level policies; and 4 a persistent focus on obesity rather than physical inactivity. Conclusion The data generated here can be utilized to monitor the future impact of ParticipACTION on enhancing and utilizing this organizational capacity. A range of indicators are suggested that could be used to illustrate ParticipACTION's impact on the broad field of physical activity promotion in the future.

  18. Use and effectiveness of tocilizumab among patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an observational study from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Mari; Davies, Rebecca; Kearsley-Fleet, Lianne; Watson, Kath D; Lunt, Mark; Symmons, Deborah P M; Hyrich, Kimme L

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the present study are to describe the characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients selected for tocilizumab (TCZ), compare the "real-world" effectiveness of TCZ and tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) when used as a first biologic and assess the influence of past biologic exposure/concurrent methotrexate (MTX) therapy on post-TCZ treatment outcomes. The British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR-RA) is a prospective cohort study following RA patients starting biologics in the UK. This includes patients starting TCZ as first or subsequent biologic, alongside biologic-naïve patients starting TNFi. Six-month disease activity and 1-year drug survival were compared between biologic-naïve patients starting TCZ versus TNFi and first-line versus subsequent TCZ users and TCZ users with MTX versus without using regression models adjusted by propensity score. Two hundred seventeen patients started TCZ, and 2419 started TNFi as first biologic. Seven hundred seventy-seven started TCZ after other biologics. First-line TCZ users had a higher prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis and cancer history than TNFi users. The first-line TCZ users were more likely to achieve DAS28 remission at 6 months than first-line TNFi, but other improvement markers were similar. The treatment response at 6 months was similar between subsequent-line TCZ users and first-line users after adjusting for baseline patient differences. Concurrent MTX use was not associated with treatment response in either first- or subsequent-line TCZ users. TCZ has been primarily used as subsequent-line biologic in the UK. When used as first line, the response appears similar to that observed in patients starting TNFi, suggesting that clinical response alone should not decide between initial biologic therapies.

  19. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  20. Autonomy and Fear of Synthetic Biology: How Can Patients' Autonomy Be Enhanced in the Field of Synthetic Biology? A Qualitative Study with Stable Patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Rakic Milenko; Wienand Isabelle; Shaw David; Nast Rebecca; Elger Bernice S

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed stable patients' views regarding synthetic biology in general the medical application of synthetic biology and their potential participation in trials of synthetic biology in particular. The aim of the study was to find out whether patients' views and preferences change after receiving more detailed information about synthetic biology and its clinical applications. The qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of 36 stable patients who suffered from diabetes or gou...

  1. An Ethnographic Observational Study of the Biologic Initiation Conversation Between Rheumatologists and Biologic-naïve Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottak, Nicholas; Tesser, John; Leibowitz, Evan; Rosenberg, Melissa; Parenti, Dennis; DeHoratius, Raphael

    2018-01-30

    This ethnographic market research study investigated the biologic initiation conversation between rheumatologists and biologic-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis to assess how therapy options, particularly mode of administration, were discussed. Consenting rheumatologists (n=16) and patients (n=48) were videotaped during medical visits and interviewed by a trained ethnographer. The content, structure, and timing of conversations regarding biologic initiation were analyzed. The mean duration of physician-patient visits was approximately 15 minutes; biologic therapies were discussed for a mean of 5.6 minutes. Subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) therapy options were mentioned in 45 and 35 visits, respectively, out of a total of 48 visits. All patients had some familiarity with SC administration, but nearly half of patients (22/48) were unfamiliar with IV therapy going into the visit. IV administration was not defined or described by rheumatologists in 77% (27/35) of visits mentioning IV therapy. Thus, 19 of 22 patients who were initially unfamiliar with IV therapy remained unfamiliar after the visit. Disparities in physician-patient perceptions were revealed, as all rheumatologists (16/16) believed IV therapy would be less convenient than SC therapy for patients, while 46% (22/48) of patients felt this way. In post-visit interviews, some patients seemed confused and overwhelmed, particularly when presented with many treatment choices in a visit. Some patients stated they would benefit from visual aids or summary sheets of key points. This study revealed significant educational opportunities to improve the biologic initiation conversation and indicated a disparity between patients' and rheumatologists' perception of IV therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in the Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart randomized controlled trial: study protocol and baseline characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Randall S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case management has emerged as a promising alternative approach to supplement traditional one-on-one sessions between patients and doctors for improving the quality of care in chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD. However, data are lacking in terms of its efficacy and cost-effectiveness when implemented in ethnic and low-income populations. Methods The Stanford and San Mateo Heart to Heart (HTH project is a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to rigorously evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multi-risk cardiovascular case management program in low-income, primarily ethnic minority patients served by a local county health care system in California. Randomization occurred at the patient level. The primary outcome measure is the absolute CHD risk over 10 years. Secondary outcome measures include adherence to guidelines on CHD prevention practice. We documented the study design, methodology, and baseline sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics of 419 participants. Results We achieved equal distributions of the sociodemographic, biophysical and lifestyle characteristics between the two randomization groups. HTH participants had a mean age of 56 years, 63% were Latinos/Hispanics, 65% female, 61% less educated, and 62% were not employed. Twenty percent of participants reported having a prior cardiovascular event. 10-year CHD risk averaged 18% in men and 13% in women despite a modest low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a high on-treatment percentage at baseline. Sixty-three percent of participants were diagnosed with diabetes and an additional 22% had metabolic syndrome. In addition, many participants had depressed high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels and elevated values of total cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, triglycerides, triglyceride-to-HDL ratio, and blood pressure. Furthermore, nearly 70% of participants were obese, 45% had a family history of CHD or

