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Sample records for baseline anti-malarial treatment

  1. Molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Lahj Governorate, Yemen: baseline data and implications

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    Chance Michael L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is an investigation of anti-malarial molecular markers coupled with a therapeutic efficacy test of chloroquine (CQ against falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria in Lahj Governorate, Yemen. The study was aimed at assessment of therapeutic response to CQ and elucidation of baseline information on molecular markers for Plasmodium falciparum resistance against CQ and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP. Methods Between 2002 and 2003 the field test was conducted according to the standard WHO protocol to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in 124 patients with falciparum malaria in an endemic area in Lahj Governorate in Yemen. Blood samples collected during this study were analysed for P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt-76 polymorphisms, mutation pfcrt-S163R and the antifolate resistance-associated mutations dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr-C59R and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps-K540E. Direct DNA sequencing of the pfcrt gene from three representative field samples was carried out after DNA amplification of the 13 exons of the pfcrt gene. Results Treatment failure was detected in 61% of the 122 cases that completed the 14-day follow-up. The prevalence of mutant pfcrt T76 was 98% in 112 amplified pre-treatment samples. The presence of pfcrt T76 was poorly predictive of in vivo CQ resistance (PPV = 61.8%, 95% CI = 52.7-70.9. The prevalence of dhfr Arg-59 mutation in 99 amplified samples was 5%, while the dhps Glu-540 was not detected in any of 119 amplified samples. Sequencing the pfcrt gene confirmed that Yemeni CQ resistant P. falciparum carry the old world (Asian and African CQ resistant haplotype CVIETSESI at positions 72,73,74,75,76,220,271, 326 and 371. Conclusion This is the first study to report baseline information on the characteristics and implications of anti-malarial drug resistance markers in Yemen. It is also the first report of the haplotype associated with CQR P. falciparum

  2. Saleability of anti-malarials in private drug shops in Muheza, Tanzania: a baseline study in an era of assumed artemisinin combination therapy (ACT

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    Ringsted Frank M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemether-lumefantrine (ALu replaced sulphadoxine-pymimethamine (SP as the official first-line anti-malarial in Tanzania in November 2006. So far, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT is contra-indicated during pregnancy by the national malaria treatment guidelines, and pregnant women depend on SP for Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp during pregnancy. SP is still being dispensed by private drug stores, but it is unknown to which extent. If significant, it may undermine its official use for IPTp through induction of resistance. The main study objective was to perform a baseline study of the private market for anti-malarials in Muheza town, an area with widespread anti-malarial drug resistance, prior to the implementation of a provider training and accreditation programme that will allow accredited drug shops to sell subsidized ALu. Methods All drug shops selling prescription-only anti-malarials, in Muheza town, Tanga Region voluntarily participated from July to December 2009. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with owners or shopkeepers on saleability of anti-malarials, and structured questionnaires provided quantitative data on drugs sales volume. Results All surveyed drug shops illicitly sold SP and quinine (QN, and legally amodiaquine (AQ. Calculated monthly sale was 4,041 doses, in a town with a population of 15,000 people. Local brands of SP accounted for 74% of sales volume, compared to AQ (13%, QN (11% and ACT (2%. Conclusions In community practice, the saleability of ACT was negligible. SP was best-selling, and use was not reserved for IPTp, as stipulated in the national anti-malarial policy. It is a major reason for concern that such drug-pressure in the community equals de facto intermittent presumptive treatment. In an area where SP drug resistance remains high, unregulated SP dispensing to people other than pregnant women runs the risk of eventually jeopardizing the effectiveness of the IPTp

  3. A retrospective analysis of the change in anti-malarial treatment policy: Peru

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    Vincent-Mark Arlene

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National malaria control programmes must deal with the complex process of changing national malaria treatment guidelines, often without guidance on the process of change. Selecting a replacement drug is only one issue in this process. There is a paucity of literature describing successful malaria treatment policy changes to help guide control programs through this process. Objectives To understand the wider context in which national malaria treatment guidelines were formulated in a specific country (Peru. Methods Using qualitative methods (individual and focus group interviews, stakeholder analysis and a review of documents, a retrospective analysis of the process of change in Peru's anti-malarial treatment policy from the early 1990's to 2003 was completed. Results The decision to change Peru's policies resulted from increasing levels of anti-malarial drug resistance, as well as complaints from providers that the drugs were no longer working. The context of the change occurred in a time in which Peru was changing national governments, which created extreme challenges in moving the change process forward. Peru utilized a number of key strategies successfully to ensure that policy change would occur. This included a having the process directed by a group who shared a common interest in malaria and who had long-established social and professional networks among themselves, b engaging in collaborative teamwork among nationals and between nationals and international collaborators, c respect for and inclusion of district-level staff in all phases of the process, d reliance on high levels of technical and scientific knowledge, e use of standardized protocols to collect data, and f transparency. Conclusion Although not perfectly or fully implemented by 2003, the change in malaria treatment policy in Peru occurred very quickly, as compared to other countries. They identified a problem, collected the data necessary to justify the

  4. Saleability of anti-malarials in private drug shops in Muheza, Tanzania: a baseline study in an era of assumed artemisinin combination therapy (ACT)

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    Ringsted Frank M; Massawe Isolide S; Lemnge Martha M; Bygbjerg Ib C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) replaced sulphadoxine-pymimethamine (SP) as the official first-line anti-malarial in Tanzania in November 2006. So far, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is contra-indicated during pregnancy by the national malaria treatment guidelines, and pregnant women depend on SP for Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp) during pregnancy. SP is still being dispensed by private drug stores, but it is unknown to which extent. If significant, it may u...

  5. Gel versus capillary electrophoresis genotyping for categorizing treatment outcomes in two anti-malarial trials in Uganda

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    Hubbard Alan E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular genotyping is performed in anti-malarial trials to determine whether recurrent parasitaemia after therapy represents a recrudescence (treatment failure or new infection. The use of capillary instead of agarose gel electrophoresis for genotyping offers technical advantages, but it is unclear whether capillary electrophoresis will result in improved classification of anti-malarial treatment outcomes. Methods Samples were genotyped using both gel and capillary electrophoresis from randomized trials of artemether-lumefantrine (AL vs. dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP performed in two areas of Uganda: Kanungu, where transmission is moderate, and Apac, where transmission is very high. Both gel and capillary methods evaluated polymorphic regions of the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 and glutamine rich protein genes. Results Capillary electrophoresis detected more alleles and provided higher discriminatory power than agarose gel electrophoresis at both study sites. There was only moderate agreement between classification of outcomes with the two methods in Kanungu (kappa = 0.66 and poor agreement in Apac (kappa = 0.24. Overall efficacy results were similar when using gel vs. capillary methods in Kanungu (42-day risk of treatment failure for AL: 6.9% vs. 5.5%, p = 0.4; DP 2.4% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.5. However, the measured risk of recrudescence was significantly higher when using gel vs. capillary electrophoresis in Apac (risk of treatment failure for AL: 17.0% vs. 10.7%, p = 0.02; DP: 8.5% vs. 3.4%, p = 0.03. Risk differences between AL and DP were not significantly different whether gel or capillary methods were used. Conclusions Genotyping with gel electrophoresis overestimates the risk of recrudescence in anti-malarial trials performed in areas of high transmission intensity. Capillary electrophoresis provides more accurate outcomes for such trials and should be performed when possible. In areas of moderate transmission

  6. Multiple treatment comparisons in a series of anti-malarial trials with an ordinal primary outcome and repeated treatment evaluations

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    Youdom Solange

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT are widely used in African countries, including Cameroon. Between 2005 and 2007, five randomized studies comparing different treatment arms among artesunate-amodiaquine and other ACT were conducted in Cameroonian children aged two to 60 months who had uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In these studies, the categorical criterion proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO to assess the relative effectiveness of anti-malarial drugs was repeatedly evaluated on Days 14, 21 and 28 after treatment initiation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different treatments on this repeated ordinal outcome, hence using the fully available information. Methods The quantitative synthesis was based on individual patient data. Due to the incomplete block design concerning treatment arms between different trials, a mixed treatment comparison (MTC meta-analysis approach was adopted. The repeated ordinal outcome was modelled through a latent variable, as a proportional odds mixed model with trial, period and treatment arms as covariates. The model was further complexified to account for the variance heterogeneity, and the individual log-residual variance was modelled as a linear mixed model, as well. The effects of individual covariates at inclusion, such as parasitaemia, fever, gender and weight, were also tested. Model parameters were estimated using a Bayesian approach via the WinBUGS software. After selecting the best model using Deviance Information Criterion (DIC, mixed treatment comparisons were based on the estimated treatment effects. Results Modeling the residual variance improved the model ability to adjust the data. The results showed that, compared to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHPP was significantly more efficacious. Artesunate-chlorproguanil-dapsone (ASCD was less efficacious than artesunate

  7. Anti-malarial Drug Design by Targeting Apicoplasts: New Perspectives

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    Avinaba Mukherjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Malaria has been a major global health problem in recent times with increasing mortality. Current treatment methods include parasiticidal drugs and vaccinations. However, resistance among malarial parasites to the existing drugs has emerged as a significant area of concern in anti-malarial drug design. Researchers are now desperately looking for new targets to develop anti-malarials drug which is more target specific. Malarial parasites harbor a plastid-like organelle known as the ‘apicoplast’, which is thought to provide an exciting new outlook for the development of drugs to be used against the parasite. This review elaborates on the current state of development of novel compounds targeted againstemerging malaria parasites. Methods: The apicoplast, originates by an endosymbiotic process, contains a range of metabolic pathways and housekeeping processes that differ from the host body and thereby presents ideal strategies for anti-malarial drug therapy. Drugs are designed by targeting the unique mechanism of the apicoplasts genetic machinery. Several anabolic and catabolic processes, like fatty acid, isopenetyl diphosphate and heme synthess in this organelle, have also been targeted by drugs. Results: Apicoplasts offer exciting opportunities for the development of malarial treatment specific drugs have been found to act by disrupting this organelle’s function, which wouldimpede the survival of the parasite. Conclusion: Recent advanced drugs, their modes of action, and their advantages in the treatment of malaria by using apicoplasts as a target are discussed in this review which thought to be very useful in desigining anti-malarial drugs. Targetting the genetic machinery of apicoplast shows a great advantange regarding anti-malarial drug design. Critical knowledge of these new drugs would give a healthier understanding for deciphering the mechanism of action of anti-malarial drugs when targeting apicoplasts to overcome drug

  8. High prevalence of pfdhfr-pfdhps triple mutations associated with anti-malarial drugs resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates seven years after the adoption of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in combination with artesunate as first-line treatment in Iran.

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    Rouhani, Maryam; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Pirahmadi, Sakineh; Raeisi, Ahmad; Djadid, Navid Dinparast

    2015-04-01

    The spread of anti-malarial drug resistance will challenge any malaria control and elimination strategies, and routine monitoring of resistance-associated molecular markers of commonly used anti-malarial drugs is very important. Therefore, in the present investigation, the extent of mutations/haplotypes in dhfr and dhps genes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates (n=72) was analyzed seven years after the introduction of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus artesunate (AS) as first-line anti-malarial treatment in Iran using PCR-RFLP methods. The results showed that the majority of the patients (97.2%) carried both 59R and 108N mutations in pure form with wild-type genotype at positions N51 and I164. Additionally, a significant increase (Pdrug for treatment of falciparum patients in these malaria-endemic areas of Iran. However, no quintuple mutations associated with treatment failure were detected. In conclusion, the present results along with in vivo assays suggest that seven years after the adoption of SP-AS as the first-line treatment in Iran, this drug remains efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, as a partner drug with AS in these malaria-endemic areas.

  9. Artemisinin anti-malarial drugs in China.

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    Guo, Zongru

    2016-03-01

    Discovered by Youyou Tu, one of the 2015 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine, together with many other Chinese scientists, artemisinin, artemether and artesunate, as well as other artemisinins, have brought the global anti-malarial treatment to a new era, saving millions of lives all around the world for the past 40 years. The discoveries of artemisinins were carried out beginning from the 1970s, a special period in China, by hundreds of scientists all together under the "whole nation" system. This article focusing on medicinal chemistry research, briefly introduced the discovery and invention course of the scientists according to the published papers, and highlighted their academic contribution and achievements. PMID:27006895

  10. Therapeutic and prophylactic effect of intermittent preventive anti-malarial treatment in infants (IPTi from Ghana and Gabon

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    Kreuels Benno

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP reduces the incidence of malaria episodes in young children. The exact mechanism by which the protective effect is mediated needs to be defined. This study aimed to investigate therapeutic, prophylactic, and possible exceeding effects of SP-based IPTi in two clinical trials. Methods Protective efficacies from two IPTi trials performed in Kumasi, Ghana, and Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for overlapping time series of 61 days. For six-months periods after each of three IPTi doses a multivariate Poisson regression model with the respective cohort as co-variate was generated and effect modification of protective efficacy with time strata was evaluated by log-likelihood tests. Results Protective efficacies were not significantly different between the two study cohorts. Study-cohort corrected protective efficacy was highest for the first 61 days after each IPTi application and decreased continuously. For the first 61 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2, and IPTi-3 the protective efficacy was 71%, 44%, and 43%, respectively. A reduction of the malaria incidence rate was detectable for the first 60, 30 and 40 days after IPTi-1, IPTi-2 and IPTi-3 drug application, respectively. After IPTi-3 a higher risk for malaria could be seen after day 60. This effect was mainly based on the overwhelming influence of the Kumasi cohort. Conclusion The results suggest that SP-based IPTi mainly works through a therapeutic and prophylactic effect over 30 to 60 days after drug application and that a sustained effect beyond post-treatment prophylaxis might be very low. Trial registration Data analysis from clinical trials NCT ID # 00206739 (Kumasi Trial and NCT ID # 00167843 (Lambaréné Trial, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  11. Review of pyronaridine anti-malarial properties and product characteristics

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    Croft Simon L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pyronaridine was synthesized in 1970 at the Institute of Chinese Parasitic Disease and has been used in China for over 30 years for the treatment of malaria. Pyronaridine has high potency against Plasmodium falciparum, including chloroquine-resistant strains. Studies in various animal models have shown pyronaridine to be effective against strains resistant to other anti-malarials, including chloroquine. Resistance to pyronaridine appears to emerge slowly and is further retarded when pyronaridine is used in combination with other anti-malarials, in particular, artesunate. Pyronaridine toxicity is generally less than that of chloroquine, though evidence of embryotoxicity in rodents suggests use with caution in pregnancy. Clinical pharmacokinetic data for pyronaridine indicates an elimination T1/2 of 13.2 and 9.6 days, respectively, in adults and children with acute uncomplicated falciparum and vivax malaria in artemisinin-combination therapy. Clinical data for mono or combined pyronaridine therapy show excellent anti-malarial effects against P. falciparum and studies of combination therapy also show promise against Plasmodium vivax. Pyronaridine has been developed as a fixed dose combination therapy, in a 3:1 ratio, with artesunate for the treatment of acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and blood stage P. vivax malaria with the name of Pyramax® and has received Positive Opinion by European Medicines Agency under the Article 58 procedure.

  12. Does anti-malarial drug knowledge predict anti-malarial dispensing practice in drug outlets? A survey of medicine retailers in western Kenya

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    Rusk Andria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya, where it is the fifth leading cause of death in both children and adults. Effectively managing malaria is dependent upon appropriate treatment. In Kenya, between 17 to 83 percent of febrile individuals first seek treatment for febrile illness over the counter from medicine retailers. Understanding medicine retailer knowledge and behaviour in treating suspected malaria and dispensing anti-malarials is crucial. Methods To investigate medicine retailer knowledge about anti-malarials and their dispensing practices, a survey was conducted of all retail drug outlets that sell anti-malarial medications and serve residents of the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in the Bungoma East District of western Kenya. Results Most of the medicine retailers surveyed (65% were able to identify artemether-lumefantrine (AL as the Kenyan Ministry of Health recommended first-line anti-malarial therapy for uncomplicated malaria. Retailers who correctly identified this treatment were also more likely to recommend AL to adult and paediatric customers. However, the proportion of medicine retailers who recommend the correct treatment is disappointingly low. Only 48% would recommend AL to adults, and 37% would recommend it to children. It was discovered that customer demand has an influence on retailer behaviour. Retailer training and education were found to be correlated with anti-malarial drug knowledge, which in turn is correlated with dispensing practices. Medicine retailer behaviour, including patient referral practice and dispensing practices, are also correlated with knowledge of the first-line anti-malarial medication. The Kenya Ministry of Health guidelines were found to influence retailer drug stocking and dispensing behaviours. Conclusion Most medicine retailers could identify the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but the percentage that could

  13. Case management of malaria fever in Cambodia: results from national anti-malarial outlet and household surveys

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    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continued progress towards global reduction in morbidity and mortality due to malaria requires scale-up of effective case management with artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT. The first case of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum was documented in western Cambodia. Spread of artemisinin resistance would threaten recent gains in global malaria control. As such, the anti-malarial market and malaria case management practices in Cambodia have global significance. Methods Nationally-representative household and outlet surveys were conducted in 2009 among areas in Cambodia with malaria risk. An anti-malarial audit was conducted among all public and private outlets with the potential to sell anti-malarials. Indicators on availability, price and relative volumes sold/distributed were calculated across types of anti-malarials and outlets. The household survey collected information about management of recent "malaria fevers." Case management in the public versus private sector, and anti-malarial treatment based on malaria diagnostic testing were examined. Results Most public outlets (85% and nearly half of private pharmacies, clinics and drug stores stock ACT. Oral artemisinin monotherapy was found in pharmacies/clinics (9%, drug stores (14%, mobile providers (4% and grocery stores (2%. Among total anti-malarial volumes sold/distributed nationally, 6% are artemisinin monotherapies and 72% are ACT. Only 45% of people with recent "malaria fever" reportedly receive a diagnostic test, and the most common treatment acquired is a drug cocktail containing no identifiable anti-malarial. A self-reported positive diagnostic test, particularly when received in the public sector, improves likelihood of receiving anti-malarial treatment. Nonetheless, anti-malarial treatment of reportedly positive cases is low among people who seek treatment exclusively in the public (61% and private (42% sectors. Conclusions While data on the anti-malarial

  14. Access to artesunate-amodiaquine, quinine and other anti-malarials: policy and markets in Burundi

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    Dismas Baza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in post-conflict Burundi. To counter the increasing challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance and improve highly effective treatment Burundi adopted artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and oral quinine as second-line treatment in its national treatment policy in 2003. Uptake of this policy in the public, private and non-governmental (NGO retail market sectors of Burundi is relatively unknown. This study was conducted to evaluate access to national policy recommended anti-malarials. Methods Adapting a standardized methodology developed by Health Action International/World Health Organization (HAI/WHO, a cross-sectional survey of 70 (24 public, 36 private, and 10 NGO medicine outlets was conducted in three regions of Burundi, representing different levels of transmission of malaria. The availability on day of the survey, the median prices, and affordability (in terms of number of days' wages to purchase treatment of AS-AQ, quinine and other anti-malarials were calculated. Results Anti-malarials were stocked in all outlets surveyed. AS-AQ was available in 87.5%, 33.3%, and 90% of public, private, and NGO retail outlets, respectively. Quinine was the most common anti-malarial found in all outlet types. Non-policy recommended anti-malarials were mainly found in the private outlets (38.9% compared to public (4.2% and NGO (0% outlets. The median price of a course of AS-AQ was US$0.16 (200 Burundi Francs, FBu for the public and NGO markets, and 3.5-fold higher in the private sector (US$0.56 or 700 FBu. Quinine tablets were similarly priced in the public (US$1.53 or 1,892.50 FBu, private and NGO sectors (both US$1.61 or 2,000 FBu. Non-policy anti-malarials were priced 50-fold higher than the price of AS-AQ in the public sector. A course of AS-AQ was affordable at 0.4 of a day's wage in the public and NGO sectors

  15. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

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    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  16. Artemisinins: pharmacological actions beyond anti-malarial.

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    Ho, Wanxing Eugene; Peh, Hong Yong; Chan, Tze Khee; Wong, W S Fred

    2014-04-01

    Artemisinins are a family of sesquiterpene trioxane lactone anti-malarial agents originally derived from Artemisia annua L. The anti-malarial action of artemisinins involves the formation of free radicals via cleavage of the endoperoxide bond in its structure, which mediate eradication of the Plasmodium species. With its established safety record in millions of malarial patients, artemisinins are also being investigated in diseases like infections, cancers and inflammation. Artemisinins have been reported to possess robust inhibitory effects against viruses (e.g. Human cytomegalovirus), protozoa (e.g. Toxoplasma gondii), helminths (e.g. Schistosoma species and Fasciola hepatica) and fungi (e.g. Cryptococcus neoformans). Artemisinins have demonstrated cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest, promoting apoptosis, preventing angiogenesis, and abrogating cancer invasion and metastasis. Artemisinins have been evaluated in animal models of autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders and septic inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of artemisinins have been attributed to the inhibition of Toll-like receptors, Syk tyrosine kinase, phospholipase Cγ, PI3K/Akt, MAPK, STAT-1/3/5, NF-κB, Sp1 and Nrf2/ARE signaling pathways. This review provides a comprehensive update on non-malarial use of artemisinins, modes of action of artemisinins in different disease conditions, and drug development of artemisinins beyond anti-malarial. With the concerted efforts in the novel synthesis of artemisinin analogs and clinical pharmacology of artemisinins, it is likely that artemisinin drugs will become a major armamentarium combating a variety of human diseases beyond malaria. PMID:24316259

  17. The ACTwatch project: methods to describe anti-malarial markets in seven countries

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    Chapman Steven

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, governments and donors are faced with an information gap when considering ways to improve access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and malaria diagnostics including rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. To help address some of these gaps, a five-year multi-country research project called ACTwatch was launched. The project is designed to provide a comprehensive picture of the anti-malarial market to inform national and international anti-malarial drug policy decision-making. Methods The project is being conducted in seven malaria-endemic countries: Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia from 2008 to 2012. ACTwatch measures which anti-malarials are available, where they are available and at what price and who they are used by. These indicators are measured over time and across countries through three study components: outlet surveys, supply chain studies and household surveys. Nationally representative outlet surveys examine the market share of different anti-malarials passing through public facilities and private retail outlets. Supply chain research provides a picture of the supply chain serving drug outlets, and measures mark-ups at each supply chain level. On the demand side, nationally representative household surveys capture treatment seeking patterns and use of anti-malarial drugs, as well as respondent knowledge of anti-malarials. Discussion The research project provides findings on both the demand and supply side determinants of anti-malarial access. There are four key features of ACTwatch. First is the overlap of the three study components where nationally representative data are collected over similar periods, using a common sampling approach. A second feature is the number and diversity of countries that are studied which allows for cross-country comparisons. Another distinguishing feature is its ability to measure trends over time. Finally, the

  18. Atovaquone and quinine anti-malarials inhibit ATP binding cassette transporter activity

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    Rijpma, S.R.; Heuvel, J. J.; van de Velden, M.; Sauerwein, R. W.; Russel, F. G.; Koenderink, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic blood plasma concentrations of anti-malarial drugs are essential for successful treatment. Pharmacokinetics of pharmaceutical compounds are dependent of adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins are particularly involved in drug deposition, as they are located at membranes of many uptake and excretory organs and at protective barriers, where they export endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, including pharmaceutica...

  19. Hyperparasitaemia and low dosing are an important source of anti-malarial drug resistance

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    Lee Sue J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing the emergence of anti-malarial drug resistance is critical for the success of current malaria elimination efforts. Prevention strategies have focused predominantly on qualitative factors, such as choice of drugs, use of combinations and deployment of multiple first-line treatments. The importance of anti-malarial treatment dosing has been underappreciated. Treatment recommendations are often for the lowest doses that produce "satisfactory" results. Methods The probability of de-novo resistant malaria parasites surviving and transmitting depends on the relationship between their degree of resistance and the blood concentration profiles of the anti-malarial drug to which they are exposed. The conditions required for the in-vivo selection of de-novo emergent resistant malaria parasites were examined and relative probabilities assessed. Results Recrudescence is essential for the transmission of de-novo resistance. For rapidly eliminated anti-malarials high-grade resistance can arise from a single drug exposure, but low-grade resistance can arise only from repeated inadequate treatments. Resistance to artemisinins is, therefore, unlikely to emerge with single drug exposures. Hyperparasitaemic patients are an important source of de-novo anti-malarial drug resistance. Their parasite populations are larger, their control of the infection insufficient, and their rates of recrudescence following anti-malarial treatment are high. As use of substandard drugs, poor adherence, unusual pharmacokinetics, and inadequate immune responses are host characteristics, likely to pertain to each recurrence of infection, a small subgroup of patients provides the particular circumstances conducive to de-novo resistance selection and transmission. Conclusion Current dosing recommendations provide a resistance selection opportunity in those patients with low drug levels and high parasite burdens (often children or pregnant women. Patients with

  20. Epidemiological models for the spread of anti-malarial resistance

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    Antia R

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of drug resistance is making malaria control increasingly difficult. Mathematical models for the transmission dynamics of drug sensitive and resistant strains can be a useful tool to help to understand the factors that influence the spread of drug resistance, and they can therefore help in the design of rational strategies for the control of drug resistance. Methods We present an epidemiological framework to investigate the spread of anti-malarial resistance. Several mathematical models, based on the familiar Macdonald-Ross model of malaria transmission, enable us to examine the processes and parameters that are critical in determining the spread of resistance. Results In our simplest model, resistance does not spread if the fraction of infected individuals treated is less than a threshold value; if drug treatment exceeds this threshold, resistance will eventually become fixed in the population. The threshold value is determined only by the rates of infection and the infectious periods of resistant and sensitive parasites in untreated and treated hosts, whereas the intensity of transmission has no influence on the threshold value. In more complex models, where hosts can be infected by multiple parasite strains or where treatment varies spatially, resistance is generally not fixed, but rather some level of sensitivity is often maintained in the population. Conclusions The models developed in this paper are a first step in understanding the epidemiology of anti-malarial resistance and evaluating strategies to reduce the spread of resistance. However, specific recommendations for the management of resistance need to wait until we have more data on the critical parameters underlying the spread of resistance: drug use, spatial variability of treatment and parasite migration among areas, and perhaps most importantly, cost of resistance.

  1. Towards optimal design of anti-malarial pharmacokinetic studies.

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    White Nicholas J; Price Ric N; Jamsen Kris M; Simpson Julie A; Lindegardh Niklas; Tarning Joel; Duffull Stephen B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Characterization of anti-malarial drug concentration profiles is necessary to optimize dosing, and thereby optimize cure rates and reduce both toxicity and the emergence of resistance. Population pharmacokinetic studies determine the drug concentration time profiles in the target patient populations, including children who have limited sampling options. Currently, population pharmacokinetic studies of anti-malarial drugs are designed based on logistical, financial and ethi...

  2. Active case detection, treatment of falciparum malaria with combined chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and vivax malaria with chloroquine and molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance in the Republic of Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers William O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum was first described in the Republic of Vanuatu in the early 1980s. In 1991, the Vanuatu Ministry of Health instituted new treatment guidelines for uncomplicated P. falciparum infection consisting of chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy. Chloroquine remains the recommended treatment for Plasmodium vivax. Methods In 2005, cross-sectional blood surveys at 45 sites on Malo Island were conducted and 4,060 adults and children screened for malaria. Of those screened, 203 volunteer study subjects without malaria at the time of screening were followed for 13 weeks to observe peak seasonal incidence of infection. Another 54 subjects with malaria were followed over a 28-day period to determine efficacy of anti-malarial therapy; chloroquine alone for P. vivax and chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for P. falciparum infections. Results The overall prevalence of parasitaemia by mass blood screening was 6%, equally divided between P. falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty percent and 23% of participants with patent P. vivax and P. falciparum parasitaemia, respectively, were febrile at the time of screening. In the incidence study cohort, after 2,303 person-weeks of follow-up, the incidence density of malaria was 1.3 cases per person-year with P. vivax predominating. Among individuals participating in the clinical trial, the 28-day chloroquine P. vivax cure rate was 100%. The 28-day chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine P. falciparum cure rate was 97%. The single treatment failure, confirmed by merozoite surface protein-2 genotyping, was classified as a day 28 late parasitological treatment failure. All P. falciparum isolates carried the Thr-76 pfcrt mutant allele and the double Asn-108 + Arg-59 dhfr mutant alleles. Dhps mutant alleles were not detected in the study sample. Conclusion Peak seasonal malaria prevalence on Malo Island reached hypoendemic levels during the study

  3. Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs in Dakar, Senegal, in 2010: an ex vivo and drug resistance molecular markers study

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Bécaye; Pascual, Aurélie; Sarr, Fatoumata; Wurtz, Nathalie; Richard, Vincent; Baret, Eric; Diémé, Yaya; Briolant, Sébastien; Bercion, Raymond; Wade, Boubacar; Tall, Adama; Pradines, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2006, the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Since the introduction of ACT, there have been very few reports on the level of resistance of P. falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. To determine whether parasite susceptibility has been affected by the new anti-malarial policies, an ex vivo susceptibility and drug resistance molecular marker study was conducted on...

  4. Therapeutic efficacy of artesunate in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and anti-malarial, drug-resistance marker polymorphisms in populations near the China-Myanmar border

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    Huang Fang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome after seven-day artesunate monotherapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Yingjiang County along the China-Myanmar border and investigate genetic polymorphisms in the P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt, multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1, dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr, dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps and ATPase (pfatp6 genes. Methods Patients ≥ one year of age with fever (axillary temperature ≥37.5°C or history of fever and P. falciparum mono-infection were included. Patients received anti-malarial treatment with artesunate (total dose of 16 mg/kg over seven days by directly observed therapy. After a 28-day follow-up, treatment efficacy and effectiveness were assessed based on clinical and parasitological outcomes. Treatment failure was defined as recrudescence of the original parasite and distinguished with new infection confirmed by PCR. Analysis of gene mutation and amplification were performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. Results Sixty-five patients were enrolled; 10 withdrew from the study, and six were lost to follow-up. All but two patients demonstrated adequate clinical and parasitological response; 12 had detectable parasitaemia on day 3. These two patients were confirmed to be new infection by PCR. The efficacy of artesunate was 95.9%. The pfcrt mutation in codon 76 was found in all isolates (100%, and mutations in codons 71 and 72 were found in 4.8% of parasite isolates. No mutation of pfmdr1 (codons 86 or 1246 was found. Among all samples, 5.1% were wild type for pfdhfr, whereas the other samples had mutations in four codons (51, 59, 108 and 164, and mutations in pfdhps (codons 436, 437, 540 and 581 were found in all isolates. No samples had mutations in pfatp6 codons 623 or 769, but two new mutations (N683K and R756K were found in 4.6% and 9.2% of parasite isolates, respectively. Conclusion Plasmodium

  5. Closing the access barrier for effective anti-malarials in the private sector in rural Uganda: consortium for ACT private sector subsidy (CAPSS pilot study

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    Talisuna Ambrose O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, the treatment of choice for uncomplicated falciparum malaria, is unaffordable and generally inaccessible in the private sector, the first port of call for most malaria treatment across rural Africa. Between August 2007 and May 2010, the Uganda Ministry of Health and the Medicines for Malaria Venture conducted the Consortium for ACT Private Sector Subsidy (CAPSS pilot study to test whether access to ACT in the private sector could be improved through the provision of a high level supply chain subsidy. Methods Four intervention districts were purposefully selected to receive branded subsidized medicines - “ACT with a leaf”, while the fifth district acted as the control. Baseline and evaluation outlet exit surveys and retail audits were conducted at licensed and unlicensed drug outlets in the intervention and control districts. A survey-adjusted, multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyse the intervention’s impact on: ACT uptake and price; purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset; ACT availability and displacement of sub-optimal anti-malarial. Results At baseline, ACT accounted for less than 1% of anti-malarials purchased from licensed drug shops for children less than five years old. However, at evaluation, “ACT with a leaf” accounted for 69% of anti-malarial purchased in the interventions districts. Purchase of ACT within 24 hours of symptom onset for children under five years rose from 0.8% at baseline to 26.2% (95% CI: 23.2-29.2% at evaluation in the intervention districts. In the control district, it rose modestly from 1.8% to 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0-7.3%. The odds of purchasing ACT within 24 hours in the intervention districts compared to the control was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.08-2.68, p=0.4 at baseline and significant increased to 6.11 (95% CI: 4.32-8.62, p Conclusions These data demonstrate that a supply-side subsidy and an intensive communications campaign

  6. Saleability of anti-malarials in private drug shops in Muheza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Frank M; Massawe, Isolide S; Lemnge, Martha M;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Artemether-lumefantrine (ALu) replaced sulphadoxine-pymimethamine (SP) as the official first-line anti-malarial in Tanzania in November 2006. So far, artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) is contra-indicated during pregnancy by the national malaria treatment guidelines, and pregnant...... women depend on SP for Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp) during pregnancy. SP is still being dispensed by private drug stores, but it is unknown to which extent. If significant, it may undermine its official use for IPTp through induction of resistance. The main study objective was to perform...... of fever or malaria, and are important providers,...

  7. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  8. Fake anti-malarials: start with the facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harparkash; Clarke, Siȃn; Lalani, Mirza; Phanouvong, Souly; Guérin, Philippe; McLoughlin, Andrew; Wilson, Benjamin K; Deats, Michael; Plançon, Aline; Hopkins, Heidi; Miranda, Debora; Schellenberg, David

    2016-02-13

    This meeting report presents the key findings and discussion points of a 1-day meeting entitled 'Fake anti-malarials: start with the facts' held on 28th May 2015, in Geneva, Switzerland, to disseminate the findings of the artemisinin combination therapy consortium's drug quality programme. The teams purchased over 10,000 samples, using representative sampling approaches, from six malaria endemic countries: Equatorial Guinea (Bioko Island), Cambodia, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda and Tanzania. Laboratory analyses of these samples showed that falsified anti-malarials (fact that the WHO has urged regulatory authorities in malaria-endemic countries to take measures to halt the production and marketing of these oral monotherapies since 2007. This report summarizes the presentations that reviewed the public health impact of falsified and substandard drugs, sampling strategies, techniques for drug quality analysis, approaches to strengthen health systems capacity for the surveillance of drug quality, and the ensuing discussion points from the dissemination meeting.

  9. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a sustainable approach to improve anti-malarial drug production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe ePulice

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progresses in prevention and treatment have been developed, 198 million cases of malaria occurred in 2013, resulting in 584000 estimated deaths. 90% of all malaria deaths occurred in Africa, mostly among children under the age of five. This article aims to review malaria’s history, epidemiology and current treatments, with a particular focus on the potential of molecular farming that use metabolic engineering in plants as effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria indeed represents an example of how a health problem on one hand, may eventually influence the proper development of a country due to the burden of the disease, and on the other hand, constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is here proposed as a sustainable alternative for the production not only of natural herbal repellents used for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs like artemisinin used for primary parasite infection treatments.Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua plant. However, the low concentration of artemisinin in plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to meet the worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies, especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, a process that only takes place in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated, and significant efforts using plant genetic engineering have been made to increase the production of this compound. These include studies on diverse transcription factors, which all have been shown to regulate artemisinin genetic pathway and other biological processes. Therefore, genetic manipulation of these genes may be used as a cost-effective potential

  10. Quality of anti-malarials collected in the private and informal sectors in Guyana and Suriname

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    Evans Lawrence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector and unlicensed facilities (informal sector is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. Methods To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Results Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58% anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30 and 11% (5/47 respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32 failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45 in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86% were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. Conclusions The findings of the studies in both countries point to

  11. Anti-malarial market and policy surveys in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Sevcsik Ann-Marie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At a recent meeting (Sept 18, 2009 in which reasons for the limited access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in sub-Saharan Africa were discussed, policy and market surveys on anti-malarial drug availability and accessibility in Burundi and Sierra Leone were presented in a highly interactive brainstorming session among key stakeholders across private, public, and not-for-profit sectors. The surveys, the conduct of which directly involved the national malaria control programme managers of the two countries, provides the groundwork for evidence-based policy implementation. The results of the surveys could be extrapolated to other countries with similar socio-demographic and malaria profiles. The meeting resulted in recommendations on key actions to be taken at the global, national, and community level for better ACT accessibility. At the global level, both public and private sectors have actions to take to strengthen policies that lead to the replacement of loose blister packs with fixed-dose ACT products, develop strategies to ban inappropriate anti-malarials and regulate those bans, and facilitate technology and knowledge transfer to scale up production of fixed-dose ACT products, which should be readily available and affordable to those patients who are in the greatest need of these medicines. At the national level, policies that regulate the anti-malarial medicines market should be enacted and enforced. The public sector, including funding donors, should participate in ensuring that the private sector is engaged in the ACT implementation process. Research similar to the surveys discussed is important for other countries to develop and evaluate the right incentives at a local level. At the community level, community outreach and education about appropriate preventive and treatment measures must continue and be strengthened, with service delivery systems developed within both public and private sectors, among other measures

  12. Reduction of anti-malarial consumption after rapid diagnostic tests implementation in Dar es Salaam: a before-after and cluster randomized controlled study

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    Swai Ndeniria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment of all febrile patients with anti-malarials leads to massive over-treatment. The aim was to assess the effect of implementing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs on prescription of anti-malarials in urban Tanzania. Methods The design was a prospective collection of routine statistics from ledger books and cross-sectional surveys before and after intervention in randomly selected health facilities (HF in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants were all clinicians and their patients in the above health facilities. The intervention consisted of training and introduction of mRDTs in all three hospitals and in six HF. Three HF without mRDTs were selected as matched controls. The use of routine mRDT and treatment upon result was advised for all patients complaining of fever, including children under five years of age. The main outcome measures were: (1 anti-malarial consumption recorded from routine statistics in ledger books of all HF before and after intervention; (2 anti-malarial prescription recorded during observed consultations in cross-sectional surveys conducted in all HF before and 18 months after mRDT implementation. Results Based on routine statistics, the amount of artemether-lumefantrine blisters used post-intervention was reduced by 68% (95%CI 57-80 in intervention and 32% (9-54 in control HF. For quinine vials, the reduction was 63% (54-72 in intervention and an increase of 2.49 times (1.62-3.35 in control HF. Before-and-after cross-sectional surveys showed a similar decrease from 75% to 20% in the proportion of patients receiving anti-malarial treatment (Risk ratio 0.23, 95%CI 0.20-0.26. The cluster randomized analysis showed a considerable difference of anti-malarial prescription between intervention HF (22% and control HF (60% (Risk ratio 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.70. Adherence to test result was excellent since only 7% of negative patients received an anti-malarial. However, antibiotic

  13. Anti-malarial activity and toxicity assessment of Himatanthus articulatus, a plant used to treat malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, Valdicley V; Thyago C. Vilhena; Trindade, Rafaela C Santos; Ferreira, Márlia Regina C; Percário, Sandro; Soares, Luciana F; Pereira, Washington Luiz A; Geraldo C. Brandão; Oliveira, Alaíde B; Dolabela, Maria F; De Vasconcelos, Flávio

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum has become resistant to some of the available drugs. Several plant species are used for the treatment of malaria, such as Himatanthus articulatus in parts of Brazil. The present paper reports the phyto-chemistry, the anti-plasmodial and anti-malarial activity, as well as the toxicity of H. articulatus. Methods Ethanol and dichloromethane extracts were obtained from the powder of stem barks of H. articulatus and later fractionated and analysed. The anti-plasmod...

  14. Substandard anti-malarial drugs in Burkina Faso

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    Sie Ali

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is concern about an increasing infiltration of markets by substandard and fake medications against life-threatening diseases in developing countries. This is particularly worrying with regard to the increasing resistance development of Plasmodium falciparum against affordable anti-malarial medications, which has led to a change to more expensive drugs in most endemic countries. Methods A representative sample of modern anti-malarial medications from licensed (public and private pharmacies, community health workers and illicit (market and street vendors, shops sources has been collected in the Nouna Health District in north-western Burkina Faso in 2006. All drugs were tested for their quality with the standard procedures of the German Pharma Health Fund-Minilab. Detected low standard drugs were re-tested with European Pharmacopoeia 2.9.1 standards for disintegration and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at the laboratory of the Heidelberg University for confirmation. Results Overall, 86 anti-malarial drug samples were collected, of which 77 samples have been included in the final analysis. The sample consisted of 39/77 (50% chloroquine, 10/77 (13% pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine, 9/77 (12% quinine, 6/77 (8% amodiaquine, 9/77 (12% artesunate, and 4/77 (5% artemether-lumefantrine. 32/77 (42% drug samples were found to be of poor quality, of which 28 samples failed the visual inspection, nine samples had substandard concentrations of the active ingredient, four samples showed poor disintegration, and one sample contained non of the stated active ingredient. The licensed and the illicit market contributed 5/47 (10.6% and 27/30 (90.0% samples of substandard drugs respectively. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence for the wide-spread existence of substandard anti-malarial medications in Africa and call for strengthening of the regulatory and quality control capacity of affected countries, particularly in view of the

  15. Fake anti-malarials: start with the facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harparkash; Clarke, Siȃn; Lalani, Mirza; Phanouvong, Souly; Guérin, Philippe; McLoughlin, Andrew; Wilson, Benjamin K; Deats, Michael; Plançon, Aline; Hopkins, Heidi; Miranda, Debora; Schellenberg, David

    2016-01-01

    This meeting report presents the key findings and discussion points of a 1-day meeting entitled 'Fake anti-malarials: start with the facts' held on 28th May 2015, in Geneva, Switzerland, to disseminate the findings of the artemisinin combination therapy consortium's drug quality programme. The teams purchased over 10,000 samples, using representative sampling approaches, from six malaria endemic countries: Equatorial Guinea (Bioko Island), Cambodia, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda and Tanzania. Laboratory analyses of these samples showed that falsified anti-malarials (<8 %) were found in just two of the countries, whilst substandard artemisinin-based combinations were present in all six countries and, artemisinin-based monotherapy tablets are still available in some places despite the fact that the WHO has urged regulatory authorities in malaria-endemic countries to take measures to halt the production and marketing of these oral monotherapies since 2007. This report summarizes the presentations that reviewed the public health impact of falsified and substandard drugs, sampling strategies, techniques for drug quality analysis, approaches to strengthen health systems capacity for the surveillance of drug quality, and the ensuing discussion points from the dissemination meeting. PMID:26873700

  16. Got ACTs? Availability, price, market share and provider knowledge of anti-malarial medicines in public and private sector outlets in six malaria-endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Kathryn A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is the first-line malaria treatment throughout most of the malaria-endemic world. Data on ACT availability, price and market share are needed to provide a firm evidence base from which to assess the current situation concerning quality-assured ACT supply. This paper presents supply side data from ACTwatch outlet surveys in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia. Methods Between March 2009 and June 2010, nationally representative surveys of outlets providing anti-malarials to consumers were conducted. A census of all outlets with the potential to provide anti-malarials was conducted in clusters sampled randomly. Results 28,263 outlets were censused, 51,158 anti-malarials were audited, and 9,118 providers interviewed. The proportion of public health facilities with at least one first-line quality-assured ACT in stock ranged between 43% and 85%. Among private sector outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, non-artemisinin therapies, such as chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, were widely available (> 95% of outlets as compared to first-line quality-assured ACT ( Conclusions These standardized, nationally representative results demonstrate the typically low availability, low market share and high prices of ACT, in the private sector where most anti-malarials are accessed, with some exceptions. The results confirm that there is substantial room to improve availability and affordability of ACT treatment in the surveyed countries. The data will also be useful for monitoring the impact of interventions such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria.

  17. Poor quality vital anti-malarials in Africa - an urgent neglected public health priority.

    OpenAIRE

    Newton Paul N; Green Michael D; Mildenhall Dallas C; Plançon Aline; Nettey Henry; Nyadong Leonard; Hostetler Dana M; Swamidoss Isabel; Harris Glenn A; Powell Kristen; Timmermans Ans E; Amin Abdinasir A; Opuni Stephen K; Barbereau Serge; Faurant Claude

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health problem. A vital component of malaria control rests on the availability of good quality artemisinin-derivative based combination therapy (ACT) at the correct dose. However, there are increasing reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. Methods Seven collections of artemisinin derivative monotherapies, ACT and halofantrine anti-malarials of suspicious quality were collected in 2002/10 in eleven African coun...

  18. Post-marketing surveillance of anti-malarial medicines used in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Chikowe, Ibrahim; Osei-Safo, Dorcas; Harrison, Jerry JEK; Konadu, Daniel Y; Addae-Mensah, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Background The growing concern over the extent of anti-malarial medicine resistance in sub-Saharan Africa, driven largely by administration of sub-therapeutic doses derived from falsified and substandard medicines necessitates regular monitoring of the quality of these medicines to avert any potential public health disaster. This study aimed at determining the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content of anti-malarial medicines available in Malawi with respect to the manufacturers’ label...

  19. Anti-Malarial Plants of Jonai, India: an Ethnobotanical Approach

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    Tonlong WANGPAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available North-East India represents a unique ecosystem with treasured medicinal plant wealth closely related with Folk medicines. A large number of plants having medicinal properties and their folk uses have remained confined to the natives of this region. The tribal community of Jonai, Assam was explored to expose the indigenous herbal remedy for malaria. Sixteen antimalarial plants belonging to 13 families were reported. The analysis revealed highest fidelity level (FL value for Ajuga integrifolia (100% followed by Ricinus communis (94%, Alstonia scholaris (88%, Oroxylum indicum (86% and Achyranthes aspera (82%. The percentage of respondent’s knowledge (PRK about anti-malarial plants showed Alstonia scholaris as the most commonly known antimalarial species (53% within this region. Preference ranking (PR unveiled eight species to be very effective against malarial parasite, which includes Allium sativum, Artemisia indica, Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Clerodendrum glandulosum, Ocimum tenuiflorum, Oroxylum indicum, Piper longum and Piper nigrum. All medicine preparations are made using water as the medium and are orally administered in the form of crude extract, powder, juice and decoction. Overall analysis suggested Ajuga integrifolia, Achyranthes aspera, Alstonia scholaris, Artemisia indica, Oroxylum indicum and Ricinus communis to be used for the development of novel, economical, effective and ecofriendly herbal formulations for healthcare management.

  20. Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: Mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies

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    Dondorp Arjen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most malaria-endemic countries are implementing a change in anti-malarial drug policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. The impact of different drug choices and implementation strategies is uncertain. Data from many epidemiological studies in different levels of malaria endemicity and in areas with the highest prevalence of drug resistance like borders of Thailand are certainly valuable. Formulating an appropriate dynamic data-driven model is a powerful predictive tool for exploring the impact of these strategies quantitatively. Methods A comprehensive model was constructed incorporating important epidemiological and biological factors of human, mosquito, parasite and treatment. The iterative process of developing the model, identifying data needed, and parameterization has been taken to strongly link the model to the empirical evidence. The model provides quantitative measures of outcomes, such as malaria prevalence/incidence and treatment failure, and illustrates the spread of resistance in low and high transmission settings. The model was used to evaluate different anti-malarial policy options focusing on ACT deployment. Results The model predicts robustly that in low transmission settings drug resistance spreads faster than in high transmission settings, and treatment failure is the main force driving the spread of drug resistance. In low transmission settings, ACT slows the spread of drug resistance to a partner drug, especially at high coverage rates. This effect decreases exponentially with increasing delay in deploying the ACT and decreasing rates of coverage. In the high transmission settings, however, drug resistance is driven by the proportion of the human population with a residual drug level, which gives resistant parasites some survival advantage. The spread of drug resistance could be slowed down by controlling presumptive drug use and avoiding the use of combination therapies containing drugs with

  1. Structure-activity relationship of anti-malarial spongean peroxides having a 3-methoxy-1,2-dioxane structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Motoyuki; Kotoku, Naoyuki; Itagaki, Sawako; Horii, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2004-10-15

    In order to study the structure-activity relationship of anti-malarial spongean peroxides, several analogues concerning with the 6-methoxyacetyl moiety and the 3-pentyl residue in methyl 2-(3-methoxy-3-pentyl-1,2-dioxan-6-yl)acetate were synthesized and evaluated for anti-malarial activity. The tert-butyl ester analogue 14 showed stability in mouse serum and a high selectivity index against the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and the citronellyl analogue 31 exhibited the strongest in vitro anti-malarial activity among them, and the imidazole analogue 25 showed desirable in vivo anti-malarial activity against P. berghei infected mice. PMID:15388157

  2. In vitro interaction of artemisinin derivatives or the fully synthetic peroxidic anti-malarial OZ277 with thapsigargin in Plasmodium falciparum strains

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    Abiodun Oyindamola O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semi-synthetic artemisinin derivatives are powerful peroxidic drugs in artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT recommended as first-line treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in disease-endemic countries. Studies by Eckstein-Ludwig and co-workers showed both thapsigargin and artemisinin specifically inhibit the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+−ATPase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfATP6. In the present study the type of interaction between thapsigargin and artemisinin derivatives as well as the ozonide OZ277 (RBx11160 or arterolane was evaluated in parasite cultures. The latter compound is an adamantane-based peroxide and the first fully synthetic clinical candidate recently registered in India by Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd. for anti-malarial combination therapy. Methods Drug interaction studies were performed using a previously described fixed ratio method and anti-malarial activity measured using the [3H] hypoxanthine incorporation assay. Results The sum 50% and 90% fractional inhibitory concentration (∑FIC50, 90 of the interaction of thapsigargin with OZ277, artemether or artesunate, against NF54 and K1 strains of P. falciparum ranged from 0.9 to 1.4. Conclusion The interaction of thapsigargin with OZ277, artesunate or artemether was additive, data consistent with previous observations indicating that activity of anti-malarial peroxides does not derive from reversible interactions with parasite targets.

  3. Investigation of Traditional Palestinian Medicinal Plant Inula viscosa as Potential Anti-malarial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akkawi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a life threatening parasitic disease which is prevalent mainly in developing countries; it is the main cause of global mortality and morbidity. Development and search of novel and effective anti-malarial agents to overcome chloroquine resistance have become a very important issue. Most anti-malarial drugs target the erythrocytic stage of malaria infection, where hemozoin synthesis takes place and is considered a crucial process for the parasite survival. Throughout last decades, natural products have been a significant source of chemotherapeutics especially against malaria. Inula viscosa, Inula viscosa , is a shrub that grows around the Mediterranean basin and considered as an important Palestinian traditional medicinal herb. In this research it was found that the Palestinian flora Inula viscosa alcoholic extract has a significant and promising anti-malarial effect in both in vitro and in vivo systems. The crude alcoholic extract of Inula viscosa has the capability to impede the formation of &beta-hematin in vitro; with an efficiency of about 93% when compared to the standard chloroquine which gave 94% at comparable concentrations. in vivo studies showed that this crude extract inhibited the growth of Plasmodium parasites in the red blood cells at a rate of about 96.6%, with an EC50 value of 0.55 ng/mL. Several secondary plant metabolites may be responsible for this anti-malarial activity; the effect also may be most probably due to the presence of high concentrations of nerolidol which has often been found at high concentrationsin this plant. Nerolidol shows a stronger inhibition of hypoxanthine incorporation than quinine. Its anti-malarial effect is potentiated by other essential oils. Nerolidol is also found in several Artemisia species and in Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass and Virola surinamensis, all plants known for their anti-malarial properties.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of pyrimethamine, an anti-malarial drug, on HIV-1 replication

    OpenAIRE

    Oguariri, Raphael M.; Joseph W Adelsberger; Michael W Baseler; Imamichi, Tomozumi

    2010-01-01

    Co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with malaria is one of the pandemic problems in Africa and parts of Asia. Here we investigated the impact of PYR and two other clinical anti-malarial drugs (chloroquine [CQ] or artemisinin [ART]) on HIV-1 replication. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or MT-2 cells were infected with HIVNL4.3 strain and treated with different concentrations of the anti-malarial drugs. HIV-1 replication was measured using p24 ELISA. We show that 10 μM...

  5. Novel Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase with Anti-malarial Activity in the Mouse Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Michael L.; Bastos, Cecilia M.; Kramer, Martin L.; Barker, Jr., Robert H.; Skerlj, Renato; Sidhu, Amar Bir; Deng, Xiaoyi; Celatka, Cassandra; Cortese, Joseph F.; Guerrero Bravo, Jose E.; Crespo Llado, Keila N.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Viera, Sara; Garuti, Helen; Wittlin, Sergio; Papastogiannidis, Petros; Lin, Jing-wen; Janse, Chris J.; Khan, Shahid M.; Duraisingh, Manoj; Coleman, Bradley; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A.; Munoz, Benito; Wirth, Dyann F.; Klinger, Jeffrey D.; Wiegand, Roger; Sybertz, Edmund (Leiden-MC); (Puerto Rico); (STPHI); (Harvard); (GSK); (Genzyme); (UTSMC)

    2010-11-22

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most deadly form of human malaria, is unable to salvage pyrimidines and must rely on de novo biosynthesis for survival. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and represents a potential target for anti-malarial therapy. A high throughput screen and subsequent medicinal chemistry program identified a series of N-alkyl-5-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)thiophene-2-carboxamides with low nanomolar in vitro potency against DHODH from P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. berghei. The compounds were selective for the parasite enzymes over human DHODH, and x-ray structural data on the analog Genz-667348, demonstrated that species selectivity could be attributed to amino acid differences in the inhibitor-binding site. Compounds from this series demonstrated in vitro potency against the 3D7 and Dd2 strains of P. falciparum, good tolerability and oral exposure in the mouse, and ED{sub 50} values in the 4-day murine P. berghei efficacy model of 13-21 mg/kg/day with oral twice-daily dosing. In particular, treatment with Genz-667348 at 100 mg/kg/day resulted in sterile cure. Two recent analogs of Genz-667348 are currently undergoing pilot toxicity testing to determine suitability as clinical development candidates.

  6. Prioritization of anti-malarial hits from nature: chemo-informatic profiling of natural products with in vitro antiplasmodial activities and currently registered anti-malarial drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Egieyeh, Samuel Ayodele; Syce, James; Malan, Sarel F.; Christoffels, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background A large number of natural products have shown in vitro antiplasmodial activities. Early identification and prioritization of these natural products with potential for novel mechanism of action, desirable pharmacokinetics and likelihood for development into drugs is advantageous. Chemo-informatic profiling of these natural products were conducted and compared to currently registered anti-malarial drugs (CRAD). Methods Natural products with in vitro antiplasmodial activities (NAA) we...

  7. Accessibility, availability and affordability of anti-malarials in a rural district in Kenya after implementation of a national subsidy scheme

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    Simiyu Chrispinus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor access to prompt and effective treatment for malaria contributes to high mortality and severe morbidity. In Kenya, it is estimated that only 12% of children receive anti-malarials for their fever within 24 hours. The first point of care for many fevers is a local medicine retailer, such as a pharmacy or chemist. The role of the medicine retailer as an important distribution point for malaria medicines has been recognized and several different strategies have been used to improve the services that these retailers provide. Despite these efforts, many mothers still purchase ineffective drugs because they are less expensive than effective artemisinin combination therapy (ACT. One strategy that is being piloted in several countries is an international subsidy targeted at anti-malarials supplied through the retail sector. The goal of this strategy is to make ACT as affordable as ineffective alternatives. The programme, called the Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria was rolled out in Kenya in August 2010. Methods In December 2010, the affordability and accessibility of malaria medicines in a rural district in Kenya were evaluated using a complete census of all public and private facilities, chemists, pharmacists, and other malaria medicine retailers within the Webuye Demographic Surveillance Area. Availability, types, and prices of anti-malarials were assessed. There are 13 public or mission facilities and 97 medicine retailers (registered and unregistered. Results The average distance from a home to the nearest public health facility is 2 km, but the average distance to the nearest medicine retailer is half that. Quinine is the most frequently stocked anti-malarial (61% of retailers. More medicine retailers stocked sulphadoxine-pyramethamine (SP; 57% than ACT (44%. Eleven percent of retailers stocked AMFm subsidized artemether-lumefantrine (AL. No retailers had chloroquine in stock and only five were selling artemisinin

  8. Quality of anti-malarial drugs provided by public and private healthcare providers in south-east Nigeria

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    Uzochukwu Benjamin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little existing knowledge about actual quality of drugs provided by different providers in Nigeria and in many sub-Saharan African countries. Such information is important for improving malaria treatment that will help in the development and implementation of actions designed to improve the quality of treatment. The objective of the study was to determine the quality of drugs used for the treatment of malaria in a broad spectrum of public and private healthcare providers. Methods The study was undertaken in six towns (three urban and three rural in Anambra state, south-east Nigeria. Anti-malarials (225 samples, which included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, quinine, and chloroquine, were either purchased or collected from randomly selected providers. The quality of these drugs was assessed by laboratory analysis of the dissolution profile using published pharmacopoeial monograms and measuring the amount of active ingredient using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Findings It was found that 60 (37% of the anti-malarials tested did not meet the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP specifications for the amount of active ingredients, with the suspect drugs either lacking the active ingredients or containing suboptimal quantities of the active ingredients. Quinine (46% and SP formulations (39% were among drugs that did not satisfy the tolerance limits published in USP monograms. A total of 78% of the suspect drugs were from private facilities, mostly low-level providers, such as patent medicine dealers (vendors. Conclusion This study found that there was a high prevalence of poor quality drugs. The findings provide areas for public intervention to improve the quality of malaria treatment services. There should be enforced checks and regulation of drug supply management as well as stiffer penalties for people stocking substandard and counterfeit drugs.

  9. Poor quality vital anti-malarials in Africa - an urgent neglected public health priority

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    Newton Paul N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a major public health problem. A vital component of malaria control rests on the availability of good quality artemisinin-derivative based combination therapy (ACT at the correct dose. However, there are increasing reports of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. Methods Seven collections of artemisinin derivative monotherapies, ACT and halofantrine anti-malarials of suspicious quality were collected in 2002/10 in eleven African countries and in Asia en route to Africa. Packaging, chemical composition (high performance liquid chromatography, direct ionization mass spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, stable isotope analysis and botanical investigations were performed. Results Counterfeit artesunate containing chloroquine, counterfeit dihydroartemisinin (DHA containing paracetamol (acetaminophen, counterfeit DHA-piperaquine containing sildenafil, counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine containing pyrimethamine, counterfeit halofantrine containing artemisinin, and substandard/counterfeit or degraded artesunate and artesunate+amodiaquine in eight countries are described. Pollen analysis was consistent with manufacture of counterfeits in eastern Asia. These data do not allow estimation of the frequency of poor quality anti-malarials in Africa. Conclusions Criminals are producing diverse harmful anti-malarial counterfeits with important public health consequences. The presence of artesunate monotherapy, substandard and/or degraded and counterfeit medicines containing sub-therapeutic amounts of unexpected anti-malarials will engender drug resistance. With the threatening spread of artemisinin resistance to Africa, much greater investment is required to ensure the quality of ACTs and removal of artemisinin monotherapies. The International Health Regulations may need to be invoked to counter these serious public health problems.

