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Sample records for based zno film

  1. ZnO film based surface acoustic wave micro-pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a micro-pump unit based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) on piezoelectric ZnO film is designed and fabricated as a micro-fluidic device. It employs a mechanical wave, which is generated electrically using an aluminum interdigital transducer (IDT), and propagates on the surface of the ZnO film. The ZnO film was used in this study because it has a high electromechanical coefficient and an excellent bonding with various substrate materials, in particular silicon. The sputtering parameters for ZnO film deposition have been optimized, and the ZnO films with different thickness from 1 micron to 5.5 microns were prepared. The film properties have been characterized using different methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Aluminum IDT with a finger width and spacing of 8 microns was patterned on the ZnO film using a lift-off process. The frequency generated was measured using a network analyzer, and it varies from 130 MHz to 180 MHz as a function of film thickness. A signal generator was used to generate the frequency with a power amplifier to amplify the signal, which was then applied to aluminum IDT to generate the surface acoustic wave. If a liquid droplet exists on the surface carrying the acoustic wave, the energy and the momentum of the SAW will be coupled into the fluid, causing the liquid to vibrate and move on film surface. The strength of this movement is determined by the applied voltage and frequency. The volume of the liquid drop loaded on the SAW device in this study is of several hundreds of nanoliters. The movement of the liquid inside the droplet and also on the ZnO film surface can be demonstrated. The performance of ZnO SAW device was characterized as a function of film thickness

  2. Ti doped ZnO thin film based UV photodetector: Fabrication and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewale, P.S.; Lee, N.K.; Lee, S.H.; Kang, K.Y. [Convergence of IT Devices Institute, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Y.S., E-mail: ysyu@deu.ac.kr [Convergence of IT Devices Institute, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiological Science, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • UV photoconductive undoped and Ti doped ZnO films were grown by spray pyrolysis. • Ti doping effects on physical and UV detection properties of films were studied. • Samples are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. • Ti doping increases the optical transmittance and band gap of ZnO film. • Ti doping improves the responsivity of ZnO film based MSM UV photodetector. - Abstract: This paper presents the synthesis of undoped and 2 wt.% titanium (Ti) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films onto glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. Both films are deposited at 375 °C substrate temperature. The influence of Ti doping on structural, morphological, optical and UV detection properties of ZnO film was studied. Both films revealed to be of polycrystalline nature with a hexagonal wurtzite structure; and the ZnO film crystallinity improved on Ti doping. Surface morphological observations agreed well with structural results. The Ti incorporation in ZnO thin films were confirmed by an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis (EDX). The Ti doping increased the optical transmittance (∼96% at 550) and band gap (∼3.2927 eV) of ZnO thin film. Further, the metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) planar ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs) were fabricated from deposition of tin (Sn) contacts onto undoped and Ti doped ZnO films using e-beam evaporation technique. To investigate UV photodetection properties, the MSM devices were subjected to current–voltage (I–V) characteristics measurements of forward and reverse bias in dark and UV light conditions. The photocurrent and responsivity were measured as a function of optical power density and applied voltage, respectively. The reproducibility of the UV detection performance of MSM devices was ensured by constantly switching UV light on and off at regular time intervals. The Ti doped ZnO film based UV PD demonstrates highest responsivity of about 0.051 A/W upon 2 mW/cm{sup 2

  3. ZnO based transparent conductive oxide films with controlled type of conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharescu, M., E-mail: mzaharescu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Mihaiu, S., E-mail: smihaiu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Toader, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Atkinson, I., E-mail: irinaatkinson@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Calderon-Moreno, J.; Anastasescu, M.; Nicolescu, M.; Duta, M.; Gartner, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Vojisavljevic, K.; Malic, B. [Institute Jožef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ivanov, V.A.; Zaretskaya, E.P. [State Scientific and Production Association “Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of the National Academy of Science Belarus, P. Brovska str.19, 220072, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-11-28

    The transparent conductive oxide films with controlled type of conduction are of great importance and their preparation is intensively studied. In our work, the preparation of such films based on doped ZnO was realized in order to achieve controlled type of conduction and high concentration of the charge carriers. Sol–gel method was used for films preparation and several dopants were tested (Sn, Li, Ni). Multilayer deposition was performed on several substrates: SiO{sub 2}/Si wafers, silica-soda-lime and/or silica glasses. The structural and morphological characterization of the obtained films were done by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively, while spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurements were done for determination of optical properties. The selected samples with the best structural, morphological and optical properties were subjected to electrical measurement (Hall and Seebeck effect). In all studied cases, samples with good adherence and homogeneous morphology as well as monophasic wurtzite type structure were obtained. The optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) were calculated from spectroscopic ellipsometry data using Cauchy model. Films with n- or p-type conduction were obtained depending on the composition, number of deposition and thermal treatment temperature. - Highlights: • Transparent conductive ZnO based thin films were prepared by the sol–gel method. • Controlled type of conduction is obtained in (Sn, Li) doped and Li-Ni co-doped ZnO films. • Hall and Seebeck measurements proved the p-type conductivity for Li-Ni co-doped ZnO films. • The p-type conductivity was maintained even after 4-months of storage. • Influence of dopant- and substrate-type on the ZnO films properties was established.

  4. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO-PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO2 conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO-PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO-PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV-Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0-110.0mg dL(-1) with the limit of detection as 5.0mg dL(-1). PMID:26354280

  5. Solution-based synthesis of cobalt-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vempati, Sesha [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Shetty, Amitha [Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Dawson, P., E-mail: p.dawson@qub.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Nanda, K.K.; Krupanidhi, S.B. [Materials Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2012-12-01

    Undoped and cobalt-doped (1-4 wt.%) ZnO polycrystalline, thin films have been fabricated on quartz substrates using sequential spin-casting and annealing of simple salt solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals a wurzite ZnO crystalline structure with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showing lattice planes of separation 0.26 nm, characteristic of (002) planes. The Co appears to be tetrahedrally co-ordinated in the lattice on the Zn sites (XRD) and has a charge of + 2 in a high-spin electronic state (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Co-doping does not alter the wurzite structure and there is no evidence of the precipitation of cobalt oxide phases within the limits of detection of Raman and XRD analysis. Lattice defects and chemisorbed oxygen are probed using photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy - crucially, however, this transparent semiconductor material retains a bandgap in the ultraviolet (3.30-3.48 eV) and high transparency (throughout the visible spectral regime) across the doping range. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple solution-based method for the fabrication of Co-doped ZnO thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence for Co substitution on Zn sites in + 2 oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO, with up to 4% Co doping, retains high transparency across visible spectrum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quenching of exciton photoluminescence linked to chemisorbed oxygen in Co-doped ZnO.

  6. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO2 conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL−1 with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL−1. - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability

  7. Disposable urea biosensor based on nanoporous ZnO film fabricated from omissible polymeric substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanian, Reza; Mozaffari, Sayed Ahmad, E-mail: mozaffari@irost.ir; Abedi, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, a facile and simple fabrication method of a semiconductor based urea biosensor was reported via three steps: (i) producing a ZnO–PVA composite film by means of a polymer assisted electrodeposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) on the F-doped SnO{sub 2} conducting glass (FTO) using water soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), (ii) obtaining a nanoporous ZnO film by PVA omission via a subsequent post-treatment by annealing of the ZnO–PVA film, and (iii) preparation of a FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor by exploiting a nanoporous ZnO film as an efficient and excellent platform area for electrostatic immobilization of urease enzyme (Urs) which was forced by the difference in their isoelectric point (IEP). The characterization techniques focused on the analysis of the ZnO–PVA film surfaces before and after annealing, which had a prominent effect on the porosity of the prepared ZnO film. The surface characterization of the nanostructured ZnO film by a field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM), exhibited a film surface area as an effective bio-sensing matrix for enzyme immobilization. The structural characterization and monitoring of the biosensor fabrication was performed using UV–Vis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The impedimetric results of the FTO/ZnO/Urs biosensor showed a high sensitivity for urea detection within 8.0–110.0 mg dL{sup −1} with the limit of detection as 5.0 mg dL{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Novel disposable impedimetric urea biosensor fabrication based on ZnO–nanoporous transducer • Exploiting omissible PVA polymer as a simple strategy for ZnO–nanoporous film preparation • ZnO–nanoporous film as a good pore framework with large surface area/volume for enzyme immobilization • Application of impedimetric measurement for urea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and

  8. Physical deoxygenation of graphene oxide paper surface and facile in situ synthesis of graphene based ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Jijun; Wang, Minqiang, E-mail: mqwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiangyu; Ran, Chenxin [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, International Centers for Dielectric Research, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng [State Key Laboratory of Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-12-08

    In-situ sputtering ZnO films on graphene oxide (GO) paper are used to fabricate graphene based ZnO films. Crystal structure and surface chemical states are investigated. Results indicated that GO paper can be effectively deoxygenated by in-situ sputtering ZnO on them without adding any reducing agent. Based on the principle of radio frequency magnetron sputtering, we propose that during magnetron sputtering process, plasma streams contain large numbers of electrons. These electrons not only collide with argon atoms to produce secondary electrons but also they are accelerated to bombard the substrates (GO paper) resulting in effective deoxygenation of oxygen-containing functional groups. In-situ sputtering ZnO films on GO paper provide an approach to design graphene-semiconductor nanocomposites.

  9. High-performance metal–semiconductor–metal UV photodetector based on spray deposited ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ZnO based MSM UV photodetector by economical chemical spray pyrolysis technique. • Effect of substrate temperature on properties of ZnO based MSM UV photodetector. • Photoresponse mechanism by optical switching property of ZnO thin film photodetectors. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) based metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) ultraviolet photodetectors at different substrate temperatures were fabricated on glass substrates by economical chemical spray pyrolysis technique and its UV photoresponsivity was measured at room temperature. The samples were characterized with respect to their structural, morphological, and optical properties using various methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmittance, reflectance etc. The synthesized ZnO thin films were c-axis oriented with hexagonal crystal structure as confirmed from XRD. All deposited films were specular and show high transmittance (∼85%) in visible region with steep fall off at 375 nm. The photoconductive MSM UV photodetector showed relatively high photocurrent (1.3 mA) and fast switching. ZnO thin films exhibited relatively high photoresponsivity (788 A/W) with cut of wavelength ∼375 nm signifying their application as UV detector

  10. ZnO Film Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosi Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized high-quality, nanoscale ultrathin ZnO films at relatively low temperature using a facile and effective hydrothermal approach. ZnO films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The products demonstrated 95% photodegradation efficiency with Congo red (CR after 40 min irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange (MO and eosin red also were carried out. The results indicate that the as-obtained ZnO films might be promising candidates as the excellent photocatalysts for elimination of waste water.

  11. Organic photovoltaic cells based on ZnO thin film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, C; Ion, L; Epurescu, G; Nistor, L; Antohe, S; Dinescu, M

    2010-02-01

    Due to its wide band-gap (ca. 3.4 eV), ZnO is a possible candidate material to be used as transparent electrode for a new class of photovoltaic (PV) cells. Also, an increased interest for the photovoltaic properties of several organic monomers and polymers (merocyanines, phthalocyanines and porphyrins) was noticed, because of their high optical absorption in the visible region of the spectrum allowing them to be used as potential inexpensive materials for solar cells. Preparation and properties of CuPc (copper phthalocyanine) based photovoltaic cells using ZnO thin films as transparent conductor electrodes are presented in this paper. ZnO layers are grown by pulsed laser deposition, while the organic layers are obtained by thermal evaporation. Structural characterization is performed by electron microscopy. Optical and transport properties of the mutilayered structures are obtained by electrical and spectro-photometric measurements. The influence of the ZnO-polymer interface on the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the photovoltaic cell is clearly evidenced by our measurements.

  12. Development of Antibacterial Composite Films Based on Isotactic Polypropylene and Coated ZnO Particles for Active Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Silvestre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing new films based on isotactic polypropylene (iPP for food packaging applications using zinc oxide (ZnO with submicron dimension particles obtained by spray pyrolysis. To improve compatibility with iPP, the ZnO particles were coated with stearic acid (ZnOc. Composites based on iPP with 2 wt % and 5 wt % of ZnOc were prepared in a twin-screw extruder and then filmed by a calender. The effect of ZnOc on the properties of iPP were assessed and compared with those obtained in previous study on iPP/ZnO and iPP/iPPgMA/ZnO. For all composites, a homogeneous distribution and dispersion of ZnOc was obtained indicating that the coating with stearic acid of the ZnO particles reduces the surface polarity mismatch between iPP and ZnO. The iPP/ZnOc composite films have relevant zinc oxide with respect to E. coli, higher thermal stability and improved mechanical and impact properties than the pure polymer and the composites iPP/ZnO and iPP/iPPgMA/ZnO. This study demonstrated that iPP/ZnOc films are suitable materials for potential application in the active packaging field.

  13. Performance Evaluation of ZnO based Rare Earth Element Doped Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sharma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In DMS materials, a small fraction of a host semiconductor cation is substituted by magnetic ions. We chose as semiconducting host the transparent ZnO, with a bandgap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Studies on ZnO doped with 3d transition metals indicated only small magnetic moments. The more recent results for Gd in GaN, indicating high magnetic moments, motivated us to investigate ZnO thin films doped with rare earth (RE metal ions. For the 3d transition metals, the 3d electrons are exterior and delocalized; leading to strong direct exchange interactions and high Curie temperatures, but often the orbital momentum is zero, leading to small total magnetic moments per atom. In RE metals, the 4f electrons are localized, exchange interactions are indirect, via 5d or 6s conduction electrons, but the high orbital momentum is leading to high total magnetic moments per atom, like 3.27μB for Nd. The Curie point for Nd is 19 K. In this paper we present the results of our study on ZnO films doped with Nd. Hall measurements are performed to investigate the electrical properties of films. Here we prepared and investigated ZnO films doped with different concentration of Nd. The films are grown on a-plane Al2O3 or SiO2 substrates. Hall investigations of electrical properties revealed the presence of a degenerate, highly conducting, film–substrate interface layer for the films grown on Al2O3; such an effect can be avoided, for example, by using SiO2 substrates. Magnetotransport measurements indicated no anomalous Hall effect, but a pronounced negative magneto resistance ratio that can be interpreted as a paramagnetic response of the system to the applied magnetic field. We would like to proceed with the surface sensitive techniques for investigating magnetic properties of ZnO:RE thin films.

  14. UV photodetectors based on 3D periodic Au-decorated nanocone ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haowen; Sun, Mengwei; Ma, Pengsha; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Xue, Xinzhong; Zhu, Xufei; Li, Dongdong; Ma, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Thermal nanoimprinting technology was employed to fabricate 3D periodic nanocone ZnO films with different height/pitch values for photodetectors to optimize their light capturing property. The photocurrents of patterned film photodetectors increase with the height/pitch values. The patterned ZnO-Au hybrid film further boosts the ultraviolet (UV) response. Due to the co-contribution of the light trapping of 3D periodic structures and the driving force of the Schottky barrier in the Au/ZnO interface, the patterned ZnO-Au hybrid films with height/pitch of 40 nm/866 nm exhibit the best UV photoresponse (I on/I off = 779.927), which is 3.8 times higher than its film counterpart (I on/I off = 164.1).

  15. UV photodetectors based on 3D periodic Au-decorated nanocone ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haowen; Sun, Mengwei; Ma, Pengsha; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Xue, Xinzhong; Zhu, Xufei; Li, Dongdong; Ma, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Thermal nanoimprinting technology was employed to fabricate 3D periodic nanocone ZnO films with different height/pitch values for photodetectors to optimize their light capturing property. The photocurrents of patterned film photodetectors increase with the height/pitch values. The patterned ZnO–Au hybrid film further boosts the ultraviolet (UV) response. Due to the co-contribution of the light trapping of 3D periodic structures and the driving force of the Schottky barrier in the Au/ZnO interface, the patterned ZnO–Au hybrid films with height/pitch of 40 nm/866 nm exhibit the best UV photoresponse (I on/I off = 779.927), which is 3.8 times higher than its film counterpart (I on/I off = 164.1).

  16. Green emission in carbon doped ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Tseng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emission behavior of C-doped ZnO films, which were prepared by implantation of carbon into ZnO films, is investigated. Orange/red emission is observed for the films with the thickness of 60–100 nm. However, the film with thickness of 200 nm shows strong green emission. Further investigations by annealing bulk ZnO single crystals under different environments, i.e. Ar, Zn or C vapor, indicated that the complex defects based on Zn interstitials are responsible for the strong green emission. The existence of complex defects was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR and low temperature photoluminescence (PL measurement.

  17. Inverter Circuits Using ZnO Nanoparticle Based Thin-Film Transistors for Flexible Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio F. Vidor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Innovative systems exploring the flexibility and the transparency of modern semiconducting materials are being widely researched by the scientific community and by several companies. For a low-cost production and large surface area applications, thin-film transistors (TFTs are the key elements driving the system currents. In order to maintain a cost efficient integration process, solution based materials are used as they show an outstanding tradeoff between cost and system complexity. In this paper, we discuss the integration process of ZnO nanoparticle TFTs using a high-k resin as gate dielectric. The performance in dependence on the transistor structure has been investigated, and inverted staggered setups depict an improved performance over the coplanar device increasing both the field-effect mobility and the ION/IOFF ratio. Aiming at the evaluation of the TFT characteristics for digital circuit applications, inverter circuits using a load TFT in the pull-up network and an active TFT in the pull-down network were integrated. The inverters show reasonable switching characteristics and V/V gains. Conjointly, the influence of the geometry ratio and the supply voltage on the devices have been analyzed. Moreover, as all integration steps are suitable to polymeric templates, the fabrication process is fully compatible to flexible substrates.

  18. Flexible pH sensors based on polysilicon thin film transistors and ZnO nanowalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolo, L.; Mirabella, S.; Maita, F.; Alberti, A.; Minotti, A.; Strano, V.; Pecora, A.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Fortunato, G.

    2014-09-01

    A fully flexible pH sensor using nanoporous ZnO on extended gate thin film transistor (EGTFT) fabricated on polymeric substrate is demonstrated. The sensor adopts the Low Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon (LTPS) TFT technology for the active device, since it allows excellent electrical characteristics and good stability and opens the way towards the possibility of exploiting CMOS architectures in the future. The nanoporous ZnO sensitive film, consisting of very thin (20 nm) crystalline ZnO walls with a large surface-to-volume ratio, was chemically deposited at 90 °C, allowing simple process integration with conventional TFT micro-fabrication processes compatible with wide range of polymeric substrates. The pH sensor showed a near-ideal Nernstian response (˜59 mV/pH), indicating an ideality factor α ˜ 1 according to the conventional site binding model. The present results can pave the way to advanced flexible sensing systems, where sensors and local signal conditioning circuits will be integrated on the same flexible substrate.

  19. Nanostructured ZnO Films for Room Temperature Ammonia Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivya Ponnusamy; Sridharan Madanagurusamy

    2014-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited by a reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique onto a thoroughly cleaned glass substrate at room temperature. X-ray diffraction revealed that the deposited film was polycrystalline in nature. The field emission scanning electron micrograph (FE-SEM) showed the uniform formation of a rugby ball-shaped ZnO nanostructure. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) confirmed that the film was stoichiometric and the direct band gap of the film, determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, was 3.29 eV. The ZnO nanostructured film exhibited better sensing towards ammonia (NH3) at room temperature (˜30°C). The fabricated ZnO film based sensor was capable of detecting NH3 at as low as 5 ppm, and its parameters, such as response, selectivity, stability, and response/recovery time, were also investigated.

  20. Enzymatic glucose sensor based on Au nanoparticle and plant-like ZnO film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Kun [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Alex, Saji [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Government College for Women, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695014 (India); Siegel, Gene [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Tiwari, Ashutosh, E-mail: tiwari@eng.utah.edu [Nanostructured Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemical glucose sensor was developed by employing a composite film of plant-like Zinc oxide (ZnO) and chitosan stabilized spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on which Glucose oxidaze (GOx) was immobilized. The ZnO was deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass and the AuNPs of average diameter of 23 nm were loaded on ZnO as the second layer. The prepared ITO/ZnO/AuNPs/GOx bioelectrode exhibited a low value of Michaelis–Menten constant of 1.70 mM indicating a good bio-matrix for GOx. The studies of electrochemical properties of the electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that, the presence of AuNPs provides significant enhancement of the electron transfer rate during redox reactions. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) shows that the ITO/ZnO/AuNPs/GOx based sensor has a high sensitivity of 3.12 μA·mM{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} in the range of 50 mg/dL to 400 mg/dL glucose concentration. The results show promising application of the gold nanoparticle modified plant-like ZnO composite bioelectrode for electrochemical sensing of glucose.

  1. Electrodeposited nanoporous ZnO films exhibiting enhanced performance in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrodeposition of nanoporous ZnO films and their applications to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were investigated in the aim of developing cost-effective alternative synthetic methods and improving the ZnO-based DSSCs performance. ZnO films were grown by cathodic electrodeposition from an aqueous zinc nitrate solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) surfactant. PVP concentration had strong effects on the grain sizes and surface morphologies of ZnO films. Nanoporous ZnO film with grain size of 20-40 nm was obtained in the electrolyte containing 4 g/L PVP. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that nanoporous ZnO films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Optical properties of such films were studied and the results indicated that the films had a band gap of 3.3 eV. DSSCs were fabricated from nanoporous ZnO films and the cell performance could be greatly improved with the increase of ZnO film thickness. The highest solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 5.08% was obtained by using the electrodeposited double-layer ZnO films (8 μm thick nanoporous ZnO films on a 200 nm thick compact nanocrystalline ZnO film). The performance of such cell surpassed levels attained in previous studies on ZnO film-based DSSCs and was among the highest for DSSCs containing electrodeposited film components

  2. A general deposition method for ZnO porous films: Occlusion electrosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Haining, E-mail: chen-hn77@163.com [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li Weiping; Hou Qin; Liu Huicong [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu Liqun, E-mail: Zhulq@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-10-30

    In this paper, a modified electrodeposition method, occlusion electrosynthesis (OE), was used to prepare ZnO porous films. The processes of OE were similar to those of electrodeposition except the addition of ZnO nanoparticles in electrolyte. The ZnO porous film prepared by OE (OE-ZnO) was highly porous with considerable thickness (55 {mu}m). The quantum dots-sensitized solar cell based on OE-ZnO porous film showed superior photoelectrochemical performance to that based on the ZnO porous film prepared by doctor-blade (DB) method at the suitable concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles in electrolyte, about 16-32 g/L. In addition to the ZnO porous film constructed with ZnO nanoparticles, the ZnO porous film constructed with ZnO nanorods, ZnO/multi-walls carbon nanotubes and ZnO/TiO{sub 2} composite porous films have also been successfully synthesized by OE, which were expected to be widely applied in various fields. The low temperature (60 deg. C) processes without post treatment made OE more promising for preparing ZnO porous films than DB, especially the ZnO porous films for flexible devices.