  3. Immunofibrogenic Gene Expression Patterns in Tanzanian Children with Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, Active Trachoma and Scarring: Baseline Results of a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athumani M. Ramadhani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness and remains a significant public health problem. Much of trachomatous disease pathology is thought to be caused indirectly by host cellular and immune responses, however the immune response during active trachoma and how this initiates progressive scarring is not clearly understood. Defining protective vs. pathogenic immune response to C. trachomatis is important for vaccine design and evaluation. This study reports the baseline results of a longitudinal cohort of Tanzanian children, who were monitored for 4 years in order to determine the immunofibrogenic and infectious correlates of progressive scarring trachoma. In this cohort baseline, 506 children aged 6–10 years were assessed for clinical signs, infection status and the expression of 91 genes of interest prior to mass azithromycin administration for trachoma control. C. trachomatis was detected using droplet digital PCR and gene expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The prevalence of follicles, papillary inflammation and scarring were 33.6, 31.6, and 28.5%, respectively. C. trachomatis was detected in 78/506 (15.4% individuals, 62/78 of whom also had follicles. C. trachomatis infection was associated with a strong upregulation of IFNG and IL22, the enrichment of Th1 and NK cell pathways and Th17 cell-associated cytokines. In individuals with inflammation in the absence of infection the IFNG/IL22 and NK cell response was reduced, however, pro-inflammatory, growth and matrix factors remained upregulated and mucins were downregulated. Our data suggest that, strong IFNG/IL22 responses, probably related to Th1 and NK cell involvement, is important for clearance of C. trachomatis and that the residual pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic phenotype that persists after infection might contribute to pathological scarring. Interestingly, females appear more susceptible to developing

  4. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.

  5. PRODIACOR: a patient-centered treatment program for type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular risk factors in the city of Corrientes, Argentina: study design and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardino, J J; Lapertosa, S; Villagra, M; Caporale, J E; Oliver, P; Gonzalez, C; Siri, F; Clark, Ch

    2007-07-01

    To implement a controlled clinical trial (PRODIACOR) in a primary care setting designed 1) to improve type 2 diabetes care and 2) to collect cost data in order to be able to measure cost-effectiveness of three system interventions (checkbook of indicated procedures, patient/provider feedback and complete coverage of medications and supplies) and physician and/or patient education to improve psychological, clinical, metabolic and therapeutic indicators. All three Argentinean health subsectors (public health, social security and the private, prepaid system) are participants in the study. Patients of participating physicians were randomly selected and assigned to one of four groups: control, provider education, patient education, and provider/patient education; the system interventions were provided to all four groups. Mean BMI was 29.8 kg/m(2); most subjects had blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol above targets recommended by international standards. Only 1% had had microalbuminuria measured, 57% performed glucose self-monitoring, 37% had had an eye examination and 31% a foot examination in the preceding year. Ten percent, 26% and 73% of people with hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia, respectively, were not on medications. Most patients treated with either insulin or oral antidiabetic agents were on monotherapy as were those treated for hypertension and dyslipidemia. WHO-5 questionnaire scores indicated that 13% of the subjects needed psychological intervention. Baseline data show multiple deficiencies in the process and outcomes of care that could be targeted and improved by PRODIACOR intervention.

  6. Baseline and 6-Week follow-up levels of PAF and activity of its metabolic enzymes in patients with heart failure and healthy volunteers--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detopoulou, Paraskevi; Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Kotroyiannis, Iason; Vassiliadou, Carmen; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Chrysohoou, Christina; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the changes in platelet-activating factor (PAF) and its metabolic enzymes over a 6-week follow-up period in patients with newly diagnosed heart failure ([HF] n = 12) compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched apparently healthy volunteers (n = 10). The PAF, its key biosynthetic enzymes (lyso-PAF acetyltransferase [lyso-PAF-AT] and dithiothreitol [DTT]-insensitive CDP choline: 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase [PAF-CPT]), and its catabolic isoenzymes (PAF-acetylhydrolase [PAF-AH] and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [Lp-PLA2]) were measured in serum and leukocytes of participants. At baseline, patients with HF had lower median activities of lyso-PAF-AT (P PAF-CPT (P = .07) in parallel with PAF levels (P = .05) and higher activities of PAF-AH (P = .02) and Lp-PLA2 (P PAF-CPT and PAF levels marginally increased (P = .1), lyso-PAF-AT (P PAF-AH (P = .004) and Lp-PLA2 (P PAF biosynthetic enzymes and especially lyso-PAF-AT.

  7. [Baseline characteristics and clinical management of the first 3,000 patients enrolled in the IBERICAN study (Identification of the Spanish population at cardiovascular and renal risk)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinza Sanjurjo, Sergio; Prieto Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Llisterri Caro, José Luis; Pallarés Carratalá, Vicente; Barquilla García, Alfonso; Rodríguez Padial, Luis; Díaz Rodríguez, Ángel; Polo García, José; Vergara Martín, Jesús; Vidal Pérez, Rafael; Rodríguez Roca, Gustavo Cristóbal