  10. Prescription pattern of anti-malarial drugs in a tertiary care hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santoshkumar R Jeevangi; Manjunath S; Sharanabasappa M Awanti

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prescribing pattern of anti malarial drugs in a tertiary care hospital. Methods:A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months of patients visiting in Basaveshwar Teaching and General Hospital, Gulbarga. Data were analyzed for various drug use indicators. Results: A total of 212 prescriptions were collected, with 136 (64.15%) male and 76 (35.85%) female. There were 128 (60.37%) Plasmodium vivax cases and 84 (39.63%) Plasmodium falciparum cases. All Plasmodium vivax cases were treated with chloroquine alone and among these 16 (12.5%) recieved radical treatment with primaquine along with chloroquine. Among 84 patients with Pasmodium falciparum, 40 patients received single drug such as quinine/mefloquinine/artesunate/arteether. Another 44 patients received multidrug regime like, quinine+artesunate (54.54%), quinine+mefloquine (27.27%) and quinine+arteether (18.18%). Chloroquine was not administered to any of the patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The most common adverse effects with chloroquine were anorexia, nausea, vomiting and tinnitus in 9.37%of the cases. With quinine it was nausea and vomiting in 17.64%, tinnitus in 11.76%and hypoglycemia in 2.1%of cases. Conclusions: Our study found the perennial favorites like chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax and quinine for Plasmodium falciparum were the most effective drug. In the severe Plasmodium falciparum cases the artesunate derivatives and combination of artesunate with quinine/mefloquine were most effective with fewer incidences of side effects.

  11. Prospective strategies to delay the evolution of anti-malarial drug resistance: weighing the uncertainty

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    McKenzie F Ellis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of drug resistance in malaria parasites highlights a need to identify and evaluate strategies that could extend the useful therapeutic life of anti-malarial drugs. Such strategies are deployed to best effect before resistance has emerged, under conditions of great uncertainty. Methods Here, the emergence and spread of resistance was modelled using a hybrid framework to evaluate prospective strategies, estimate the time to drug failure, and weigh uncertainty. The waiting time to appearance was estimated as the product of low mutation rates, drug pressure, and parasite population sizes during treatment. Stochastic persistence and the waiting time to establishment were simulated as an evolving branching process. The subsequent spread of resistance was simulated in simple epidemiological models. Results Using this framework, the waiting time to the failure of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT for malaria was estimated, and a policy of multiple first-line therapies (MFTs was evaluated. The models quantify the effects of reducing drug pressure in delaying appearance, reducing the chances of establishment, and slowing spread. By using two first-line therapies in a population, it is possible to reduce drug pressure while still treating the full complement of cases. Conclusions At a global scale, because of uncertainty about the time to the emergence of ACT resistance, there was a strong case for MFTs to guard against early failure. Our study recommends developing operationally feasible strategies for implementing MFTs, such as distributing different ACTs at the clinic and for home-based care, or formulating different ACTs for children and adults.

  12. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of tigecycline, a glycylcycline antibiotic, in combination with chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, Rajnish; Walker, Larry A.; Tekwani, Babu L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several antibiotics have shown promising anti-malarial effects and have been useful for malarial chemotherapy, particularly in combination with standard anti-malarial drugs. Tigecycline, a semi-synthetic derivative of minocycline with a unique and novel mechanism of action, is the first clinically available drug in a new class of glycylcycline antibiotics. Methods Tigecycline was tested in vitro against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (D6) and resistant strains (W2) of Plasmodium falcip...

  13. Novel Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase with Anti-malarial Activity in the Mouse Model*

    OpenAIRE

    Booker, Michael L.; Bastos, Cecilia M.; Kramer, Martin L.; Barker, Robert H.; Skerlj, Renato; Sidhu, Amar Bir; Deng, Xiaoyi; Celatka, Cassandra; Cortese, Joseph F.; Guerrero Bravo, Jose E.; Crespo Llado, Keila N.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Viera, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most deadly form of human malaria, is unable to salvage pyrimidines and must rely on de novo biosynthesis for survival. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway and represents a potential target for anti-malarial therapy. A high throughput screen and subsequent medicinal chemistry program identified a series of N-alkyl-5-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)thiophene-2-carboxamides with low ...

  14. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin

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    Swain Bijay K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herbal extracts of Andrographis paniculata (AP and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC are known as hepato-protective and fever-reducing drugs since ancient time and they have been used regularly by the people in the south Asian sub-continent. Methanolic extracts of these two plants were tested in vitro on choloroquine sensitive (MRC-pf-20 and resistant (MRC-pf-303 strains of Plasmodium falciparum for their anti-malarial activity. Methods Growth inhibition was determined using different concentrations of these plant extracts on synchronized P. falciparum cultures at the ring stage. The interactions between these two plant extracts and individually with curcumin were studied in vitro. The performance of these two herbal extracts in isolation and combination were further evaluated in vivo on Balb/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and their efficacy was compared with that of curcumin. The in vivo toxicity of the plant derived compounds as well as their parasite stage-specificity was studied. Results The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of AP (7.2 μg/ml was found better than HC (10.8 μg/ml. Combination of these two herbal drugs showed substantial enhancement in their anti-malarial activity. Combinatorial effect of each of these with curcumin also revealed anti-malarial effect. Additive interaction between the plant extracts (AP + HC and their individual synergism with curcumin (AP+CUR, HC+CUR were evident from this study. Increased in vivo potency was also observed with the combination of plant extracts over the individual extracts and curcumin. Both the plant extracts were found to inhibit the ring stage of the parasite and did not show any in vivo toxicity, whether used in isolation or in combination. Conclusion Both these two plant extracts in combination with curcumin could be an effective, alternative source of herbal anti-malarial drugs.

  15. Targeting histone deacetylase inhibitors for anti-malarial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Katherine T; Tran, Thanh N; Wheatley, Nicole C; Fairlie, David P

    2009-01-01

    It is now clear that histone acetylation plays key roles in regulating gene transcription in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the acetylated form inducing gene expression while deacetylation silences genes. Recent studies have identified roles for histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and/or histone deacetylases (HDACs) in a number of parasites including Entamoeba histolytica, Toxoplasma gondii, Schistosoma mansoni, Cryptosporidium sp., Leishmania donovani, Neospora caninum, and Plasmodium falciparum. Here we survey fairly limited efforts to date in profiling antimalarial activities of HDAC inhibitors, showing that such compounds are potent inhibitors of the growth of P. falciparum in vitro and in vivo. Most of the compounds evaluated so far have borne a zinc-binding hydroxamate group that tends to be metabolized in vivo, and thus new zinc-binding groups need to be incorporated into second generation inhibitors in order to mask the catalytic zinc in the active site of HDACs. Also the development of compounds that are selective for parasitic HDACs over mammalian HDACs is still in relative infancy and it will take some time to derive antiparasitic HDAC inhibitor compounds with minimal toxicity for the host and acceptable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles for human treatment. Nevertheless, results to date suggest that HDAC inhibitor development represents a promising new approach to the potential treatment of parasitic infections, including those induced by malaria protozoa, and may offer new therapeutic targets within increasingly drug-resistant malarial parasites. PMID:19355992

  16. Anti-malarial effect of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one and green tea extract on erythrocyte-stage Plasmodium berghei in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phitsinee Thipubon; Wachiraporn Tipsuwan; Chairat Uthaipibull; Sineenart Santitherakul; Somdet Srichiratanakool

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To examine the efficacy of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one (CM1) iron chelator and green tea extract (GTE) as anti-malarial activity in Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei ) infected mice. Methods:The CM1 (0–100 mg/kg/day) and GTE (0–100 mg (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate equivalent/kg/day) were orally administered to P. berghei infected mice for consecutive 4 days. Parasitized red blood cells (PRBC) were enumerated by using Giemsa staining microscopic method. Results: CM1 lowered percentage of PRBC in dose-dependent manner with an ED50 value of 56.91 mg/kg, when compared with pyrimethamine (PYR) (ED50=0.76 mg/kg). GTE treatment did not show any inhibition of the malaria parasite growth. In combined treatment, CM1 along with 0.6 mg/kg PYR significantly inhibited the growth of P. berghei in mice while GTE did not enhance the PYR anti-malarial activity. Conclusions: CM1 would be effective per se and synergize with PYR in inhibiting growth of murine malaria parasites, possibly by limiting iron supply from plasma transferrin and host PRBC cytoplasm, and chelating catalytic iron constitutive in parasites’ mitochondrial cytochromes and cytoplasmic ribonucleotide reductase. CM1 would be a promising adjuvant to enhance PYR anti-malarial activity and minimize the drug resistance.

  17. Anti-malarial effect of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one and green tea extract on erythrocyte-stage Plasmodium berghei in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phitsinee; Thipubon; Wachiraporn; Tipsuwan; Chairat; Uthaipibull; Sineenart; Santitherakul; Somdet; Srichiratanakool

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of 1-(N-acetyl-6-aminohexyl)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridin-4-one(CM1) iron chelator and green tea extract(GTE) as anti-malarial activity in Plasmodium berghei(P. berghei) infected mice.Methods: The CM1(0–100 mg/kg/day) and GTE(0–100 mg(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate equivalent/kg/day) were orally administered to P. berghei infected mice for consecutive 4 days. Parasitized red blood cells(PRBC) were enumerated by using Giemsa staining microscopic method.Results: CM1 lowered percentage of PRBC in dose-dependent manner with an ED50 value of 56.91 mg/kg, when compared with pyrimethamine(PYR)(ED50= 0.76 mg/kg).GTE treatment did not show any inhibition of the malaria parasite growth. In combined treatment, CM1 along with 0.6 mg/kg PYR significantly inhibited the growth of P. berghei in mice while GTE did not enhance the PYR anti-malarial activity.Conclusions: CM1 would be effective per se and synergize with PYR in inhibiting growth of murine malaria parasites, possibly by limiting iron supply from plasma transferrin and host PRBC cytoplasm, and chelating catalytic iron cstitutive in parasites’ mitochondrial cytochromes and cytoplasmic ribonucleotide reductase. CM1 would be a promising adjuvant to enhance PYR anti-malarial activity and minimize the drug resistance.

  18. Virtual Screening and Docking Studies of Synthesized Chalcones: Potent Anti-Malarial Drug

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    Prashant Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of Chalcones were synthesized targets asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum has been analyzed by utilizing a combination of molecular modeling techniques. Statistically significant structure-based quantitative structure activity relationships models were generated and validated through acceptable predictive ability to support internal and external set of compounds. Screening of most valuable drug among of pre-synthesized drug on the basis of binding efficiency to target receptor was carried out by docking view. Prior this pre-computed Mean IC50 and MIC value were also taken in consideration. The most effective compound on the basis all consideration was found. Previous studies have suggested that Ca2+-ATPase (PfATP6 of P. falciparum is the target of many anti-malarial drugs. However, the mechanism of inhibition of Ca2+- ATPase (PfATP6 is not known. Here we address this issue using bioinformatics tools. We generated a molecular model of Ca2+-ATPase (PfATP6 of P. falciparum and performed molecular docking of all chalcones. Molecular docking programme Glide iGEMDock was used to determine binding feasibility of 52 analogues of chalcones. The comparison of docking parameters showed, more than 5 analogues are better ligands of PfATP6. The binding of chalocones to PFATP6 is mediated by both hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and polar interactions. Our results suggest that chalcones analogues are promising lead compounds for the development of anti-malarial drugs

  19. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of Boerhavia elegans and Solanum surattense

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    Khodakarim Nastaran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drug targets for both prophylaxis and chemotherapy, due to the increasing problem of drug resistance to malaria parasites. In the present study, the aim was to discover novel, effective plant-based extracts for the activity against malaria. Methods Ten plants found in Iran were selected by ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants. The crude ethanolic extracts were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum: K1 (chloroquine-resistant strain and CY27 (chloroquine-sensitive strain, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH assay. The anti-plasmodial activity of the extracts was also assessed in the 4-day suppressive anti-malarial assay in mice inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain. Crude ethanolic extracts showed good anti-plasmodial activity were further fractionated by partitioning in water and dichloromethane. Results Of 10 plant species assayed, three species: Boerhavia elegans (Choisy, Solanum surattense (Burm.f. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw. showed promising anti-plasmodial activity in vitro (IC50 ≤ 50 μg/ml and in vivo with no toxicity. The dichloromethane fraction of three extracts revealed stronger anti-plasmodial activity than the total extracts. Conclusion Anti-plasmodial activities of extracts of B. elegans and S. surattense are reported for the first time.

  20. The anti-malarial chloroquine overcomes Primary resistance and restores sensitivity to Trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufí, Sílvia; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Joven, Jorge; Menendez, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy may control the de novo refractoriness of HER2 gene-amplified breast carcinomas to the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin). Tumor cells originally obtained from a patient who rapidly progressed on trastuzumab ab initio display increased cellular levels of the LC3-II protein—a finding that correlates with increased numbers of autophagosomes—and decreased levels of the autophagy receptor p62/SQSTM1, a protein selectively degraded by autophagy. Trastuzumab-refractory cells are in a state of “autophagy addiction” because genetic ablation of autophagy-specific genes (ATG8, ATG5, ATG12) notably reduces intrinsic refractoriness to trastuzumab. When the anti-malarial lysosomotropic drug chloroquine impedes autophagic resolution of the accumulation of autophagolysosomes formed in the presence of trastuzumab, cells commit to die by apoptosis. Accordingly, combination treatment with trastuzumab and chloroquine radically suppresses tumor growth by > 90% in a tumor xenograft completely refractory to trastuzumab. Adding chloroquine to trastuzumab-based regimens may therefore improve outcomes among women with autophagy-addicted HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:23965851

  1. Natural products as starting points for future anti-malarial therapies: going back to our roots?

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    Wells Timothy NC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery and development of new anti-malarials are at a crossroads. Fixed dose artemisinin combination therapy is now being used to treat a hundred million children each year, with a cost as low as 30 cents per child, with cure rates of over 95%. However, as with all anti-infective strategies, this triumph brings with it the seeds of its own downfall, the emergence of resistance. It takes ten years to develop a new medicine. New classes of medicines to combat malaria, as a result of infection by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are urgently needed. Results Natural product scaffolds have been the basis of the majority of current anti-malarial medicines. Molecules such as quinine, lapachol and artemisinin were originally isolated from herbal medicinal products. After improvement with medicinal chemistry and formulation technologies, and combination with other active ingredients, they now make up the current armamentarium of medicines. In recent years advances in screening technologies have allowed testing of millions of compounds from pharmaceutical diversity for anti-malarial activity in cellular assays. These initiatives have resulted in thousands of new sub-micromolar active compounds – starting points for new drug discovery programmes. Against this backdrop, the paucity of potent natural products identified has been disappointing. Now is a good time to reflect on the current approach to screening herbal medicinal products and suggest revisions. Nearly sixty years ago, the Chinese doctor Chen Guofu, suggested natural products should be approached by dao-xing-ni-shi or ‘acting in the reversed order’, starting with observational clinical studies. Natural products based on herbal remedies are in use in the community, and have the potential unique advantage that clinical observational data exist, or can be generated. The first step should be the confirmation and definition of the clinical activity of herbal

  2. Pharmacologic inhibition of CXCL10 in combination with anti-malarial therapy eliminates mortality associated with murine model of cerebral malaria.

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    Nana O Wilson

    Full Text Available Despite appropriate anti-malarial treatment, cerebral malaria (CM-associated mortalities remain as high as 30%. Thus, adjunctive therapies are urgently needed to prevent or reduce such mortalities. Overproduction of CXCL10 in a subset of CM patients has been shown to be tightly associated with fatal human CM. Mice with deleted CXCL10 gene are partially protected against experimental cerebral malaria (ECM mortality indicating the importance of CXCL10 in the pathogenesis of CM. However, the direct effect of increased CXCL10 production on brain cells is unknown. We assessed apoptotic effects of CXCL10 on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBVECs and neuroglia cells in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that reducing overexpression of CXCL10 with a synthetic drug during CM pathogenesis will increase survival and reduce mortality. We utilized atorvastatin, a widely used synthetic blood cholesterol-lowering drug that specifically targets and reduces plasma CXCL10 levels in humans, to determine the effects of atorvastatin and artemether combination therapy on murine ECM outcome. We assessed effects of atorvastatin treatment on immune determinants of severity, survival, and parasitemia in ECM mice receiving a combination therapy from onset of ECM (day 6 through 9 post-infection and compared results with controls. The results indicate that CXCL10 induces apoptosis in HBVECs and neuroglia cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that increased levels of CXCL10 in CM patients may play a role in vasculopathy, neuropathogenesis, and brain injury during CM pathogenesis. Treatment of ECM in mice with atorvastatin significantly reduced systemic and brain inflammation by reducing the levels of the anti-angiogenic and apoptotic factor (CXCL10 and increasing angiogenic factor (VEGF production. Treatment with a combination of atorvastatin and artemether improved survival (100% when compared with artemether monotherapy (70%, p<0.05. Thus, adjunctively

  3. Combating poor-quality anti-malarial medicines: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassat, Quique; Tanner, Marcel; Guerin, Philippe J; Stricker, Kirstin; Hamed, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    The circulation of poor-quality medicines continues to undermine the fight against many life-threatening diseases. Anti-malarial medicines appear to have been particularly compromised and present a major public health threat in malaria-endemic countries, negatively affecting individuals and their communities. Concerted collaborative efforts are required from global, regional and national organizations, involving the public and private sectors, to address the problem. While many initiatives are underway, a number of unmet needs deserve urgent and increased multisector attention. At the global level, there is a need for an international public health legal framework or treaty on poor-quality medicines, with statutes suitable for integration into national laws. In addition, increased international efforts are required to strengthen the governance of global supply chains and enhance cooperation between national medicine regulation authorities and law enforcement bodies. Increased investment is needed in innovative technologies that will enable healthcare teams to detect poor-quality medicines at all levels of the supply chain. At the regional level, a number of initiatives would be beneficial-key areas are standardization, simplification, and reciprocal recognition of registration processes and development of quality control capacity in regional centres of excellence that are better aligned with public health needs; improved surveillance methods and creation of a framework for compulsory and transparent reporting of poor-quality medicines; additional support for national medicine regulation authorities and other national partner authorities; and an increase in support for regional laboratories to boost their capabilities in detecting poor-quality medicines. It is vital that all stakeholders involved in efforts against poor-quality anti-malarial medicines extend and strengthen their actions in these critical areas and thus effectively support global health development

  4. A study of toxicity and differential gene expression in murine liver following exposure to anti-malarial drugs: amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rath Srikanta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amodiaquine (AQ along with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP offers effective and cheaper treatment against chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Considering the previous history of hepatitis, agranulocytosis and neutrocytopenia associated with AQ monotherapy, it becomes imperative to study the toxicity of co-administration of AQ and SP. In this study, toxicity and resulting global differential gene expression was analyzed following exposure to these drugs in experimental Swiss mice. Methods The conventional markers of toxicity in serum, oxidative stress parameters in tissue homogenates, histology of liver and alterations in global transcriptomic expression were evaluated to study the toxic effects of AQ and SP in isolation and in combination. Results The combination therapy of AQ and SP results in more pronounced hepatotoxicity as revealed by elevated level of serum ALT, AST with respect to their individual drug exposure regimen. Furthermore, alterations in the activity of major antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, indicating the development of oxidative stress, was more significant in AQ+SP combination therapy. cDNA microarray results too showed considerably more perturbed gene expression following combination therapy of AQ and SP as compared to their individual drug treatment. Moreover, a set of genes were identified whose expression pattern can be further investigated for identifying a good biomarker for potential anti-malarial hepatotoxicity. Conclusion These observations clearly indicate AQ+SP combination therapy is hepatotoxic in experimental Swiss mice. Microarray results provide a considerable number of potential biomarkers of anti-malarial drug toxicity. These findings hence will be useful for future drug toxicity studies, albeit implications of this study in clinical conditions need to be monitored with cautions.

  5. Anti-malarial drug artesunate attenuates experimental allergic asthma via inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway.

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    Chang Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway is linked to the development of asthma. Anti-malarial drug artesunate is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the principal active component of a medicinal plant Artemisia annua, and has been shown to inhibit PI3K/Akt activity. We hypothesized that artesunate may attenuate allergic asthma via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA developed airway inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was assessed for total and differential cell counts, and cytokine and chemokine levels. Lung tissues were examined for cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion, and the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Airway hyperresponsiveness was monitored by direct airway resistance analysis. Artesunate dose-dependently inhibited OVA-induced increases in total and eosinophil counts, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and eotaxin levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. It attenuated OVA-induced lung tissue eosinophilia and airway mucus production, mRNA expression of E-selectin, IL-17, IL-33 and Muc5ac in lung tissues, and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, artesunate blocked epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates tuberin, p70S6 kinase and 4E-binding protein 1, and transactivation of NF-κB. Similarly, artesunate blocked the phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream substrates in lung tissues from OVA-challenged mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of artesunate was further confirmed in a house dust mite mouse asthma model. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Artesunate ameliorates experimental allergic airway inflammation probably via negative regulation of PI3K/Akt pathway and the downstream NF-κB activity. These findings provide a novel therapeutic value for artesunate in the treatment of allergic asthma.

  6. Development of a TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay for detection of Single Nucleotides Polymorphisms associated with anti-malarial drug resistance

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    Kamau Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-malarial drug resistance poses a threat to current global efforts towards control and elimination of malaria. Several methods are used in monitoring anti-malarial drug resistance. Molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP for example are increasingly being used to identify genetic mutations related to anti-malarial drug resistance. Several methods are currently being used in analysis of SNP associated with anti-malarial drug resistance and although each one of these methods has unique strengths and shortcoming, there is still need to improve and/or develop new methods that will close the gap found in the current methods. Methods TaqMan Allelic Discrimination assays for detection of SNPs associated with anti-malarial drug resistance were designed for analysis on Applied Biosystems PCR platform. These assays were designed by submitting SNP sequences associated with anti-malarial drug resistance to Applied Biosystems website. Eleven SNPs associated with resistance to anti-malarial drugs were selected and tested. The performance of each SNP assay was tested by creating plasmid DNAs carrying codons of interests and analysing them for analysis. To test the sensitivity and specificity of each SNP assay, 12 clinical samples were sequenced at codons of interest and used in the analysis. Plasmid DNAs were used to establish the Limit of Detection (LoD for each assay. Results Data from genetic profiles of the Plasmodium falciparum laboratory strains and sequence data from 12 clinical samples was used as the reference method with which the performance of the SNP assays were compared to. The sensitivity and specificity of each SNP assay was establish at 100%. LoD for each assay was established at 2 GE, equivalent to less than 1 parasite/μL. SNP assays performed well in detecting mixed infection and analysis of clinical samples. Conclusion TaqMan Allelic Discrimination assay provides a good alternative tool in

  7. Anti-malarial Activities of Two Soil Actinomycete Isolates from Sabah via Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahari, Dhiana Efani; Salleh, Raifana Mohamad; Mahmud, Fauze; Chin, Lee Ping; Embi, Noor; Sidek, Hasidah Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Exploiting natural resources for bioactive compounds is an attractive drug discovery strategy in search for new anti-malarial drugs with novel modes of action. Initial screening efforts in our laboratory revealed two preparations of soil-derived actinomycetes (H11809 and FH025) with potent anti-malarial activities. Both crude extracts showed glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-inhibitory activities in a yeast-based kinase assay. We have previously shown that the GSK3 inhibitor, lithium chloride (LiCl), was able to suppress parasitaemia development in a rodent model of malarial infection. The present study aims to evaluate whether anti-malarial activities of H11809 and FH025 involve the inhibition of GSK3β. The acetone crude extracts of H11809 and FH025 each exerted strong inhibition on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 in vitro with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.57 ± 0.09 and 1.28 ± 0.11 µg/mL, respectively. The tested extracts exhibited Selectivity Index (SI) values exceeding 10 for the 3D7 strain. Both H11809 and FH025 showed dosage-dependent chemo-suppressive activities in vivo and improved animal survivability compared to non-treated infected mice. Western analysis revealed increased phosphorylation of serine (Ser 9) GSK3β (by 6.79 to 6.83-fold) in liver samples from infected mice treated with H11809 or FH025 compared to samples from non-infected or non-treated infected mice. A compound already identified in H11809 (data not shown), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) showed active anti-plasmodial activity against 3D7 (IC50 4.87 ± 1.26 µg/mL which is equivalent to 17.50 µM) and good chemo-suppressive activity in vivo (60.80% chemo-suppression at 300 mg/kg body weight [bw] dosage). DBP administration also resulted in increased phosphorylation of Ser 9 GSK3β compared to controls. Findings from the present study demonstrate that the potent anti-malarial activities of H11809 and FH025 were mediated via inhibition of host GSK3β. In addition

  8. SMS for Life: a pilot project to improve anti-malarial drug supply management in rural Tanzania using standard technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwafongo Winfred

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining adequate supplies of anti-malarial medicines at the health facility level in rural sub-Saharan Africa is a major barrier to effective management of the disease. Lack of visibility of anti-malarial stock levels at the health facility level is an important contributor to this problem. Methods A 21-week pilot study, 'SMS for Life', was undertaken during 2009-2010 in three districts of rural Tanzania, involving 129 health facilities. Undertaken through a collaborative partnership of public and private institutions, SMS for Life used mobile telephones, SMS messages and electronic mapping technology to facilitate provision of comprehensive and accurate stock counts from all health facilities to each district management team on a weekly basis. The system covered stocks of the four different dosage packs of artemether-lumefantrine (AL and quinine injectable. Results Stock count data was provided in 95% of cases, on average. A high response rate (≥ 93% was maintained throughout the pilot. The error rate for composition of SMS responses averaged 7.5% throughout the study; almost all errors were corrected and messages re-sent. Data accuracy, based on surveillance visits to health facilities, was 94%. District stock reports were accessed on average once a day. The proportion of health facilities with no stock of one or more anti-malarial medicine (i.e. any of the four dosages of AL or quinine injectable fell from 78% at week 1 to 26% at week 21. In Lindi Rural district, stock-outs were eliminated by week 8 with virtually no stock-outs thereafter. During the study, AL stocks increased by 64% and quinine stock increased 36% across the three districts. Conclusions The SMS for Life pilot provided visibility of anti-malarial stock levels to support more efficient stock management using simple and widely available SMS technology, via a public-private partnership model that worked highly effectively. The SMS for Life system has

  9. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  10. The anti-malarial drug Mefloquine disrupts central autonomic and respiratory control in the working heart brainstem preparation of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lall Varinder K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is an anti-malarial drug that can have neurological side effects. This study examines how mefloquine (MF influences central nervous control of autonomic and respiratory systems using the arterially perfused working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP of the rat. Recordings of nerve activity were made from the thoracic sympathetic chain and phrenic nerve, while heart rate (HR and perfusion pressure were also monitored in the arterially perfused, decerebrate, rat WHBP. MF was added to the perfusate at 1 μM to examine its effects on baseline parameters as well as baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes. Results MF caused a significant, atropine resistant, bradycardia and increased phrenic nerve discharge frequency. Chemoreceptor mediated sympathoexcitation (elicited by addition of 0.1 ml of 0.03% sodium cyanide to the aortic cannula was significantly attenuated by the application of MF to the perfusate. Furthermore MF significantly decreased rate of return to resting HR following chemoreceptor induced bradycardia. An increase in respiratory frequency and attenuated respiratory-related sympathetic nerve discharge during chemoreceptor stimulation was also elicited with MF compared to control. However, MF did not significantly alter baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. Conclusions These studies indicate that in the WHBP, MF causes profound alterations in autonomic and respiratory control. The possibility that these effects may be mediated through actions on connexin 36 containing gap junctions in central neurones controlling sympathetic nervous outflow is discussed.

  11. Innovative public-private partnerships to maximize the delivery of anti-malarial medicines: lessons learned from the ASAQ Winthrop experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebbag Robert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This case study describes how a public-private partnership initiated to develop a new anti-malarial combination, ASAQ Winthrop, has evolved over time to address issues posed by its effective deployment in the field. Case description In 2002, DNDi created the FACT project to develop two fixed-dose combinations, artesunate-amodiaquine and artesunate-mefloquine, to meet the WHO anti-malarial treatment recommendations and international regulatory agencies approval standards. In 2002, Sanofi-aventis had started a development programme for a fixed-dose combination of artesunate and amodiaquine, to replace its co-blister combination. DNDi and sanofi-aventis joined forces in 2004, with the objective of developing within the shortest possible time frame a non-patented, affordable and easy to use fixed-dose combination of artesunate and amodiaquine adapted to the needs of patients, in particular, those of children. The partners developed Coarsucam®/Artesunate Amodiaquine Winthrop® ("ASAQ Winthrop" which was prequalified by the WHO in 2008. Additional partnerships have since been established by DNDi and sanofi-aventis to ensure: 1 the adoption of this new medicine by malaria-endemic countries, 2 its appropriate usage through a broad range of information tools, and 3 the monitoring of its safety and efficacy in the field through an innovative Risk Management Plan. Discussion and evaluation The partnership between DNDi and sanofi-aventis has enabled the development and pre-qualification of ASAQ Winthrop in a short timeframe. As a result of the multiple collaborations established by the two partners, as of late 2010, ASAQ Winthrop was registered in 30 sub-Saharan African countries and in India, with over 80 million treatments distributed in 21 countries. To date, 10 clinical studies, involving 3432 patients with ASAQ Winthrop were completed to document efficacy and safety issues identified in the Risk Management Plan. Conclusions The

  12. Evaluation of anti-malarial activity of Artemisia turcomanica and A. kopetdaghensis by cell-free β-hematin formation assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mojarrab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:The plants of genus Artemisia (Asteraceae have been conventionally used for prevention and medication of a number of ailments. In the present research, ten extracts with different polarities from aerial parts of two Artemisia species, A. kopetdaghensis and A. turcomanica were evaluated for their potential anti-malarial properties. Methods: The plant materials were extracted successively with petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EtOAC, ethanol, and ethanol-water (1:1 v/v  by cold maceration method. Cell free β-hematin formation assay were used for assessing anti-malarial activity of obtained extracts. Results: DCM extract of A. kopetdaghensis and PE extract of A. turcomanica showed remarkable anti-malarial activity with IC50 values of 1.04±0.02 mg/mL and 0.90±0.27 mg/mL, respectively, compared to positive control (chloroquine, IC50 0.04±0.01 mg/mL. Conclusion:  It seems that the anti-malarial activity of these extracts might be bound up with the presence of compounds with low or medium polarity; hence, this preliminary test indicated that these potent extracts could be considered for further investigations to find new sources of anti-malarial phytochemicals.

  13. 云南省抗疟药品质量状况分析%Quality analysis of anti-malarials drug in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志鑫; 姜典财; 黄志禄; 范兵; 李哲媛; 刘继华; 王幸

    2011-01-01

    本文通过对云南省流通领域抗疟药的抽样、检验和结果分析,考察云南省市场流通的抗疟药品质V状况,探讨我国抗疟药目前存在的主要质量问题,并提出对策和建议.%By analysis of the sampling and testing result of anti - malarials in Yunnan Province, the quality of markted anti - malarials in Yunnan Province were studied, and main quality problems currently existed of anti - malarials in China were discussed, also some suggestions and strategies were presented.

  14. Anti-malarial drug safety information obtained through routine monitoring in a rural district of South-Western Senegal

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    Brasseur Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowing the safety profile of anti-malarial treatments in routine use is essential; millions of patients receive now artemisinin combination therapy (ACT annually, but the return on information through current systems is as yet inadequate. Cohort event monitoring (CEM is a WHO (World Health Organization-recommended practice; testing its performance and feasibility in routine practice in malaria-endemic is important. Methods A nine-year CEM-based study of the safety of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ at five peripheral health facilities in a rural district of South-western Senegal. Staff (nurses, health workers were trained to collect actively and systematically information on the patient, treatment and events on a purposely designed questionnaire. The occurrence and severity of events was collected before, during and after treatment up to 28 days in order to generate information on all adverse events (AEs as well as treatment-emerging signs/symptoms (TESS. Laboratory tests (haematology, liver and renal was planned for at least 10% of cases. Results During 2001–2009, 3,708 parasitologically-confirmed malaria cases (mean age = 16.0 ± 12.7 years were enrolled (26% and 52% of all and parasitologically-confirmed ASAQ treatments, respectively. Treatment was supervised in 96% of cases. Products changed over time: 49% were a loose combination of individually-packaged products (available 2001–03, 42% co-blistered products (2004–09 and 9% a fixed-dose co-formulation (2006–09; dosing was age-based for 42%, weight-based for 58%. AS and AQ were correctly dosed in 97% and 82% of cases with the loose and 93% and 86% with the fixed combination, but only 50% and 42% with the co-blistered product. Thirty-three per cent (33% of patients had at least one sign/symptom pre-treatment, 12% had at least one AE and 9% a TESS (total events 3,914, 1,144 and 693, respectively. AEs overestimated TESS by 1.2-2 fold (average 1.7. Changes in

  15. Site-specific integration and expression of an anti-malarial gene in transgenic Anopheles gambiae significantly reduces Plasmodium infections.

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    Janet M Meredith

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes have a devastating impact on global health and this is worsening due to difficulties with existing control measures and climate change. Genetically modified mosquitoes that are refractory to disease transmission are seen as having great potential in the delivery of novel control strategies. Historically the genetic modification of insects has relied upon transposable elements which have many limitations despite their successful use. To circumvent these limitations the Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase system has been successfully adapted for site-specific transgene integration in insects. Here, we present the first site-specific transformation of Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria. Mosquitoes were initially engineered to incorporate the phiC31 targeting site at a defined genomic location. A second phase of genetic modification then achieved site-specific integration of Vida3, a synthetic anti-malarial gene. Expression of Vida3, specifically in the midgut of bloodfed females, offered consistent and significant protection against Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, reducing average parasite intensity by 85%. Similar protection was observed against Plasmodium falciparum in some experiments, although protection was inconsistent. In the fight against malaria, it is imperative to establish a broad repertoire of both anti-malarial effector genes and tissue-specific promoters for their expression, enabling those offering maximum effect with minimum fitness cost to be identified. In the future, this technology will allow effective comparisons and informed choices to be made, potentially leading to complete transmission blockade.

  16. "Every drug goes to treat its own disease…" - a qualitative study of perceptions and experiences of taking anti-retrovirals concomitantly with anti-malarials among those affected by HIV and malaria in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangesho, Peter E; Reynolds, Joanna; Lemnge, Martha;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience malaria and the concomitant use of anti-malarial treatments with anti-retrovirals (ARVs). An understanding of how patients make sense of these experiences is important to consider in planning...... and supporting the clinical management and treatment for co-infected individuals. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in Tanzania alongside a clinical trial of concomitant treatment for HIV and malaria co-infection. Focus group discussions were held with people receiving treatment for HIV and/or malaria......, and in-depth interviews with health workers responsible for HIV care and members of the clinical trial team. Data were analysed inductively to identify themes and develop theoretical narratives. RESULTS: Results suggest that people living with HIV perceived malaria to be more harmful to them due...

  17. Ex vivo susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Dakar, Senegal, to seven standard anti-malarial drugs

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    Pradines Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of widespread chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT (which includes artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Senegal since 2006. Since then, there have been very few reports on the ex vivo susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. To examine whether parasite susceptibility has been affected by the widespread use of ACT, the ex vivo susceptibility of local isolates was assessed at the military hospital of Dakar. Methods The ex vivo susceptibility of 93 P. falciparum isolates from Dakar was successfully determined using the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH ELISA for the following drugs: chloroquine (CQ, quinine (QN, mefloquine (MQ, monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ, lumefantrine (LMF, dihydroartemisinin (DHA and doxycycline (DOX. Results After transformation of the isolate IC50 in ratio of IC50 according to the susceptibility of the 3D7 reference strain (isolate IC50/3D7 IC50, the prevalence of the in vitro resistant isolates with reduced susceptibility was 50% for MQ, 22% for CQ, 12% for DOX, 6% for both QN and MDAQ and 1% for the drugs LMF and DHA. The highest significant positive correlations were shown between responses to CQ and MDAQ (r = 0.569; P r = 0.511; P r = 0.428; P = 0.0001, LMF and MQ (r = 0.413; P = 0.0002, QN and DHA (r = 0.402; P = 0.0003 and QN and MQ (r = 0.421; P = 0.0001. Conclusions The introduction of ACT in 2002 has not induced a decrease in P. falciparum susceptibility to the drugs DHA, MDAQ and LMF, which are common ACT components. However, the prevalence of P. falciparum isolates with reduced susceptibility has increased for both MQ and DOX. Taken together, these data suggest that intensive surveillance of the P. falciparum in vitro susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs in Senegal is required.

  18. Comparing changes in haematologic parameters occurring in patients included in randomized controlled trials of artesunate-amodiaquine vs single and combination treatments of uncomplicated falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwang Julien

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS&AQ is a widely used artemisinin combination therapy (ACT for falciparum malaria. A comprehensive appreciation of its effects on haematology vs other anti-malarials is needed in view of potential safety liabilities. Methods Individual-patient data analysis conducted on a database from seven randomized controlled trials conducted in sub-Saharan African comparing AS&AQ to reference treatments in uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients of all ages. Haematologic values (white cells total and neutrophil counts, haemoglobin/haematocrit, platelets were analysed as both continuous and categorical variables for their occurrence, (severity grade 1-4 and changes during follow-up. Risks and trends were calculated using multivariate logistic random effect models. Results 4,502 patients (72% p = 0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, and leucopaenia decreased with follow-up time, while neutropaenia increased; the risk of anaemia and thrombocytopaenia increased with higher baseline parasitaemia and parasitological reappearance. White cells total count was not a good surrogate for neutropaenia. No systematic significant difference between treatments was detected. Older patients were at lower risks. Conclusion The effects of AS&AQ on haematologic parameters were not different from those of other anti-malarial treatments used in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis provides the basis for a broader evaluation of haematology following anti-malarial treatment. Continuing monitoring of haematologic safety on larger databases is required.

  19. A microarray-based system for the simultaneous analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in human genes involved in the metabolism of anti-malarial drugs

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    Qi Weihong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to provide a cost-effective tool to analyse pharmacogenetic markers in malaria treatment, DNA microarray technology was compared with sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragments to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a larger number of samples. Methods The microarray was developed to affordably generate SNP data of genes encoding the human cytochrome P450 enzyme family (CYP and N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2 involved in anti-malarial drug metabolisms and with known polymorphisms, i.e. CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and NAT2. Results For some SNPs, i.e. CYP2A6*2, CYP2B6*5, CYP2C8*3, CYP2C9*3/*5, CYP2C19*3, CYP2D6*4 and NAT2*6/*7/*14, agreement between both techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa index between 0.61 and 1.00, whilst for other SNPs a large variability from slight to substantial agreement (kappa index between 0.39 and 1.00 was found, e.g. CYP2D6*17 (2850C>T, CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*3. Conclusion The major limit of the microarray technology for this purpose was lack of robustness and with a large number of missing data or with incorrect specificity.

  20. Discovery of potent, novel, non-toxic anti-malarial compounds via quantum modelling, virtual screening and in vitro experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaludov Nikola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing resistance towards existing anti-malarial therapies emphasize the urgent need for new therapeutic options. Additionally, many malaria drugs in use today have high toxicity and low therapeutic indices. Gradient Biomodeling, LLC has developed a quantum-model search technology that uses quantum similarity and does not depend explicitly on chemical structure, as molecules are rigorously described in fundamental quantum attributes related to individual pharmacological properties. Therapeutic activity, as well as toxicity and other essential properties can be analysed and optimized simultaneously, independently of one another. Such methodology is suitable for a search of novel, non-toxic, active anti-malarial compounds. Methods A set of innovative algorithms is used for the fast calculation and interpretation of electron-density attributes of molecular structures at the quantum level for rapid discovery of prospective pharmaceuticals. Potency and efficacy, as well as additional physicochemical, metabolic, pharmacokinetic, safety, permeability and other properties were characterized by the procedure. Once quantum models are developed and experimentally validated, the methodology provides a straightforward implementation for lead discovery, compound optimizzation and de novo molecular design. Results Starting with a diverse training set of 26 well-known anti-malarial agents combined with 1730 moderately active and inactive molecules, novel compounds that have strong anti-malarial activity, low cytotoxicity and structural dissimilarity from the training set were discovered and experimentally validated. Twelve compounds were identified in silico and tested in vitro; eight of them showed anti-malarial activity (IC50 ≤ 10 μM, with six being very effective (IC50 ≤ 1 μM, and four exhibiting low nanomolar potency. The most active compounds were also tested for mammalian cytotoxicity and found to be non-toxic, with a

  1. Self-medication with anti-malarials is a common practice in rural communities of Kilosa district in Tanzania despite the reported decline of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Joseph P Mugasa; Mayumana, Iddy; Amuri, Mbaraka; Makungu, Christina; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-medication has been widely practiced worldwide particularly in developing countries including Tanzania. In sub-Saharan Africa high incidences of malaria have contributed to self-medication with anti-malarial drugs. In recent years, there has been a gain in malaria control, which has led to decreased malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality. Therefore, understanding the patterns of self-medication during this period when most instances of fever are presumed to be due to no...

  2. Genetic polymorphisms associated with anti-malarial antibody levels in a low and unstable malaria transmission area in southern Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Dewasurendra Rajika L; Suriyaphol Prapat; Fernando Sumadhya D; Carter Richard; Rockett Kirk; Corran Patrick; Kwiatkowski Dominic; Karunaweera Nadira D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The incidence of malaria in Sri Lanka has significantly declined in recent years. Similar trends were seen in Kataragama, a known malaria endemic location within the southern province of the country, over the past five years. This is a descriptive study of anti-malarial antibody levels and selected host genetic mutations in residents of Kataragama, under low malaria transmission conditions. Methods Sera were collected from 1,011 individuals residing in Kataragama and anti-...

  3. Anti-malarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin

    OpenAIRE

    Swain Bijay K; Dash Aditya P; Mishra Kirti; Dey Nrisingha

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Herbal extracts of Andrographis paniculata (AP) and Hedyotis corymbosa (HC) are known as hepato-protective and fever-reducing drugs since ancient time and they have been used regularly by the people in the south Asian sub-continent. Methanolic extracts of these two plants were tested in vitro on choloroquine sensitive (MRC-pf-20) and resistant (MRC-pf-303) strains of Plasmodium falciparum for their anti-malarial activity. Methods Growth inhibition was determined using diff...

  4. In vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity of limonoids isolated from the residual seed biomass from Carapa guianensis (andiroba) oil production

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tiago B; Rocha e Silva, Luiz F.; Amorim, Rodrigo CN; Melo, Márcia RS; Zacardi de Souza, Rita C; Marcos N. Eberlin; Emerson S. Lima; Vasconcellos, Marne C.; Pohlit, Adrian M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Carapa guianensis is a cultivable tree used by traditional health practitioners in the Amazon region to treat several diseases and particularly symptoms related to malaria. Abundant residual pressed seed material (RPSM) results as a by-product of carapa or andiroba oil production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-malarial activity and cytotoxicity of limonoids isolated from C. guaianensis RPSM. Methods 6α-acetoxyepoxyazadiradione (1), andiro...

  5. The challenge to avoid anti-malarial medicine stock-outs in an era of funding partners: the case of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen-Lopez, Inez; Shango, Winna; Barrington, Jim; Ziegler, Rene; Smith, Tom; de Savigny, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Between 2007 and 2013, the Tanzanian public sector received 93.1 million doses of first-line anti-malarial artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in the form of artemether-lumefantrine entirely supplied by funding partners. The introduction of a health facility ACT stock monitoring system using SMS technology by the National Malaria Control Programme in mid 2011 revealed a high frequency of stock-outs of ACT in primary care public health facilities. The objective of this study...

  6. Several Human Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors, Structurally Related to Roscovitine, As New Anti-Malarial Agents

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    Sandrine Houzé

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, malaria kills one child each minute. It is also responsible for about one million deaths worldwide each year. Plasmodium falciparum, is the protozoan responsible for the most lethal form of the disease, with resistance developing against the available anti-malarial drugs. Among newly proposed anti-malaria targets, are the P. falciparum cyclin-dependent kinases (PfCDKs. There are involved in different stages of the protozoan growth and development but share high sequence homology with human cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs. We previously reported the synthesis of CDKs inhibitors that are structurally-related to (R-roscovitine, a 2,6,9-trisubstituted purine, and they showed activity against neuronal diseases and cancers. In this report, we describe the synthesis and the characterization of new CDK inhibitors, active in reducing the in vitro growth of P. falciparum (3D7 and 7G8 strains. Six compounds are more potent inhibitors than roscovitine, and three exhibited IC50 values close to 1 µM for both 3D7 and 7G8 strains. Although, such molecules do inhibit P. falciparum growth, they require further studies to improve their selectivity for PfCDKs.

  7. Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh

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    Akter Jasmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past many regions of Bangladesh were hyperendemic for malaria. Malaria control in the 1960s to 1970s eliminated malaria from the plains but in the Chittagong Hill Tracts remained a difficult to control reservoir. The Chittagong Hill Tracts have areas with between 1 and 10% annual malaria rates, predominately 90-95% Plasmodium falciparum. In Southeast Asia, multiplicity of infection for hypo-endemic regions has been approximately 1.5. Few studies on the genetic diversity of P. falciparum have been performed in Bangladesh. Anderson et al. performed a study in Khagrachari, northern Chittagong Hill Tracts in 2002 on 203 patients and found that parasites had a multiplicity of infection of 1.3 by MSP-1, MSP-2 and GLURP genotyping. A total of 94% of the isolates had the K76T Pfcrt chloroquine resistant genotype, and 70% showed the N86Y Pfmdr1 genotype. Antifolate drug resistant genotypes were high with 99% and 73% of parasites having two or more mutations at the dhfr or dhps loci. Methods Nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were used to genotype P. falciparum using antigenic polymorphic markers and to study anti-malarial drug resistance markers in malaria endemic areas of Bangladesh. Results The analysis of polymorphic and drug resistant genotype on 33 paired recrudescent infections after drug treatment in the period 2004 to 2008 in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, which is just prior to countrywide provision of artemisinin combination therapy. Overall the multiplicity of infection for MSP-1 was 2.7 with a slightly smaller parasite diversity post-treatment. The 13 monoclonal infections by both GLURP and MSP-1 were evenly divided between pre- and post-treatment. The MSP-1 MAD block was most frequent in 66 of the samples. The prevalence of the K76T PfCRT chloroquine resistant allele was approximately 82% of the samples, while the resistant Pfmdr1 N86Y was present in 33% of the samples. Interestingly, the post-treatment

  8. Factors related to compliance to anti-malarial drug combination: example of amodiaquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine among children in rural Senegal

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    Sow Diarietou

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of new anti-malarial treatment that is effective, but more expensive, raises questions about whether the high level of effectiveness observed in clinical trials can be found in a context of family use. The objective of this study was to determine the factors related to adherence, when using the amodiaquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ/SP association, a transitory strategy before ACT implementation in Senegal. Methods The study was conducted in five rural dispensaries. Children, between two and 10 years of age, who presented mild malaria were recruited at the time of the consultation and were prescribed AQ/SP. The child's primary caretaker was questioned at home on D3 about treatment compliance and factors that could have influenced his or her adherence to treatment. A logistic regression model was used for the analyses. Results The study sample included 289 children. The adherence rate was 64.7%. Two risks factors for non-adherence were identified: the children's age (8–10 years (ORa = 3.07 [1.49–6.29]; p = 0.004; and the profession of the head of household (retailer/employee versus farmer (ORa = 2.71 [1.34–5.48]; p = 0.006. Previously seeking care (ORa = 0.28 [0.105–0.736], p=0.001] satisfaction with received information (ORa = 0.45 [0.24–0.84]; p = 0.013, and the quality of history taking (ORa = 0.38 [0.21–0.69]; p = 0.001 were significantly associated with good compliance. Conclusion The results of the study show the importance of information and communication between caregivers and health center staff. The experience gained from this therapeutic transition emphasizes the importance of information given to the patients at the time of the consultation and drug delivery in order to improve drug use and thus prevent the emergence of rapid drug resistance.

  9. Malaria Related Perceptions, Care Seeking after Onset of Fever and Anti-Malarial Drug Use in Malaria Endemic Settings of Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Zewdie; Abebe, Lakew; Sudhakar, Morankar; Dissanayake, Gunawardena; Yihdego, Yemane Ye-ebiyo; Alemayehu, Guda; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2016-01-01

    Background Prompt care seeking and appropriate use of anti-malarial drugs are critical components of malaria prevention and control. This study assessed malaria related perceptions, care seeking behavior and anti-malarial drug use in malaria endemic settings of Ethiopia. Methods Data were generated from a community based cross-sectional study conducted among 798 households during January 2014 as part of a larger household behavioral study in three malaria endemic districts of Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 and STATA 12.0. Results In this study, only 76.1% of the respondents associated malaria to mosquito bite, and incorrect beliefs and perceptions were noted. Despite moderate level of knowledge (estimated mean = 62.2, Std Err = 0.7, 95% CI: 60.6–63.8%), quite high favorable attitude (overall estimated mean = 91.5, Std Err = 0.6, 95% CI: 90.1–92.9%) were recorded towards malaria preventive measures. The mean attitude score for prompt care seeking, appropriate use of anti-malarial drugs, LLIN use and Indoor Residual Spray acceptance was 98.5 (Std Err = 0.4, 95% CI:97.5–99.4), 92.7 (Std Err = 0.6 95% CI:91.5–93.9), 88.8 (Std Err = 0.5, 95% CI:85.5–92.1) and 86.5 (Std Err = 1.2, 95% CI: 83.9–89.1), respectively. The prevalence of fever was 2.9% (116/4107) and of the study participants with fever, 71.9% (95% CI: 65.5–78.3%) sought care and all of them consulted formal health care system. However, only 17 (19.8%) sought care within 24 hours after onset of fever. The frequency of care seeking was higher (77.8%, n = 21/27) and more prompt (28.6%, 6/21) for children under five as compared to old age groups despite it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, higher median time of seeking first care was observed among Muslims and people who did not attend school (p < 0.05). Of those who used anti-malarial drugs, 9.1% indicated that they used it inappropriately

  10. Reverse pharmacology for developing an anti-malarial phytomedicine. The example of Argemone mexicana

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    Claudia Simoes-Pires

    2014-12-01

    Reverse pharmacology, also called bedside-to-bench, is a research approach based on the traditional knowledge and relates to reversing the classical laboratory to clinic pathway to a clinic to laboratory practice. It is a trans-disciplinary approach focused on traditional knowledge, experimental observations and clinical experiences. This paper is an overview of the reverse pharmacology approach applied to the decoction of Argemone mexicana, used as an antimalarial traditional medicine in Mali. A. mexicana appeared as the most effective traditional medicine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Mali, and the clinical efficacy of the decoction was comparable to artesunate–amodiaquine as previously published. Four stages of the reverse pharmacology process will be described here with a special emphasis on the results for stage 4. Briefly, allocryptopine, protopine and berberine were isolated through bioguided fractionation, and had their identity confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. The three alkaloids showed antiparasitic activity in vitro, of which allocryptopine and protopine were selective towards Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, the amount of the three active alkaloids in the decoction was determined by quantitative NMR, and preliminary in vivo assays were conducted. On the basis of these results, the reverse pharmacology approach is discussed and further pharmacokinetic studies appear to be necessary in order to determine whether these alkaloids can be considered as phytochemical markers for quality control and standardization of an improved traditional medicine made with this plant.

  11. Synthesis and pharmacokinetics of radioisotope labeled anti-malarial agent in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannanpalli, Pradeep; Park, Sang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Pyro naridine tetraphosphate is a new synthetic drug which is currently being investigated for use in the treatment of malaria. The main objective of this investigation was to synthesize [{sup 14}C]pyro naridine tetraphosphate and to determine its absorption, distribution, excretion and pharmacokinetics in to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats following a single oral administration (10 mg/kg). To overcome the disadvantages posed by the classical method, a novel and efficient method using microwave irradiation was employed for the synthesis of pyro naridine tetraphosphate. Use of microwave irradiation decreased the reaction time considerably, used less of the starting material and also increased the yield when compared with the classical method. [{sup 14}C]Pyro naridine tetraphosphate thus synthesized had a high degree of purity and showed satisfactory {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, mass spectra (MS), infrared (IR) and elemental analysis data. The distribution of [{sup 14}C]pyro naridine tetraphosphate in various tissues like the blood, plasma, liver, lung, heart, spleen, kidney, brain, stomach, small intestine and large intestine were determined at 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, 96, 144, 192 and 240 h post administration of the drug to rats. Mass balance excretion of [{sup 14}C]pyro naridine tetraphosphate in urine, faeces and in breath as {sup 14}CO{sub 2} were also determined at different time intervals post administration of the drug. We observed that [{sup 14}C]pyro naridine tetraphosphate was readily absorbed and widely distributed within 1 h following oral administration as it was determined by the presence of radioactivity in various tissues investigated. The absorption, distribution and excretion of the drug was found to be gender independent as both male and female rats showed a similar pattern of radioactivity. [{sup 14}C]Pyro naridine tetraphosphate was absorbed mainly from the small intestine upon oral administration. The major route of excretion for [{sup 14}C

  12. Plasmodium serine hydroxymethyltransferase as a potential anti-malarial target: inhibition studies using improved methods for enzyme production and assay

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    Sopitthummakhun Kittipat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for the discovery of new anti-malarial drugs. Thus, it is essential to explore different potential new targets that are unique to the parasite or that are required for its viability in order to develop new interventions for treating the disease. Plasmodium serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, an enzyme in the dTMP synthesis cycle, is a potential target for such new drugs, but convenient methods for producing and assaying the enzyme are still lacking, hampering the ability to screen inhibitors. Methods Production of recombinant Plasmodium falciparum SHMT (PfSHMT and Plasmodium vivax SHMT (PvSHMT, using auto-induction media, were compared to those using the conventional Luria Bertani medium with isopropyl thio-β-D-galactoside (LB-IPTG induction media. Plasmodium SHMT activity, kinetic parameters, and response to inhibitors were measured spectrophotometrically by coupling the reaction to that of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD. The identity of the intermediate formed upon inactivation of Plasmodium SHMTs by thiosemicarbazide was investigated by spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The active site environment of Plasmodium SHMT was probed based on changes in the fluorescence emission spectrum upon addition of amino acids and folate. Results Auto-induction media resulted in a two to three-fold higher yield of Pf- and PvSHMT (7.38 and 29.29 mg/L compared to that produced in cells induced in LB-IPTG media. A convenient spectrophotometric activity assay coupling Plasmodium SHMT and MTHFD gave similar kinetic parameters to those previously obtained from the anaerobic assay coupling SHMT and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; thus demonstrating the validity of the new assay procedure. The improved method was adopted to screen for Plasmodium SHMT inhibitors, of which some were originally designed

  13. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  14. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  15. Modelling the impact of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria on selection pressure for drug resistance

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    Cissé Badara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT is a promising intervention for malaria control, although there are concerns about its impact on drug resistance. Methods The key model inputs are age-specific values for a baseline anti-malarial dosing rate, b parasite prevalence, and c proportion of those treated with anti-malarials (outside IPT who are infected. These are used to estimate the immediate effect of IPT on the genetic coefficient of selection (s. The scenarios modelled were year round IPT to infants in rural southern Tanzania, and three doses at monthly intervals of seasonal IPT in Senegal. Results In the simulated Tanzanian setting, the model suggests a high selection pressure for drug resistance, but that IPTi would only increase this by a small amount (4.4%. The percent change in s is larger if parasites are more concentrated in infants, or if baseline drug dosing is less common or less specific. If children aged up to five years are included in the Tanzanian scenario then the predicted increase in s rises to 31%. The Senegalese seasonal IPT scenario, in children up to five years, results in a predicted increase in s of 16%. Conclusion There is a risk that the useful life of drugs will be shortened if IPT is implemented over a wide childhood age range. On the other hand, IPT delivered only to infants is unlikely to appreciably shorten the useful life of the drug used.

  16. FlexiChip package: an universal microarray with a dedicated analysis software for high-thoughput SNPs detection linked to anti-malarial drug resistance

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    Dondorp Arjen M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of molecular tools have been developed to monitor the emergence and spread of anti-malarial drug resistance to Plasmodium falciparum. One of the major obstacles to the wider implementation of these tools is the absence of practical methods enabling high throughput analysis. Here a new Zip-code array is described, called FlexiChip, linked to a dedicated software program, which largely overcomes this problem. Methods Previously published microarray probes detecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP associated with parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs (ResMalChip were adapted for a universal microarray FlexiChip format. To evaluate the overall sensitivity of the FlexiChip package (microarray + software, the results of FlexiChip were compared to ResMalChip microarray, using the same extension probes and with the same PCR products. In both cases, sequence results were used as gold standard to calculate sensitivity and specificity. FlexiChip results obtained with a set of field isolates were then compared to those assessed in an independent reference laboratory. Results The FlexiChip package gave results identical to the ResMalChip results in 92.7% of samples (kappa coefficient 0.8491, with a standard error 0.021 and had a sensitivity of 95.88% and a specificity of 97.68% compared to the sequencing as the reference method. Moreover the method performed well compared to the results obtained in the reference laboratories, with 99.7% of identical results (kappa coefficient 0.9923, S.E. 0.0523. Conclusion Microarrays could be employed to monitor P. falciparum drug resistance markers with greater cost effectiveness and the possibility for high throughput analysis. The FlexiChip package is a promising tool for use in poor resource settings of malaria endemic countries.

  17. Treatment decisions based on scalar and functional baseline covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarleglio, Adam; Petkova, Eva; Ogden, R Todd; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2015-12-01

    The amount and complexity of patient-level data being collected in randomized-controlled trials offer both opportunities and challenges for developing personalized rules for assigning treatment for a given disease or ailment. For example, trials examining treatments for major depressive disorder are not only collecting typical baseline data such as age, gender, or scores on various tests, but also data that measure the structure and function of the brain such as images from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), or electroencephalography (EEG). These latter types of data have an inherent structure and may be considered as functional data. We propose an approach that uses baseline covariates, both scalars and functions, to aid in the selection of an optimal treatment. In addition to providing information on which treatment should be selected for a new patient, the estimated regime has the potential to provide insight into the relationship between treatment response and the set of baseline covariates. Our approach can be viewed as an extension of "advantage learning" to include both scalar and functional covariates. We describe our method and how to implement it using existing software. Empirical performance of our method is evaluated with simulated data in a variety of settings and also applied to data arising from a study of patients with major depressive disorder from whom baseline scalar covariates as well as functional data from EEG are available.

  18. Estimating the Impact of Means-tested Subsidies under Treatment Externalities with Application to Anti-Malarial Bednets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Debopam; Dupas, Pascaline; Kanaya, Shin

    purchase price, causing free-riding and sub-optimal private procurement, such products may be subsidized in developing countries through means-testing. Owing to associated spillover effects, cost-benefit analysis of such subsidies requires modelling behavioral responses of both the subsidized household...... and its neighbors. Using experimental data from Kenya where subsidies were randomized, coupled with GPS-based location information, we show how to estimate aggregate ITN use resulting from means-tested subsidies in the presence of such spatial spillovers. Accounting for spillovers introduces infinite...... resulting from a specific targeting rule, depending on the resulting aggregate incidence of subsidy. Applying our method to the Kenyan data, we find that (i) individual ITN use rises with neighborhood subsidy-rates, (ii) under means-testing, predicted ITN use is a convex increasing function of the subsidy...