  3. Broadband light trapping based on periodically textured ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bofei; Liang, Xuejiao; Liang, Junhui; Bai, Lisha; Gao, Haibo; Chen, Ze; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2015-05-01

    Transparent conductive front electrodes (TCFEs) deployed in photovoltaic devices have been extensively studied for their significance in transporting carriers, coupling and trapping the incident photons in high-performing solar cells. The trade-off between the light-transmission, electrical, and scattering properties for TCFEs to achieve a broadband improvement in light absorption in solar cells while maintaining a high electrical performance has become the key issue to be tackled. In this paper, we employ self-assembled polystyrene (PS) spheres based on a sauna-like method as a template, followed by a double-layer deposition and then successfully fabricate highly-transparent, well-conductive, and large-scale periodically-textured ZnO TCFEs with broadband light trapping properties. A sheet resistance below 15 Ω sq-1 was achieved for the periodically-textured ZnO TCFEs, with a concomitant average transmission of 81% (including the glass substrate) in the 400-1100 nm spectral range, a haze improvement in a broadband spectral range, and a wider scattering angular domain. The proposed approach affords a promising alternative method to prepare periodically-textured TCFEs, which are essential for many optoelectronic device semiconductors, such as photovoltaic and display applications.Transparent conductive front electrodes (TCFEs) deployed in photovoltaic devices have been extensively studied for their significance in transporting carriers, coupling and trapping the incident photons in high-performing solar cells. The trade-off between the light-transmission, electrical, and scattering properties for TCFEs to achieve a broadband improvement in light absorption in solar cells while maintaining a high electrical performance has become the key issue to be tackled. In this paper, we employ self-assembled polystyrene (PS) spheres based on a sauna-like method as a template, followed by a double-layer deposition and then successfully fabricate highly-transparent, well

  4. Concept of a thin film memory transistor based on ZnO nanoparticles insulated by a ligand shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Johannes; Faber, Hendrik; Halik, Marcus

    2012-01-21

    In this work, we report on the synthesis and the electrical properties of ZnO nanoparticles, which differ in their organic shell. The introduction of a 2-ethylhexanoate shell instead of a common acetate shell has an impact on the accessible size of the ZnO nanoparticles and changes the electrical properties of thin films in transistors. While acetate covered ZnO particles behave as a semiconductor with an electron mobility of 0.38 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), the 2-ethylhexanoate ligand shell inhibits a charge transport resulting in insulating films (with an average ε(r) = 9.4). These films can be reconverted to semiconductive layers by removing the ligand shell with oxygen plasma treatment or they can be used as a solution processed dielectric layer in organic transistors. Its use as dielectric allows low voltage device operation and shows potential application as a charge storage layer as needed in non-volatile memory transistors.

  5. Low operating temperature of oxygen gas sensor based on undoped and Cr-doped ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undoped and doped ZnO with 1 at.% (atomic percentage) chromium (Cr) was synthesized by RF reactive co-sputtering for oxygen gas sensing applications. The prepared films showed a highly c-oriented phase with a dominant (0 0 2) peak at a Bragg angle of around 34.2o. The operating temperature of the prepared ZnO sensor was around 350 deg. C and shifted to around 250 deg. C for the doped ZnO sensor which is lower than that of previously reported work. The sensitivity of the sensor toward oxygen gas was enhanced by doping ZnO with 1 at.% Cr. Good stability and repeatability of the sensor were demonstrated when tested under different concentration of oxygen atmosphere.

  6. Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminum (Al)-doped ZnO (AZO) films with embedded Al nanoclusters were proposed and utilized to enhance the light output power and maximum operation current of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AZO films were sputtered using ZnO and Al targets in a magnetron cosputtering system. With Al dc power of 7 W and ZnO 100 W ac power, the electron concentration of 4.1x1020 cm-3, electron mobility of 16.2 cm2/V s, and resistivity of 7.2x10-4 Ω cm were obtained for the deposited AZO film annealed at 600 deg. C for 1 min in a N2 ambient. As verified by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy, the deposited AZO films with embedded Al nanoclusters were clearly observed. A 35% increase in light output power of the GaN-based LEDs with Al nanoclusters-embedded AZO films was realized compared with the conventional LEDs operated at 500 mA. It was verified experimentally that the various characteristics of GaN-based LEDs including the antireflection, light scattering, current spreading, and the light extraction efficiency in light emission could be significantly enhanced with the use of Al nanoclusters-embedded AZO films.

  7. ZnO nanolasers on graphene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyeonjun; Park, Jun Beom; Park, Jong-woo; Hyun, Jerome K.; Yoon, Hosang; Oh, Hongseok; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    We grew and characterized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanolasers on graphene films. By using graphene as a growth medium, we were able to prepare position-controlled and vertically aligned ZnO nanotube lasers. The ZnO nanolasers grown on graphene films showed good optical characteristics, evidenced by a low lasing threshold. Furthermore, the nanolaser/graphene system was easily lifted off the original substrate and transferred onto foreign substrates. The lasing performance was observed to be significantly enhanced by depositing a layer of silver on the back of the graphene film during this transfer process, which was quantitatively investigated using finite-difference time-domain simulations. Due to the wide selection of substrates enabled by the use of graphene films, our results suggest promising strategies for preparing practical nanolasers with improved performance.

  8. Induced growth of high quality ZnO thin films by crystallized amorphous ZnO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Jun; Song Li-Jun; Li Shou-Chun; Lu You-Ming; Tian Yun-Xia; Liu Jia-Yi; Wang Lian-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the induced growth of high quality ZnO thin film by crystallized amorphous ZnO. Firstly amorphous ZnO was prepared by solid-state pyrolytic reaction, then by taking crystallized amorphous ZnO as seeds (buffer layer), ZnO thin films have been grown in diethyene glycol solution of zinc acetate at 80℃. X-ray Diffraction curve indicates that the films were preferentially oriented [001] out-of-plane direction of the ZnO. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the surface morphology of the ZnO thin film. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibits a strong ultraviolet emission while the visible emission is very weak. The results indicate that high quality ZnO thin film was obtained.

  9. A novel fiber-optic temperature sensor based on high temperature-dependent optical properties of ZnO film on sapphire fiber-ending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Pinggen; Zhen Dong; Xu Xiaojun; Liu Yulin [Department of Applied Physics, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang Province (China); Chen Naibo [Department of Science, Zhijiang College of Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310024 (China); Wei Gaorao [Department of Applied Physics, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang Province (China); Sui Chenghua, E-mail: suich@zjut.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2010-07-25

    We report the growth of high-quality thin films of ZnO via an electron-beam evaporation technique. Studies of the transmittance spectra have revealed a sharp optical absorption edge and a significant redshift. After annealing at 673 K, the ZnO films again demonstrated a sharp absorption edge in a manner similar to the as-deposited samples. This illustrates the excellent thermal stability of the thin films and, as such, demonstrates their potential as fiber-optic temperature sensors. Utilizing the influence of optical absorption spectra at different temperatures, a novel fiber-optic temperature sensor based on this material has been designed and tested. This technique could offer a simple, robust and cost-effective method to be used in high temperature sensing applications.

  10. PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as gate dielectric for ZnO based thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, M.D. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico); Quevedo-López, M.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Ramírez-Bon, R., E-mail: rrbon@qro.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we report a low temperature sol–gel deposition process of PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films, with variable dielectric properties depending on the composition of the precursor solution, for applications to gate dielectric layers in field-effect thin film transistors (FE-TFT). The hybrid layers were processed by a modified sol–gel route using as precursors Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and Methyl methacrylate (MMA), and 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) as the coupling agent. Three types of hybrid films were processed with molar ratios of the precursors in the initial solution 1.0: 0.25, 0.50, 0.75: 1.0 for TEOS: TMSPM: MMA, respectively. The hybrid films were deposited by spin coating of the hybrid precursor solutions onto p-type Si (100) substrates and heat-treated at 90 °C for 24 h. The chemical bonding in the hybrid films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to confirm their hybrid nature. The refractive index of the hybrid films as a function of the TMSPM coupling agent concentration, were determined from a simultaneous analysis of optical reflectance and spectroscopic ellipsometry experimental data. The PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films were studied as dielectric films using metal-insulator-metal structures. Capacitance–Voltage (C–V) and current–voltage (I–V) electrical methods were used to extract the dielectric properties of the different hybrid layers. The three types of hybrid films were tested as gate dielectric layers in thin film transistors with structure ZnO/PMMA–SiO{sub 2}/p-Si with a common bottom gate and patterned Al source/drain contacts, with different channel lengths. We analyzed the output electrical responses of the ZnO-based TFTs to determine their performance parameters as a function of channel length and hybrid gate dielectric layer. - Highlights: • PMMA–SiO{sub 2} hybrid films as dielectric material synthesized by sol–gel process at low temperature. • PMMA–SiO{sub 2

  11. Nanostructured hybrid ZnO thin films for energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantilleke Anura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on hybrid films based on ZnO/organic dye prepared by electrodeposition using tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanines (TS-CuPc and Eosin-Y (EoY. Both the morphology and porosity of hybrid ZnO films are highly dependent on the type of dyes used in the synthesis. High photosensitivity was observed for ZnO/EoY films, while a very weak photoresponse was obtained for ZnO/TS-CuPc films. Despite a higher absorption coefficient of TS-CuPc than EoY, in ZnO/EoY hybrid films, the excited photoelectrons between the EoY levels can be extracted through ZnO, and the porosity of ZnO/EoY can also be controlled.

  12. Glucose biosensor based on functionalized ZnO nanowire/graphite films dispersed on a Pt electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, P.; Tosi, E.; Madrid, R.; Tirado, M.; Comedi, D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanowire self-sustained films grown on compacted graphite flakes by the vapor transport method. Nanowire/graphite films were fragmented in water, filtered to form a colloidal suspension, subsequently functionalized with glucose oxidase and finally transferred to a metal electrode (Pt). The obtained devices were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrochemical responses of the devices were determined in buffer solutions with successive glucose aggregates using a tripolar electrode system. The nanostructured biosensors showed excellent analytical performance, with linear response to glucose concentrations, high sensitivity of up to ≈17 μA cm-2 mM-1 in the 0.03-1.52 mM glucose concentration range, relatively low Michaelis-Menten constant, excellent reproducibility and a fast response. The detection limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than those achievable in commercial biosensors for glucose control, which is promising for the development of glucose monitoring methods that do not require blood extraction from potentially diabetic patients. The strong detection enhancements provided by the functionalized nanostructures are much larger than the electrode surface-area increase and are discussed in terms of the physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the detection and transduction processes.

  13. A MEMS based acetone sensor incorporating ZnO nanowires synthesized by wet oxidation of Zn film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report a simple and efficient method for synthesis of ZnO nanowires by thermal oxidation of Zn film and their integration with MEMS technologies to fabricate a sensor for acetone vapour detection. ZnO nanowires were prepared by thermal oxidation of sputter deposited Zn film. The nanostructured ZnO was characterized by x-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope and room temperature photoluminescence measurements. The ZnO nanowires synthesis process was integrated with MEMS technologies to obtain a sensor for volatile organic compounds, incorporating an on-chip Ni microheater and an interdigited electrode structure. To reduce the heat loss from the on-chip microheater, the sensor was made on a thin silicon diaphragm obtained via a modified reactive ion etching process. This resulted in considerable power saving during sensor operation. For this, a three-mask process was used. The performance of the microheater was simulated on COMSOL and validated experimentally. The sensor has been tested for acetone vapour sensing and the operating parameters were optimized. The sensor has the ability to detect acetone vapour at 5 parts per million (ppm) concentrations when operated at 100 °C. The sensor consumed only 36 mW power and showed a high-sensitivity value of 26.3% for 100 ppm of acetone vapour. (paper)

  14. A MEMS based acetone sensor incorporating ZnO nanowires synthesized by wet oxidation of Zn film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bhagaban; Chandra, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a simple and efficient method for synthesis of ZnO nanowires by thermal oxidation of Zn film and their integration with MEMS technologies to fabricate a sensor for acetone vapour detection. ZnO nanowires were prepared by thermal oxidation of sputter deposited Zn film. The nanostructured ZnO was characterized by x-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope and room temperature photoluminescence measurements. The ZnO nanowires synthesis process was integrated with MEMS technologies to obtain a sensor for volatile organic compounds, incorporating an on-chip Ni microheater and an interdigited electrode structure. To reduce the heat loss from the on-chip microheater, the sensor was made on a thin silicon diaphragm obtained via a modified reactive ion etching process. This resulted in considerable power saving during sensor operation. For this, a three-mask process was used. The performance of the microheater was simulated on COMSOL and validated experimentally. The sensor has been tested for acetone vapour sensing and the operating parameters were optimized. The sensor has the ability to detect acetone vapour at 5 parts per million (ppm) concentrations when operated at 100 °C. The sensor consumed only 36 mW power and showed a high-sensitivity value of 26.3% for 100 ppm of acetone vapour.

  15. ZnO Thin Film Electronics for More than Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jose Israel

    Zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in this work for large-area electronic applications outside of display technology. A constant pressure, constant flow, showerhead, plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process has been developed to fabricate high mobility TFTs and circuits on rigid and flexible substrates at 200 °C. ZnO films and resulting devices prepared by PEALD and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) have been compared. Both PEALD and PLD ZnO films result in densely packed, polycrystalline ZnO thin films that were used to make high performance devices. PEALD ZnO TFTs deposited at 300 °C have a field-effect mobility of ˜ 40 cm2/V-s (and > 20 cm2/V-S deposited at 200 °C). PLD ZnO TFTs, annealed at 400 °C, have a field-effect mobility of > 60 cm2/V-s (and up to 100 cm2/V-s). Devices, prepared by either technique, show high gamma-ray radiation tolerance of up to 100 Mrad(SiO2) with only a small radiation-induced threshold voltage shift (VT ˜ -1.5 V). Electrical biasing during irradiation showed no enhanced radiation-induced effects. The study of the radiation effects as a function of material stack thicknesses revealed the majority of the radiation-induced charge collection happens at the semiconductor-passivation interface. A simple sheet-charge model at that interface can describe the radiation-induced charge in ZnO TFTs. By taking advantage of the substrate-agnostic process provided by PEALD, due to its low-temperature and excellent conformal coatings, ZnO electronics were monolithically integrated with thin-film complex oxides. Application-based examples where ZnO electronics provide added functionality to complex oxide-based devices are presented. In particular, the integration of arrayed lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 or PZT) thin films with ZnO electronics for microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) and deformable mirrors is demonstrated. ZnO switches can provide voltage to PZT capacitors with fast charging and slow

  16. Microstructural characterization, optical and photocatalytic properties of bilayered CuO and ZnO based thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Solís-Canto, O.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Pérez-García, S.; Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • High quality bilayered Zn–Cu oxide thin films were deposited by aerosol assisted CVD. • Detailed microstructural characterization was performed by XRD and electron microscopy. • Absorbance of bilayered films shows a shift of absorption edge toward visible region. • Optical band gap or nearly 3.2 and 2 eV was determined for ZnO and Cu oxide. • High photocatalytic activity around 90% was obtained for bilayered samples. - Abstract: In this work, it is presented the synthesis, microstructural characterization and photocatalytic properties of bilayered CuO–ZnO/ZnO thin films onto borosilicate glass and fused silica substrates. The films were deposited by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition, using an experimental setup reported elsewhere. Deposition conditions were optimized to get high quality films; i.e. they were structurally uniform, highly transparent, non-light scattering, homogeneous, and well adhered to the substrate. Different Cu/Zn atomic ratios were tried for the upper layer. The microstructure of the films was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. GIXRD results indicate the presence of ZnO Wurzite and Cu oxide phases. Results of SEM and HRTEM analysis of the cross sectional microstructure showed that the films were composed of compact and dense layers with no visible evidence of an interfacial boundary or porosity. Optical absorbance of the bilayered films showed a clear shift of the absorption toward the visible range. Optical band gap was determined roughly at 3.2 and 2 eV for ZnO and Cu oxide, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of the samples, for the degradation of a 10{sup −5} mol dm{sup −3} solution of methylene blue (MB), was determined after 120 and 240 min of irradiation with an UV-A source. Around 90% of MB degradation was reached by bilayered films with

  17. Influence of nitrogen and magnesium doping on the properties of ZnO films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东华; 陈晓航; 詹华瀚; 周颖慧; 康俊勇; 王惠琼; 周华; 李亚平; 黄政; 郑金成; 王嘉鸥; 钱海杰; 奎热西

    2016-01-01

    Undoped ZnO and doped ZnO films were deposited on the MgO(111) substrates using oxygen plasma-assisted molec-ular beam expitaxy. The orientations of the grown ZnO thin film were investigated by in situ refl ection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ x-ray diffraction (XRD). The film roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy, which was correlated with the grain sizes determined by XRD. Synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy was performed to study the doping effect on the electronic properties of the ZnO films, compared with density functional theory calculations. It is found that, nitrogen doping would hinder the growth of thin film, and generate the NO defect, while magnesium doping promotes the quality of nitrogen-doped ZnO films, inhibiting (N2)O production and increasing nitrogen content.

  18. Improvement in the negative bias temperature stability of ZnO based thin film transistors by Hf and Sn doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong-Sun; Moon, Yeon-Keon; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Shin, Sae-Young [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Byung Du; Lee, Je-Hun [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., LCD Business, San 24 Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyonggi-do 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Wan, E-mail: jwpark@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-ku, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    We assessed the performance of ZnO TFTs using Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} gate dielectrics after various treatments. A remarkable improvement in the transfer characteristics was obtained for the O{sub 2} plasma treated ZnO TFT and SiO{sub 2} interlayer deposited ZnO TFT. Also, we developed amorphous hafnium-zinc-tin oxide (HZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) and investigated the influence of hafnium (Hf) doping on the electrical characteristics of the hafnium-zinc oxide (HZO) thin film transistors. Doping with Hf can decrease the carrier concentration, which may result from a decrease of the field effect mobility, and reduce oxygen vacancy related defects in the interfacial layer. Adding tin (Sn) can suppress the growth of a crystalline phase in the HZTO films. The HZTO TFTs exhibited good electrical properties with a field effect mobility of 14.33 cm{sup 2}/Vs, a subthreshold swing of 0.97 V/decade, and a high I{sub ON/OFF} ratio of over 10{sup 9}.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar T., S.; Girija M., L.; Venkatesh, J.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) Thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Spin coating method. Zinc acetate dehydrate, Carbinol and Mono-ethanolamine were used as the precursor, solvent and stabilizer respectively to prepare ZnO Thin-films. The molar ratio of Monoethanolamine to Zinc acetate was maintained as approximately 1. The thickness of the films was determined by Interference technique. The optical properties of the films were studied by UV Vis-Spectrophotometer. From transmittance and absorbance curve, the energy band gap of ZnO is found out. Electrical Conductivity measurements of ZnO are carried out by two probe method and Activation energy for the electrical conductivity of ZnO are found out. The crystal structure and orientation of the films were analyzed by XRD. The XRD patterns show that the ZnO films are polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure.

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cell based on spray deposited ZnO thin film: Performance analysis through DFT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthiban, R.; Balamurugan, D.; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

    2015-02-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell based on a spray deposited zinc oxide (ZnO) photoanode with Evans blue as a sensitizer was fabricated. Structural analysis confirms the hexagonal wurtzite phase of the ZnO photoanode with c-axis orientation. Surface morphology of the ZnO photoanode shows uniform distribution of spherically-shaped grains, ranging from 18 nm to 25 nm. The power conversion efficiency of the device was measured as 0.1%. Density functional theory was adopted to study the observed photovoltaic performance of the fabricated device. The analysis of the electronic properties of Evans blue dye showed that it has a pronounced effect on the observed device performance.

  1. Surface Engineering of ZnO Thin Film for High Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zong-Liang Tseng; Chien-Hung Chiang; Chun-Guey Wu

    2015-01-01

    Sputtering made ZnO thin film was used as an electron-transport layer in a regular planar perovskite solar cell based on high quality CH3NH3PbI3 absorber prepared with a two-step spin-coating. An efficiency up to 15.9% under AM 1.5G irradiation is achieved for the cell based on ZnO film fabricated under Ar working gas. The atmosphere of the sputtering chamber can tune the surface electronic properties (band structure) of the resulting ZnO thin film and therefore the photovoltaic performance o...

  2. The annealing induced extraordinary properties of SI based ZNO film grown by RF sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing; Wu, Suntao

    2007-01-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) thin films were in situ deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using a template layer derived by sol-gel method. A 0.1-$\\mu$m-thick PZT layer with (111) or (100)-preferred orientation was first deposited onto Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using the sol-gel method, and than a PZT layer with thickness of 1$\\mu$m was in situ deposited by PLD on the above-mentioned PZT layer. The crystalline phases and the preferred orientations of the PZT films were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Surface and cross-sectional morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring their P-E hysteresis loops and dielectric constants. The preferred orientation of the films can be controlled using the template layer derived by the sol-gel method. The deposition temperature required to obtain the perovskite phase in this process is approximately 460 degrees C, and ...

  3. Effect of Mg doping in ZnO buffer layer on ZnO thin film devices for electronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Pushpa; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been grown on p-silicon (Si) substrate using magnesium doped ZnO (Mg: ZnO) buffer layer by radio-frequency (RF) sputtering method. In this paper, we have optimized the concentration of Mg (0-5 atomic percent (at. %)) ZnO buffer layer to examine its effect on ZnO thin film based devices for electronic and optoelectronic applications. The crystalline nature, morphology and topography of the surface of the thin film have been characterized. The optical as well as electrical properties of the active ZnO film can be tailored by varying the concentration of Mg in the buffer layer. The crystallite size in the active ZnO thin film was found to increase with the Mg concentration in the buffer layer in the range of 0-3 at. % and subsequently decrease with increasing Mg atom concentration in the ZnO. The same was verified by the surface morphology and topography studies carried out with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic electron microscopy (AFM) respectively. The reflectance in the visible region was measured to be less than 80% and found to decrease with increase in Mg concentration from 0 to 3 at. % in the buffer region. The optical bandgap was initially found to increase from 3.02 eV to 3.74 eV by increasing the Mg content from 0 to 3 at. % but subsequently decreases and drops down to 3.43 eV for a concentration of 5 at. %. The study of an Au:Pd/ZnO Schottky diode reveals that for optimum doping of the buffer layer the device exhibits superior rectifying behavior. The barrier height, ideality factor, rectification ratio, reverse saturation current and series resistance of the Schottky diode were extracted from the measured current voltage (I-V) characteristics.

  4. Liquid crystal alignment on ZnO nanostructure films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Mu-Zhe; Yang, Sheng-Hsiung; Jeng, Shie-Chang

    2016-03-01

    The study of liquid crystal (LC) alignment is important for fundamental researches and industrial applications. The tunable pretilt angles of liquid crystal (LC) molecules aligned on the inorganic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure films with controllable surface wettability are demonstrated in this work. The ZnO nanostructure films are deposited on the ITO- glass substrates by the two-steps hydrothermal process, and their wettability can be modified by annealing. Our experimental results show that the pretilt angles of LCs on ZnO nanostructure films can be successfully adjusted over a wide range from ~90° to ~0° as the surface energy on the ZnO nanostructure films changes from ~30 to ~70 mJ/m. Finally we have applied this technique to fabricate a no-bias optically-compensated bend (OCB) LCD with ZnO nanostructure films annealed at 235 °C.