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in Spain, as well as cardiovascular events, in Spanish adult population attended in primary care. IBERICAN is a longitudinal, observational, multicenter study in which patients aged 18 to 85years attended in primary care health center in Spain are being included. The obtained cohort will be followed annually for at least 5years. The estimated final sample is 7,000 patients. The baseline characteristics of the second cut (n=3,042) are presented. The mean age of the subjects included is 57.9±14.6 years, and 55.5% are women. 54.9% live in urban habitat, and 57.3% have primary education. 50.3% had dyslipidemia, 47.4% hypertension, 29.7% physical inactivity, 28.2% abdominal obesity and 19% diabetes mellitus. The degree of control of hypertension, dyslipidemia and type2 diabetes was 58.5%, 25.8% and 75.9%. 28.2% have criteria for metabolic syndrome. 15.6% of patients had previous cardiovascular disease. 7.8% have a history of coronary heart disease, a glomerular filtration rate factors, their poor control and the existence of previous cardiovascular disease will determine the impact on the prognosis of the cohort. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Mammographic parenchymal pattern and breast cancer risk profile of Papua New Guinean women - A baseline study of the screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, R; Spuur, K; Umo, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this research is to evidence for the first time the breast density of Papua New Guinean (PNG) women as described by mammographic parenchymal patterns (MPPs) and profile breast cancer risk; to examine the relationship of age and MPPs. A retrospective analysis of 1161 screening mammograms of women who had undergone imaging at the Pacific International Hospital (PIH) was undertaken. Mammograms were classified into one of five Tabár MPPs; age was recorded in years. Descriptive analysis of the data for pattern distribution and a chi-square test, to test for relationships between age and pattern type were undertaken. The majority (51.42%) of women had Pattern I breasts; Pattern II (30.58%), Pattern III (4.31%), Pattern IV (7.24%), and Pattern V (6.46%). The mean age was 38.8 with a range of 30-80 years; there were no obvious differences in mean age across the categories of patterns. A chi-square test reported no evidence of a relationship between age and pattern type (p-value = 0.504). Pattern V differed from other patterns, with proportionally more women aged over 50 and less aged in their 40s. This study sets a baseline for future studies of the MPPs of PNG women, and demonstrated that in this snapshot of PNG women, there is no unique distribution of MPPs and no increased risk of breast cancer based on breast density profile. This result does not help to explain the high incidence of breast cancer in PNG. A more comprehensive study of the PNG screening population is required to validate this study. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. QSAR Study of the Biologically Active Organosulfurs in Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr M. Abu-Awwad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological activities of two sets of a total of 30 different polysulfides were investigated using QSAR. The semiempirical AM1 in Gaussian 2003 for windows was used to optimize the structures whereas a subsequent calculation of hundreds of various types of descriptors at the density functional (B3LYP/6-31G* using CODESSA package was employed. The known 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity data (IC50 of 19 polysulfides out of the whole data set were correlated in a multiple linear regression procedures with the computed descriptors. Statistically, the most significant overall correlations were five- and four- parameter equations with good statistical parameters; R2= 0.9981, R2CV = 0.9970 and R2=9967, R2CV = 0.9933 respectively. The models concluded that biological activity of polysulfides is mainly attributed to quantum-chemical, geometrical and topological descriptors with neither electrostatic contribution nor chief role of sulfur atoms. Also sulfur related descriptors were not the most significant contributors in the concluded models. The obtained models were efficiently employed to estimate the biological activities of the other 11 polysulfides available in natural products such as garlic and mushroom.

  10. Biological and analytical studies of peritoneal dialysis solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hudz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our work was to conduct biological and analytical studies of the peritoneal dialysis (PD solutions containing glucose and sodium lactate and establish correlations between cell viability of the Vero cell line and values of analytical indexes of the tested solutions. The results of this study confirm the cytotoxicity of the PD solutions even compared with the isotonic solution of sodium chloride, which may be due to the low pH of the solutions, presence of glucose degradation products (GDPs and high osmolarity of the solutions, and unphysiological concentrations of glucose and sodium lactate. However, it is not yet known what factors or their combination and to what extent cause the cytotoxicity of PD solutions. In the neutral red (NR test the weak, almost middle (r = -0.496 and 0.498, respectively and unexpected correlations were found between reduced viability of monkey kidney cells and increased pH of the PD solutions and between increased cell viability and increased absorbance at 228 nm of the tested PD solutions. These two correlations can be explained by a strong correlation (r = -0.948 between a decrease in pH and an increase in the solution absorbance at 228 nm. The opposite effect was observed in the MTT test. The weak, but expected correlations (r = 0.32 and -0.202, respectively were found between increased cell viability and increased pH in the PD solutions and between decreased cell viability and increased absorbance at 228 nm of the tested PD solutions. The middle and weak correlations (r = 0.56 and 0.29, respectively were detected between increased cell viability and increased lactate concentration in the NR test and MTT test. The data of these correlations can be partially explained by the fact that a correlation with a coefficient r = -0.34 was found between decreased pH in the solutions and increased lactate concentration. The very weak correlations (0.138 and 0.196, respectively were found between increased cell

  11. Lack of association between depression and C-reactive protein level in the baseline of Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Sara Teles; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Nunes, Maria Angélica; M Benseñor, Isabela; Viana, Maria Carmen; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2017-01-15

    Depression has been linked to increased levels of inflammatory markers in clinical studies, but results from general population samples are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate whether depression was associated with serum CRP levels in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort from a middle-income country. We analyzed baseline data from 14,821 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Current depression (last 7 days) was assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Because individuals on antidepressants could be negative on CIS-R due to their therapeutic effect, the explanatory variable had three categories: (1) negative on CIS-R and not using antidepressant (reference); (2) negative on CIS-R but using antidepressant; (3) positive on CIS-R with/without antidepressant use. Associations with CRP were investigated by general linear model (GLM). After adjustments for confounders, neither current depression, nor antidepressant use was statistically associated with elevated CRP levels. Additionally, analyzes stratified by gender, type and severity of depression did not change the results. The reference group in our analysis might include participants with a lifetime history of depression. Additionally, the exclusion of questions on weight fluctuation and appetite from the CIS-R applied in ELSA-Brasil may have slightly underestimated the prevalence of depression, as well as limited our ability to assess the presence of somatic symptoms. This study found no association between current depression, use of antidepressants, and serum CRP levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Biology Graduate Teaching Assistants through Their Participation in Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampley, Sandra A.; Gardner, Grant E.; Barlow, Angela T.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are responsible for teaching the majority of biology undergraduate laboratory sections, although many feel underprepared to do so. This study explored the impact of biology GTA participation in a professional development model known as lesson study. Using a case study methodology with multiple qualitative data…

  13. Biological Detection System Technologies Technology and Industrial Base Study. A Primer on Biological Detection Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    processes for manufacturers; pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries; trade associations; and government agencies supporting energy, the...microsatellite genotyping of DNA; gene expression studies; and analyses of gene mutations . Technology Development Two major research thrusts at the