  19. Finding parasites and finding challenges: improved diagnostic access and trends in reported malaria and anti-malarial drug use in Livingstone district, Zambia

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    Masaninga Freddie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT use on management of acute febrile disease at a community level, and on the consumption of anti-malarial medicines, is critical to the planning and success of scale-up to universal parasite-based diagnosis by health systems in malaria-endemic countries. Methods A retrospective study of district-wide community-level RDT introduction was conducted in Livingstone District, Zambia, to assess the impact of this programmed on malaria reporting, incidence of mortality and on district anti-malarial consumption. Results Reported malaria declined from 12,186 cases in the quarter prior to RDT introduction in 2007 to an average of 12.25 confirmed and 294 unconfirmed malaria cases per quarter over the year to September 2009. Reported malaria-like fever also declined, with only 4,381 RDTs being consumed per quarter over the same year. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero in the year to September 2009, and all-cause mortality declined. Consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT dropped dramatically, but remained above reported malaria, declining from 12,550 courses dispensed by the district office in the quarter prior to RDT implementation to an average of 822 per quarter over the last year. Quinine consumption in health centres also declined, with the district office ceasing to supply due to low usage, but requests for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP rose to well above previous levels, suggesting substitution of ACT with this drug in RDT-negative cases. Conclusions RDT introduction led to a large decline in reported malaria cases and in ACT consumption in Livingstone district. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero, indicating safety of the new diagnostic regime, although adherence and/or use of RDTs was still incomplete. However, a deficiency is apparent in management of non-malarial fever, with inappropriate use of a low-cost single dose drug, SP

  20. Adverse drug events resulting from use of drugs with sulphonamide-containing anti-malarials and artemisinin-based ingredients: findings on incidence and household costs from three districts with routine demographic surveillance systems in rural Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Njau, JD; Kabanywanyi, AM; Goodman, CA; Macarthur, JR; Kapella, BK; Gimnig, JE; Kahigwa, E.; Bloland, PB; Abdulla, SM; Kachur, SP

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anti-malarial regimens containing sulphonamide or artemisinin ingredients are widely used in malaria-endemic countries. However, evidence of the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to these drugs is limited, especially in Africa, and there is a complete absence of information on the economic burden such ADR place on patients. This study aimed to document ADR incidence and associated household costs in three high malaria transmission districts in rural Tanzania covered by dem...

  1. Revisiting the relationship between baseline risk and risk under treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nony Patrice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In medical practice, it is generally accepted that the 'effect model' describing the relationship between baseline risk and risk under treatment is linear, i.e. 'relative risk' is constant. Absolute benefit is then proportional to a patient's baseline risk and the treatment is most effective among high-risk patients. Alternatively, the 'effect model' becomes curvilinear when 'odds ratio' is considered to be constant. However these two models are based on purely empirical considerations, and there is still no theoretical approach to support either the linear or the non-linear relation. Presentation of the hypothesis From logistic and sigmoidal Emax (Hill models, we derived a phenomenological model which includes the possibility of integrating both beneficial and harmful effects. Instead of a linear relation, our model suggests that the relationship is curvilinear i.e. the moderate-risk patients gain most from the treatment in opposition to those with low or high risk. Testing the hypothesis Two approaches can be proposed to investigate in practice such a model. The retrospective one is to perform a meta-analysis of clinical trials with subgroups of patients including a great range of baseline risks. The prospective one is to perform a large clinical trial in which patients are recruited according to several prestratified diverse and high risk groups. Implications of the hypothesis For the quantification of the treatment effect and considering such a model, the discrepancy between odds ratio and relative risk may be related not only to the level of risk under control conditions, but also to the characteristics of the dose-effect relation and the amount of dose administered. In the proposed approach, OR may be considered as constant in the whole range of Rc, and depending only on the intrinsic characteristics of the treatment. Therefore, OR should be preferred rather than RR to summarize information on treatment efficacy.

  2. A phase I trial to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of low-dose methotrexate as an anti-malarial drug in Kenyan adult healthy volunteers

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    Oyoo George O

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous investigations indicate that methotrexate, an old anticancer drug, could be used at low doses to treat malaria. A phase I evaluation was conducted to assess the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of this drug in healthy adult male Kenyan volunteers. Methods Twenty five healthy adult volunteers were recruited and admitted to receive a 5 mg dose of methotrexate/day/5 days. Pharmacokinetics blood sampling was carried out at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours following each dose. Nausea, vomiting, oral ulcers and other adverse events were solicited during follow up of 42 days. Results The mean age of participants was 23.9 ± 3.3 years. Adherence to protocol was 100%. No grade 3 solicited adverse events were observed. However, one case of transiently elevated liver enzymes, and one serious adverse event (not related to the product were reported. The maximum concentration (Cmax was 160-200 nM and after 6 hours, the effective concentration (Ceff was Conclusion Low-dose methotraxate had an acceptable safety profile. However, methotrexate blood levels did not reach the desirable Ceff of 250-400-nM required to clear malaria infection in vivo. Further dose finding and safety studies are necessary to confirm suitability of this drug as an anti-malarial agent.

  3. Exposure to anti-malarial drugs and monitoring of adverse drug reactions using toll-free mobile phone calls in private retail sector in Sagamu, Nigeria: implications for pharmacovigilance

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    Ogunwande Isiaka A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs contribute to ill-health or life-threatening outcomes of therapy during management of infectious diseases. The exposure to anti-malarial and use of mobile phone technology to report ADRs following drug exposures were investigated in Sagamu - a peri-urban community in Southwest Nigeria. Methods Purchase of medicines was actively monitored for 28 days in three Community Pharmacies (CP and four Patent and Proprietary Medicine Stores (PPMS in the community. Information on experience of ADRs was obtained by telephone from 100 volunteers who purchased anti-malarials during the 28-day period. Results and Discussion A total of 12,093 purchases were recorded during the period. Antibiotics, analgesics, vitamins and anti-malarials were the most frequently purchased medicines. A total of 1,500 complete courses of anti-malarials were purchased (12.4% of total purchases; of this number, purchases of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP and chloroquine (CQ were highest (39.3 and 25.2% respectiuvely. Other anti-malarials purchased were artesunate monotherapy (AS - 16.1%, artemether-lumefantrine (AL 10.0%, amodiaquine (AQ - 6.6%, quinine (QNN - 1.9%, halofantrine (HF - 0.2% and proguanil (PR - 0.2%. CQ was the cheapest (USD 0.3 and halofantrine the most expensive (USD 7.7. AL was 15.6 times ($4.68 more expensive than CQ. The response to mobile phone monitoring of ADRs was 57% in the first 24 hours (day 1 after purchase and decreased to 33% by day 4. Participants in this monitoring exercise were mostly with low level of education (54%. Conclusion The findings from this study indicate that ineffective anti-malaria medicines including monotherapies remain widely available and are frequently purchased in the study area. Cost may be a factor in the continued use of ineffective monotherapies. Availability of a toll-free telephone line may facilitate pharmacovigilance and follow up of response to medicines in a resource

  4. Development of ELISA-based methods to measure the anti-malarial drug chloroquine in plasma and in pharmaceutical formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, Insaf F; Alifrangis, Michael; Recke, Camilla;

    2011-01-01

    therapeutic agent. There is a dire need to continue monitoring quality of CQ as there is a major influx of substandard and fake formulations into malaria-endemic countries. The use of fake/substandard drugs will result in sub-therapeutic levels endangering the patient and possibly select for parasite......In Central and South America and Eastern and Southern Africa, Plasmodium vivax infections accounts for 71-81% and 5% of malaria cases, respectively. In these areas, chloroquine (CQ) remains the treatment of choice for P. vivax malaria. In addition, CQ has recently proven to be an effective HIV-1...... resistance. The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive, simple antibody-based ELISA to measure CQ concentrations in tablets and in plasma....

  5. Factors Influencing Anti-Malarial Prophylaxis and Iron Supplementation Non-Compliance among Pregnant Women in Simiyu Region, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambili, Benatus; Kimambo, Ronald; Peng, Yun; Ishunga, Elison; Matasha, Edna; Matumu, Godfrey; Noronha, Rita; Ngilangwa, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria and iron-deficient anemia during pregnancy pose considerable risks for the mother and newborn. Intermittent Preventive Treatment during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and iron supplement to prevent anemia to all pregnant women receiving antenatal care (ANC) services is highly recommended. However, their compliance remains low. This study aimed at identifying factors influencing non-compliance of medications among pregnant women. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Simiyu region in northwest Tanzania using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 430 women who were pregnant or gave birth 12 months prior to data collection. Data were analyzed using non-parametric statistical analysis with STATA 10. Overall, 284 (66%) and 195 (45%) of interviewed women received IPTp-SP and iron supplementation during their ANC visits, respectively. The majority (85%) of women whom received medications were aware if they had received IPTp-SP or iron supplementation. Of those received IPTp-SP, only 11% took all the three doses, while the remaining 89% took only two doses or one dose. For women who received iron supplementation, 29% reported that they did not take any dose at all. Reasons given for not complying with regiments included not liking the medications and disapproval from male partners. Our findings suggest that IPTp-SP and iron supplement compliance among pregnant women in Simiyu region is low. Intensification of community education, further qualitative research and administration of medication through directly-observed therapy (DOT) are recommended to address the problem. PMID:27347981

  6. Development of ELISA-based methods to measure the anti-malarial drug chloroquine in plasma and in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronn Anita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Central and South America and Eastern and Southern Africa, Plasmodium vivax infections accounts for 71-81% and 5% of malaria cases, respectively. In these areas, chloroquine (CQ remains the treatment of choice for P. vivax malaria. In addition, CQ has recently proven to be an effective HIV-1 therapeutic agent. There is a dire need to continue monitoring quality of CQ as there is a major influx of substandard and fake formulations into malaria-endemic countries. The use of fake/substandard drugs will result in sub-therapeutic levels endangering the patient and possibly select for parasite resistance. The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive, simple antibody-based ELISA to measure CQ concentrations in tablets and in plasma. Methods A monoclonal antibody (MAb that reacts with the N-side chain of the CQ molecule was prepared by use of a CQ analogue. A specific and reliable ELISA for detection of CQ was developed. The developed assay was validated by measuring CQ in tablets sold in Denmark, India and Sudan. Furthermore, kinetics of CQ concentrations in plasma of four volunteers, who ingested two tablets of Malarex® containing, 250 mg CQ base, were measured before drug intake, three hours later and thereafter at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The same plasma samples were simultaneously measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The ELISA proved an easy-to-handle and very sensitive tool for the detection of CQ with a lower limit of detection at 3.9 ng/ml. ELISA levels of CQ in plasma showed high agreement with the levels obtained by HPLC (r = 0.98. The specificity in the negative control group was 100%. Conclusion The developed ELISA can be used for quality screening of CQ in pharmaceutical formulations and for drug monitoring in malaria and in other infectious diseases, such as HIV, where CQ proved to be an effective therapeutic agent. The methodology has been exploited to develop monoclonal

  7. Preclinical models for neuroblastoma: establishing a baseline for treatment.

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    Tal Teitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical models of pediatric cancers are essential for testing new chemotherapeutic combinations for clinical trials. The most widely used genetic model for preclinical testing of neuroblastoma is the TH-MYCN mouse. This neuroblastoma-prone mouse recapitulates many of the features of human neuroblastoma. Limitations of this model include the low frequency of bone marrow metastasis, the lack of information on whether the gene expression patterns in this system parallels human neuroblastomas, the relatively slow rate of tumor formation and variability in tumor penetrance on different genetic backgrounds. As an alternative, preclinical studies are frequently performed using human cell lines xenografted into immunocompromised mice, either as flank implant or orthtotopically. Drawbacks of this system include the use of cell lines that have been in culture for years, the inappropriate microenvironment of the flank or difficult, time consuming surgery for orthotopic transplants and the absence of an intact immune system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we characterize and optimize both systems to increase their utility for preclinical studies. We show that TH-MYCN mice develop tumors in the paraspinal ganglia, but not in the adrenal, with cellular and gene expression patterns similar to human NB. In addition, we present a new ultrasound guided, minimally invasive orthotopic xenograft method. This injection technique is rapid, provides accurate targeting of the injected cells and leads to efficient engraftment. We also demonstrate that tumors can be detected, monitored and quantified prior to visualization using ultrasound, MRI and bioluminescence. Finally we develop and test a "standard of care" chemotherapy regimen. This protocol, which is based on current treatments for neuroblastoma, provides a baseline for comparison of new therapeutic agents. SIGNIFICANCE: The studies suggest that use of both the TH-NMYC model of neuroblastoma and the

  8. Treatment of malaria from monotherapy to artemisinin-based combination therapy by health professionals in rural health facilities in southern Cameroon

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    Bley Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One year after the adoption of artesunate-amodiaquine (AS/AQ as first-line therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, this study was designed to assess the treatment practices regarding anti-malarial drugs at health facilities in four rural areas in southern Cameroon. Methods Between April and August 2005, information was collected by interviewing fifty-two health professionals from twelve rural health facilities, using a structured questionnaire. Results In 2005, only three anti-malarial drugs were used in rural health facilities, including: amodiaquine, quinine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Only 2.0% of the health professionals prescribed the recommended AS/AQ combination. After reading the treatment guidelines, 75.0% were in favour of the treatment protocol with the following limitations: lack of paediatric formulations, high cost and large number of tablets per day. Up to 21.0% of professionals did not prescribe AS/AQ because of the level of adverse events attributed to the use of amodiaquine as monotherapy. Conclusion The present study indicates that AS/AQ was not available in the public health facilities at the time of the study, and health practitioners were not informed about the new treatment guidelines. Results of qualitative analysis suggest that prescribers should be involved as soon as possible in projects related to the optimization of treatment guidelines and comply with new drugs. Adapted formulations should be made available at the international level and implemented locally before new drugs and treatments are proposed through a national control programme. This baseline information will be useful to monitor progresses in the implementation of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Cameroon.

  9. Antibodies to malaria vaccine candidates are associated with chloroquine or sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine treatment efficacy in children in an endemic area of Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diarra, Amidou; Nebie, Issa; Tiono, Alfred;

    2012-01-01

    of the value of suboptimal vaccines. The study aim was to investigate relationship between antibodies and anti-malarial drug treatment outcomes. METHODS: Some 248 children aged 0.5 and 15 years were recruited prior to the high malaria transmission season. Venous blood (5 ml) was obtained from each child...... to measure antibody levels to selected malaria antigens, using ELISA. Blood smears were also performed to assess drug efficacy and malaria infection prevalence. Children were actively followed up to record clinical malaria cases. RESULTS: IgG levels to MSP3 were always higher in the successfully treated......: Acquired anti-malarial antibodies may play an important role in the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in younger children more susceptible to the disease....

  10. Hepatitis C treatment response kinetics and impact of baseline predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindh, M; Arnholm, B; Eilard, A;

    2011-01-01

    and treatment outcome. Patients treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in standard dosing were included: 49 with genotype 1 treated for 48 weeks and 139 with genotype 2 or 3 treated for 24 weeks. The reduced SVR rates in patients older than 45 years, with severe liver fibrosis or pretreatment viraemia...

  11. Adherence to and acceptability of artemether-lumefantrine as first-line anti-malarial treatment: evidence from a rural community in Tanzania

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    Schlienger Raymond

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlled clinical trials have shown that a six-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine (AL therapy for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria results in cure rates >95% with good tolerability. Materials and methods A prospective study was carried out to document the adherence to and acceptability of AL administration. This was undertaken in the context of the ALIVE study, a prospective, community-based, observational study in a rural, malaria-endemic area of Tanzania. Following microscopic confirmation of P. falciparum infection, the first AL dose was taken under supervision, with the subsequent five doses taken unsupervised at home. Patients were randomized to receive a home-based assessment close to the scheduled time for one of the unsupervised doses, but were blinded to which follow-up visit they had been allocated. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained staff and AL consumption was confirmed by inspection of blister packs. Results A total of 552 patients were recruited of whom 352 (63.8% were Discussion Factors contributing to adherence were likely to be helpful packaging, pictorial dosing instructions and patients' conviction that AL is effective. Conclusion Adherence to the dosing regimen and timing of AL administration was very good.

  12. Antibodies to malaria vaccine candidates are associated with chloroquine or sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine treatment efficacy in children in an endemic area of Burkina Faso

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    Diarra Amidou

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient immune status is thought to affect the efficacy of anti-malarial chemotherapy. This is a subject of some importance, since evidence of immunity-related interactions may influence our use of chemotherapy in populations with drug resistance, as well as assessment of the value of suboptimal vaccines. The study aim was to investigate relationship between antibodies and anti-malarial drug treatment outcomes. Methods Some 248 children aged 0.5 and 15 years were recruited prior to the high malaria transmission season. Venous blood (5 ml was obtained from each child to measure antibody levels to selected malaria antigens, using ELISA. Blood smears were also performed to assess drug efficacy and malaria infection prevalence. Children were actively followed up to record clinical malaria cases. Results IgG levels to MSP3 were always higher in the successfully treated group than in the group with treatment failure. The same observation was made for GLURP but the reverse observation was noticed for MSP1-19. Cytophilic and non-cytophilic antibodies were significantly associated with protection against all three antigens, except for IgG4 to MSP1-19 and GLURP. Conclusion Acquired anti-malarial antibodies may play an important role in the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in younger children more susceptible to the disease.

  13. Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania following community, retail sector and health facility interventions -- a user perspective

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    Obrist Brigit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACCESS programme aims at understanding and improving access to prompt and effective malaria treatment. Between 2004 and 2008 the programme implemented a social marketing campaign for improved treatment-seeking. To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO was created in Tanzania in 2006. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu in 2007 and subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on understanding and treatment of malaria was studied in rural Tanzania. The data also enabled an investigation of the determinants of access to treatment. Methods Three treatment-seeking surveys were conducted in 2004, 2006 and 2008 in the rural areas of the Ifakara demographic surveillance system (DSS and in Ifakara town. Each survey included approximately 150 people who had suffered a fever case in the previous 14 days. Results Treatment-seeking and awareness of malaria was already high at baseline, but various improvements were seen between 2004 and 2008, namely: better understanding causes of malaria (from 62% to 84%; an increase in health facility attendance as first treatment option for patients older than five years (27% to 52%; higher treatment coverage with anti-malarials (86% to 96% and more timely use of anti-malarials (80% to 93-97% treatments taken within 24 hrs. Unfortunately, the change of treatment policy led to a low availability of ALu in the private sector and, therefore, to a drop in the proportion of patients taking a recommended malaria treatment (85% to 53%. The availability of outlets (health facilities or drug shops is the most important determinant of whether patients receive prompt and effective treatment, whereas affordability and accessibility contribute to a lesser extent. Conclusions An

  14. One session treatment for pediatric blood-injection-injury phobia: A controlled multiple baseline trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Conlon, Elizabeth G; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a modified One Session Treatment (OST), which included an e-therapy homework maintenance program over 4 weeks for Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia in children and adolescents. Using a single case, non-concurrent multiple-baseline design, 24 children and adolescents (8-18 years; 7 males, 17 females) with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia were randomly assigned to a one, two or three week baseline prior to receiving OST. Primary outcome measures included diagnostic severity, diagnostic status, and child and parent fear ratings. Secondary outcome measures included avoidance during behavioural avoidance tasks (BAT), global functioning and self and parent reported anxiety, fear and depression. Efficacy was assessed at post-treatment, 1-month, and 3-month follow-up. BII symptoms and diagnostic severity remained relatively stable during the baseline periods and then significantly improved following implementation of the intervention. Treatment response was supported by changes across multiple measures, including child, parent and independent clinician ratings. At post-treatment 8 of the 24 (33.33%) children were BII diagnosis free. Treatment gains improved at follow-ups with 14 (58.33%) children diagnosis free at 1-month follow-up and 15 (62.5%) diagnosis free at 3-month follow-up. Preliminary findings support the effectiveness of a modified OST approach for BII phobic youth with treatment outcomes improving over follow-up intervals. PMID:26313620

  15. In vitro interaction of artemisinin derivatives or the fully synthetic peroxidic anti-malarial OZ277 with thapsigargin in Plasmodium falciparum strains

    OpenAIRE

    Abiodun Oyindamola O; Brun Reto; Wittlin Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Semi-synthetic artemisinin derivatives are powerful peroxidic drugs in artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) recommended as first-line treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in disease-endemic countries. Studies by Eckstein-Ludwig and co-workers showed both thapsigargin and artemisinin specifically inhibit the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+−ATPase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfATP6). In the present study the type of interaction between thapsigargin and artemisinin der...

  16. A study of toxicity and differential gene expression in murine liver following exposure to anti-malarial drugs: amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine

    OpenAIRE

    Rath Srikanta; Singh Prabhat; Mishra Shrawan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Amodiaquine (AQ) along with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) offers effective and cheaper treatment against chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Considering the previous history of hepatitis, agranulocytosis and neutrocytopenia associated with AQ monotherapy, it becomes imperative to study the toxicity of co-administration of AQ and SP. In this study, toxicity and resulting global differential gene expression was analyzed following e...

  17. A rapid stability-indicating, fused-core HPLC method for simultaneous determination of β-artemether and lumefantrine in anti-malarial fixed dose combination products

    OpenAIRE

    Wega, Sultan Suleman; Vandercruyssen, Kirsten; Wynendaele, Evelien; D'Hondt, Matthias; Bracke, Nathalie; Duchateau, Luc; Burvenich, Christian; Peremans, Kathelijne; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Background: Artemisinin-based fixed dose combination (FDC) products are recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) as a first-line treatment. However, the current artemisinin FDC products, such as beta-artemether and lumefantrine, are inherently unstable and require controlled distribution and storage conditions, which are not always available in resource-limited settings. Moreover, quality control is hampered by lack of suitable analytical methods. Thus, there is a need for a rapid and s...

  18. Prevalence of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in two districts of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Schousboe, Mette L; Thomsen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) have been used in treatment of falciparum and vivax malaria in Nepal. Recently, resistance to both drugs have necessitated a change towards artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) against Plasmodium falciparum in highly...... endemic areas. However, SP is still used against P. falciparum infections in low endemic areas while CQ is used in suspected cases in areas with lack of diagnostic facilities. This study examines the prevalence of molecular markers of P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax CQ and SP resistance to determine...... if high levels of in vivo resistance are reflected at molecular level as well. METHODS: Finger prick blood samples (n=189) were collected from malaria positive patients from two high endemic districts and analysed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the resistance related genes of P. falciparum...

  19. Low-dose budesonide treatment improves lung function in patients with infrequent asthma symptoms at baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddel, H. K.; Busse, W. W.; Pedersen, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    in patients with less frequent symptoms at presentation. This was investigated in a post-hoc analysis of the multinational inhaled Steroid Treatment As Regular Therapy in early asthma (START) study.2 METHODS: Patients aged 4-66 years (median 21 years) with a history of recent-onset mild asthma (11 years......RATIONALE: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are highly effective in low doses for improving asthma outcomes, including lung function. In the past, ICS treatment was recommended for patients with 'persistent' asthma, defined by symptoms >2 days/week.1 However, evidence is lacking for the benefit of ICS...... symptom frequency groups (Figure). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term, once-daily, low-dose budesonide treatment plus usual asthma medication improves lung function in patients with mild, recent-onset asthma. These beneficial effects were seen even in patients with the lowest baseline asthma symptom frequency (0...

  20. Characteristics of Treatment Seeking Finnish Pathological Gamblers: Baseline Data from a Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Tuuli; Halme, Jukka; Pankakoski, Maiju; Sinclair, David; Alho, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behavior of 39 pathological gamblers who participated in our treatment study in 2009. The inclusion criteria of the study were: score of five or more on both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and a pathological gambling screen based on the Diagnostic and Statistical…

  1. Minimal sufficient balance-a new strategy to balance baseline covariates and preserve randomness of treatment allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle; Hill, Michael D; Palesch, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    In many clinical trials, baseline covariates could affect the primary outcome. Commonly used strategies to balance baseline covariates include stratified constrained randomization and minimization. Stratification is limited to few categorical covariates. Minimization lacks the randomness of treatment allocation. Both apply only to categorical covariates. As a result, serious imbalances could occur in important baseline covariates not included in the randomization algorithm. Furthermore, randomness of treatment allocation could be significantly compromised because of the high proportion of deterministic assignments associated with stratified block randomization and minimization, potentially resulting in selection bias. Serious baseline covariate imbalances and selection biases often contribute to controversial interpretation of the trial results. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial and the Captopril Prevention Project are two examples. In this article, we propose a new randomization strategy, termed the minimal sufficient balance randomization, which will dually prevent serious imbalances in all important baseline covariates, including both categorical and continuous types, and preserve the randomness of treatment allocation. Computer simulations are conducted using the data from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Trial. Serious imbalances in four continuous and one categorical covariate are prevented with a small cost in treatment allocation randomness. A scenario of simultaneously balancing 11 baseline covariates is explored with similar promising results. The proposed minimal sufficient balance randomization algorithm can be easily implemented in computerized central randomization systems for large multicenter trials.

  2. Improving childhood malaria treatment and referral practices by training patent medicine vendors in rural south-east Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uzochukwu Benjamin SC; Okeke Theodora A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with anti-malarials bought over-the-counter (OTC) from untrained drug vendors. Self-medication through drug vendors can be ineffective, with increased risks of drug toxicity and development of drug resistance. Global malaria control initiatives highlights the potential role of drug vendo...

  3. Behaviour of five pharmaceuticals with high baseline toxicity in wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driezum, Inge; McArdell, Christa; Fenner, Kathrin; Helbling, Damian; van Breukelen, Boris

    2013-04-01

    Many pharmaceuticals enter the aquatic environment through sewer systems and are partially removed in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) by sorption to sludge biomass or biodegradation. Biodegradation often does not lead to complete mineralization but to the formation of stable transformation products (TPs), which might still be harmful to the environment. Recently, a study was undertaken to assess the risk of the top 100 pharmaceuticals from wastewater of a hospital in Switzerland. The predicted toxicity was linked to the predicted environmental concentration in order to assess overall risk potential. In this study, biodegradation and sorption studies were carried out on the top five selected pharmaceuticals (amiodarone, atorvastatin, clotrimazole, meclozine and ritonavir). Potential TPs that are formed during activated sludge treatment were identified and concentrations of both the parent compounds and TPs were measured in the WWTP. With this data, the fate of these compounds was modeled in a WWTP system using a multi-reactor steady-state WWTP model. This study showed that sorption was the most important loss process for amiodarone and meclozine. They had an elimination of more than 99%. Sorption was also the main loss process for clotrimazole, but it was combined with some biodegradation. For ritonavir, both biodegradation and sorption played a role in the loss of this compound. The most important removal process for atorvastatin was biodegradation. Four TPs, formed through β-oxidation and monohydroxilation, were identified in both the activated sludge batch reactors and the WWTP effluent. In the WWTP effluent, only atorvastatin, clotrimazole and ritonavir were found. All identified TPs of atorvastatin were detected in the effluent. Risk quotients (RQ) of all five pharmaceuticals were estimated based on effluent concentration and baseline toxicity and ranged from zero to 2.14. Only ritonavir potentially poses an ecotoxicological risk for the aquatic environment.

  4. Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response.

  5. Dolutegravir treatment response by baseline viral load and NRTI backbone in treatment-naïve HIV-infected individuals

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    C Small

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In two 48-week studies in naïve subjects, dolutegravir with NRTI of choice has shown non-inferiority to raltegravir and, with ABC/3TC, superiority to Atripla. Factors that influenced choice of NRTIs included viral load, resistance and safety. Methods: We analysed response rates and time to virologic failure by NRTI backbone and baseline viral load in the pivotal DTG-naïve studies. SPRING-2 randomized participants to DTG 50 mg QD or RAL 400 mg BID, each in combination with investigator-selected NRTIs (TDF/FTC or ABC/3TC. SINGLE randomised participants to DTG 50 mg+ABC/3TC QD or TDF/FTC/EFV (Atripla QD. In SPRING-2, changes in serum creatinine were examined by INI and NRTI backbone. Results: The two studies randomized and treated 1655 subjects, of whom 249 (15% were female, 388 (23% non-white, 495 (30% had HIV-1 RNA >100,000 c/ml, and 224 (14% had CD4+ count <200 cells/mm3. Primary analyses demonstrated non-inferiority of DTG to RAL in SPRING-2 (Δ=2.5%; 95% CI:−2.2% to +7.1%, excluding −10%, and superiority of the DTG regimen in SINGLE (7.4%; +2.5% to +12.3%. In SPRING-2, response rates by NRTI backbone were comparable in each viral load stratum. In SINGLE, a 7% difference in response (favoring DTG+ABC/3TC was observed in each viral load stratum. Exploratory analyses examining time-to-virologic failure showed no difference in response rates between the NRTIs irrespective of baseline viral load or study. Resistance to INIs or NRTIs was not demonstrated in any subject on DTG-based therapy through 48 weeks. Withdrawals due to AEs on DTG-based regimen were few (2% in both studies. In SPRING-2, no significant differences were observed in serum creatinine change from baseline to Week 48 by NRTI backbones. Conclusions: In SPRING-2 and SINGLE, DTG was effective with both ABC/3TC and TDF/FTC, and in subjects with high and low viral load. DTG was well tolerated in both studies. Renal safety also was similar by NRTI backbone. DTG is a once

  6. The influence of baseline marijuana use on treatment of cocaine dependence: application of an informative-priors Bayesian approach.

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    Charles eGreen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1 examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2 apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect.Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided samples for the historical dataset (Study 1: N = 64 complete observations and current dataset (Study 2: N = 113 complete observations. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo, baseline marijuana use (days in past 30, and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES.Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect.

  7. The Influence of Baseline Marijuana Use on Treatment of Cocaine Dependence: Application of an Informative-Priors Bayesian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Charles; Schmitz, Joy; Lindsay, Jan; Pedroza, Claudia; Lane, Scott; Agnelli, Rob; Kjome, Kimberley; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Marijuana use is prevalent among patients with cocaine dependence and often non-exclusionary in clinical trials of potential cocaine medications. The dual-focus of this study was to (1) examine the moderating effect of baseline marijuana use on response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa for cocaine dependence; and (2) apply an informative-priors, Bayesian approach for estimating the probability of a subgroup-by-treatment interaction effect. Method: A secondary data analysis of two previously published, double-blind, randomized controlled trials provided complete data for the historical (Study 1: N = 64 placebo), and current (Study 2: N = 113) data sets. Negative binomial regression evaluated Treatment Effectiveness Scores (TES) as a function of medication condition (levodopa/carbidopa, placebo), baseline marijuana use (days in past 30), and their interaction. Results: Bayesian analysis indicated that there was a 96% chance that baseline marijuana use predicts differential response to treatment with levodopa/carbidopa. Simple effects indicated that among participants receiving levodopa/carbidopa the probability that baseline marijuana confers harm in terms of reducing TES was 0.981; whereas the probability that marijuana confers harm within the placebo condition was 0.163. For every additional day of marijuana use reported at baseline, participants in the levodopa/carbidopa condition demonstrated a 5.4% decrease in TES; while participants in the placebo condition demonstrated a 4.9% increase in TES. Conclusion: The potential moderating effect of marijuana on cocaine treatment response should be considered in future trial designs. Applying Bayesian subgroup analysis proved informative in characterizing this patient-treatment interaction effect. PMID:23115553

  8. Baseline psychophysiological and cortisol reactivity as a predictor of PTSD treatment outcome in virtual reality exposure therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrholm, Seth Davin; Jovanovic, Tanja; Gerardi, Maryrose; Breazeale, Kathryn G; Price, Matthew; Davis, Michael; Duncan, Erica; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh; Rizzo, Albert; Tuerk, Peter W; Rothbaum, Barbara O

    2016-07-01

    Baseline cue-dependent physiological reactivity may serve as an objective measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Additionally, prior animal model and psychological studies would suggest that subjects with greatest symptoms at baseline may have the greatest violation of expectancy to danger when undergoing exposure based psychotherapy; thus treatment approaches which enhanced the learning under these conditions would be optimal for those with maximal baseline cue-dependent reactivity. However methods to study this hypothesis objectively are lacking. Virtual reality (VR) methodologies have been successfully employed as an enhanced form of imaginal prolonged exposure therapy for the treatment of PTSD. Our goal was to examine the predictive nature of initial psychophysiological (e.g., startle, skin conductance, heart rate) and stress hormone responses (e.g., cortisol) during presentation of VR-based combat-related stimuli on PTSD treatment outcome. Combat veterans with PTSD underwent 6 weeks of VR exposure therapy combined with either d-cycloserine (DCS), alprazolam (ALP), or placebo (PBO). In the DCS group, startle response to VR scenes prior to initiation of treatment accounted for 76% of the variance in CAPS change scores, p < 0.001, in that higher responses predicted greater changes in symptom severity over time. Additionally, baseline cortisol reactivity was inversely associated with treatment response in the ALP group, p = 0.04. We propose that baseline cue-activated physiological measures will be sensitive to predicting patients' level of response to exposure therapy, in particular in the presence of enhancement (e.g., DCS). PMID:27183343

  9. Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania after switch to artemisinin combination therapy and the introduction of accredited drug dispensing outlets - a provider perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Angel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO was created in Tanzania. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu in 2007. Subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on access to malaria treatment was studied in rural Tanzania. Methods The study was carried out in the villages of Kilombero and Ulanga Demographic Surveillance System (DSS and in Ifakara town. Data collection consisted of: 1 yearly censuses of shops selling drugs; 2 collection of monthly data on availability of anti-malarials in public health facilities; and 3 retail audits to measure anti-malarial sales volumes in all public, mission and private outlets. The data were complemented with DSS population data. Results Between 2004 and 2008 access to malaria treatment greatly improved and the number of anti-malarial treatment doses dispensed increased by 78%. Particular improvements were observed in the availability (from 0.24 shops per 1,000 people in 2004 to 0.39 in 2008 and accessibility (from 71% of households within 5 km of a shop in 2004 to 87% in 2008 of drug shops. Despite no improvements in affordability this resulted in an increase of the market share from 49% of anti-malarial sales 2005 to 59% in 2008. The change of treatment policy from SP to ALu led to severe stock-outs of SP in health facilities in the months leading up to the introduction of ALu (only 40% months in stock, but these were compensated by the wide availability of SP in shops. After the introduction of ALu stock levels of the drug were relatively high in public health facilities (over 80% months in stock, but the drug could only be found in 30% of drug shops and in no general shops. This resulted in a low overall utilization of the drug (19% of all anti-malarial

  10. Anti-bacterial activity of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: comparative in vitro study of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, mefloquine, and azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mombo-Ngoma Ghyslain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing drug resistance necessitates the urgent evaluation of alternative drugs. Currently, the most promising candidates in clinical development are mefloquine and azithromycin. Besides the anti-malarial activity, SP is also a potent antibiotic and incurs significant anti-microbial activity when given as IPTp - though systematic clinical evaluation of this action is still lacking. Methods In this study, the intrinsic anti-bacterial activity of mefloquine and azithromycin was assessed in comparison to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against bacterial pathogens with clinical importance in pregnancy in a standard microdilution assay. Results SP was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. All tested Gram-positive bacteria, except Enterococcus faecalis, were sensitive to azithromycin. Additionally, azithromycin was active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mefloquine showed good activity against pneumococci but lower in vitro action against all other tested pathogens. Conclusion These data indicate important differences in the spectrum of anti-bacterial activity for the evaluated anti-malarial drugs. Given the large scale use of IPTp in Africa, the need for prospective clinical trials evaluating the impact of antibiotic activity of anti-malarials on maternal and foetal health and on the risk of promoting specific drug resistance of bacterial pathogens is discussed.

  11. Rorschach Inkblot Method data at baseline and after 2 years treatment of consecutively admitted patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Andersen, Palle Bent; Knudsen, Per Bjerregaard;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Rorschach Inkblot Method is regarded as an important clinical instrument for detailed diagnostic description of the integrative capacities of individuals in psychotic states and as an instrument for measuring progression in the course of treatment. Aims: To describe relevant...... Rorschach variables at baseline in a group of consecutively admitted patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Furthermore, to describe the changes in these variables from baseline to year 2 for the group of patients given psychiatric standard treatment, and to compare these changes with changes in other......'s Rorschach Comprehensive System at inclusion and after 2 years. Results: Core variables of the Rorschach, assumed to show changes (e.g. reality testing, perceptual and thought disorders) in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia, all improved but revealed no significant changes after 2 years...

  12. Quality of life after prostate cancer treatments in patients comparable at baseline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol-Geerdink, J.J. van; Leer, J.W.H.; Oort, I.M. van; Lin, E.J. van; Weijerman, P.C.; Vergunst, H.; Witjes, J.A.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Previous studies on the effects of different prostate cancer treatments on quality of life, were confounded because patients were not comparable. This study examined treatment effects in more comparable groups.Methods:From 2008-2011, 240 patients with localised prostate cancer were select

  13. The effect of support on internet-delivered treatment for Insomnia : Does baseline depression severity matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, Jaap; Sorbi, Marjolijn J.; Eisma, Maarten C.; van Straten, Annemieke; van den Bout, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment is effective for insomnia. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of support. Recently we demonstrated that motivational support moderately improved the effects of Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia. In the present study, we tes

  14. The effect of support on Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia: Does baseline depression severity matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lancee; M.J. Sorbi; M.C. Eisma; A. van Straten; J. van den Bout

    2014-01-01

    Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral treatment is effective for insomnia. However, little is known about the beneficial effects of support. Recently we demonstrated that motivational support moderately improved the effects of Internet-delivered treatment for insomnia. In the present study, we tes

  15. Can persons with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes benefit from technology delivered behavior therapy? A moderating role of treatment history at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C; Guarino, Honoria; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia

    2016-03-01

    A growing line of research has shown positive treatment outcomes from technology-based therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, little is known about the effectiveness of technology-based SUD interventions for persons who already had numerous prior SUD treatments. We conducted a secondary analysis on a 12-month trial with patients (N=160) entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Patients were randomly assigned to either standard MMT treatment or a model in which half of standard counseling sessions were replaced with a computer-based intervention, called Therapeutic Education System (standard+TES). Four treatment history factors at baseline, the number of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, detoxification episodes, and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes were categorized into three levels based on their tertile points, and analyzed as moderators. Dependent variables were urine toxicology results for opioid and cocaine abstinence for 52-weeks. The standard+TES condition produced significantly better opioid abstinence than standard treatment for participants with 1) a moderate or high frequency of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, and 2) those with all three levels (low, moderate and high) of detoxification and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes, pshistory, pstechnology-based behavioral therapy as part of treatment can be more effective than MMT alone, even among patients with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes.

  16. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping. PMID:16125215

  17. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping.

  18. Comparison of efavirenz and protease inhibitor based combination antiretroviral therapy regimens in treatment-naïve people living with HIV with baseline resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Charlotte; McFaul, Katie; Kabagambe, Samuel; Sonecha, Sonali; Jones, Rachael; Asboe, David; Pozniak, Anton; Nwokolo, Nneka; Boffito, Marta

    2016-07-17

    A retrospective cohort analysis comparing the efficacy of boosted protease inhibitor-based and efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve people living with HIV with baseline resistance found that efavirenz-based treatment led to a shorter mean time to undetectable viral load. A higher proportion of patients with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor related baseline resistance mutations in the efavirenz-treatment group achieved an undetectable viral load at both 6 and 12 months post-treatment initiation, compared with the boosted protease-inhibitor-treatment group.Supplementary content: http://links.lww.com/QAD/A930. PMID:27139315

  19. Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2005-06-01

    Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated. PMID:15894045

  20. Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2005-06-01

    Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated.

  1. Amygdala response to explicit sad face stimuli at baseline predicts antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Joanna; Nugent, Allison C; Drevets, Wayne C; Khanna, Ashish; Zarate, Carlos A; Furey, Maura L

    2016-08-30

    The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine produces rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). In healthy subjects, manipulation of acetyl-cholinergic transmission modulates attention in a stimulus-dependent manner. This study tested the hypothesis that baseline amygdalar activity in response to emotional stimuli correlates with antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine and could thus potentially predict treatment outcome. MDD patients and healthy controls performed an attention shifting task involving emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal in the amygdala acquired while MDD patients processed sad face stimuli correlated positively with antidepressant response to scopolamine. Amygdalar response to sad faces in MDD patients who did not respond to scopolamine did not differ from that of healthy controls. This suggests that the pre-treatment task elicited amygdalar activity that may constitute a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine. Furthermore, in MDD patients who responded to scopolamine, we observed a post-scopolamine stimulus processing shift towards a pattern demonstrated by healthy controls, indicating a change in stimulus-dependent neural response potentially driven by attenuated cholinergic activity in the amygdala. PMID:27366831

  2. Cluster-randomized study of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi in southern Tanzania: evaluation of impact on survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg Joanna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria control in infants (IPTi consists of the administration of a treatment dose of an anti-malarial drug, usually sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, at scheduled intervals, regardless of the presence of Plasmodium falciparum infection. A pooled analysis of individually randomized trials reported that IPTi reduced clinical episodes by 30%. This study evaluated the effect of IPTi on child survival in the context of a five-district implementation project in southern Tanzania. [Trial registration: clinical trials.gov NCT00152204]. Methods After baseline household and health facility surveys in 2004, five districts comprising 24 divisions were randomly assigned either to receive IPTi (n = 12 or not (n = 12. Implementation started in March 2005, led by routine health services with support from the research team. In 2007, a large household survey was undertaken to assess the impact of IPTi on survival in infants aged two-11 months through birth history interviews with all women aged 13-49 years. The analysis is based on an "intention-to-treat" ecological design, with survival outcomes analysed according to the cluster in which the mothers lived. Results Survival in infants aged two-11 months was comparable in IPTi and comparison areas at baseline. In intervention areas in 2007, 48% of children aged 12-23 months had documented evidence of receiving three doses of IPTi, compared to 2% in comparison areas (P P = 0.31. Conclusion The lack of evidence of an effect of IPTi on survival could be a false negative result due to a lack of power or imbalance of unmeasured confounders. Alternatively, there could be no mortality impact of IPTi due to low coverage, late administration, drug resistance, decreased malaria transmission or improvements in vector control and case management. This study raises important questions for programme evaluation design.

  3. Prediction of long-term metabolic effects of olanzapine and risperidone treatment from baseline body mass index in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William Victor; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Jayathilake, Karuna; Meltzer, Herbert Yale

    2011-09-30

    Baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline BMI status (normal, overweight, obese) and early (1 month) BMI increases were tested as predictors of 6- and 12-month increases in glucose and lipid measures in 82 olanzapine (OLZ)- and 78 risperidone (RIS)-treated patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder who participated in a 12-month randomized, prospective metabolic effects study. Baseline BMI predicted greater fasting glucose and HgbA1c levels at 12 months for both treatments. Early BMI change predicted fasting glucose levels at 6 months, but not HgbA1c or BMI, at either time point. For patients who received no concomitant mood stabilizers, early BMI change predicted 12 month HgbA1c values in the OLZ group, and 6- (but not 12-) month fasting glucose and HgbA1c values in the RIS group. Neither baseline BMI nor early BMI change consistently predicted increases in lipids with either drug. OLZ-treated patients with normal baseline BMI had greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL-cholesterol than those who were overweight or obese. In conclusion, higher baseline BMI predicted adverse glycemic changes after 12 months with OLZ and RIS. Individuals with normal baseline BMI may be most susceptible to OLZ-induced hyperlipidosis. Frequency of metabolic screening should be independent of baseline BMI or rapid increases in BMI.

  4. Pattern of drug utilization for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in urban Ghana following national treatment policy change to artemisinin-combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenkorang Ofori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Change of first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria to artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT is widespread in Africa. To expand knowledge of safety profiles of ACT, pharmacovigilance activities are included in the implementation process of therapy changes. Ghana implemented first-line therapy of artesunate-amodiaquine in 2005. Drug utilization data is an important component of determining drug safety, and this paper describes how anti-malarials were prescribed within a prospective pharmacovigilance study in Ghana following anti-malarial treatment policy change. Methods Patients with diagnosis of uncomplicated malaria were recruited from pharmacies of health facilities throughout Accra in a cohort-event monitoring study. The main drug utilization outcomes were the relation of patient age, gender, type of facility attended, mode of diagnosis and concomitant treatments to the anti-malarial regimen prescribed. Logistic regression was used to predict prescription of nationally recommended first-line therapy and concomitant prescription of antibiotics. Results The cohort comprised 2,831 patients. Curative regimens containing an artemisinin derivative were given to 90.8% (n = 2,574 of patients, although 33% (n = 936 of patients received an artemisinin-based monotherapy. Predictors of first-line therapy were laboratory-confirmed diagnosis, age >5 years, and attending a government facility. Analgesics and antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed concomitant medications, with a median of two co-prescriptions per patient (range 1–9. Patients above 12 years were significantly less likely to have antibiotics co-prescribed than patients under five years; those prescribed non-artemisinin monotherapies were more likely to receive antibiotics. A dihydroartemisinin-amodiaquine combination was the most used therapy for children under five years of age (29.0%, n = 177. Conclusion This study shows that though first-line therapy

  5. ADVANCES IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria still claims a heavy toll of deaths and disabilities even at the beginning of the third millennium. The inappropriate sequential use of drug monotherapy in the past has facilitated the spread of drug-resistant P. falciparum, and to a lesser extend P. vivax, strains in most of the malaria endemic areas, rendering most anti-malarial ineffective. In the last decade, a new combination strategy based on artemisinin derivatives (ACT has become the standard of treatment for most P. falciparum malaria infections. This strategy could prevent the selection of resistant strains by rapidly decreasing the parasitic burden (by the artemisinin derivative, mostly artesunate and exposing the residual parasite to effective concentrations of the partner drug. The widespread use of this strategy is somehow constrained by cost and by the inappropriate use of artemisinin, with possible impact on resistance, as already sporadically observed in South East Asia. Parenteral artesunate has now become the standard of care for severe malaria, even if quinine still retains its value in case artesunate is not immediately available. The appropriateness of pre-referral use of suppository artesunate is under close monitoring, while waiting for an effective anti-malarial vaccine to be made available.

  6. ADVANCES IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Malaria still claims a heavy toll of deaths and disabilities even at the beginning of the third millennium. The inappropriate sequential use of drug monotherapy in the past has facilitated the spread of drug-resistant P. falciparum, and to a lesser extend P. vivax, strains in most of the malaria endemic areas, rendering most anti-malarial ineffective. In the last decade, a new combination strategy based on artemisinin derivatives (ACT has become the standard of treatment for most P. falciparum malaria infections. This strategy could prevent the selection of resistant strains by rapidly decreasing the parasitic burden (by the artemisinin derivative, mostly artesunate and exposing the residual parasite to effective concentrations of the partner drug. The widespread use of this strategy is somehow constrained by cost and by the inappropriate use of artemisinin, with possible impact on resistance, as already sporadically observed in South East Asia. Parenteral artesunate has now become the standard of care for severe malaria, even if quinine still retains its value in case artesunate is not immediately available. The appropriateness of pre-referral use of suppository artesunate is under close monitoring, while waiting for an effective anti-malarial vaccine to be made available.

  7. Treatment of fevers prior to introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in registered drug shops in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K.; Lal, Sham; Cundill, Bonnie;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since drug shops play an important role in treatment of fever, introducing rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria at drug shops may have the potential of targeting anti-malarial drugs to those with malaria parasites and improve rational drug use. As part of a cluster randomized trial...... questionnaire to capture data on drug shops (n=65) including provider characteristics, knowledge on treatment of malaria, previous training received, type of drugs stocked, reported drug sales, and record keeping practices; and a patient questionnaire to capture data from febrile patients (n=540) exiting drug...

  8. Baseline rationing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    The standard problem of adjudicating conflicting claims describes a situation in which a given amount of a divisible good has to be allocated among agents who hold claims against it exceeding the available amount. This paper considers more general rationing problems in which, in addition to claims......, there exist baselines (to be interpreted as objective entitlements, ideal targets, or past consumption) that might play an important role in the allocation process. The model we present is able to accommodate real-life rationing situations, ranging from resource allocation in the public health care sector...... to international protocols for the reduction of greenhouse emissions, or water distribution in drought periods. We define a family of allocation methods for such general rationing problems - called baseline rationing rules - and provide an axiomatic characterization for it. Any baseline rationing rule within...

  9. Treatment of imported severe malaria with artesunate instead of quinine - more evidence needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobusch Martin P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rapid and fast acting anti-malarials are essential to treat severe malaria. Quinine has been the only option for parenteral therapy until recently. While current evidence shows that intravenous artesunate is more effective than quinine in treating severe malaria in endemic countries, some questions remain regarding safety profiles and drug resistance. For imported severe malaria, additional unanswered questions are related to generalizability of the findings from endemic countries and to legal aspects, as there is no Good Manufacturing Practice-conform drug available yet. Here, the implications of existing evidence for the treatment of imported severe malaria are discussed.

  10. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeg Evelin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis is a prospective, observational, German, multicenter registry including patients with type-2 diabetes in which oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data were recorded at baseline and will be prospectively documented during visits at 6 ± 1, 12 ± 2 and 24 ± 2 months. The primary objective is to estimate the proportion of patients with at least 1 episode of severe hypoglycemia within one year. Results 313 primary care offices included 4,048 patients between June 2009 and March 2010 of which 3,810 patients fulfilled the in- and exclusion criteria. 46.7% of patients were female; patients had a median diabetes duration of 5.5 years and most were obese with respect to BMI or waist circumference. HbA1c at baseline was 7.4%, fasting plasma glucose 142 mg/dl and postprandial glucose 185 mg/dl. Co-morbidity in this patient population was substantial with 17.9% having coronary artery disease, 14.4% peripheral neuropathy, 9.9% heart failure and 6.0% peripheral arterial disease. 68.6% of patients received oral monotherapy, 31.4% dual oral combination therapy. The most frequent antidiabetic agent used as monotherapy was metformin (79.0% followed by sulfonylureas (14.8%. Conclusions DiaRegis is a large, prospective registry in primary diabetes care to document the course and outcomes of patients with type-2 diabetes in which the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. The two year follow-up will allow for a prospective evaluation of these patients

  11. Depression CBT treatment gains among HIV-infected persons with a history of injection drug use varies as a function of baseline substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Allison K; O'Cleirigh, Conall M; Stein, Michael; Safren, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Depression and substance use, the most common comorbidities with HIV, are both associated with poor treatment outcomes and accelerated HIV disease progression. Though previous research has demonstrated short-term and follow-up success for cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) on depression outcomes among patients with HIV in care and among patients with HIV in active substance abuse treatment for injection drug use (IDU), there is little information regarding possible moderating effects of active use versus abstinence on depression treatment gains. The present study aimed to examine recent substance use at treatment initiation as a moderator of the acute and maintenance effects of CBT-AD on depression. We used data from a two-arm, randomized controlled trial (N = 89) comparing CBT-AD to enhanced treatment as usual in individuals in treatment for IDU. To test whether depression at time of presentation affected outcomes, repeated-measures ANOVAs were conducted for two time frames: (1) acute phase (baseline to post-treatment) (acute) and (2) maintenance phase (baseline to 12-month follow-up). To further examine maintenance of gains, we additionally looked at post-treatment to 12-month follow-up. Depression scores derived from the clinical global impression for severity and the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) served as the primary outcome variables. Acute (baseline post treatment) moderation effects were found for those patients endorsing active drug use at baseline in the CBT-AD condition, who demonstrated the greatest reductions in MADRS scores at post-treatment (F[1,76] = 6.78, p = .01) and follow-up (F[1,61] = 5.46, p = .023). Baseline substance use did not moderate differences from post-treatment to 12-month follow-up as depression treatment gains that occurred acutely from baseline to post-treatment were maintained across both patients engaged in substance use and abstainers. We conclude that CBT

  12. The anti-malarial artesunate is also active against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferth, T; Dunstan, H; Sauerbrey, A; Miyachi, H; Chitambar, C R

    2001-04-01

    Artesunate (ART) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, the active principle of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua. ART reveals remarkable activity against otherwise multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. ART has now been analyzed for its anti-cancer activity against 55 cell lines of the Developmental Therapeutics Program of the National Cancer Institute, USA. ART was most active against leukemia and colon cancer cell lines (mean GI50 values: 1.11+/-0.56 microM and 2.13+/-0.74 microM , respectively). Non-small cell lung cancer cell lines showed the highest mean GI50 value (25.62+/-14.95 microM) indicating the lowest sensitivity towards ART in this test panel. Intermediate GI50 values were obtained for melanomas, breast, ovarian, prostate, CNS, and renal cancer cell lines. Importantly, a comparison of ART's cytotoxicity with those of other standard cytostatic drugs showed that ART was active in molar ranges comparable to those of established anti-tumor drugs. Furthermore, we tested CEM leukemia sub-lines resistant to either doxorubicin, vincristine, methotrexate, or hydroxyurea which do not belong to the N.C.I. screening panel. None of these drug-resistant cell lines showed cross resistance to ART. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of ART's cytotoxicity, we used a panel of isogenic Saccaromyces cerevisiae strains with defined genetic mutations in DNA repair, DNA checkpoint and cell proliferation genes. A yeast strain with a defective mitosis regulating BUB3 gene showed increased ART sensitivity and another strain with a defective proliferation-regulating CLN2 gene showed increased ART resistance over the wild-type strain, wt644. None of the other DNA repair or DNA check-point deficient isogenic strains were different from the wild-type. These results and the known low toxicity of ART are clues that ART may be a promising novel candidate for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:11251172

  13. Diversity oriented synthesis for novel anti-malarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathula, Chandramohan; Singh, Shailja; Sen, Subhabrata

    2015-12-01

    Malaria a global pandemic has engulfed nearly 0.63 million people globally. It is high time that a cure for malaria is required to stop its ever increasing menace. Our commentary discusses the advent and contribution of diversity oriented synthesis (DOS) in the drug discovery efforts towards developing cure for malaria. DOS based on chemical genetics focusses on design and synthesis of molecular libraries which covers large tracts of biologically relevant chemical space. Herein we will discuss the applications, advantages, disadvantages and future directions of DOS with respect to malaria.

  14. The natural history of children with severe combined immunodeficiency: Baseline features of the first fifty patients of the primary immune deficiency treatment consortium prospective study 6901

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorak, CC; Cowan, MJ; Logan, BR; Notarangelo, Ld; Griffith, LM; Puck, JM; Kohn, DB; Shearer, WT; O'Reilly, RJ; Fleisher, TA; Pai, SY; Hanson, IC; Pulsipher, MA; Fuleihan, R; Filipovich, A

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) consists of 33 centers in North America. We hypothesized that the analysis of uniform data on patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) enrolled in a prospective protocol will identify variables that contribute to optimal outcomes following treatment. We report baseline clinical, immunologic, and genetic features of the first 50 patients enrolled, and the initial therapies administered, reflecting current practice in the d...

  15. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy: survey of current practice among private medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu, Kabiru Afolarin; Davies, Nosimot Omolola; Nzeribe-Abangwu, Ugochi O; Adewunmi, Adeniyi Abiodun; Akinlusi, Fatimat Motunrayo; Akinola, Oluwarotimi Ireti; Ogundele, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the practice of malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy of 394 private medical practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria using a self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaire. Only 39 (9.9%) respondents had correct knowledge of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategies. Malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy was offered by 336 (85.3%), but only 98 (24.9%) had correct knowledge of recommended chemoprophylaxis. Of these, 68 (17.3%) had correct knowledge of first trimester treatment, while only 41 (10.4%) had knowledge of second and third trimester treatment. Only 64 (16.2%) of respondents routinely recommended use of insecticide-treated bed nets. The most common anti-malarial drug prescribed for chemoprophylaxis was pyrimethamine (43.7%); chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial prescribed for both first trimester treatment (81.5%) and second and third trimester treatment (55.3%). The study showed that private medical practitioners have poor knowledge of malaria prophylaxis and treatment in pregnancy, and the practice of most do not conform to recommended guidelines.

  16. Varying efficacy of artesunate+amodiaquine and artesunate+sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a report of two in-vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Overmeir Chantal

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few data on anti-malarial efficacy are available from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. DRC changed its anti-malarial treatment policy to amodiaquine (AQ and artesunate (AS in 2005. Methods The results of two in vivo efficacy studies, which tested AQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP monotherapies and AS+SP and AS+AQ combinations in Boende (Equatorial province, and AS+SP, AS+AQ and SP in Kabalo (Katanga province, between 2003 and 2004 are presented. The methodology followed the WHO 2003 protocol for assessing the efficacy of anti-malarials in areas of high transmission. Results Out of 394 included patients in Boende, the failure rates on day 28 after PCR-genotyping adjustment of AS+SP and AS+AQ were estimated as 24.6% [95% CI: 16.6–35.5] and 15.1% [95% CI: 8.6–25.7], respectively. For the monotherapies, failure rates were 35.9% [95% CI: 27.0–46.7] for SP and 18.3% [95% CI: 11.6–28.1] for AQ. Out of 207 patients enrolled in Kabalo, the failure rate on day 28 after PCR-genotyping adjustment was 0 [1-sided 95% CI: 5.8] for AS+SP and AS+AQ [1-sided 95% CI: 6.2]. It was 19.6% [95% CI: 11.4–32.7] for SP monotherapy. Conclusion The finding of varying efficacy of the same combinations at two sites in one country highlights one difficulty of implementing a uniform national treatment policy in a large country. The poor efficacy of AS+AQ in Boende should alert the national programme to foci of resistance and emphasizes the need for systems for the prospective monitoring of treatment efficacy at sentinel sites in the country.

  17. Low Baseline Interleukin-17A Levels Are Associated with Better Treatment Response at 12 Weeks to Tocilizumab Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

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    Sang Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available T helper 17-related cytokines have been implicated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis. The study aimed to identify cytokines associated with the treatment response of RA patients to tocilizumab (TCZ, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin- (IL- 6 receptor. As an independent substudy of the 24-week, randomized, double-blinded CWP-TCZ301 trial of TCZ in RA patients with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, serum levels of cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23, IL-6, and soluble IL-6 receptor were measured. Baseline IL-17A levels were significantly lower in RA patients who achieved disease activity score 28 (DAS28 remission at 12 weeks of TCZ treatment, compared to patients not in remission. Patients were stratified into IL-17A low group and IL-17A high group. Significantly more patients in the IL-17A low group achieved remission as compared to the IL-17A high group (47.6 versus 17.4%, P=0.032. DAS28 improvement was significantly better in the IL-17A low group than in the IL-17A high group at 12 weeks (P=0.045 and 24 weeks (P=0.046 after adjustment. Other baseline cytokines were not associated with treatment response to TCZ. The data demonstrate that low baseline IL-17A levels are associated with better clinical response to TCZ treatment in RA patients.

  18. Sleep and cognition at baseline and the effects of REM sleep diminution after 1 week of antidepressive treatment in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göder, Robert; Seeck-Hirschner, Mareen; Stingele, Karoline; Huchzermeier, Christian; Kropp, Cornelia; Palaschewski, Milena; Aldenhoff, Josef; Koch, Jakob

    2011-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep facilitates declarative memory consolidation, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is particularly important in promoting procedural learning. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pharmacological REM sleep suppression on performance in different neuropsychological tasks. For our baseline, we chose 41 moderately depressed patients (age range 19-44 years), who were not taking antidepressants. In the morning after polysomnography, we tested memory recall and cognitive flexibility by assessment of verbal and figural fluency, a shift of attention task and the Trail Making Test B. After recording baseline values, patients were assigned randomly to one of three treatment groups: medication with citalopram; medication with reboxetine; or exclusive treatment with psychotherapy. Retesting took place 1 week after onset of treatment. The main results were: (1) an association of slow-wave sleep with verbal memory performance at baseline; (2) a suppression of REM sleep in patients taking citalopram and reboxetine; (3) no differences regarding neuropsychological performance within the treatment groups; and (4) no association of REM sleep diminution with decreases in memory performance or cognitive flexibility in patients treated with citalopram or reboxetine. In line with other studies, our results suggest that there are no negative effects of a decrease in REM sleep on memory performance in patients taking antidepressants.