  5. Photo-Patternable ZnO Thin Films Based on Cross-Linked Zinc Acrylate for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Complementary Inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong Jin; An, Tae Kyu; Yun, Dong-Jin; Kim, Lae Ho; Park, Seonuk; Kim, Yebyeol; Nam, Sooji; Lee, Keun Hyung; Kim, Se Hyun; Jang, Jaeyoung; Park, Chan Eon

    2016-03-01

    Complementary inverters consisting of p-type organic and n-type metal oxide semiconductors have received considerable attention as key elements for realizing low-cost and large-area future electronics. Solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) have great potential for use in hybrid complementary inverters as n-type load transistors because of the low cost of their fabrication process and natural abundance of active materials. The integration of a single ZnO TFT into an inverter requires the development of a simple patterning method as an alternative to conventional time-consuming and complicated photolithography techniques. In this study, we used a photocurable polymer precursor, zinc acrylate (or zinc diacrylate, ZDA), to conveniently fabricate photopatternable ZnO thin films for use as the active layers of n-type ZnO TFTs. UV-irradiated ZDA thin films became insoluble in developing solvent as the acrylate moiety photo-cross-linked; therefore, we were able to successfully photopattern solution-processed ZDA thin films using UV light. We studied the effects of addition of a tiny amount of indium dopant on the transistor characteristics of the photopatterned ZnO thin films and demonstrated low-voltage operation of the ZnO TFTs within ±3 V by utilizing Al2O3/TiO2 laminate thin films or ion-gels as gate dielectrics. By combining the ZnO TFTs with p-type pentacene TFTs, we successfully fabricated organic/inorganic hybrid complementary inverters using solution-processed and photopatterned ZnO TFTs. PMID:26840992

  6. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndrez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100 substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.

  7. Significant room-temperature ferromagnetism in porous ZnO films: The role of oxygen vacancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue; Liu, Huiyuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Liu, Lihu; Jia, Xiaoxuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous ZnO films were deposited on porous anodic alumina substrates. • Significant ferromagnetism (FM) has been observed in porous ZnO films (110 emu/cm{sup 3}). • The strong magnetic anisotropy was observed in the porous ZnO films. • The origin of FM is attributed to the oxygen vacancy with a local magnetic moment. - Abstract: Pure porous ZnO films were prepared by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering on porous anodic alumina substrates. Remarkably large room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films. The highest saturation moment along the out-of-plane direction was about 110 emu/cm{sup 3}. Experimental and theoretical results suggested that the oxygen vacancies and the unique porous structure of the films are responsible for the large ferromagnetism. There are two modes of coupling between oxygen vacancies in the porous ZnO films: (i) exchange interactions directly between the oxygen vacancies and (ii) with the mediation of conduction electrons. In addition, it was found that the magnetic moment of ZnO films can be changed by tuning the concentration of oxygen vacancies. These observations may be useful in the development of ZnO-based spintronics devices.

  8. Morphological and optical investigation of Sol-Gel ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T.; Harizanova, A.; Petrova, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents morphological and optical studies of the properties of spin-coated ZnO films depending on the annealing temperatures. The films microstructure was explored using a scanning nano-hardness measuring device of the NanoScan family, based on the principles of atomic force microscopy, in a constant frequency mode. The surface study revealed that the root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of 985.64×985.64 nm ZnO films becomes greater with the increase of the annealing temperature, but the film surface remains uniform and smooth. The results were confirmed by XRD analysis, which demonstrated that the crystallite size grew from 25 to 36 nm with the thermal treatments. The ZnO films possessed high transmittance in the visible spectral range and the optical band gaps in ZnO films varied from 3.25 eV to 3.52 eV. The optical and morphological properties of the ZnO films formed on Si and quartz substrates are very good. The sol-gel approach proposed for deposition of nanostructured ZnO films is promising for applications in optoelectronic devices or solar cells.

  9. Memristor memory element based on ZnO thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, A. R.; Elbakyan, E. Y.; Guo, R.; Hovsepyan, R. K.

    2015-08-01

    The memristor element for random access memory (resistance random access memory - ReRAM) was developed and investigated. The developed structure consists of a Schottky diode (1D) based on Pt/ZnO:Ga/ZnO/Pt heterostructure and a memristor (1R) based on Pt/ZnO:Ga/ZnO/ZnO:Li/Pt heterostructure. Thus the unipolar memristor memory element of 1D1R type was obtained. The heterostructures were produced by the electron-beam vacuum deposition method. The laboratory samples of the memory elements were prepared and their characteristics were studied. The proposed device has a high stability and withstands 1000 switching cycles without derating.

  10. Photosensitivity of nanocrystalline ZnO films grown by PLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayouchi, R.; Bentes, L.; Casteleiro, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Conde, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, P-1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques, C.P.; Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, ITN, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Moutinho, A.M.C.; Marques, H.P.; Teodoro, O. [CeFiTec, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, P-2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Schwarz, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: rschwarz@fisica.ist.utl.pt

    2009-03-15

    We have studied the properties of ZnO thin films grown by laser ablation of ZnO targets on (0 0 0 1) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), under substrate temperatures around 400 deg. C. The films were characterized by different methods including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS analysis revealed that the films are oxygen deficient, and XRD analysis with {theta}-2{theta} scans and rocking curves indicate that the ZnO thin films are highly c-axis oriented. All the films are ultraviolet (UV) sensitive. Sensitivity is maximum for the films deposited at lower temperature. The films deposited at higher temperatures show crystallite sizes of typically 500 nm, a high dark current and minimum photoresponse. In all films we observe persistent photoconductivity decay. More densely packed crystallites and a faster decay in photocurrent is observed for films deposited at lower temperature.

  11. Study on pulsed laser ablation and deposition of ZnO thin films by L-MBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YongNing; ZHANG JingWen; YANG XiaoDong; XU QingAn; ZHU ChangChun; HOU Xun

    2007-01-01

    ZnO, as a wide-band gap semiconductor, has recently become a new research focus in the field of ultraviolet optoelectronic semiconductors. Laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE) is quite useful for the unit cell layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of zinc oxide thin films from the sintered ceramic target. The ZnO ceramic target with high purity was ablated by KrF laser pulses in an ultra high vacuum to deposit ZnO thin film during the process of L-MBE. It is found that the deposition rate of ZnO thin film by L-MBE is much lower than that by conventional pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Based on the experimental phenomena in the ZnO thin film growth process and the thermal-controlling mechanism of the nanosecond (ns) pulsed laser ablation of ZnO ceramic target, the suggested effective ablating time during the pulse duration can explain the very low deposition rate of the ZnO film by L-MBE. The unique dynamic mechanism for growing ZnO thin film is analyzed. Both the high energy of the deposition species and the low growth rate of the film are really beneficial for the L-MBE growth of the ZnO thin film with high crystallinity at low temperature.

  12. Physical model for the exotic ultraviolet photo-conductivity of ZnO nanowire films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue-Wu; Ren, Shou-Tian; Qu, Shi-Liang; Wang, Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Employing a simple and efficient method of electro-chemical anodization, ZnO nanowire films are fabricated on Zn foil, and an ultraviolet (UV) sensor prototype is formed for investigating the electronic transport through back-to-back double junctions. The UV (365 nm) responses of surface-contacted ZnO film are provided by I—V measurement, along with the current evolution process by on/off of UV illumination. In this paper, the back-to-back metal—seconductor—metal (M—S—M) model is used to explain the electronic transport of a ZnO nanowire film based structure. A thermionic-field electron emission mechanism is employed to fit and explain the as-observed UV sensitive electronic transport properties of ZnO film with surface-modulation by oxygen and water molecular coverage.

  13. Wound Healing Bionanocomposites Based on Castor Oil Polymeric Films Reinforced with Chitosan-Modified ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2015-09-14

    Castor oil (CO), which is a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and environmentally benign nonedible oil, has been successfully used as matrix material to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable nanocomposite films filled with chitosan (CS)-modified ZnO nanoparticles. The biocomposites were synthesized via a simple and versatile solution mixing and casting method. The morphology, structure, thermal stability, water absorption, biodegradability, cytocompatibility, barrier, mechanical, viscoelastic, antibacterial, and wound healing properties of the films have been analyzed. FT-IR spectra were used to obtain information about the nanoparticle-matrix interactions. The thermal stability, hydrophilicity, degree of porosity, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen permeability (Dk), and biodegradability of the films increased with the CS-ZnO loading. The WVTR and Dk data obtained are within the range of values reported for commercial wound dressings. Tensile tests demonstrated that the nanocomposites displayed a good balance between elasticity, strength, and flexibility under both dry and simulated body fluid (SBF) environments. The flexibility increased in a moist atmosphere due to the plasticization effect of absorbed water. The nanocomposites also exhibited significantly enhanced dynamic mechanical performance (storage modulus and glass transition temperature) than neat CO under different humidity conditions. The antibacterial activity of the films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus bacteria was investigated in the presence and the absence of UV light. The biocide effect increased progressively with the CS-ZnO content and was systematically stronger against Gram-positive cells. Composites with nanoparticle loading ≤5.0 wt % exhibited very good in vitro cytocompatibility and enabled a faster wound healing than neat CO and control gauze, hence showing great potential to be applied as antibacterial

  14. Wound Healing Bionanocomposites Based on Castor Oil Polymeric Films Reinforced with Chitosan-Modified ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2015-09-14

    Castor oil (CO), which is a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and environmentally benign nonedible oil, has been successfully used as matrix material to prepare biocompatible and biodegradable nanocomposite films filled with chitosan (CS)-modified ZnO nanoparticles. The biocomposites were synthesized via a simple and versatile solution mixing and casting method. The morphology, structure, thermal stability, water absorption, biodegradability, cytocompatibility, barrier, mechanical, viscoelastic, antibacterial, and wound healing properties of the films have been analyzed. FT-IR spectra were used to obtain information about the nanoparticle-matrix interactions. The thermal stability, hydrophilicity, degree of porosity, water absorption, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), oxygen permeability (Dk), and biodegradability of the films increased with the CS-ZnO loading. The WVTR and Dk data obtained are within the range of values reported for commercial wound dressings. Tensile tests demonstrated that the nanocomposites displayed a good balance between elasticity, strength, and flexibility under both dry and simulated body fluid (SBF) environments. The flexibility increased in a moist atmosphere due to the plasticization effect of absorbed water. The nanocomposites also exhibited significantly enhanced dynamic mechanical performance (storage modulus and glass transition temperature) than neat CO under different humidity conditions. The antibacterial activity of the films against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus bacteria was investigated in the presence and the absence of UV light. The biocide effect increased progressively with the CS-ZnO content and was systematically stronger against Gram-positive cells. Composites with nanoparticle loading ≤5.0 wt % exhibited very good in vitro cytocompatibility and enabled a faster wound healing than neat CO and control gauze, hence showing great potential to be applied as antibacterial

  15. Nucleant layer effect on nanocolumnar ZnO films grown by electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Tolosa, María Dolores; Damonte, Laura Cristina; Brine, Hicham; Bolink, Henk J.; Hernández Fenollosa, María De Los Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Different ZnO nanostructured films were electrochemically grown, using an aqueous solution based on ZnCl2, on three types of transparent conductive oxides grow on commercial ITO (In2O3:Sn)-covered glass substrates: (1) ZnO prepared by spin coating, (2) ZnO prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering, and (3) commercial ITO-covered glass substrates. Although thin, these primary oxide layers play an important role on the properties of the nanostructured films grown on top of ...

  16. Laser molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO thin films and heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Opel, Matthias; Geprägs, Stephan; Althammer, Matthias; Brenninger, Thomas; Gross, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    We report on the growth of epitaxial ZnO thin films and ZnO based heterostructures on sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We first discuss some recent developments in laser-MBE such as flexible ultra-violet laser beam optics, infrared laser heating systems or the use of atomic oxygen and nitrogen sources, and describe the technical realization of our advanced laser-MBE system. Then we describe the optimization of the deposition parameters for ZnO films such as laser flu...

  17. Recent advances in ZnO nanostructures and thin films for biosensor applications: Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanostructures have shown binding of biomolecules in desired orientation with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, their compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes them suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films, and their applications in biosensor technology. Highlights: ► This review highlights various approaches to synthesize ZnO nanostructures and thin films. ► Article highlights the importance of ZnO nanostructures as biosensor matrix. ► Article highlights the advances in various biosensors based on ZnO nanostructures. ► Article describes the potential of ZnO based biosensor for new generation healthcare devices. - Abstract: Biosensors have shown great potential for health care and environmental monitoring. The performance of biosensors depends on their components, among which the matrix material, i.e., the layer between the recognition layer of biomolecule and transducer, plays a crucial role in defining the stability, sensitivity and shelf-life of a biosensor. Recently, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures and thin films have attracted much interest as materials for biosensors due to their biocompatibility, chemical stability, high isoelectric point, electrochemical activity, high electron mobility, ease of synthesis by diverse methods and high surface-to-volume ratio. ZnO nanostructures have shown the binding of biomolecules in desired orientations with improved conformation and high biological activity, resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Furthermore, compatibility with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for constructing integrated circuits makes ZnO nanostructures suitable candidate for future small integrated biosensor devices. This review

  18. Well-controlled wet etching of ZnO films using hydrogen peroxide solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuchao [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wu, Tianzhun, E-mail: tz.wu@siat.ac.cn [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Chen, Mingming; Su, Longxing; Zhang, Quanlin; Yuan, Lifang; Zhu, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Tang, Zikang, E-mail: phzktang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2014-02-15

    We propose hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) solution as a novel and promising etchant for ZnO thin film with well-controlled etching performances and enhanced ultraviolet (UV) luminescence, which is also facile, inexpensive and environmentally friendly. We have analyzed its etching mechanism and surface modification effect for ZnO. Using this etchant, fine patterns have been transferred to the ZnO single-crystal films with good fidelity. The etching performances have been comprehensively investigated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atom force microscopy (AFM), surface profiler and photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer. The results have shown that ZnO films after the long-time etching exhibited linear etching rate, smooth profile and increased UV emission, which enables H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution as an excellent wet etchant for various ZnO-based optoelectronic devices.

  19. Study on pulsed laser ablation and deposition of ZnO thin films by L-MBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ZnO,as a wide-band gap semiconductor,has recently become a new research fo-cus in the field of ultraviolet optoelectronic semiconductors. Laser molecular beam epitaxy(L-MBE) is quite useful for the unit cell layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of zinc oxide thin films from the sintered ceramic target. The ZnO ceramic target with high purity was ablated by KrF laser pulses in an ultra high vacuum to deposit ZnO thin film during the process of L-MBE. It is found that the deposition rate of ZnO thin film by L-MBE is much lower than that by conventional pulsed laser deposition(PLD) . Based on the experimental phenomena in the ZnO thin film growth process and the thermal-controlling mechanism of the nanosecond(ns) pulsed laser abla-tion of ZnO ceramic target,the suggested effective ablating time during the pulse duration can explain the very low deposition rate of the ZnO film by L-MBE. The unique dynamic mechanism for growing ZnO thin film is analyzed. Both the high energy of the deposition species and the low growth rate of the film are really beneficial for the L-MBE growth of the ZnO thin film with high crystallinity at low temperature.

  20. ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoutsouva, M.G. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Panagopoulos, C.N., E-mail: chpanag@metal.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Zografos, 15780 Athens (Greece); Papadimitriou, D. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Physics, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Fasaki, I.; Kompitsas, M. [Theor. and Phys./Chem. Institute, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vas. Konstantinou Ave., 11635 Athens (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on soda lime glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen-reactive atmosphere. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the as-prepared thin films were studied in dependence of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. High quality polycrystalline ZnO films with hexagonal wurtzite structure were deposited at substrate temperatures of 100 and 300 deg. C. The RMS roughness of the deposited oxide films was found to be in the range 2-9 nm and was only slightly dependent on substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. Electrical measurements indicated a decrease of film resistivity with the increase of substrate temperature and the decrease of oxygen pressure. The ZnO films exhibited high transmittance of 90% and their energy band gap and thickness were in the range 3.26-3.30 eV and 256-627 nm, respectively.

  1. Superhydrophobic Ag decorated ZnO nanostructured thin film as effective surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayram, Naidu Dhanpal; Sonia, S.; Poongodi, S.; Kumar, P. Suresh; Masuda, Yoshitake; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N.; Viswanathan, C.

    2015-11-01

    The present work is an attempt to overcome the challenges in the fabrication of super hydrophobic silver decorated zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure thin films via thermal evaporation process. The ZnO nanowire thin films are prepared without any surface modification and show super hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 163°. Silver is further deposited onto the ZnO nanowire to obtain nanoworm morphology. Silver decorated ZnO (Ag@ZnO) thin films are used as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies. The formation of randomly arranged nanowire and silver decorated nanoworm structure is confirmed using FESEM, HR-TEM and AFM analysis. Crystallinity and existence of Ag on ZnO are confirmed using XRD and XPS studies. A detailed growth mechanism is discussed for the formation of the nanowires from nanobeads based on various deposition times. The prepared SERS substrate reveals a reproducible enhancement of 3.082 × 107 M for Rhodamine 6G dye (R6G) for 10-10 molar concentration per liter. A higher order of SERS spectra is obtained for a contact angle of 155°. Thus the obtained thin films show the superhydrophobic nature with a highly enhanced Raman spectrum and act as SERS substrates. The present nanoworm morphology shows a new pathway for the construction of semiconductor thin films for plasmonic studies and challenges the orderly arranged ZnO nanorods, wires and other nano structure substrates used in SERS studies.

  2. Polyelectrolyte-assisted preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Shijun

    2005-05-15

    The present work focuses on the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films onto silicon wafers modified by self-assembled-monolayers via chemical bath deposition. Two precursor solutions were designed and used for the film deposition, in which two different polymers were introduced respectively to control the growth of the ZnO colloidal particles in solution. ZnO films were deposited from an aqueous solution containing zinc salt and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) in the presence of a graft-copolymer (P (MAA{sub 0.50}-co(MAA-EO{sub 20}){sub 0.50}){sub 70}). A film-formation-diagram was established based on the results obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which describes the influence of the concentration of HMTA and copolymer on the ZnO film formation. According to the film morphology, film formation can be classified into three categories: (a) island-like films, (b) uniform films and (c) canyon-like films. The ZnO films annealed at temperatures of 450 C, 500 C, 600 C and 700 C were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). After annealing, the films are polycrystalline ZnO with wurtzite structure. XRD measurements indicate that with increasing annealing temperature, the average grain size increases accordingly and the crystallinity of the films is improved. Upon heating to 600 C, the ZnO films exhibit preferred orientation with c-axis normal to substrate, whereas the films annealed at 700 C even show a more explicit texture. By annealing at temperatures above 600 C the ZnO film reacts with the substrate to form an interfacial layer of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, which grows thicker at elevated annealing temperatures. The ZnO films annealed at 600 C and 700 C show strong UV emission. Another non-aqueous solution system for ZnO thin film deposition was established, in which 2- propanol was used as a solvent and Zn(CH3COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O as well as NaOH as reactants

  3. High-Performance Photo-Modulated Thin-Film Transistor Based on Quantum dots/Reduced Graphene Oxide Fragment-Decorated ZnO Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Tao; Zichen Zhang; Yi-an Huang; Xiang Liu; Jing Chen; Wei Lei; Xiaofeng Wang; Lingfeng Pan; Jiangyong Pan; Qianqian Huang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a photo-modulated transistor based on the thin-film transistor structure was fabricated on the flexible substrate by spin-coating and magnetron sputtering. A novel hybrid material that composed of CdSe quantum dots and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) fragment-decorated ZnO nanowires was synthesized to overcome the narrow optical sensitive waveband and enhance the photo-responsivity. Due to the enrichment of the interface and heterostructure by RGO fragments being utilized, the photo-responsivity of the transistor was improved to 2000 A W-1 and the photo-sensitive wavelength was extended from ultraviolet to visible. In addition, a positive back-gate voltage was employed to reduce the Schottky barrier width of RGO fragments and ZnO nanowires. As a result, the amount of carriers was increased by 10 folds via the modulation of back-gate voltage. With these inherent properties, such as integrated circuit capability and wide optical sensitive waveband, the transistor will manifest great potential in the future applications in photodetectors.

  4. Influence of nitrogen and magnesium doping on the properties of ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-hua, Li; Hui-Qiong, Wang; Hua, Zhou; Ya-Ping, Li; Zheng, Huang; Jin-Cheng, Zheng; Jia-Ou, Wang; Hai-jie, Qian; Kurash, Ibrahim; Xiaohang, Chen; Huahan, Zhan; Yinghui, Zhou; Junyong, Kang

    2016-07-01

    Undoped ZnO and doped ZnO films were deposited on the MgO(111) substrates using oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam expitaxy. The orientations of the grown ZnO thin film were investigated by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ x-ray diffraction (XRD). The film roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy, which was correlated with the grain sizes determined by XRD. Synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy was performed to study the doping effect on the electronic properties of the ZnO films, compared with density functional theory calculations. It is found that, nitrogen doping would hinder the growth of thin film, and generate the NO defect, while magnesium doping promotes the quality of nitrogen-doped ZnO films, inhibiting (N2)O production and increasing nitrogen content. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204253, U1332105, 61227009, and 91321102), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 20720160020), and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA052202).

  5. Easy Formation of Nanodisk-Dendritic ZnO Film via Controlled Electrodeposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azimah Abd Samad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A facile electrodeposition synthesis was introduced to prepare the nanodisk-dendritic ZnO film using a mixture solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 with potassium chloride (KCl that acted as a directing agent. This study aims to determine the best photoelectrochemical response for solar-induced water splitting. Based on our results obtained, it was found that an average diagonal of nanodisk was approximately 1.70 µm with the thickness of ≈150 nm that was successfully grown on the surface of substrate. The photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical responses of the resultant wurtzite type based-nanodisk-dendrite ZnO film as compared to the as-prepared ZnO film were monitored and evaluated. A photocurrent density of 19.87 mA/cm2 under ultraviolet rays and 14.05 mA/cm2 under visible light (500 nm was recorded for the newly developed nanodisk-dendritic ZnO thin film. It was believed that nanodisk-dendritic ZnO film can harvest more incident photons from the illumination to generate more photoinduced charge carriers to trigger the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical reactions. Moreover, strong light scattering effects and high specific surface area of 2D nanostructures aid in the incident light absorption from any direction.

  6. Properties and characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with various biopolymers and ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-06-15

    This study was aimed to develop biopolymer based antimicrobial films for active food packaging and to reduce environmental pollution caused by accumulation of synthetic packaging. The ZnO NPs were incorporated as antimicrobials into different biopolymers such as agar, carrageenan and CMC. Solvent casting method was performed to prepare active nanocomposite films. Methods such as FE-SEM, FT-IR and XRD were used to characterize resulting films. Physical, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties were also examined. Remarkable surface morphological differences were observed between control and nanocomposite films. The crystallinity of ZnO was confirmed by XRD analysis. The addition of ZnO NPs increased color, UV barrier, moisture content, hydrophobicity, elongation and thermal stability of the films, while decreased WVP, tensile strength and elastic modulus. ZnO NPs impregnated films inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes and E. coli. So these newly prepared nanocomposite films can be used as active packaging film to extend shelf-life of food.