  14. Life stress and suicidal ideation in Australian men – cross-sectional analysis of the Australian longitudinal study on male health baseline data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death in Australian males aged 18 to 55. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours and thoughts are indicators of increased risk for future suicide. Suicidal behaviour is complex and multi-determined. Research supports the involvement of stressful life events in suicide and suicidal behaviour, however the evidence regarding suicidal thoughts is less developed. This study investigates stressful life events in relation to suicidal ideation in a large cohort of adult males recruited into Ten to Men, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health. Methods Baseline data from a national cohort of 13, 884 males aged 18–55 years on suicidal behaviour, psychiatric disorder and life events was used. Multivariable logistic regressions were conducted with current suicidal ideation as the outcome and 12 month life events, 12 month depression, anxiety and harmful/hazardous alcohol use, and socio-demographics as covariates. Further logistic regression models investigated the relative risk of life stress alone, depression/alcohol/anxiety alone and co-occurring life stress and depression/alcohol/anxiety. Results In multivariable models there was an independent contribution to suicidal ideation for six of 24 life events (ORs 1.27–1.95, 12 month depression (OR 4.49 harmful alcohol use (OR 1.38 and anxiety disorders (OR 1.27. Life events co-occurring with depression (OR 10.3 was higher risk than either alone (depression OR 6.6; life stress OR 2.6. There was a lesser effect for co-occurrence in the anxiety and harmful alcohol use models. Conclusion Life events appear to be related to suicidal ideation independent of depression, anxiety and harmful alcohol use in adult males, however if life events occur in the context of depression that risk is substantially increased.

  15. Sustainability of motor performance after robotic-assisted treadmill therapy in children: an open, non-randomized baseline-treatment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggraefe, I; Kiwull, L; Schaefer, J S; Koerte, I; Blaschek, A; Meyer-Heim, A; Heinen, F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the sustainability of motor improvements achieved after a three week trial of robotic assisted treadmill therapy in children and adolescents with central gait disorders within a follow up period of about six months. Open, non-randomized, baseline-treatment study. Fourteen patients (mean age 8.2+/-5.4) underwent a trial of 12 sessions of robotic-assisted treadmill therapy using the Lokomat over a period of three weeks. Outcome measures were the dimensions D (standing) and E (walking) of the Gross Motor Function Measure, the ten meter walking test and the six minute walking test. Outcome variables were evaluated immediately before and after the trial and at a follow up of about six months. Improvements after the trial in the dimension D from 49.5% to 54.4% (P=0.008) and from 38.9% to 42.3% (P=0.012) in the dimension E of the GMFM were seen and are within the same range of previously published results. The mean score at the follow up after six months was 56.8% and 43.3% for dimension D and E, respectively. Gait speed improved from 0.80 m/s to 1.01 m/s (P=0.006) after the trial and was 1.11 m/s at the follow-up visit at six months. Similar results were obtained for endurance. The improvements of motor function after a three-week trial of robotic-assisted treadmill therapy appear to be sustained after a mean period of six months.

  16. Predicting cardiometabolic disturbances from waist-to-height ratio: findings from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Marcelo; Chor, Dóra; Braga, José Uéleres; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in predicting cardiometabolic outcomes and compare cut-off points for Brazilian adults. Cross-sectional study. WHtR areas under the curve (AUC) were compared with those for BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The outcomes of interest were hypertension, diabetes, hypertriacylglycerolaemia and presence of at least two components of metabolic syndrome (≥2 MetS). Cut-offs for WHtR were compared and validity measures were estimated for each point. Teaching and research institutions in six Brazilian state capitals, 2008-2010. Women (n 5026) and men (n 4238) aged 35-54 years who participated in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) at baseline. WHtR age-adjusted AUC ranged from 0·68 to 0·72 in men and 0·69 to 0·75 in women, with smaller AUC for hypertriacylglycerolaemia and the largest for ≥2 MetS. WHtR performed better than BMI for practically all outcomes; better than WHR for hypertension in both sexes; and displayed larger AUC than WC in predicting diabetes mellitus. It also offered better discriminatory power for ≥2 MetS in men; and was better than WC, but not WHR, in women. Optimal cut-off points of WHtR were 0·55 (women) and 0·54 (men), but they presented high false-negative rate compared with 0·50. We recommend using WHtR (which performed similarly to, or better than, other available indices of adiposity) as an anthropometric index with good discriminatory power for cardiometabolic outcomes in Brazilian adults, indicating the already referenced limit of WHtR≥0·50.

  17. Serial Alberta Stroke Program early CT score from baseline to 24 hours in Solitaire Flow Restoration with the Intention for Thrombectomy study: a novel surrogate end point for revascularization in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebeskind, David S; Jahan, Reza; Nogueira, Raul G; Jovin, Tudor G; Lutsep, Helmi L; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2014-03-01

    The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on baseline imaging is an established predictor of acute ischemic stroke outcomes. We analyzed change on serial ASPECTS at baseline and 24-hour imaging in the Solitaire Flow Restoration with the Intention for Thrombectomy (SWIFT) study to determine prognostic value and to identify subgroups with extensive injury after intervention. ASPECTS at baseline and 24 hours was independently scored in all anterior circulation SWIFT cases, blinded to all other trial data. ASPECTS at baseline, at 24 hours, and serial changes were analyzed with univariate and multivariate approaches. One hundred thirty-nine patients (mean age, 67 [SD, 12] years; 52% women; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 18 [interquartile range, 8-28]) with complete data at both time points were studied. Multivariate analyses showed that higher 24-hour ASPECTS predicted good clinical outcome (day 90 modified Rankin Scale, 0-2; odds ratio, 1.67; PScale outcomes (mean modified Rankin Scale, 4.4 versus 2.7; P<0.001). Twenty-four-hour ASPECTS provides better prognostic information compared with baseline ASPECTS. Predictors of dramatic infarct progression on ASPECTS are hyperglycemia, hypertension, and nonreperfusion. Serial ASPECTS change from baseline to 24 hours predicts clinical outcome, providing an early surrogate end point for thrombectomy trials. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01054560.