  19. Improving malaria home treatment by training drug retailers in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, V M; Mutemi, W M; Willetts, A; Bayah, K; Were, S; Ross, A; Marsh, K

    2004-04-01

    Recent global malaria control initiatives highlight the potential role of drug retailers to improve access to early effective malaria treatment. We report on the findings and discuss the implications of an educational programme for rural drug retailers and communities in Kenya between 1998 and 2001 in a study population of 70,000. Impact was evaluated through annual household surveys of over-the-counter (OTC) drug use and simulated retail client surveys in an early (1999) and a late (2000) implementation area. The programme achieved major improvements in drug selling practices. The proportion of OTC anti-malarial drug users receiving an adequate dose rose from 8% (n = 98) to 33% (n = 121) between 1998 and 1999 in the early implementation area. By 2001, and with the introduction of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine group drugs in accordance with national policy, this proportion rose to 64% (n = 441) across the early and late implementation areas. Overall, the proportion of shop-treated childhood fevers receiving an adequate dose of a recommended anti-malarial drug within 24 h rose from 1% (n = 681) to 28% (n = 919) by 2001. These findings strongly support the inclusion of private drug retailers in control strategies aiming to improve prompt effective treatment of malaria. PMID:15078263

  20. Regression to the mean and predictors of MRI disease activity in RRMS placebo cohorts--is there a place for baseline-to-treatment studies in MS?

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    Jan-Patrick Stellmann

    Full Text Available Gadolinium-enhancing (GD+ lesions and T2 lesions are MRI outcomes for phase-2 treatment trials in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS. Little is known about predictors of lesion development and regression-to-the-mean, which is an important aspect in early baseline-to-treatment trials.To quantify regression-to-the-mean and identify predictors of MRI lesion development in placebo cohorts.21 Phase-2 and Phase-3 trials were identified by a systematic literature research. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to estimate development of T2 and GD+ after 6 months (phase-2 or 2 years (phase-3. Predictors of lesion development were evaluated with mixed-effect meta-regression.The mean number of GD+-lesions per scan was similar after 6 months (1.19, 95%CI: 0.87-1.51 and 2 years (1.19, 95%CI: 1.00-1.39. 39% of the patients were without new T2-lesion after 6 month and 19% after 2 years (95%CI: 12-25%. Mean number of baseline GD+-lesions was the best predictor for new lesions after 6 months.Baseline GD-enhancing lesions predict evolution of Gd- and T2 lesions after 6 months and might be used to control for regression to the mean effects. Overall, proof-of-concept studies with a baseline to treatment design have to face a regression to 1.2 GD+lesions per scan within 6 months.

  1. Surveillance of the efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum among children under five in Togo, 2005-2009

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    Dorkenoo Monique A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in Togo. The national malaria control programme in Togo changed the anti-malarial treatment policy from monotherapy to artemisinin combination therapy in 2004. This study reports the results of therapeutic efficacy studies conducted on artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Togo, between 2005 and 2009. Methods Children between 6 and 59 months of age, who were symptomatically infected with P. falciparum, were treated with either artemether-lumefantrine or artesunate-amodiaquine. The primary end-point was the 28-day cure rate, PCR-corrected for reinfection and recrudescence. Studies were conducted according to the standardized WHO protocol for the assessment of the efficacy of anti-malarial treatment. Differences between categorical data were compared using the chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact test where cell counts were ≤ 5. Differences in continuous data were compared using a t-test. Results A total of 16 studies were conducted in five sentinel sites, with 459, 505 and 332 children included in 2005, 2007 and 2009, respectively. The PCR-corrected 28-day cure rates using the per-protocol analysis were between 96%-100% for artemether-lumefantrine and 94%-100% for artesunate-amodiaquine. Conclusions Both formulations of artemisinin-based combination therapy were effective over time and no severe adverse events related to the treatment were reported during the studies.

  2. Evaluation of the Significance of Pretreatment Liver Biopsy and Baseline Mental Health Disorder Diagnosis on Hepatitis C Treatment Completion Rates at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center

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    Joseph Kluck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was performed to define the overall treatment response rates and treatment completion rates among the population of Hepatitis C infected patients at an urban VA Medical Center. Additionally, we examined whether pretreatment liver biopsy is a positive predictor for treatment completion and if the presence of mental health disorders is a negative predictor for treatment completion. Methods. Retrospective chart review was performed on the 375 patients that were treated for HCV and met the study inclusion parameters between January 1, 2003 and April 1, 2008 at our institution. Clinical data was obtained from the computerized patient record system and was analyzed for respective parameters. Results. Sustained virological response was achieved in 116 (31% patients. 169 (45% patients completed a full treatment course. Also, 44% of patients who received a pre-treatment liver biopsy completed treatment versus 46% completion rates for patients who did not receive a pretreatment liver biopsy. Baseline ICD9 diagnosis of a mental health disorder was not associated with higher treatment discontinuation rates. Conclusions. In conclusion, pretreatment liver biopsy was not a positive predictor for treatment completion, and the presence of mental health disorders was not a negative predictor for treatment completion.

  3. Upregulated baseline plasma CCL19 and CCR7 cell-surface expression on monocytes in early rheumatoid arthritis normalized during treatment and CCL19 correlated with radiographic progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, T; Hansen, I; Thorsen, J;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to measure, in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, the concentration of CC-chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19) in plasma and the cell-surface expression of CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) on circulating monocytes and CD4+ T lymphocytes and to analyse correlations...... with disease activity and 5-year radiographic progression. METHOD: In disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve RA patients (disease duration < 6 months), we measured plasma CCL19 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (n = 160) and CCR7 cell-surface expression on monocytes and CD4+ T......-naïve RA patients, CCL19 plasma level and CCR7 surface expression on monocytes were upregulated and normalized after 1 year of treatment. Increased baseline plasma CCL19 level, anti-CCP antibody status, and TSS > 0 at baseline correlated independently with 5-year radiographic progression....

  4. Most Trial Eligibility Criteria and Patient Baseline Characteristics Do Not Modify Treatment Effect in Trials Using Targeted Therapies for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anton Wulf; Tarp, Simon; Furst, Daniel E;

    2015-01-01

    )) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We conducted a meta-epidemiological study of all trials evaluating a targeted therapy approved by regulatory authorities for treating RA. The database search was completed on December 11th 2013. Eligible trials reported ACR20 data at months 3-6 and used an add-on design......OBJECTIVE: To determine if variations in trial eligibility criteria and patient baseline characteristics could be considered effect modifiers of the treatment response when testing targeted therapies (biological agents and targeted synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs...

  5. Diabetes treatment patterns and goal achievement in primary diabetes care (DiaRegis) - study protocol and patient characteristics at baseline

    OpenAIRE

    Deeg Evelin; Plate Tanja; Krekler Michael; Gitt Anselm K; Binz Christiane; Bramlage Peter; Tschöpe Diethelm

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes are at an increased risk for disease and treatment related complications after the initial approach of oral mono/dual antidiabetic therapy has failed. Data from clinical practice with respect to this patient group are however scarce. Therefore we set up a registry in primary care documenting the course and outcomes of this patient group. Methods Diabetes Treatment Patterns and Goal Achievement in Primary Diabetes Care (DiaRegis) is a prospecti...

  6. Relationship between frequency, length, and treatment outcome of exacerbations to baseline lung function and lung density in alpha-1 antitrypsin-deficient COPD

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    Vijayasaratha K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kesavaperumal Vijayasaratha,1 Robert A Stockley21Lung Investigation Unit, 2Research and Development, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham, UKBackground: Diary cards are useful for analyzing exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, although factors influencing the length and frequency of each episode are poorly understood. This study investigated factors that influence the features of exacerbations in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT deficiency (PiZ phenotype and COPD.Methods: Daily diary cards were collected over 2 years. Patients had emphysema visualized and quantified by computed tomography scan, and had at least one documented exacerbation in the previous year.Results: The patients (n = 23 had a mean age of 52.5 years, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 1.2 L (38.4% predicted, corrected gas transfer (KCO of 0.90 mmol/min/kPa/L (59.7% predicted, and 15th percentile lung density of 44.55 g/L. Two hundred and sixty-three exacerbations (164 treated were identified. The frequency of treated exacerbations correlated negatively with KCO% predicted (r = −0.432; P = 0.022. Exacerbation length (determined for 17 of the patients for whom diary card data through the episode were available correlated negatively with baseline 15th percentile lung density (r = −0.361; P = 0.003, and increased the longer treatment was delayed (r = 0.503; P < 0.001. Treatment delay was shorter with higher day 1 symptom score, lower baseline FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity, and lower 15th percentile lung density (r = −0.368, 0.272, 0.461, and 0.786; P = 0.004, 0.036, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively. Time to resolution of exacerbation after treatment initiation was not affected by treatment delay, but correlated negatively with KCO% predicted (r = −0.647; P = 0.007.Conclusion: In alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, the frequency and length of resolution of exacerbation were related to baseline gas transfer. Treatment

  7. Baseline proteinuria, urinary osmotic pressure, and renal function as positive predictors of corticosteroids plus cyclophosphamide treatment efficacy in IgA nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jing; Li Wenge; Li Duo; Tan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Background Very limited data are available on factors predictive of corticosteroids plus cyclophosphamide treatment efficacy on IgA nephropathy (IgAN).The aim of the study was to research the clinical factors predictive of treatment efficacy in IgAN.Methods One hundred and fifty-nine patients with IgAN (proteinuria ≥2 g/d and estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-89 ml·min-1·1.73 m-2) were treated with corticosteroids/cyclophosphamide followed by a 12-month follow-up.According to their response,these patients were divided into remission group (proteinuria <0.5 g/d) and non-remission group (proteinuria ≥0.5 g/d),and their clinical data collected.Results In the present study,72.96% of the individuals underwent a complete remission,and their response was related to baseline proteinuria,urinary osmotic pressure,and renal function (P <0.05).Patients with baseline proteinuria more than 3 g/d,urinary osmotic pressure greater than 600 mOsm/L,and eGFR 60-89 ml·min-1·1.73 m-2 responded well to the combination of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide (86.90% vs.57.33%,P=0.000; 81.48% vs.64.10%,P=0.014; 83.17% vs.55.17%,P=0.000).Conclusion The response to the combination of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide might be well associated with baseline proteinuria,urinary osmotic pressure,and renal function in patients with IgAN.

  8. Baseline depression levels do not affect efficacy of cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment for insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lancee; J. van den Bout; A. van Straten; V.I. Spoormaker

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can effectively treat insomnia (CBT-I). Randomized controlled trials have shown efficacy of self-help CBT-I, but unclear is whether excluding depressive patients boosted treatment effects. Method: We administered unsupported self-help CBT-I to insomnia patien

  9. Resistance analysis of baseline and treatment-emergent variants in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 in the AVIATOR study with paritaprevir-ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Preethi; Tripathi, Rakesh; Schnell, Gretja; Reisch, Thomas; Beyer, Jill; Irvin, Michelle; Xie, Wangang; Larsen, Lois; Cohen, Daniel; Podsadecki, Thomas; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Collins, Christine

    2015-09-01

    AVIATOR, a phase 2 clinical trial, evaluated ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir (a protease inhibitor), ombitasvir (an NS5A inhibitor), and dasabuvir (a nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitor) (the three-drug [3D] regimen) with or without ribavirin (RBV) for 8, 12, or 24 weeks in 406 HCV genotype 1 (GT1)-infected patients. The rate of sustained virologic response 24 weeks after treatment ranged from 88% to 100% across the arms of the 3D regimen with or without RBV; 20 GT1a-infected patients and 1 GT1b-infected patient experienced virologic failure (5.2%). Baseline resistance-conferring variants in NS3 were rare. M28V in GT1a and Y93H in GT1b were the most prevalent preexisting variants in NS5A, and C316N in GT1b and S556G in both GT1a and GT1b were the most prevalent variants in NS5B. Interestingly, all the GT1a sequences encoding M28V in NS5A were from the United States, while GT1b sequences encoding C316N and S556G in NS5B were predominant in the European Union. Variants preexisting at baseline had no significant impact on treatment outcome. The most prevalent treatment-emergent resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in GT1a were R155K and D168V in NS3, M28T and Q30R in NS5A, and S556G in NS5B. The single GT1b-infected patient experiencing virologic failure had no RAVs in any target. A paritaprevir-ritonavir dose of 150/100 mg was more efficacious in suppressing R155K in NS3 than a 100/100-mg dose. In patients who failed after receiving 12 or more weeks of treatment, RAVs were selected in all 3 targets, while most patients who relapsed after 8 weeks of treatment did so without any detectable RAVs. Results from this study guided the selection of the optimal treatment regimen, treatment duration, and paritaprevir dose for further development of the 3D regimen. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01464827.). PMID:26100711

  10. Design, rationale, and baseline characteristics of a cluster randomized controlled trial of pay for performance for hypertension treatment: study protocol

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    Lutschg Meghan Z

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite compelling evidence of the benefits of treatment and well-accepted guidelines for treatment, hypertension is controlled in less than one-half of United States citizens. Methods/design This randomized controlled trial tests whether explicit financial incentives promote the translation of guideline-recommended care for hypertension into clinical practice and improve blood pressure (BP control in the primary care setting. Using constrained randomization, we assigned 12 Veterans Affairs hospital outpatient clinics to four study arms: physician-level incentive; group-level incentive; combination of physician and group incentives; and no incentives (control. All participants at the hospital (cluster were assigned to the same study arm. We enrolled 83 full-time primary care physicians and 42 non-physician personnel. The intervention consisted of an educational session about guideline-recommended care for hypertension, five audit and feedback reports, and five disbursements of incentive payments. Incentive payments rewarded participants for chart-documented use of guideline-recommended antihypertensive medications, BP control, and appropriate responses to uncontrolled BP during a prior four-month performance period over the 20-month intervention. To identify potential unintended consequences of the incentives, the study team interviewed study participants, as well as non-participant primary care personnel and leadership at study sites. Chart reviews included data collection on quality measures not related to hypertension. To evaluate the persistence of the effect of the incentives, the study design includes a washout period. Discussion We briefly describe the rationale for the interventions being studied, as well as the major design choices. Rigorous research designs such as the one described here are necessary to determine whether performance-based payment arrangements such as financial incentives result in meaningful

  11. First-line antihypertensive treatment in patients with pre-diabetes: Rationale, design and baseline results of the ADaPT investigation

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    Bramlage Peter

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent clinical trials reported conflicting results on the reduction of new-onset diabetes using RAS blocking agents. Therefore the role of these agents in preventing diabetes is still not well defined. Ramipril is an ACE inhibitor (ACEi, that has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in high risk patients and post-hoc analyses of the HOPE trial have provided evidence for its beneficial action in the prevention of diabetes. Methods The ADaPT investigation ("ACE inhibitor-based versus diuretic-based antihypertensive primary treatment in patients with pre-diabetes" is a 4-year open, prospective, parallel group phase IV study. It compares an antihypertensive treatment regimen based on ramipril versus a treatment based on diuretics or betablockers. The primary evaluation criterion is the first manifestation of type 2 diabetes. The study is conducted in primary care to allow the broadest possible application of its results. The present article provides an outline of the rationale, the design and baseline characteristics of AdaPT and compares these to previous studies including ASCOT-BLPA, VALUE and DREAM. Results Until March 2006 a total of 2,015 patients in 150 general practices (general physicians and internists throughout Germany were enrolled. The average age of patients enrolled was 67.1 ± 10.3 years, with 47% being male and a BMI of 29.9 ± 5.0 kg/m2. Dyslipidemia was present in 56.5%. 37.8% reported a family history of diabetes, 57.8% were previously diagnosed with hypertension (usually long standing. The HbA1c value at baseline was 5.6 %. Compared to the DREAM study patients were older, had more frequently hypertension and patients with cardiovascular disease were not excluded. Conclusion Comparing the ADaPT design and baseline data to previous randomized controlled trial it can be acknowledged that AdaPT included patients with a high risk for diabetes development. Results are expected to be available in 2010. Data

  12. Baseline HCV Antibody Prevalence and Risk Factors among Drug Users in China's National Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program.

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    Changhe Wang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is the most common viral infection among injecting drug users worldwide. We aimed to assess HCV antibody prevalence and associated risk factors among clients in the Chinese national methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program.Data from 296,209 clients who enrolled in the national MMT program between March 2004 and December 2012 were analyzed to assess HCV antibody prevalence, associated risk factors, and geographical distribution.Anti-HCV screening was positive for 54.6% of clients upon MMT entry between 2004 and 2012. HCV antibody prevalence at entry declined from 66.8% in 2005 to 45.9% in 2012. The most significant predictors of HCV seropositivity were injecting drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 8.34, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.17-8.52, p<0.0001 and a history of drug use ≥9 years (AOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.96-2.06, p<0.0001. Being female, of Uyghur or Zhuang ethnicity, and unmarried were identified as demographic risk factors (all p-values<0.0001. Of the 28 provincial-level divisions included in the study, we found that 5 divisions had HCV antibody prevalence above 70% and 20 divisions above 50%. The HCV screening rate within 6 months after MMT entry greatly increased from 30.4% in 2004 to 93.1% in 2012.The current HCV antibody prevalence remains alarmingly high among MMT clients throughout most provincial-level divisions in China, particularly among injecting drug users and females. A comprehensive prevention strategy is needed to control the HCV epidemic among MMT clients in China.

  13. Lack of Associations of CHRNA5-A3-B4 Genetic Variants with Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Caucasian Smokers despite Associations with Baseline Smoking.

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    Rachel F Tyndale

    Full Text Available CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants, rs16969968, rs588765 and rs578776, are consistently associated with tobacco consumption among smokers, but the association with smoking cessation is less consistent. Among the studies that reported significant associations with cessation, the effects were observed in smokers treated with placebo treatment in some studies and conversely in those receiving active pharmacological therapy (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies in others. Thus, it remains unclear whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 is a useful marker for optimizing smoking cessation. Using data from 654 Caucasian smokers treated with placebo, nicotine patch or varenicline, we investigated whether CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants were associated with smoking cessation outcomes, and whether there were significant genotype-by-treatment or haplotype-by-treatment interactions. We observed no significant associations between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation, despite replicating previous associations with baseline tobacco consumption. At end of treatment the effect size on smoking cessation in the placebo, patch and varenicline groups for rs16969968 [GG vs. GA+AA] was OR = 0.66 (P = 0.23, OR = 1.01 (P = 0.99, and OR = 1.30 (P = 0.36 respectively, of rs588765 [CC vs. CT+TT] was OR = 0.96 (P = 0.90, OR = 0.84 (P = 0.58, and OR = 0.74 (P = 0.29 respectively, and for rs578776 [GG vs. GA+AA] on smoking cessation was OR = 1.02 (P = 0.95, OR = 0.75 (P = 0.35, and OR = 1.20 (P = 0.51 respectively. Furthermore, we observed no associations with cessation using the CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotype (constructed using rs16969968 and rs588765, nor did we observe any significant genotype-by-treatment interactions, with or without adjusting for the rate of nicotine metabolism (all P>0.05. We also observed no significant genetic associations with 6 month or 12 month smoking abstinence. In conclusion, we found no association between CHRNA5-A3-B4 variants and smoking cessation rates in this clinical

  14. Treatment guided by rapid diagnostic tests for malaria in Tanzanian children: safety and alternative bacterial diagnoses

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    Sykes Alma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT. However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Methods Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Results Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4% were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4% were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6% children became RDT-positive after enrolment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrolment. In addition, 12 (1.2% children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9% children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95%CI 96.9-98.7 and specificity of 96.3% (95%CI 96.3-98.4. Conclusions Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive

  15. Malaria Treatment Policy Change and Implementation: The Case of Uganda

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    Miriam Nanyunja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria due to P. falciparum is the number one cause of morbidity and mortality in Uganda where it is highly endemic in 95% of the country. The use of efficacious and effective antimalarial medicines is one of the key strategies for malaria control. Until 2000, Chloroquine (CQ was the first-line drug for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Due to progressive resistance to CQ and to a combination of CQ with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, Uganda in 2004 adopted the use of ACTs as first-line drug for treating uncomplicated malaria. A review of the drug policy change process and postimplementation reports highlight the importance of managing the policy change process, generating evidence for policy decisions and availability of adequate and predictable funding for effective policy roll-out. These and other lessons learnt can be used to guide countries that are considering anti-malarial drug change in future.

  16. Use of Viremia to Evaluate the Baseline Case Fatality Ratio of Ebola Virus Disease and Inform Treatment Studies: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

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    Oumar Faye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The case fatality ratio (CFR of Ebola virus disease (EVD can vary over time and space for reasons that are not fully understood. This makes it difficult to define the baseline CFRs needed to evaluate treatments in the absence of randomized controls. Here, we investigate whether viremia in EVD patients may be used to evaluate baseline EVD CFRs.We analyzed the laboratory and epidemiological records of patients with EVD confirmed by reverse transcription PCR hospitalized in the Conakry area, Guinea, between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2015. We used viremia and other variables to model the CFR. Data for 699 EVD patients were analyzed. In the week following symptom onset, mean viremia remained stable, and the CFR increased with viremia, V, from 21% (95% CI 16%-27% for low viremia (V < 104.4 copies/ml to 53% (95% CI 44%-61% for intermediate viremia (104.4 ≤ V < 105.2 copies/ml and 81% (95% CI 75%-87% for high viremia (V ≥ 105.2 copies/ml. Compared to adults (15-44 y old [y.o.], the CFR was larger in young children (0-4 y.o. (odds ratio [OR]: 2.44; 95% CI 1.02-5.86 and older adults (≥ 45 y.o. (OR: 2.84; 95% CI 1.81-4.46 but lower in children (5-14 y.o. (OR: 0.46; 95% CI 0.24-0.86. An order of magnitude increase in mean viremia in cases after July 2014 compared to those before coincided with a 14% increase in the CFR. Our findings come from a large hospital-based study in Conakry and may not be generalizable to settings with different case profiles, such as with individuals who never sought care.Viremia in EVD patients was a strong predictor of death that partly explained variations in CFR in the study population. This study provides baseline CFRs by viremia group, which allow appropriate adjustment when estimating efficacy in treatment studies. In randomized controlled trials, stratifying analysis on viremia groups could reduce sample size requirements by 25%. We hypothesize that monitoring the viremia of hospitalized patients may inform the

  17. Provider knowledge of treatment policy and dosing regimen with artemether-lumefantrine and quinine in malaria-endemic areas of western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watsierah Carren A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to widespread anti-malarial drug resistance in many countries, Kenya included, artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT has been adopted as the most effective treatment option against malaria. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL is the first-line ACT for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, while quinine is preferred for complicated and severe malaria. Information on the providers’ knowledge and practices prior to or during AL and quinine implementation is scanty. The current study evaluated providers’ knowledge and practices of treatment policy and dosing regimens with AL and quinine in the public, private and not-for-profit drug outlets. Methods A cross-sectional survey using three-stage sampling of 288 (126 public, 96 private and 66 not-for-profits providers in drug outlets was conducted in western Kenya in two Plasmodium falciparum-endemic regions with varying malarial risk. Information on provider in-service training, knowledge (qualification, treatment policy, dosing regimen, recently banned anti-malarials and on practices (request for written prescription, prescription of AL, selling partial packs and advice given to patients after prescription, was collected. Results Only 15.6% of providers in private outlets had received any in-service training on AL use. All (100% in public and majority (98.4% in not-for-profit outlets mentioned AL as first line-treatment drug. Quinine was mentioned as second-line drug by 47.9% in private outlets. A total of 92.0% in public, 57.3% in private and 78.8% in not-for-profit outlets stated correct AL dose for adults. A total of 85.7% of providers in public, 30.2% in private and 41.0% in not-for-profit outlets were aware that SP recommendations changed from treatment for mild malaria to IPTp in high risk areas. In-service training influenced treatment regimen for uncomplicated malaria (P = 0.039 and P = 0.039 and severe malaria (P P = 0.002 in children and adults

  18. Impact of medical treatment on lung diffusion capacity in elderly patients with heart failure. Baseline characteristics and 1-year follow up after medical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this investigation was (1) to study the effect of untreated chronic heart failure (CHF) on alveolar membrane diffusion capacity (transfer coefficient, K(CO)) in elderly patients and (2) to study the impact of the standard regime of medical treatment with diuretics and ACE......-inhibitor/angiotensin-II receptor antagonists on K(CO) in these patients. METHODS: Non-medicated patients (except for diuretics) with symptoms of heart failure (NYHA II-III) and echocardiographically estimated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ... of multiple ECG-gated radionuclide ventriculography (MUGA). LVEFheart failure (HF). A total of 20 patients fulfilled the criteria. All patients had a lung function test including measurement of K(CO) and a MUGA for LVEF measurement performed prior to medical...

  19. Improving childhood malaria treatment and referral practices by training patent medicine vendors in rural south-east Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzochukwu Benjamin SC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with anti-malarials bought over-the-counter (OTC from untrained drug vendors. Self-medication through drug vendors can be ineffective, with increased risks of drug toxicity and development of drug resistance. Global malaria control initiatives highlights the potential role of drug vendors to improve access to early effective malaria treatment, which underscores the need for interventions to improve treatment obtained from these outlets. This study aimed to determine the feasibility and impact of training rural drug vendors on community-based malaria treatment and advice with referral of severe cases to a health facility. Methods A drug vendor-training programme was carried out between 2003 and 2005 in Ugwuogo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. A total of 16 drug vendors were trained and monitored for eight months. The programme was evaluated to measure changes in drug vendor practice and knowledge using exit interviews. In addition, home visits were conducted to measure compliance with referral. Results The intervention achieved major improvements in drug selling and referral practices and knowledge. Exit interviews confirmed significant increases in appropriate anti-malarial drug dispensing, correct history questions asked and advice given. Improvements in malaria knowledge was established and 80% compliance with referred cases was observed during the study period, Conclusion The remarkable change in knowledge and practices observed indicates that training of drug vendors, as a means of communication in the community, is feasible and strongly supports their inclusion in control strategies aimed at improving prompt effective treatment of malaria with referral of severe cases.

  20. Abriendo Puertas: baseline findings from an integrated intervention to promote prevention, treatment and care among FSW living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeycy Donastorg

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSW are often the focus of primary HIV prevention efforts. However, little attention has been paid to the prevention, treatment, and care needs of FSW living with HIV. Based on formative research, we developed an integrated model to promote prevention and care for FSW living with HIV in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, including (1 individual counseling and education; (2 peer navigation; (3 clinical provider training; and (4 community mobilization. We enrolled 268 FSW living with HIV into the intervention and conducted socio-behavioral surveys, sexually transmitted infection (STI testing, and viral load (VL assessments. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify behavioral and socio-demographic factors associated with detectable VL (>50 copies/mL and STI prevalence. Over half of all participants (51.9% had a detectable VL, even though most received HIV-related care in the last 6 months (85.1% and were currently on anti-retroviral treatment (ART (72.4%. Factors positively associated with a detectable VL included being 18-35 years of age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.46, 95% CI 1.31-4.60, having ever used drugs (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14-4.79, and having ever interrupted ART (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 1.44-6.59. Factors protective against having a detectable VL included being single (AOR 0.45, 95% 0.20-0.98 and being currently on ART (AOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41. Nearly one-quarter (23.1% had an STI, which was associated with being single (AOR 3.21, 95% CI 1.27-8.11 and using drugs in the last 6 months (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.32-9.45. Being on ART was protective against STI (AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-1.00. Baseline findings indicate significant barriers to VL suppression and STI prevention among FSW living with HIV and highlight gaps in the continuum of HIV care and treatment. These findings have important implications for both the individual health of FSW and population-level HIV transmission dynamics.

  1. Clinical tolerability of artesunate-amodiaquine versus comparator treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an individual-patient analysis of eight randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwang Julien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ for treating uncomplicated malaria makes it important to gather and analyse information on its tolerability. Methods An individual-patient tolerability analysis was conducted using data from eight randomized controlled clinical trials conducted at 17 sites in nine sub-Saharan countries comparing ASAQ to other anti-malarial treatments. All patients who received at least one dose of the study drug were included in the analysis. Differences in adverse event (AE and treatment emergent adverse event (TEAE were analysed by Day 28. Results Of the 6,179 patients enrolled (74% Conclusion ASAQ was comparatively well-tolerated. Safety information is important, and must be collected and analysed in a standardized way. TEAEs are a more objective measure of treatment-induced toxicity.

  2. The relationship between baseline Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment subscale scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders treatment clinics: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagedorn Hildi J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment (ORCA is a measure of organizational readiness for implementing practice change in healthcare settings that is organized based on the core elements and sub-elements of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework. General support for the reliability and factor structure of the ORCA has been reported. However, no published study has examined the utility of the ORCA in a clinical setting. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between baseline ORCA scores and implementation of hepatitis prevention services in substance use disorders (SUD clinics. Methods Nine clinic teams from Veterans Health Administration SUD clinics across the United States participated in a six-month training program to promote evidence-based practices for hepatitis prevention. A representative from each team completed the ORCA evidence and context subscales at baseline. Results Eight of nine clinics reported implementation of at least one new hepatitis prevention practice after completing the six-month training program. Clinic teams were categorized by level of implementation-high (n = 4 versus low (n = 5-based on how many hepatitis prevention practices were integrated into their clinics after completing the training program. High implementation teams had significantly higher scores on the patient experience and leadership culture subscales of the ORCA compared to low implementation teams. While not reaching significance in this small sample, high implementation clinics also had higher scores on the research, clinical experience, staff culture, leadership behavior, and measurement subscales as compared to low implementation clinics. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the ORCA was able to measure differences in organizational factors at baseline between clinics that reported high and low implementation of practice

  3. Novel four-drug salvage treatment regimens after failure of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitor-containing regimen: antiviral activity and correlation of baseline phenotypic drug susceptibility with virologic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, S G; Hellmann, N S; Grant, R M; Parkin, N T; Petropoulos, C J; Becker, M; Symonds, W; Chesney, M; Volberding, P A

    1999-06-01

    Twenty human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients experiencing virologic failure of an indinavir- or ritonavir-containing treatment regimen were evaluated in a prospective, open-label study. Subjects received nelfinavir, saquinavir, abacavir, and either another nucleoside analog (n=10) or nevirapine (n=10). Patients treated with the nevirapine-containing regimen experienced significantly greater virologic suppression at week 24 than those not treated with nevirapine (P=.04). Baseline phenotypic drug susceptibility was strongly correlated with outcome in both treatment arms. Subjects with baseline virus phenotypically sensitive to 2 or 3 drugs in the salvage regimen experienced significantly greater virus load suppression than those with baseline virus sensitive to 0 or 1 drug (median week-24 change=-2.24 log and -0.35 log, respectively; P=.01). In conclusion, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors may represent a potent drug in salvage therapy regimens after failure of an indinavir or ritonavir regimen. Phenotypic resistance testing may provide a useful tool for selecting more effective salvage regimens. PMID:10228057

  4. A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Vitamin D3 in MS: Subgroup Analysis of Patients with Baseline Disease Activity Despite Interferon Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Åivo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a subgroup analysis of the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial with vitamin D3 in MS. In the overall study population, there were 34 patients in the vitamin D arm and 32 patients in the placebo arm. All the patients were using interferon-β-1b (IFNB therapy. The subgroup consisted of 15 patients in the vitamin D arm and 15 patients in the placebo arm, who had either at least one relapse during the year preceding the study or enhancing T1 lesions at the baseline MRI scan. We measured the total number of MRI T1 enhancing lesions, the number of new/enlarging T2 lesions and T2 lesion volume (BOD (mm3, EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, annual relapse Rate (ARR, timed 25-foot walk (T25FW, and timed 10-foot tandem walk (TT10W at baseline and at 12 months in the vitamin D-treated and in the placebo-treated patients. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of T1 enhancing lesions, a smaller T2 lesion volume growth and less new/enlarging T2 brain MRI lesions in the vitamin D3-treated than in the placebo-treated subgroup patients. The MRI results were slightly more pronounced in the subgroup than in the overall study population.

  5. TWRS privatization process technical baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orme, R.M.

    1996-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is planning a two-phased program for the remediation of Hanford tank waste. Phase 1 is a pilot program to demonstrate the procurement of treatment services. The volume of waste treated during the Phase 1 is a small percentage of the tank waste. During Phase 2, DOE intends to procure treatment services for the balance of the waste. The TWRS Privatization Process Technical Baseline (PPTB) provides a summary level flowsheet/mass balance of tank waste treatment operations which is consistent with the tank inventory information, waste feed staging studies, and privatization guidelines currently available. The PPTB will be revised periodically as privatized processing concepts are crystallized.

  6. PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigen detection for monitoring the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deloron Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An assessment of the accuracy of two malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2 or Pf lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH was undertaken in children aged between six and 59 months included in an anti-malarial efficacy study in Benin. Methods In Allada (Benin, 205 children aged 6-59 months with falciparum malaria received either artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ, artemether-lumefantrine (AL, or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP. Children included in the study were simultaneously followed by both RDT and high-quality microscopy for up to 42 days. Results At the time of inclusion, PfHRP2-based tests were positive in 203 children (99% and PfLDH-based tests were positive in 204 (99.5%. During follow-up, independent of the treatment received, only 17.3% (28/162 of children effectively cured were negative with the PfHRP2 RDT at day 3, with a gradual increase in specificity until day 42. The specificity of antigen detection with the PfLDH test was 87% (141/162 on day 3, and between 92% and 100% on days 7 to 42. A statistical difference was observed between the persistence of PfHRP2 and PfLDH antigenaemia during follow-up in children treated with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT but not with SP. Conclusion Although both RDTs are as sensitive as microscopy in detecting true malaria cases, the PfHRP2 RDT had very low specificity during follow-up until day 28. On the other hand, the PfLDH test could be used to detect failures and, therefore, to assess anti-malarial efficacy.

  7. Rationing with baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new operator for general rationing problems in which, besides conflicting claims, individual baselines play an important role in the rationing process. The operator builds onto ideas of composition, which are not only frequent in rationing, but also in related problems...... such as bargaining, choice, and queuing. We characterize the operator and show how it preserves some standard axioms in the literature on rationing. We also relate it to recent contributions in such literature....

  8. The TDAQ Baseline Architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F J

    The Trigger-DAQ community is currently busy preparing material for the DAQ, HLT and DCS TDR. Over the last few weeks a very important step has been a series of meetings to complete agreement on the baseline architecture. An overview of the architecture indicating some of the main parameters is shown in figure 1. As reported at the ATLAS Plenary during the February ATLAS week, the main area where the baseline had not yet been agreed was around the Read-Out System (ROS) and details in the DataFlow. The agreed architecture has: Read-Out Links (ROLs) from the RODs using S-Link; Read-Out Buffers (ROB) sited near the RODs, mounted in a chassis - today assumed to be a PC, using PCI bus at least for configuration, control and monitoring. The baseline assumes data aggregation, in the ROB and/or at the output (which could either be over a bus or in the network). Optimization of the data aggregation will be made in the coming months, but the current model has each ROB card receiving input from 4 ROLs, and 3 such c...

  9. METODO, a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in heroin-addicted patients undergoing a methadone maintenance treatment: preliminary results at baseline evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Egidio, Pietro Fausto; Bignamini, Emanuele; De Vivo, Enrico; Leonardi, Claudio; Pieri, Maria Chiara; González-Saiz, Francisco; Lucchini, Alfio

    2013-12-01

    METODO (methadone efficacy therapy optimization dosage on-going) is a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in 500 heroin-addicted patients taking a methadone maintenance treatment, enrolled through 2010 to 2011 in five Italian sites, observed over 2 years. The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale has been used for the evaluation of the "adequacy" of the methadone dosage and to stratify patients in adequate and not adequate groups. The treatment efficacy has been evaluated in correlation to the dosage adequacy during the visits. Moreover, patients have been evaluated according to the retention rate and duration of retention in treatment and a series of questionnaires.

  10. In-treatment midwall and endocardial fractional shortening predict cardiovascular outcome in hypertensive patients with preserved baseline systolic ventricular function: the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva; Palmieri, Vittorio;

    2010-01-01

    Endocardial fractional shortening (EFS) and midwall shortening (MWS) are impaired in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. However, it remains unknown whether improvement of left ventricular systolic function during treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive pa...

  11. The impact of cardiovascular risk, baseline LDL-cholesterol, treatment dose and adherence on cost-effectiveness of statins in newly diagnosed diabetes patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Dianna; Hak, Eelko; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Statins have shown to be cost-effective in most diabetes patients. Treatment decisions in patients newly diagnosed with diabetes are primarily based on the cardiovascular risk. The effect of statins is, however, primarily based on the LDL-cholesterol reduction that is achieved, which is

  12. Simeprevir and Sofosbuvir Combination Treatment in a Patient with HCV Cirrhosis and HbS Beta 0-Thalassemia: Efficacy and Safety despite Baseline Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Papadopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbilirubinemia is an adverse reaction of simeprevir (SMV. The majority of these patients were taking concurrent ribavirin presenting elevated unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia due to hemolysis. However, cases of hepatic failure with elevated bilirubin level have also been reported in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. We describe a 51-year-old female patient with HbS beta 0-thalassemia and recently diagnosed compensated cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis C infection. Laboratory evaluation revealed total bilirubin: 2.7 mg/dL and serum HCV-RNA 137.204 IU/mL. HCV was genotyped as 4. A FibroScan revealed 35.3 kPa. She was considered as illegible for pegylated-interferon-free treatment with direct acting antivirals and a course with simeprevir and sofosbuvir (SOF combination for twelve weeks was planned. Hyperbilirubinemia developed from the beginning with peak values during the 3rd month of treatment. However, no findings of liver decompensation were noticed. Hyperbilirubinemia was benign and fully reversible and our patient finally achieved sustained virological response 24 weeks after the end of treatment.

  13. Seasonal distribution of anti-malarial drug resistance alleles on the island of Sumba, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asih, P.B.; Rogers, W.O.; Susanti, A.I.; Rahmat, A.; Rozi, I.E.; Kusumaningtyas, M.A.; Dewi, R.M.; Coutrier, F.N.; Sutamihardja, A.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Sauerwein, R.W.; Syafruddin, D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drug resistant malaria poses an increasing public health problem in Indonesia, especially eastern Indonesia, where malaria is highly endemic. Widespread chloroquine (CQ) resistance and increasing sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance prompted Indonesia to adopt artemisinin-based com

  14. Daily baseline skin care in the prevention, treatment, and supportive care of skin toxicity in oncology patients: recommendations from a multinational expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadoun, René-Jean; Humbert, Phillipe; Krutman, Jean; Luger, Thomas; Triller, Raoul; Rougier, André; Seite, Sophie; Dreno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients. PMID:24353440

  15. Baseline levels of bioaerosols and volatile organic compounds around a municipal waste incinerator prior to the construction of a mechanical-biological treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Inza, Isabel; Figueras, María J; Domingo, José L

    2009-09-01

    New waste management programs are currently aimed at developing alternative treatment technologies such as mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants. However, there is still a high uncertainty concerning the chemical and microbiological risks for human health, not only for workers of these facilities, but also for the population living in the neighborhood. A new MBT plant is planned to be constructed adjacently to a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). In order to evaluate its potential impact and to differentiate the impacts of MSWI from those of the MBT when the latter is operative, a pre-operational survey was initiated by determining the concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols (total bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus) in airborne samples around the MSWI. The results indicated that the current concentrations of bioaerosols (ranges: 382-3882, 18-790, 44-926, and urban and industrial zones. With the exception of total bacteria, no correlations were observed between the environmental concentrations of biological agents and the direction/distance from the facility. However, total bacteria presented significantly higher levels downwind. Moreover, a non-significant increase of VOCs was detected in sites closer to the incinerator, which means that the MSWI could have a very minor impact on the surrounding environment. PMID:19346120

  16. Daily baseline skin care in the prevention, treatment, and supportive care of skin toxicity in oncology patients: recommendations from a multinational expert panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensadoun RJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available René-Jean Bensadoun,1 Phillipe Humbert,2 Jean Krutman,3 Thomas Luger,4 Raoul Triller,5 André Rougier,6 Sophie Seite,6 Brigitte Dreno71Department of Radiation Oncology, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers Cedex, 2Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France; 3IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, 4Department of Dermatology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 5Centre of Dermatology, Hertford British Hospital, Levallois-Perret, 6La Roche-Posay Laboratoire Pharmaceutique, Asnières, 7Department of Cancero-Dermatology, Hôtel Dieu, CHU Nantes, FranceAbstract: Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients.Keywords: skin care, cosmetic, dermatological toxicity, folliculitis

  17. Baseline levels of bioaerosols and volatile organic compounds around a municipal waste incinerator prior to the construction of a mechanical-biological treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New waste management programs are currently aimed at developing alternative treatment technologies such as mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) and composting plants. However, there is still a high uncertainty concerning the chemical and microbiological risks for human health, not only for workers of these facilities, but also for the population living in the neighborhood. A new MBT plant is planned to be constructed adjacently to a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). In order to evaluate its potential impact and to differentiate the impacts of MSWI from those of the MBT when the latter is operative, a pre-operational survey was initiated by determining the concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols (total bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and Aspergillus fumigatus) in airborne samples around the MSWI. The results indicated that the current concentrations of bioaerosols (ranges: 382-3882, 18-790, 44-926, and 3 for fungi at 25 deg. C, fungi at 37 deg. C, total bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively) and VOCs (ranging from 0.9 to 121.2 μg/m3) are very low in comparison to reported levels in indoor and outdoor air in composting and MBT plants, as well in urban and industrial zones. With the exception of total bacteria, no correlations were observed between the environmental concentrations of biological agents and the direction/distance from the facility. However, total bacteria presented significantly higher levels downwind. Moreover, a non-significant increase of VOCs was detected in sites closer to the incinerator, which means that the MSWI could have a very minor impact on the surrounding environment.

  18. Retail sector distribution chains for malaria treatment in the developing world: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Methods Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. Results A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Conclusions Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for

  19. Reviewing the literature on access to prompt and effective malaria treatment in Kenya: implications for meeting the Abuja targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetteh Gladys

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective case management is central to reducing malaria mortality and morbidity worldwide, but only a minority of those affected by malaria, have access to prompt effective treatment. In Kenya, the Division of Malaria Control is committed to ensuring that 80 percent of childhood fevers are treated with effective anti-malarial medicines within 24 hours of fever onset, but this target is largely unmet. This review aimed to document evidence on access to effective malaria treatment in Kenya, identify factors that influence access, and make recommendations on how to improve prompt access to effective malaria treatment. Since treatment-seeking patterns for malaria are similar in many settings in sub-Saharan Africa, the findings presented in this review have important lessons for other malaria endemic countries. Methods Internet searches were conducted in PUBMED (MEDLINE and HINARI databases using specific search terms and strategies. Grey literature was obtained by soliciting reports from individual researchers working in the treatment-seeking field, from websites of major organizations involved in malaria control and from international reports. Results The review indicated that malaria treatment-seeking occurs mostly in the informal sector; that most fevers are treated, but treatment is often ineffective. Irrational drug use was identified as a problem in most studies, but determinants of this behaviour were not documented. Availability of non-recommended medicines over-the-counter and the presence of substandard anti-malarials in the market are well documented. Demand side determinants of access include perception of illness causes, severity and timing of treatment, perceptions of treatment efficacy, simplicity of regimens and ability to pay. Supply side determinants include distance to health facilities, availability of medicines, prescribing and dispensing practices and quality of medicines. Policy level factors are around

  20. Biofuels Baseline 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelinck, C.; Koper, M.; Berndes, G.; Englund, O.; Diaz-Chavez, R.; Kunen, E.; Walden, D.

    2011-10-15

    The European Union is promoting the use of biofuels and other renewable energy in transport. In April 2009, the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC) was adopted that set a 10% target for renewable energy in transport in 2020. The directive sets several requirements to the sustainability of biofuels marketed in the frame of the Directive. The Commission is required to report to the European Parliament on a regular basis on a range of sustainability impacts resulting from the use of biofuels in the EU. This report serves as a baseline of information for regular monitoring on the impacts of the Directive. Chapter 2 discusses the EU biofuels market, the production and consumption of biofuels and international trade. It is derived where the feedstock for EU consumed biofuels originally come from. Chapter 3 discusses the biofuel policy framework in the EU and major third countries of supply. It looks at various policy aspects that are relevant to comply with the EU sustainability requirements. Chapter 4 discusses the environmental and social sustainability aspects associated with EU biofuels and their feedstock. Chapter 5 discusses the macro-economic effects that indirectly result from increased EU biofuels consumption, on commodity prices and land use. Chapter 6 presents country factsheets for main third countries that supplied biofuels to the EU market in 2008.

  1. Monitoring fever treatment behaviour and equitable access to effective medicines in the context of initiatives to improve ACT access: baseline results and implications for programming in six African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littrell Megan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT remains limited in high malaria-burden countries, and there are concerns that the poorest people are particularly disadvantaged. This paper presents new evidence on household treatment-seeking behaviour in six African countries. These data provide a baseline for monitoring interventions to increase ACT coverage, such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm. Methods Nationally representative household surveys were conducted in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia between 2008 and 2010. Caregivers responded to questions about management of recent fevers in children under five. Treatment indicators were tabulated across countries, and differences in case management provided by the public versus private sector were examined using chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to test for association between socioeconomic status and 1 malaria blood testing, and 2 ACT treatment. Results Fever treatment with an ACT is low in Benin (10%, the DRC (5%, Madagascar (3% and Nigeria (5%, but higher in Uganda (21% and Zambia (21%. The wealthiest children are significantly more likely to receive ACT compared to the poorest children in Benin (OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.12-6.42; the DRC (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.12-4.24; Madagascar (OR = 5.37, 95% CI = 1.58-18.24; and Nigeria (OR = 6.59, 95% CI = 2.73-15.89. Most caregivers seek treatment outside of the home, and private sector outlets are commonly the sole external source of treatment (except in Zambia. However, children treated in the public sector are significantly more likely to receive ACT treatment than those treated in the private sector (except in Madagascar. Nonetheless, levels of testing and ACT treatment in the public sector are low. Few caregivers name the national first-line drug as most effective for treating malaria in Madagascar (2%, the DRC (2%, Nigeria (4% and Benin (10

  2. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  3. Hanford Site technical baseline database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, P.E.

    1996-09-30

    This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of September 30, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that dellinate the differences between this revision and revision 4 (May 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.

  4. Baseline Familiarity in Lie Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a study in which subjects judged the veracity of truthful and deceptive communicators after viewing no, one, two, or four case-relevant baseline exposures (familiarity) of truthful communication. Finds a positive linear relationship between detection accuracy and amount of baseline familiarity. (SR)

  5. Program cost and schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall purpose of cost and schedule baseline management is to ensure that the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program's cost and schedule plan are controlled in an orderly, efficient, and documented manner. Baseline control of the Program's cost and schedule will result in changes that only take place with OCRWM senior management approval, by way of the change control process. The Program Management System (PMS) Manual describes how the Program Cost and Schedule Baseline (PCSB) is integrated into the OCRWM management system. This PCSB document identifies the components of Program cost and schedule that will be subject to change control by DOE-Headquarters and establishes their baseline values. This document also summarizes the management components of the cost and schedule baseline, including reporting, monitoring, and corrective action. Detailed PCSB reporting, monitoring, and corrective action procedures will be issued as an Office of Program Administration and Resource Management (OPARM) administrative procedure. 9 figs

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  7. Modelling malaria treatment practices in Bangladesh using spatial statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Ubydul

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria treatment-seeking practices vary worldwide and Bangladesh is no exception. Individuals from 88 villages in Rajasthali were asked about their treatment-seeking practices. A portion of these households preferred malaria treatment from the National Control Programme, but still a large number of households continued to use drug vendors and approximately one fourth of the individuals surveyed relied exclusively on non-control programme treatments. The risks of low-control programme usage include incomplete malaria treatment, possible misuse of anti-malarial drugs, and an increased potential for drug resistance. Methods The spatial patterns of treatment-seeking practices were first examined using hot-spot analysis (Local Getis-Ord Gi statistic and then modelled using regression. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression identified key factors explaining more than 80% of the variation in control programme and vendor treatment preferences. Geographically weighted regression (GWR was then used to assess where each factor was a strong predictor of treatment-seeking preferences. Results Several factors including tribal affiliation, housing materials, household densities, education levels, and proximity to the regional urban centre, were found to be effective predictors of malaria treatment-seeking preferences. The predictive strength of each of these factors, however, varied across the study area. While education, for example, was a strong predictor in some villages, it was less important for predicting treatment-seeking outcomes in other villages. Conclusion Understanding where each factor is a strong predictor of treatment-seeking outcomes may help in planning targeted interventions aimed at increasing control programme usage. Suggested strategies include providing additional training for the Building Resources across Communities (BRAC health workers, implementing educational programmes, and addressing economic factors.

  8. Which method better evaluates the molecular response in newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with imatinib treatment, BCR-ABL(IS) or log reduction from the baseline level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ya-Zhen; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Hao; Li, Jin-Lan; Li, Ling-Di; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Lai, Yue-Yun; Lu, Xi-Jing; Liu, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-09-01

    The molecular response of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients to tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment can be evaluated either by BCR-ABL mRNA levels on international scale (IS) or by log reduction from the baseline level of the laboratory. Both methods were compared in 248 newly diagnosed chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib. The major molecular responses (MMR) obtained by both methods predict progression-free survival (PFS, all Plog reduction method, had the same PFS as MMR patients identified by both methods. The molecular responses of patients at 3 and 6 months, as evaluated by the two methods, have similar predictive values on their cytogenetic responses at 12 months and on their molecular responses at 18 months. Both ≤ 10%(IS) and ≥ 1 log reduction at 3 months and ≤ 1%(IS) at 6 months were significantly associated with PFS (P=0.0011, 0.0090, and 0.0064). The percentages of patients with BCR-ABL(IS) of ≤ 1%, >1-10%, and of >10% at 3 months and 6 months in the German CML Study IV were similar with those with corresponding BCR-ABL(IS) in our center, but was significantly different with those evaluated by the log reduction method. Therefore, the molecular response evaluated by BCR-ABL(IS) has similar trends in PFS and in response prediction, but can better differentiate patients than that by the log reduction method. Furthermore, the IS method allows comparison among molecular response results from different laboratories.

  9. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  10. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  11. Learning to Baseline Business Technology

    OpenAIRE

    David Gore; Marie D. Lee; Kimberly Hopper

    2013-01-01

    bills, sign multi-­‐year contracts, and make purchasing decisions without having an overall technology plan. That plan includes a technology baseline to fully assess existing technology. A CIO's goal is to align IT with business goals. Businesses must know total cost of ownership and the return on investment for all technology purchases and monthly costs. A business must also be able to manage technology assets and best utilize resources across the business. Teaching students to baseline tech...

  12. Artesunate in the treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma--first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas G; Dieckmann, Detlef; Efferth, Thomas; Schultz, Erwin S; Funk, Jens-Oliver; Baur, Andreas; Schuler, Gerold

    2005-12-01

    Artesunate (ART) is a derivative of artemisinin, the active principle of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. Artesunate is approved for the treatment of multidrug-resistant malaria and has an excellent safety profile. It has been shown that Artesunate, apart from its anti-malarial activity, has cytotoxic effects on a number of human cancer cell lines, including leukemia, colon cancer and melanoma. We report on the first long-term treatment of two cancer patients with ART in combination with standard chemotherapy. These patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were treated on a compassionate-use basis, after standard chemotherapy alone was ineffective in stopping tumor growth. The therapy-regimen was well tolerated with no additional side effects other than those caused by standard chemotherapy alone. One patient experienced a temporary response after the addition of ART to Fotemustine while the disease was progressing under therapy with Fotemustine alone. The second patient first experienced a stabilization of the disease after the addition of ART to Dacarbazine, followed by objective regressions of splenic and lung metastases. This patient is still alive 47 months after first diagnosis of stage IV uveal melanoma, a situation with a median survival of 2-5 months. Despite the small number of treated patients, ART might be a promising adjuvant drug for the treatment of melanoma and possibly other tumors in combination with standard chemotherapy. Its good tolerability and lack of serious side effects will facilitate prospective randomized trials in the near future. PMID:16273263

  13. Learning to Baseline Business Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available bills, sign multi-­‐year contracts, and make purchasing decisions without having an overall technology plan. That plan includes a technology baseline to fully assess existing technology. A CIO's goal is to align IT with business goals. Businesses must know total cost of ownership and the return on investment for all technology purchases and monthly costs. A business must also be able to manage technology assets and best utilize resources across the business. Teaching students to baseline technology will enable them to track and manage costs, discover errors and waste, and consolidate and improve existing technology.

  14. Use of behavioral economics and social psychology to improve treatment of acute respiratory infections (BEARI): rationale and design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [1RC4AG039115-01] - study protocol and baseline practice and provider characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial infections leads to increases in the costs of care, antibiotic resistance among bacteria, and adverse drug events. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the most common reason for inappropriate antibiotic use. Most prior efforts to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs (e.g., educational or informational interventions) have relied on the implicit assumption that clinicians inappropriately prescribe antibiotics because they are unaware of guideline recommendations for ARIs. If lack of guideline awareness is not the reason for inappropriate prescribing, educational interventions may have limited impact on prescribing rates. Instead, interventions that apply social psychological and behavioral economic principles may be more effective in deterring inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs by well-informed clinicians. Methods/design The Application of Behavioral Economics to Improve the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Infections (BEARI) Trial is a multisite, cluster-randomized controlled trial with practice as the unit of randomization. The primary aim is to test the ability of three interventions based on behavioral economic principles to reduce the rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs. We randomized practices in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design to receive up to three interventions for non-antibiotic-appropriate diagnoses: 1) Accountable Justifications: When prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI, clinicians are prompted to record an explicit justification that appears in the patient electronic health record; 2) Suggested Alternatives: Through computerized clinical decision support, clinicians prescribing an antibiotic for an ARI receive a list of non-antibiotic treatment choices (including prescription options) prior to completing the antibiotic prescription; and 3) Peer Comparison: Each provider’s rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing relative to top

  15. Artemisinin-based combination therapy: knowledge and perceptions of patent medicine dealers in Owerri Metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria and implications for compliance with current malaria treatment protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuocha, Uchechukwu Madukaku; Nwakwuo, Geoffrey Chima; Mmerole, Ikechukwu

    2013-08-01

    This study was done to access the knowledge and perceptions of Patent Medicine Dealers (PMDs) in Owerri Metropolis of Nigeria about Artemisinin Based Combination Therapy as first line treatment for malaria using structured pre-tested questionnaires administered to 80 randomly selected and consenting respondents. About 67.5 and 32.5 % of males and females respectively participated in the study. Most of them (56.3 %) had secondary school education with about 50 % having 5-10 years experience in the business. The level of knowledge was shown to be high (82.5 %), with 81.3 % having proper understanding of the term "artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs)" and 80 % knowing the correct dosage for ACTs. But despite the level of awareness, only 32.5 % knew the correct timing for administration of the drugs. The result of this study showed no significant relationship between the level of knowledge and either educational attainment (χ(2) = 4.889, df = 4, p value = 0.558) or the years of experience (χ(2) = 29.095, df = 4, p value = 0.000) although knowledge improved a bit as experience increased. 93.8 % in the study reported that ACTs are more effective than other anti-malarial drugs. The quantity of ACT available on counters are low and there is no significant relationship (χ(2) = 18.833, df = 6, p value = 0.004) between the availability of ACT and the quantity of ACT available in stock at the time of this study. This study shows that awareness on ACTs has improved among PMDs, even though other anti-malarial drugs are still in use and are marketed by them. It becomes necessary that efforts towards awareness be scaled up with emphasis on recommended time of administration and correct prescriptions to enhance and sustain intermittent presumptive treatment as an effective method of malaria control since this group of people still provide the major access to drugs in Nigeria and other tropical endemic areas. PMID:23539134

  16. The detection and treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: Time for change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosten F

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In most countries where malaria is endemic, P. falciparum malaria is on the rise. This is primarily due to the spread of drug-resistant strains. Drug resistance is mediated by spontaneous changes in the parasite genome that allow resistant parasites to escape the action of the drugs. The spread of drug resistance increases the transmission of malaria parasites. The consequences for the populations at risk are profound both in terms of consequences for health and economy. In order to halt the progression of drug resistance, we need to change the way antimalarials are used. As in tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, we must use a combination of drugs for the treatment of malaria. Taking into account the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the various anti-malarial agents, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT seems to be the best option. This strategy should be used in conjunction with early diagnosis and appropriate vector control measures to achieve reduction in the emergence and spread of drug resistance.

  17. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  18. The telmisartan renoprotective study from incipient nephropathy to overt nephropathy--rationale, study design, treatment plan and baseline characteristics of the incipient to overt: angiotensin II receptor blocker, telmisartan, Investigation on Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy (INNOVATION) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, H; Haneda, M; Babazono, T; Moriya, T; Ito, S; Iwamoto, Y; Kawamori, R; Takeuchi, M; Katayama, S

    2005-01-01

    We planned the INNOVATION study to determine whether telmisartan, an angiotensin-2-receptor blocker, delays the progression of renal disease from incipient nephropathy to overt nephropathy in hypertensive or normotensive Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The INNOVATION study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eligible patients must have incipient nephropathy (defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 100-300 mg/g creatinine) and a serum creatinine concentration of 300 mg/g creatinine and 30% higher than the baseline on at least two consecutive visits). A total of 1855 patients have been enrolled from 160 study centres. In 527 randomized patients (28.4% of the enrolled patients), mean (SD) urinary albumin to creatinine ratio and serum creatinine concentration at baseline were 173.3 (47.2) mg/g creatinine and 0.78 (0.19) mg/dl. Sixty-eight per cent of the patients had hypertension at baseline. Mean (SD) systolic and diastolic blood pressures at baseline were 137.1 (14.6) and 77.5 (10.3) mmHg. The INNOVATION study will determine whether telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, provides clinical benefits in hypertensive or normotensive patients with diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy.

  19. The Nuts and Bolts of Baseline Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Partnership for Market Readiness

    2012-01-01

    This document provides an overview of baseline setting for greenhouse gas (GHG) crediting mechanisms. The first section briefly explains the general purpose and objectives of setting a crediting mechanism baseline. The second section summarizes key policy considerations in defining and setting baselines. The final section covers important technical elements of baselines and provides an ove...

  20. Pharmacokinetic interactions between artesunate-mefloquine and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir in healthy Thai adults

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanapunya, Siwalee; Cressey, Tim R.; Rueangweerayut, Ronnatrai; Tawon, Yardpiroon; Kongjam, Panida; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2015-01-01

    Background Concomitant use of anti-malarial and antiretroviral drugs is increasingly frequent in malaria and HIV endemic regions. The aim of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic interaction between the anti-malarial drugs, artesunate-mefloquine and the antiretroviral drug, lopinavir boosted with ritonavir (LPV/r). Methods The study was an open-label, three-way, sequential, cross-over, pharmacokinetic study in healthy Thai adults. Subjects received the following treatments: Period ...

  1. Prevalence of molecular markers of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Dakar, Senegal.

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtz Nathalie; Fall Bécaye; Pascual Aurélie; Diawara Silmane; Sow Kowry; Baret Eric; Diatta Bakary; Fall Khadidiatou B; Mbaye Pape S; Fall Fatou; Diémé Yaya; Rogier Christophe; Bercion Raymond; Briolant Sébastien; Wade Boubacar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background As a result of the widespread resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) (including artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Senegal since 2006. Intermittent preventive treatments with anti-malarial drugs based on sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are also given to children or pregnant women once per month during the transmission season. Since 2006, ...