  7. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus E. Kesim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectric properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 μm infrared absorber.

  8. A high power ZnO thin film piezoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Weiwei; Li, Tao; Li, Yutong; Qiu, Junwen; Ma, Xianjun; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A highly efficient and large area piezoelectric ZnO thin film nanogenerator (NG) was fabricated. The ZnO thin film was deposited onto a Si substrate by pulsed laser ablation at a substrate temperature of 500 °C. The deposited ZnO film exhibited a preferred c-axis orientation and a high piezoelectric value of 49.7 pm/V characterized using Piezoelectric Force Microscopy (PFM). Thin films of ZnO were patterned into rectangular power sources with dimensions of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2 with metallic top and bottom electrodes constructed via conventional semiconductor lithographic patterning processes. The NG units were subjected to periodic bending/unbending motions produced by mechanical impingement at a fixed frequency of 100 Hz at a pressure of 0.4 kg/cm2. The output electrical voltage, current density, and power density generated by one ZnO NG were recorded. Values of ∼95 mV, 35 μA cm-2 and 5.1 mW cm-2 were recorded. The level of power density is typical to that produced by a PZT NG on a flexible substrate. Higher energy NG sources can be easily created by adding more power units either in parallel or in series. The thin film ZnO NG technique is highly adaptable with current semiconductor processes, and as such, is easily integrated with signal collecting circuits that are compatible with mass production. A typical application would be using the power harvested from irregular human foot motions to either to operate blue LEDs directly or to drive a sensor network node in mille-power level without any external electric source and circuits.

  9. Development of glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanoparticles film and glucose oxidase-immobilized eggshell membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Bohari Noor Aini; Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee; Kamaruzaman Ampon; Kenneth Francis Rodrigues; Saallah Suryani

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL) (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate; [EMIM][Otf]), ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and eggshell membrane (ESM) on a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for determination of glucose. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was covalently immobilized on eggshell membrane with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator to enhance the electron transfer capacity and t...

  10. Resistive switching characteristics and conduction mechanisms of nonvolatile memory devices based on Ga and Sn co-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Lee, Nam Hyun; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanyang.ac.kr

    2015-07-31

    Nonvolatile memory devices were fabricated utilizing Ga and Sn co-doped ZnO (GZTO) films formed by using a solution process method. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the crystallinity of the annealed GZTO films was an amorphous phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of the GZTO films depicted Zn−O, Ga−O, and Sn−O bonds. Current–voltage measurements on the Al/GZTO/indium-tin-oxide (ITO) devices at 300 K showed bipolar resistive switching behaviors. The resistances at both the low resistance state (LRS) and high resistance state (HRS) measured at 0.5 V for the devices maintain almost constant without any damage and breakdown above 130 s, indicative of the memory stability of the devices. A difference in the resistance between the HRS and the LRS was more than 1 order of the magnitude. The conduction mechanisms of the HRS in the set process for the Al/GZTO/ITO devices were dominated by a space-charge-limited current model. - Highlights: • Nonvolatile memory devices were fabricated utilizing Ga and Sn co-doped ZnO (GZTO) films. • X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the annealed GZTO films were an amorphous phase. • Current–voltage measurements on the devices showed bipolar resistive switching behaviors. • One order magnitude difference in resistance between low and high resistance states (HRS) • Space charge limited conduction is the dominant conduction mechanisms of the HRS.

  11. Preparation of highly textured surface ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the influence of the deposition technique upon the surface morphology of ZnO thin films we have employed two methods, which are the spray pyrolysis and magnetron sputtering. The surface morphology of ZnO thin films is a crucial parameter for controlling the reflection losses reduction when the coating is used as a transparent front layer in solar cells. The morphology of the surface was characterized by optical microscopy and profilometry. The results indicate that spray technique enables the elaboration of films with a highly rough surface, however sputtering technique yields to smoother films. This difference originates from the different deposition processes involved in both techniques. A vertical r.m.s. (root mean square) roughness in the order of 200 nm was measured in sprayed film; however only 40 nm r.m.s. vertical roughness is reported in sputtered one. The surface morphology in sprayed films causes the incident light diffraction; consequently the reflection is reduced up to zero. Therefore we show that ZnO thin films deposited with spray method is a potential candidate for use as a front transparent layer in solar cells

  12. Ethanedithiol Treatment of Solution-Processed ZnO Thin Films: Controlling the Intragap States of Electron Transporting Interlayers for Efficient and Stable Inverted Organic Photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Sai; Jin, Yizheng; Liang, Xiaoyong; Ye, Zhizhen; Wu, Zhongwei; Sun, Baoquan; Ma, Zaifei; Tang, Zheng; Wang, Jianpu; Wuerfel, Uli; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Fengling

    2015-01-01

    The surface defects of solution-processed ZnO films lead to various intragap states. When the solution-processed ZnO films are used as electron transport interlayers (ETLs) in inverted organic solar cells, the intragap states act as interfacial recombination centers for photogenerated charges and thereby degrade the device performance. Here, a simple passivation method based on ethanedithiol (EDT) treatment is demonstrated, which effectively removes the surface defects of the ZnO nanocrystal ...

  13. Nanostructured ZnO films: A study of molecular influence on transport properties by impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sappia, Luciano D.; Trujillo, Matias R. [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas (INSIBIO), CONICET, Chacabuco 461, T4000ILI San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Laboratorio de Medios e Interfases (LAMEIN), Departamento de Bioingeniería, Fac. de Cs. Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Av. Independencia 1800, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Lorite, Israel [Division of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Institute for Experimental Physics II, University of Leipzig, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Madrid, Rossana E., E-mail: rmadrid@herrera.unt.edu.ar [Instituto Superior de Investigaciones Biológicas (INSIBIO), CONICET, Chacabuco 461, T4000ILI San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Laboratorio de Medios e Interfases (LAMEIN), Departamento de Bioingeniería, Fac. de Cs. Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Av. Independencia 1800, 4000 San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Tirado, Monica [NanoProject and Laboratorio de Nanomateriales y Propiedades Dieléctricas, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Avenida Independencia 1800, Tucumán (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); and others

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We study electrical transport in nanostructured ZnO films by impedance spectroscopy. • Bioaggregates on the surface produce strong changes in film transport properties. • This behavior is explained by modeling data with RC parallel circuits. • Electrical responses of ZnO films to aggregates are promising for biosensing. - Abstract: Nanomaterials based on ZnO have been used to build glucose sensors due to its high isoelectric point, which is important when a protein like Glucose Oxidase (GOx) is attached to a surface. It also creates a biologically friendly environment to preserve the activity of the enzyme. In this work we study the electrical transport properties of ZnO thin films (TFs) and single crystals (SC) in contact with different solutions by using impedance spectroscopy. We have found that the composition of the liquid, by means of the charge of the ions, produces strong changes in the transport properties of the TF. The enzyme GOx and phosphate buffer solutions have the major effect in the conduction through the films, which can be explained by the entrapment of carriers at the grain boundaries of the TFs. These results can help to design a new concept in glucose biosensing.

  14. Structural and electrical properties of electric field assisted spray deposited pea structured ZnO film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Neha; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2016-05-01

    Spray deposition of ZnO film was carried out. The uneven growth of ZnO nanostructures is resulted for spray deposited ZnO film. Application of DC voltage (1000V) during spray deposition provides formation of pea like structures with uniform coverage over the substrate. Electric field assisted spray deposition provides increased crystallinity with reduced resistivity and improved mobility of the ZnO film as compared to spray deposited ZnO film without electric field. This with large area deposition makes the process more efficient than other techniques.

  15. Single-Crystal Mesoporous ZnO Thin Films Composed of Nanowalls

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xudong

    2009-02-05

    This paper presents a controlled, large scale fabrication of mesoporous ZnO thin films. The entire ZnO mesoporous film is one piece of a single crystal, while high porosity made of nanowalls is present. The growth mechanism was proposed in comparison with the growth of ZnO nanowires. The ZnO mesoporous film was successfully applied as a gas sensor. The fabrication and growth analysis of the mesoporous ZnO thin film gi ve general guidance for the controlled growth of nanostructures. It also pro vides a unique structure with a superhigh surface-to-volume ratio for surface-related applications. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. Transparent conductive Nd-doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistor, M.; Millon, E.; Cachoncinlle, C.; Seiler, W.; Jedrecy, N.; Hebert, C.; Perrière, J.

    2015-03-01

    Transparent Nd-doped ZnO films with thickness in the range of 70 to 250 nm were grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) on c-cut sapphire substrates at various oxygen pressures and substrate temperatures. A wide range of optical and electrical properties of the films were obtained and correlated to the composition and crystalline structure. The Nd-doped ZnO films are smooth, dense, and display the wurtzite phase. Different epitaxial relationships between films and substrate as a function of growth pressure and substrate temperature were evidenced by asymmetric x-ray diffraction measurements. By varying PLD growth conditions, the films can be tuned to have either metallic or semiconductor characteristics, with good optical transmittance in the visible range. Moreover, a low-temperature metal-insulator transition may be observed in Nd-doped ZnO films grown under low oxygen pressure. Resistivities as low as 6 × 10-4 Ω cm and 90% optical transmittance in the visible range and different near-infrared transmittance are obtained with approximately 1.0-1.5 at.% Nd doping and growth temperature of approximately 500 °C.

  17. Effects of doping concentration on properties of Mn-doped ZnO thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Li; Zhang Jian-Min

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that the radio frequency magnetron sputtering is used to fabricate ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO thin films on glass substrates at 500 ℃. The Mn-doped ZnO thin films present wurtzite structure of ZnO and have a smoother surface, better conductivity but no ferromagnetism. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the binding energy of Mn_(2p3/2) increases with increasing Mn content slightly, and the state of Mn in the Mn-doped ZnO thin films is divalent. The chemisorbed oxygen in the Mn-doped ZnO thin films increases with increasing Mn doping concentration. The photoluminescence spectra of ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO thin films have a similar ultraviolet emission. The yellow green emissions of 4 wt. % and 10 wt. % Mn-doped thin films are quenched, whereas the yellow green emission occurs because of abundant oxygen vacancies in the Mn-doped ZnO thin films after 20 wt. % Mn doping. Compared with pure ZnO thin film, the bandgap of the Mn-doped ZnO thin films increases with increasing Mn content.

  18. Role of ZnO thin film in the vertically aligned growth of ZnO nanorods by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Nguyen Thanh; Noh, Jin-Seo; Park, Sungho

    2016-08-01

    The effect of ZnO thin film on the growth of ZnO nanorods was investigated. ZnO thin films were sputter-deposited on Si substrate with varying the thickness. ZnO nanorods were grown on the thin film using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 90 °C. The ZnO thin films showed granular structure and vertical roughness on the surface, which facilitated the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The average grain size and the surface roughness of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness, and this led to the increase in both the average diameter and the average length of vertically grown ZnO nanorods. In particular, it was found that the average diameter of ZnO nanorods was very close to the average grain size of ZnO thin film, confirming the role of ZnO film as a seed layer for the vertical growth of ZnO nanorods. The CBD growth on ZnO seed layers may provide a facile route to engineering vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays.

  19. Hydrothermal Growth of Quasi-Monocrystal ZnO Thin Films and Their Application in Ultraviolet Photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-monocrystal ZnO film grown using the hydrothermal growth method is used for the fabrication of Cu2O/ZnO heterojunction (HJ ultraviolet photodetectors (UV-PDs. The HJ was formed via the sputtering deposition of p-type Cu2O onto hydrothermally grown ZnO film (HTG-ZnO-film. The effect of annealing temperature in the nitrogen ambient on the photoluminescence spectra of the synthesized ZnO film was studied. The optoelectronic properties of Cu2O/ZnO film with various Cu2O thicknesses (250–750 nm under UV light (365 nm; intensity: 3 mW/cm2 were determined. The UV sensitivity of the HTG-ZnO-film-based UV-PDs and the sputtered ZnO-film-based UV-PDs were 55.6-fold (SHTG and 8.8-fold (Ssputter, respectively. The significant gain in sensitivity (SHTG/Ssputter = 630% of the proposed ZnO-film-based device compared to that for the device based on sputtered film can be attributed to the improved photoelectric properties of quasi-monocrystal ZnO film.

  20. Enhanced Light Scattering by Preferred Orientation Control of Ga Doped ZnO Films Prepared through MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Giang Bach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have explored the effective approach to fabricate GZO/ZnO films that can make the pyramidal surface structures of GZO films for effective light scattering by employing a low temperature ZnO buffer layer prior to high temperature GZO film growth. The GZO thin films exhibit the typical preferred growth orientations along the (002 crystallographic direction at deposition temperature of 400°C and SEM showed that column-like granule structure with planar surface was formed. In contrast, GZO films with a pyramidal texture surface were successfully developed by the control of (110 preferred orientation. We found that the light diffuse transmittance of the film with a GZO (800 nm/ZnO (766 nm exhibited 13% increase at 420 nm wavelength due to the formed large grain size of the pyramidal texture surface. Thus, the obtained GZO films deposited over ZnO buffer layer have high potential for use as front TCO layers in Si-based thin film solar cells. These results could develop the potential way to fabricate TCO based ZnO thin film using MOCVD or sputtering techniques by depositing a low temperature ZnO layer to serve as a template for high temperature GZO film growth. The GZO films exhibited satisfactory optoelectric properties.

  1. Atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin films and dot structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful growth of thin films and quantum dots of ZnO by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is reported. Properties of ZnO films produced by four different ALD-procedures and by oxidation of ALD-grown ZnS films are discussed. The use of thin ZnO films as buffer layers for GaN deposition is also shortly described. (author)

  2. ZnO thin film piezoelectric MEMS vibration energy harvesters with two piezoelectric elements for higher output performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peihong; Du, Hejun

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based vibration energy harvesters with two different designs are presented. These harvesters consist of a silicon cantilever, a silicon proof mass, and a ZnO piezoelectric layer. Design I has a large ZnO piezoelectric element and Design II has two smaller and equally sized ZnO piezoelectric elements; however, the total area of ZnO thin film in two designs is equal. The ZnO thin film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method and is characterized by means of XRD and SEM techniques. These ZnO energy harvesters are fabricated by using MEMS micromachining. The natural frequencies of the fabricated ZnO energy harvesters are simulated and tested. The test results show that these two energy harvesters with different designs have almost the same natural frequency. Then, the output performance of different ZnO energy harvesters is tested in detail. The effects of series connection and parallel connection of two ZnO elements on the load voltage and power are also analyzed. The experimental results show that the energy harvester with two ZnO piezoelectric elements in parallel connection in Design II has higher load voltage and higher load power than the fabricated energy harvesters with other designs. Its load voltage is 2.06 V under load resistance of 1 MΩ and its maximal load power is 1.25 μW under load resistance of 0.6 MΩ, when it is excited by an external vibration with frequency of 1300.1 Hz and acceleration of 10 m/s(2). By contrast, the load voltage of the energy harvester of Design I is 1.77 V under 1 MΩ resistance and its maximal load power is 0.98 μW under 0.38 MΩ load resistance when it is excited by the same vibration. PMID:26233403

  3. Photoconductive ZnO films with embedded quantum dot or ruthenium dye sensitizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. White

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a new type of solution-processed photoconductive film based on embedding photosensitizers (semiconductor nanocrystals or ruthenium dye molecules within conductive ZnO sol-gel matrices. Mixing photosensitizers directly with sol-gel precursors prior to film deposition yields highly colored ZnO films containing well-dispersed sensitizers. These films show internal photoconductivity quantum efficiencies up to ∼50% and photoresponses over 100 mA/W with visible photoexcitation, competitive with other more complex photodetectors reported recently. This simple motif is attractive for the development of robust sensitized-oxide photodetectors and for fundamental studies of photoinduced charge separation from a variety of molecular or quantum dot sensitizers into conductive oxides.

  4. Hydrothermal Growth and Application of ZnO Nanowire Films with ZnO and TiO2Buffer Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Chunhua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports the effects of the seed layers prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating methods on the morphology and density of ZnO nanowire arrays, thus on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The nanowire films with the thick ZnO buffer layer (~0.8–1 μm thick can improve the open circuit voltage of the DSSCs through suppressing carrier recombination, however, and cause the decrease of dye loading absorbed on ZnO nanowires. In order to further investigate the effect of TiO2buffer layer on the performance of ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs, compared with the ZnO nanowire-based DSSCs without a compact TiO2buffer layer, the photovoltaic conversion efficiency and open circuit voltage of the ZnO DSSCs with the compact TiO2layer (~50 nm thick were improved by 3.9–12.5 and 2.4–41.7%, respectively. This can be attributed to the introduction of the compact TiO2layer prepared by sputtering method, which effectively suppressed carrier recombination occurring across both the film–electrolyte interface and the substrate–electrolyte interface.

  5. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cd-doped ZnO thin films through defect engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debbichi, M., E-mail: mourad_fsm@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de la matière condensée et nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Souissi, M. [College of Arts and Science Nayriya, Dammam University, 31441 Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Fouzri, A. [Laboratoire Physico-Chimie des Matériaux, Unité de Service Commun de Recherche ‘‘High Resolution X-ray Diffractometer’’, Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Schmerber, G. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS) UMR 7504 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Said, M. [Laboratoire de la matière condensée et nanosciences, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Alouani, M. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS) UMR 7504 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • ZnO:Cd thin film grown on c-sapphire substrate by MOCVD method. • RTFM in ZnO:Cd thin film is detected by SQUID magnetometer measurement. • DFT theory is conducted to elucidate the mechanism of RTFM in Cd-doped ZnO. - Abstract: Room-temperature ferromagnetism is detected in undoped and cadmium-doped ZnO (ZnO:Cd) thin film grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition method. To elucidate the origin of ferromagnetism, a theoretical study based on density functional theory is conducted, focusing on the role of the neutral cation vacancy on the appearance of magnetism in Cd-doped ZnO thin film. The calculations revealed that Cd substitution at Zn sites contributes to the long-ranged ferromagnetism in ZnO by lowering the formation energy of Zn vacancies and thereby stabilizing Zn vacancies from which the magnetic moments originate.

  6. Development of novel control system to grow ZnO thin films by reactive evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Gordillo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a novel system implemented to grow ZnO thin films by plasma assisted reactive evaporation with adequate properties to be used in the fabrication of photovoltaic devices with different architectures. The innovative aspect includes both an improved design of the reactor used to activate the chemical reaction that leads to the formation of the ZnO compound as an electronic system developed using the virtual instrumentation concept. ZnO thin films with excellent opto-electrical properties were prepared in a reproducible way, controlling the deposition system through a virtual instrument (VI with facilities to control the amount of evaporated zinc involved in the process that gives rise to the formation of ZnO, by means of the incorporation of PID (proportional integral differential and PWM (pulse width modulation control algorithms. The effectiveness and reliability of the developed system was verified by obtaining with good reproducibility thin films of n+-ZnO and i-ZnO grown sequentially in situ with thicknesses and resistivities suitable for use as window layers in chalcopyrite based thin film solar cells.

  7. Residual and intentional n-type doping of ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire and ZnO substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochen, Stéphane; Lafossas, Matthieu; Robin, Ivan-Christophe; Ferret, Pierre; Gemain, Frédérique; Pernot, Julien; Feuillet, Guy

    2014-03-01

    ZnO epilayers usually exhibit high n-type residual doping which is one of the reasons behind the difficulties to dope this material p-type. In this work, we aimed at determining the nature of the involved impurities and their potential role as dopant in ZnO thin films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire and ZnO substrates. In both cases, secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements give evidence for a strong diffusion of impurities from the substrate to the epilayer, especially for silicon and aluminum. In the case of samples grown on sapphire substrates, aluminum follows Fick's diffusion law on a wide growth temperature range (800-1000°C). Thus, the saturation solubility and the diffusion coefficient of aluminum in ZnO single crystals have been determined. Furthermore, the comparison between SIMS impurity and effective dopant concentrations determined by capacitance-voltage measurements highlights, on one hand a substitutional mechanism for aluminum diffusion, and on the other hand that silicon acts as a donor in ZnO and not as an amphoteric impurity. In addition, photoluminescence spectra exhibit excitonic recombinations at the same energy for aluminum and silicon, indicating that silicon behaves as an hydrogenic donor in ZnO. Based on these experimental observations, ZnO thin films with a controlled n-type doping in the 1016-1019cm-3 range have been carried out. These results show that MOVPE growth is fully compatible with the achievement of highly Al-doped n-type thin films, but also with the growth of materials with low residual doping, which is a crucial parameter to address ZnO p-type doping issues.

  8. Linear and nonlinear optical investigations of nano-scale Si-doped ZnO thin films: spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Zahran, H. Y.; Yahia, I. S.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.

    2016-09-01

    Pure and Si-doped ZnO (SZO) thin films at different concentration of Si (1.9 and 2.4 wt%) were deposited on highly cleaned glass substrate by radio frequency (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering. The morphological and structural investigations have been performed by atomic force electron microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to study the composition and the change in the chemical state of Si-doped ZnO thin films. The optical observations like transmittance, energy band gap, extinction coefficient, refractive index, dielectric loss of pure and Si-doped ZnO thin films have been calculated. The linear optical susceptibility, nonlinear refractive index, and nonlinear optical susceptibility were also studied by the spectroscopic approach rather than conventional Z-scan method. The energy gap of Si-doped ZnO thin films was found to increase as compared to pure ZnO thin films. The crystallinity of the ZnO thin films was effected by the Si doping. The O1s spectra in pure and Si-doped ZnO revealed the bound between O-2 and Zn+2 ions and reduction in the surface oxygen with the Si doping. The chemical state analysis of Si 2p showed the conversation of Si to SiOx and SiO2. The increase in the first-order linear optical susceptibility χ (1) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ (3) was observed with the Si doping. The nonlinear studies gave some details about the applications of metal oxides in nonlinear optical devices. In short, this study showed that Si doping through sputtering has effected on the structural, surface and optical properties of ZnO thin films which could be quite useful for advanced applications such as metal-oxide-based optical devices.

  9. Comparative study on the properties of ZnO nanowires and nanocrystalline thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Broitman, Esteban; Bojorge, C; Elhordoy, F; Kent, V.; Zanini Gadioli, G; Marotti, R.; Canepa, H; Dalchiele, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructural, morphological, optical and water-adsorption properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films and ZnO nanowires were studied and compared. The ZnO thin films were obtained by a sol–gel process, while the ZnO nanowires were electrochemically grown onto a ZnO sol–gel spin-coated seed layer. Thin films and nanowire samples were deposited onto crystalline quartz substrates covered by an Au electrode, able to be used in a quartz crystal microbalance. X-ray diffraction measurements ...

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of 2D ordered macroporous ZnO films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The ZnO films with two-dimensional ordered macroporous structure were successfully fabricated through hydrothermal crystal growth of ZnO on the ZnO substrate covered with a mouolayer of polystyrene (PS) spheres as template.The precursor solution of hydrothermal crystal growth of ZnO were prepared by equitramine (HMT).The confinement effect of the PS spheres template on the growth of ZnO nanorods and the influence of sodium citrate on the crystal growth of ZnO had been studied.The film surface morphology and the preferential growth of ZnO crystal were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD),respectively.Also,the photoluminescence spectrum of ZnO films had been measured,and the corresponding mechanism was discussed.