  18. Two single group, prospective, baseline-controlled feeding studies in infants and children with chronic diarrhea fed a hypoallergenic free amino acid-based formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschel, Marlene W; Antonson, Dean L; Murray, Nancy D; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Mattis, Lynn E; Kerzner, Benny; Tolia, Vasundhara; Baggs, Geraldine

    2014-05-29

    Infants and children with chronic diarrhea (CD) often require specialized foods or parenteral nutrition (PN) to achieve adequate nutrient intakes to support growth and development. We assessed the efficacy of an amino acid-based formula (AAF) in supporting growth and improving symptoms in infants and children with CD from multiple etiologies. Two studies were conducted: CD study in children (CD-C) and CD study in infants (CD-I). Each was a single group, baseline-controlled study in which each subject served as his/her own control. At enrollment, all subjects had CD lasting > 2 weeks and had ≥ 4 stools/day. Subjects were fed an AAF for 80 days starting at SD5, and were assessed at SD 28 and 84. 18 of 19 subjects completed the study. At enrollment, the mean age was 5.6 ± 0.7 years, the most common diagnosis was short bowel syndrome (SBS) (n = 13), and 5 subjects with SBS were on PN. Subjects achieved significant increases in weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.026). Over 50% of subjects achieved improvements in clinical outcomes targeted most frequently by their physicians. Of the five subjects on PN at enrollment, four had substantial weight gain and four had their PN requirements decreased. CD-I: 22 of 27 subjects completed the study. At enrollment, the mean age was 3.3 ± 0.3 months, the most common diagnosis was food allergy (n = 20), and no subjects were on PN. Subjects achieved significant increases in weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.0023), significant decreases in the number of stools/day (p = 0.0012), and improvements in stool consistency (p = 0.0024). Over 80% of subjects achieved improvements in the clinical outcomes targeted most frequently by their physicians. Infants and children with CD fed an AAF for three months displayed significant improvements in weight-for-age z-scores and clinical symptoms. Children dependent on PN also grew well and four of five decreased their dependence on PN. Both trials were registered on ClinTrials.gov (CD-C, NCT01812629; CD

  19. Electricity Generation Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aabakken, Jorn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ganda, Francesco [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tarka, Thomas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Brewer, John [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Schultz, Travis [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of national laboratory analysts over the period October 2015 to May 2016 and is part of a series of studies that provide background material to inform development of the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). The report focuses specifically on U.S. power sector generation. The report limits itself to the generation sector and does not address in detail parallel issues in electricity end use, transmission and distribution, markets and policy design, and other important segments. The report lists 15 key findings about energy system needs of the future.

  20. Men who have sex with men more often chose daily than event-driven use of pre-exposure prophylaxis: baseline analysis of a demonstration study in Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoornenborg, Elske; Achterbergh, Roel Ca; van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim; Davidovich, Udi; van der Helm, Jannie J; Hogewoning, Arjan; van Duijnhoven, Yvonne Thp; Sonder, Gerard Jb; de Vries, Henry Jc; Prins, Maria

    2018-03-01

    The Amsterdam PrEP project is a prospective, open-label demonstration study at a large sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. We examined the uptake of PrEP; the baseline characteristics of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender persons initiating PrEP; their choices of daily versus event-driven PrEP and the determinants of these choices. From August 2015 through May 2016, enrolment took place at the STI clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. MSM or transgender persons were eligible if they had at least one risk factor for HIV infection within the preceding six months. Participants were offered a choice between daily or event-driven use of tenofovir/emtricitabine. Baseline data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis was employed to determine variables associated with daily versus event-driven PrEP. Online applications were submitted by 870 persons, of whom 587 were invited for a screening visit. Of them, 415 were screened for eligibility and 376 initiated PrEP. One quarter (103/376, 27%) chose event-driven PrEP. Prevalence of bacterial STI was 19.0% and mean condomless anal sex (CAS) episodes in the preceding three months were 11. In multivariable analysis, older age (≥45 vs. ≤34, aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9), being involved in a steady relationship (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.7), no other daily medication use (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9), and fewer episodes of CAS (per log increase aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.9) were determinants for choosing event-driven PrEP. PrEP programmes are becoming one of the more important intervention strategies with the goal of reducing incident HIV-infection and we were unable to accommodate many of the persons applying for this study. Offering a choice of dosing regimen to PrEP users may enable further personalization of HIV prevention strategies and enhance up-take, adherence and cost-effectiveness. The majority of participants preferred daily versus event

  1. Models to Study NK Cell Biology and Possible Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Anthony E; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Aguilar, Ethan G; Murphy, William J

    2015-08-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes of the innate immune system, responsible for direct targeting and killing of both virally infected and transformed cells. NK cells rapidly recognize and respond to abnormal cells in the absence of prior sensitization due to their wide array of germline-encoded inhibitory and activating receptors, which differs from the receptor diversity found in B and T lymphocytes that is due to the use of recombination-activation gene (RAG) enzymes. Although NK cells have traditionally been described as natural killers that provide a first line of defense prior to the induction of adaptive immunity, a more complex view of NK cells is beginning to emerge, indicating they may also function in various immunoregulatory roles and have the capacity to shape adaptive immune responses. With the growing appreciation for the diverse functions of NK cells, and recent technological advancements that allow for a more in-depth understanding of NK cell biology, we can now begin to explore new ways to manipulate NK cells to increase their clinical utility. In this overview unit, we introduce the reader to various aspects of NK cell biology by reviewing topics ranging from NK cell diversity and function, mouse models, and the roles of NK cells in health and disease, to potential clinical applications. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Studies on the Promotion of Biological Application by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Y. C.; Kuk, I. H.; Song, H. S.