  2. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  3. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  4. Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Qian, X; Rubbia, A

    2016-01-01

    We review long-baseline neutrino experiments in which neutrinos are detected after traversing macroscopic distances. Over such distances neutrinos have been found to oscillate among flavor states. Experiments with solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrinos have resulted in a coherent picture of neutrino masses and mixing of the three known flavor states. We will summarize the current best knowledge of neutrino parameters and phenomenology with our focus on the evolution of the experimental technique. We proceed from the first evidence produced by astrophysical neutrino sources to the current open questions and the goals of future research.

  5. Baseline report for infiltration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infiltration experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration was started in late 2008 near ONKALO. The purpose of the experiment is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at a depth of about 50 to 100 m depending on the observations made during the experiment. Infiltration is activated by pumping a highly transmissive fracture zone (13-18.2 m) in drillhole OL-KR14, which is a part of the site scale hydrogeological feature. The influence of pumping is then monitored in drillholes, groundwater observation tubes and lysimeters through water, groundwater and microbiological samplings and hydrogeological measurements. Before the experiment was started, four new monitoring drillholes, nine groundwater observation tubes and nine lysimeters were installed in the test area and very detailed baseline field investigations were performed. In addition, information of existing investigation data from the area of interest was collected in together. The baseline field investigations included geological logging of the cores of new shallow drillholes, flow and transverse flow measurements in new shallow drillholes, SLUG measurements in groundwater observation tubes, head monitoring, groundwater and microbiological sampling and analysis from observation tubes, shallow drillholes and the pumping section in OL-KR14, water sampling and analysis from lysimeters and resistivity measurements of the overburden. The results of previously performed soil pit investigations and hydrogeological measurements carried out in the area of interest were also added to the investigation data. A detailed hydrogeological model of the experiment area was updated simultaneously with baseline field investigations; the previous version was presented in Pitkaenen et al. (2008). Apart from the field investigations, predictive

  6. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  7. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  8. Effects of baseline risk information on social and individual choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Nexøe, Jørgen; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2002-01-01

    This article analyzes preferences for risk reductions in the context of individual and societal decision making. The effect of information on baseline risk is analyzed in both contexts. The results indicate that if individuals are to imagine that they suffer from 1 low-risk and 1 high-risk ailment, and are offered a specified identical absolute risk reduction, a majority will ceteris paribus opt for treatment of the low-risk ailment. A different preference structure is elicited when priority questions are framed as social choices. Here, a majority will prefer to treat the high-risk group of patients. The preference reversal demonstrates the extent to which baseline risk information can influence preferences in different choice settings. It is argued that presentation of baseline risk information may induce framing effects that lead to nonoptimal resource allocations. A solution to this problem may be to not present group-specific baseline risk information when eliciting preferences. PMID:11833667

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of malaria in peripheral health facilities in Uganda: findings from an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Siân

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early recognition of symptoms and signs perceived as malaria are important for effective case management, as few laboratories are available at peripheral health facilities. The validity and reliability of clinical signs and symptoms used by health workers to diagnose malaria were assessed in an area of low transmission in south-western Uganda. Methods The study had two components: 1 passive case detection where all patients attending the out patient clininc with a febrile illness were included and 2 a longitudinal active malaria case detection survey was conducted in selected villages. A malaria case was defined as any slide-confirmed parasitaemia in a person with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C or a history of fever within the last 24 hrs and no signs suggestive of other diseases. Results Cases of malaria were significantly more likely to report joint pains, headache, vomiting and abdominal pains. However, due to the low prevalence of malaria, the predictive values of these individual signs alone, or in combination, were poor. Only 24.8% of 1627 patients had malaria according to case definition and > 75% of patients were unnecessarily treated for malaria and few slide negative cases received alternative treatment. Conclusion In low-transmission areas, more attention needs to be paid to differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses In view of suggested changes in anti-malarial drug policy, introducing costly artemisinin combination therapy accurate, rapid diagnostic tools are necessary to target treatment to people in need.

  10. Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant has been part of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) nuclear weapons complex since the plant opened in 1957. In March 1995, the DOE sold the Pinellas Plant to the Pinellas County Industry Council (PCIC). DOE has leased back a large portion of the plant site to facilitate transition to alternate use and safe shutdown. The current mission is to achieve a safe transition of the facility from defense production and prepare the site for alternative uses as a community resource for economic development. Toward that effort, the Pinellas Plant Environmental Baseline Report (EBR) discusses the current and past environmental conditions of the plant site. Information for the EBR is obtained from plant records. Historical process and chemical usage information for each area is reviewed during area characterizations.

  11. Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jon F.; Kehrer, Kristen C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is intended to be a how-to guide to prepare for, conduct, and close-out an Integrated Baseline Review (IBR). It discusses the steps that should be considered, describes roles and responsibilities, tips for tailoring the IBR based on risk, cost, and need for management insight, and provides lessons learned from past IBRs. Appendices contain example documentation typically used in connection with an IBR. Note that these appendices are examples only, and should be tailored to meet the needs of individual projects and contracts. Following the guidance in this handbook will help customers and suppliers preparing for an IBR understand the expectations of the IBR, and ensure that the IBR meets the requirements for both in-house and contract efforts.

  12. 327 Building hazard baseline document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document identifies the hazards in the 327 Building at the time that a facility walk through was performed during FY99, presents a PHA of stabilization and deactivation activities, and provides a basis for the hazard evaluation and accident analysis that will be developed in the 327 Building Basis for Interim Operation (BIO). Activities addressed in this hazard baseline document include: (1) Stabilization and deactivation activities in preparation for eventual decommissioning of the 327 Building and the routine handling, processing, and shipment of waste to support these activities. (2) 324/327 Building Minimum Safe Project engineering and maintenance activities to maintain the building and systems viable--especially the Safety SSCs--to allow stabilization, deactivation, and waste handling activities with a minimum of risk to workers, the public, and the environment

  13. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Tangents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline tangent lines are typically bay or river closing...

  14. Atlantic NAD 83 SLA Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ArcGIS shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. Baseline points are the discrete coordinate points along the...

  15. Relationship between treatment-seeking behaviour and artemisinin drug quality in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Eili Y

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is currently the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria infections. However, a significant proportion of ACT is assumed to be of poor quality, particularly in Africa. In addition, little is known about how treatment-seeking behaviour of individuals or drug price is associated with drug quality. Methods Caregivers of children less than 5 years of age were interviewed on their knowledge of malaria and their choices for treatment. Artemisinin drugs were then purchased from sellers that caregivers preferred or had previously patronized. The active ingredients were quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results A negative relationship was anticipated between the education level of caregivers and the quality of anti-malarial drugs purchased. However, of the 33 drugs collected from 16 different shops, only one contained less than 80% of its purported active ingredient, and most drugs were within 90% of their listed amounts. No link was found between drug quality and price. Nonetheless, while ACT is the recommended first-line treatment in Ghana, 21% of the drugs collected were artemisinin monotherapy, and 27% of the ACT was not co-formulated. Among caregivers, higher education was found to be associated with both an increased likelihood of seeking treatment in a clinic first, as opposed to visiting drug shops or using herbal remedies, and with purchasing drugs from licensed sellers. Conclusion Surprisingly, drug quality was found to be uniformly high and thus no significant relationship between price, treatment-seeking behaviour and the content of the active ingredients was observed. However, artemisinin monotherapy, which the WHO considers inappropriate therapy, was still widely available in Ghana in 2010. Monotherapy was more likely to be available in unlicensed vendors where less-educated caregivers generally shopped. This linkage between education

  16. Treatment of imported severe malaria with artesunate instead of quinine--more evidence needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Cramer; R. López-Vélez; G.D. Burchard; M.P. Grobusch; P.J. de Vries

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and fast acting anti-malarials are essential to treat severe malaria. Quinine has been the only option for parenteral therapy until recently. While current evidence shows that intravenous artesunate is more effective than quinine in treating severe malaria in endemic countries, some questions

  17. In-silico studies on DegP protein of Plasmodium falciparum in search of anti-malarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Drista; Soni, Rani; Patel, Sachin; Joshi, Deepti; Bhatt, Tarun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Despite encouraging progress over the past decade, malaria caused by the Plasmodium parasite continues to pose an enormous disease burden and is one of the major global health problems. The extreme challenge in malaria management is the resistance of parasites to traditional monochemotherapies like chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. No vaccine is yet in sight, and the foregoing effective drugs are also losing ground against the disease due to the resistivity of parasites. New antimalarials with novel mechanisms of action are needed to circumvent existing or emerging drug resistance. DegP protein, secretory in nature has been shown to be involved in regulation of thermo-oxidative stress generated during asexual life cycle of Plasmodium, probably required for survival of parasite in host. Considering the significance of protein, in this study, we have generated a three-dimensional structure of PfDegP followed by validation of the modeled structure using several tools like RAMPAGE, ERRAT, and others. We also performed an in-silico screening of small molecule database against PfDegP using Glide. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation of protein and protein-ligand complex was carried out using GROMACS. This study substantiated potential drug-like molecules and provides the scope for development of novel antimalarial drugs. PMID:27491850

  18. Nature's Chiral Catalyst and Anti-Malarial Agent: Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Cinchonine and Quinine from "Cinchona calisaya"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Anne-Marie; Kavanagh, David J.; McGovern, Fiona P.; Reilly, Joe W.; Walsh, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Nature is a well-recognized source of compounds of interest, but access is often an issue. One pertinent example is the cinchona alkaloids from the bark of "Cinchona calisaya." In this experiment, students at the third-year undergraduate level undertake the selective isolation and characterization of two of the four main alkaloids present in the…

  19. Pill characterization data streams for reducing exposure to inadequately identified anti-malarial medication in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crandall Ian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large fraction of anti-malaria medicines (and indeed many other medicines classes used in developing countries are inadequately identified. Framing this problem as one of misidentification rather than the more common framing of criminal misrepresentation leads to new solutions sets not currently being considered. Method That reframing led to consideration and analysis of 4 new problems that informed design of a digital platform technology for delivering a distributed medicine characterization system: 1 problematic interests associated with a focus on preventing counterfeiting, 2 the complexity of the many ways that medicines can deviate from expected identities, 3 the challenge of choosing amongst a diversity of attribute characterization technologies, and 4 the need for a flexible and distributed data aggregation mechanism. Results Analysis of those new problems confirmed an initial insight that a previously described digital technology for tracking malaria tests results in infrastructure limited regions could be adapted for characterizing pill attributes. Feasibility is illustrated by describing how the platform design can be implemented using open-source software and commodity computational and communication technology readily available and supportable in developing countries. Discussion A system of this type would allow users to answer several questions. Is this medicine what it is supposed to be? Can it be used to treat locally encountered malaria? What has been the experience of others who have used pills having the same identity? Ubiquitous access to global digital telecommunication infrastructure allows the system to generate data streams from these distributed medicine characterization transactions that can be used to map global patterns of use of specifically identified medicines. This can provide feedback necessary to guide efforts to reduce the burden of malaria.

  20. Assessment of the effectiveness of the CD3+ tool to detect counterfeit and substandard anti-malarials

    OpenAIRE

    Batson, JaCinta S.; Bempong, Daniel K.; Lukulay, Patrick H.; Ranieri, Nicola; Satzger, R. Duane; Verbois, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Background The US FDA recently developed CD3+, a counterfeit detection tool that is based on sample illumination at specific wavelengths of light and visual comparison of suspect sample and packaging materials to an authentic sample. To test performance of the CD3+ in field conditions, a study was conducted in Ghana which compared the CD3+ side-by-side with two existing medicine quality screening technologies—TruScan™ Portable Raman spectrometer and GPHF Minilab®. Methods A total of 84 anti-m...

  1. Space Station-Baseline Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  2. Shifting Baselines, Science, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    All of us have a deeply personal concept of nature based upon our childhood perceptions of the world around us, and of the subsequent degradation of nature by the experiences of our lifetimes. Yet even the most rudimentary knowledge of history clearly demonstrates that the modern rise of human population and consumption have wreaked havoc on global ecosystems to the extent that nowhere is close to natural or pristine and that most places have been increasingly degraded over many centuries. This disconnect between direct personal experience and abstract historical perspective is the problem of "shifting baselines" that is the fundamental impediment to basic scientific understanding and environmental policy, and affects scientists as much as the general public, business, and government. Scientists in particular suffer from the inability to directly observe and experimentally verify causes and effects of previous changes in ecosystems that now bear so little resemblance to their natural state. Under the circumstances, it is essential for scientists to draw scientific conclusions based on imperfect data and to publicly explain, defend, and discuss their conclusions as the best possible science given present information. The failure to do so makes science virtually irrelevant to social and environmental policy and government.

  3. 2016 Annual Technology Baseline (ATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley; Kurup, Parthiv; Hand, Maureen; Feldman, David; Sigrin, Benjamin; Lantz, Eric; Stehly, Tyler; Augustine, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick; Waldoch, Connor

    2016-09-01

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  4. The impact of text message reminders on adherence to antimalarial treatment in northern Ghana: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia R G Raifman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low rates of adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT regimens increase the risk of treatment failure and may lead to drug resistance, threatening the sustainability of current anti-malarial efforts. We assessed the impact of text message reminders on adherence to ACT regimens. METHODS: Health workers at hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, and other stationary ACT distributors in Tamale, Ghana provided flyers advertising free mobile health information to individuals receiving malaria treatment. The messaging system automatically randomized self-enrolled individuals to the control group or the treatment group with equal probability; those in the treatment group were further randomly assigned to receive a simple text message reminder or the simple reminder plus an additional statement about adherence in 12-hour intervals. The main outcome was self-reported adherence based on follow-up interviews occurring three days after treatment initiation. We estimated the impact of the messages on treatment completion using logistic regression. RESULTS: 1140 individuals enrolled in both the study and the text reminder system. Among individuals in the control group, 61.5% took the full course of treatment. The simple text message reminders increased the odds of adherence (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI [1.03 to 2.04], p-value 0.028. Receiving an additional message did not result in a significant change in adherence (adjusted OR 0.77, 95% CI [0.50 to 1.20], p-value 0.252. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that a simple text message reminder can increase adherence to antimalarial treatment and that additional information included in messages does not have a significant impact on completion of ACT treatment. Further research is needed to develop the most effective text message content and frequency. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01722734.

  5. Hepatitis C Viral Kinetics During Treatment With Peg IFN-alpha-2b in HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients as a Function of Baseline CD4+ T Cell Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Neumann U.; Goldstein, Deborah; Rozenberg, Lynn; McLaughlin, Mary; Ferenci, Peter; Masur, Henry; Buti, Maria; Fauci, Anthony S.; Polis, Michael A.; Kottilil, Shyam

    2009-01-01

    Background HIV/HCV co-infected patients are known to have lower sustained viral response (SVR) rates than HCV mono-infected patients. However, the role of CD4+ T-cell counts on viral kinetics and outcome is not fully understood. Methods HCV-RNA kinetics (bDNA v3, LD=615 IU/ml) was analyzed in 32 HIV/HCV co-infected persons treated with Pegylated interferon-α2b (1.5 μg/kg weekly) and ribavirin (1–1.2 g daily) for 48 weeks and compared with results obtained from 12 HCV monoinfected patients treated with the same regimen. Results Baseline CD4+ T cell counts ≥450cells/mm3 were significantly (P1.0 log) and second-phase viral decline slope (>0.3 log/week) are excellent predictors of SVR for co-infected patients. PMID:19797971

  6. Cost comparison of microscopy vs. empiric treatment for malaria in southwestern nigeria: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Mario

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presumptive treatment for malaria is common in resource-limited settings, yet controversial given the imprecision of clinical diagnosis. The researchers compared costs of diagnosis and drugs for two strategies: (1 empirical treatment of malaria via clinical diagnosis; and (2 empirical diagnosis followed by treatment only with Giemsa smear confirmation. Methods Patients with a diagnosis of clinical malaria were recruited from a mission/university teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria. The patients underwent free Giemsa thick (diagnosis and thin (differentiation smears, but paid for all anti-malarial drugs. Clinical diagnosis was made on clinicians' judgments based on symptoms, including fever, diarrhoea, headache, and body aches. The paediatric regimen was artesunate (6-9 tablets of 3 mg/kg on day one and 1.5 mg/kg for the next four days plus amodiaquine (10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three in suspension. Adults were given two treatment options: option one (four and one-half 50 mg artesunate tablets on day one and nine tablets for the next four days, plus three 500 mg sulphadoxine/25 mg pyrimethamine tablets and option two (same artesunate regimen plus nine 200 mg tablets of amodiaquine at 10 mg/kg day 1-2 and 5 mg/kg on day three. The researchers calculated the costs of smears/drugs from standard hospital charges. Results Doctors diagnosed 304 patients (170 adults ages >16 years and 134 pediatric with clinical malaria, prescribing antimalarial drugs to all. Giemsa thick smears were positive in 115/304 (38%. The typical patient cost for a Giemsa smear was 550 Naira (US$3.74 in 2009. For children, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N888 ($6.04/child; the cost of empiric treatment of all who were clinically diagnosed was lower, N660 ($4.49/child. For adults, the cost of testing all, but treating only Giemsa positives was N711 ($4.84/adult for treatment option one (artesunate and

  7. Comparison of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients - baseline characteristics, treatment adherence, and development of clinical variables during three years of anti-TNF therapy in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallman, Johan K; Kapetanovic, Meliha C; Petersson, Ingemar F;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is currently debated. Using observational data from the South Swedish Arthritis Treatment Group register, we thus aimed to compare clinical development and treatment adherence...

  8. Baseline survey of pregnant women 's knowledge of treat-ment to prevent mother-to-child human immuno-deficien-cy virus transmission in a resource limited setting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Onwere; Obioha Okoro; Bright Chigbu; Chuks Kamanu; Christian Aluka; Paul Feyi-Wa-boso

    2008-01-01

    Despite continuing advances in scientific knowledge about treatments to prevent mother-to-child (MTCT)of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV),there is a paucity of data on pregnant women's knowledge of treat-ments to prevent MTCT of HIV in Aba,South Eastern Nigeria.We investigated pregnant women's knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent MTCT of HIV in the low resourced setting of Aba town in South Eastern Nigeria.A descriptive study involving 100 consecutive and consenting patients at the antenatal clinic of Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH),Aba,South Eastern Nigeria over the period 1st November, 2007 to 30th November,2007.Using a structured questionnaire,the respondents'sociodemographic data were obtained as well as their knowledge of the availability of treatments to prevent mother to child HIV transmission in pregnant women and self-reported data on their having ever tested for HIV.Knowledge regarding availability of treatment to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV was good as 95% of the respondents were aware that such treatment was available.Knowledge that treatment is available to help someone infected by HIV to live longer was also good as 96% of the respondents were aware of the availability of such treatment.Seventy one percent of the respondents had ever tested for HIV.The levels of knowledge regarding the availability of treatment to prevent mother to child HIV transmission and to help someone infected with HIV are good.Thus, utilization of anti-retroviral prophylaxis amongst HIV infected pregnant women in this community would be ex-pected to be high if the drugs were available.This will reduce the impact of HIV,especially in children.

  9. Mixed waste focus area technical baseline report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (MWFA) to develop and facilitate implementation of technologies required to meet the Department's commitments for treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes. The mission of the MWFA is to provide acceptable technologies, developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators, that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 that forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. This technical baseline is revised on an annual basis to reflect changes in the DOE Mixed Waste Management strategies, changes in the MWFA technical baseline development process, and MWFA accomplishments. This report presents the first revision to the technical baseline and the resulting prioritized list of deficiencies that the MWFA will address. This report also reflects a higher level of stakeholder involvement in the prioritization of the deficiencies. This document summarizes the data and the assumptions upon which this work was based, as well as information concerning the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) mixed waste technology development needs

  10. Hospital doctors' assessment of baseline spirometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, N.; Morgan, R.; Abdel-Rahman-Abdel-Wahab, E.; Turnbull, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline spirometry is useful in diagnosing and managing pulmonary disease. In a questionnaire survey of 100 hospital doctors in two hospitals in the Mersey region, their views and ability to interpret baseline spirometry was assessed. Of the 70 doctors who responded, 65% felt they could accurately interpret baseline spirometry. However, only 12% accurately interpreted all five vitalographs in the questionnaire. The majority (72%) felt they had not had adequate teaching in interpretation of s...

  11. BMC{trademark}: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    Barrier Membrane Containment (BMC){trademark} is a high-density polyethylene membrane (HOPE) groundwater barrier and pass-through system, with applications ranging from plume control and containment to groundwater manipulation coupled with in-site treatment. BMC{trademark} system can function as a permeable or impermeable reaction wall, a cut-off wall, interceptor trenches, a barrier with collection and/or monitoring system and a pass-through in a funnel and gate configuration. BMC{trademark} can be inspected with a down-hole video camera, producing a permanent VHS format tape, insuring the integrity of the wall and the interlocking joints. The joints are sealed with a ``U``-packing elastomeric gasket to prevent the flow of fluids or gases.

  12. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process.

  13. Arc melter demonstration baseline test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the test results and evaluation for the Phase 1 (baseline) arc melter vitrification test series conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program (BWID). Phase 1 tests were conducted on surrogate mixtures of as-incinerated wastes and soil. Some buried wastes, soils, and stored wastes at the INEL and other DOE sites, are contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radionuclides and hazardous organics and metals. The high temperature environment in an electric arc furnace may be used to process these wastes to produce materials suitable for final disposal. An electric arc furnace system can treat heterogeneous wastes and contaminated soils by (a) dissolving and retaining TRU elements and selected toxic metals as oxides in the slag phase, (b) destroying organic materials by dissociation, pyrolyzation, and combustion, and (c) capturing separated volatilized metals in the offgas system for further treatment. Structural metals in the waste may be melted and tapped separately for recycle or disposal, or these metals may be oxidized and dissolved into the slag. The molten slag, after cooling, will provide a glass/ceramic final waste form that is homogeneous, highly nonleachable, and extremely durable. These features make this waste form suitable for immobilization of TRU radionuclides and toxic metals for geologic timeframes. Further, the volume of contaminated wastes and soils will be substantially reduced in the process

  14. Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2010. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of developing sign and symptom, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of developing sign and symptom of malaria. Data were collected by trained enumerators using structured questionnaire. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. To identify determinants, multiple logistic regression was done. Results A total of 155 mothers of cases and 155 mothers of controls were interviewed. Mothers of children who were in a monogamous marriage (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.34, who complained about the side effects of anti-malarial drugs (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.21, 20.36, who had no history of child death (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.82, 6.42 and who complained about the higher cost of transportation to reach the health institutions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.45 were more likely to be late for the treatment of malaria in under-five children. Conclusion Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment. Efforts to reduce delay should address transport cost, decentralization of services and increasing awareness of the community on early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Medicinal Plants Used in Mali for the Treatment of Malaria and Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidara, Mahamane; Bourdy, Geneviève; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Braca, Alessandra; Traore, Korotoumou; Giani, Sergio; Sanogo, Rokia

    2016-03-01

    Today, ethno-pharmacology is a very important resource in order to discover new therapies for the current diseases. Moreover, another good justification for the ethno-pharmacological approach is to obtain new, effective, less expensive and simple therapies, limiting at the same time the cost of pharmaceutical research. Two major anti-malarial drugs widely used today, i.e. quinine and artemisinin, came respectively from Peruvian and Chinese ancestral treatments reported in the traditional medicines. In this contest, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new drugs, due to the critical epidemiological situation of this disease and to the growth of resistances. In Mali, malaria and liver diseases remain one of the leading public health problems. Many medicinal plants are often used, in local traditional medicine, for the treatment at the same time of malaria and liver diseases, including hepatic syndromes, jaundice, hepatitis and other hepatic disorders. Moreover, in the local language Bamanan, the word "Sumaya" is used both for malaria and some liver diseases. In addition, we noted that some of the improved traditional phytomedicines produced by the Department of Traditional Medicine are prescribed by modern doctors both for malaria and liver diseases. In this review, pharmacological, toxicological and phytochemical data on Argemone mexicana L. (Papaveraceae), Cochlospermum tinctorium Perr. ex A. Rich (Cochlospermaceae), Combretum micranthum G.Don (Combretaceae), Entada africana Guillet Perr. (Mimosaceae), Erythrina senegalensis A. DC (Fabaceae), Mitragyna inermis (Willd) Kuntze (Rubiaceae), Nauclea latifolia Smith syn. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce (Rubiaceae), Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Polygalaceae), Trichilia emetica Vahl. (Meliaceae), and Vernonia colorata (Willd) Drake (Asteraceae) are reported. Some of the collected data could be used to improve the actual herbal drugs and to propose new phytomedicines for the management of malaria and

  16. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  17. SSA FITARA Common Baseline Implementation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This document describes the agency's plan to implement the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) Common Baseline per OMB memorandum M-15-14.

  18. Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Breton Island, Louisiana Baseline (Geographic, NAD83) consists of vector line data that were input into the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0,...

  19. Monoenergetic neutrino beam for long baseline experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an electron capture process by a nucleus, emitted neutrinos are monoenergetic. We study a long baseline experiment with such a completely monoenergetic neutrino beam. This talk is based on Refs. 1 and 2. (author)

  20. Nonintrusive methodology for wellness baseline profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Danny Wen-Yaw; Tsai, Yuh-Show; Miaou, Shaou-Gang; Chang, Walter H.; Chang, Yaw-Jen; Chen, Shia-Chung; Hong, Y. Y.; Chyang, C. S.; Chang, Quan-Shong; Hsu, Hon-Yen; Hsu, James; Yao, Wei-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Sin; Chen, Ming-Chung; Lee, Shi-Chen; Hsu, Charles; Miao, Lidan; Byrd, Kenny; Chouikha, Mohamed F.; Gu, Xin-Bin; Wang, Paul C.; Szu, Harold

    2007-04-01

    We develop an accumulatively effective and affordable set of smart pair devices to save the exuberant expenditure for the healthcare of aging population, which will not be sustainable when all the post-war baby boomers retire (78 millions will cost 1/5~1/4 GDP in US alone). To design an accessible test-bed for distributed points of homecare, we choose two exemplars of the set to demonstrate the possibility of translation of modern military and clinical know-how, because two exemplars share identically the noninvasive algorithm adapted to the Smart Sensor-pairs for the real world persistent surveillance. Currently, the standard diagnoses for malignant tumors and diabetes disorders are blood serum tests, X-ray CAT scan, and biopsy used sometime in the physical checkup by physicians as cohort-average wellness baselines. The loss of the quality of life in making second careers productive may be caused by the missing of timeliness for correct diagnoses and easier treatments, which contributes to the one quarter of human errors generating the lawsuits against physicians and hospitals, which further escalates the insurance cost and wasteful healthcare expenditure. Such a vicious cycle should be entirely eliminated by building an "individual diagnostic aids (IDA)," similar to the trend of personalized drug, developed from daily noninvasive intelligent databases of the "wellness baseline profiling (WBP)". Since our physiology state undulates diurnally, the Nyquist anti-aliasing theory dictates a minimum twice-a-day sampling of the WBP for the IDA, which must be made affordable by means of noninvasive, unsupervised and unbiased methodology at the convenience of homes. Thus, a pair of military infrared (IR) spectral cameras has been demonstrated for the noninvasive spectrogram ratio test of the spontaneously emitted thermal radiation from a normal human body at 37°C temperature. This invisible self-emission spreads from 3 microns to 12 microns of the radiation wavelengths

  1. Application of mobile-technology for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria in the "Better Border Healthcare Programme"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meankaew Pongthep

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of integrating the use of cell-phones into a routine malaria prevention and control programme, to improve the management of malaria cases among an under-served population in a border area. The module for disease and treatment monitoring of malaria (DTMM consisted of case investigation and case follow-up for treatment compliance and patients' symptoms. Methods The module combining web-based and mobile technologies was developed as a proof of concept, in an attempt to replace the existing manual, paper-based activities that malaria staff used in treating and caring for malaria patients in the villages for which they were responsible. After a patient was detected and registered onto the system, case-investigation and treatment details were recorded into the malaria database. A follow-up schedule was generated, and the patient's status was updated when the malaria staff conducted their routine home visits, using mobile phones loaded with the follow-up application module. The module also generated text and graph messages for a summary of malaria cases and basic statistics, and automatically fed to predetermined malaria personnel for situation analysis. Following standard public-health practices, access to the patient database was strictly limited to authorized personnel in charge of patient case management. Results The DTMM module was developed and implemented at the trial site in late November 2008, and was fully functioning in 2009. The system captured 534 malaria patients in 2009. Compared to paper-based data in 2004-2008, the mobile-phone-based case follow-up rates by malaria staff improved significantly. The follow-up rates for both Thai and migrant patients were about 94-99% on Day 7 (Plasmodium falciparum and Day 14 (Plasmodium vivax and maintained at 84-93% on Day 90. Adherence to anti-malarial drug therapy, based on self-reporting, showed high completion

  2. Atmospheric media effects on ARIES baseline determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    Different types of media effects on ARIES baseline determination are compared. The effectiveness of simple ionospheric calibration models are studied. To perform the covariance analysis, an ARIES observation sequence needs to be assumed. For the current purposes, the observation sequence is selected to be that of experiment 80D over the JPL/Goldstone baseline (approximately 180 km). This experiment consisted of 96 observations over a period of approximately 25 hours on March 25 to 26, 1980. It is found through covariance analyses that the component most sensitive to media depends heavily upon the correlation, between the two stations, of the media effects. It is also found that relying on the cancellation of ionospheric delays between the two ray paths of VLBI observations at S band results in a large error in baseline length determination. High degree removal of ionospheric effects is possible with a crude model, providing correct diurnal peak and minimum ionospheric levels are input.

  3. Salton Sea sampling program: baseline studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, R.E.; Carter, J.L.; Langlois, G.W.

    1981-04-13

    Baseline data are provided on three species of fish from the Salton Sea, California. The fishes considered were the orange mouth corvina (Cynoscion xanthulus), gulf croaker (Bairdiella icistius) and sargo (Anisotremus davidsonii). Morphometric and meristic data are presented as a baseline to aid in the evaluation of any physiological stress the fish may experience as a result of geothermal development. Analyses were made on muscle, liver, and bone of the fishes sampled to provide baseline data on elemental tissue burdens. The elements measured were: As, Br, Ca, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mi, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Zn, and Zr. These data are important if an environmentally sound progression of geothermal power production is to occur at the Salton Sea.

  4. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  5. Baseline methodologies for clean development mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.K. (ed.); Shrestha, R.M.; Sharma, S.; Timilsina, G.R.; Kumar, S.

    2005-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) came into force on 16th February 2005 with its ratification by Russia. The increasing momentum of this process is reflected in more than 100 projects having been submitted to the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) for approval of the baselines and monitoring methodologies, which is the first step in developing and implementing CDM projects. A CDM project should result in a net decrease of GHG emissions below any level that would have resulted from other activities implemented in the absence of that CDM project. The 'baseline' defines the GHG emissions of activities that would have been implemented in the absence of a CDM project. The baseline methodology is the process/algorithm for establishing that baseline. The baseline, along with the baseline methodology, are thus the most critical element of any CDM project towards meeting the important criteria of CDM, which are that a CDM should result in 'real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change'. This guidebook is produced within the frame work of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) facilitated 'Capacity Development for the Clean Development Mechanism (CD4CDM)' Project. This document is published as part of the projects effort to develop guidebooks that cover important issues such as project finance, sustainability impacts, legal framework and institutional framework. These materials are aimed to help stakeholders better understand the CDM and are believed to eventually contribute to maximize the effect of the CDM in achieving the ultimate goal of UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. This Guidebook should be read in conjunction with the information provided in the two other guidebooks entitled, 'Clean Development Mechanism: Introduction to the CDM' and 'CDM Information and Guidebook' developed under the CD4CDM project. (BA)

  6. Neutrino Interactions and Long-Baseline Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of neutrino mixing parameters and the CP-violating phase requires knowledge of the neutrino energy. This energy must be reconstructed from the final state of a neutrino-nucleus reaction since all long-baseline experiments use nuclear targets. This reconstruction requires detailed knowledge of the neutrino reactions with bound nucleons and of the final state interactions of hadrons with the nuclear environment. Quantum-kinetic transport theory can be used to build an event generator for this reconstruction that takes basic nuclear properties, such as binding, into account. Some examples are discussed that show the effects of nuclear interactions on observables in long-baseline experiments

  7. Waste management project technical baseline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1997-08-13

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project.

  8. National Cyberethics, Cybersafety, Cybersecurity Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study that explores the nature of the Cyberethics, Cybersafety, and Cybersecurity (C3) educational awareness policies, initiatives, curriculum, and practices currently taking place in the U.S. public and private K-12 educational settings. The study establishes baseline data on C3 awareness, which can be used…

  9. Waste management project technical baseline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systems engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Waste Management Project is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, requirement analysis, interface definitions, alternative analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, implementation definitions, and discussion of uncertainties facing the Project

  10. Rationing in the presence of baselines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a general model of rationing in which agents have baselines, in addition to claims against the (insufficient) endowment of the good to be allocated. Many real-life problems fit this general model (e.g., bankruptcy with prioritized claims, resource allocation in the public health care...

  11. Mercury baseline levels in Flemish soils (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to establish contaminant levels that are normally present in soils to provide baseline data for pollution studies. Mercury is a toxic element of concern. This study was aimed at assessing baseline mercury levels in soils in Flanders. In a previous study, mercury contents in soils in Oost-Vlaanderen were found to be significantly above levels reported elsewhere. For the current study, observations were extended over two more provinces, West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen. Ranges of soil Hg contents were distinctly higher in the province Oost-Vlaanderen (interquartile range from 0.09 to 0.43 mg/kg) than in the other provinces (interquartile ranges from 0.7 to 0.13 and 0.7 to 0.15 mg/kg for West-Vlaanderen and Antwerpen, respectively). The standard threshold method was applied to separate soils containing baseline levels of Hg from the data. Baseline concentrations for Hg were characterised by a median of 0.10 mg Hg/kg dry soil, an interquartile range from 0.07 to 0.14 mg/kg and a 90% percentile value of 0.30 mg/kg. The influence of soil properties such as clay and organic carbon contents, and pH on baseline Hg concentrations was not important. Maps of the spatial distribution of Hg levels showed that the province Oost-Vlaanderen exhibited zones with systematically higher Hg soil contents. This may be related to the former presence of many small-scale industries employing mercury in that region. - Increased mercury levels may reflect human activity

  12. Atorvastatin treatment is effective when used in combination with mefloquine in an experimental cerebral malaria murine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souraud Jean-Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection is cerebral malaria (CM, which causes one million deaths worldwide each year, results in long-term neurological sequelae and the treatment for which is only partially effective. Statins are recognized to have an immunomodulatory action, attenuate sepsis and have a neuroprotective effect. Atorvastatin (AVA has shown in vitro anti-malarial activity and has improved the activity of mefloquine (MQ and quinine. Methods The efficiency of 40 mg/kg intraperitoneal AVA, alone or in association with MQ, was assessed in an experimental Plasmodium berghei ANKA rodent parasite model of CM and performed according to different therapeutic schemes. The effects on experimental CM were assessed through the evaluation of brain histopathological changes and neuronal apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Results AVA alone in the therapeutic scheme show no effect on survival, but the prophylactic scheme employing AVA associated with MQ, rather than MQ alone, led to a significant delay in mouse death and had an effect on the onset of CM symptoms and on the level of parasitaemia. Histopathological findings show a correlation between brain lesions and CM onset. A neuronal anti-apoptotic effect of AVA in the AVA + MQ combination was not shown. Conclusions The combination of AVA and MQ therapy led to a significant delay in mouse mortality. There were differences in the incidence, time to cerebral malaria and the level of parasitaemia when the drug combination was administered to mice. When used in combination with MQ, AVA had a relevant effect on the in vivo growth inhibition and clinical outcome of P. berghei ANKA-infected mice.

  13. Barriers to prompt and effective malaria treatment among the poorest population in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okungu Vincent

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt access to effective malaria treatment is central to the success of malaria control worldwide, but few fevers are treated with effective anti-malarials within 24 hours of symptoms onset. The last two decades saw an upsurge of initiatives to improve access to effective malaria treatment in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence suggests that the poorest populations remain least likely to seek prompt and effective treatment, but the factors that prevent them from accessing interventions are not well understood. With plans under way to subsidize ACT heavily in Kenya and other parts of Africa, there is urgent need to identify policy actions to promote access among the poor. This paper explores access barriers to effective malaria treatment among the poorest population in four malaria endemic districts in Kenya. Methods The study was conducted in the poorest areas of four malaria endemic districts in Kenya. Multiple data collection methods were applied including: a cross-sectional survey (n = 708 households; 24 focus group discussions; semi-structured interviews with health workers (n = 34; and patient exit interviews (n = 359. Results Multiple factors related to affordability, acceptability and availability interact to influence access to prompt and effective treatment. Regarding affordability, about 40 percent of individuals who self-treated using shop-bought drugs and 42 percent who visited a formal health facility reported not having enough money to pay for treatment, and having to adopt coping strategies including borrowing money and getting treatment on credit in order to access care. Other factors influencing affordability were seasonality of illness and income sources, transport costs, and unofficial payments. Regarding acceptability, the major interrelated factors identified were provider patient relationship, patient expectations, beliefs on illness causation, perceived effectiveness of treatment, distrust in

  14. CASA Uno GPS orbit and baseline experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B. E.; Ho, C. S.; Abusali, P. A. M.; Tapley, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    CASA Uno data from sites distributed in longitude from Australia to Europe have been used to determine orbits of the GPS satellites. The characteristics of the orbits determined from double difference phase have been evaluated through comparisons of two-week solutions with one-week solutions and by comparisons of predicted and estimated orbits. Evidence of unmodeled effects is demonstrated, particularly associated with the orbit planes that experience solar eclipse. The orbit accuracy has been assessed through the repeatability of unconstrained estimated baseline vectors ranging from 245 km to 5400 km. Both the baseline repeatability and the comparison with independent space geodetic methods give results at the level of 1-2 parts in 100,000,000. In addition, the Mojave/Owens Valley (245 km) and Kokee Park/Ft. Davis (5409 km) estimates agree with VLBI and SLR to better than 1 part in 100,000,000.

  15. Joint Multi-baseline SAR Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tebaldini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a technique to provide interferometry by combining multiple images of the same area. This technique differs from the multi-baseline approach in literature as (a it exploits all the images simultaneously, (b it performs a spectral shift preprocessing to remove most of the decorrelation, and (c it exploits distributed targets. The technique is mainly intended for DEM generation at centimetric accuracy, as well as for differential interferometry. The problem is framed in the contest of single-input multiple-output (SIMO channel estimation via the cross-relations (CR technique and the resulting algorithm provides significant improvements with respect to conventional approaches based either on independent analysis of single interferograms or multi-baselines phase analysis of single pixels of current literature, for those targets that are correlated in all the images, like for long-term coherent areas, or for acquisitions taken with a short revisit time (as those gathered with future satellite constellations.

  16. Dissipative Effect in Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Roberto L N

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of neutrinos in long baselines experiments may be influenced by dissipation effects. Using Lindblad Master Equation we evolve neutrinos taking into account these dissipative effects. The MSW and the dissipative effects may change the probabilities behavior. In this work, we show and explain how the behavior of the probabilities can change due to the decoherence and relaxation effects acting individually with the MSW effect. A new exotic peak appears in this case and we show the difference between the decoherence and relaxation effects in the appearance of this peak. We also adapt the usual approximate expression for survival and appearance probabilities with all possible decoherence effects. We suppose the baseline of DUNE and show how each decoherence parameters change the probabilities analyzing the possible modification using numeric and analytic approach.

  17. Twenty-month follow-up of occlusal caries lesions deemed questionable at baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2014-01-01

    -three clinicians from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network participated in this study, recording lesion characteristics at baseline and lesion status at 20 months. RESULTS: At baseline, 1,341 QOC lesions were examined; the treatment that was planned for 1,033 of those at baseline was monitoring...... (oral hygiene instruction, applying or prescribing fluoride or varnish, or both), and the remaining 308 received a sealant (n = 192) or invasive therapy (n = 116). At the 20-month visit, clinicians continued to monitor 927 (90 percent) of the 1,033 monitored lesions. Clinicians decided to seal 61 (6...

  18. Integration report for SRC-I post-baseline environmental R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, A.F.

    1984-06-01

    The Baseline Design for the wastewater treatment/reuse and solid-waste handling and disposal systems for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant was completed in 1982. Because of the ambitious construction schedule contemplated at that time, the design was not based on comprehensive design data. Consequently, since submission of the Baseline, ICRC has been generating experimental data to confirm and/or refine the Baseline Design. This report integrates all the environmental research and development (R and D) data generated during that period by many different R and D programs. 41 references, 29 figures, 32 tables.

  19. Systematic errors in long baseline oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2006-02-01

    This article gives a brief overview of long baseline neutrino experiments and their goals, and then describes the different kinds of systematic errors that are encountered in these experiments. Particular attention is paid to the uncertainties that come about because of imperfect knowledge of neutrino cross sections and more generally how neutrinos interact in nuclei. Near detectors are planned for most of these experiments, and the extent to which certain uncertainties can be reduced by the presence of near detectors is also discussed.

  20. Rural Gambian women's reliance on health workers to deliver sulphadoxine – pyrimethamine as recommended intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabin Loretta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of most anti-malarial medications is restricted during pregnancy, but two doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine are recommended after the first trimester as intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp. In The Gambia, only 32% of women receive two doses and very little research has been conducted on women's awareness of drug safety during pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to assess whether rural Gambian women were aware of the importance of the timing of the two-dose IPT dose schedule and its relevance to drug safety. Methods This was a qualitative study in which 41 interviews and 16 focus group discussions with women, adolescents, men and traditional birth attendants were conducted. A generic qualitative approach was used to generate a theory as to why women might not participate in IPTp as recommended. Results Although most women used calendar months to count their stage of pregnancy, these months did not correlate with their concept of foetal development. Foetal growth was described following Islamic tradition as water, clot, piece of meat and human being, although there was little consensus about the order or timing in which these stages occurred. Common signs and conditions of malaria were known. Women were anxious about miscarriage and recognized that some medicines should not be taken in the first trimester, but were urged by men and traditional birth attendants to attend for antenatal care in the first trimester to "start treatment." General knowledge about the purpose of pregnancy medications and when they should be taken was poor among both men and women. One important result was that women relied entirely on health workers to provide safe drugs, at the correct time. Conclusion Women did not have relevant information to judge the safety and appropriate timing of pregnancy drugs, which made them over-reliant on health workers. They should be encouraged to date their own pregnancies in

  1. Could a simple antenatal package combining micronutritional supplementation with presumptive treatment of infection prevent maternal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pittrof Rudiger

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal mortality is a key goal of international development. Our objective was to determine the potential impact on maternal mortality across sub-Saharan Africa of a combination of dietary supplementation and presumptive treatment of infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to demonstrate the importance of antenatal interventions in the fight against maternal mortality, and to stimulate debate about the design of an effective antenatal care package which could be delivered at the lowest level of the antenatal health system or at community level. Methods We collated evidence for the effectiveness of antenatal interventions from systematic reviews and controlled trials, and we selected interventions which have demonstrated potential to prevent maternal deaths. We used a model-based analysis to estimate the total reduction in maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa which could be achieved by combining these interventions into a single package, based on a WHO systematic review of causes of maternal deaths. Results Severe hypertensive disorders, puerperal sepsis and anemia are causes of maternal deaths which could be prevented to some extent by prophylactic measures during pregnancy. A package of pills comprising calcium and iron supplements and appropriate anti-microbial and anti-malarial drugs could reduce maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa by 8% (range Conclusion Maternal mortality could be reduced by a combination of micronutrient supplementation and presumptive treatment of infection during pregnancy. Such an approach could be adopted in resource-poor settings where visits to antenatal clinics are infrequent and would complement existing Safe Motherhood activities.

  2. Efficient Wide Baseline Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Mario; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a Structure from Motion approach for complex unorganized image sets. To achieve high accuracy and robustness, image triplets are employed and (an approximate) camera calibration is assumed to be known. The focus lies on a complete linking of images even in case of large image distortions, e.g., caused by wide baselines, as well as weak baselines. A method for embedding image descriptors into Hamming space is proposed for fast image similarity ranking. The later is employed to limit the number of pairs to be matched by a wide baseline method. An iterative graph-based approach is proposed formulating image linking as the search for a terminal Steiner minimum tree in a line graph. Finally, additional links are determined and employed to improve the accuracy of the pose estimation. By this means, loops in long image sequences are implicitly closed. The potential of the proposed approach is demonstrated by results for several complex image sets also in comparison with VisualSFM.

  3. Health baseline comparisons and quality of life in people with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This programme of research involved the development of a new health psychology concept: health baseline comparisons (HBCs). This is defined as the comparative baselines used to assess subjective health status. The following broad research questions were tested: Which HBCs are adopted by individuals with cancer?; What are the implications of different HBCs for quality of life (QoL) and other types of well-being?; How stable are HBCs throughout a course of treatment? A mixed-methodology appr...

  4. The value of baseline CT head scans in the assessment of shunt complications in hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, P. (Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Fraser, F. (Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Pilling, D. (Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)); Carty, H. (Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of a baseline CT head scan in the assessment of patients who subsequently presented with symptoms which may have been due to shunt complications (such as blockage or infection). In all these patients the shunt had been inserted in the treatment of hydrocephalus. We conclude that the presence of a baseline scan does not add to the interpretation of CT scans done when the patient presents with symptoms of possible shunt malfunction. (orig.)

  5. Baseline Response Levels Are a Nuisance in Infant Contingency Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, W. S.; Weir, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The impact of differences in level of baseline responding on contingency learning in the first year was examined by considering the response acquisition of infants classified into baseline response quartiles. Whereas the three lower baseline groups showed the predicted increment in responding to a contingency, the highest baseline responders did…

  6. The need for preoperative baseline arm measurement to accurately quantify breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fangdi; Skolny, Melissa N; Swaroop, Meyha N; Rawal, Bhupendra; Catalano, Paul J; Brunelle, Cheryl L; Miller, Cynthia L; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a feared outcome of breast cancer treatment, yet the push for early screening is hampered by a lack of standardized quantification. We sought to determine the necessity of preoperative baseline in accounting for temporal changes of upper extremity volume. 1028 women with unilateral breast cancer were prospectively screened for lymphedema by perometry. Thresholds were defined: relative volume change (RVC) ≥10 % for clinically significant lymphedema and ≥5 % including subclinical lymphedema. The first postoperative measurement (pseudo-baseline) simulated the case of no baseline. McNemar's test and binomial logistic regression models were used to analyze BCRL misdiagnoses. Preoperatively, 28.3 and 2.9 % of patients had arm asymmetry of ≥5 and 10 %, respectively. Without baseline, 41.6 % of patients were underdiagnosed and 40.1 % overdiagnosed at RVC ≥ 5 %, increasing to 50.0 and 54.8 % at RVC ≥ 10 %. Increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry, increased weight change between baselines, hormonal therapy, dominant use of contralateral arm, and not receiving axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were associated with increased risk of underdiagnosis at RVC ≥ 5 %; not receiving regional lymph node radiation was significant at RVC ≥ 10 %. Increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry, not receiving ALND, and dominant use of ipsilateral arm were associated with overdiagnosis at RVC ≥ 5 %; increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry and not receiving ALND were significant at RVC ≥ 10 %. The use of a postoperative proxy even early after treatment results in poor sensitivity for identifying BCRL. Providers with access to patients before surgery should consider the consequent need for proper baseline, with specific strategy tailored by institution. PMID:27154787

  7. Electrocardiographic study in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated malaria, treated with artesunate-amodiaquine or artemether-lumefantrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjei George O

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several anti-malarial drugs are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. These effects may be exacerbated when different anti-malarials are used in combination. There has been no report yet on the potential cardiac effects of the combination artesunate-amodiaquine. Methods Electrocardiographic (ECG intervals in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (n=47, were compared with that of children treated with artemether-lumefantrine (n=30. The ECG measurements were repeated one, two, three, seven and 28 days after treatment. The ECG intervals of artesunate-amodiaquine treated subjects were correlated with plasma concentrations of desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ, the main metabolite of amodiaquine. Results The mean ECG intervals were similar in both groups before treatment. After treatment (day 3, ECG intervals changed significantly from baseline in all subjects, but there were no differences between the two treatment groups. A significantly higher proportion of children treated with artesunate-amodiaquine developed sinus bradycardia compared with artemether-lumefantrine treated subjects (7/47 vs 0/30; χ2 p=0.03. Subjects who developed bradycardia were significantly older, and had higher DEAQ concentrations than those who did not develop bradycardia. The proportion of subjects with QTc interval prolongations did not differ significantly between the groups, and no relationship between prolonged QTc intervals and DEAQ levels were observed. No clinically significant rhythm disturbances were observed in any of the subjects. Conclusion Artesunate-amodiaquine treatment resulted in a higher incidence of sinus bradycardia than artemether-lumefantrine treatment in children with uncomplicated malaria, but no clinically significant rhythm disturbances were induced by combining artesunate with amodiaquine. These findings, although reassuring, may imply that non-amodiaquine based artemisinin

  8. A Cluster Randomised Trial Introducing Rapid Diagnostic Tests into Registered Drug Shops in Uganda: Impact on Appropriate Treatment of Malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony K Mbonye

    Full Text Available Inappropriate treatment of malaria is widely reported particularly in areas where there is poor access to health facilities and self-treatment of fevers with anti-malarial drugs bought in shops is the most common form of care-seeking. The main objective of the study was to examine the impact of introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs in registered drug shops in Uganda, with the aim to increase appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in patients seeking treatment for fever in drug shops.A cluster-randomized trial of introducing mRDTs in registered drug shops was implemented in 20 geographical clusters of drug shops in Mukono district, central Uganda. Ten clusters were randomly allocated to the intervention (diagnostic confirmation of malaria by mRDT followed by ACT and ten clusters to the control arm (presumptive treatment of fevers with ACT. Treatment decisions by providers were validated by microscopy on a reference blood slide collected at the time of consultation. The primary outcome was the proportion of febrile patients receiving appropriate treatment with ACT defined as: malaria patients with microscopically-confirmed presence of parasites in a peripheral blood smear receiving ACT or rectal artesunate, and patients with no malaria parasites not given ACT.A total of 15,517 eligible patients (8672 intervention and 6845 control received treatment for fever between January-December 2011. The proportion of febrile patients who received appropriate ACT treatment was 72·9% versus 33·7% in the control arm; a difference of 36·1% (95% CI: 21·3 - 50·9, p<0·001. The majority of patients with fever in the intervention arm accepted to purchase an mRDT (97·8%, of whom 58·5% tested mRDT-positive. Drug shop vendors adhered to the mRDT results, reducing over-treatment of malaria by 72·6% (95% CI: 46·7- 98·4, p<0·001 compared to drug shop vendors using presumptive diagnosis (control arm

  9. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragi, Z.; Godfrey, L.; Reynolds, C.; Rioja, M. J.; Deller, A.; Zhang, B.; Gurvits, L.; Bietenholz, M.; Szomoru, A.; Bignall, H. E.; Boven, P.; Charlot, P.; Dodson, R.; Frey, S.; Garrett, M. A.; Imai, H.; Lobanov, A.; Reid, M. J.; Ros, E.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Zensus, A. J.; Zheng, X. W.; Alberdi, A.; Agudo, I.; An, T.; Argo, M.; Beswick, R.; Biggs, A.; Brunthaler, A.; Campbell, B.; Cimo, G.; Colomer, F.; Corbel, S.; Conway, J. E.; Cseh, D.; Deane, R.; Falcke, H. D. E.; Gawronski, M.; Gaylard, M.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Goddi, C.; Goedhart, S.; Gómez, J. L.; Gunn, A.; Kharb, P.; Kloeckner, H. R.; Koerding, E.; Kovalev, Y.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Lindqvist, M.; Lister, M.; Mantovani, F.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Mezcua, M.; McKean, J.; Middelberg, E.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Moldon, J.; Muxlow, T.; O'Brien, T.; Perez-Torres, M.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Quick, J.; Rushton, A.; Schilizzi, R.; Smirnov, O.; Sohn, B. W.; Surcis, G.; Taylor, G. B.; Tingay, S.; Tudose, V. M.; van der Horst, A.; van Leeuwen, J.; Venturi, T.; Vermeulen, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; de Witt, A.; Wucknitz, O.; Yang, J.; Gabänyi, K.; Jung, T.

    2015-04-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  10. Baseline scenarios of global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents three baseline scenarios of no policy action computed by the IMAGE2 model. These scenarios cover a wide range of coupled global change indicators, including: energy demand and consumption; food demand, consumption, and production; changes in land cover including changes in extent of agricultural land and forest; emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors; and climate change and its impacts on sea level rise, crop productivity and natural vegetation. Scenario information is available for the entire world with regional and grid scale detail, and covers from 1970 to 2100. (author)

  11. Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Paragi, Zsolt; Reynolds, Cormac; Rioja, Maria; Deller, Adam; Zhang, Bo; Gurvits, Leonid; Bietenholz, Michael; Szomoru, Arpad; Bignall, Hayley; Boven, Paul; Charlot, Patrick; Dodson, Richard; Frey, Sandor; Garrett, Michael; Imai, Hiroshi; Lobanov, Andrei; Reid, Mark; Ros, Eduardo; van Langevelde, Huib; Zensus, J Anton; Zheng, Xing Wu; Alberdi, Antxon; Agudo, Ivan; An, Tao; Argo, Megan; Beswick, Rob; Biggs, Andy D; Brunthaler, Andreas; Campbell, Robert M; Cimo, Giuseppe; Colomer, Francisco; Corbel, Stephane; Conway, John; Cseh, David; Deane, Roger; Falcke, Heino; Gabanyi, Krisztina; Gawronski, Marcin; Gaylard, Michael; Giovannini, Gabriele; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Goedhart, Sharmila; Gomez, Jose L; Gunn, Alastair; Jung, Taehyun; Kharb, Preeti; Klockner, Hans-Rainer; Kording, Elmar; Kovalev, Yurii Yu; Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Lindqvist, Michael; Lister, Matt; Mantovani, Franco; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Mezcua, Mar; McKean, John; Middelberg, Enno; Miller-Jones, James; Moldon, Javier; Muxlow, Tom; O'Brien, Tim; Pérez-Torres, Miguel; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Quick, Jonathan; Rushton, Anthony P; Schilizzi, Richard; Smirnov, Oleg; Sohn, Bong Won; Surcis, Gabriele; Taylor, Greg; Tingay, Steven; Tudose, Valeriu; van der Horst, Alexander; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Venturi, Tiziana; Vermeulen, Rene; Vlemmings, Wouter; de Witt, Aletha; Wucknitz, Olaf; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Adding VLBI capability to the SKA arrays will greatly broaden the science of the SKA, and is feasible within the current specifications. SKA-VLBI can be initially implemented by providing phased-array outputs for SKA1-MID and SKA1-SUR and using these extremely sensitive stations with other radio telescopes, and in SKA2 by realising a distributed configuration providing baselines up to thousands of km, merging it with existing VLBI networks. The motivation for and the possible realization of SKA-VLBI is described in this paper.

  12. SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation, Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.

    1988-08-01

    The SRP Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation was implemented for the purpose of updating and improving the knowledge and understanding of the hydrogeologic systems underlying the SRP site. Phase III, which is discussed in this report, includes the drilling of 7 deep coreholes (sites P-24 through P-30) and the installation of 53 observation wells ranging in depth from approximately 50 ft to more than 970 ft below the ground surface. In addition to the collection of geologic cores for lithologic and stratigraphic study, samples were also collected for the determination of physical characteristics of the sediments and for the identification of microorganisms.

  13. Chloroquine treatment enhances regulatory T cells and reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Thomé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The modulation of inflammatory processes is a necessary step, mostly orchestrated by regulatory T (Treg cells and suppressive Dendritic Cells (DCs, to prevent the development of deleterious responses and autoimmune diseases. Therapies that focused on adoptive transfer of Treg cells or their expansion in vivo achieved great success in controlling inflammation in several experimental models. Chloroquine (CQ, an anti-malarial drug, was shown to reduce inflammation, although the mechanisms are still obscure. In this context, we aimed to access whether chloroquine treatment alters the frequency of Treg cells and DCs in normal mice. In addition, the effects of the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with CQ on Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE, an experimental model for human Multiple Sclerosis, was investigated as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG35-55 peptide. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with chloroquine. Results show that the CQ treatment provoked an increase in Treg cells frequency as well as a decrease in DCs. We next evaluated whether prophylactic CQ administration is capable of reducing the clinical and histopathological signs of EAE. Our results demonstrated that CQ-treated mice developed mild EAE compared to controls that was associated with lower infiltration of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system CNS and increased frequency of Treg cells. Also, proliferation of MOG35-55-reactive T cells was significantly inhibited by chloroquine treatment. Similar results were observed when chloroquine was administrated after disease onset. CONCLUSION: We show for the first time that CQ treatment promotes the expansion of Treg cells, corroborating previous reports indicating that chloroquine has immunomodulatory properties. Our results also show that CQ treatment suppress the inflammation in the CNS of

  14. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  15. Self-reported fever, treatment actions and malaria infection prevalence in the northern states of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgadir Tareg M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of fevers and their management in areas of low malaria transmission in Africa is not well understood. The characteristics of fever, its treatment and association with infection prevalence from a national household sample survey in the northern states of Sudan, an area that represents historically low parasite prevalence, are examined in this study. Methods In October-November 2009, a cluster sample cross-sectional household malaria indicator survey was undertaken in the 15 northern states of the Sudan. Data on household assets and individual level information on age, sex, whether the individual had a fever in the last 14 days and on the day of survey, actions taken to treat the fever including diagnostic services and drugs used and their sources were collected. Consenting household members were asked to provide a finger-prick blood sample and examined for malaria parasitaemia using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT. All proportions and odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for clustering. Results Of 26,471 respondents 19% (n = 5,299 reported a history of fever within the last two weeks prior to the survey and 8% had fever on the day of the survey. Only 39% (n = 2,035 of individuals with fever in last two weeks took any action, of which 43% (n = 875 were treated with anti-malarials. About 44% (n = 382 of malaria treatments were done using the nationally recommended first-line therapy artesunate+sulphadoxine-pryrimethamine (AS+SP and 13% (n = 122 with non-recommended chloroquine or SP. Importantly 33.9% (n = 296 of all malaria treatments included artemether monotherapy, which is internationally banned for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. About 53% of fevers had some form of parasitological diagnosis before treatment. On the day of survey, 21,988 individuals provided a finger-prick blood sample and only 1.8% were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Infection prevalence was higher among individuals who

  16. Tightly coupled long baseline/ultra-short baseline integrated navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel integrated navigation filter based on a combined long baseline/ultra short baseline acoustic positioning system with application to underwater vehicles. With a tightly coupled structure, the position, linear velocity, attitude, and rate gyro bias are estimated, considering the full nonlinear system dynamics without resorting to any algebraic inversion or linearisation techniques. The resulting solution ensures convergence of the estimation error to zero for all initial conditions, exponentially fast. Finally, it is shown, under simulation environment, that the filter achieves very good performance in the presence of sensor noise.