  11. Correlation of film morphology and defect content with the charge-carrier transport in thin-film transistors based on ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation of defect content and film morphology with the charge-carrier transport in field-effect devices based on zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated. Changes in the defect content and the morphology were realized by annealing and sintering of the nanoparticle thin films. Temperature-dependent electrical measurements reveal that the carrier transport is thermally activated for both the unsintered and sintered thin films. Reduced energetic barrier heights between the particles have been determined after sintering. Additionally, the energetic barrier heights between the particles can be reduced by increasing the drain-to-source voltage and the gate-to-source voltage. The changes in the barrier height are discussed with respect to information obtained by scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. It is found that a reduction of surface states and a lower roughness at the interface between the particle layer and the gate dielectric lead to lower barrier heights. Both surface termination and layer morphology at the interface affect the barrier height and thus are the main criteria for mobility improvement and device optimization

  12. Correlation of film morphology and defect content with the charge-carrier transport in thin-film transistors based on ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, S. [Chair of Electron Devices, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Cauerstrasse 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Jank, M. P. M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology, Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Frey, L. [Chair of Electron Devices, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Cauerstrasse 6, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology, Schottkystrasse 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-01-14

    The correlation of defect content and film morphology with the charge-carrier transport in field-effect devices based on zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated. Changes in the defect content and the morphology were realized by annealing and sintering of the nanoparticle thin films. Temperature-dependent electrical measurements reveal that the carrier transport is thermally activated for both the unsintered and sintered thin films. Reduced energetic barrier heights between the particles have been determined after sintering. Additionally, the energetic barrier heights between the particles can be reduced by increasing the drain-to-source voltage and the gate-to-source voltage. The changes in the barrier height are discussed with respect to information obtained by scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. It is found that a reduction of surface states and a lower roughness at the interface between the particle layer and the gate dielectric lead to lower barrier heights. Both surface termination and layer morphology at the interface affect the barrier height and thus are the main criteria for mobility improvement and device optimization.

  13. Electrodeposition and Characterization of ZnO Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-wei; YAO Ning; ZHANG bing-lin

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of ZnO were electrodeposited from an aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)2 on indium tin oxide(ITO)-covered glass substrate. The analysis of X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron micrograph(SEM) indicated that the obtained ZnO films had a compact hexagonal wurtzite type structure with preferable (002) growth direction. A sharp near-UV emission peak located at 380 nm and a strong orange-red emission peak located at 593 nm were observed in the photoluminescence, when excited with 325 nm wavelength at room temperature. Then the prepared ZnO films were introduced as anode phosphors into the field emission test. It was found that orange-red cathode-luminescence was observed and the luminescent brightness was enhanced by annealing. When annealing temperature increased about 600 ℃, the photoluminescence with peak of 531 nm and the green cathode-luminescence were observed. The tests showed that the brightness of about 2×102 cd/m2 was obtained at electric field of 2 V/μm for annealed sample. The results revealed that the film could be a good kind of low-voltage drived cathode-luminescence phosphor.

  14. Room temperature magnetic properties of Fe and C implanted ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering were singly or sequentially implanted with 120 keV Fe ions at a fluence of 5 x 1016 ions/cm2 and 20 keV C ions at a fluence of 3 x 1015 ions/cm2. Magnetic and optical properties as well as structures of the films have been investigated using various techniques. Magnetic measurements show that the as-deposited ZnO film presents room temperature ferromagnetism. Single Fe or C ion implantation has no contribution to enhancement in the film magnetism, while magnetic moment increases distinctly in the Fe and C ions sequentially implanted film. Results from structural measurements reveal that Fe nanoparticles are formed in the Fe singly implanted ZnO film. The post C implantation induces dissolution of Fe nanoparticles and promotes Fe atoms to substitute Zn atoms in the lattice. Based on the structural results, the effect of magnetic enhancement has been tentatively interpreted.

  15. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, N.; Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P.; Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  16. Development of glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanoparticles film and glucose oxidase-immobilized eggshell membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohari Noor Aini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by depositing an ionic liquid (IL (e.g., 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate; [EMIM][Otf], ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs and eggshell membrane (ESM on a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE for determination of glucose. Glucose oxidase (GOx was covalently immobilized on eggshell membrane with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. Methylene blue was used as a redox indicator to enhance the electron transfer capacity and to ensure stability of both the oxidized and reduced forms in the reaction of enzyme and substrate. The morphological characteristics of microstructures eggshell membranes, chitosan, GOx/ESM, GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM and GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effects of scan rate, time and pH on the response of glucose biosensors were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions (pH 6.5, 50 s, cyclic voltammetry showed different glucose concentrations on the range of 1 × 10−12 to 0.6 M, with a detection limit of 1 × 10−13 M. The GOx/ZnONPs/IL/ESM was found to be more sensitive as compared to GOx/ZnONPs-IL/CHIT. This developed glucose biosensor detection approach has several advantages such as fast, simple and convenient method, sensitivity, low cost, eco-friendly, low concentrations and remarkable catalytic activities of current signals during glucose reaction.

  17. Polyelectrolyte assisted preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Shijun

    2005-01-01

    The present work focuses on the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films onto silicon wafers modified by self-assembled-monolayers (SAMs) via chemical bath deposition (CBD). Two precursor solutions were designed and used for the film deposition, in which two different polymers were introduced respectively to control the growth of the ZnO colloidal particles in solution. ZnO films were deposited from an aqueous solution containing zinc salt and hexamethylenetetramine ...

  18. Optical characterization of ZnO thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the process parameter effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO thin film using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on amorphous glass substrates. The process parameters included RF power and working pressure. Results show that RF power was increased to promote the crystalline quality and decrease ZnO thin film defects. However, when the working pressure was increased to 3 Pa the ZnO thin film crystalline quality became worse. At a 200 W RF power and 1 Pa working pressure, the ZnO thin film with an optical band gap energy of 3.225 eV was obtained.

  19. All spray pyrolysis deposited CdS sensitized ZnO films for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Solar cells based on CdS quantum dot sensitized ZnO photoanode are fabricated. → Both ZnO and CdS are prepared using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. → Good contact is formed between CdS and ZnO to facilitate the electron transfer. → As-prepared cell achieves maximally a power conversion efficiency of 1.54%. - Abstract: Sensitized-type solar cells based on ZnO photoanode and CdS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers have been fabricated. Both ZnO films and CdS QDs are prepared using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) deposition technique. This method allows a facile and rapid deposition and integration between CdS QDs and ZnO films without the need for post thermal treatment. The photovoltaic performances of the cells are investigated. The results show that the performance of the cell based on all USP deposited CdS sensitized ZnO photoanode achieves maximally a short circuit current density of 6.99 mA cm-2 and a power conversion efficiency of 1.54%.

  20. Room-temperature deposition of crystalline patterned ZnO films by confined dewetting lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work patterned ZnO films were prepared at room-temperature by deposition of ∼5 nm size ZnO nanoparticles using confined dewetting lithography, a process which induces their assembly, by drying a drop of ZnO colloidal dispersion between a floating template and the substrate. Crystalline ZnO nanoparticles exhibit a strong visible (525 nm) light emission upon UV excitation (λ = 350 nm). The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The method described herein presents a simple and low cost method to prepare crystalline ZnO films with geometric patterns without additional annealing. Such transparent conducting films are attractive for applications like light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the process is carried out at room temperature, the patterned crystalline ZnO films can even be deposited on flexible substrates.

  1. Efficient solution route to transparent ZnO semiconductor films using colloidal nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suehiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanocrystals (NCs were synthesized by heating Zn (II acetylacetonate in oleic acid/oleylamine in the presence of 1,2-hexadecanediol at 220 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS measurements revealed the formation of monodispersed ZnO NCs of ca. 7 nm. ZnO NC assembled films were fabricated on a glass substrate by deposition with the colloidal ZnO NCs dispersed in toluene. The film composed of the NCs showed good optical transparency in the visible to near-infrared region. A device coupling the ZnO NC film with a p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS NC film exhibited an obvious diode-like current–voltage behavior. The results suggest that the transparent ZnO film has a potentiality to be used for an n-type window layer in some optoelectronic applications.

  2. Direct current magnetron sputter-deposited ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Chan, Kah-Yoong, E-mail: kychan@mmu.edu.my [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Persiaran Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Knipp, Dietmar [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, 28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising electronic material for emerging transparent large-area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 150 nm to 750 nm were deposited on glass substrates. The deposition pressure and the substrate temperature were varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr, and from room temperature to 450 deg. C, respectively. The influence of the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of the ZnO films was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The experimental results reveal that the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature play significant role in the structural formation and the optical properties of the deposited ZnO thin films.

  3. Studies on Crystal Orientation of ZnO Film on Sapphire Using High-throughout X-ray Diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The orientation of the nano-columnar ZnO films grown on sapphire using the technique of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) exhibits deviation because of the mismatch between the crystal lattices of the films and the sapphire substrate. A high-throughout X-ray diffraction method was employed to determine the crystal orientation of the ZnO films at a time scale of the order of minutes based on the general area detection diffraction system (GADDS). This rapid, effective, and ready method, adapted for characterizing the orientation of the nano-columnar crystals is used to directly explain the results of observation of the X-ray diffraction images, by the measurements of the orientations of the crystal columns of the ZnO films along c-axis and in parallel to ab plane.

  4. Analysis of Li-related defects in ZnO thin films influenced by annealing ambient

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bing Wang; Lidan Tang

    2014-02-01

    Li-doped ZnO thin films were grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering and in situ annealing under O2 or Ar ambient. Li-related defects in ZnO films strongly depend on the annealing ambient. AFM and XRD indicated that ZnO films possessed a good crystallinity with -axis orientation, uniform thickness and dense surface. Electrical and optical properties demonstrated that, an amount of LiZn defect had existed in ZnO annealed under O2 ambient and an amount of Lii(o) defect had existed in ZnO annealed under Ar ambient. First-principle calculations were performed to calculate formation energies of Li-doped ZnO in order to explain the formation mechanism of Li-related defects in ZnO.

  5. Thickness dependent magnetic transitions in pristine MgO and ZnO sputtered thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukes Kapilashrami

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a systematic study of the thickness dependency of room temperature ferromagnetism in pristine MgO (~100–500 nm and ZnO (~100–1000 nm thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering technique under the respective identical controlled optimum oxygen ambience. As far as we know this is the first such report on ferromagnetic pure MgO thin films, a result which should be of significance in understanding the functional aspects of magnetic tunnelling characteristics in devices using MgO dielectrics. From the magnetic characterization we observe a distinct variation in the saturation magnetization (MS with increasing film thickness. In the case of MgO thin films MS values vary in the range 0.04–1.58 emu/g (i.e. 0.0012–0.046 μB/unit cell with increasing film thickness showing the highest MS value for the 170 nm thick film. Above this thickness MS is found to decrease and eventually above 420 nm the films show a paramagnetic behaviour followed by the well known diamagnetic property for the bulk (>500 nm. It is obvious that since initially the MS values increase with thickness, there has to be a maximum before the films become diamagnetic at some finite thickness. We also note that the MS values observed for MgO are the highest (more than twice the value observed for ZnO to be reported for such a defect induced ferromagnetism in a pristine oxide. The origin of ferromagnetic order in both the oxides appears to arise from the respective cat-ion vacancies. The discovery of film thickness dependent ferromagnetic order should be very useful in developing multifunctional devices based on the technologically important materials MgO and ZnO.

  6. Structure and haemocompatibility of ZnO films deposited by radio frequency sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO films were first deposited on silicon and glass substrates using radio frequency sputtering and then annealed in air at different temperatures from 300 to 700 deg. C. The microstructures, surface energy and optical properties of ZnO films were examined by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, contact angle test and UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Results show that a perfectly oriented ZnO (0 0 2) thin film is obtained in all ZnO samples. Raman spectroscopy, in combination with those derived by UV-visible optical absorption spectroscopy, provides us with an accurate description of ZnO nature, revealing that, after annealing, ZnO films exhibit better crystallinity and narrower optical energy gap. The contact angle test denotes that the adhesive work and polar component of the surface energy of ZnO films increase steadily with the annealing temperature, which leads to more active interaction between annealed ZnO films and blood plasma. The platelet adhesion experiment shows that there are fewer platelets adhered to the surface of ZnO films compared to the polyurethane (PU) used in clinical application, suggesting ZnO's better compatibility with blood. As the annealing temperature increases, the number of platelets adhered to ZnO films increases correspondingly, which we believe is due to the narrower optical energy gap. Therefore, the appropriate surface properties and the wide optical energy gap of ZnO thin films are believed to be the main factors responsible for the excellent haemocompatibility.

  7. Performance improvement of ZnO film by room-temperature oxygen plasma pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ping; XIA Yi-ben; WANG Lin-jun; LIU Jian-min; XU Run; PENG Hong-yan; SHI Wei-min

    2006-01-01

    The room-temperature oxygen plasma treatment before depositing ZnO films on nanocrystalline diamond substrates was studied. The nanocrystalline diamond substrates were pretreated in oxygen plasma at 50 W for 30 min at room temperature and then ZnO films were sputtered on diamond substrates at 400 W. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns show that the c-axis orientation of ZnO film increases evidently after oxygen plasma pretreatment. The AFM and SEM measurements also show that the high c-axis orientation of ZnO film and the average surface roughness is less than 5 nm. The resistivity of ZnO films increases nearly two orders of magnitude to 1.04×108 Ω·cm. As a result,room-temperature oxygen plasma pretreatment is indeed a simple and effective way to improve the performance of ZnO film used in SAW devices by ameliorating the combination between diamond film and ZnO film and also complementing the absence of oxygen atoms in ZnO film.

  8. Two different mechanisms on UV emission enhancement in Ag-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Linhua, E-mail: congyu3256@tom.com [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Optics and Photonic Technology Laboratory, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Zheng, Gaige; Zhao, Lilong; Pei, Shixin [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Optics and Photonic Technology Laboratory, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Ag-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by a sol–gel method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis and photoluminescence spectra. The results show that the Ag in the ZnO thin films annealed at 500 °C for 1 h substitutes for Zn and exists in the form of Ag{sup +} ion (Ag{sub Zn}) while the Ag in the ZnO thin films without a post-annealing mainly exists in the form of simple substance (Ag{sup 0}). The incorporation of Ag indeed can improve the ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin films and suppress the visible emissions at the same time. However, the mechanisms on the ultraviolet emission enhancement in the annealed and unannealed Ag-doped ZnO thin films are very different. As for the post-annealed Ag-doped ZnO thin films, the UV emission enhancement maybe mainly results from more electron–hole pairs (excitons) due to Ag-doping while for the unannealed Ag-doped ZnO thin films; the UV emission enhancement is attributed to the resonant coupling between exciton emission in ZnO and localized surface plasmon in Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ag-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by the sol–gel method. • Ag-doping can enhance ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin films and depress the visible emissions at the same time. • There are two different mechanisms on UV emission enhancement in Ag-doped ZnO thin films. • The UV emission enhancement from the resonant coupling between excitonic emissions and localized surface plasmon in Ag nanoparticle is very attractive.

  9. Effect of Co-doping content on hydrothermal derived ZnO array films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Xinhua, E-mail: imxhhe@scut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Department of Information Systems, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Yang Hu; Chen Zhiwu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liao, Stephen S Y, E-mail: issliao@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Information Systems, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2012-08-01

    Cobalt doped ZnO films are synthesised using a hydrothermal process. The effect of Co{sup 2+} concentration on morphology, phase composition, crystallisation and spectroscopic characteristics of ZnO films is investigated. The results indicate that both the structure and morphology of the ZnO films evolve with the concentration of cobalt ions incorporated into the lattice. In the presence of a small amount of Co{sup 2+} ions, films are formed that comprise hexagonal ZnO nanorods, oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. With increasing amount of Co{sup 2+}, cracks in the ZnO nanorods can be observed and growth in the [0 0 1] direction is significantly inhibited. When the Co{sup 2+} concentration exceeds 0.010 M, ZnO rods with the typical hexagonal structure are no longer observed and instead, ZnO films comprising close-packed grains with an irregular polygonal structure are formed. The epitaxial growth of ZnO films is nearly completely inhibited when the concentration of Co{sup 2+} is increased above 0.050 M. This behaviour can be explained by the selective adsorption of the organic substances in the solution onto the (0 0 1) ZnO crystal face, thus inhibiting growth in the [0 0 1] direction and disrupting the crystallisation of ZnO films. Increasing the Co content deteriorates the crystallisation of ZnO rods and increases tensile stresses present in the ZnO films.

  10. Physical Property Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Fabricated by Low-Temperature Process for Flexible Transparent TFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafe, Adie Bin Mohd; Watanabe, Hiraku; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Kuniyoshi, Shigekazu; Iizuka, Masaaki; Sakai, Masatoshi; Kudo, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The usual silicon-based display back planes require fairly high process temperature and thus the development of a low temperature process is needed on flexible plastic substrates. A new type of flexible organic light emitting transistor (OLET) had been proposed and investigated in the previous work. By using ultraviolet/ozone (UV/O3) assisted thermal treatments on wet processed zinc oxide field effect transistor (ZnO-FET), through low-process temperature, ZnO-FETs were fabricated which succeeded to achieve target drain current value and mobility. In this study, physical property evaluation of ZnO was conducted in term of their crystallinity, the increase composition of ZnO formed inside the thin film and the decrease of the carbon impurities originated from aqueous solution of the ZnO itself. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) evaluation showed UV/03 assisted thermal treatment has no obvious effect towards crystallinity of ZnO in the range of low process temperature. Moreover, through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evaluation and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy evaluation, more carbon impurities disappeared from the ZnO thin film and the increase of composition amount of ZnO, when the thin film was subjected to UV/O3 assisted thermal treatment. Therefore, UV/O3 assisted thermal treatment contributed in carbon impurities elimination and accelerate ZnO formation in ZnO thin film, which led to the improvement in the electrical property of ZnO-FET in the low-process temperature. PMID:27451599

  11. Optimization of (002)-Oriented ZnO Film Synthesis in Sol-Gel Process and Film Photoluminescence Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun-Feng; ZHAO Li-Li; ZHANG Zhi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    By orthogonal design theory, technological parameters of the (002)-oriented ZnO film prepared in sol-gel process are optimized. A set of technological parameters for growing highly (002)-oriented ZnO film is obtained. As a result, it is proven that the Zn2+ concentration is the most important factor to grow a highly (O02)-oriented ZnO film. We take an appropriate Zn2+ concentration 0.35 mol/L for the aimed film, of which photoluminescence property is better than those of the films derived from other Zn2+ concentrations precursor solution. The Zn2+ concentration either larger or smaller than 0.35 mol/L leads to the (002)-oriented degree decrease of films. By employing an atom force microscope, a hexagonal atom arrangement, which indicates that the film site detected is a ZnO single crystal, is observed in the surface of the highly (002)-oriented film.

  12. Textured ZnO thin films by RF magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ginting, M; Kang, K H; Kim, S K; Yoon, K H; Park, I J; Song, J S

    1999-01-01

    Textured thin films ZnO has been successfully grown by rf magnetron sputtering method using a special technique of introducing a small amount of water and methanol on the deposition chamber. The grain size of the textured surface is highly dependent on the argon pressure during the deposition. The pressure in this experiment was varied from 50 mTorr down to 5 mTorr and the highest grain size of the film is obtained at 5 mTorr. The total transmittance of the films are more than 85% in the wavelength of 400 to 800 nm, and haze ratio of about 14% is obtained at 400 nm wavelength. Beside the textured surface, these films also have very low resistivity, which is lower than 1.4x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA centre dot cm. X-ray analysis shows that the films with textured surface have four diffraction peaks on the direction of (110), (002), (101) and (112), while the non-textured films have only (110) and (002) peaks. Due to the excellent characteristics of this film, it will make the film very good TCO alternatives for the ...

  13. Recent advances in the transparent conducting ZnO for thin-film Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Taeho; Shin, Gwang Su; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-11-01

    The key challenge for solar-cell development lies in the improvement of power-conversion efficiency and the reduction of fabrication cost. For thin-film Si solar cells, researches have been especially focused on the light trapping for the breakthrough in the saturated efficiencies. The ZnO-based transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) have therefore received strong attention because of their excellent light-scattering capability by the texture-etched surface and cost effectiveness through in-house fabrication. Here, we have highlighted our recent studies on the transparent conducting ZnO for thin-film Si solar cells. From the electrical properties and their degradation mechanisms, bilayer deposition and organic-acid texturing approaches for enhancing the light trapping, and finally the relation between textured ZnO and electrical cell performances are sequentially introduced in this review article. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cells using ZnO nanotips and Ga-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hanhong; Du Pasquier, Aurelien; Saraf, Gaurav; Zhong, Jian; Lu, Yicheng

    2008-04-01

    Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) transparent conducting films and well-aligned ZnO nanotips were sequentially grown on a glass substrate using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The morphology control of ZnO from dense films to nanotips was realized through temperature-modulated growth. The ZnO nanotips/GZO structure was sensitized with dye N719 to form photoelectrochemical cells. It is found that the power conversion efficiency linearly increases with the length of ZnO nanotips. For the 1.0 cm2 dye-sensitized solar cell built from 4.8 µm ZnO nanotips, a peak incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency of 79% (at ~530 nm) and a power conversion efficiency of 0.77% under the illumination of one sun-simulated sunlight were achieved. UV light harvesting directly by ZnO was observed. The I-V characteristics of the cells were analyzed using a one-diode equivalent circuit model.

  15. Defects Induced Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in ZnO Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Zhang; , Wei Zhang; Xinghua Zhang; Xuewen Xu; Fanbin Meng; Tang, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline ZnO thin films are prepared by the co-sputtering method under different oxygen partial pressures. Films deposited in pure argon gas exhibit ferromagnetism, whereas other films deposited under different oxygen partial pressures are diamagnetism. XPS results show the presence of Zn interstitial and oxygen vacancy in all of samples. Further analysis indicates that Zn interstitial may play an important role in triggering magnetic order on the undoped ZnO thin films by inducing an ...

  16. Effect of Rapid Thermal Annealing Ambient on Photoluminescence of ZnO Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-Yan; MA Xiang-Yang; JIN Lu; YANG De-Ren

    2012-01-01

    The effects of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) ambient on photoluminescence (PL) of sputtered ZnO films are investigated.The RTA at 800℃ under either oxygen (O2) or argon (Ar) ambient can remarkably enhance the PL of the ZnO films due to the improved crystallinities of the ZnO films.It is somewhat unexpected that the ZnO film which received the RTA under O2 ambient exhibits weaker near-band-edge (NBE) PL than that which received the RTA under Ar ambient.It is supposed that a certain amount of negatively charged oxygen species exist on the surface of the ZnO film that received the RTA under O2 ambient,leading to a build-in electric field.This in turn reduces the recombination probability of photo-generated electrons and holes,resulting in the suppressed NBE PL.