    2006-03-01

    Radiation Technology (RT) has been widely used in most of all fields of industries, medical, bioresources, food and agriculture, public hygiene, and environment. Therefore, its application has been also researched in various parts. For industrialization of the developed technology, not only the application technology will be developed, but the accurate dosimetry and improvement of the services of irradiation practice should be performed as soon as possible. Evaluation of effects and reaction mechanism of biological materials by irradiation was performed in this year in the long term research planning. The researches and experiments were well performed and the good results were obtained. The results may be donated in the progress of radiation biology and the new establishment on the application of RT. Also, one of the results was the evaluation of the structural changes of biomolecules and its application in the fields of food and biotechnology industries. Advanced Radiation Technology Institute (ARTI) will be well settled down and promotion of research activity of newly established institute by the fundamental support of KAERI. And, ARTI can get the goal where the vision of the hub of RT in Asia/Pacific region by 2020

  3. Effectiveness of two intensive treatment methods for smoking cessation and relapse prevention in patients with coronary heart disease: study protocol and baseline description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Nadine; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian; Mudde, Aart; Verheugt, Freek W A; de Vries, Hein

    2012-05-15

    There is no more effective intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease than smoking cessation. Yet, evidence about the (cost-)effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment methods for cardiac inpatients that also suit nursing practice is scarce. This protocol describes the design of a study on the (cost-)effectiveness of two intensive smoking cessation interventions for hospitalised cardiac patients as well as first results on the inclusion rates and the characteristics of the study population. An experimental study design is used in eight cardiac wards of hospitals throughout the Netherlands to assess the (cost-)effectiveness of two intensive smoking cessation counselling methods both combined with nicotine replacement therapy. Randomization is conducted at the ward level (cross-over). Baseline and follow-up measurements after six and 12 months are obtained. Upon admission to the cardiac ward, nurses assess patients' smoking behaviour, ensure a quit advice and subsequently refer patients for either telephone counselling or face-to-face counselling. The counselling interventions have a comparable structure and content but differ in provider and delivery method, and in duration. Both counselling interventions are compared with a control group receiving no additional treatment beyond the usual care. Between December 2009 and June 2011, 245 cardiac patients who smoked prior to hospitalisation were included in the usual care group, 223 in the telephone counselling group and 157 in the face-to-face counselling group. Patients are predominantly male and have a mean age of 57 years. Acute coronary syndrome is the most frequently reported admission diagnosis. The ultimate goal of the study is to assess the effects of the interventions on smoking abstinence and their cost-effectiveness. Telephone counselling is expected to be more (cost-)effective in highly motivated patients and patients with high SES, whereas face-to-face counselling is expected to be

  4. The burden of non-communicable disease in transition communities in an Asian megacity: baseline findings from a cohort study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal S; Lotia-Farrukh, Ismat; Khan, Aamir J; Siddiqui, Saad Tariq; Sajun, Sana Zehra; Malik, Amyn Abdul; Burfat, Aziza; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Codlin, Andrew J; Reininger, Belinda M; McCormick, Joseph B; Afridi, Nadeem; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P

    2013-01-01

    The demographic transition in South Asia coupled with unplanned urbanization and lifestyle changes are increasing the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) where infectious diseases are still highly prevalent. The true magnitude and impact of this double burden of disease, although predicted to be immense, is largely unknown due to the absence of recent, population-based longitudinal data. The present study was designed as a unique 'Framingham-like' Pakistan cohort with the objective of measuring the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection in a multi-ethnic, middle to low income population of Karachi, Pakistan. We selected two administrative areas from a private charitable hospital's catchment population for enrolment of a random selection of cohort households in Karachi, Pakistan. A baseline survey measured the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection. Six hundred and sixty-seven households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011. A majority of households lived in permanent structures (85%) with access to basic utilities (77%) and sanitation facilities (98%) but limited access to clean drinking water (68%). Households had high ownership of communication technologies in the form of cable television (69%) and mobile phones (83%). Risk factors for NCD, such as tobacco use (45%), overweight (20%), abdominal obesity (53%), hypertension (18%), diabetes (8%) and pre-diabetes (40%) were high. At the same time, infectious diseases such as hepatitis B (24%) and hepatitis C (8%) were prevalent in this population. Our findings highlight the need to monitor risk factors and disease trends through longitudinal research in high-burden transition communities in the context of rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. They also demonstrate the urgency of public health intervention programs tailored for these

  5. Association of ethnicity with involuntary childlessness and perceived reasons for infertility: baseline data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmon, Anatte; Hailpern, Susan M; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Polotsky, Alex J

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate whether ethnicity is associated with involuntary childlessness and perceived reasons for difficulties in becoming pregnant. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort. Multiethnic, community-based observational study of US women. Women in midlife (3,149), aged 42-52 years. None. Involuntary childlessness and perceived etiology of infertility. One hundred thirty-three subjects (4.2%) were involuntarily childless, defined by a reported history of infertility and nulliparity. Ethnicity was significantly associated with self-reported involuntary childlessness. After controlling for economic and other risk factors, African American (odds ratio [OR] 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.59) and Chinese women (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.14-0.90) were less likely to suffer from involuntary childlessness compared with non-Hispanic white women. In addition, 302 subjects reported a perceived etiology of infertility. An unexpectedly large proportion of these women (24.5%, 74 of 302) reported etiologies not known to cause infertility (i.e., tipped uterus, ligaments for tubes were stretched), with African American women having been most likely to report these etiologies (OR 2.81; 95% CI 1.26-6.28) as the reason for not becoming pregnant. Ethnicity is significantly associated with involuntary childlessness and perceived etiology of infertility. Misattribution of causes of infertility is common and merits further consideration with respect to language or cultural barriers, as well as possible physician misattribution. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and correlates of adolescent dating violence: baseline study of a cohort of 7,960 male and female Mexican public school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Rodríguez-Ortega, Graciela; Chávez-Ayala, Rubén; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2007-06-01