  17. Intensity interferometry: Optical imaging with kilometer baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Dravins, Dainis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging with microarcsecond resolution will reveal details across and outside stellar surfaces but requires kilometer-scale interferometers, challenging to realize either on the ground or in space. Intensity interferometry, electronically connecting independent telescopes, has a noise budget that relates to the electronic time resolution, circumventing issues of atmospheric turbulence. Extents up to a few km are becoming realistic with arrays of optical air Cherenkov telescopes (primarily erected for gamma-ray studies), enabling an optical equivalent of radio interferometer arrays. Pioneered by Hanbury Brown and Twiss, digital versions of the technique have now been demonstrated, reconstructing diffraction-limited images from laboratory measurements over hundreds of optical baselines. This review outlines the method from its beginnings, describes current experiments, and sketches prospects for future observations.

  18. Sterile neutrino fits to short baseline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, G. H.; Argüelles, C. A.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.

    2016-07-01

    Neutrino oscillation models involving extra mass eigenstates beyond the standard three (3 + N) are fit to global short baseline experimental data. We find that 3 + 1 has a best fit of Δ m412 = 1.75 eV2 with a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 52.34 (3). The 3 + 2 fit has a Δ χnull-min2 (dof) of 56.99 (7). For the first time, we show Bayesian credible intervals for a 3 + 1 model. These are found to be in agreement with frequentist intervals. The results of these new fits favor a higher Δm2 value than previous studies, which may have an impact on future sterile neutrino searches such as the Fermilab SBN program.

  19. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE{reg_sign}, SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I, and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  20. The WITCH Model. Structure, Baseline, Solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosetti, V.; Massetti, E.; Tavoni, M.

    2007-07-01

    WITCH - World Induced Technical Change Hybrid - is a regionally disaggregated hard link hybrid global model with a neoclassical optimal growth structure (top down) and an energy input detail (bottom up). The model endogenously accounts for technological change, both through learning curves affecting prices of new vintages of capital and through R and D investments. The model features the main economic and environmental policies in each world region as the outcome of a dynamic game. WITCH belongs to the class of Integrated Assessment Models as it possesses a climate module that feeds climate changes back into the economy. In this paper we provide a thorough discussion of the model structure and baseline projections. We report detailed information on the evolution of energy demand, technology and CO2 emissions. Finally, we explicitly quantifiy the role of free riding in determining the emissions scenarios. (auth)

  1. Octant degeneracy, CPV phase at Long Baseline $\

    CERN Document Server

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work by two of us, we have studied, how CP violation discovery potential can be improved at long baseline neutrino experiments (LBNE/DUNE), by combining with its ND (near detector) and reactor experiments. In this work, we discuss how this study can be further analysed to resolve entanglement of the quadrant of CPV phase and Octant of atmospheric mixing angle {\\theta}23, at LBNEs. The study is done for both NH (Normal hierarchy) and IH (Inverted hierarchy). We further show how leptogenesis can enhance this effect of resolving this entanglement. A detailed analytic and numerical study of baryogenesis through leptogenesis is performed in this framework in a model independent way. We then compare our result of the baryon to photon ratio with the the current observational data of the baryon asymmetry.

  2. Mujeres en accion: design and baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Perez, Adriana; Belyea, Michael; Castro, Felipe G

    2011-10-01

    The majority of programs designed to promote physical activity in older Hispanic women includes few innovative theory-based interventions that address cultural relevant strategies. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and baseline data for Mujeres en Accion, a physical activity intervention to increase regular physical activity, and cardiovascular health outcomes among older Hispanic women. Mujeres en Accion [Women in Action for Health], a 12 month randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a social support physical activity intervention in midlife and older Hispanic women. This study tests an innovative intervention, Mujeres en Accion, and includes the use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, explores social support as a theoretical mediating variable, use of a Promotora model and a Community Advisory group to incorporate cultural and social approaches and resources, and use of objective measures of physical activity in Hispanic women. PMID:21298400

  3. In-Space Manufacturing Baseline Property Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Tom; Schneider, Judith; Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Nicki

    2016-01-01

    The In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center currently operates a 3D FDM (fused deposition modeling) printer onboard the International Space Station. In order to enable utilization of this capability by designer, the project needs to establish characteristic material properties for materials produced using the process. This is difficult for additive manufacturing since standards and specifications do not yet exist for these technologies. Due to availability of crew time, there are limitations to the sample size which in turn limits the application of the traditional design allowables approaches to develop a materials property database for designers. In this study, various approaches to development of material databases were evaluated for use by designers of space systems who wish to leverage in-space manufacturing capabilities. This study focuses on alternative statistical techniques for baseline property development to support in-space manufacturing.

  4. Steganography Based on Baseline Sequential JPEG Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Information hiding in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) compressed images are investigated in this paper. Quantization is the source of information loss in JPEG compression process. Therefore, information hidden in images is probably destroyed by JPEG compression. This paper presents an algorithm to reliably embed information into the JPEG bit streams in the process of JPEG encoding. Information extraction is performed in the process of JPEG decoding. The basic idea of our algorithm is to modify the quantized direct current (DC) coefficients and non-zero alternating current (AC) coefficients to represent one bit information (0 or 1). Experimental results on gray images using baseline sequential JPEG encoding show that the cover images (images without secret information) and the stego-images (images with secret information) are perceptually indiscernible.

  5. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-05-25

    As part of the overall Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-1) project baseline being prepared by International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), the RUST Engineering Company is providing necessary input for the Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) Facilities. The project baseline is comprised of: design baseline - technical definition of work; schedule baseline - detailed and management level 1 schedules; and cost baseline - estimates and cost/manpower plan. The design baseline (technical definition) for the OSBL Facilities has been completed and is presented in Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VI. The OSBL technical definition is based on, and compatible with, the ICRC defined statement of work, design basis memorandum, master project procedures, process and mechanical design criteria, and baseline guidance documents. The design basis memorandum is included in Paragraph 1.3 of Volume I. The baseline design data is presented in 6 volumes. Volume I contains the introduction section and utility systems data through steam and feedwater. Volume II continues with utility systems data through fuel system, and contains the interconnecting systems and utility system integration information. Volume III contains the offsites data through water and waste treatment. Volume IV continues with offsites data, including site development and buildings, and contains raw materials and product handling and storage information. Volume V contains wastewater treatment and solid wastes landfill systems developed by Catalytic, Inc. to supplement the information contained in Volume III. Volume VI contains proprietary information of Resources Conservation Company related to the evaporator/crystallizer system of the wastewater treatment area.

  6. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Tangent Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline tangent lines and bay closing lines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline...

  8. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, William C. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the ν{sub μ} → ν{sub e} appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  9. The effect of short-baseline neutrino oscillations on LBNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, William C.

    2015-10-01

    Short-baseline neutrino oscillations can have a relatively big effect on long-baseline oscillations, due to the cross terms that arise from multiple mass scales. The existing short-baseline anomalies suggest that short-baseline oscillations can affect the νμ → νe appearance probabilities by up to 20-40%, depending on the values of the CP-violating parameters.

  10. Efficacy and safety of a fixed dose artesunate-sulphamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine compared to artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria across Africa: a randomized multi-centre trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djimdé Abdoulaye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy has already been demonstrated in a number of studies all over the world, and some of them can be regarded as comparably effective. Ease of administration of anti-malarial treatments with shorter courses and fewer tablets may be key determinant of compliance. Methods Patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria and over six months of age were recruited in Cameroon, Mali, Rwanda and Sudan. 1,384 patients were randomly assigned to receive artesunate-sulphamethoxypyrazine-pyrimethamine (AS-SMP three-day (once daily for 3 days regimen (N = 476 or AS-SMP 24-hour (0 h, 12 h, 24 h regimen (N = 458 or artemether-lumefantrine (AL, the regular 6 doses regimen (N = 450. The primary objective was to demonstrate non-inferiority (using a margin of -6% of AS-SMP 24 hours or AS-SMP three days versus AL on the PCR-corrected 28-day cure rate. Results The PCR corrected 28-day cure rate on the intention to treat (ITT analysis population were: 96.0%(457/476 in the AS-SMP three-day group, 93.7%(429/458 in the AS-SMP 24-hour group and 92.0%(414/450 in the AL group. Likewise, the cure rates on the PP analysis population were high: 99.3%(432/437 in the AS-SMP three-day group, 99.5%(416/419 in the AS-SMP 24-hour group and 99.7(391/394% in the AL group. Most common drug-related adverse events were gastrointestinal symptoms (such as vomiting and diarrhea which were slightly higher in the AS-SMP 24-hour group. Conclusion AS-SMP three days or AS-SMP 24 hours are safe, are as efficacious as AL, and are well tolerated. Trial registration NCT00484900 http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  11. SRS baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bledsoe, H.W.; Aadland, R.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sargent, K.A. [Furman Univ., Greenville, SC (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1990-11-01

    Work on the Savannah River Site (SRS) Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation began in 1983 when it was determined that the knowledge of the plant hydrogeologic systems needed to be expanded and improved in response to changing stratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic terminology and increased involvement by regulatory agencies (Bledsoe, 1984). Additionally, site-wide data were needed to determine flow paths, gradients, and velocities associated with the different aquifers underlying the plant site. The program was divided into three phases in order to allow the results of one phase to be evaluated and necessary changes and improvements incorporated into the following phases. This report summarizes the results of all three phases and includes modified graphic logs, lithologic descriptions of the different geologic formations, profiles of each cluster site, hydrostratigraphic cross sections, hydrographs of selected wells within each cluster for the first full year of uninterrupted water level measurements, potentiometric maps developed from data collected from all clusters, completion diagrams for each well, and a summary of laboratory tests. Additionally, the proposed new classification of hydrostratigraphic units at SRS (Aadland and Bledsoe, 1990) has been incorporated.

  12. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  13. Space Station-Baseline Configuration With Callouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    In response to President Reagan's directive to NASA to develop a permanent marned Space Station within a decade, part of the State of the Union message to Congress on January 25, 1984, NASA and the Administration adopted a phased approach to Station development. This approach provided an initial capability at reduced costs, to be followed by an enhanced Space Station capability in the future. This illustration depicts the baseline configuration, which features a 110-meter-long horizontal boom with four pressurized modules attached in the middle. Located at each end are four photovoltaic arrays generating a total of 75-kW of power. Two attachment points for external payloads are provided along this boom. The four pressurized modules include the following: A laboratory and habitation module provided by the United States; two additional laboratories, one each provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and Japan; and an ESA-provided Man-Tended Free Flyer, a pressurized module capable of operations both attached to and separate from the Space Station core. Canada was expected to provide the first increment of a Mobile Serving System.

  14. The LOFAR long baseline snapshot calibrator survey

    CERN Document Server

    Moldón, J; Wucknitz, O; Jackson, N; Drabent, A; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Kapińska, A D; McKean, P; Morabito, L; Varenius, E; Zarka, P; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bregman, J; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hamaker, J P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Offringa, A R; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; White, S; Wise, M W; Yatawatta, S; Zensus, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for International LOFAR is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods. We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full International LOFAR array. Sources were pre-selected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results. Over 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to sho...

  15. Lorentz symmetry and Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; lambert, S

    2016-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard-Model extension (SME). Recently, post-fit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars lead to an upper limit at the $10^{-4}$ level on the time-time coefficient $\\bar s^{TT}$ of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then we implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of $\\bar s^{TT}$ and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans and with various Sun elongation cut-off angles, and with analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on $\\bar s^{TT}=(-5\\pm 8)\\times 10^{-5}$, directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor 5 pr...

  16. Beyond Baselines: Rethinking Priorities for Ocean Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna M. Shackeroff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1995, Daniel Pauly identified a "shifting baselines syndrome" (SBS. Pauly was concerned that scientists measure ecosystem change against their personal recollections of the past and, based on this decidedly short-term view, mismanage fish stocks because they tolerate gradual and incremental elimination of species and set inappropriate recovery goals. As a concept, SBS is simple to grasp and its logic is compelling. Much current work in marine historical ecology is rationalized in part as a means of combating SBS, and the term has also resonated outside of the academy with environmental advocacy groups. Although we recognize both conceptual and operational merit in SBS, we believe that the ultimate impact of SBS on ocean management will be limited by some underlying and interrelated problematic assumptions about ecology and human–environment relations, and the prescriptions that these assumptions support. In this paper, we trace both assumptions and prescriptions through key works in the SBS literature and interrogate them via ecological and social science theory and research. We argue that an expanded discussion of SBS is needed, one that engages a broader range of social scientists, ecologists, and resource users, and that explicitly recognizes the value judgments inherent in deciding both what past ecosystems looked like and whether or not and how we might reconstruct them.

  17. Baseline glucocorticoids are drivers of body mass gain in a diving seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennin, Holly; Berlin, Alicia; Love, Oliver P.

    2016-01-01

    Life-history trade-offs are influenced by variation in individual state, with individuals in better condition often completing life-history stages with greater success. Although resource accrual significantly impacts key life-history decisions such as the timing of reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving resource accumulation. Baseline corticosterone (CORT, the primary avian glucocorticoid) mediates daily and seasonal energetics, responds to changes in food availability, and has been linked to foraging behavior, making it a strong potential driver of individual variation in resource accrual and deposition. Working with a captive colony of white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca deglandi), we aimed to causally determine whether variation in baseline CORT drives individual body mass gains mediated through fattening rate (plasma triglycerides corrected for body mass). We implanted individuals with each of three treatment pellets to elevate CORT within a baseline range in a randomized order: control, low dose of CORT, high dose of CORT, then blood sampled and recorded body mass over a two-week period to track changes in baseline CORT, body mass, and fattening rates. The high CORT treatment significantly elevated levels of plasma hormone for a short period of time within the biologically relevant, baseline range for this species, but importantly did not inhibit the function of the HPA (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal) axis. Furthermore, an elevation in baseline CORT resulted in a consistent increase in body mass throughout the trial period compared to controls. This is some of the first empirical evidence demonstrating that elevations of baseline CORT within a biologically relevant range have a causal, direct, and positive influence on changes in body mass.

  18. Baseline prevalence and predictors of liver fibrosis among HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, G V; Neuhaus, J; Bhagani, S;

    2015-01-01

    deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART) on liver fibrosis progression. METHODS: Sites in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study with access to FibroScan® were invited to participate in the Liver Fibrosis Progression Substudy. All substudy participants underwent FibroScan® at baseline...

  19. Herbal remedy in the treatment of malaria: cross sectional survey of residents of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, E T; Mafe, M A; Otubanjo, O A; Adeneye, A K

    2006-06-01

    Semi structured questionnaires. designed to capture information on the type. composition, method of preparation. dosage, mode of administration. and frequency of use of herbal preparations in malaria treatment, were administered to 1,593 adults of the 3 main ethnic groups and a forth group comprising other smaller ethnic groups designated as "others", all resident in Lagos metropolis in a cross sectional survey. The 1,593 respondents were made up of 892 males and 701 females and their ages ranged from 19 to 60 years. A high percentage in all the ethnic groups especially the Yorubas admitted to the use of herbs in treating malaria [Yoruba (69%), Hausa (47%). others (32%) and Igbo (30%)1. Effectiveness of herbs in treating malaria episodes featured as the major factor for their use. as claimed by the majority (>50%) of the respondents in each of the ethnic groups, while cost consideration was the next most important factor. Other factors mentioned included the absence of side effect in herbal use. to avoid the itchy side effect and ineffectiveness of chloroquine and some other anti-malarials. An appreciable percentage across the ethnic groups had no idea of the constituents of the herbal remedies they use for treating their malaria episodes since they buy these from traditional herbalists. Varied combinations of these herbs in combination with different types of fruits and other substances are claimed to be used, the main ones of which are Azardiracha indica and pineapple. A large majority of respondents in all the ethnic groups claimed to use the same herbs for the treatment and prevention of malaria and great improvement is experienced after use [Hausas (90%). Igbos (83%). Yorubas (77%) and the others (88%)]. There is usually no specific dose or dose regimen. however a high proportion in all the ethnic groups use herbal preparation thrice a day and a few of the respondents take unspecified measures at arbitrary intervals. The lack of standards in the use of these

  20. The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Agostino, L; Aittola, M; Alekou, A; Andrieu, B; Antoniou, F; Asfandiyarov, R; Autiero, D; Bésida, O; Balik, A; Ballett, P; Bandac, I; Banerjee, D; Bartmann, W; Bay, F; Biskup, B; Blebea-Apostu, A M; Blondel, A; Bogomilov, M; Bolognesi, S; Borriello, E; Brancus, I; Bravar, A; Buizza-Avanzini, M; Caiulo, D; Calin, M; Calviani, M; Campanelli, M; Cantini, C; Cata-Danil, G; Chakraborty, S; Charitonidis, N; Chaussard, L; Chesneanu, D; Chipesiu, F; Crivelli, P; Dawson, J; De Bonis, I; Declais, Y; Sanchez, P Del Amo; Delbart, A; Di Luise, S; Duchesneau, D; Dumarchez, J; Efthymiopoulos, I; Eliseev, A; Emery, S; Enqvist, T; Enqvist, K; Epprecht, L; Erykalov, A N; Esanu, T; Franco, D; Friend, M; Galymov, V; Gavrilov, G; Gendotti, A; Giganti, C; Gilardoni, S; Goddard, B; Gomoiu, C M; Gornushkin, Y A; Gorodetzky, P; Haesler, A; Hasegawa, T; Horikawa, S; Huitu, K; Izmaylov, A; Jipa, A; Kainulainen, K; Karadzhov, Y; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kopylov, A N; Korzenev, A; Kosyanenko, S; Kryn, D; Kudenko, Y; Kuusiniemi, P; Lazanu, I; Lazaridis, C; Levy, J -M; Loo, K; Maalampi, J; Margineanu, R M; Marteau, J; Martin-Mari, C; Matveev, V; Mazzucato, E; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Mirizzi, A; Mitrica, B; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Narita, S; Nesterenko, D A; Nguyen, K; Nikolics, K; Noah, E; Novikov, Yu; Oprima, A; Osborne, J; Ovsyannikova, T; Papaphilippou, Y; Pascoli, S; Patzak, T; Pectu, M; Pennacchio, E; Periale, L; Pessard, H; Popov, B; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M; Resnati, F; Ristea, O; Robert, A; Rubbia, A; Rummukainen, K; Saftoiu, A; Sakashita, K; Sanchez-Galan, F; Sarkamo, J; Saviano, N; Scantamburlo, E; Sergiampietri, F; Sgalaberna, D; Shaposhnikova, E; Slupecki, M; Smargianaki, D; Stanca, D; Steerenberg, R; Sterian, A R; Sterian, P; Stoica, S; Strabel, C; Suhonen, J; Suvorov, V; Toma, G; Tonazzo, A; Trzaska, W H; Tsenov, R; Tuominen, K; Valram, M; Vankova-Kirilova, G; Vannucci, F; Vasseur, G; Velotti, F; Velten, P; Venturi, V; Viant, T; Vihonen, S; Vincke, H; Vorobyev, A; Weber, A; Wu, S; Yershov, N; Zambelli, L; Zito, M

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of $\\sim 20$ kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the $L/E$ behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from $\\delta_{CP}$ and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure ...

  1. Efficacy comparison between anti-malarial drugs in Africans presenting with mild malaria in the Central Republic of Africa: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambei W.S.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Plasmodium falciparum contributes to major health problems in central Africa and, as a consequence, poverty. We have analyzed the efficacy of three currently available antimalarial drugs to treat symptomatic, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in semiimmune adults living in Bangui, Central Republic of Africa. 210 consecutive individuals were enrolled in the survey, of which 45 were excluded. Those having received dihydroartemisin proved significantly less parasitemic than those having received quinine per os or sulfadoxin-pyrimethamin (χ2 = 16.93 ; p < 0.05, and 75 % recovered in two days compared to 57 and 44 %, respectively. The 25 % who did not recover benefited from a second cure with dihydroartemisin, which proved 100 % efficient. The most accurate protocol remains to be established by analyzing clinical and parasitological data and taking into account the economics of the country.

  2. Mapping the genome of Plasmodium falciparum on the drug-like chemical space reveals novel anti-malarial targets and potential drug leads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper; Plichta, Damian Rafal; Panagiotou, Gianni;

    2012-01-01

    The parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the main agent responsible for malaria. In this study, we exploited a recently published chemical library from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) that had previously been confirmed to inhibit parasite growth of the wild type (3D7) and the multi-drug resistance (D2d) strai...

  3. Mind the gaps - the epidemiology of poor-quality anti-malarials in the malarious world - analysis of the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network database

    OpenAIRE

    Tabernero, Patricia; Facundo M Fernández; Green, Michael; Guerin, Philippe J; Newton, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality medicines threaten the lives of millions of patients and are alarmingly common in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, the global extent of the problem remains unknown. Accurate estimates of the epidemiology of poor quality medicines are sparse and are influenced by sampling methodology and diverse chemical analysis techniques. In order to understand the existing data, the Antimalarial Quality Scientific Group at WWARN built a comprehensive, open-access, global datab...

  4. Bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus L. and their semi-synthetic derivatives as promising anti-Helicobacter pylori, anti-malarial and anti-leishmanial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Celeste; Bizzarri, Bruna; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Carradori, Simone; Mollica, Adriano; Luisi, Grazia; Granese, Arianna; Alcaro, Stefano; Costa, Giosuè; Basilico, Nicoletta; Parapini, Silvia; Scaltrito, Maria Maddalena; Masia, Carla; Sisto, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Crocus sativus L. is known in herbal medicine for the various pharmacological effects of its components, but no data are found in literature about its biological properties toward Helicobacter pylori, Plasmodium spp. and Leishmania spp. In this work, the potential anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic effects of crocin and safranal, two important bioactive components in C. sativus, were explored, and also some semi-synthetic derivatives of safranal were tested in order to establish which modifications in the chemical structure could improve the biological activity. According to our promising results, we virtually screened our compounds by means of molecular modeling studies against the main H. pylori enzymes in order to unravel their putative mechanism of action.

  5. PfMDR2 and PfMDR5 are dispensable for Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasite multiplication but change in vitro susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, M. van der; Rijpma, S.R.; Russel, F.G.M.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Koenderink, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Membrane-associated ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins hydrolyze ATP in order to translocate a broad spectrum of substrates, from single ions to macromolecules across membranes. In humans, members from this transport family have been linked to drug resistance phenotypes, e.g.,

  6. Identification of Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum Hexose Transporter PfHT by Screening Focused Libraries of Anti-Malarial Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz

    Full Text Available Development of resistance against current antimalarial drugs necessitates the search for novel drugs that interact with different targets and have distinct mechanisms of action. Malaria parasites depend upon high levels of glucose uptake followed by inefficient metabolic utilization via the glycolytic pathway, and the Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter PfHT, which mediates uptake of glucose, has thus been recognized as a promising drug target. This transporter is highly divergent from mammalian hexose transporters, and it appears to be a permease that is essential for parasite viability in intra-erythrocytic, mosquito, and liver stages of the parasite life cycle. An assay was developed that is appropriate for high throughput screening against PfHT based upon heterologous expression of PfHT in Leishmania mexicana parasites that are null mutants for their endogenous hexose transporters. Screening of two focused libraries of antimalarial compounds identified two such compounds that are high potency selective inhibitors of PfHT compared to human GLUT1. Additionally, 7 other compounds were identified that are lower potency and lower specificity PfHT inhibitors but might nonetheless serve as starting points for identification of analogs with more selective properties. These results further support the potential of PfHT as a novel drug target.

  7. Baseline Substance Use Interferes with Maintenance of HIV Medication Adherence Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sannisha K; Traeger, Lara; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bedoya, C Andres; Pinkston, Megan; Wilner, Julianne G; Stein, Michael; Safren, Steven A

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in HIV improves both adherence and depression outcomes relative to enhanced treatment as usual (ETAU). However, in persons with injection drug use (PWIDU) histories, adherence gains seen during treatment have not been maintained postintervention. Therefore, we examined whether heroin or cocaine use at study entry moderated acquisition or maintenance of adherence gains after CBT-AD. HIV-positive adults in treatment for opioid dependence (n = 89) were randomly assigned to CBT-AD or ETAU and completed 3-, 6-, and 12-month assessments. Participants were majority male (61%), white (48%), and heterosexual (79%). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate whether heroin or cocaine use at baseline interacted with intervention assignment to predict change in adherence during active treatment and follow-up. CBT-AD-related improvement in adherence during the active intervention period did not vary by baseline substance use. However, cocaine use (but not heroin use) at baseline interacted with intervention assignment to predict a significant decline in follow-up adherence (cocaine use × group condition coefficient = -0.77, t = -2.44, p = 0.02) such that by 12 months, adherence among CBT participants was significantly lower among those who used cocaine (45.0%) compared to those who did not (72.3%; t = 2.50, p = 0.018). HIV-positive PWIDU who use heroin or cocaine at baseline can benefit from the CBT-AD intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy; therefore, providers should not withhold an active psychosocial treatment for HIV-positive PWIDU who are using. Cocaine use at baseline may limit the degree to which gains are maintained postintervention, and therefore, booster sessions may be needed. PMID:27158849

  8. Elimination of the baseline distortions in WURST-CPMG static experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Shen, Ming; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Hu, Bingwen

    2016-09-01

    The WURST-CPMG pulse sequence enables: (i) observing very broad spectra due to WURST excitation, and (ii) increasing the S/N ratio due to CPMG acquisition. However, strong baseline distortions may be observed, which make the extraction of the tensor information difficult. We propose a slight modification of the sequence, WURST-CPMGM, in which we skip the first M echoes and we only acquire the following ones. This simple treatment mostly eliminates the strong background signal and the ring down effects, leading to a flat baseline. PMID:27317974

  9. [The study of baseline estimated in digital XRF analyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhou, Jian-Bin; Fang, Fang; Shi, Ze-Ming; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yi; Cao, Jian-Yu; Zhu, Xing

    2013-01-01

    For the digital X-ray fluorescence analyzer, the voltage of the instability baseline will directly affect the performance of the instrument, resulting in decreased energy resolution. In order to solve this problem, Kalman filtering algorithm was used for pulse signal baseline estimate in the digital X-ray fluorescence. Whether using the classic Kalman filter, or the simplified sage-husa, or the improved sage-husa, their baseline filtering effects were all poor. So, it is necessary to improve and optimize existing algorithms. The method of Double-Forgotten was put forward to establish a new model of adaptive Kalman filter algorithm based on the sage-husa. The experiment results show that a very good filtering effect was obtained using the mathematical model of the baseline filter. The algorithm solved the problem of filtering divergence, avoided slow convergence of baseline and realized the pulse baseline restoration, and improved the instrumental energy resolution. PMID:23586263

  10. Absolute Baseline for Testing of Electronic Distance Meters

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Braun; Filip Dvořáček; Martin Štroner

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the construction and determination of coordinates of the absoluteEDMs baseline in a laboratory with 16 pillars with forced centring. Leica Absolute TrackerAT401 (standard deviation of distance measurement: 5 μ m, standard deviation of anglemeasurement: 0.15 mgon), which is designed for very accurate industrial measurements,was used for our purpose. Lengths between the baseline points were determined with astandard deviation of 0.02 mm. The baseline is used for determining...

  11. Conditional analysis of mixed Poisson processes with baseline counts: implications for trial design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard J; Wei, Wei

    2003-07-01

    The design of clinical trials is typically based on marginal comparisons of a primary response under two or more treatments. The considerable gains in efficiency afforded by models conditional on one or more baseline responses has been extensively studied for Gaussian models. The purpose of this article is to present methods for the design and analysis of clinical trials in which the response is a count or a point process, and a corresponding baseline count is available prior to randomization. The methods are based on a conditional negative binomial model for the response given the baseline count and can be used to examine the effect of introducing selection criteria on power and sample size requirements. We show that designs based on this approach are more efficient than those proposed by McMahon et al. (1994).

  12. BMC{trademark}: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    Barrier Membrane Containment (BMC){trademark} is a high-density polyethylene membrane (HDPE) groundwater barrier and pass-through system, with applications ranging from plume control and containment to groundwater manipulation coupled with in-site treatment. BMC{trademark} system can function as a permeable or impermeable reaction wall, a cut-off wall, interceptor trenches, a barrier with collection and/or monitoring system, and a pass-through in a funnel and gate configuration. BMC{trademark} can be inspected with a down-hole video camera, producing a permanent VHS format tape, insuring the integrity of the wall and the interlocking joints.

  13. Baseline characteristics of patients in the reduction of events with darbepoetin alfa in heart failure trial (RED-HF)

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, J J V; Anand, I. S.; Diaz, R.; Maggioni, A. P.; O'Connor, C; Pfeffer, M. A.; Solomon, S D; M. Tendera; van Veldhuisen, D J; Albizem, M.; Cheng, S.; Scarlata, D.; Young, J B; Amuchastegui, M.; Belziti, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This report describes the baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF) which is testing the hypothesis that anaemia correction with darbepoetin alfa will reduce the composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospital admission for worsening heart failure, and improve other outcomes. Methods and results: Key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compar...

  14. BMC{trademark}: Baseline report; Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    Barrier Membrane Containment (BMC{trademark}) is a high-density polyethylene membrane (HDPE) groundwater barrier and pass-through system, with applications ranging from plume control and containment, to groundwater manipulation, coupled with in-site treatment. BMC{trademark} system can function as a permeable or impermeable reaction wall, a cut-off wall, interceptor trenches, a barrier with collection and/or monitoring system, and a pass-through in a funnel and gate configuration. BMC{trademark} can be inspected with a down-hole video camera, producing a permanent VHS format tape, insuring the integrity of the wall and the interlocking joints. The joints are sealed with a ``U``-packing elastomeric gasket to prevent the flow of fluids or gases.

  15. Sustainability of a successful malaria surveillance and treatment program in a Runggus community in Sabah, east Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, J L; Chee, K C; Vun, Y S; Awang, J; Chin, K H; Kan, S K

    1996-09-01

    The district of Kudat has one of the highest and most persistent malaria transmission levels in Sabah, Malaysia, with annual parasite incidence of 102 per 1,000 inhabitants per year. Due to this situation and the failure of DDT spraying to control malaria, a community participation health program (Sukarelawan Penjagaan Kesihatan Primer or SPKP) was developed as an adjunct to current anti-malarial measures during 1987-1991. SPKP is made up of unpaid community workers known as village health volunteers (VHVs). VHVs are selected by a village development and security committees training and supervision a member of the Vector-Borne Diseases Control Program (VBDCP). The beneficiaries of SPKP consisted primarily of Runggus people and other remote, and mobile populations who visit the home of a VHV for diagnosis and treatment. This group of febrile patients and their children who attend a participating school submit finger prick blood and personal details to the VHV. and receive a presumptive treatment for malaria. Thick and thin blood smears are examined by a VBDCP microscopist who then prepare and forward a radical or curative treatment to the VHV so that it can be administered to the microscopically-positive patient free of charge. Between June 1987 to June 1991, VHVs from 32 kampungs (villages) and 22 schools collected 56,245 slides representing 24.7% of total slide collection compared to 74.9% collected by passive case detection (PCD) posts in health centers and district hospital. The average volunteer treated 11.8 (range 10.4-13.4) and 31.4 (range 26-49) patients per month in kampungs and schools respectively. In contrast, non-SPKP posts in a district hospital, health centers and flying doctor service treated an average of 616.3 patients per month (range 134.8-1032.8). The slide positivity rate of blood smears taken by VHVs was 8.43% compared with 7.37% for non-SPKP posts. Average slide collection and slide positivity rates varied considerably from one community to

  16. Using Baseline Studies in the Investigation of Test Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horak, Tania

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of "baseline studies" in investigations of test impact and to illustrate the type of thinking underlying the design and implementation of such studies by reference to a recent study relating to a high-stakes test of English language proficiency. Baseline studies are used to describe an educational…

  17. Searching for neutrino oscillation parameters in long baseline experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Vihonen, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    Developing neutrino astronomy requires a good understanding of the neutrino oscillations mechanism. The European strategy for neutrino oscillation physics sets a high priority on future long baseline neutrino experiments with the aim to measure the intrinsic parameters that govern the neutrino oscillations. In this work we take a look at the next generation of long baseline experiments and discuss their prospects in future research.

  18. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Baseline Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains baseline points in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. Baseline points are used by the BOEM to...

  19. Intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in high transmission areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massougbodji Achille

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria in pregnancy is one of the major causes of maternal morbidity and adverse birth outcomes. In high transmission areas, its prevention has recently changed, moving from a weekly or bimonthly chemoprophylaxis to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp. IPTp consists in the administration of a single curative dose of an efficacious anti-malarial drug at least twice during pregnancy – regardless of whether the woman is infected or not. The drug is administered under supervision during antenatal care visits. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is the drug currently recommended by the WHO. While SP-IPTp seems an adequate strategy, there are many issues still to be explored to optimize it. This paper reviewed data on IPTp efficacy and discussed how to improve it. In particular, the determination of both the optimal number of doses and time of administration of the drug is essential, and this has not yet been done. As both foetal growth and deleterious effects of malaria are maximum in late pregnancy women should particularly be protected during this period. Monitoring of IPTp efficacy should be applied to all women, and not only to primi- and secondigravidae, as it has not been definitively established that multigravidae are not at risk for malaria morbidity and mortality. In HIV-positive women, there is an urgent need for specific information on drug administration patterns (need for higher doses, possible interference with sulpha-based prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. Because of the growing level of resistance of parasites to SP, alternative drugs for IPTp are urgently needed. Mefloquine is presently one of the most attractive options because of its long half life, high efficacy in sub-Saharan Africa and safety during pregnancy. Also, efforts should be made to increase IPTp coverage by improving the practices of health care workers, the motivation of women and their perception of malaria complications in pregnancy. Because IPTp

  20. Site Outcomes Baseline Multi Year Work Plan Volume 1, River Corridor Restoration Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The River Corridor Restoration volume is a compilation of Hanford Site scope, which excludes the approximately 194 km2 Central Plateau. The River Corridor scope is currently contractually assigned to Fluor Hanford, Bechtel Hanford, inc., DynCorp, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and others. The purpose of this project specification is to provide an overall scoping document for the River Corridor Restoration volume, and to provide a link with the overall Hanford Site River Corridor scope. Additionally, this specification provides an integrated and consolidated source of information for the various scopes, by current contract, for the River Corridor Restoration Baseline. It identifies the vision, mission, and goals, as well as the operational history of the Hanford Site, along with environmental setting and hazards

  1. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2011-06-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic attempt to account for the production and release of certain gasses generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gasses of interest are those which have become identified by climate science as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during fiscal year (FY) 2008 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho. Concern about the environmental impact of GHGs has grown in recent years. This, together with a desire to decrease harmful environmental impacts, would be enough to encourage the calculation of a baseline estimate of total GHGs generated at INL. Additionally, INL has a desire to see how its emissions compare with similar institutions, including other DOE national laboratories. Executive Order 13514 requires that federal agencies and institutions document reductions in GHG emissions in the future, and such documentation will require knowledge of a baseline against which reductions can be measured. INL's FY08 GHG inventory was calculated according to methodologies identified in federal GHG guidance documents using operational control boundaries. It measures emissions generated in three Scopes: (1) INL emissions produced directly by stationary or mobile combustion and by fugitive emissions, (2) the share of emissions generated by entities from which INL purchased electrical power, and (3) indirect or shared emissions generated by outsourced activities that benefit INL (occur outside INL's organizational boundaries but are a consequence of INL's activities). This inventory found that INL generated a total of 113,049 MT of CO2-equivalent emissions during FY08. The following conclusions were made from looking at the results of the individual contributors to INL's baseline GHG inventory: (1) Electricity (including the associated transmission and

  2. Idaho National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas FY08 Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-09-01

    s baseline GHG inventory: • Electricity is the largest contributor to INL’s GHG inventory, with over 50% of the net anthropogenic CO2e emissions • Other sources with high emissions were stationary combustion, fugitive emissions from the onsite landfill, mobile combustion (fleet fuels) and the employee commute • Sources with low emissions were contracted waste disposal, wastewater treatment (onsite and contracted) and fugitive emissions from refrigerants. This report details the methods behind quantifying INL’s GHG inventory and discusses lessons learned on better practices by which information important to tracking GHGs can be tracked and recorded. It is important to stress that the methodology behind this inventory followed guidelines that have not yet been formally adopted. Thus, some modification of the conclusions may be necessary as additional guidance is received. Further, because this report differentiates between those portions of the INL that are managed and operated by the Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) and those managed by other contractors, it includes only that large proportion of Laboratory activities overseen by BEA. It is assumed that other contractors will provide similar reporting for those activities they manage, where appropriate.

  3. Study of space shuttle orbiter system management computer function. Volume 1: Analysis, baseline design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A system analysis of the shuttle orbiter baseline system management (SM) computer function is performed. This analysis results in an alternative SM design which is also described. The alternative design exhibits several improvements over the baseline, some of which are increased crew usability, improved flexibility, and improved growth potential. The analysis consists of two parts: an application assessment and an implementation assessment. The former is concerned with the SM user needs and design functional aspects. The latter is concerned with design flexibility, reliability, growth potential, and technical risk. The system analysis is supported by several topical investigations. These include: treatment of false alarms, treatment of off-line items, significant interface parameters, and a design evaluation checklist. An in-depth formulation of techniques, concepts, and guidelines for design of automated performance verification is discussed.

  4. Relationships Between Metabolic Syndrome and Other Baseline Factors and the Efficacy of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin and Atorvastatin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ronald B.; Guyton, John R.; Mazzone, Theodore; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Polis, Adam B.; Tipping, Diane; Tomassini, Joanne E.; Tershakovec, Andrew M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate relationships between baseline factors and treatment-associated efficacy changes in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Multivariable analyses of treatment response in 1,229 type 2 diabetic patients with hypercholesterolemia who received ezetimibe/simvastatin or atorvastatin in a randomized double-blind 6-week study. RESULTS Increasing age was related to improvements in all lipid assessments. Men had greater triglyceride and non-HDL cholesterol reductions than women, and black/Hispanic patients had less favorable lipid effects than other races/ethnicities. Increasing baseline LDL cholesterol was associated with improvements in most lipids; higher baseline non-HDL cholesterol with improved HDL cholesterol and triglycerides; higher baseline HDL cholesterol with greater non-HDL cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) reductions; and higher baseline hs-CRP with smaller LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B reductions. Patients with high baseline non-HDL cholesterol or triglycerides less frequently attained LDL cholesterol targets. Obesity was inversely related to HDL cholesterol and hs-CRP changes, and higher baseline A1C to smaller apolipoprotein B reductions. Metabolic syndrome was not a significant predictor. CONCLUSIONS Treatment responses in type 2 diabetic patients were related to baseline factors, although treatment effects (ezetimibe/simvastatin being more effective than atorvastatin) remained consistent. The presence of predictive factors should be considered in planning lipid-altering therapy. PMID:20150290

  5. A Wavelet Packets Approach to Electrocardiograph Baseline Drift Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Tinati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseline wander elimination is considered a classical problem. In electrocardiography (ECG signals, baseline drift can influence the accurate diagnosis of heart disease such as ischemia and arrhythmia. We present a wavelet-transform- (WT- based search algorithm using the energy of the signal in different scales to isolate baseline wander from the ECG signal. The algorithm computes wavelet packet coefficients and then in each scale the energy of the signal is calculated. Comparison is made and the branch of the wavelet binary tree corresponding to higher energy wavelet spaces is chosen. This algorithm is tested using the data record from MIT/BIH database and excellent results are obtained.

  6. Absolute Baseline for Testing of Electronic Distance Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the construction and determination of coordinates of the absoluteEDMs baseline in a laboratory with 16 pillars with forced centring. Leica Absolute TrackerAT401 (standard deviation of distance measurement: 5 μ m, standard deviation of anglemeasurement: 0.15 mgon, which is designed for very accurate industrial measurements,was used for our purpose. Lengths between the baseline points were determined with astandard deviation of 0.02 mm. The baseline is used for determining systematic and randomerrors of distance meters and for accuracy of distance meters at short distances commonin engineering surveying for purposes of mechanical engineering.

  7. Trinocular Stereo Matching Based on Correlations Between Baselines and Disparities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYepeng; GUWeikang

    2004-01-01

    Gray correlation technique is utilized to take the multi-peak feature points with gray correlation coefficients less than a certain range of maximal correlation coefficient as a potential candidate matching set. There exists the maximal correlation between the correct disparities and their corresponding baselines. A trinocular stereo matching algorithm is proposed based on correlations between the baselines and disparities. After computing the correlations between the baselines and disparities, the unique matches can be determined by maximal correlation coefficient. It is proved that the algorithm proposed is valid and credible by 3-D reconstruction on two pairs of actual natural stereo images.

  8. Neutrino-factory storage ring with multiple baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Cline, David B; Garren, A

    2001-01-01

    We designed a noble bow tie storage ring to provide neutrino beams for multiple neutrino detectors around the world with a baseline length of about 1000-9000 km. We present a preliminary lattice that could provide non-planar straight sections. We describe the amount of non-planarity of the third or fourth baseline and the space angles between the baselines and the local surface angles at possible site locations for neutrino factories and at the possible detector locations. We describe the detectors at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, Italy, and at the new laboratory at Carlsbad, NM.

  9. Neutrino oscillations: what is magic about the "magic" baseline?

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A Yu

    2006-01-01

    Physics interpretation of the ``magic'' baseline that can play important role in future oscillation experiments is given. The ``magic'' baseline coincides with the refraction length, $l_0$. The latter, in turn, approximately equals the oscillation length in matter at high energies. Therefore at the baseline $L = l_0$ the oscillation phase is $2\\pi$, and consequently, the ``solar'' amplitude of oscillations driven by the mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ and mass splitting $\\Delta m^2_{21}$ vanishes. As a result, in the lowest order (i) the interference of amplitudes in the $\

  10. Parametric estimation of time varying baselines in airborne interferometric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang

    1996-01-01

    A method for estimation of time varying spatial baselines in airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is described. The range and azimuth distortions between two images acquired with a non-linear baseline are derived. A parametric model of the baseline is then, in a least square...... sense, estimated from image shifts obtained by cross correlation of numerous small patches throughout the image. The method has been applied to airborne EMISAR imagery from the 1995 campaign over the Storstrommen Glacier in North East Greenland conducted by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing. This has...

  11. Baseline characteristics and initial treatment decisions for patients with schizophrenia at risk of treatment nonadherence

    OpenAIRE

    Kelin, Kelin

    2010-01-01

    Katarina Kelin1, Alan JM Brnabic2, Richard Newton3, Raúl I Escamilla4, Liang-Jen Chuo5, Malina Simu6, Wenyu Ye2, William Montgomery1, Jamie Karagianis7, Haya Ascher-Svanum81Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 2Intercontinental Information Sciences, Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, Macquarie Park, NSW, Australia; 3Peninsula Health Psychiatric Services, Frankston Hospital, Frankston, VIC, Australia (current affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Austin Hospital, Heide...

  12. Baseline Delta Sleep Ratio Predicts Acute Ketamine Mood Response in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Wallace C.; Selter, Jessica; Brutsche, Nancy; Sarasso, Simone; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep slow wave activity (SWA; EEG power between 0.6–4 Hz) has been proposed as a marker of central synaptic plasticity. Decreased generation of sleep slow waves—a core feature of sleep in depression—indicates underlying plasticity changes in the disease. Various measures of SWA have previously been used to predict antidepressant treatment response. This study examined the relationship between baseline patterns of SWA in the first two NREM episodes and antidepressant response to an acute infusion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist ketamine. Methods Thirty patients (20M, 10F, 18–65) fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) who had been drug-free for two weeks received a single open-label infusion of ketamine hydrochloride (.5 mg/kg) over 40 minutes. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) before and after ketamine infusion. Sleep recordings were obtained the night before the infusion and were visually scored. SWA was computed for individual artifact-free NREM sleep epochs, and averaged for each NREM episode. Delta sleep ratio (DSR) was calculated as SWANREM1 / SWANREM2. Results A significant positive correlation was observed between baseline DSR and reduced MADRS scores from baseline to Day 1 (r=.414, p=.02). Limitations The sample size was relatively small (N=30) and all subjects had treatment-resistant MDD, which may limit the generalizability of the findings. Further studies are needed to replicate and extend this observation to other patient groups. Conclusions DSR may be a useful baseline predictor of ketamine response in individuals with treatment-resistant MDD. PMID:22871531

  13. Baseline hospital performance and the impact of medical emergency teams: Modelling vs. conventional subgroup analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillman Ken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare two approaches to the statistical analysis of the relationship between the baseline incidence of adverse events and the effect of medical emergency teams (METs. Methods Using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial (the MERIT study, we analysed the relationship between the baseline incidence of adverse events and its change from baseline to the MET activation phase using quadratic modelling techniques. We compared the findings with those obtained with conventional subgroup analysis. Results Using linear and quadratic modelling techniques, we found that each unit increase in the baseline incidence of adverse events in MET hospitals was associated with a 0.59 unit subsequent reduction in adverse events (95%CI: 0.33 to 0.86 after MET implementation and activation. This applied to cardiac arrests (0.74; 95%CI: 0.52 to 0.95, unplanned ICU admissions (0.56; 95%CI: 0.26 to 0.85 and unexpected deaths (0.68; 95%CI: 0.45 to 0.90. Control hospitals showed a similar reduction only for cardiac arrests (0.95; 95%CI: 0.56 to 1.32. Comparison using conventional subgroup analysis, on the other hand, detected no significant difference between MET and control hospitals. Conclusions Our study showed that, in the MERIT study, when there was dependence of treatment effect on baseline performance, an approach based on regression modelling helped illustrate the nature and magnitude of such dependence while sub-group analysis did not. The ability to assess the nature and magnitude of such dependence may have policy implications. Regression technique may thus prove useful in analysing data when there is a conditional treatment effect.

  14. Randomized, multicentre assessment of the efficacy and safety of ASAQ – a fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine combination therapy in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Mouctar

    2009-06-01

    most national policies plan to strengthen malaria control to reach the elimination of this disease, anti-malarial drugs such as the artesunate + amodiaquine fixed-dose ACT will play a pivotal role in this process. Trial registration The protocol was registered with the www.clinicaltrials.gov open clinical trial registry under the identifier number NCT00316329.

  15. Sterile Neutrino Fits to Short-Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Conrad

    2013-01-01

    (3 + 2 and (3 + 3 fits, rather than (3 + 1 fits, for future neutrino oscillation phenomenology. These results motivate the pursuit of further short-baseline experiments, such as those reviewed in this paper.

  16. Information architecture. Volume 2, Part 1: Baseline analysis summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture, Volume 2, Baseline Analysis, is a collaborative and logical next-step effort in the processes required to produce a Departmentwide information architecture. The baseline analysis serves a diverse audience of program management and technical personnel and provides an organized way to examine the Department`s existing or de facto information architecture. A companion document to Volume 1, The Foundations, it furnishes the rationale for establishing a Departmentwide information architecture. This volume, consisting of the Baseline Analysis Summary (part 1), Baseline Analysis (part 2), and Reference Data (part 3), is of interest to readers who wish to understand how the Department`s current information architecture technologies are employed. The analysis identifies how and where current technologies support business areas, programs, sites, and corporate systems.

  17. Baseline inventory data users guide to abiotic GIS layers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Baseline Inventory Team was chartered by the Fulfilling the Promises Implementation Team to recommend minimum abiotic and biotic inventories for the National...

  18. Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Regional Baseline Station, Chester, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research programs conducted at the Regional Baseline Station at Chester, NJ during 1981 are reported. Data are presented on chemical air pollutants and background radiation. Items within the scope of EDB have been entered individually into the data base

  19. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  20. Fusion of a Variable Baseline System and a Range Finder

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Arnay; Javier Hernández-Aceituno; Leopoldo Acosta

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest difficulties in stereo vision is the appearance of ambiguities when matching similar points from different images. In this article we analyze the effectiveness of using a fusion of multiple baselines and a range finder from a theoretical point of view, focusing on the results of using both prismatic and rotational articulations for baseline generation, and offer a practical case to prove its efficiency on an autonomous vehicle.

  1. Uncertainty in Clean Development Mechanism Baselines: Sources, Ramifications, and Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Bushey, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Awarding Certified Emission Reductions to Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects under the Kyoto Protocol involves comparing the actual emissions of the project to a counterfactual “baseline” emissions level. The baseline of a project is intended to represent the emissions that would have occurred in the absence of the project. Accordingly, there is a high degree of uncertainty in determining CDM baselines. In the years since the emergence of the CDM, scientific and political debates h...

  2. Baseline implementations of the Standard Line Editor (SLED)

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C F; Burnham, R.; Coulter, R.; Smart, S.; Cox, Lyle Ashton

    1980-01-01

    In response to a recognized requirement for a more uniform man machine interface, especially in multiple machine networks, a standardized text editor was proposed (1). This editor, "SLED" was designed to be easily implementable in several commonly available higher level languages. This document reviews two baseline implementations taken directly from the SLED standards which users may want to consider when implementing SLED upon local systems. These baseline programs were written and...

  3. Urinary neurotransmitter testing: considerations of spot baseline norepinephrine and epinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini,Tom

    2011-01-01

    Marty Hinz1 Alvin Stein2 Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3DBS Laboratories, Duluth, MN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of statistical analysis of spot baseline urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine assays in correlation with spot baseline urinary serotonin and dopamine findings previously published by the authors. Our research indicates a need for physicia...

  4. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  5. MALDI-TOF Baseline Drift Removal Using Stochastic Bernstein Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic Bernstein (SB approximation can tackle the problem of baseline drift correction of instrumentation data. This is demonstrated for spectral data: matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF data. Two SB schemes for removing the baseline drift are presented: iterative and direct. Following an explanation of the origin of the MALDI-TOF baseline drift that sheds light on the inherent difficulty of its removal by chemical means, SB baseline drift removal is illustrated for both proteomics and genomics MALDI-TOF data sets. SB is an elegant signal processing method to obtain a numerically straightforward baseline shift removal method as it includes a free parameter that can be optimized for different baseline drift removal applications. Therefore, research that determines putative biomarkers from the spectral data might benefit from a sensitivity analysis to the underlying spectral measurement that is made possible by varying the SB free parameter. This can be manually tuned (for constant or tuned with evolutionary computation (for .

  6. Precise baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Rolf; Moon, Yongjin; Neumayer, Hans; Wermuth, Martin; Montenbruck, Oliver; Jäggi, Adrian

    The TanDEM-X mission will strive for generating a global precise Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by way of bi-static SAR in a close formation of the TerraSAR-X satellite, already launched on June 15, 2007, and the TanDEM-X satellite to be launched in May 2010. Both satellites carry the Tracking, Occultation and Ranging (TOR) payload supplied by the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The TOR consists of a high-precision dual-frequency GPS receiver, called Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver (IGOR), and a Laser retro-reflector (LRR) for precise orbit determination (POD) and atmospheric sounding. The IGOR is of vital importance for the TanDEM-X mission objectives as the millimeter level determination of the baseline or distance between the two spacecrafts is needed to derive meter level accurate DEMs. Within the TanDEM-X ground segment GFZ is responsible for the operational provision of precise baselines. For this GFZ uses two software chains, first its Earth Parameter and Orbit System (EPOS) software and second the BERNESE software, for backup purposes and quality control. In a concerted effort also the German Aerospace Center (DLR) generates precise baselines independently with a dedicated Kalman filter approach realized in its FRNS software. By the example of GRACE the generation of baselines with millimeter accuracy from on-board GPS data can be validated directly by way of comparing them to the intersatellite K-band range measurements. The K-band ranges are accurate down to the micrometer-level and therefore may be considered as truth. Both TanDEM-X baseline providers are able to generate GRACE baselines with sub-millimeter accuracy. By merging the independent baselines by GFZ and DLR, the accuracy can even be increased. The K-band validation however covers solely the along-track component as the K-band data measure just the distance between the two GRACE satellites. In addition they inhibit an un-known bias which must be modelled in the comparison, so the

  7. Routine delivery of artemisinin-based combination treatment at fixed health facilities reduces malaria prevalence in Tanzania: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatib Rashid A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT has been promoted as a means to reduce malaria transmission due to their ability to kill both asexual blood stages of malaria parasites, which sustain infections over long periods and the immature derived sexual stages responsible for infecting mosquitoes and onward transmission. Early studies reported a temporal association between ACT introduction and reduced malaria transmission in a number of ecological settings. However, these reports have come from areas with low to moderate malaria transmission, been confounded by the presence of other interventions or environmental changes that may have reduced malaria transmission, and have not included a comparison group without ACT. This report presents results from the first large-scale observational study to assess the impact of case management with ACT on population-level measures of malaria endemicity in an area with intense transmission where the benefits of effective infection clearance might be compromised by frequent and repeated re-infection. Methods A pre-post observational study with a non-randomized comparison group was conducted at two sites in Tanzania. Both sites used sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP monotherapy as a first-line anti-malarial from mid-2001 through 2002. In 2003, the ACT, artesunate (AS co-administered with SP (AS + SP, was introduced in all fixed health facilities in the intervention site, including both public and registered non-governmental facilities. Population-level prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasitaemia and gametocytaemia were assessed using light microscopy from samples collected during representative household surveys in 2001, 2002, 2004, 2005 and 2006. Findings Among 37,309 observations included in the analysis, annual asexual parasitaemia prevalence in persons of all ages ranged from 11% to 28% and gametocytaemia prevalence ranged from Interpretation The introduction of ACT at

  8. Coverage, adherence and costs of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children employing different delivery strategies in Jasikan, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Patouillard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc involves the administration of a course of anti-malarial drugs at specified time intervals to children at risk of malaria regardless of whether or not they are known to be infected. IPTc provides a high level of protection against uncomplicated and severe malaria, with monthly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SP&AQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus piperaquine being the most efficacious regimens. A key challenge is the identification of a cost-effective delivery strategy. METHODS: A community randomized trial was undertaken in Jasikan district, Ghana to assess IPTc effectiveness and costs using SP&AQ delivered in three different ways. Twelve villages were randomly selected to receive IPTc from village health workers (VHWs or facility-based nurses working at health centres' outpatient departments (OPD or EPI outreach clinics. Children aged 3 to 59 months-old received one IPT course (three doses in May, June, September and October. Effectiveness was measured in terms of children covered and adherent to a course and delivery costs were calculated in financial and economic terms using an ingredient approach from the provider perspective. RESULTS: The economic cost per child receiving at least the first dose of all 4 courses was US$4.58 when IPTc was delivered by VHWs, US$4.93 by OPD nurses and US$ 5.65 by EPI nurses. The unit economic cost of receiving all 3 doses of all 4 courses was US$7.56 and US$8.51 when IPTc was delivered by VHWs or facility-based nurses respectively. The main cost driver for the VHW delivery was supervision, reflecting resources used for travelling to more remote communities rather than more intense supervision, and for OPD and EPI delivery, it was the opportunity cost of the time spent by nurses in dispensing IPTc. CONCLUSIONS: VHWs achieve higher IPTc coverage and adherence at lower costs than facility-based nurses in Jasikan district

  9. Atmospheric pressure loading parameters from very long baseline interferometry observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, D. S.; Gipson, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Atmospheric mass loading produces a primarily vertical displacement of the Earth's crust. This displacement is correlated with surface pressure and is large enough to be detected by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements. Using the measured surface pressure at VLBI stations, we have estimated the atmospheric loading term for each station location directly from VLBI data acquired from 1979 to 1992. Our estimates of the vertical sensitivity to change in pressure range from 0 to -0.6 mm/mbar depending on the station. These estimates agree with inverted barometer model calculations (Manabe et al., 1991; vanDam and Herring, 1994) of the vertical displacement sensitivity computed by convolving actual pressure distributions with loading Green's functions. The pressure sensitivity tends to be smaller for stations near the coast, which is consistent with the inverted barometer hypothesis. Applying this estimated pressure loading correction in standard VLBI geodetic analysis improves the repeatability of estimated lengths of 25 out of 37 baselines that were measured at least 50 times. In a root-sum-square (rss) sense, the improvement generally increases with baseline length at a rate of about 0.3 to 0.6 ppb depending on whether the baseline stations are close to the coast. For the 5998-km baseline from Westford, Massachusetts, to Wettzell, Germany, the rss improvement is about 3.6 mm out of 11.0 mm. The average rss reduction of the vertical scatter for inland stations ranges from 2.7 to 5.4 mm.

  10. LBCS: the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, N; Deller, A; Moldón, J; Varenius, E; Morabito, L; Wucknitz, O; Carozzi, T; Conway, J; Drabent, A; Kapinska, A; Orrù, E; Brentjens, M; Blaauw, R; Kuper, G; Sluman, J; Schaap, J; Vermaas, N; Iacobelli, M; Cerrigone, L; Shulevski, A; ter Veen, S; Fallows, R; Pizzo, R; Sipior, M; Anderson, J; Avruch, M; Bell, M; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brouw, W; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Falcke, H; Garrett, M; Griessmeier, J; Gunst, A; van Haarlem, M; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Intema, H; Juette, E; Kuniyoshi, M; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, G; Maat, P; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J; Mulcahy, D; Munk, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Polatidis, A; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Scaife, A; Schwarz, D; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R; Wise, M; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2016-01-01

    (abridged). We outline LBCS (the LOFAR Long-Baseline Calibrator Survey), whose aim is to identify sources suitable for calibrating the highest-resolution observations made with the International LOFAR Telescope, which include baselines >1000 km. Suitable sources must contain significant correlated flux density (50-100mJy) at frequencies around 110--190~MHz on scales of a few hundred mas. At least for the 200--300-km international baselines, we find around 1 suitable calibrator source per square degree over a large part of the northern sky, in agreement with previous work. This should allow a randomly selected target to be successfully phase calibrated on the international baselines in over 50% of cases. Products of the survey include calibrator source lists and fringe-rate and delay maps of wide areas -- typically a few degrees -- around each source. The density of sources with significant correlated flux declines noticeably with baseline length over the range 200--600~km, with good calibrators on the longest...