  17. Room-temperature anomalous Hall effect and magnetroresistance in (Ga, Co)-codoped ZnO diluted magnetic semiconductor films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xue-Chao; Chen Zhi-Zhan; Shi Er-Wei; Liao Da-Qian; Zhou Ke-Jin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports that the (Ga, Co)-codoped ZnO thin films have been grown by inductively coupled plasma enhanced physical vapour deposition. Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed for the as-grown thin films. The x-ray absorption fine structure characterization reveals that Co2+ and Ga3+ ions substitute for Zn2+ ions in the ZnO lattice and exclude the possibility of extrinsic ferromagnetism origin. The ferromagnetic (Ga, Co)-codoped ZnO thin films exhibit carrier concentration dependent anomalous Hall effect and positive magnetoresistance at room temperature. The mechanism of anomalous Hall effect and magneto-transport in ferromagnetic ZnO-based diluted magnetic semiconductors is discussed.

  18. Synthesis and annealing study of RF sputtered ZnO thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shushant Kumar; Sharma, Himanshu; Singhal, R.; Kumar, V. V. Siva; Avasthi, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the annealing effect on optical and structural properties of ZnO thin films, synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering. ZnO thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates simultaneously at a substrate temperature of 300 °C using Argon gas in sputtering chamber. Thickness of as deposited ZnO thin film was found to be ~155 nm, calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). These films were annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C temperature in the continuous flow of oxygen gas for 1 hour in tube furnace. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO thin film along the c-axis (002) orientation. Transmittance of thin films was increased with increasing the annealing temperature estimated by UV-visible transmission spectroscopy. Quality and texture of the thin films were improved with annealing temperature, estimated by Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Fabrication and Photo-Detecting Performance of 2D ZnO Inverse Opal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D ZnO inverse opal (IO films were fabricated by co-assembly of sacrificed polystyrene (PS microspheres and citric acid/zinc acetate (CA/ZA aqueous solution at an oil–water interface followed by calcination. Their morphologies could be controlled by the surface property of polymer templates and CA/ZA molar ratio. Moreover, photo-detecting devices based on such films were constructed, which showed high photocurrent (up to 4.6 μA, excellent spectral selectivity, and reversible response to optical switch.

  20. Effects of annealing temperature on ZnO and AZO films prepared by sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Zi-Neng [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Chan, Kah-Yoong, E-mail: kychan@mmu.edu.my [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); Tohsophon, Thanaporn [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, 10110 Bangkok (Thailand)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low cost sol-gel spin coating technique was used to fabricate the ZnO films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influences of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of the ZnO and AZO films were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experimental results reveal that the annealing treatment affects the structural and optical properties of the ZnO films. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) films have the potential in the emerging thin-film technologies which can be employed in thin-film solar cells, transistors, sensors and other optoelectronic devices. In this work, low cost sol-gel spin-coating technique was used to synthesize the ZnO films. The influences of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of ZnO and aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) films were investigated. The structural properties of the ZnO films such as surface morphology and crystallinity were determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), respectively. The optical properties of the ZnO films were characterized by the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and Tauc method was adopted to estimate the optical gap. The experimental results reveal that the thermal annealing treatment affects the properties of the ZnO films. The effects of the low range annealing temperature on the sol-gel ZnO films addressed in this investigation will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Amorphous grain boundary layers in the ferromagnetic nanograined ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pure ZnO thin films were obtained by the wet chemistry (“liquid ceramics”) method from the butanoate precursors. Films consist of dense equiaxial nanograins and reveal ferromagnetic behaviour. The structure of the ZnO films was studied by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The intergranular regions in the nanograined ZnO films obtained by the “liquid ceramics” method are amorphous. It looks like fine areas of the second amorphous phase which wets (covers) some of the ZnO/ZnO grain boundaries. Most probably these amorphous intergranular regions contain the defects which are responsible for the ferromagnetic behaviour.

  2. Microstructure, Photoluminescent Properties and Application of ZnO Films Grown on Al Foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongyan; ZHAO Jiayu; XIE Aigen; XU Linhua; ZHONG Kun; SHEN Tongtong

    2015-01-01

    To obtain safety working before long-term early warning, we proposed a process for the preparation of luminescent films on metal substrate to detect the wear life. ZnO films were prepared on aluminum (Al) foils by the magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructure, tribological properties and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO films before and after the friction test were investigated. The microstructure of ZnO films grown on Al foils exhibited a closely packed hexagonal cone shape. ZnO films were grown along the orientation perpendicular to the substrate. The tribometric tests revealed that the average friction coefficient of ZnO films was lower and more stable than that of the substrate. The results of PL spectra indicated that the effect of Al element on ZnO films led to shifts of the defect related visible band. The luminescent center of ZnO films shifted from the emission peak at 510 nm before the friction to 647 nm after the friction, indicating that the green light shifted into the red light as the friction occurred. The visible light was helpful to understanding the failure characteristics during the friction and wear, and provide an early indicator of the impending failure.

  3. Physical and Optical Properties of SnO2/ZnO Film Prepared by an RF Magnetron Sputtering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyoung; Lee, Ikjae; Kim, Jaeyong

    2016-03-01

    Al-, Ga-, and In-doped ZnO thin films are widely used in many technical applications, such as in solar cells and on transparent conducting oxides having high optical transmission and low resistivity values. We prepared SnO2-doped ZnO thin films on quartz substrates by using an RF magnetron sputtering method at a substrate temperature of 350 degrees C. The ratio of SnO2 to ZnO was varied from 0 to 5:5 to investigate the effects of Sn on structure and physical properties of ZnO film. The samples were synthesized at a base pressure of 1.3 x 10(-4) Pa with a working pressure of 1.3 Pa and an RF power of 40 W under Ar atmosphere. The results of X-ray diffraction data revealed that pure ZnO films exhibit a strong (002) orientation and a polycrystalline wurzite hexagonal structure. However, as increasing the SnO2 concentration, ZnO transforms to an amorphous phase. The results of the Hall-effect-measurement system revealed that the resistivity values of the films increased as increasing the doping level of SnO2. The AFM data of morphology and microstructure showed that the grain size decreased with increasing SnO2 contents while the total area of grain the boundary increased. The average value of the transmittance of the films in the visible light range was 80-95% and was shifted toward to the shorter wavelengths of the absorption edges with increasing SnO2 contents.

  4. Zn/O ratio and oxygen chemical state of nanocrystalline ZnO films grown at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Hai-Bo; Zheng Xin-Liang; Wu Si-Cheng; Liu Zhi-Gang; Yao He-Bao

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanocrystalline films are prepared on Si substrates at different temperatures by using metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD).It is observed that when the growth temperature is low,the stoichiometric ratio between Zn and O atoms has a large deviation from the ideal ratio of 1:1.The ZnO grains in the film have small sizes and are not well crystallized,resulting in a poor photoluminescence (PL) property.When the temperature is increased to an appropriate value,the Zn/O ratio becomes optimized,and most of Zn and O atoms are combined into Zn-O bonds.Then the film has good crystal quality and good PL property.If the temperature is fairly high,the interfacial mutual diffusion of atoms between the substrate and the epitaxial film appears,and the desorption process of the oxygen atoms is enhanced.However,it has no effect on the film property.The film still has the best crystal quality and PL property.

  5. Piezoelectric film electro-deposition for optical fiber sensor with ZnO coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Ping Gu; Ya Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The piezoelectric film electro-deposition for optical fiber sensor with ZnO coating is studied. The zinc oxide plating film is made on the copper surface directly by cathodic electro-deposition in the Zn(NO3)2 single salt aqueous solution systems. The influences of main experimental conditions on the properties of ZnO thin film in the electro-deposition processes are analyzed and a stable, practical and economic technique is obtained.

  6. Surface phonon polariton characteristics of wurtzite ZnO thin film grown on silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Sha Shiong; Ooi, Poh Kok; Lee, Sai Cheong; Abdullah, Mat Johar; Hassan, Zainuriah; Hassan, Haslan Abu [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-05-15

    In this work, p-polarized far infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) with Otto configuration technique is employed to study the surface phonon polariton (SPP) characteristics of wurtzite ZnO thin film grown on Si(111) substrate. One prominent dip corresponding to the leaky SPP mode of the ZnO is detected at 532 cm{sup -1}. The obtained result is in good agreement with the calculated ATR spectrum simulated based on the transfer matrix formulation. The origin of the observed dip is verified with the surface polariton dispersion curves based on a three anisotropic layer model (air-ZnO-Si). The results also reveal that the real SPP and the interface phonon polariton modes for this studied structure are barely observable experimentally. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Photocatalytic activity of ZnO films with micro-grid structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunzhi LI; Wenwen WANG; Junying ZHANG; Hailing ZHU; Weiwei ZHANG; Tianmin WANG

    2009-01-01

    A layer of zinc oxide (ZnO) micro-grid was deposited on the surface of ZnO film using the DC reactive magnetron sputtering method and the micro-sphere lithography technique on glass substrates. Samples of this layer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force micro-scopy (AFM), and ultraviolet-visible light spectroscopy.X-ray diffraction showed the high crystallinity of ZnO film and the regular arrangement of the micro-grid. The micro-grid ZnO has a lower specular reflection and a higher diffuse reflection, allowing incident light to reflect two or three times to enhance the usage of light. Photocatalytic degradation experiments on methylene blue using both ZnO micro-grid and ordinary film showed that the ZnO micro-grid has better photocatalytic properties than ordinary film. The ZnO micro-grid enhanced the photo-catalytic efficiency of ZnO film by 28% with a degradation time of 300 min.

  8. Effect of annealing in hydrogen atmosphere on ZnO films for field emission display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Zurita; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin; Kalita, Golap; Tanemura, M.

    2015-11-01

    Surface morphology, crystallinity, conductivity and optical transmittance of ZnO films can be modified by annealing process. Hydrogen is one of the popular annealing gases as well as nitrogen, argon, oxygen and air which are commonly used for thin film cleaning or the removal of native oxide. In general, annealing is done at high temperatures (> 600degC) to improve the film properties. From a view point of environment, however, lower annealing temperature is preferable. In this work, low annealing process was challenged to understand the effect of annealing temperature on properties of ZnO thin films and nanostructured film grown on glass substrates for transparent field emission device applications. The annealing temperature employed was 100, 200 and 450°C at 100 sccm hydrogen flow rate. ZnO thin films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. The ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy. The sheet resistances reduced about 15 kohm/sq at low annealing temperature. By contrast, the optical transmittance did not show any significant changes after annealing. The FE current density increased after the ZnO nanostructures film was annealed in 100°C. The results obtained could motivate a surface treatment for flexible ZnO thin film since the substrate is always suffered by heat.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of ZnO nanowires by wet oxidation of Zn thin film deposited on Teflon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, O. F.; Halim, M. M.; Abdullah, M. J.; Ali, M. K. M.; Ahmed, Naser M.; Bououdina, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, ZnO nanowires (NWs) were successfully grown for the first time on to Teflon substrate by a wet oxidation of a Zn thin film coated by RF sputtering technique. The sputtered Zn thin film was oxidized at 100 °C for 5 h under water-vapour using a horizontal furnace. This oxidation process transformed Zn thin film into ZnO with wire-like nanostructure. XRD analysis confirms the formation of single nanocrystalline ZnO phase having a low compressive strain. FESEM observations reveal high density of ZnO NWs with diameter ranging from 34 to 52 nm and length about 2.231 μm, which are well distributed in different direction. A flexible ZnO NWs-based metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector was fabricated. Photo-response and sensitivity measurements under low power illumination (375 nm, 1.5 mW/cm2) showed a high sensitivity of 2050%, which can be considered a relatively fast response and baseline recovery for UV detection.

  10. Pulsed laser deposited Al-doped ZnO thin films for optical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gurpreet Kaur; Anirban Mitra; K.L. Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Highly transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) thin films were grown on glass substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. The profound effect of film thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of Al:ZnO thin films was observed. The X-ray diffraction depicts c-axis, plane (002) oriented thin films with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. Al-doping in ZnO introduces a compressive stress in the films which increase with the film thickness. AFM images reveal...

  11. ZnO Coated Nanospring-Based Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakharev, Pavel Viktorovich

    . The experimental and computational analyses of the sensing properties of the 3-D (nanospring-based) and flat thin films structures show that the complexity and periodic boundary conditions of the nanospring-based devices result in a lower detection limit, while flat thin films exhibit higher sensitivity to small analyte concentration fluctuations. Our analysis shows that the productive approach to fabrication of integrated sensors (electronic noses) is to use both the structures (3D and flat geometries) as the receptors for a prompt and reliable detection and recognition of the target chemical compounds. Analog lock-in amplifier (LIA) AC measurements of the electrical response have been performed to significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduce the detection limit of the single ZnO coated nanospring chemiresistor from the ppm to the ppb analyte concentration ranges. The LIA-based sensor signal recognition technique has shown to extend the capabilities of the gas sensor array for a linear discrimination analysis (LDA), an independent component analysis (ICA), a principal component analysis (PCA) and other multiple odor recognition methods.

  12. PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS analysis of Cu-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B., E-mail: binzhang@fudan.edu.cn; Yang, C.; Wang, J.Z.; Shi, L.Q., E-mail: lqshi@fudan.edu.cn; Cheng, H.S.

    2014-08-01

    Cu-doped ZnO films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate at different atmosphere. Microstructure of these films and Cu occupation sites were investigated using PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS. Only 2.9 at.% Cu, no other magnetic impurities (e.g., Fe, Co and Ni) were detected. The ZnO:Cu films possessed the wurtzite ZnO structures and no precipitates (e.g., CuO and Cu{sub 2}O or Cu cluster) were found. Cu atoms were incorporated into ZnO crystal lattice by occupying Zn atomic sites.

  13. Electrical properties of ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the electrical characterization of ZnO films grown by MOCVD on glass and sapphire substrates. After correcting our temperature variable Hall measurements by applying the standard two-layer model, which takes into account an interfacial layer, scattering mechanisms in the ZnO films were studied as well as donor activation energies determined. ZnO films grown at different oxygen partial pressures indicated the importance of growth conditions on the defect structure by means of their conductivities and conductivity activation energies

  14. Effect of silver growth temperature on the contacts between Ag and ZnO thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films were deposited on Si substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. At different growth temperatures,200 nm silver films as the contact metal were deposited on the ZnO thin films. The growth temperatures have great influence on the crystal quality of Ag films. Current-voltage characteristics were measured at room temperature. The Schottky contacts between Ag and ZnO thin films were successfully obtained when silver electrodes were deposited at 150 ℃ and 200℃. Ohmic contacts were formed while the growth temperatures were lower than 150℃ or higher than 200 ℃. After analysis,the forming of Ag/ZnO Schottky contacts was shown to be dependent on the appearance of the p-type inversion layer at the interface between Ag and ZnO layers.

  15. Microwave annealing effects on ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Shirui; Dong Yabin; Yu Mingyan; Guo Xiaolong; Xu Xinwei; Jing Yupeng; Xia Yang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide thin films deposited on glass substrate at 150 ℃ by atomic layer deposition were annealed by the microwave method at temperatures below 500 ℃.The microwave annealing effects on the structural and luminescent properties of ZnO films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence.The results show that the MWA process can increase the crystal quality of ZnO thin films with a lower annealing temperature than RTA and relatively decrease the green luminescence of ZnO films.The observed changes have demonstrated that MWA is a viable technique for improving the crystalline quality of ZnO thin film on glass.

  16. Properties of antimony doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadananda Kumar, N., E-mail: sadanthara@gmail.com; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K. [National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Thin Films Laboratory, Department of Physics (India)

    2015-07-15

    Antimony (Sb) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. Effect of Sb doping on surface morphology structural, optical and electrical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that both the undoped and doped ZnO thin films are polycrystalline in nature with (101) preferred orientation. SEM analysis showed a change in surface morphology of Sb doped ZnO thin films. Doping results in a marked increase in conductivity without affecting the transmittance of the films. ZnO films prepared with 3 at % Sb shows the lowest resistivity of 0.185 Ohm cm with a Hall mobility of 54.05 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, and a hole concentration of 6.25 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –3}.

  17. Influence of solution viscosity on hydrothermally grown ZnO thin films for DSSC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.; Surya, S.

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire arrays (NWAs) were grown onto zinc oxide-titanium dioxide (ZnO-TiO2) seeded fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive substrate by hydrothermal technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns depict that ZnO thin films are preferentially oriented along the (002) plane with hexagonal wurtzite structure. Viscosity measurements reveal that viscosity of the solutions linearly increases as the concentrations of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) increase in the growth solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images show that the NWAs are vertically grown to seeded FTO substrate with hexagonal structure, and the growth of NWAs decreases as the concentration of the PVA increases. Stylus profilometer and atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies predict that the thickness and roughness of the films decrease with increasing the PVA concentrations. The NWAs prepared at 0.1% of PVA exhibits a lower transmittance and higher absorbance than that of the other films. The band gap of the optimized films prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA is found to be 3.270 and 3.268 eV, respectively. The photo to current conversion efficiency of the DSSC based on photoanodes prepared at 0.0 and 0.1% of PVA exhibits about 0.64 and 0.82%, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectra reveal that the DSSC based on photoanode prepared at 0.1% of PVA has the highest charge transfer recombination resistance.

  18. Morphological, physical, antimicrobial and release properties of ZnO nanoparticles-loaded bacterial cellulose films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmohammadi Jebel, Fereshteh; Almasi, Hadi

    2016-09-20

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) monolayer and multilayer films, incorporating 5wt.% ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) have been obtained. Ultrasound (US) irradiation (40kHz) was applied during ZnO-BC nanocomposites preparation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that ZnO NPs were crystallized in their pure phase. SEM scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated that US treatment causes to decrease ZnO particle size, forming a stable hybrid nanostructure and evenly distributed ZnO NPs coated BC nanofibers. ZnO NPs enhanced the mechanical properties and diminished water vapor permeability and moisture absorption of BC films. Antibacterial activity of ZnO-BC films against Staphylococcus aureus was more than Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity was enhanced with the utilization of US irradiation. The ZnO release was influenced by films composition; the multilayer and US treated films being promising in order to achieve controlled release of ZnO. Results suggest that ZnO-BC films may be used as controlled release antimicrobial food active packaging. PMID:27261725

  19. Thin-film ZnO as micromechanical actuator at low frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, F.R.; IJntema, D.J.; Pol, van de F.C.M.; Elwenspoek, M.; Fluitman, J.H.J.; Popma, Th.J.A.

    1990-01-01

    A new model is proposed for the low-frequency piezoelectric activity of ZnO films grown on CVD SiO2. In this MOS structure, with ZnO as the semiconductor, a depletion layer is induced by means of a d.c. bias voltage. Using standard semiconductor theory, an expression is derived relating the electric

  20. Nanoporous characteristics of sol-gel-derived ZnO thin film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anees A. Ansari; M. A. M. Khan; M. Alhoshan; S. A. Alrokayan; M. S. Alsalhi

    2012-01-01

    Sol-gel-derived nanoporous ZnO film has been successfully deposited on glass substrate at 200 ℃ and subsequently annealed at different temperatures of 300,400 and 600 ℃.Atomic force micrographs demonstrated that the film was crack-free,and that granular nanoparticles were homogenously distributed on the film surface.The average grain size of the nanoparticles and RMS roughness of the scanned surface area was 10 nm and 13.6nm,respectively,which is due to the high porosity of the film.Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the nanoporous ZnO film at room temperature show a diffused band,which might be due to an increased amount of oxygen vacancies on the lattice surface.The observed results of the nanoporous ZnO film indicates a promising applicationin the development of electrochemical biosensors due to the porosity of film enhancing the higher loading of biomacromolecules (enzyme and proteins).

  1. Simple way for preparation of ZnO films by surfactant mediated spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► ZnO was prepared by surfactant mediated spray pyrolysis. ► The film surface morphology can be enhanced by PVA addition. ► The PVA improves significant the photocatalytic activity of ZnO. ► The zinc acetate precursor is preferred for film preparation than nitrate one. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline porous ZnO films are deposited onto alumina foil substrates by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) modified spray pyrolysis. Water and ethanol–water mixture were used for preparation of the sols. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol on the morphological and photocatalytical properties of ZnO films was studied. It was found that the polyvinyl alcohol plays important role in formation of porous films structure with ganglia like morphology. Relatively compact granular morphology was observed for the ZnO samples, grown without organic surfactant. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of phase-pure ZnO thin films. The FTIR spectra and DTA-TG analyses of the precursor mixtures: Zn(CH3COOH)2·2H2O and Zn(NO3)2·6H20 with PVA revealed that ZnO is formed before the final decomposition of the polymer at 350 °C. It was observed that both: the acetate precursor and the organic surfactant could enhance significantly the photocatalytic properties of the ZnO films. The films obtained from sols, containing PVA showed better photocatalytic decolorization of Malachite Green dye, than the films, deposited from unmodified sols.

  2. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Er implanted ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, P. P.; Kennedy, J.; Ruck, B. J.; Leveneur, J.

    2015-09-01

    We report the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Er implanted and annealed ZnO thin films. The effect of annealing in oxygen-deficient and oxygen-rich conditions was investigated. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results revealed that the Er atoms are located at the implantation depth of around 13 nm, and annealing conditions had no adverse effect on the Er concentration in the layer. Raman spectroscopy results showed peak related to E2(high) mode of ZnO indicating enhanced crystalline quality of the Er implanted and annealed ZnO films. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy results demonstrated pre-edge features in O K-edge which are attributed to the structural defects in the films. Room temperature magnetic ordering was observed in Er implanted and annealed films, and is mainly assigned to the intrinsic defects in ZnO.

  3. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Er implanted ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murmu, P.P. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Kennedy, J., E-mail: J.Kennedy@gns.cri.nz [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Ruck, B.J. [The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Leveneur, J. [National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand)

    2015-09-15

    We report the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Er implanted and annealed ZnO thin films. The effect of annealing in oxygen-deficient and oxygen-rich conditions was investigated. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results revealed that the Er atoms are located at the implantation depth of around 13 nm, and annealing conditions had no adverse effect on the Er concentration in the layer. Raman spectroscopy results showed peak related to E{sub 2}(high) mode of ZnO indicating enhanced crystalline quality of the Er implanted and annealed ZnO films. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy results demonstrated pre-edge features in O K-edge which are attributed to the structural defects in the films. Room temperature magnetic ordering was observed in Er implanted and annealed films, and is mainly assigned to the intrinsic defects in ZnO.