    Factors correlated with adolescent dating violence have yet to be documented in most developing countries; this study assesses the prevalence and correlates of victimization with and perpetration of dating violence among Mexican youth. This was the baseline measurement (1998-1999) of a cohort of 7960 public school students (11-24 years) developed to explore various health behaviors in Mexican youth. Multinomial logistic regression models were constructed with adolescent dating violence as the dependent variable. Prevalence of dating violence victimization was 9.37% (female) and 8.57% (male) for psychological violence; 9.88% (female) and 22.71% (male) for physical violence, and 8.63% (female) and 15.15% (male) for both psychological and physical violence. Prevalence of perpetration was 4.21% (female) and 4.33% (male) for psychological violence; 20.99% (female) and 19.54% (male) for physical violence; and 7.48% (female) and 5.51% (male) for both types of violence. Factors associated with dating violence victimization for both genders included: two or more lifetime sexual partners and intra-familial violence. Higher age, alcohol use and illegal drug use were significantly associated with victimization only among girls. The following were significantly associated with perpetration of dating violence in both genders: gang membership, illegal drug use, two or more lifetime sexual partners and intra-familial violence. Higher age and alcohol use were significantly associated with perpetration only among girls. High or middle socio-economic status was associated with perpetration only in boys. Future research on adolescent dating violence in Mexico should further explore severity and frequency of violent behaviors, include a focus on severe dating violence and take into account the context and meaning of dating violence. A longitudinal design that allows determination of causality will also be needed in order to develop prevention strategies.

  7. The RHESA-CARE study: an extended baseline survey of the regional myocardial infarction registry of Saxony-Anhalt (RHESA) design and objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katharina; Bohley, Stefanie; Mau, Wilfried; Schmidt-Pokrzywniak, Andrea

    2016-08-17

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in Europe. In Germany, a declining mortality rate from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been observed in the last decades. Nevertheless, there are large differences between the federal states when looking at the mortality and morbidity of AMI. Saxony-Anhalt is one of the federal states with the highest mortality rates for AMI in Germany. In 2012, the regional myocardial infarction registry of Saxony-Anhalt (RHESA) was established to investigate the individual, infrastructural, and health care factors with respect to an urban (city of Halle) and rural (region of Altmark) population. For detailed observation the RHESA-CARE study was conducted in 2014. RHESA-CARE focuses on the symptoms during infarction, the behaviour of patients while alerting for infarction, the use of rehabilitation possibilities, and long-term care. RHESA-CARE is an extended baseline survey of AMI patients registered in RHESA who are aged 25 or more, and inhabitants of the city of Halle (Saale) or the district of Altmark in the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Detailed information was collected on classical and psychosocial cardiovascular risk factors as well as factors of alerting behaviour, first aid, and utilization of medical and rehabilitation services. High data quality is ensured by a detailed system of quality control. RHESA-CARE has the main objective to investigate factors that influence morbidity and mortality rates due to AMI. Another purpose is the comparison of a rural and urban patient population. It provides an opportunity to serve as a base for improvement of patients' behaviour and health care as well as further research.

  8. The burden of non-communicable disease in transition communities in an Asian megacity: baseline findings from a cohort study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S Khan

    Full Text Available The demographic transition in South Asia coupled with unplanned urbanization and lifestyle changes are increasing the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD where infectious diseases are still highly prevalent. The true magnitude and impact of this double burden of disease, although predicted to be immense, is largely unknown due to the absence of recent, population-based longitudinal data. The present study was designed as a unique 'Framingham-like' Pakistan cohort with the objective of measuring the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection in a multi-ethnic, middle to low income population of Karachi, Pakistan.We selected two administrative areas from a private charitable hospital's catchment population for enrolment of a random selection of cohort households in Karachi, Pakistan. A baseline survey measured the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension, obesity, diabetes, coronary artery disease and hepatitis B and C infection.Six hundred and sixty-seven households were enrolled between March 2010 and August 2011. A majority of households lived in permanent structures (85% with access to basic utilities (77% and sanitation facilities (98% but limited access to clean drinking water (68%. Households had high ownership of communication technologies in the form of cable television (69% and mobile phones (83%. Risk factors for NCD, such as tobacco use (45%, overweight (20%, abdominal obesity (53%, hypertension (18%, diabetes (8% and pre-diabetes (40% were high. At the same time, infectious diseases such as hepatitis B (24% and hepatitis C (8% were prevalent in this population.Our findings highlight the need to monitor risk factors and disease trends through longitudinal research in high-burden transition communities in the context of rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles. They also demonstrate the urgency of public health intervention programs tailored for

  9. The Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study. I. Baseline sensitivity and specificity of the frequency doubling perimeter and the GDx nerve fibre analyser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeg, GP; Blanksma, LJ; Hardus, PLLJ; Jansonius, NM

    Purpose: To describe the baseline data of a large cohort of patients included for follow-up with perimetry using the frequency doubling technique (FDT) and with quantification of the retinal nerve fibre layer as assessed by GDx, and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of both devices from

  10. Usefulness of the Bolus-Tracking Baseline Scan for the Diagnosis of Hepatic Steatosis in Abdominal Computed Tomography: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossner, J.; Schäfer, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common pathology in western societies. Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) of the liver is a valuable tool in determining the presence of steatosis hepatis, but in most departments standard CT protocols of abdomen often do not include unenhanced scans anymore. In a small series of 22 patients the liver density was measured in the acquired low-dose baseline scan for bolus tracking and was compared to the measurement in a regular unenhanced CT scan of the upper abdomen. The mean difference between the unenhanced CT scan and the low-dose baseline scan was 3.4 HU (range 0.2–8.6 HU); the difference between these two scans was 5 HU or smaller in 82% of the patients. There was a significant difference between the two used CT scanners; this has to be kept in mind before implementing this approach into daily practice. All but one patient with fatty liver disease on unenhanced CT were diagnosed using the baseline scan. The baseline scan for bolus tracking may be useful for the diagnosis or in the followup of fatty liver disease

  11. Recommendations for designing and conducting veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K

    2017-01-01

    The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review and sele......The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review...