  11. Trabecular bone response to mechanical loading in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats depends on baseline bone quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chang-Yong; Jung, Young Jin; Park, Ji Hyung; Seo, Donghyun; Han, Paul; Bae, Kiho; Schreiber, Jürgen; Kim, Han Sung

    2012-07-26

    Mechanical loading is one of the determining factors for bone modulation, and is therefore frequently used to treat or prevent bone loss; however, there appears to be no data on the effects of baseline bone quantity on this response. This study aimed to verify whether baseline bone quantity affects osteoporotic trabecular bone adaptive response to mechanical stimulation. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were ovariectomized (OVX). After 3 weeks of OVX, rats were divided into a high bone quantity and a low bone quantity group, and rats in each group were then subdivided into 4 groups that were exposed to different loading strategies. In the loading groups, tibiae were stimulated through axial loading at 2000με of strain, for 1500 cycles each of 75s, 150s, or 250s. The sham treatment groups received no loading. Changes in BV/TV for trabecular bone in the tibia were measured at the baseline (before loading), and at 3 weeks and 6 weeks after loading. BV/TVs in loading groups of the low baseline bone quantity group were significantly increased at 6 weeks, compared with those in the no-loading groups (p0.05). A significant negative correlation was observed between baseline BV/TV and its relative variations at 3 weeks or 6 weeks (p<0.05). These results indicate that adaptive responses of osteoporotic trabecular bone to mechanical loading depend on baseline bone quantity. PMID:22663762

  12. Assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan-Williams Charles H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine who failed treatment after 28 days, and to determine the prevalence of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Methods An observational cohort of 49 symptomatic patients, diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria by rapid diagnostic test, had blood taken for malaria blood films and P. falciparum DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Following diagnosis, patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem® and invited to return to the health facility after 28 days for repeat blood film and PCR. All PCR P. falciparum positive samples were analysed for molecular markers of lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Results Of 49 patients recruited on the basis of a positive rapid diagnostic test, only 16 were confirmed to have P. falciparum by PCR. At follow-up, 14 were PCR-negative for malaria, one was lost to follow-up and one blood specimen had insufficient blood for a PCR analysis. All 16 with PCR-confirmed malaria carried a single copy of the multi-drug resistant (mdr1 gene, and the wild type asparagine allele mdr1 codon 86 (mdr1 86N. Ten of the 16 samples carried the wild type haplotype (CVMNK at codons 72-76 of the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt; three samples carried the resistant CVIET allele; one carried both the resistant and wild type, and in two samples the allele could not be analysed. Conclusions The absence of mdr1 gene copy number variation detected in this study

  13. Therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine combination in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children under five years of age in three ecological zones in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuaku Benjamin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2008, artemether - lumefantrine (AL and dihydroartemisinin - piperaquine (DHAP were added to artesunate - amodiaquine (AS-AQ as first-line drugs for uncomplicated malaria in Ghana. The introduction of new drugs calls for continuous monitoring of these drugs to provide timely information on trends of their efficacy and safety to enhance timely evidence-based decision making by the National Malaria Control Programme. In this regard, the therapeutic efficacy of AL was monitored from September 2010 to April 2011 in four sentinel sites representing the three main ecological zones of the country. Methods The study was a one-arm prospective evaluation of clinical and parasitological responses to directly observed treatment for uncomplicated malaria among children aged 6 months to 59 months using the 2009 WHO protocol for surveillance of anti-malarial drug efficacy. Children recruited into the study received weight-based 20/120 mg AL at 0, 8, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hrs. Parasitaemia levels were assessed on days 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and at any time a study child was brought to the clinic with fever. Results A total of 175 children were enrolled into the study: 56 in the savanna zone, 78 in the forest zone and 41 in the coastal zone. Per-protocol analysis showed that the overall PCR-corrected cure rates on day 14 and day 28 were 96.5% (95% CI: 92.1, 98.6 and 95.4% (95% CI: 90.3, 98.0, respectively, with statistically significant differences between the ecological zones. The 90.4% day-28 cure rate observed in the savannah zone (95% CI: 78.2, 96.4 was significantly the lowest compared with 100% (95% CI: 93.2, 99.9 in the forest zone and 93.8% (95% CI: 77.8, 98.9 in the coastal zone (P = 0.017. Fever and parasite clearance were slower among children enrolled in the savannah zone. Gametocytaemia after day-3 post-treatment was rare in all the zones. Conclusions The study has shown that AL remains efficacious in Ghana with

  14. Functional Testing Protocols for Commercial Building Efficiency Baseline Modeling Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jump, David; Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael

    2013-09-06

    This document describes procedures for testing and validating proprietary baseline energy modeling software accuracy in predicting energy use over the period of interest, such as a month or a year. The procedures are designed according to the methodology used for public domain baselining software in another LBNL report that was (like the present report) prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company: ?Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing Protocols? (referred to here as the ?Model Analysis Report?). The test procedure focuses on the quality of the software?s predictions rather than on the specific algorithms used to predict energy use. In this way the software vendor is not required to divulge or share proprietary information about how their software works, while enabling stakeholders to assess its performance.

  15. Baseline hydrocarbon levels in New Zealand coastal and marine avifauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, H M; Gartrell, B D; Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, S T; Bridgen, P C E; Morgan, K J

    2015-05-15

    The external effects of oil on wildlife can be obvious and acute. Internal effects are more difficult to detect and can occur without any external signs. To quantify internal effects from oil ingestion by wildlife during an oil spill, baseline levels of ubiquitous hydrocarbon fractions, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), need to be established. With these baseline values the extent of impact from exposure during a spill can be determined. This research represents the first investigation of baseline levels for 22 PAHs in New Zealand coastal and marine avian wildlife. Eighty-five liver samples were tested from 18 species. PAHs were identified in 98% of livers sampled with concentrations ranging from 0 to 1341.6 ng/g lipid wt or on wet wt basis, 0 to 29.5 ng/g. Overall, concentrations were low relative to other globally reported avian values. PAH concentration variability was linked with species foraging habitat and migratory patterns. PMID:25707316

  16. A publication database for optical long baseline interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, Fabien; Lawson, Peter; Taillifet, Esther; Lafrasse, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Optical long baseline interferometry is a technique that has generated almost 850 refereed papers to date. The targets span a large variety of objects from planetary systems to extragalactic studies and all branches of stellar physics. We have created a database hosted by the JMMC and connected to the Optical Long Baseline Interferometry Newsletter (OLBIN) web site using MySQL and a collection of XML or PHP scripts in order to store and classify these publications. Each entry is defined by its ADS bibcode, includes basic ADS informations and metadata. The metadata are specified by tags sorted in categories: interferometric facilities, instrumentation, wavelength of operation, spectral resolution, type of measurement, target type, and paper category, for example. The whole OLBIN publication list has been processed and we present how the database is organized and can be accessed. We use this tool to generate statistical plots of interest for the community in optical long baseline interferometry.

  17. Influence of baseline severity on antidepressant efficacy for anxiety disorders : meta-analysis and meta-regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Ymkje Anna; de Jonge, Peter; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Turner, Erick H; Roest, Annelieke M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are established first-line treatments for anxiety disorders, but it is not clear whether they are equally effective across the severity range. AIMS: To examine the influence of baseline severity of anxiety on antidepressant efficacy for generalised anxiety disorder (GAD),

  18. Subtracting Technique of Baselines for Capillary Electrophoresis Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ying; MO Jin-yuan; CHEN Zuan-guang; GAO Yan

    2004-01-01

    The drifting baselines of capillary electrophoresis affect the veracity of analysis greatly. This paper presents Threshold Fitting Technique(TFT) so as to subtract the baselines from the original signals and emendate the signals. In TFT, wav elet and curve fitting technique are applied synthetically, thresholds are decided by the computer automatically. Many experiments of signal processing indicate that TFT is simple for being used, there are few man-induced factors, and the results are satisfactory. TFT can be applied for noisy signals without any pre-processing.

  19. Way to increase the user access at the LCLS baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the LCLS photon beam is meant for a single user, the baseline undulator is long enough to serve two users simultaneously. To this end, we propose a setup composed of two simple elements: an X-ray mirror pair for X-ray beam deflection, and a short (4 m-long) magnetic chicane, which creates an offset for mirror pair installation in the middle of the baseline undulator. The insertable mirror pair can be used for spatial separation of the X-ray beams generated in the first and in the second half of the baseline undulator. The method of deactivating one half and activating another half of the undulator is based on the rapid switching of the FEL amplification process. As proposed elsewhere, using a kicker installed upstream of the LCLS baseline undulator and an already existing corrector in the first half of the undulator, it is possible to rapidly switch the X-ray beam from one user to another, thus providing two active beamlines at any time. We present simulation results dealing with the LCLS baseline, and show that it is possible to generate two saturated SASE X-ray beams in the whole 0.8-8 keV photon energy range in the same baseline undulator. These can be exploited to serve two users. Implementation of the proposed technique does not perturb the baseline mode of operation of the LCLS undulator. Moreover, the magnetic chicane setup is very flexible, and can be used as a self-seeding setup too. We present simulation results for the LCLS baseline undulator with SHAB (second harmonic afterburner) and show that one can produce monochromatic radiation at the 2nd harmonic as well as at the 1st. We describe an efficient way for obtaining multi-user operation at the LCLS hard X-ray FEL. To this end, a photon beam distribution system based on the use of crystals in the Bragg reflection geometry is proposed. The reflectivity of crystal deflectors can be switched fast enough by flipping the crystals with piezoelectric devices similar to those for X-ray phase retarders

  20. Detecting dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Pei-Hong; BI Xiao-Jun; FENG Bo; YOUNG Bing-Lin; ZHANG Xin-Min

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a possibility of studying properties of dark energy in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We consider two types of models of neutrino dark energy. For one type of models the scalar field is taken to be quintessence-like and for the other phantom-like. In these models the scalar fields couple to the neutrinos to give rise to spatially varying neutrino masses. We will show that the two types of models predict different behaviors of the spatial variation of the neutrino masses inside the Earth and consequently result in different signals in long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  1. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayato, Yoshinari [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have been playing important roles in revealing the nature of neutrinos. However, it turned out that the current experiments are not sufficient to study two major remaining problems, the CP violation in the lepton sector and the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. Therefore, several new experiments have been proposed. Among of them, two accelerator based long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, the J-PARC neutrino beam and Hyper-Kamiokande, and MOMENT, have been proposed in Asia. These two projects are reviewed in this article.

  2. 200-BP-5 operable unit Technical Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, I.D.; Kent, S.K.

    1991-10-01

    This report supports development of a remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The report summarizes baseline information for waste sites and unplanned release sites located in the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The sites were investigated by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The investigation consisted of review and evaluation of current and historical Hanford Site reports, drawings, and photographs, and was supplemented with recent inspections of the Hanford Site and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted.

  3. 200-BP-5 operable unit Technical Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report supports development of a remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The report summarizes baseline information for waste sites and unplanned release sites located in the 200-BP-5 operable unit. The sites were investigated by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). The investigation consisted of review and evaluation of current and historical Hanford Site reports, drawings, and photographs, and was supplemented with recent inspections of the Hanford Site and employee interviews. No field investigations or sampling were conducted

  4. Effect of water deprivation on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels in the Children's python (Antaresia childreni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoué, Andréaz; Angelier, Frédéric; Lourdais, Olivier; Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François

    2014-02-01

    Corticosterone (CORT) secretion is influenced by endogenous factors (e.g., physiological status) and environmental stressors (e.g., ambient temperature). Heretofore, the impact of water deprivation on CORT plasma levels has not been thoroughly investigated. However, both baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT are expected to respond to water deprivation not only because of hydric stress per se, but also because CORT is an important mineralocorticoid in vertebrates. We assessed the effects of water deprivation on baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT, in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni), a species that experiences seasonal droughts in natural conditions. We imposed a 52-day water deprivation on a group of unfed Children's pythons (i.e., water-deprived treatment) and provided water ad libitum to another group (i.e., control treatment). We examined body mass variations throughout the experiment, and baseline CORT and stress-induced CORT at the end of the treatments. Relative body mass loss averaged ~10% in pythons without water, a value 2 to 4 times higher compared to control snakes. Following re-exposition to water, pythons from the water-deprived treatment drank readily and abundantly and attained a body mass similar to pythons from the control treatment. Together, these results suggest a substantial dehydration as a consequence of water deprivation. Interestingly, stress-induced but not baseline CORT level was significantly higher in water-deprived snakes, suggesting that baseline CORT might not respond to this degree of dehydration. Therefore, possible mineralocorticoid role of CORT needs to be clarified in snakes. Because dehydration usually induces adjustments (reduced movements, lowered body temperature) to limit water loss, and decreases locomotor performances, elevated stress-induced CORT in water-deprived snakes might therefore compensate for altered locomotor performances. Future studies should test this hypothesis.

  5. Technical Baseline Summary Description for the Tank Farm Contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a revision of the document titled above, summarizing the technical baseline of the Tank Farm Contractor. It is one of several documents prepared by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. to support the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at Hanford

  6. Synthesizing SMOS Zero-Baselines with Aquarius Brightness Temperature Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, A.; Dinnat, E.; Le Vine, D.; Kainulainen, J.

    2012-01-01

    SMOS [1] and Aquarius [2] are ESA and NASA missions, respectively, to make L-band measurements from the Low Earth Orbit. SMOS makes passive measurements whereas Aquarius measures both passive and active. SMOS was launched in November 2009 and Aquarius in June 2011.The scientific objectives of the missions are overlapping: both missions aim at mapping the global Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). Additionally, SMOS mission produces soil moisture product (however, Aquarius data will eventually be used for retrieving soil moisture too). The consistency of the brightness temperature observations made by the two instruments is essential for long-term studies of SSS and soil moisture. For resolving the consistency, the calibration of the instruments is the key. The basis of the SMOS brightness temperature level is the measurements performed with the so-called zero-baselines [3]; SMOS employs an interferometric measurement technique which forms a brightness temperature image from several baselines constructed by combination of multiple receivers in an array; zero-length baseline defines the overall brightness temperature level. The basis of the Aquarius brightness temperature level is resolved from the brightness temperature simulator combined with ancillary data such as antenna patterns and environmental models [4]. Consistency between the SMOS zero-baseline measurements and the simulator output would provide a robust basis for establishing the overall comparability of the missions.

  7. IMPROVED CALIBRATION METHOD FOR AIRBORNE ATI-SAR BASELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xin; Hong Jun

    2012-01-01

    Airborne Along-Track Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (ATI-SAR) baseline error is a main error resource affecting the precision of velocity measurement of moving objects and therefore should be calibrated externally.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has proposed a calibration scheme for tasks of PacRim98 and PacRim2000 based on several static objects on the ground.In this paper,the influence of phase center uncertainty on baseline determination by using PacRim method proposed by JPL is analyzed.According to the analysis,the phase center uncertainty can cause a constant part of error to the result of baseline calibration.In order to deal with this problem,an improved calibration method on the basis of sensitivity equations and some ground moving targets,whose velocities are already known,is proposed in this paper.The simulation results show that our proposed calibration method has improved the accuracy of baseline calibration and has obviously prohibited the effect of antennas' phase center uncertainty.

  8. BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-04-01

    Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  9. The physicochemical basis of QSARs for baseline toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D; Arnot, J A; Petkova, E P; Wallace, K B; Call, D J; Brooke, L T; Veith, G D

    2009-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties relevant to the equilibrium partitioning (bioconcentration) of chemicals between organisms and their respired media of water and air are reviewed and illustrated for chemicals that range in hydrophobicity. Relationships are then explored between freely dissolved external concentrations such as LC50s and chemical properties for one important toxicity mechanism, namely baseline toxicity or narcosis. The 'activity hypothesis' proposed by Ferguson in 1939 provides a coherent and compelling explanation for baseline toxicity of chemicals in both water- and air-respiring organisms, as well as a reference point for identifying more specific toxicity pathways. From inhalation studies with fish and rodents, narcosis is shown to occur at a chemical activity exceeding approximately 0.01 and there is no evidence of narcosis at activities less than 0.001. The activity hypothesis provides a framework for directly comparing the toxic potency of chemicals in both air- and water-breathing animals. The activity hypothesis is shown to be consistent with the critical body residue concept, but it has the advantage of avoiding the confounding effect of lipid content of the test organism. It also provides a theoretically sound basis for assessing the baseline toxicity of mixtures. It is suggested that since activity is readily calculated from fugacity, observed or predicted environmental abiotic and biotic fugacities can be used to evaluate the potential for baseline toxicity. Further, models employing fugacity or activity can be used to improve the experimental design of bioassays, thus possibly reducing unnecessary animal testing. PMID:19544198

  10. The Dutch CAFE baseline: In or out of line?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink BA; Folkert RJM; Thomas R; Beck JP; Eerdt MM van; Elzenga HE; Hoek KW van der; Hoen A; Peek CJ; LED; KMD; NMD; LVM; RIM; LDL

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission is constructing a strategy on air pollution within the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. This strategy will be based on assessments using the RAINS model for different policy ambitions where the CAFE baseline scenario and control strategies are employed. The Netherlands

  11. The First Very Long Baseline Interferometric SETI Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampadarath, H.; Morgan, J. S.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.

    2012-08-01

    The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hr at 1230-1544 MHz with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The data set was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW Hz-1 on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI including follow-up observations. The techniques presented are equally applicable to next-generation interferometers, such as the long baselines of the Square Kilometre Array.

  12. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  13. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The SRC Process Area Design Baseline consists of six volumes. The first four were submitted to DOE on 9 September 1981. The fifth volume, summarizing the Category A Engineering Change Proposals (ECPs), was not submitted. The sixth volume, containing proprietary information on Kerr-McGee's Critical Solvent Deashing System, was forwarded to BRHG Synthetic Fuels, Inc. for custody, according to past instructions from DOE, and is available for perusal by authorized DOE representatives. DOE formally accepted the Design Baseline under ICRC Release ECP 4-1001, at the Project Configuration Control Board meeting in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on 5 November 1981. The documentation was then revised by Catalytic, Inc. to incorporate the Category B and C and Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals. Volumes I through V of the Revised Design Baseline, dated 22 October 1982, are nonproprietary and they were issued to the DOE via Engineering Change Notice (ECN) 4-1 on 23 February 1983. Volume VI again contains proprieary information on Kerr-McGee Critical Solvent Deashing System; it was issued to Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. Subsequently, updated process descriptions, utility summaries, and errata sheets were issued to the DOE and Burns and Roe Synthetic Fuels, Inc. on nonproprietary Engineering Change Notices 4-2 and 4-3 on 24 May 1983.

  14. An Overview of the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Vlahakis, C; Corder, S; Remijan, A; Barkats, D; Lucas, R; Hunter, T R; Brogan, C L; Asaki, Y; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Hills, R E; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Cox, P; Amestica, R; Broguiere, D; Cotton, W; Hales, A S; Hiriart, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kern, J; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Marcelino, N; Marson, R; Mignano, A; Nakanishi, K; Nikolic, B; Perez, J E; Pérez, L M; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Butler, B; Cortes, J; Cortes, P; Dhawan, V; Di Francesco, J; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Mangum, J; Marconi, G; Nagai, H; Nyman, L -A; Perley, R; Radiszcz, M; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; van Kempen, T; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Gueth, F; Tatematsu, K; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Chapillon, E; Dumas, G; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hibbard, J E; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Martin, S; Maud, L; Morales, F; Pietu, V; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Whyborn, N; Zwaan, M A; Alves, F; Andreani, P; Avison, A; Barta, M; Bedosti, F; Bendo, G J; Bertoldi, F; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A; Boissier, J; Brand, J; Burkutean, S; Casasola, V; Conway, J; Cortese, L; Dabrowski, B; Davis, T A; Trigo, M Diaz; Fontani, F; Franco-Hernandez, R; Fuller, G; Madrid, R Galvan; Giannetti, A; Ginsburg, A; Graves, S F; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hogerheijde, M; Jachym, P; Serra, I Jimenez; Karlicky, M; Klaasen, P; Kraus, M; Kunneriath, D; Lagos, C; Longmore, S; Leurini, S; Maercker, M; Magnelli, B; Vidal, I Marti; Massardi, M; Maury, A; Muehle, S; Muller, S; Muxlow, T; O'Gorman, E; Paladino, R; Petry, D; Pineda, J; Randall, S; Richer, J S; Rossetti, A; Rushton, A; Rygl, K; Monge, A Sanchez; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Stanke, T; Schmalzl, M; Stoehr, F; Urban, S; van Kampen, E; Vlemmings, W; Wang, K; Wild, W; Yang, Y; Iguchi, S; Hasegawa, T; Saito, M; Inatani, J; Mizuno, N; Asayama, S; Kosugi, G; Morita, K -I; Chiba, K; Kawashima, S; Okumura, S K; Ohashi, N; Ogasawara, R; Sakamoto, S; Noguchi, T; Huang, Y -D; Liu, S -Y; Kemper, F; Koch, P M; Chen, M -T; Chikada, Y; Hiramatsu, M; Iono, D; Shimojo, M; Komugi, S; Kim, J; Lyo, A -R; Muller, E; Herrera, C; Miura, R E; Ueda, J; Chibueze, J; Su, Y -N; Trejo-Cruz, A; Wang, K -S; Kiuchi, H; Ukita, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawabe, R; Hayashi, M; Miyama, S; Ho, P T P; Kaifu, N; Ishiguro, M; Beasley, A J; Bhatnagar, S; Braatz, J A; Brisbin, D G; Brunetti, N; Carilli, C; Crossley, J H; D'Addario, L; Meyer, J L Donovan; Emerson, D T; Evans, A S; Fisher, P; Golap, K; Griffith, D M; Hale, A E; Halstead, D; Hardy, E J; Hatz, M C; Holdaway, M; Indebetouw, R; Jewell, P R; Kepley, A A; Kim, D -C; Lacy, M D; Leroy, A K; Liszt, H S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, B; McKinnon, M; Mason, B S; Moellenbrock, G; Moullet, A; Myers, S T; Ott, J; Peck, A B; Pisano, J; Radford, S J E; Randolph, W T; Venkata, U Rao; Rawlings, M; Rosen, R; Schnee, S L; Scott, K S; Sharp, N K; Sheth, K J; Simon, R S; Tsutsumi, T; Wood, S J

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long...

  15. Technical Baseline Summary Description for the Tank Farm Contractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-04-21

    This document is a revision of the document titled above, summarizing the technical baseline of the Tank Farm Contractor. It is one of several documents prepared by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. to support the U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Tank Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at Hanford.

  16. Baseline design of an OTEC pilot plantship. Volume C. Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glosten, L. R.; Bringloe, Thomas; Soracco, Dave; Fenstermacher, Earl; Magura, Donald; Sander, Olof; Richards, Dennis; Seward, Jerry

    1979-05-01

    Volume C is part of a three-volume report that presents a baseline engineering design of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plantship. This volume provides the specifications for the hull, cold-water pipe, ship outfitting and machinery, OTEC power system, electrical system, and folded-tube heat exchangers.

  17. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Gavin [Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, Blyth, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sperstad, Iver Bakken [SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prinsen, Bob [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands). TKI Wind Op Zee; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  18. Medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments with two identical detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the next 10 years medium baseline reactor neutrino experiments will attempt to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to precisely measure θ12. Both of these determinations will be more reliable if data from identical detectors at distinct baselines are combined. While interference effects can be eliminated by choosing detector sites orthogonal to the reactor arrays, one of the greatest challenges facing a determination of the mass hierarchy is the detector's unknown energy response. By comparing peaks at similar energies at two identical detectors at distinct baselines, one eliminates any correlated dependence upon a monotonic energy response. In addition, a second detector leads to new hierarchy-dependent observables, such as the ratio of the locations of the maxima of the Fourier cosine transforms. A second detector at a distinct baseline also breaks the degeneracy between θ12 and the background neutrino flux from, for example, distant reactors and increases the effective target mass, which is limited by current designs to about 20 kton/detector

  19. 241-AZ Farm Annulus Extent of Condition Baseline Inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeman, Jason K.; Girardot, Crystal L.; Vazquez, Brandon J.

    2013-05-15

    This report provides the results of the comprehensive annulus visual inspection for tanks 241- AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 performed in fiscal year 2013. The inspection established a baseline covering about 95 percent of the annulus floor for comparison with future inspections. Any changes in the condition are also included in this document.

  20. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Eleventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.; Wagner, C.E.

    1975-07-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. NASA completed initial heat balance testing of a baseline engine. An additional 450 hours were run on ceramic regenerators and seals. Seal wear rates are very good, and the elastomeric mounting system was satisfactory. An engine/control oil supply system based on the power steering pump is successfully operating in baseline vehicles. The design of the upgraded engine power turbine nozzle actuator was finalized, and layouts of the inlet guide vane actuator are in process. A lock-up torque converter was installed in the free rotor vehicle. Baseline engine and vehicle testing of water injection and variable inlet guide vanes was completed. A thermal analysis of the gas generator is in process. A steady-state, full power analysis was made. A three-dimensional stress analysis of the compressor cover was made. The power turbine nozzle actuating system layout was completed. The analytical studies of the power turbine rotor bearings were completed. MTI completed the design of the gas generator rotor simulation fixture and is starting to build it. Optimized reduction gears were successfully tested in a baseline engine.

  1. Automated baseline change detection phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD) project is supported by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) as part of its ER&WM cross-cutting technology program in robotics. Phase 1 of the Automated Baseline Change Detection project is summarized in this topical report. The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. In support of this primary objective, there are secondary objectives to determine DOE operational inspection requirements and DOE system fielding requirements.

  2. Revised SRC-I project baseline. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), in cooperation with the Commonwealth of Kentucky has contracted with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build and operate a first-of-its-kind plant demonstrating the economic, environmental, socioeconomic and technical feasibility of the direct coal liquefaction process known as SRC-I. ICRC has made a massive commitment of time and expertise to design processes, plan and formulate policy, schedules, costs and technical drawings for all plant systems. These fully integrated plans comprise the Project Baseline and are the basis for all future detailed engineering, plant construction, operation, and other work set forth in the contract between ICRC and the DOE. Volumes I and II of the accompanying documents constitute the updated Project Baseline for the SRC-I two-stage liquefaction plant. International Coal Refining Company believes this versatile plant design incorporates the most advanced coal liquefaction system available in the synthetic fuels field. SRC-I two-stage liquefaction, as developed by ICRC, is the way of the future in coal liquefaction because of its product slate flexibility, high process thermal efficiency, and low consumption of hydrogen. The SRC-I Project Baseline design also has made important state-of-the-art advances in areas such as environmental control systems. Because of a lack of funding, the DOE has curtailed the total project effort without specifying a definite renewal date. This precludes the development of revised accurate and meaningful schedules and, hence, escalated project costs. ICRC has revised and updated the original Design Baseline to include in the technical documentation all of the approved but previously non-incorporated Category B and C and new Post-Baseline Engineering Change Proposals.

  3. Impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes of carotid artery stenting in acute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu CS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Sheng Yu,1,* Chih-Ming Lin,2,3,* Chi-Kuang Liu,4 Henry Horng-Shing Lu1 1Institute of Statistics and Big Data Research Center, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 2Stroke Centre and Department of Neurology, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, 3Graduate Institute of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 4Department of Medical Imaging, Chunghua Christian Hospital, Chunghua, Taiwan, Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Carotid artery stenting is an effective treatment for ischemic stroke patients with moderate-to-severe carotid artery stenosis. However, the midterm outcome for patients undergoing this procedure varies considerably with baseline characteristics. To determine the impact of baseline characteristics on outcomes following carotid artery stenting, data from 107 eligible patients with a first episode of ischemic stroke were collected by retrospective chart review. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to divide patients into two baseline groups, mRS ≤2 and mRS >2. A three-step decision-tree statistical analysis was conducted. After weighting the decision-tree parameters, the following impact hierarchy was obtained: admission low-density lipoprotein, gouty arthritis, chronic kidney disease, ipsilateral common carotid artery resistance index, contralateral ophthalmic artery resistance index, sex, and dyslipidemia. The finite-state machine model demonstrated that, in patients with baseline mRS ≤2, 46% had an improved mRS score at follow-up, whereas 54% had a stable mRS score. In patients with baseline mRS >2, a stable mRS score was observed in 75%, improved score in 23%, and a poorer score in 2%. Admission low-density lipoprotein was the strongest predictive factor influencing poststenting outcome. In addition, our study provides further evidence that carotid artery stenting can be of benefit in first-time ischemic stroke patients with baseline m

  4. Use of vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effect: What is the baseline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Holbech, Henrik; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard;

    Vitellogenin is used as a biomarker for estrogenic effect in laboratory-based regulatory test systems OECD TGs 229, 230 and 234 and vitellogenin levels in the plasma of juvenile or male specimens of various fish species have also been used for monitoring estrogenic impacts in freshwater and estua......Vitellogenin is used as a biomarker for estrogenic effect in laboratory-based regulatory test systems OECD TGs 229, 230 and 234 and vitellogenin levels in the plasma of juvenile or male specimens of various fish species have also been used for monitoring estrogenic impacts in freshwater...... and estuarine environments, especially in association with discharges from waste water treatment plants. The use of any biomarker requires knowledge about the baseline levels in an uncontaminated environment and the present investigation was initiated to identify baseline vitellogenin levels in juvenile brown...... indicate that baseline vitellogenin levels in juvenile, male brown trout in an uncontaminated environment are below 100 ng/ml. This also indicates that most of the high values obtained in earlier investigations (2000 to 2004) investigations could be attributed to estrogenic exposure. Six of the streams...

  5. Baseline characteristics influencing quality of life in women undergoing gynecologic oncology surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenison Eric L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL measurements are important in evaluating cancer treatment outcomes. Factors other than cancer and its treatment may have significant effects on QoL and affect assessment of treatments. Baseline data from longitudinal studies of women with endometrial or ovarian cancer or adnexal mass determined at surgery to be benign were analyzed to determine the degree to which QoL is affected by baseline differences in demographic variables and health. Methods This study examined the effect of independent variables on domains of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-G pre-operatively in gynecologic oncology patients undergoing surgery for pelvic mass suspected to be malignant or endometrial cancer. Patients also completed the Short Form Medical Outcomes Survey (SF-36 questionnaire (a generic health questionnaire that measures physical and mental health. Independent variables were surgical diagnosis (ovarian or endometrial cancer, benign mass, age, body mass index (BMI, educational level, marital status, smoking status, physical (PCS and mental (MCS summary scores of the SF-36. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the influence of these variables on FACT-G domain scores (physical, functional, social and emotional well-being. Results Data were collected on 157 women at their pre-operative visit (33 ovarian cancer, 45 endometrial cancer, 79 determined at surgery to be benign. Mean scores on the FACT-G subscales and SF-36 summary scores did not differ as a function of surgical diagnosis. PCS, MCS, age, and educational level were positively correlated with physical well-being, while increasing BMI was negatively correlated. Functional well-being was positively correlated with PCS and MCS and negatively correlated with BMI. Social well-being was positively correlated with MCS and negatively correlated with BMI and educational level. PCS, MCS and age were positively correlated with emotional well

  6. Report on diagnosis, treatment and management of an imported falciparum malaria case in Xinjiang%新疆一例输入性恶性疟病例的诊治与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰; 王晓蓉; 包拉提别克·斯兰木; 陈访贤; 李玉革

    2013-01-01

    Objective To report the diagnosis,treatment and epidemiological analysis of one case of imported falciparum malaria in Xinjiang,to provide reference of monitoring and control for the imported falciparum malaria in Xinjiang region.Methods One case of imported falciparum malaria at Xinjiang International Travel Healthcare Center was diagnosed through clinical and laboratory testing.The patient was timely treated with artesunate 600 mg five days' therapy and follow-up observed.Results The Equatorial Guinea migrant returnee who appeared the typical malaria symptoms after returning 18 days later.The patient was diagnosed with blood smear detection of Plasmodium falciparum and treated with five days of anti-malarial therapy by oral artesunate upon the confirmed diagnosis.Medical observation and propaganda of prevention on malaria were complemented to the patient and his close contacts.Conclusion Propaganda of anti-malaria knowledge to the persons who are going to malaria-endemic nationas and malaria detection on the returned laborers should be strengthened,so that the malaria infected patients can receive standard treatment timely to avoid the spread of malaria.%目的 对新疆一例输入性恶性疟疾进行诊治及流行病学分析,为新疆输入性疟疾的监测和防治提供参考.方法 对新疆国际旅行卫生保健中心收治的一例输入性恶性疟病例进行诊治及流行病学分析,通过临床、实验室检测明确诊断,及时采用青蒿琥酯600 mg 5日疗法进行治疗并追踪观察.对患者及密切接触者进行疟疾防治知识宣传及医学观察.结果 该病例为赤道几内亚务工归国人员,返回后18d出现典型疟疾发作症状,血涂片检出恶性疟原虫.经用口服青蒿琥酯进行5d抗疟而治愈.结论 应加强赴疟疾流行国家的人员防疟知识的宣传及归国劳务人员的疟疾检测,使患者得到规范治疗,避免疟疾的传播.

  7. Long-Baseline Neutrino Physics in the U.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Sacha E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Long-baseline neutrino oscillation physics in the U.S. is centered at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), in particular at the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) beamline commissioned in 2004-2005. Already, the MINOS experiment has published its first results confirming the disappearance of {nu}{sub {mu}}'s across a 735 km baseline. The forthcoming NO{nu}A experiment will search for the transition {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and use this transition to understand the mass heirarchy of neutrinos. These, as well as other conceptual ideas for future experiments using the NuMI beam, will be discussed. The turn-on of the NuMI facility has been positive, with over 310 kW beam power achieved. Plans for increasing the beam intensity once the Main Injector accelerator is fully-dedicated to the neutrino program will be presented.

  8. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, as a predictor of individual adaptive capabilities.

  9. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter­-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for sensorimotor adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate. Therefore it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. This information could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time and provide better outcomes. The principal aim of this work is to look for baseline performance metrics that relate to locomotor adaptability. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations ("noise") in motor performance, and adaptability in two oculomotor systems (see Preliminary Results). We now propose an analogous predictive mechanisms in the locomotor system.

  10. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  11. Fissile materials disposition program plutonium immobilization project baseline formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B B; Armantrout, G A; Gray, L; Herman, C C; Shaw, H F; Van Konynenburg, R A

    2000-09-01

    Since 1994 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with the help of several other laboratories and university groups, has been the lead laboratory for the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). This involves, among other tasks, the development of a formulation and a fabrication process for a ceramic to be used in the immobilization of excess weapons-usable plutonium. This report reviews the history of the project as it relates to the development of the ceramic form. It describes the sample test plan for the pyrochlore-rich ceramic formulation that was selected, and it specifies the baseline formulation that has been adopted. It also presents compositional specifications (e.g. precursor compositions and mixing recipes) and other form and process specifications that are linked or potentially linked to the baseline formulation.

  12. Measurement of baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging approach, which allows determining the spatial baseline and orientation between distributed aerospace platforms by the proposed high-precision time-interval estimation method. This approach is novel in the sense that it cancels the effect of oscillator frequency synchronization errors due to separate oscillators that are used in the platforms. Several performance specifications are also discussed. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by simulation results.

  13. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document

  14. International data transfer for space very long baseline interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiercigroch, Alexandria B.

    1994-11-01

    Space very long baseline interferometry (SVLBI) experiments using a TDRSS satellite have successfully demonstrated the capability of using spacecraft to extend the effective baseline length of VLBI observations beyond the diameter of the Earth, thereby improving the resolution for imaging of active galactic nuclei at centimeter wavelengths. As a result, two spacecraft dedicated to SVLBI, VSOP (Japan) and RadioAstron (Russia), are scheduled to be launched into high Earth orbit in 1996 and 1997. The success of these missions depends on the cooperation of the international community in providing support from ground tracking stations, ground radio telescopes, and correlation facilities. The timely exchange and monitoring of data among the participants requires a well-designed and automated international data transfer system. In this paper, we will discuss the design requirements, data types and flows, and the operational responsibilities associated with the SVLBI data transfer system.

  15. Baseline brain activity fluctuations predict somatosensory perception in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Boly, M; Balteau, E.; Schnakers, C; Degueldre, C.; Moonen, G.; Luxen, A.; Phillips, C.; Peigneux, P; Maquet, P; Laureys, S.

    2007-01-01

    In perceptual experiments, within-individual fluctuations in perception are observed across multiple presentations of the same stimuli, a phenomenon that remains only partially understood. Here, by means of thulium–yttrium/aluminum–garnet laser and event-related functional MRI, we tested whether variability in perception of identical stimuli relates to differences in prestimulus, baseline brain activity. Results indicate a positive relationship between conscious perception of low-intensity so...

  16. The Baseline Configuration of Project Management Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziša, S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of project management information systems is to facilitate development and management of projects as well as to provide operational project information. Project management information systems need to be configured according to project management requirements during their deployment. In order to reduce complexity of this task, a baseline configuration can be used as a starting point of the configuration process. The objective of this paper is to establish the b...

  17. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  18. Measurement of Baseline and Orientation between Distributed Aerospace Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Qin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Distributed platforms play an important role in aerospace remote sensing, radar navigation, and wireless communication applications. However, besides the requirement of high accurate time and frequency synchronization for coherent signal processing, the baseline between the transmitting platform and receiving platform and the orientation of platform towards each other during data recording must be measured in real time. In this paper, we propose an improved pulsed duplex microwave ranging app...

  19. The baseline dataflow system of the ATLAS trigger and DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, J C; Dos Anjos, A; Barisonzi, M; Beck, H P; Beretta, M; Blair, R; Bogaerts, J A C; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, David R; Ciobotaru, M; Palencia-Cortezon, E; Cranfield, R; Crone, G J; Dawson, J; Di Girolamo, B; Dobinson, Robert W; Ermoline, Y; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Golonka, P; Gorini, B; Green, B; Gruwé, M; Haas, S; Haeberli, C; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hinkelbein, C; Hughes-Jones, R E; Jansweijer, P; Joos, M; Kaczmarska, A; Knezo, E; Kieft, G; Korcyl, K; Kugel, A; Lankford, A; Lehmann, G; Le Vine, M J; Liu, W; Maeno, T; Losada-Maia, L; Mapelli, L; Martin, B; McLaren, R; Meirosu, C; Misiejuk, A; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Nakayoshi, K; Papadopoulos, I M; Petersen, J; De Matos-Lopes-Pinto, P; Prigent, D; Pérez-Réale, V; Schlereth, J L; Shimojima, M; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Strong, J; Tremblet, L; Werner, P; Wickens, F J; Yasu, Y; Yu, M; Zobernig, H; Zurek, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the baseline design of the ATLAS High Level Trigger and Data Acquisition system with respect to the DataFlow aspects, as presented in the recently submitted ATLAS Trigger/DAQ/Controls Technical Design Report [1], is reviewed and recent results of testbed measurements and from modelling are discussed. [1] ATLAS-TDR-016; CERN-LHCC-2003-022, http://cdsweb.cern.ch/search.py?recid=616089

  20. Tree edit distance as a baseline approach for paraphrase representation

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Rigat, Marta; Dras, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Finding an adequate paraphrase representation formalism is a challenging issue in Natural Language Processing. In this paper, we analyse the performance of Tree Edit Distance as a paraphrase representation baseline. Our experiments using Edit Distance Textual Entailment Suite show that, as Tree Edit Distance consists of a purely syntactic approach, paraphrase alternations not based on structural reorganizations do not find an adequate representation. They also show that there is much scope fo...

  1. Search for Sterile Neutrinos at Long and Short Baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Stanco, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino physics is currently suffering from lack of knowledge from at least four major ingredients. One of them is the presence or not of new sterile neutrino states at the mass scale of around 1 eV. Settling this point should be the highest priority for the neutrino community. We will discuss the state-of-the art of experimental searches for sterile neutrinos with accelerators, both at long and short baselines.

  2. Re-Creating Missing Population Baselines for Pacific Reef Sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Nadon, Marc O.; Baum, Julia K.; Williams, Ivor D.; Mcpherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Richards, Benjamin L.; Schroeder, Robert E.; Brainard, Russell E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Abstract Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between ree...

  3. The Physics Potential of Future Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss in detail different future long baseline neutrino oscillation setups and we show the remarkable potential for very precise measurements of mass splittings and mixing angles. Furthermore it will be possible to make precise tests of coherent forward scattering and MSW effects, which allow to determine the sign of $\\Delta m^2$. Finally strong limits or measurements of leptonic CP violation will be possible, which is very interesting since it is most likely connected to the baryon asym...

  4. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: User guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States); Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Matsumoto, S.W.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.; Winters, C.; Wood, B.M.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency. This User Guide explains how to start and use the IBS Program, which is designed to help civilian emergency management personnel to plan for and support their responses to a chemical-releasing event at a military chemical stockpile. The intended audience for this document is all users of the IBS, especially emergency management planners and analysts.

  5. GPS dynamic cycle slip detection and correction with baseline constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhenkun; Huang Ahunji

    2009-01-01

    When the cycle slips take place in the attitude determination of a moving platform, the precision of the attitude will be impaired badly. A method of cycle slip detection and correction is proposed, which is suitable to the dynamic measurement using GPS carrier phase: the cycle slips detection is first achieved by triple difference observables, then the cycle slips correction is performed with baseline length constraint. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective to the dynamic cycle slips problem.

  6. Logistics Operations Management Center: Maintenance Support Baseline (LOMC-MSB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurrus, R.; Stump, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Logistics Operations Management Center Maintenance Support Baseline is defined. A historical record of systems, applied to and deleted from, designs in support of future management and/or technical analysis is provided. All Flight elements, Ground Support Equipment, Facility Systems and Equipment and Test Support Equipment for which LOMC has responsibilities at Kennedy Space Center and other locations are listed. International Space Station Alpha Program documentation is supplemented. The responsibility of the Space Station Launch Site Support Office is established.

  7. A moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal extraction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickerton, C. R.; Westerfield, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000 are reported. Systems used were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservation conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam extended to other seam thicknesses.

  8. Challenges of collecting baseline data in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schlecht

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the humanitarian community acknowledgesthe need for good quality data in programme design andmonitoring, the challenges and demands of field settingshave too often led to the argument that “we just don’thave time” or “it is too difficult”. Yet without the allocationof time and resources to the collection of baseline andmonitoring data, project activities cannot be groundedin strong evidence from programme evaluation.

  9. Degeneracies in long-baseline neutrino experiments from nonstandard interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Jiajun; Whisnant, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    We study parameter degeneracies that can occur in long-baseline neutrino appearance experiments due to nonstandard interactions (NSI). For a single off-diagonal NSI parameter, and neutrino and antineutrino measurements at a single L/E, there exists a continuous four-fold degeneracy (related to the mass hierarchy and $\\theta_{23}$ octant) that renders the mass hierarchy, octant, and CP phase unknowable. Even with a combination of NO$\

  10. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program. Fourteenth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F W; Wagner, C E

    1976-04-30

    Progress is reported for a Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sponsored by the Heat Engine Systems Branch, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation (TEC) of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). Structurally, this program is made up of three parts: (1) documentation of the existing automotive gas turbine state-of-the-art; (2) conduction of an extensive component improvement program; and (3) utilization of the improvements in the design, and building of an Upgraded Engine capable of demonstrating program goals.

  11. Baseline and cognition activated brain SPECT imaging in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities through the semiquantitative analysis of the baseline and cognition activated rCBF imaging in unmedicated depressed patients. Methods: 27 depressed patients unmedicated by anti-depressants were enrolled. The diagnosis (depression of moderate degree with somatization) was confirmed by the ICD-10 criteria. 15 age matched normal controls were studied under identical conditions. Baseline and cognition activated 99mTc-ECD SPECT were performed on 21 of the 27 patients with depression and 13 of the 15 normal controls. Baseline 99mTc-ECD SPECT alone were performed on the rest 6 patients with depression and 2 normal controls. The cognitive activation is achieved by Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). 1110 MBq of 99mTc-ECD was administered by intravenous bolus injection 5 minutes after the onset of the WCST. Semi-quantitative analysis was conducted with the 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th slices of the transaxial imaging. rCBF ratios of every ROI were calculated using the average tissue activity in the region divided by the maximum activity in the cerebellum. Results: 1) The baseline rCBF of left frontal (0.720) and left temporal lobe (0.720) were decreased significantly in depressed patients comparing with those of the control subjects. 2) The activated rCBF of left frontal lobe (0.719) and left temporal lobe (0.690), left parietal lobe (0.701) were decreased evidently than those of the controls. Conclusions: 1) Hypoperfusions of left frontal and left temporal cortexes were identified in patients with depression. 2) The hypoperfusion of left frontal and left temporal cortexes may be the cause of cognition disorder and depressed mood in patients with depression. 3) Cognition activated brain perfusion imaging is helpful for making a more accurate diagnosis of depression

  12. Gravity sensing with Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, Dennis; Albers, Henning; Richardson, Logan L.; Nath, Dipankar; Meiners, Christian; Wodey, Etienne; Schubert, Christian; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2016-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) has applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to meters opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The VLBAI-test stand will consist of a 10m-baseline atom interferometer allowing for free fall times of seconds. In order to suppress environmental noise, the facility utilizes a state-of-the-art vibration isolation platform and a three-layer magnetic shield. We envisage a resolution of local gravitational acceleration of 5 .10-10 m/ s2 with sub-ppb inaccuracy. Operation as a gradiometer will allow to resolve the gravity gradient at a resolution of 5 .10-10 1/ s2. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of Yb and Rb atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level, with the potential to surpass the accuracy of the best experiments to date. We report on a quantum test of the UFF using two different chemical elements, 39 K and 87 Rb, reaching a 100 ppb inaccuracy and show the potential of UFF tests in VLBAI at an inaccuracy of 10-13 and beyond.

  13. Wide baseline stereo matching based on double topological relationship consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohong; Liu, Bin; Song, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Stereo matching is one of the most important branches in computer vision. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for wide-baseline stereo vision matching. Here, a novel scheme is presented called double topological relationship consistency (DCTR). The combination of double topological configuration includes the consistency of first topological relationship (CFTR) and the consistency of second topological relationship (CSTR). It not only sets up a more advanced model on matching, but discards mismatches by iteratively computing the fitness of the feature matches and overcomes many problems of traditional methods depending on the powerful invariance to changes in the scale, rotation or illumination across large view changes and even occlusions. Experimental examples are shown where the two cameras have been located in very different orientations. Also, epipolar geometry can be recovered using RANSAC by far the most widely method adopted possibly. By the method, we can obtain correspondences with high precision on wide baseline matching problems. Finally, the effectiveness and reliability of this method are demonstrated in wide-baseline experiments on the image pairs.

  14. Safety Performance of Airborne Separation: Preliminary Baseline Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wing, David J.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    The Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) study is a suite of Monte Carlo simulation experiments designed to analyze and quantify safety behavior of airborne separation. This paper presents results of preliminary baseline testing. The preliminary baseline scenario is designed to be very challenging, consisting of randomized routes in generic high-density airspace in which all aircraft are constrained to the same flight level. Sustained traffic density is varied from approximately 3 to 15 aircraft per 10,000 square miles, approximating up to about 5 times today s traffic density in a typical sector. Research at high traffic densities and at multiple flight levels are planned within the next two years. Basic safety metrics for aircraft separation are collected and analyzed. During the progression of experiments, various errors, uncertainties, delays, and other variables potentially impacting system safety will be incrementally introduced to analyze the effect on safety of the individual factors as well as their interaction and collective effect. In this paper we report the results of the first experiment that addresses the preliminary baseline condition tested over a range of traffic densities. Early results at five times the typical traffic density in today s NAS indicate that, under the assumptions of this study, airborne separation can be safely performed. In addition, we report on initial observations from an exploration of four additional factors tested at a single traffic density: broadcast surveillance signal interference, extent of intent sharing, pilot delay, and wind prediction error.

  15. The First Very Long Baseline Interferometric SETI Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rampadarath, H; Tingay, S J; Trott, C M

    2012-01-01

    The first Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) conducted with Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is presented. By consideration of the basic principles of interferometry, we show that VLBI is efficient at discriminating between SETI signals and human generated radio frequency interference (RFI). The target for this study was the star Gliese 581, thought to have two planets within its habitable zone. On 2007 June 19, Gliese 581 was observed for 8 hours at 1230-1544 with the Australian Long Baseline Array. The dataset was searched for signals appearing on all interferometer baselines above five times the noise limit. A total of 222 potential SETI signals were detected and by using automated data analysis techniques, were ruled out as originating from the Gliese 581 system. From our results we place an upper limit of 7 MW/Hz on the power output of any isotropic emitter located in the Gliese 581 system, within this frequency range. This study shows that VLBI is ideal for targeted SETI, including...

  16. COMSATCOM service technical baseline strategy development approach using PPBW concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Guillen, Andy T.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to develop a Commercial Satellite Communications (COMSATCOM) service Technical Baseline (TB) and associated Program Baseline (PB) strategy using Portable Pool Bandwidth (PPBW) concept. The concept involves trading of the purchased commercial transponders' Bandwidths (BWs) with existing commercial satellites' bandwidths participated in a "designated pool bandwidth"3 according to agreed terms and conditions. Space Missile Systems Center (SMC) has been implementing the Better Buying Power (BBP 3.0) directive4 and recommending the System Program Offices (SPO) to own the Program and Technical Baseline (PTB) [1, 2] for the development of flexible acquisition strategy and achieving affordability and increased in competition. This paper defines and describes the critical PTB parameters and associated requirements that are important to the government SPO for "owning" an affordable COMSATCOM services contract using PPBW trading concept. The paper describes a step-by-step approach to optimally perform the PPBW trading to meet DoD and its stakeholders (i) affordability requirement, and (ii) fixed and variable bandwidth requirements by optimizing communications performance, cost and PPBW accessibility in terms of Quality of Services (QoS), Bandwidth Sharing Ratio (BSR), Committed Information Rate (CIR), Burstable Information Rate (BIR), Transponder equivalent bandwidth (TPE) and transponder Net Presence Value (NPV). The affordable optimal solution that meets variable bandwidth requirements will consider the operating and trading terms and conditions described in the Fair Access Policy (FAP).

  17. Forecasting Sensorimotor Adaptability from Baseline Inter-Trial Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges surrounding adaptation to the spaceflight environment is the large variability in symptoms, and corresponding functional impairments, from one crewmember to the next. This renders preflight training and countermeasure development difficult, as a "one-size-fits-all" approach is inappropriate. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to know ahead of time which crewmembers might have more difficulty adjusting to the novel g-levels inherent to spaceflight. Such knowledge could guide individually customized countermeasures, which would enable more efficient use of crew time, both preflight and inflight, and provide better outcomes. The primary goal of this project is to look for a baseline performance metric that can forecast sensorimotor adaptability without exposure to an adaptive stimulus. We propose a novel hypothesis that considers baseline inter-trial correlations, the trial-to-trial fluctuations in motor performance, as a predictor of individual sensorimotor adaptive capabilities. To-date, a strong relationship has been found between baseline inter-trial correlations and adaptability in two oculomotor systems. For this project, we will explore an analogous predictive mechanism in the locomotion system. METHODS: Baseline Inter-trial Correlations: Inter-trial correlations specify the relationships among repeated trials of a given task that transpire as a consequence of correcting for previous performance errors over multiple timescales. We can quantify the strength of inter-trial correlations by measuring the decay of the autocorrelation function (ACF), which describes how rapidly information from past trials is "forgotten." Processes whose ACFs decay more slowly exhibit longer-term inter-trial correlations (longer memory processes), while processes whose ACFs decay more rapidly exhibit shorterterm inter-trial correlations (shorter memory processes). Longer-term correlations reflect low-frequency activity, which is more easily

  18. Application of outlier analysis for baseline-free damage diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Dae; In, Chi Won; Cronin, Kelly E.; Sohn, Hoon; Harries, Kent

    2006-03-01

    As carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates have been widely accepted as valuable materials for retrofitting civil infrastructure systems, an appropriate assessment of bonding conditions between host structures and CFRP laminates becomes a critical issue to guarantee the performance of CFRP strengthened structures. This study attempts to develop a continuous performance monitoring system for CFRP strengthened structures by autonomously inspecting the bonding conditions between the CFRP layers and the host structure. The uniqueness of this study is to develop a new concept and theoretical framework of nondestructive testing (NDT), in which debonding is detected "without using past baseline data." The proposed baseline-free damage diagnosis is achieved in two stages. In the first step, features sensitive to debonding of the CFPR layers but insensitive to loading conditions are extracted based on a concept referred to as a time reversal process. This time reversal process allows extracting damage-sensitive features without direct comparison with past baseline data. Then, a statistical damage classifier will be developed in the second step to make a decision regarding the bonding condition of the CFRP layers. The threshold necessary for decision making will be adaptively determined without predetermined threshold values. Monotonic and fatigue load tests of full-scale CFRP strengthened RC beams are conducted to demonstrate the potential of the proposed reference-free debonding monitoring system.

  19. Removing baseline flame's spectrum by using advanced recovering spectrum techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Luis; Sbarbaro, Daniel; Torres, Sergio

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a novel automated algorithm to estimate and remove the continuous baseline from measured flame spectra is proposed. The algorithm estimates the continuous background based on previous information obtained from a learning database of continuous flame spectra. Then, the discontinuous flame emission is calculated by subtracting the estimated continuous baseline from the measured spectrum. The key issue subtending the learning database is that the continuous flame emissions are predominant in the sooty regions, in absence of discontinuous radiation. The proposed algorithm was tested using natural gas and bio-oil flames spectra at different combustion conditions, and the goodness-of-fit coefficient (GFC) quality metric was used to quantify the performance in the estimation process. Additionally, the commonly used first derivative method (FDM) for baseline removing was applied to the same testing spectra in order to compare and to evaluate the proposed technique. The achieved results show that the proposed method is a very attractive tool for designing advanced combustion monitoring strategies of discontinuous emissions. PMID:22945158

  20. 江西省乙肝防治现场居民知识、态度、行为基线调查%Baseline survey of knowledge-attitude-practice related to hepatitis B among residents in spots of prevention and treatment in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂秋凤; 郑敏; 潘雪娇

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Through investigation on knowledge-attitude-practice related to hepatitis B among residents in spots of prevention and treatment for hepatitis B in Jiangxi Province, in order to provide evidence to later effective health education for local hepatitis B prevention and control. METHODS Used the uniform self-design questionnaires, 3 815 residents aging from eighteen to fifty-nine years old were epidemiologically investigated on knowledge-attitude-practice related to hepatitis B in four spots of prevention and treatment for hepatitis B. RESULTS The average awareness rate of knowledge was 47.02%, the rates of questions related to the possible outcomes after infection of hepatitis B viruses, the treatment outcome and the daily infection ways of hepatitis B, and immunization knowledge of hepatitis B vaccine were especially low. The total score on knowledge, attitude and practic were statistically different during different educational degrees, age groups and occupations. CONCLUSION The residents in spots of prevention and treatment for hepatitis B in Jiangxi Province relatively lack of knowledge about prevention and treatment for hepatitis B, and they are reluctant to accept hepatitis B patients or virus carriers. Health education of hepatitis B knowledge especially about transmission ways is greatly necessary, and it should focus on those people who living in rural areas, elders, with low education degree, fanners and workers.%目的 了解江西省乙肝防治现场居民乙肝知识、态度和行为的现况,为在当地开展有针对性的乙肝防治健康教育提供依据.方法 采用自制统一的调查问卷,在4个乙肝防治现场对3815名18~59岁人群进行乙肝知识、态度、行为(KAP)的流行病学调查.结果 居民的乙肝防治知识知晓率平均为47.02%,对感染乙肝病毒的可能结局,乙肝的治疗转归,日常感染途径等了解得不太全面,且不同学历、年龄段、职业间知识得分、态度、行为

  1. Technical note: Effect of determining baseline plasma urea nitrogen concentrations on subsequent posttreatment plasma urea nitrogen concentrations in 20- to 50-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, A M; Powell, S; Roux, M L; Frugé, E D; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-12-01

    Plasma urea N (PUN) has been used as an indicator of AA requirements and efficiency of AA utilization in swine. However, PUN concentrations vary among a population of pigs, even a population with a close range of BW and fed the same diet. Thus, pretreatment or baseline PUN concentrations are used as a covariate to reduce variation of posttreatment PUN. However, this procedure increases experimental costs and stress to the pigs. Data from 14 experiments (26 to 28 d in duration) conducted using PUN as a response variable were compiled into 1 data set. Each experiment had 4 to 6 treatments. The purpose of this technical report was to summarize the effect of determining pretreatment baseline PUN concentrations on subsequent posttreatment PUN concentrations in 20- to 50-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets and low-CP diets with various AA additions; pigs were assigned to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with a minimum of 4 replicates of 3 to 5 pigs each. Before the start of each experiment, all pigs were fed a common diet for a minimum of 3 d. Blood samples were collected from each pig before allotment to dietary treatments (d 0) and at the end of each experiment. The baseline (d 0) PUN was analyzed as a covariate for posttreatment PUN. Data from each experiment were analyzed without and with baseline PUN in the statistical model. In all experiments combined, there were 768 possible treatment comparisons. The covariate baseline PUN was statistically significant (P < 0.10) in 9 of 14 experiments. However, only 8 treatment differences changed statistical significance as a result of analyzing the data with baseline PUN as a covariate. These 8 treatment differences were in 3 experiments. These results indicate that it is not always necessary to determine baseline PUN concentrations when feeding diets with large differences in AA content.

  2. Contact heat thermal threshold testing in beagle dogs: baseline reproducibility and the effect of acepromazine, levomethadone and fenpipramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Marina Verena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this methodology article a thermal threshold testing device designed to test nociception in cats was assessed in six dogs. The purpose of this study was to investigate baseline reproducibility of thermal thresholds obtained by the contact heat testing device, to assess the influence of acepromazine and levomethadone and fenpipramide in dogs. The relationship between change in nociceptive thermal threshold and the opioid′s plasma concentration was determined. Six adult beagle dogs received levomethadone (0.2 mg/kg, acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg or saline placebo by intramuscular injection (IM in a randomized cross-over design. Three baseline nociceptive thermal threshold readings were taken at 15 minutes intervals prior to treatment. Further readings were made at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330, 360, 420 and 480 minutes after injection. A sedation score was assigned at every reading. Four saline placebo treatments were performed to assess baseline reproducibility. Levomethadone serum concentrations were measured prior and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after drug dosing in a separate occasion. Results Acepromazine did not seem to increase the thermal threshold at any time. After levomethadone there was a significant rise of the thermal threshold between 15 to 120 minutes at serum concentrations between 22.6-46.3 ng/mL. Baseline reproducibility was stable in adult beagle dogs. Conclusion The thermal threshold testing system is a suitable device for nociceptive threshold testing in dogs.

  3. Acoustic tracking of an unmanned underwater vehicle using a passive ultrashort baseline array and a single long baseline beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Kyle L.

    This thesis discusses a new approach to tracking the REMUS 100 AUV using a modified version of the Florida Atlantic University (FAU) ultrashort baseline (USBL) acoustic positioning system (APS). The REMUS 100 is designed to utilize a long baseline (LBL) acoustic positioning system to obtain positioning data in mid-mission. If the placement of one of the transponders of the LBL field is known, then tracking the position of the REMUS 100 AUV using a passive USBL array is possible. As part of the research for this thesis, the FAU USBL system was used to find a relative range between the REMUS 100 ranger and a LBL transponder. This relative range was then combined with direction of arrival information and LBL field component position information to determine an absolute position of the REMUS 100 ranger. The outcome was the demonstration of a passive USBL based tracking system.