  4. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Er implanted ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Er implanted and annealed ZnO thin films. The effect of annealing in oxygen-deficient and oxygen-rich conditions was investigated. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results revealed that the Er atoms are located at the implantation depth of around 13 nm, and annealing conditions had no adverse effect on the Er concentration in the layer. Raman spectroscopy results showed peak related to E2(high) mode of ZnO indicating enhanced crystalline quality of the Er implanted and annealed ZnO films. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy results demonstrated pre-edge features in O K-edge which are attributed to the structural defects in the films. Room temperature magnetic ordering was observed in Er implanted and annealed films, and is mainly assigned to the intrinsic defects in ZnO

  5. Mango core inner shell membrane template-directed synthesis of porous ZnO films and their application for enzymatic glucose biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro/nano-porous ZnO films were synthesized through a simple biotemplate-directed method using mango core inner shell membranes as templates. The achieved ZnO films with wrinkles on the surface are combined of large holes and small pores in the bulk. High specific surface area, numerous microspaces, and small channels for fluid circulation provided by this unique structure along with the good biocompatibility and electron communication features of ZnO material make the product an ideal platform for the immobilization of enzymes The fabricated glucose biosensor based on the porous ZnO films exhibits good selective detection ability of analyte with good stability, high sensitivity of 50.58 μA cm−2 mM−1 and a wide linear range of 0.2–5.6 mM along with a low detection limit of 10 μM.

  6. Mango core inner shell membrane template-directed synthesis of porous ZnO films and their application for enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Ye, Zhizhen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University (China); Zhao, Minggang; Cai, Hui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Huang, Jingyun, E-mail: huangjy@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University (China)

    2013-11-15

    Micro/nano-porous ZnO films were synthesized through a simple biotemplate-directed method using mango core inner shell membranes as templates. The achieved ZnO films with wrinkles on the surface are combined of large holes and small pores in the bulk. High specific surface area, numerous microspaces, and small channels for fluid circulation provided by this unique structure along with the good biocompatibility and electron communication features of ZnO material make the product an ideal platform for the immobilization of enzymes The fabricated glucose biosensor based on the porous ZnO films exhibits good selective detection ability of analyte with good stability, high sensitivity of 50.58 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} and a wide linear range of 0.2–5.6 mM along with a low detection limit of 10 μM.

  7. Mango core inner shell membrane template-directed synthesis of porous ZnO films and their application for enzymatic glucose biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhao, Minggang; Cai, Hui; Huang, Jingyun

    2013-11-01

    Micro/nano-porous ZnO films were synthesized through a simple biotemplate-directed method using mango core inner shell membranes as templates. The achieved ZnO films with wrinkles on the surface are combined of large holes and small pores in the bulk. High specific surface area, numerous microspaces, and small channels for fluid circulation provided by this unique structure along with the good biocompatibility and electron communication features of ZnO material make the product an ideal platform for the immobilization of enzymes The fabricated glucose biosensor based on the porous ZnO films exhibits good selective detection ability of analyte with good stability, high sensitivity of 50.58 μA cm-2 mM-1 and a wide linear range of 0.2-5.6 mM along with a low detection limit of 10 μM.

  8. Reactive Radiofrequency Sputtering-Deposited Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin-Film Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-Juan; HE Xin; HAN De-Dong; SUN Lei; WANG Yi; HAN Ru-Qi; CHAN Man-Sun; ZHANG Sheng-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The structural and electrical properties of ZnO 61ms deposited by reactive radiofrequency sputtering with a metallic zinc target are systematically investigated. While the as-deposited ZnO film is in a poly-crystalline structure when the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) is low, the grain size abruptly decreases to a few nanometers as pO2 increases to a criticaJ vaiue, and then becomes almost unchanged with a further increase in pO2.In addition, the resistivity of the ZnO films shows a non-monotonic dependence on pO2, including an abrupt transition of about seven orders of magnitude at the critical pO2. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the nanocrystalline ZnO films as channel layers have an on/off current ratio of more than 107, an off-current in the order of pA, a threshold voltage of about 4.5 V, and a carrier mobility of about 2cm2/(V-s). The results show that radiofrequency sputtered ZnO with a zinc target is a promising candidate for high-performance ZnO TFTs.%The structural and electrical properties of ZnO films deposited by reactive radiofrequency sputtering with a metallic zinc target are systematically investigated.While the as-deposited ZnO film is in a poly-crystalline structure when the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2 ) is low,the grain size abruptly decreases to a few nanometers as pO2 increases to a critical value,and then becomes almost unchanged with a further increase in pO2.In addition,the resistivity of the ZnO films shows a non-monotonic dependence on pO2,including an abrupt transition of about seven orders of magnitude at the critical pO2.Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with the nanocrystalline ZnO films as channel layers have an on/off current ratio of more than 10 7,an off-current in the order of pA,a threshold voltage of about 4.5 V,and a carrier mobility of about 2 cm2/(V.s).The results show that radiofrequency sputtered ZnO with a zinc target is a promising candidate for high-performance ZnO TFTs.

  9. Effects of Homo-buffer Layer on Properties of Sputter-deposited ZnO Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Huang; Linjun Wang; Run Xu; Weimin Shi; Yiben Xia

    2009-01-01

    Two-step growth regimes were applied to realize a homoepitaxial growth of ZnO films on freestanding diamond substrates by radio-frequency (RF) reactive magnetron sputtering method. ZnO buffer layers were deposited on freestanding diamond substrates at a low sputtering power of 50 W, and then ZnO main layers were prepared on this buffer layer at a high sputtering power of 150 W. For comparison, a sample was also deposited directly on freestanding diamond substrate at a power of 150 W. The effects of ZnO buffer layers on the structural, optical, electrical and morphological properties of the ZnO main layer were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, semiconductor characterization system and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The experimental results suggested that homo-buffer layer was helpful to improve the crystalline quality of ZnO/diamond heteroepitaxial films.

  10. Pure and Sn-doped ZnO films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Schou, Jørgen; Tougaard, S.;

    2002-01-01

    A new technique, metronome doping, has been used for doping of films during pulsed laser deposition (PLD). This technique makes it possible to dope continuously during film growth with different concentrations of a dopant in one deposition sequence. Films of pure and doped ZnO have been produced...

  11. Study on Ni-doped ZnO films as gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambu, A.P., E-mail: alicia.rambu@uaic.ro [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania); Ursu, L. [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Grigore Ghica Vodă, 41 A, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Iftimie, N. [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi (Romania); Nica, V.; Dobromir, M.; Iacomi, F. [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, 11 Carol I Blvd., 700506 Iasi (Romania)

    2013-09-01

    Ni doped ZnO films were obtained by spin coating, using zinc acetate and nickel acetate as starting materials and N,N-dimethylformamide as solvent. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that, spin coated films posses a polycrystalline structure. Ni doped ZnO films are single phase and no trace of nickel metal or binary zinc nickel phases are observed. The values of some structural parameters (crystallite size, surface roughness) are varying with the variation of Ni concentration. The sensitivity of Ni:ZnO films, at three different gasses (ammonia, liquefied petroleum gas and ethanol) was investigated. Obtained results indicate that our films are most sensitive to ammonia, the operating temperature was found to be 190 °C and the response time is 35 s. The gas sensitivity was found to depend on the Ni concentration in ZnO films.

  12. Preparation of ZnO Thin Films on Free-Standing Diamond Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly c-axis-oriented ZnO films were deposited successfully on the nucleation sides of free-standing diamond (FD) films by the direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering method. The effect of the sputtering parameters, such as power, gas pressure and sputtering plasma composition of Ar-to-O2, on the properties of ZnO thin films was investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that, at a sputtering power of 200 W, gas pressure of 0.5 Pa and an Ar-to-O2 composition of 1:1, a higher intensity of the (002) diffraction peak and a narrower full width at half maximum (FWHM) were detected which meant high c-axis orientation and high quality of the ZnO films. To improve the quality of the ZnO film, a thin ZnO layer was pre-grown as a homo-buffer layer. XRD measurements showed that this buffer layer had a beneficial effect on the structural and morphological properties of the post-grown ZnO film. (low temperature plasma)

  13. Optical properties of Ti-doped ZnO films synthesized via magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Haixia, E-mail: chxia8154@163.com [School of Science, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710065 (China); Ding Jijun [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Shi Feng [Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR 97601 (United States); Li Yingfeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Guo Wenge [School of Science, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710065 (China)

    2012-09-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Via magnetron sputtering technique, Ti-doped ZnO films were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties in Ti-doped ZnO films were systematically investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A metallic conduction behavior was observed at higher sputtering power. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shift mechanism of blue emission is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Undoped and Ti-doped ZnO films were deposited using magnetron sputtering at various sputtering power. The crystal structures, surface morphology and optical properties in ZnO films were systematically investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Jasco V-570 UV/VIS/NIR and ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer. The results indicated that Ti-doped ZnO polycrystalline films with a hexagonal wurzite structure formed. Ti-doped ZnO films show more uniform and denser columnar structures with the increase of sputtering power, and a metallic conduction behavior was observed when sputtering powers is increased to 150 and 200 W. One main blue emission peak located at 445 nm was observed. However, blue emission centered at 445 nm continually blue shifted to 438 nm as sputtering power further increased. The shift mechanism of blue emission at different deposited conditions is discussed in detail.

  14. Modification of Photoluminescence Properties of ZnO Island Films by Localized Surface Plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Xue-Hong; Peng, Cheng-Xiao

    2012-10-01

    The modification of localised surface plasmons of photoluminescence properties of ZnO is studied. It is found that the ultraviolet emission is drastically enhanced, and the visible emission related to the defects is almost completely suppressed, after an Au layer of nanoparticles is deposited on the surface of ZnO island films. This pronounced change in PL spectra is attributed to the efficient electron transfer via the coupling of localised surface plasmons at the interface between the Au nanoparticle layer and ZnO films.

  15. Influence of preparation methods on photoluminescence properties of ZnO films on quartz glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lei; LIAN Jian-she; LIU Yu-hua; JIANG Qing

    2008-01-01

    The influence of preparation methods on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO film was studied. Two methods were applied to fabricate ZnO films in a conventional pulsed laser deposition apparatus. One is high temperature (500-700 ℃) oxidation of the metallic zinc film that is obtained by pulsed laser deposition. The other is pulse laser ablation of Zn target in oxygen atmosphere at low temperature (100-250 ℃). The photoluminescence property was detected by PL spectrum. The room temperature PL spectra of the ZnO films obtained by oxidation method show single violet luminescence emission centered at 424 nm (or 2.90 eV) without any accompanied deep-level emission and UV emission. The violet emission is attributed to interstitial zinc in the films. Nanostructure ZnO film with c-axis (002) orientation is obtained by pulsed laser deposition. The ZnO film deposited at 200 ℃ shows single strong ultraviolet emission. The excellent UV emission is attributed to the good crystalline quality of the film and low intrinsic defects at such low temperature.

  16. Enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Ni-doped ZnO thin films: Morphological, optical and XPS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Jilani, Asim; Yahia, I. S.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.

    2016-06-01

    Pure and Ni-doped ZnO thin films with different concentration of Ni (3.5 wt%, 5 wt%, 7 wt%) were prepared by DC/RF magnetron sputtering technique. The X-rays diffraction pattern showed the polycrystalline nature of pure and Ni-doped ZnO thin films. The surface morphology of pure and Ni doped ZnO thin films were investigated through atomic force microscope, which indicated the increase in the grain dimension and surface roughness with increasing the Ni doping. The UV-Visible transmission spectra showed the decrease in the transmittance of doped ZnO thin films with the incorporation of Ni dopants. The surface and chemical state analysis of pure and Ni doped ZnO thin films were investigated by X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic activities were evaluated by an aqueous solution of methyl green dye. The tungsten lamp of 500 W was used as a source of visible light for photocatalytic study. The degradation results showed that the Ni-doped ZnO thin films exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the pure ZnO thin films. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of Ni-doped ZnO thin films were attributed to the enhanced surface area (surface defects), surface roughness and decreasing the band gap of Ni-doped ZnO thin films. Our work supports the applications of thin film metal oxides in waste water treatment.

  17. Second harmonic generation in ZnO thin films fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. Y.; Zhang, B. P.; Binh, N. T.; Segawa, Y.

    2004-07-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) from ZnO thin films fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique was carried out. By comparing the second harmonic signal generated in a series of ZnO films with different deposition temperatures, we conclude that a significant part of second harmonic signal is generated at the film deposited with appropriate temperature. The second-order susceptibility tensor χ(2)zzz=9.2 pm/V was deduced for a film deposited at 250 °C.

  18. Room temperature ferromagnetism of Ni, (Ni, Li), (Ni, N)-doped ZnO thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AU; ChakTong

    2010-01-01

    Ni-doped ZnO thin films (Ni concentration up to 10 mol%) were generated on Si (100) substrates by a sol-gel technique. The films showed wurtzite structure and no other phase was found. The chemical state of Ni was found to be bivalent by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated that the films were ferromagnetic, and magnetic moment decreased with rise of Ni concentration. The magnetization of Ni (10 mol%)-doped ZnO film annealed in nitrogen was lower than that annealed in argon, suggesting that the density of defects had an effect on ferromagnetism.

  19. Ultraviolet Sensing by Al-doped ZnO Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the fabrication and characterization of an ultraviolet photoconductive sensing by using Al-doped ZnO films. Undoped ZnO, 1 at.% and 2 at% of Al were prepared on quartz glass by sol gel method with annealing temperature of 500 degree Celsius for 1 hour. The presence of spherical shaped nanoparticles were detected for undoped ZnO by using FESEM. The absorption edge shifted to a lower wavelength by doping with Al and excitonic peak can be observed. The band gap values increased by adding Al. I-V curves reveal an improvement in electrical properties when the samples are illuminated by ultraviolet (UV) light with a wavelength of 365 nm. At 1 at.% of Al, the film have a larger increment in photocurrent response when illuminated with UV light compared to undoped ZnO and 2 at.% Al. The thin films have a longer recovery time than response time. (author)

  20. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface of hierarchical ZnO thin films by using stearic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfen; Li, Benxia; Xu, Chuyang

    2012-01-01

    Flower-like hierarchical ZnO microspheres were successfully synthesized by a simple, template-free, and low-temperature aqueous solution route. The morphology and microstructure of the ZnO microspheres were examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bionic films with hydrophobicity were fabricated by the hierarchical ZnO microspheres modified by stearic acid. It was found that the hydrophobicity of the thin films was very sensitive to the added amount of stearic acid. The thin films modified with 8% stearic acid took on strong superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA) almost to be 178° and weak adhersion. The remarkable superhydrophobicity could be attributed to the synergistic effect of micro/nano hierarchical structure of ZnO and low surface energy of stearic acid.

  1. Highly textured and transparent RF sputtered Eu2O3 doped ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remadevi Sreeja Sreedharan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc oxide (ZnO is a wide, direct band gap II-VI oxide semiconductor. ZnO has large exciton binding energy at room temperature, and it is a good host material for obtaining visible and infrared emission of various rare-earth ions. Methods: Europium oxide (Eu2O3 doped ZnO films are prepared on quartz substrate using radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering with doping concentrations 0, 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 wt%. The films are annealed in air at a temperature of 773 K for 2 hours. The annealed films are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, ultraviolet (UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Results: XRD patterns show that the films are highly c-axis oriented exhibiting hexagonalwurtzite structure of ZnO. Particle size calculations using Debye-Scherrer formula show that average crystalline size is in the range 15–22 nm showing the nanostructured nature of the films. The observation of low- and high-frequency E2 modes in the Raman spectra supports the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO in the films. The surface morphology of the Eu2O3 doped films presents dense distribution of grains. The films show good transparency in the visible region. The band gaps of the films are evaluated using Tauc plot model. Optical constants such as refractive index, dielectric constant, loss factor, and so on are calculated using the transmittance data. The PL spectra show both UV and visible emissions. Conclusion: Highly textured, transparent, luminescent Eu2O3 doped ZnO films have been synthesized using RF magnetron sputtering. The good optical and structural properties and intense luminescence in the ultraviolet and visible regions from the films suggest their suitability for optoelectronic applications.

  2. Crystallinity Improvement of ZnO Thin Film on Different Buffer Layers Grown by MBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ying Ting

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The material and optical properties of ZnO thin film samples grown on different buffer layers on sapphire substrates through a two-step temperature variation growth by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The thin buffer layer between the ZnO layer and the sapphire substrate decreased the lattice mismatch to achieve higher quality ZnO thin film growth. A GaN buffer layer slightly increased the quality of the ZnO thin film, but the threading dislocations still stretched along the c-axis of the GaN layer. The use of MgO as the buffer layer decreased the surface roughness of the ZnO thin film by 58.8% due to the suppression of surface cracks through strain transfer of the sample. From deep level emission and rocking curve measurements it was found that the threading dislocations play a more important role than oxygen vacancies for high-quality ZnO thin film growth.

  3. Luminescence and structural properties of ZnO thin films annealing in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baca, R; Martinez, J [Centro de Investigacion de Dispositivos Semiconductores, BUAP, Puebla, Pue. C.P. 72570 (Mexico); Esparza, A [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo de TecnologIa - UNAM. C.P. 04510, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kryshtab, T [Departamento de Ciencias de Materiales, ESFM - IPN, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Juarez, G; Solache, H; Andraca, J; Pena, R, E-mail: rbaca02006@yahoo.com.mx

    2010-02-15

    All ZnO thin films deposited on (001) silicon substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering were annealed in air atmosphere with different times at 800deg. C. The samples were studied by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. XRD investigation showed that ZnO phase was hexagonal wurtzite structure growing along the (002) direction. The as grown ZnO films presented macrostrain and microstrain caused a shift of the line diffraction (002) and a broadening respectively. However after 1 hour annealing these strains disappear. The grain size of ZnO films increased with an increase of annealing time. The as-deposited reactive sputtering ZnO films resulted semi-insulating with poor PL response. After high temperature annealing in air, the crystallinity and the PL response considerably improved, but their semi-insulating property also increased. The PL spectra of the annealed samples showed well defined transitions close to the near-band-edge and a wide visible deep-level band emission (430-640 nm). The main interest of this work was to enhance the PL response and to identify the origin of deep-level luminescence bands. The AFM, PL and XRD results indicated that the ZnO films annealing have potential applications in optoelectronic devices.

  4. Cytotoxic evaluation of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films and leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrochenko, Peter E; Zhang, Qin; Bayati, Reza; Skoog, Shelby A; Phillips, K Scott; Kumar, Girish; Narayan, Roger J; Goering, Peter L

    2014-09-01

    Nanostructured ZnO films have potential use as coatings on medical devices and food packaging due to their antimicrobial and UV-protection properties. However, their influence on mammalian cells during clinical use is not fully understood. This study investigated the potential cytotoxicity of ZnO thin films in RAW 264.7 macrophages. ZnO thin films (∼96nm thick with a 50nm grain) were deposited onto silicon wafers using pulsed laser deposition. Cells grown directly on ZnO thin film coatings exhibited less toxicity than cells exposed to extracts of the coatings. Cells on ZnO thin films exhibited a 43% and 68% decrease in cell viability using the MTT and 7-AAD/Annexin V flow cytometry assays, respectively, after a 24-h exposure as compared to controls. Undiluted 100% 24- and 48-h extracts decreased viability by 89%, increased cell death by LDH release to 76% 24h after treatment, and increased ROS after 5-24h of exposure. In contrast, no cytotoxicity or ROS were observed for 25% and 50% extracts, indicating a tolerable concentration. Roughly 24 and 34μg/m(2) Zn leached off the surfaces after 24 and 48h of incubation, respectively. ZnO coatings may produce gradual ion release which becomes toxic after a certain level and should be evaluated using both direct exposure and extraction methods. PMID:24878115

  5. Fabrication of Al-Doped ZnO Film with High Conductivity Induced by Photocatalytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeongsoo; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Matsushita, Nobuhiro

    2016-10-01

    We have fabricated Al-doped ZnO films by a spin-spray method, achieving high conductivity by Al-ion doping and photocatalytic activity of the ZnO. The surface morphology of the as-deposited films was varied by changing the Al concentration and addition of citrate ions. As-deposited Al-doped ZnO film without citrate ions showed rod array structure with increasing rod width as the Al concentration was increased. Meanwhile, Al-doped ZnO film deposited with addition of citrate ions changed to exhibit dense and continuous surface morphology with high transmittance of 85%. The lowest resistivity recorded for undoped and Al-doped ZnO film was 2.1 × 10-2 Ω cm and 5.9 × 10-3 Ω cm, after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The reason for the decreased resistivity is thought to be that Al-ion doping and the photocatalytic activity of ZnO contributed to improve the conductivity.

  6. ZnO thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition, used as buffer layer in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thin films synthetized by chemical bath deposition are used as buffer layer between the anode and the organic electron donor in organic solar cells. Films deposited from zinc nitrate solutions are annealed in room air at 300 deg. C for half an hour. The X-ray diffraction and microanalysis studies show that ZnO polycrystalline thin films are obtained. The solar cells used are based on the couple copper phthalocyanine as electron donor and (N,N-diheptyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide-PTCDI-C7) as electron acceptor. It is shown that the presence of the ZnO buffer layer improves the energy conversion efficiency of the cells. Such improvement could be attributed to a better energy level alignment at the anode/electron donor interface. The anode roughness induced by the ZnO buffer layer can also transform the planar interface organic electron donor/electron acceptor into roughen topography. This increases the interface area, where carrier separation takes place, which improves solar cells performances.

  7. Copper oxide thin film and nanowire as a barrier in ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raksa, Phathaitep; Nilphai, Sanpet; Gardchareon, Atcharawon [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, and NANOTEC Center of Excellence at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Choopun, Supab, E-mail: supab@science.cmu.ac.t [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, and NANOTEC Center of Excellence at Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2009-07-01

    The ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with different photoelectrodes were studied on the effect of CuO layer as a barrier layer toward power conversion characteristics. The structures of DSSCs based on ZnO as a photoelectrode, Eosin-Y as a dye sensitizer, iodine/iodide solution as an electrolyte and Pt/FTO as a counterelectrode. CuO powder, nanowire prepared by oxidation reaction of copper powder and CuO thin film prepared by evaporation copper thin film, were used as a layer on the top of ZnO layer to form blocking layer. The photocurrent, photovoltage and power conversion efficiency characteristics for DSSCs were measured under illumination of simulated sunlight obtained from a solar simulator with the radiant power of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. It was found that ZnO DSSCs with CuO thin film exhibited highest current density of 5.10 mA/cm{sup 2} and highest power conversion efficiency of 0.92% than those of CuO powder and nanowire. The enhancement of the power conversion efficiency can be explained in terms of the retardation of the interfacial recombination dynamics of CuO blocking layer.

  8. ZnO thin films fabricated by chemical bath deposition, used as buffer layer in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lare, Y. [Laboratoire sue l' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); Godoy, A. [Facultad Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Diego Portales, Ejercito 141, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Cattin, L. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, IMN, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44000 France (France); Jondo, K. [Laboratoire sue l' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); Abachi, T. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Kouba, Alger (Algeria); Diaz, F.R. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Morsli, M. [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44000 France (France); Napo, K. [Laboratoire sue l' Energie Solaire, Universite de Lome, Lome (Togo); del Valle, M.A. [Laboratorio de Polimeros, Facultad de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago (Chile); Bernede, J.C., E-mail: jean-christian.bernede@univ-nantes.fr [Universite de Nantes, Nantes Atlantique Universites, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, Nantes, F-44000 France (France)

    2009-04-15

    ZnO thin films synthetized by chemical bath deposition are used as buffer layer between the anode and the organic electron donor in organic solar cells. Films deposited from zinc nitrate solutions are annealed in room air at 300 deg. C for half an hour. The X-ray diffraction and microanalysis studies show that ZnO polycrystalline thin films are obtained. The solar cells used are based on the couple copper phthalocyanine as electron donor and (N,N-diheptyl-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide-PTCDI-C7) as electron acceptor. It is shown that the presence of the ZnO buffer layer improves the energy conversion efficiency of the cells. Such improvement could be attributed to a better energy level alignment at the anode/electron donor interface. The anode roughness induced by the ZnO buffer layer can also transform the planar interface organic electron donor/electron acceptor into roughen topography. This increases the interface area, where carrier separation takes place, which improves solar cells performances.