  12. DairyBISS Baseline report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, N.N.; Berhanu, Tinsae; Murutse, Girmay; Vugt, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are

  13. Population Study of Urban, Rural, and Semiurban Regions for the Detection of Endovascular Disease and Prevalence of Risk Factors and Holistic Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design, and Baseline Characteristics of PURSE-HIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanikachalam, Sadagopan; Harivanzan, Vijayakumar; Mahadevan, Murugappapillai V; Murthy, J S N; Anbarasi, Chandrasekar; Saravanababu, Chidambaram S; Must, Aviva; Baliga, Ragavendra R; Abraham, William T; Thanikachalam, Mohan

    2015-12-01

    We designed and implemented the PURSE-HIS (Population Study of Urban, Rural and Semiurban Regions for the Detection of Endovascular Disease and Prevalence of Risk Factors and Holistic Intervention Study) to understand the prevalence and progression of subclinical and overt endovascular disease (EVD) and its risk factors in urban, semiurban, and rural communities in South India. The study is also designed to generate clinical evidence for effective, affordable, and sustainable community-specific intervention strategies to control risks factors for EVD. As of June 2012, 8,080 (urban: 2,221; semiurban: 2,821; rural: 3,038) participants >20 years of age were recruited using 2-stage cluster sampling. Baseline measurements included standard cardiovascular disease risk factors, sociodemographic factors, lifestyle habits, psychosocial factors, and nutritional assessment. Fasting blood samples were assayed for putative biochemical risk factors and urine samples for microalbuminuria. All nondiabetic participants underwent oral glucose tolerance test with blood and urine samples collected every 30 min for 2 h. Additional baseline measurements included flow-mediated brachial artery endothelial vasodilation, assessment of carotid intimal medial wall thickness using ultrasonography, screening for peripheral vascular disease using ankle and brachial blood pressures, hemodynamic screening using a high-fidelity applanation tonometry to measure central blood pressure parameters, and aortic pulse wave velocity. To assess prevalence of coronary artery disease, all participants underwent surface electrocardiography and documentation of ventricular wall motion abnormality and function using echocardiography imaging. To detect subclinical lesions, all eligible participants completed an exercise treadmill test. Prospectively, the study will assess progression of subclinical and overt EVD, including risk factor-outcome relation differences across communities. The study will also evaluate

  14. Long-lived radionuclides in seabed of the Baltic Sea. Report of the sediment baseline study of HELCOM MORS-PRO in 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Jukka Mattila, J.; Nielsen, S.P.; Jakobson, E.; Herrmann, J.; Graveris, V.; Vilimaite-Silobritiene, B.; Suplinska, M.; Stepanov, A.; Luening, M.

    2007-01-01

    when considering sediment results. This report presents the results of a Sediment Baseline Study carried out by the HELCOM Project Group for Monitoring of Radioactive Substances in the Baltic Sea (HELCOM MORS-PRO) in 2000-2005. The goal of the study was to complement the knowledge and inventories of long-lived radionuclides in the seabed of the Baltic Sea by providing additional data from so-called 'white areas' lacking data, and from radionuclides that were not measured in earlier surveys. (orig.)

  15. Sanitation facilities, hygienic conditions, and prevalence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Baseline survey of a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Bezatu; Kloos, Helmut; Medhin, Girmay; Mulat, Worku

    2017-01-01

    Background In developing countries, children under the age of five years who live in slums are highly vulnerable to diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions to acute diarrhea among under-five children in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study examines the sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions in the slums of Addis Ababa and identifies the main factors significantly associated with acute diarrhea among children aged 0–50 months in those slums. Methods A community-based cross-sectional household survey was carried out between September and November 2014, that then served as the baseline survey of a longitudinal study. For this survey, 697 children aged 0–50 months were recruited from two slum districts in Addis Ababa. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used for data collection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sanitation facilities and hygiene-related factors that were significantly associated with acute diarrhea by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic factors. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the strength of association. Main findings The prevalence of acute diarrhea among children aged 0–50 months in the study area was 11.9% and 94.6% of the sanitation facilities were unimproved. Sharing of a sanitation facility by six or more households (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4–9.4), proximity of sanitation facilities within 15 meters of homes (AOR = 6.6; 95% CI: 2.5–17.0), presence of feces (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5–10.3) and flies (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3–5.0) on the floor of and/or around sanitation facilities, and presence of uncollected garbage inside house compounds (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2–8.4) were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. Conclusion This study reveals the slum

  16. Correlation between baseline femoral neck marrow status and the development of femoral head osteonecrosis in corticosteroid-treated patients: A longitudinal study by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vande Berg, Bruno C. [Radiology Department, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: vandeberg@rdgn.ucl.ac.be; Gilon, Raphael [Radiology Department, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Malghem, Jacques [Radiology Department, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Lecouvet, Frederic [Radiology Department, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Depresseux, Genevieve [Rheumatology Department, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Houssiau, Frederic A. [Rheumatology Department, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that the development of corticosteroid (CS)-associated femoral head osteonecrosis (ON) is influenced by baseline femoral neck marrow status. Patients and methods: The population consisted of 20 untreated patients with a newly diagnosed rheumatic disease in whom a standardized CS regimen was planned. Before CS treatment, baseline femoral neck marrow status was determined by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on T1-weighted images (proportion of surface area of femoral neck and intertrochanteric area occupied by fatty marrow; index of marrow conversion [IMC]) and on a quantitative MR sequence (bulk T1 values of femoral head and neck). The presence of ON was assessed by coronal T1-weighted MR images of the hips at 6 and 12 months. Results: None of the patients suffered from ON at baseline. Four patients (20%) developed bilateral femoral head ON at 6 months. The mean percentage of fat marrow in t