  4. The effect of erythropoietin on cognition in affective disorders - Associations with baseline deficits and change in subjective cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Miskowiak, Kamilla W

    2016-08-01

    This is a secondary data analysis from our erythropoietin (EPO) trials. We examine (I) whether EPO improves speed of complex cognitive processing across bipolar and unipolar disorder, (II) if objective and subjective baseline cognitive impairment increases patients׳ chances of treatment-efficacy and (III) if cognitive improvement correlates with better subjective cognitive function, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. Patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder were randomized to eight weekly EPO (N=40) or saline (N=39) infusions. Cognition, mood, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity were assessed at baseline (week 1), after treatment completion (week 9) and at follow-up (week 14). We used repeated measures analysis of covariance to investigate the effect of EPO on speed of complex cognitive processing. With logistic regression, we examined whether baseline cognitive impairment predicted treatment-efficacy. Pearson correlations were used to assess associations between objective and subjective cognition, quality of life and socio-occupational capacity. EPO improved speed of complex cognitive processing across affective disorders at weeks 9 and 14 (p≤0.05). In EPO-treated patients, baseline cognitive impairment increased the odds of treatment-efficacy on cognition at weeks 9 and 14 by a factor 9.7 (95% CI:1.2-81.1) and 9.9 (95% CI:1.1-88.4), respectively (p≤0.04). Subjective cognitive complaints did not affect chances of treatment-efficacy (p≥0.45). EPO-associated cognitive improvement correlated with reduced cognitive complaints but not with quality of life or socio-occupational function. As the analyses were performed post-hoc, findings are only hypothesis-generating. In conclusion, pro-cognitive effects of EPO occurred across affective disorders. Neuropsychological screening for cognitive dysfunction may be warranted in future cognition trials. PMID:27349944

  5. Baseline Gene Expression Signatures in Monocytes from Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Interferon-beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Marta F.; Nurtdinov, Ramil N.; Río, Jordi; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background A relatively large proportion of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients do not respond to interferon-beta (IFNb) treatment. In previous studies with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), we identified a subgroup of IFNb non-responders that was characterized by a baseline over-expression of type I IFN inducible genes. Additional mechanistic experiments carried out in IFNb non-responders suggested a selective alteration of the type I IFN signaling pathway in the population of blood monocytes. Here, we aimed (i) to investigate whether the type I IFN signaling pathway is up-regulated in isolated monocytes from IFNb non-responders at baseline; and (ii) to search for additional biological pathways in this cell population that may be implicated in the response to IFNb treatment. Methods Twenty RRMS patients classified according to their clinical response to IFNb treatment and 10 healthy controls were included in the study. Monocytes were purified from PBMC obtained before treatment by cell sorting and the gene expression profiling was determined with oligonucleotide microarrays. Results and discussion Purified monocytes from IFNb non-responders were characterized by an over-expression of type I IFN responsive genes, which confirms the type I IFN signature in monocytes suggested from previous studies. Other relevant signaling pathways that were up-regulated in IFNb non-responders were related with the mitochondrial function and processes such as protein synthesis and antigen presentation, and together with the type I IFN signaling pathway, may also be playing roles in the response to IFNb. PMID:23637780

  6. A baseline algorithm for face detection and tracking in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Vasant; Soundararajan, Padmanabhan; Korzhova, Valentina; Boonstra, Matthew; Goldgof, Dmitry; Kasturi, Rangachar

    2007-10-01

    Establishing benchmark datasets, performance metrics and baseline algorithms have considerable research significance in gauging the progress in any application domain. These primarily allow both users and developers to compare the performance of various algorithms on a common platform. In our earlier works, we focused on developing performance metrics and establishing a substantial dataset with ground truth for object detection and tracking tasks (text and face) in two video domains -- broadcast news and meetings. In this paper, we present the results of a face detection and tracking algorithm on broadcast news videos with the objective of establishing a baseline performance for this task-domain pair. The detection algorithm uses a statistical approach that was originally developed by Viola and Jones and later extended by Lienhart. The algorithm uses a feature set that is Haar-like and a cascade of boosted decision tree classifiers as a statistical model. In this work, we used the Intel Open Source Computer Vision Library (OpenCV) implementation of the Haar face detection algorithm. The optimal values for the tunable parameters of this implementation were found through an experimental design strategy commonly used in statistical analyses of industrial processes. Tracking was accomplished as continuous detection with the detected objects in two frames mapped using a greedy algorithm based on the distances between the centroids of bounding boxes. Results on the evaluation set containing 50 sequences (~ 2.5 mins.) using the developed performance metrics show good performance of the algorithm reflecting the state-of-the-art which makes it an appropriate choice as the baseline algorithm for the problem.

  7. Re-creating missing population baselines for Pacific reef sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Baum, Julia K; Williams, Ivor D; McPherson, Jana M; Zgliczynski, Brian J; Richards, Benjamin L; Schroeder, Robert E; Brainard, Russell E

    2012-06-01

    Sharks and other large predators are scarce on most coral reefs, but studies of their historical ecology provide qualitative evidence that predators were once numerous in these ecosystems. Quantifying density of sharks in the absence of humans (baseline) is, however, hindered by a paucity of pertinent time-series data. Recently researchers have used underwater visual surveys, primarily of limited spatial extent or nonstandard design, to infer negative associations between reef shark abundance and human populations. We analyzed data from 1607 towed-diver surveys (>1 ha transects surveyed by observers towed behind a boat) conducted at 46 reefs in the central-western Pacific Ocean, reefs that included some of the world's most pristine coral reefs. Estimates of shark density from towed-diver surveys were substantially lower (sharks observed in towed-diver surveys and human population in models that accounted for the influence of oceanic primary productivity, sea surface temperature, reef area, and reef physical complexity. We used these models to estimate the density of sharks in the absence of humans. Densities of gray reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), whitetip reef sharks (Triaenodon obesus), and the group "all reef sharks" increased substantially as human population decreased and as primary productivity and minimum sea surface temperature (or reef area, which was highly correlated with temperature) increased. Simulated baseline densities of reef sharks under the absence of humans were 1.1-2.4/ha for the main Hawaiian Islands, 1.2-2.4/ha for inhabited islands of American Samoa, and 0.9-2.1/ha for inhabited islands in the Mariana Archipelago, which suggests that density of reef sharks has declined to 3-10% of baseline levels in these areas. PMID:22536842

  8. Scanner baseliner monitoring and control in high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudrala, Pavan; Chung, Woong Jae; Aung, Nyan; Subramany, Lokesh; Gao, Haiyong; Gomez, Juan-Manuel

    2016-03-01

    We analyze performance of different customized models on baseliner overlay data and demonstrate the reduction in overlay residuals by ~10%. Smart Sampling sets were assessed and compared with the full wafer measurements. We found that performance of the grid can still be maintained by going to one-third of total sampling points, while reducing metrology time by 60%. We also demonstrate the feasibility of achieving time to time matching using scanner fleet manager and thus identify the tool drifts even when the tool monitoring controls are within spec limits. We also explore the scanner feedback constant variation with illumination sources.

  9. Long baseline accelerator neutrino experiments present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, André

    2000-01-01

    A nu /sub mu / disappearance effect has been seen in atmospheric neutrino experiments. This has led to the "evidence for neutrino oscillations". The next problem in neutrino physics is to perform the right experiment(s) to elucidate in a comprehensive way the pattern of neutrino masses and mixings. The long baseline experiments will play a fundamental role at settling definitively the question of flavor oscillation and at measuring with good precision the oscillation parameters. The CERN-NGS beam coupled with the proposed ICANOE and OPERA detectors is the only programme capable of sensitive tau and electron appearance searches. (14 refs).

  10. Smart Retro: Novel Ways to Develop Cities : Baseline Report

    OpenAIRE

    Neuvonen, Aleksi; Wangel, Josefin; Liljenström, Carolina; Annala, Mikko; Parkkinen, Marjukka; Valladares, Andrea; Mattila, Kalle; Vesanen, Verna

    2014-01-01

    WHAT WILL your home and neighbourhood look like in twenty years? The radical development in smart solutions, the ageing of building stock, our need to radically cut our greenhouse gas emissions and many other strong drivers are changing the way we live, faster than ever before. That change is particularly significant in areas with older building stock – but it is not deterministic change. This is a baseline report for Smart Retro: a project exploring how we can rein in the strength of emergin...

  11. Stellar intensity interferometry: Experimental steps toward long-baseline observations

    CERN Document Server

    LeBohec, Stephan; Bond, Isobel; Bradbury, Stella; Dravins, Dainis; Jensen, Hannes; Kieda, David B; Kress, Derrick; Munford, Edward; Nunez, Paul D; Price, Ryan; Ribak, Erez; Rose, Joachim; Simpson, Harold; Smith, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Experiments are in progress to prepare for intensity interferometry with arrays of air Cherenkov telescopes. At the Bonneville Seabase site, near Salt Lake City, a testbed observatory has been set up with two 3-m air Cherenkov telescopes on a 23-m baseline. Cameras are being constructed, with control electronics for either off- or online analysis of the data. At the Lund Observatory (Sweden), in Technion (Israel) and at the University of Utah (USA), laboratory intensity interferometers simulating stellar observations have been set up and experiments are in progress, using various analog and digital correlators, reaching 1.4 ns time resolution, to analyze signals from pairs of laboratory telescopes.

  12. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 1.03: Utilities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Pottier, M.C.; Schrank, E.E.; Williams, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool that was developed under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This Utilities Guide explains how to operate utility programs that are supplied as a part of the IBS. These utility programs are chiefly for managing and manipulating various kinds of IBS data and system administration files. Many of the utilities are for creating, editing, converting, or displaying map data and other data that are related to geographic location.

  13. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  14. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Utilities Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, M.J.; Downing, T.R.; Williams, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bower, J.C. [Bower Software Services, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Utilities Guide explains how you can use the IBS utility programs to manage and manipulate various kinds of IBS data. These programs include utilities for creating, editing, and displaying maps and other data that are referenced to geographic location. The intended audience for this document are chiefly data managers but also system managers and some emergency management planners and analysts.

  15. Baseline review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Review of the U.S. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Accelerator project was conducted February 23--26, 1998, at the request of Dr. John R. O`Fallon, Director, Division of High Energy Physics, Office of Energy Research, U.S. DOE. This is the first review of the U.S. LHC Accelerator project. Overall, the Committee found that the U.S. LHC Accelerator project effort is off to a good start and that the proposed scope is very conservative for the funding available. The Committee recommends that the project be initially baselined at a total cost of $110 million, with a scheduled completion data of 2005. The U.S. LHC Accelerator project will supply high technology superconducting magnets for the interaction regions (IRs) and the radio frequency (rf) straight section of the LHC intersecting storage rings. In addition, the project provides the cryogenic support interface boxes to service the magnets and radiation absorbers to protect the IR dipoles and the inner triplet quadrupoles. US scientists will provide support in analyzing some of the detailed aspects of accelerator physics in the two rings. The three laboratories participating in this project are Brookhaven National Laboratory, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Committee was very impressed by the technical capabilities of the US LHC Accelerator project team. Cost estimates for each subsystem of the US LHC Accelerator project were presented to the Review Committee, with a total cost including contingency of $110 million (then year dollars). The cost estimates were deemed to be conservative. A re-examination of the funding profile, costs, and schedules on a centralized project basis should lead to an increased list of deliverables. The Committee concluded that the proposed scope of US deliverables to CERN can be readily accomplished with the $110 million total cost baseline for the project. The current deliverables should serve as

  16. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  17. Future long-baseline neutrino oscillations: View from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzak, T. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2015-07-15

    Since about a decade the european physics community interested in neutrino and neutrino-astrophysics develops a plan to conceive the next generation large underground neutrino observatory. Recently, the LAGUNA-LBNO collaboration made the outcome of the FP7 design study public which shows a clear path for the realization of such experiment. In this paper the LAGUNA and LAGUNA-LBNO Design studies, resulting in a proposal for the LBNO experiment, will be discussed. The author will focus on the long baseline neutrino oscillation search, especially on the potential to discover the neutrino mass ordering and the search for CP violation in the lepton sector.

  18. Implications of 3+1 short-baseline neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunti, Carlo, E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Laveder, Marco, E-mail: laveder@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova, and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-12-06

    We present an upgrade of the 3+1 global fit of short-baseline neutrino oscillation data obtained with the addition of KARMEN and LSND {nu}{sub e}+{sup 12}C{yields}{sup 12}N{sub g.s.}+e{sup -} scattering data. We discuss the implications for the measurements of the effective neutrino mass in {beta}-decay and neutrinoless double-{beta}-decay experiments. We find respective predicted ranges of about 0.1-0.7 eV and 0.01-0.1 eV.

  19. The mixed waste management facility. Project baseline revision 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, R.D.; Throop, A.L.

    1995-04-01

    Revision 1.2 to the Project Baseline (PB) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is in response to DOE directives and verbal guidance to (1) Collocate the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) and MWMF into a single complex, integrate certain and overlapping functions as a cost-saving measure; (2) Meet certain fiscal year (FY) new-BA funding objectives ($15.3M in FY95) with lower and roughly balanced funding for out years; (3) Reduce Total Project Cost (TPC) for the MWMF Project; (4) Include costs for all appropriate permitting activities in the project TPC. This baseline revision also incorporates revisions in the technical baseline design for Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO). Changes in the WBS dictionary that are necessary as a result of this rebaseline, as well as minor title changes, at WBS Level 3 or above (DOE control level) are approved as a separate document. For completeness, the WBS dictionary that reflects these changes is contained in Appendix B. The PB, with revisions as described in this document, were also the basis for the FY97 Validation Process, presented to DOE and their reviewers on March 21-22, 1995. Appendix C lists information related to prior revisions to the PB. Several key changes relate to the integration of functions and sharing of facilities between the portion of the DWTF that will house the MWMF and those portions that are used by the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) Division at LLNL. This collocation has been directed by DOE as a cost-saving measure and has been implemented in a manner that maintains separate operational elements from a safety and permitting viewpoint. Appendix D provides background information on the decision and implications of collocating the two facilities.

  20. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report

  1. Goldindec: A Novel Algorithm for Raman Spectrum Baseline Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juntao; Sun, Jianyang; Huang, Xiuzhen; Li, Guojun; Liu, Binqiang

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectra have been widely used in biology, physics, and chemistry and have become an essential tool for the studies of macromolecules. Nevertheless, the raw Raman signal is often obscured by a broad background curve (or baseline) due to the intrinsic fluorescence of the organic molecules, which leads to unpredictable negative effects in quantitative analysis of Raman spectra. Therefore, it is essential to correct this baseline before analyzing raw Raman spectra. Polynomial fitting has proven to be the most convenient and simplest method and has high accuracy. In polynomial fitting, the cost function used and its parameters are crucial. This article proposes a novel iterative algorithm named Goldindec, freely available for noncommercial use as noted in text, with a new cost function that not only conquers the influence of great peaks but also solves the problem of low correction accuracy when there is a high peak number. Goldindec automatically generates parameters from the raw data rather than by empirical choice, as in previous methods. Comparisons with other algorithms on the benchmark data show that Goldindec has a higher accuracy and computational efficiency, and is hardly affected by great peaks, peak number, and wavenumber. PMID:26037638

  2. The IUGS/IAGC Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David B.Smith; Shaun Reeder; Alecos Demetriades

    2012-01-01

    The Task Group on Global Geochemical Baselines,operating under the auspices of both the International Union of Geological Sciences(IUGS) and the International Association of Geochemistry(IAGC),has the long-term goal of establishing a global geochemical database to document the concentration and distribution of chemical elements in the Earth's surface or near-surface environment.The database and accompanying element distribution maps represent a geochemical baseline against which future human-induced or natural changes to the chemistry of the land surface may be recognized and quantified.In order to accomplish this long-term goal,the activities of the Task Group include:(1) developing partnerships with countries conducting broad-scale geochemical mapping studies;(2) providing consultation and training in the form of workshops and short courses;(3) organizing periodic international symposia to foster communication among the geochemical mapping community;(4) developing criteria for certifying those projects whose data are acceptable in a global geochemical database;(5) acting as a repository for data collected by those projects meeting the criteria for standardization;(6) preparing complete metadata for the certified projects;and(7) preparing,ultimately,a global geochemical database.This paper summarizes the history and accomplishments of the Task Group since its first predecessor project was established in 1988.

  3. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program sixth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, C.E.

    1974-04-30

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Engines were built to replace those originally loaned to the Program. Efforts to identify and correct a general power deficiency were generally successful. The third baseline vehicle was built and checked out. Baseline vehicle emissions, performance, fuel consumption, and noise tests were run. Chrysler's proprietary linerless insulation showed no significant distress following 300 hours of engine endurance testing. An improved elastomeric drive for ceramic regenerators was developed on the regenerator rig. Preparations are being made for engine testing. The Ai Research engine simulation model is operational and control system concepts are being studied. Operation of the preprototype fuel system was verified on an engine. All other key preprototype system elements were bench checked. Variable inlet guide vane testing and development and torque converter lock-up evaluation tests are in process. A free rotor engine arrangement for vehicle evaluation and development is being built. Initial specifications were completed for a 122 horsepower, compact vehicle upgraded engine. NASA completed initial specifications for the gas generator aerodynamics. Overall engine and engine housing layout studies are being made.

  4. Airborne infection control in India: Baseline assessment of health facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Malik M.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Rade, Kiran; Ghedia, Mayank; Bansal, Avi; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Willis, Matthew D.; Misquitta, Dyson P.; Nair, Sreenivas A.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Dewan, Puneet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis transmission in health care settings represents a major public health problem. In 2010, national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines were adopted in India. These guidelines included specific policies for TB prevention and control in health care settings. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of these guidelines have not been assessed in routine practice. This study aimed to conduct baseline assessments of AIC policies and practices within a convenience sample of 35 health care settings across 3 states in India and to assess the level of implementation at each facility after one year. Method A multi-agency, multidisciplinary panel of experts performed site visits using a standardized risk assessment tool to document current practices and review resource capacity. At the conclusion of each assessment, facility-specific recommendations were provided to improve AIC performance to align with national guidelines. Result Upon initial assessment, AIC systems were found to be poorly developed and implemented. Administrative controls were not commonly practiced and many departments needed renovation to achieve minimum environmental standards. One year after the baseline assessments, there were substantial improvements in both policy and practice. Conclusion A package of capacity building and systems development that followed national guidelines substantially improved implementation of AIC policies and practice. PMID:26970461

  5. Baselines for the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng

    2013-01-01

    Using a Canadian student achievement assessment database, the Science Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP), and employing the Rasch partial credit measurement model, this study estimated the difficulties of items corresponding to the learning outcomes in the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework and the latent abilities of students of grades 7, 8, 10, 11, 12 and OAC (Ontario Academic Course). The above estimates serve as baselines for validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum framework in terms of the learning progression of learning outcomes and expected mastery of learning outcomes by grades. It was found that there was no statistically significant progression in learning outcomes from grades 4-6 to grades 7-9, and from grades 7-9 to grades 10-12; the curriculum framework sets mastery expectation about 2 grades higher than students' potential abilities. In light of the above findings, this paper discusses theoretical issues related to deciding progression of learning outcomes and setting expectation of student mastery of learning outcomes, and highlights the importance of using national assessment data to establish baselines for the above purposes. This paper concludes with recommendations for further validating the Pan-Canadian science curriculum frameworks.

  6. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  7. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  8. EMD-based GPS baseline solution and validation test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jing-xiang; WANG Jin-ling; XU Chang-hui

    2008-01-01

    A GPS baseline solution model is presented, based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), which has the advantage of eliminating the error effects outside the model. The EMD technique is a new signal processing method for non-linear time series, which decomposes a time series into a finite and often small number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). The decomposition procedure is adaptive and data-driven which is suitable for non-linear data series analysis. A multi-scale decomposition and reconstruction architecture is defined on the basis of the EMD theory and the error mitigation model is demonstrated as well. A standard of the scale selection for the elimination of errors, outside the model, was given in terms of the mean of the accumulated standardized modes. Thereafter, the scheme of the GPS baseline solution based on the EMD is suggested. The float solution residuals of the Double-Difference (DD) observation equation are used to extract the errors outside the model applied to modify the GPS DD measurements. Then the float solution was given again and the fixed solution was obtained by a Lambda algorithm. Three schemes are designed to test the proposed model and the experimental results show that the proposed model dramatically improves the relia- bility of ambiguity resolution after the elimination of errors outside the model.

  9. A baseline for the multivariate comparison of resting state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Allen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this paper, we introduce a multivariate analytic approach that optimizes sensitivity and reduces unnecessary testing. We demonstrate the utility of this mega-analytic approach by identifying the effects of age and gender on the resting state networks of 603 healthy adolescents and adults (mean age: 23.4 years, range: 12 to 71 years. Data were collected on the same scanner, preprocessed using an automated analysis pipeline based in SPM, and studied using group independent component analysis. Resting state networks were identified and evaluated in terms of three primary outcome measures: time course spectral power, spatial map intensity, and functional network connectivity. Results revealed robust effects of age on all three outcome measures, largely indicating decreases in network coherence and connectivity with increasing age. Gender effects were of smaller magnitude but suggested stronger intra-network connectivity in females and more inter-network connectivity in males, particularly with regard to sensorimotor networks. These findings, along with the analysis approach and statistical framework described here, provide a useful baseline for future investigations of brain networks in health and disease.

  10. Study of neutrino oscillations in long-baseline accelerator experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudenko, Yurii G [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-30

    A review of the title subject is given. The phenomenology of neutrino oscillations in the framework of the so-called neutrino Standard Model ({nu}SM) with three active neutrinos is considered. The recently completed long-baseline accelerator experiment K2K and currently in-progress MINOS and OPERA experiments are described in detail. The oscillation parameters obtained from the global analysis of all oscillation data are given. The short-baseline experiment MiniBooNE and its results on the search for light sterile neutrinos are discussed in detail. Considerable attention is given to searching for {nu}{sub {mu}{yields}{nu}e} oscillations and measuring the {theta}{sub 13} angle in muon neutrino experiments. The concept of the off-axis neutrino beam is reviewed. The T2K experiment, collecting statistics since early 2010, is described for its details and objectives. The NO{nu}A experiment under construction and the next-generation beta beam and neutrino factory experiments are also discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. Elevating Baseline Activation Does Not Facilitate Reading of Unattended Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Kouchi, Scott; Ruthruff, Eric; Lachter, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have disagreed the extent to which people extract meaning from words presented outside the focus of spatial attention. The present study, examined a possible explanation for such discrepancies, inspired by attenuation theory: unattended words can be read more automatically when they have a high baseline level of activation (e.g., due to frequent repetition or due to being expected in a given context). We presented a brief prime word in lowercase, followed by a target word in uppercase. Participants indicated whether the target word belonged to a particular category (e.g., "sport"). When we drew attention to the prime word using a visual cue, the prime produced substantial priming effects on target responses (i.e., faster responses when the prime and target words were identical or from the same category than when they belonged to different categories). When prime words were not attended, however, they produced no priming effects. This finding replicated even when there were only 4 words, each repeated 160 times during the experiment. Even with a very high baseline level of activation, it appears that very little word processing is possible without spatial attention.

  12. Model Order Selection in Multi-baseline Interferometric Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Gini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR is a powerful technique to derive three-dimensional terrain images. Interest is growing in exploiting the advanced multi-baseline mode of InSAR to solve layover effects from complex orography, which generate reception of unexpected multicomponent signals that degrade imagery of both terrain radar reflectivity and height. This work addresses a few problems related to the implementation into interferometric processing of nonlinear algorithms for estimating the number of signal components, including a system trade-off analysis. Performance of various eigenvalues-based information-theoretic criteria (ITC algorithms is numerically investigated under some realistic conditions. In particular, speckle effects from surface and volume scattering are taken into account as multiplicative noise in the signal model. Robustness to leakage of signal power into the noise eigenvalues and operation with a small number of looks are investigated. The issue of baseline optimization for detection is also addressed. The use of diagonally loaded ITC methods is then proposed as a tool for robust operation in the presence of speckle decorrelation. Finally, case studies of a nonuniform array are studied and recommendations for a proper combination of ITC methods and system configuration are given.

  13. Estimating baseline carbon emissions for the Eastern Panama Canal watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6036 (United States); Brown, S. [Ecosystem Services Unit, Winrock International, 1621 N Kent St, Suite 1200, Arlington, VA 22209 (United States); Calderon, M.O.; Montoya, A.S.; Martinez, R.E. [Remote Sensing Unit of the Panama Canal Watershed, Panama Canal Authority, Panama City (Panama)

    2003-07-01

    To participate in the potential market for carbon credits based on changes in the use and management of the land, one needs to identify opportunities and implement land-use based emissions reductions or sequestration projects. A key requirement of land-based carbon (C) projects is that any activity developed for generating C benefits must be additional to business-as-usual. A rule-based model was developed and used that estimates changes in land-use and subsequent carbon emissions over the next twenty years using the Eastern Panama Canal Watershed (EPCW) as a case study. These projections of changes in C stocks serve as a baseline to identify where opportunities exist for implementing projects to generate potential C credits and to position Panama to be able to participate in the emerging C market by developing a baseline under scenarios of business-as-usual and new-road development. The projections show that the highest percent change in land use for the new-road scenario compared to the business-as-usual scenario is for urban areas, and the greatest cause of C emission is from deforestation. Thus, the most effective way to reduce C emissions to the atmosphere in the EPCW is by reducing deforestation. In addition to affecting C emissions, reducing deforestation would also protect the soil and water resources of the EPCW. Yet, under the current framework of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), only credits arising from reforestation are allowed, which after 20 years of plantation establishment are not enough to offset the C emissions from the ongoing, albeit small, rate of deforestation in the EPCW. The study demonstrates the value of spatial regional projections of changes in land cover and C stocks: The approach helps a country identify its potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emission liabilities into the future and provides opportunity for the country to plan alternative development pathways; It could be used by potential project developers to identify which types

  14. Baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, John J.V.; Anand, Inder S.; Diaz, Rafael; Maggioni, Aldo P.; O'Connor, Christopher; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Solomon, Scott D.; Tendera, Michal; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Albizem, Moetaz; Cheng, Sunfa; Scarlata, Debra; Swedberg, Karl; Young, James B.; Amuchastegui, M.; Belziti, C.; Bluguermann, J.; Caccavo, M.; Cartasegna, L.; Colque, R.; Cuneo, C.; Fernandez, A.; Gabito, A.; Goicochea, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Gorosito, V.; Grinfeld, L.; Hominal, M.; Kevorkian, R.; Litvak Bruno, M.; Llanos, J.; Mackinnon, I.; Manuale, O.; Marzetti, E.; Nul, D.; Perna, E.; Riccitelli, M.; Sanchez, A.; Santos, D.; Schygiel, P.; Toblli, J.; Vogel, D.; Aggarwal, A.; Amerena, J.; De Looze, F.; Fletcher, P.; Hare, D.; Ireland, M.; Krum, H.; Lattimore, J.; Marwick, T.; Sindone, A.; Thompson, P.; Waites, J.; Altenberger, J.; Ebner, C.; Lenz, K.; Pacher, R.; Poelzl, G.; Charlier, F.; de Ceuninck, M.; De Keulenaer, G.; Dendale, P.; Maréchal, P.; Mullens, W.; Thoeng, J.; Vanderheyden, M.; Vanhaecke, J.; Weytjens, C.; Wollaert, B.; Albuquerque, D.; Almeida, D.; Aspe y Rosas, J.; Bocchi, E.; Bordignon, S.; Clausell, N.; Kaiser, S.; Leaes, P.; Martins Alves, S.; Montera, M.; Moura, L.; Pereira de Castro, R.; Rassi, S.; Reis, A.; Saraiva, J.; Simões, M.; Souza Neto, J.; Teixeira, M.; Benov, H.; Chompalova, B.; Donova, T.; Georgiev, P.; Gotchev, D.; Goudev, A.; Grigorov, M.; Guenova, D.; Hergeldjieva, V.; Ivanov, D.; Kostova, E.; Manolova, A.; Marchev, S.; Nikolov, F.; Popov, A.; Raev, D.; Tzekova, M.; Czarnecki, W.; Giannetti, N.; Haddad, H.; Heath, J.; Huynh, T.; Lepage, S.; Liu, P.; Lonn, E.; Ma, P.; Manyari, D.; Moe, G.; Parker, J.; Pesant, Y.; Rajda, M.; Ricci, J.; Roth, S.; Sestier, F.; Sluzar, V.; Sussex, B.; Vizel, S.; Antezana, G.; Bugueno, C.; Castro, P.; Conejeros, C.; Manriquez, L.; Martinez, D.; Potthoff, S.; Stockins, B.; Vukasovic, J.; Gregor, P.; Herold, M.; Jerabek, O.; Jirmar, R.; Kuchar, R.; Linhart, A.; Podzemska, B.; Soucek, M.; Spac, J.; Spacek, R.; Vodnansky, P.; Bronnum-Schou, J.; Clemmensen, K.; Egstrup, K.; Jensen, G.; Kjoller-Hansen, L.; Kober, L.; Markenvard, J.; Rokkedal, J.; Skagen, K.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Tuxen, C.; Videbak, L.; Laks, T.; Vahula, V.; Harjola, V.; Kettunen, R.; Kotila, M.; Bauer, F.; Cohen Solal, A.; Coisne, D.; Davy, J.; De Groote, P.; Dos Santos, P.; Funck, F.; Galinier, M.; Gibelin, P.; Isnard, R.; Neuder, Y.; Roul, G.; Sabatier, R.; Trochu, J.; Anker, S.; Denny, S.; Dreykluft, T.; Flesch, M.; Genth-Zotz, S.; Hambrecht, R.; Hein, J.; Jeserich, M.; John, M.; Kreider-Stempfle, H.; Laufs, U.; Muellerleile, K.; Natour, M.; Sandri, M.; Schäufele, T.; von Hodenberg, E.; Weyland, K.; Winkelmann, B.; Tse, H.; Yan, B.; Barsi, B.; Csikasz, J.; Dezsi, C.; Edes, I.; Forster, T.; Karpati, P.; Kerekes, C.; Kis, E.; Kosa, I.; Lupkovics, G.; Nagy, A.; Preda, I.; Ronaszeki, A.; Tomcsanyi, J.; Zamolyi, K.; Agarwal, D.; Bahl, V.; Bordoloi, A.; Chockalingam, K.; Chopda, M.; Chopra, V.; Dugal, J.; Ghaisas, N.; Ghosh, S.; Grant, P.; Hiremath, S.; Iyengar, S.; Jagadeesa Subramania, B.; Jain, P.; Joshi, A.; Khan, A.; Mullasari, A.; Naik, S.; Oomman, A.; Pai, V.; Pareppally Gopal, R.; Parikh, K.; Patel, T.; Prakash, V.; Sastry, B.; Sathe, S.; Sinha, N.; Srikanthan, V.; Subburamakrishnan, P.; Thacker, H.; Wander, G.; Admon, D.; Katz, A.; Klainman, E.; Lewis, B.; Marmor, A.; Moriel, M.; Mosseri, M.; Shotan, A.; Weinstein, J.; Zimlichman, R.; Agostoni, P.; Albanese, M.; Alunni, G.; Bini, R.; Boccanelli, A.; Bolognese, L.; Campana, C.; Carbonieri, E.; Carpino, C.; Checco, L.; Cosmi, F.; D'Angelo, G.; De Cristofaro, M.; Floresta, A.; Fucili, A.; Galvani, M.; Ivleva, A.; Marra, S.; Musca, G.; Peccerillo, N.; Perrone Filardi, P.; Picchio, E.; Russo, T.; Scelsi, L.; Senni, M.; Tavazzi, L.; Erglis, A.; Jasinkevica, I.; Kakurina, N.; Veze, I.; Volans, E.; Bagdonas, A.; Berukstis, E.; Celutkiene, J.; Dambrauskaite, A.; Jarasuniene, D.; Luksiene, D.; Rudys, A.; Sakalyte, G.; Sliaziene, S.; Aguilar-Romero, R.; Cardona-Muñoz, E.; Castro-Jimenez, J.; Chavez-Herrera, J.; Chuquiure Valenzuela, E.; De la Pena, G.; Herrera, E.; Leiva-Pons, J.; Lopez Alvarado, A.; Mendez Machado, G.; Ramos-Lopez, G.; Basart, D.; Buijs, E.; Cornel, J.; de Leeuw, M.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Dunselman, P.; Freericks, M.; Hamraoui, K.; Lenderlink, T.; Linssen, G.; Lodewick, P.; Lodewijks, C.; Lok, D.; Nierop, P.; Ronner, E.; Somsen, A.; van Dantzig, J.; van der Burgh, P.; van Kempen, L.; van Vlies, B.; Voors, A.; Wardeh, A.; Willems, F.; Dickstein, K.; Gundersen, T.; Hole, T.; Thalamus, J.; Westheim, A.; Dabrowski, M.; Gorski, J.; Korewicki, J.; Kuc, K.; Miekus, P.; Musial, W.; Niegowska, J.; Piotrowski, W.; Podolec, P.; Polonski, L.; Ponikowski, P.; Rynkiewicz, A.; Szelemej, R.; Trusz-Gluza, M.; Ujda, M.; Wojciechowski, D; Wysokinski, A.; Camacho, A.; Fonseca, C.; Monteiro, P.; Apetrei, E.; Bruckner, I.; Carasca, E.; Coman, I.; Datcu, M.; Dragulescu, S.; Ionescu, P.; Iordachescu-Petica, D.; Manitiu, I.; Popa, V.; Pop-Moldovan, A.; Radoi, M.; Stamate, S.; Tomescu, M.; Vita, I.; Aroutiounov, G.; Ballyuzek, M.; Bart, B.; Churina, S.; Glezer, M.; Goloshchekin, B.; Ivleva, A.; Kobalava, Z.; Kostenko, V.; Lopatin, Y.; Martynov, A.; Orlov, V.; Semernin, E.; Shogenov, Z.; Sidorenko, B.; Skvortsov, A.; Storzhakov, G.; Sulimov, V.; Talibov, O.; Tereshenko, S.; Tsyrline, V.; Zadionchenko, V.; Zateyshchikov, D.; Dzupina, A.; Hranai, M.; Kmec, J.; Micko, K.; Murin, J.; Pella, D.; Sojka, G.; Spisak, V.; Vahala, P.; Vinanska, D.; Badat, A.; Bayat, J.; Dawood, S.; Delport, E.; Ellis, G.; Garda, R.; Klug, E.; Mabin, T.; Naidoo, D.; Pretorius, M.; Ranjith, N.; Van Zyl, L.; Weich, H.; Anguita, M.; Berrazueta, J.; Bruguera i Cortada, J.; de Teresa, E.; Gómez Sánchez, M.; González Juanatey, J.; Gonzalez-Maqueda, I.; Jordana, R.; Lupon, J.; Manzano, L.; Pascual Figal, D.; Pulpón, L.; Recio, J.; Ridocci Soriano, F.; Rodríguez Lambert, J.; Roig Minguell, E.; Roig Minguell, E.; Romero, J.; Valdovinos, P.; Klintberg, L.; Kronvall, T.; Lycksell, M.; Morner, S.; Rydberg, E.; Swedberg, K.; Timberg, I.; Wikstrom, G.; Moccetti, T.4; Ashok, J.; Banerjee, P.; Carr-White, G.; Cleland, J.; Connolly, E.; Francis, M.; Greenbaum, R.; Kadr, H.; Lindsay, S.; McMurray, J.; Megarry, S.; Memon, A.; Murdoch, D.; Senior, R.; Squire, I.; Tan, L.; Witte, K.; Adams, K.; Adamson, P.; Adler, A.; Altschul, L.; Altschuller, A.; Amirani, H.; Anand, I.; Andreou, C.; Ansari, M.; Antonishen, M.; Banchs, H.; Banerjee, S.; Banish, D.; Bank, A.; Barbagelata, A.; Barnard, D.; Bellinger, R.; Benn, A.; Berk, M.; Berry, B.; Bethala, V.; Bilazarian, S.; Bisognano, J.; Bleyer, F.; Blum, M.; Boehmer, J.; Bouchard, A.; Boyle, A.; Bozkurt, B.; Brown, C.; Burlew, B.; Burnham, K.; Butler, J.; Call, J.; Cambier, P.; Cappola, T.; Carlson, R.; Chandler, B.; Chandra, R.; Chandraratna, P.; Chernick, R.; Colan, D.; Colfer, H.; Colucci, W.; Connelly, T.; Costantini, O.; Dadkhah, S.; Dauber, I.; Davis, J.; Davis, S.; Denning, S.; Drazner, M.; Dunlap, S.; Egbujiobi, L.; Elkayam, U.; Elliott, J.; El-Shahawy, M.; Essandoh, L.; Ewald, G.; Fang, J.; Farhoud, H.; Felker, G.; Fernandez, J.; Festin, R.; Fishbein, G.; Florea, V.; Flores, E.; Floro, J.; Gabris, M.; Garg, M.; Gatewood, R.; Geller, M.; Ghali, J.; Ghumman, W.; Gibbs, G.; Gillespie, E.; Gilmore, R.; Gogia, H.; Goldberg, L.; Gradus-Pizlo, I.; Grainger, T.; Gudmundsson, G.; Gunawardena, D.; Gupta, D.; Hack, T.; Hall, S.; Hamroff, G.; Hankins, S.; Hanna, M.; Hargrove, J.; Haught, W.; Hauptman, P.; Hazelrigg, M.; Herzog, C.; Heywood, J.; Hill, T.; Hilton, T.; Hirsch, H.; Hunter, J.; Ibrahim, H.; Imburgia, M.; Iteld, B.; Jackson, B.; Jaffrani, N.; Jain, D.; Jain, A.; James, M.; Jimenez, J.; Johnson, E.; Kale, P.; Kaneshige, A.; Kapadia, S.; Karia, D.; Karlsberg, R.; Katholi, R.; Kerut, E.; Khoury, W.; Kipperman, R.; Klapholz, M.; Kosinski, E.; Kozinn, M.; Kraus, D.; Krueger, S.; Krum, H.; Kumar, S.; Lader, E.; Lee, C.; Levy, W.; Lewis, E.; Light-McGroary, K.; Loh, I.; Lombardi, W.; Machado, C.; Maislos, F.; Mancini, D.; Markus, T.; Mather, P.; McCants, K.; McGrew, F.; McLaurin, B.; McMillan, E.; McNamara, D.; Meyer, T.; Meymandi, S.; Miller, A.; Minami, E.; Modi, M.; Mody, F.; Mohanty, P.; Moscoso, R.; Moskowitz, R.; Moustafa, M.; Mullen, M.; Naz, T.; Noonan, T.; O'Brien, T.; Oellerich, W.; Oren, R.; Pamboukian, S.; Pereira, N.; Pitt, W.; Porter, C.; Prabhu, S.; Promisloff, S.; Ratkovec, R.; Richardson, R.; Ross, A.; Saleh, N.; Saltzberg, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schmedtje, J.; Schneider, R.; Schuyler, G.; Shanes, J.; Sharma, A.; Siegel, C.; Siegel, R.; Silber, D.; Singh, V.; Singh, N.; Singh, J.; Sklar, J.; Small, R.; Smith, A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smull, D.; Sotolongo, R.; Staniloae, C.; Stapleton, D.; Steele, P.; Stehlik, J.; Stein, M.; Tang, W.; Thadani, U.; Torre-Amoine, G.; Trichon, B.; Tsai, C.; Tummala, R.; Van Bakel, A.; Vicari, R.; Vijay, N.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Vittorio, T.; Vossler, M.; Wagoner, L.; Wallis, D.; Ward, N.; Widmer, M.; Wight, J.; Wilkins, C.; Williams, C.; Williams, G.; Winchester, M.; Winkel, E.; Wittmer, B.; Wood, D.; Wormer, D.; Wright, R.; Xu, Z.; Yasin, M.; Zolty, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This report describes the baseline characteristics of patients in the Reduction of Events with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure trial (RED-HF) which is testing the hypothesis that anaemia correction with darbepoetin alfa will reduce the composite endpoint of death from any cause or hospital admission for worsening heart failure, and improve other outcomes. Methods and results Key demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings, along with baseline treatment, are reported and compared with those of patients in other recent clinical trials in heart failure. Compared with other recent trials, RED-HF enrolled more elderly [mean age 70 (SD 11.4) years], female (41%), and black (9%) patients. RED-HF patients more often had diabetes (46%) and renal impairment (72% had an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Patients in RED-HF had heart failure of longer duration [5.3 (5.4) years], worse NYHA class (35% II, 63% III, and 2% IV), and more signs of congestion. Mean EF was 30% (6.8%). RED-HF patients were well treated at randomization, and pharmacological therapy at baseline was broadly similar to that of other recent trials, taking account of study-specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Median (interquartile range) haemoglobin at baseline was 112 (106–117) g/L. Conclusion The anaemic patients enrolled in RED-HF were older, moderately to markedly symptomatic, and had extensive co-morbidity. PMID:23329651

  15. Durability study and lifetime prediction of baseline proton exchange membrane fuel cell under severe operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrony, M.; Quenet, S.; Aslanides, A. [European Institute for Energy Research, Emmy-Noether Strasse 11, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Barrera, R.; Ginocchio, S.; Montelatici, L. [Edison, Via Giorgio La Pira 2, 10028 Trofarello (Italy)

    2008-08-01

    Comparative studies of mechanical and electrochemical properties of Nafion{sup registered} - and sulfonated polyetheretherketone polymer-type membranes are carried out under severe fuel cell conditions required by industrials, within stationary and cycling electric load profiles. These membranes are proposed to be used in PEM between 70 and 90 C as fluorinated or non-fluorinated baseline membranes, respectively. Thus, though the performance of both membranes remains suitable, Nafion{sup registered} backbone brought better mechanical properties and higher electrochemical stabilities than sulfonated polyetheretherketone backbone. The performance stability and the mechanical strength of the membrane-electrode assembly were shown to be influenced by several intrinsic properties of the membrane (e.g., thermal pre-treatment, thickness) and external conditions (fuel cell operating temperature, relative humidity). Finally, a lifetime prediction for membranes under stationary conditions is proposed depending on the operation temperature. At equivalent thicknesses (i.e. 50 {mu}m), Nafion{sup registered} membranes were estimated able to operate into the 80-90 C range while sulfonated polyetheretherketone would be limited into the 70-80 C range. This approach brings baseline information about the capability of these types of polymer electrolyte membrane under fuel cell critical operations. Finally, it is revealed as a potential tool for the selection of the most promising advanced polymers for the ensuing research phase. (author)

  16. Improvement during baseline: three case studies encouraging collaborative research when evaluating caregiver training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, M M; Glang, A; Todis, B

    1998-04-01

    The trend in cognitive rehabilitation toward reduced services, which provide more functionally relevant outcomes and the recognition of limited maintenance and generalization with many existing interventions, challenges current research models. There is a need to develop and evaluate interventions that can be implemented by persons other than rehabilitation professionals and that are well suited to naturalistic settings. The researchers responded to these challenges by designing a series of single subject experiments evaluating the effectiveness of training caregivers to provide appropriate cognitive support to persons with brain injury within their own natural living environments. The goal of the original research project included evaluating a collaborative mode of interaction with the subjects and their support persons (as opposed to traditional directive treatment models) where the caregivers and subjects were instrumental in designing the intervention and collective performance data. This paper presents the data from the initial three subject/caregiver groups all of whom demonstrated improvement in the target behaviours during the baseline period. It appeared that the act of measuring client performance changed the behaviours of the support persons and resulted in positive changes in baseline levels. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Gcg-XTEN: an improved glucagon capable of preventing hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Geething

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While the majority of current diabetes treatments focus on reducing blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia represents a significant risk associated with insulin treatment. Glucagon plays a major regulatory role in controlling hypoglycemia in vivo, but its short half-life and hyperglycemic effects prevent its therapeutic use for non-acute applications. The goal of this study was to identify a modified form of glucagon suitable for prophylactic treatment of hypoglycemia without increasing baseline blood glucose levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through application of the XTEN technology, we report the construction of a glucagon fusion protein with an extended exposure profile (Gcg-XTEN. The in vivo half-life of the construct was tuned to support nightly dosing through design and testing in cynomolgus monkeys. Efficacy of the construct was assessed in beagle dogs using an insulin challenge to induce hypoglycemia. Dose ranging of Gcg-XTEN in fasted beagle dogs demonstrated that the compound was biologically active with a pharmacodynamic profile consistent with the designed half-life. Prophylactic administration of 0.6 nmol/kg Gcg-XTEN to dogs conferred resistance to a hypoglycemic challenge at 6 hours post-dose without affecting baseline blood glucose levels. Consistent with the designed pharmacokinetic profile, hypoglycemia resistance was not observed at 12 hours post-dose. Importantly, the solubility and stability of the glucagon peptide were also significantly improved by fusion to XTEN. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data show that Gcg-XTEN is effective in preventing hypoglycemia without the associated hyperglycemia expected for unmodified glucagon. While the plasma clearance of this Gcg-XTEN has been optimized for overnight dosing, specifically for the treatment of nocturnal hypoglycemia, constructs with significantly longer exposure profiles are feasible. Such constructs may have multiple applications such as allowing for more

  18. Adapting a Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Doeleman, Sheperd; Rogers, Alan; Hartnett, John; Tobar, Michael; Nand, Nitin; 10.1086/660156

    2011-01-01

    Extension of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) to observing wavelengths shorter than 1.3mm provides exceptional angular resolution (~20 micro arcsec) and access to new spectral regimes for the study of astrophysical phenomena. To maintain phase coherence across a global VLBI array at these wavelengths requires that ultrastable frequency references be used for the heterodyne receivers at all participating telescopes. Hydrogen masers have traditionally been used as VLBI references, but atmospheric turbulence typically limits (sub) millimeter VLBI coherence times to ~1-30 s. Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators (CSO) have better stability than Hydrogen masers on these time scale and are potential alternatives to masers as VLBI references. Here, We describe the design, implementation and tests of a system to produce a 10 MHz VLBI frequency standard from the microwave (11.2 GHz) output of a CSO. To improve long-term stability of the new reference, the CSO was locked to the timing signal from the Global Positionin...

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion Baseline Control Law: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    A model reference dynamic inversion control law has been developed to provide a baseline control law for research into adaptive elements and other advanced flight control law components. This controller has been implemented and tested in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation; the simulation results show excellent handling qualities throughout the limited flight envelope. A simple angular momentum formulation was chosen because it can be included in the stability proofs for many basic adaptive theories, such as model reference adaptive control. Many design choices and implementation details reflect the requirements placed on the system by the nonlinear flight environment and the desire to keep the system as basic as possible to simplify the addition of the adaptive elements. Those design choices are explained, along with their predicted impact on the handling qualities.

  20. Baseline Requirements and Architecture for Cloud Computing Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rahim Choudhary

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Government initiatives such as the “Cloud First” policy are bringing the cloud computing services into Federal Agencies. Further, many of the sectors in the Critical Infrastructure of the nation already use cloud computing. Although cloud computing services are slowly coming to age, many issues remain. This paper therefore takes a closer look at the cloud computing services. First it establishes a baseline by specifying high level requirements for cloud computing services. Next it improves upon the current architecture for the cloud computing services by adding new modules to the current architecture. The new modules are gleaned from an analysis of the telecommunications cloud and security in distributed systems. The new modules include a management and control network, a set of trust domains, and a set of proxies. The improved architecture is more ready for primetime use and supports a richer operational model.

  1. Direct coal liquefaction baseline design and system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The primary objective of the study is to develop a computer model for a base line direct coal liquefaction design based on two stage direct coupled catalytic reactors. This primary objective is to be accomplished by completing the following: a base line design based on previous DOE/PETC results from Wilsonville pilot plant and other engineering evaluations; a cost estimate and economic analysis; a computer model incorporating the above two steps over a wide range of capacities and selected process alternatives; a comprehensive training program for DOE/PETC Staff to understand and use the computer model; a thorough documentation of all underlying assumptions for baseline economics; and a user manual and training material which will facilitate updating of the model in the future.

  2. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  3. Compression phase study of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, Ph; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)

    2008-02-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al (2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 052702). We study here the robustness of this target during the compression phase and define pulse shape tolerances for a successful fuel assembly. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter allows one to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbations due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g cm{sup -2} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g cm{sup -2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60.

  4. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X; Nicolai, P; Schurtz, G; Olazabal-Loume, M; Breil, J; Maire, P H; Feugeas, J L; Hallo, L; Tikhonchuk, V T [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS, CEA, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351, cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: ribeyre@celia.u-bordeaux1

    2008-05-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion (ICF) using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The comparison between a standard and a relaxation pulse shows that the latter one allows to reduce both the laser power contrast and the growth of perturbation under Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with to a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and to a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 55.

  5. Numerical simulations of the HiPER baseline target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeyre, X.; Nicolai, Ph.; Schurtz, G.; Olazabal-Loume, M.; Breil, J.; Maire, P.H.; Feugeas, J.M.; Hallo, L.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CNRS, CEA, 33 - Talence (France)

    2009-08-15

    The European High Power laser Energy Research (HiPER) project aims at demonstrating the feasibility of high gain inertial confinement fusion using the fast ignitor approach. A baseline target has been recently developed by Atzeni et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 052702 (2007)]. The radiative transport have a minor effect on the peak areal density but decreased by 20% the peak density. We have found that with 95 kJ of absorbed laser energy one can assemble the fuel with a peak density around 500 g/cm{sup 3} and a peak areal density of 1.2 g/cm{sup 2}. This implies a total target gain of about 60. (authors)

  6. Sandia National Laboratories, California proposed CREATE facility environmental baseline survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catechis, Christopher Spyros

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Environmental Programs completed an environmental baseline survey (EBS) of 12.6 acres located at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) in support of the proposed Collaboration in Research and Engineering for Advanced Technology and Education (CREATE) Facility. The survey area is comprised of several parcels of land within SNL/CA, County of Alameda, California. The survey area is located within T 3S, R 2E, Section 13. The purpose of this EBS is to document the nature, magnitude, and extent of any environmental contamination of the property; identify potential environmental contamination liabilities associated with the property; develop sufficient information to assess the health and safety risks; and ensure adequate protection for human health and the environment related to a specific property.

  7. PUREX Plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PUREX aggregate area is made up of six operable units; 200-PO-1 through 200-PO-6 and consists of liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, PUREX Plant operations. This report describes PUREX and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches and ditches, ponds, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms, and the lines and encasements that connect them. Each waste site in the aggregate area is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. This document provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation. This document is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted

  8. Short-baseline neutrino oscillations, Planck, and IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    We examine a framework with light new physics, which couples to the Standard Model only via neutrino mixing. Taking the hints from the short-baseline anomalies seriously and combining them with modern cosmological data and recent IceCube measurements, we obtain surprisingly effective constraints on the hidden force: keV $\\lesssim M \\lesssim0.3$ GeV for the mediator mass and $g_{h}>10^{-6}-10^{-3}$ for the coupling constant. Flavor equilibration between the hidden and active neutrinos can be delayed until temperatures of $\\sim 1$ MeV, but not below $\\sim 100$ keV. This scenario can be tested with next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background, IceCube, and oscillation experiments.

  9. Report of the US long baseline neutrino experiment study

    CERN Document Server

    Barger, V; Bogert, D; Bromberg, C; Curioni, A; Dierckxsens, M; Diwan, M; Dufour, F; Finley, D; Fleming, B T; Gallardo, J; Heim, J; Huber, P; Jung, C K; Kahn, S; Kearns, E; Kirk, H; Kirk, T; Lande, K; Laughton, C; Lee, W Y; Lesko, K; Lewis, C; Litchfield, P J; Mann, A K; Marchionni, A; Marciano, W; Marfatia, D; Marino, A D; Marshak, M; Menary, S; McDonald, K; Messier, M; Pariseau, W; Parsa, Z; Pordes, S; Potenza, R; Rameika, R; Saoulidou, N; Simos, N; Van Berg, R; Viren, B; Whisnant, K; Wilson, R; Winter, W; Yanagisawa, C; Yumiceva, F; Zimmerman, E D; Zwaska, R

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability could be unique compared to anywhere else in the world because of the available beam intensity and baseline distances. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and, as the study evolved, it also provided responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the ...

  10. LTC American's, Inc. vacuum blasting machine: Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise

  11. Impact of selected energy conservation technologies on baseline demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doernberg, A

    1977-09-01

    This study is an application of the modeling and demand projection capability existing at Brookhaven National Laboratory to specific options in energy conservation. Baseline energy demands are modified by introducing successively three sets of conservation options. The implementation of improved building standards and the use of co-generation in industry are analyzed in detail and constitute the body of this report. Two further sets of energy demands are presented that complete the view of a low energy use, ''conservation'' scenario. An introduction to the report covers the complexities in evaluating ''conservation'' in view of the ways it is inextricably linked to technology, prices, policy, and the mix of output in the economy. The term as used in this report is narrowly defined, and methodologies are suggested by which these other aspects listed can be studied in the future.

  12. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  13. Fully integrated current-mode CMOS gated baseline restorer circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and performance results for three different fully-integrated gated baseline restorer (BLR) circuits used in a new PET current-mode front-end CMOS ASIC are presented. The BLR for each of the three gated integrator channels is a differential current-in to single ended current-out circuit with a correction bandwidth of 100 kHz set by a 40 pF on-chip capacitor using pole splitting techniques. The BLRs for the constant fraction discriminator (CFD) constant fraction and arming comparators are differential current-in to voltage-out circuits with correction bandwidths of 5 MHz and 1 MHz set by on-chip capacitors of 10 pF and 2.5 pF respectively. The BLR circuits are capable of correcting differential input current offsets of ±40 microA for the gated integrator circuits, ±100 microA for the CFD constant fraction comparator circuit, and ± 160 microA for the CFD arming comparator circuit. Use of the BLR circuits allows photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector inputs to be ac coupled and all slow (gated integrator) and fast (CFD timing) signal processing channels to be dc coupled. The BLR circuits correct for count-rate dependent baseline shifts due to detector ac coupling and correct for accumulated CMOS dc offsets in the signal processing channels. Gated integrator input offset currents are maintained below 50 nA, keeping the gated integrator output error below 10 mV for an 850 ns integration period. CFD constant fraction comparator input offset is maintained at sub millivolt levels, and arming comparator threshold is maintained at a 0--0.48 V level under on-board DAC control

  14. Automated baseline change detection - Phases 1 and 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust

  15. Probing Neutrino Properties with Long-Baseline Neutrino Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-29

    This is nal report on an Early Career Award grant began in April 15, 2010 and concluded on April 14, 2015. Alysia Marino's research is fo- cussed on making precise measurements of neutrino properties using in- tense accelerator-generated neutrino beams. As a part of this grant, she is collaborating on the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino exper- iment [6], currently taking data in Japan, and on the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) design e ort for a future Long-Baseline Neu- trino Facility (LBNF) in the US.1 She is also a member of the NA61/SHINE particle production experiment at CERN, but as that e ort is supported by other funds, it will not be discussed further here. T2K was designed to search for the disappearance of muon neutrinos ( ) and the appearance of electron neutrinos ( e), using a beam of muon neu- trino beam that travels 295 km across Japan towards the Super-Kamiokande detector. In 2011 T2K rst reported indications of e appearance [2], a pre- viously unobserved mode of neutrino oscillations. In the past year, T2K has published a combined analysis of disappearance and e appearance [1], and began collecting taking data with a beam of anti-neutrinos, instead of neutrinos, to search for hints of violation of the CP symmetry of the uni- verse. The proposed DUNE experiment has similar physics goals to T2K, but will be much more sensitive due to its more massive detectors and new higher-intensity neutrino beam. This e ort will be very high-priority particle physics project in the US over the next decade.

  16. Automated baseline change detection -- Phases 1 and 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byler, E.

    1997-10-31

    The primary objective of this project is to apply robotic and optical sensor technology to the operational inspection of mixed toxic and radioactive waste stored in barrels, using Automated Baseline Change Detection (ABCD), based on image subtraction. Absolute change detection is based on detecting any visible physical changes, regardless of cause, between a current inspection image of a barrel and an archived baseline image of the same barrel. Thus, in addition to rust, the ABCD system can also detect corrosion, leaks, dents, and bulges. The ABCD approach and method rely on precise camera positioning and repositioning relative to the barrel and on feature recognition in images. The ABCD image processing software was installed on a robotic vehicle developed under a related DOE/FETC contract DE-AC21-92MC29112 Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) and integrated with the electronics and software. This vehicle was designed especially to navigate in DOE Waste Storage Facilities. Initial system testing was performed at Fernald in June 1996. After some further development and more extensive integration the prototype integrated system was installed and tested at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) at INEEL beginning in April 1997 through the present (November 1997). The integrated system, composed of ABCD imaging software and IMSS mobility base, is called MISS EVE (Mobile Intelligent Sensor System--Environmental Validation Expert). Evaluation of the integrated system in RWMC Building 628, containing approximately 10,000 drums, demonstrated an easy to use system with the ability to properly navigate through the facility, image all the defined drums, and process the results into a report delivered to the operator on a GUI interface and on hard copy. Further work is needed to make the brassboard system more operationally robust.

  17. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program seventh quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, F.W.

    1974-07-30

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1976 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. All of the baseline vehicles are now operational and are performing Program tests. Vehicle tests completed in this quarter include noise reduction, heater, air conditioning, and underhood temperature evaluations. Testing was completed on the original endurance engine. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) has commenced. Vendor A and Vendor B ceramic regenerator cores were rig tested with an improved elastomeric drive. Vendor A cores with the elastomeric drive are being engine tested. Ceramic regenerator seal wear test rig results are showing promise of achieving a low friction, non-nickel-oxide rubbing surface. The first preprototype integrated control system was delivered and placed in operation on a baseline engine in a test cell. Six ribbed compressor turbine wheels made of IN 792/Hf by the AiResearch Airefrac process were received. Rig testing of the variable inlet guide Vanes was completed and engine testing initiated. Vehicle evaluations of the torque converter lock-up were completed . Specifications for the Upgraded Engine aerodymanic components were made. A subcontract is currently being arranged with Mechanical Technology Inc. (MTI) for design and development of the upgraded engine gas generator bearings and shaft system. An initial feasibility study for gas bearings was completed. Analytical design of the upgraded engine power turbine reduction gears and bearings has commenced. Engine and vehicle accessory drive studies for the upgraded engine are well underway.

  18. Baseline Gas Turbine Development Program eighth quarterly progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.E.

    1974-10-31

    Progress is reported for a program to demonstrate by 1976 an experimental gas turbine powered automobile which meets the 1978 Federal Emissions Standards, has significantly improved fuel economy, and is competitive in performance, reliability, and potential manufacturing cost with the conventional piston engine powered, standard size American automobile. Major preparations for engine heat balance tests by NASA were completed. EPA laboratories completed Baseline vehicle emissions, noise, and odor tests. Assembly of the program endurance engine is nearing completion. Test cell evaluation of the government furnished combustor (Solar) verified steady state emissions to be extremely low. Initial engine tests of Vendor A ceramic regenerator cores with an elastomeric drive verified performance predictions. Efforts towards developing a non-nickel oxide regenerator seal show extreme sensitivity to porosity differences between cores of different suppliers. All three preprototype integrated control systems were built. Modifications are being worked out to achieve a stable low speed operation. Two prototype compressor turbine wheels made from the reuseable pattern process are being inspected and processed for testing. The engine housing modified for operation at higher cycle temperatures and pressures was received. The baseline engine converted to free rotor is completing test cell check out. The modified vehicle is ready for engine installation. The upgraded engine characterization was updated to include the latest information on V.I.G.V., rotors, and bearings. The upgraded engine housing is being modeled physically and analytically for design and stress studies. An accessory drive system for the upgraded engine was selected, and a final layout is in process.

  19. GLoBES: General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim; Lindner, Manfred; Rolinec, Mark; Winter, Walter

    2007-09-01

    GLoBES (General Long Baseline Experiment Simulator) is a flexible software package to simulate neutrino oscillation long baseline and reactor experiments. On the one hand, it contains a comprehensive abstract experiment definition language (AEDL), which allows to describe most classes of long baseline experiments at an abstract level. On the other hand, it provides a C-library to process the experiment information in order to obtain oscillation probabilities, rate vectors, and Δχ-values. Currently, GLoBES is available for GNU/Linux. Since the source code is included, the port to other operating systems is in principle possible. GLoBES is an open source code that has previously been described in Computer Physics Communications 167 (2005) 195 and in Ref. [7]). The source code and a comprehensive User Manual for GLoBES v3.0.8 is now available from the CPC Program Library as described in the Program Summary below. The home of GLobES is http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/~globes/. Program summaryProgram title: GLoBES version 3.0.8 Catalogue identifier: ADZI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 145 295 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 811 892 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: GLoBES builds and installs on 32bit and 64bit Linux systems Operating system: 32bit or 64bit Linux RAM: Typically a few MBs Classification: 11.1, 11.7, 11.10 External routines: GSL—The GNU Scientific Library, www.gnu.org/software/gsl/ Nature of problem: Neutrino oscillations are now established as the leading flavor transition mechanism for neutrinos. In a long history of many experiments, see, e.g., [1], two oscillation frequencies have been identified: The fast atmospheric

  20. Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — Baseline (1961-1990) average air temperature (degree C) for Alaska and Western Canada. Baseline results for 1961-1990 are derived from Climate Research Unit (CRU)...