  9. Electrodeposited ZnO thin film as an efficient alternative blocking layer for TiCl4 pre-treatment in TiO2-based dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhestanian, E.; Mozaffari, S. A.; Ranjbar, M.; SalarAmoli, H.; Armanmehr, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, ZnO nanostructures have received considerable attention in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanodes due to their unique transport properties. In the present study, a chronoamperometric method was performed to fabricate the ZnO nanostructures as an appropriate alternative of TiCl4 pre-treatment to reduce the recombination reactions, while retaining the TiO2-based DSSC performance. The effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on ZnO electrodeposition to control the growth and crystallization of ZnO nanostructures was investigated. ZnO/TiO2 based-DSSCs were fabricated using N719 ruthenium dye and all photovoltaic parameters were characterized. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and VOC decay techniques were employed for studying the cell properties which is resulted in a significant enhancement in cell performance.

  10. Effect of substrate temperature on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited on n-Si (111) at various substrate temperatures by pulsed laser deposition (PLD).X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the structure, morphology, and optical property of the ZnO thin films. An optimal crystallized ZnO thin film was obtained at the substrate temperature of 600℃. A blue shift was found in PL spectra due to size confinement effect as the grain sizes decreased. The surfaces of the ZnO thin films were more planar and compact as the substrate temperature increased.

  11. Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Fermi Level of ZnO Films Investigated by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the Fermi level of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition is investigated. The contact potential difference of the ZnO films fabricated under various oxygen partial pressures is studied systematically using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The Fermi level shifted by 0.35 eV as oxygen partial pressure increased. This indicates a significant change in the electronic structure and energy balance in ZnO films. This fact provides a consistent explanation that the changes in carrier concentration, resistivity and mobility of ZnO films are attributed to oxygen vacancy induced shift of the Fermi level

  12. Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Fermi Level of ZnO Films Investigated by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ting; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2012-12-01

    The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the Fermi level of ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition is investigated. The contact potential difference of the ZnO films fabricated under various oxygen partial pressures is studied systematically using Kelvin probe force microscopy. The Fermi level shifted by 0.35 eV as oxygen partial pressure increased. This indicates a significant change in the electronic structure and energy balance in ZnO films. This fact provides a consistent explanation that the changes in carrier concentration, resistivity and mobility of ZnO films are attributed to oxygen vacancy induced shift of the Fermi level.

  13. Random lasing of ZnO thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachoncinlle, C., E-mail: christophe.cachoncinlle@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, UMR 7344 CNRS—Université Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Hebert, C.; Perrière, J. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, INSP, 75005 Paris (France); Nistor, M. [NILPRP, L 22 PO Box. MG-36, 77125 Bucharest—Magurele (Romania); Petit, A.; Millon, E. [GREMI, UMR 7344 CNRS—Université Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Random lasing at RT in nanocrystalline ZnO PLD thin film (<100 nm). • Low optical pumping threshold (<30 kW cm{sup −2}) for UV random lasing. • Random lasing interpreted by the electron-hole plasma (EHP) model. - Abstract: Low-dimensional semiconductor structures on nanometer scale are of great interest because of their strong potential applications in nanotechnologies. We report here optical and structural properties on UV lasing in ZnO thin films. The ZnO films, 110 nm thick, were prepared using pulsed-laser deposition on c-cut sapphire substrates at 500 °C under 10{sup −2} oxygen pressure. The ZnO films are nearly stoichiometric, dense and display the wurtzite phase. The films are highly textured along the ZnO c-axis and are constituted of nanocrystallites. According to Hall measurements these films are conductive (0.11 Ω cm). Photoluminescence measurements reveals a so-called random lasing in the range 390 to 410 nm, when illuminating at 355 nm with a tripled frequency pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Such random lasing is obtained at rather low optical pumping, 45 kW cm{sup −2}, a value lower than those classically reported for pulsed-laser deposition thin films.

  14. Effects of Mn doping on electrical properties of ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motevalizadeh, Leili; Shohany, Boshra Ghanbari; Abrishami, Majid Ebrahimizadeh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the effect of Mn doping on the electrical properties of ZnO thin films. ZnO thin films with different amounts of Mn concentrations (0, 5, 10 and 15 mol.%) were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. The crystal structure was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD patterns showed that all the samples were crystallized in wurtzite structure while a decrease in crystallinity and switch in preferential orientations were observed in Mn-doped thin films comparing to undoped ZnO. The element composition of all thin films was detected by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The surface morphology of the films was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and optical properties were studied using UV-vis spectroscopy. UV-vis study revealed that the band gap blueshifts with the increase in Mn content and Eg increases with the increase in Mn concentration. The resistivity and activation energy were measured at room temperature and ranging from 373 K to 573 K. Comparing to undoped ZnO thin film, the resistivity of Mn-doped ZnO films increased because of different parameters such as increasing barrier height energy and reducing the oxygen deficiency.

  15. ZnO films deposited by optimized PLD technique with bias voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Shitara, Tamae; Komiyama, Takao; Chonan, Yasunori; Aoyama, Takashi [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Akita Prefectural University, 84-4 Tsuchiya Ebinokuchi, 015-0055 Yuri-Honjo (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    The pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with bias voltage application for formation of high quality ZnO films was investigated. Oxygen ambient in the PLD chamber significantly decreased the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of near band edge (NBE) emission. Then, instead of using oxygen ambient, the PLD technique with bias voltage application was optimized to attain the stoichiometric composition of the ZnO films. As the deposition temperature was increased, the X-ray spectrum width diffracted from the (0002) planes was decreased and it showed a minimum value at 700 C. The PL intensity of the NBE emission also had its maximum value for the film deposited at 700 C. For the ZnO films deposited at 700 C, the X-ray spectrum width showed the minimum value under a bias voltage of -50 V. The PL intensity of the NBE emission also had a maximum value under the same bias voltage. Thus, ZnO films deposited under a bias voltage of -50 V at 700 C had strong NBE emission intensities. These results could be explained not only by attaining the stoichiometric composition of the ZnO film but also by decreasing the number of high energy O{sup 2-} ions which caused non-radiative recombination centers in the film. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Polarity enhancement in high oriented ZnO films on Si (100) substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Robi; Nurfani, Eka; Muhammady, Shibghatullah; Sutjahja, Inge M.; Winata, Toto; Rusydi, Andrivo; Darma, Yudi

    2016-04-01

    Zinc oxide films with hexagonal crystal structures have been grown on Si substrate (100) using the DC-unbalanced magnetron sputtering at temperature of 300°C with growth time variation. The films have been characterized using X-Ray Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared measurement to show the crystal parameter and atomic bonding. The results show that the films have a dominant orientation in the hkl plane (002), while peak positions are shift to lower diffraction angle with addition of growth time. In addition, the bonding between Zn and O atoms (Zn-O) tend to be weaker as indicated by transmittance peak shifting to lower energy. The weakening of Zn-O bonding is due to the contribution of addition of bond length. These conditions make the films tend to have a high polarity. Further analysis of these studies will bring us to have a good undestanding to explain the ferroelectric properties of the ZnO films.

  17. High electron mobility ZnO film for high-performance inverted polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peiwen; Chen, Shan-Ci; Zheng, Qingdong; Huang, Feng, E-mail: fhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn; Ding, Kai [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou Fujian, 350002 (China)

    2015-04-20

    High-quality ZnO films (ZnO-MS) are prepared via magnetron sputtering deposition with a high mobility of about 2 cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and are used as electron transport layer for inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) with polymer poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′] dithiophene-co-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate]:[6,6]-phenyl C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. A significant improvement of J{sub SC}, about 20% enhancement in contrast to the devices built on sol-gel derived ZnO film (ZnO-Sol), is found in the ZnO-MS based device. High performance ZnO-MS based PSCs exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 8.55%, which is much better than the device based on ZnO-Sol (PCE = 7.78%). Further research on cathode materials is promising to achieve higher performance.

  18. Experiment and prediction on thermal conductivity of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin film interface structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ping Yang; Liqiang Zhang; Haiying Yang; Dongjing Liu; Xialong Li

    2014-05-01

    We predict that there is a critical value of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin interface thickness based on two assumptions according to an interesting phenomenon, which the thermal conductivity (TC) trend of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin interface is consistent with that of relevant single nano thin interface when the nano thin interface thickness is > 300 nm; however, TC of Al2O3/ZnO nano thin interface is higher than that of relevant single nano thin interface when the thin films thickness is < 10 nm. This prediction may build a basis for the understanding of interface between two different oxide materials. It implies an idea for new generation of semiconductor devices manufacturing.

  19. Effect of oxygen content on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown by atmospheric pressure MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajjad Hussain; Yaqoob Khan; Volodymyr Khranovskyy; Riaz Muhammad; Rositza Yakimova

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure MOCVD was used to deposit ZnO layers on sapphire and homoepitaxial template under different oxygen flow rates. Oxygen content affects the lattice constant value and texture coefficient of the films as evidenced by the y-2y peaks position and their intensity. Films deposited at lower oxygen flow rate possess higher value of strain and stresses. ZnO films deposited at high oxygen flow rates show intense UV emissions while samples prepared under oxygen deficient conditions exhibited defect related emission along with UV luminescence. The results are compared to the ZnO films deposited homoepitaxially on annealed ZnO samples. The data obtained suggest that ZnO stoichiometry is responsible for the structural and optical quality of ZnO films.

  20. 7-Octenyltrichrolosilane/trimethyaluminum hybrid dielectrics fabricated by molecular-atomic layer deposition on ZnO thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Lee, Mingun; Lucero, Antonio T.; Cheng, Lanxia; Ha, Min-Woo; Kim, Jiyoung

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of 7-octenytrichlorosilane (7-OTS)/trimethylaluminum (TMA) organic–inorganic hybrid films using molecular-atomic layer deposition (MALD). The properties of 7-OTS/TMA hybrid films are extensively investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrical measurements. Our results suggest that uniform and smooth amorphous hybrid thin films with excellent insulating properties are obtained using the MALD process. Films have a relatively high dielectric constant of approximately 5.0 and low leakage current density. We fabricate zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin film transistors (TFTs) using 7-OTS/TMA hybrid material as a back gate dielectric with the top ZnO channel layer deposited in-situ via MALD. The ZnO TFTs exhibit a field effect mobility of approximately 0.43 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, a threshold voltage of approximately 1 V, and an on/off ratio of approximately 103 under low voltage operation (from ‑3 to 9 V). This work demonstrates an organic–inorganic hybrid gate dielectric material potentially useful in flexible electronics application.

  1. New insights in the structural and morphological properties of sol-gel deposited ZnO multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demes, T.; Ternon, C.; Riassetto, D.; Roussel, H.; Rapenne, L.; Gélard, I.; Jimenez, C.; Stambouli, V.; Langlet, M.

    2016-08-01

    This study shows how the structural and morphological properties of sol-gel deposited ZnO films can be precisely tuned and selectively controlled. For that purpose, ZnO films have been deposited through a multilayer sol-gel route using solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate (ZAD) diluted in 1-butanol. The opto-geometrical, morphological, and structural properties of these films have been thoroughly studied in relation to the ZAD concentration in butanol, number of deposited single-layers, and heat-treatment conditions. On this basis, different physical processes occurring over the multilayer deposition procedure have been discussed to explain how the experimental parameters influence the film properties and enable to tune the grain size, texture coefficient, and surface coverage rate in a wide range of values. This work is a first step toward the optimized growth of ZnO nanowires on sol-gel films and their subsequent integration in 2D or 3D nanowire-based biosensors.

  2. ZnO nanoparticles induced effects on nanomechanical behavior and cell viability of chitosan films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.edu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Aryaei, Ashkan; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H. [Departments of Mechanical Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to develop novel chitosan–zinc oxide nanocomposite films for biomedical applications. The films were fabricated with 1, 5, 10 and 15% w/w of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) incorporated with chitosan (CS) using a simple method. The prepared nanocomposite films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, Raman and X-ray diffraction studies. In addition, nano and micro mechanical properties were measured. It was found that the microhardness, nanohardness and its corresponding elastic modulus increased with the increase of ZnO NP percentage in the CS films. However, the ductility of films decreased as the percentage of ZnO NPs increased. Cell attachment and cytotoxicity of the prepared films at days two and five were evaluated in vitro using osteoblasts (OBs). It was observed that OB viability decreased in films with higher than 5% ZnO NPs. This result suggests that although ZnO NPs can improve the mechanical properties of pure CS films, only a low percentage of ZnO NPs can be applied for biomedical and bioengineering applications because of the cytotoxicity effects of these particles. Highlights: • Chitosan–zinc oxide nanocomposite films were fabricated using a simple method. • Material characterization methods showed that adding zinc oxide up to 15% does not change the crystal structure of chitosan. • Zinc oxide nanoparticles improve nano and micro mechanical properties of chitosan films. • Adding more than 5% w/w zinc oxide nanoparticles demonstrates cytotoxicity on osteoblast cells.

  3. Porous nanostructured ZnO films deposited by picosecond laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, Cornelia [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grigoriu, Constantin, E-mail: grigoriu@ifin.nipne.ro [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Laser Department, 409 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-36, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Besleaga, Cristina; Mitran, Tudor; Ion, Lucian; Antohe, Stefan [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2012-08-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We deposite porous nanostructured ZnO films by picoseconds laser ablation (PLA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes of the films structure on the experimental parameter deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate PLA capability to produce ZnO nanostructured films free of particulates. - Abstract: Porous nanostructured polycrystalline ZnO films, free of large particulates, were deposited by picosecond laser ablation. Using a Zn target, zinc oxide films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using a picosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser (8 ps, 50 kHz, 532 nm, 0.17 J/cm{sup 2}) in an oxygen atmosphere at room temperature (RT). The morpho-structural characteristics of ZnO films deposited at different oxygen pressures (150-900 mTorr) and gas flow rates (0.25 and 10 sccm) were studied. The post-deposition influence of annealing (250-550 Degree-Sign C) in oxygen on the film characteristics was also investigated. At RT, a mixture of Zn and ZnO formed. At substrate temperatures above 350 Degree-Sign C, the films were completely oxidized, containing a ZnO wurtzite phase with crystallite sizes of 12.2-40.1 nm. At pressures of up to 450 mTorr, the porous films consisted of well-distinguished primary nanoparticles with average sizes of 45-58 nm, while at higher pressures, larger clusters (3.1-14.7 {mu}m) were dominant, leading to thicker films; higher flow rates favored clustering.

  4. Thin ZnO nanocomposite poly(styrene-acrylic acid) films on Si and SiO2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties and formation of self-assembled ZnO nanoclusters using polystyrene-based diblock copolymers are reported. The polystyrene-polyacrylic acid copolymer consisting of a majority block (polystyrene) and a minority block (polyacrylic acid) with a block number average molecular weight ratio of 16,500/4500 and a block repeat unit ratio of 159/63 was used in order to obtain self-assembly due to microphase separation with spherical morphology. The self-assembly of the inorganic nanoparticles was achieved at room temperature in the liquid phase using a ZnCl2 precursor dopant attached to the minority block, and both dry and wet chemical processing techniques compatible with semiconductor manufacturing were developed in order to convert the ZnCl2 precursor into ZnO. The polymer films were applied by standard spin-on photolithographic techniques on Si wafers with and without thermally grown SiO2 surface films. A study by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the conversion of the ZnCl2 dopant precursor into ZnO within the copolymer matrix, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the spherical morphology of the resultant ZnO nanoclusters. Conversion of the precursor into ZnO was achieved both by a wet chemical treatment and by developing a new dry chemical treatment process based on ozone exposure. The study showed that the dry treatment has better stability and shorter conversion exposure times on the Si surfaces than the wet treatment approach, resulting in lateral size distribution between 250 and 350 nm and height distribution between 80 and 130 nm for the ZnO nanoclusters

  5. N-doped ZnO films grown from hybrid target by the pulsed laser deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tovar, E. A.; Chan y Díaz, E.; Acosta, M.; Castro-Rodríguez, R.; Iribarren, A.

    2016-10-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by the pulsed laser deposition technique on glass substrate using a hybrid target composed of ZnO powder embedded into a poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) matrix. The resulting thin film presented ZnO wurtzite structure with very low stress and diffractogram very similar to that of the powder pattern. From comparing with ZnO thin films grown from traditional sintered target, it is suggested that the use of this hybrid target with a soft matrix led to ejection of ZnO clusters that conveniently disposed and adhered to substrate and previous deposited layers. Chemical measurements showed the presence of Zn-N bonds, besides Zn-O ones. Optical absorption profile confirmed the presence of low-polymerized zinc oxynitride molecular subunits, besides ZnO.

  6. Characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we investigated properties of ZnO thin films deposited on both oxygen-containing substrates and a substrate without oxygen content at various O2/Ar reactant gas ratios. Deposition of ZnO on indium-tin oxide (ITO) resulted in the best crystallinity, whereas the least degree of crystallization was observed from ZnO deposited on glass. All the films were found to have compressive stress, which was relieved by annealing in O2 environment. ZnO films deposited on glass revealed p-type conductivity when prepared at O2/Ar ratio of 0.25 whereas those on SiNx yielded p-type conductivity when prepared at O2/Ar ratio of 4. In addition, shallower oxygen interstitial seemed to be found from films with better crystallinity. The largest shift in binding energy of Zn2p3/2 was observed from ZnO prepared on glass at O2/Ar ratio of 0.25, whereas that of O1s was obtained from ZnO deposited on SiNx at O2/Ar ratio of 4. A model was proposed in terms of O2 diffusion and hydrogen desorption in order to account for the observed property variations depending on substrates and O2/Ar ratios.

  7. Influence of C or In buffer layer on photoluminescence behaviour of ultrathin ZnO film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, K.; Jayalakshmi, G.; Krishnan, R.; Sundaravel, B.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2016-09-01

    We study the effect of the indium or carbon buffer layer on the photoluminescence (PL) property of ZnO ultrathin films deposited on a Si(100) substrate. The surface morphology of the films obtained using scanning tunnelling microscopy shows spherical shaped ZnO nanoparticles of size ˜8 nm in ZnO/C/Si and ˜22 nm in ZnO/Si samples, while the ZnO/In/Si sample shows elliptical shaped ZnO particles. Further, the ZnO/C/Si sample shows densely packed ZnO nanoparticles in comparison with other samples. Strong band edge emission has been observed in the presence of In or C buffer layer, whereas the ZnO/Si sample exhibits poor PL emission. The influence of C and In buffer layers on the PL behaviour of ZnO films is studied in detail using temperature dependent PL measurements in the range of 4 K-300 K. The ZnO/C/Si sample exhibits a multi-fold enhancement in the PL emission intensity with well-resolved free and bound exciton emission lines. Our experimental results imply that the ZnO films deposited on the C buffer layer showed higher particle density and better exciton emission desired for optoelectronic applications.

  8. Optical Properties of Cu-Doped ZnO Films Prepared by Cu Solution Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allabergenov, Bunyod; Chung, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Sungjin; Choi, Byeongdae

    2015-10-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of Cu-doped ZnO films by Cu solution coating method. Cu ink was spin coated on ZnO thin films prepared by e-beam deposition. After curing and annealing at high temperatures, structural, morphological and optical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectrofluorometer, respectively. The XRD results showed that ZnO films formed polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and the grain size increased with increasing the annealing temperature from 500 to 850 °C. The changes in lattice parameters were caused by grain size, strain, and residual stress. Morphological analysis have revealed that the Cu-doped ZnO film after annealing at 500 °C has flat surface with uniformly distributed grain size, which became porous after higher temperature annealing process. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and photoluminescence spectras have shown the presence of Zn, Cu, and O elements, and combined violet, blue, green and weak red emissions between 350 and 650 nm in the ZnO films, respectively. PMID:26726392

  9. Investigation of physical properties of screen printed nanosized ZnO films for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Rayees Ahmad; Arora, Manju; Khurram Hafiz, Aurangzeb

    2015-04-01

    Nanosized ZnO particles derived from chemical co-precipitation route were used for casting ZnO films by screen printing method followed by sintering at two different temperatures. The variation in structural, optical and electrical properties of these films with temperature have been investigated by XRD, SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-VIS, EPR and four probe analytical techniques. XRD patterns of these films exhibit polycrystalline nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure and SEM images reveal the smooth, dense and without any cracks/damage porous surface morphology. Infrared transmission spectra shows peaks pertaining to Zn-O stretching modes and their multiphonon modes. While Raman spectra exhibited strong peaks of E2 (high) phonon and overtone of surface phonon mode at 429 cm-1 and 1144 cm-1 respectively with weak components of LO and TO branches. The direct band gap energy of these films showed narrowing of band gap from 3.21 eV to 3.12 eV on increasing sintering temperature from 500 °C to 600 °C. DC conductivity measurements confirmed semiconducting behaviour and showed lowering of activation energy. EPR spectra showed single narrow line resonance signal of g-value ~ 1.9469 due to oxygen vacancies which are produced during synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by sol-gel process. These studies revealed that on increasing sintering temperature the crystallinity of the film improves with reduction in lattice deformations in these screen printed ZnO films.

  10. Photocatalytic Performance of ZnO: Al Films under Different Light Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO and Al doped ZnO films were produced by spray pyrolysis. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the decomposition of the methyl orange dye using different light sources: ultraviolet light, artificial white light, and direct sunlight. The films were also tested under darkness for comparison. The ZnO films were able to degrade the test pollutant under UV and sunlight in more than a 60% after 180 min of irradiation and a scarce degradation was obtained using white light. However, the Al doped ZnO films presented a very high degradation rate not only under UV and sunlight (100% degradation, but also under white light (90% degradation after the same irradiation time. An unexpected high degradation was also obtained in the dark, which indicates that a nonphotonic process is taking place parallel to the photocatalytic process. This can be due to the extra electrons—provided by the aluminum atoms—that migrate to the surface and produce radicals favoring the decomposition process even in the dark. The high activity achieved by the ZnO: Al films under natural conditions can be potentially applied to water treatment processes.

  11. Optoelectronics and formaldehyde sensing properties of tin-doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, C. S.; Kushwaha, Ajay; Sahay, P. P.

    2013-11-01

    Sn-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on clean glass substrates using the chemical spray pyrolysis technique. XRD analyses confirm stable ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure of the films with crystallite size in the range of 20-28 nm. The surface roughness of the films increases on Sn doping, which favors to higher adsorption of oxygen species on the film surface, resulting in higher gas response. Optical studies reveal that the band gap decreases on Sn doping. All the films show near band edge emission, and on Sn doping the luminescence peak intensity has been found to increase. Photocurrent in the 1.5 at.% doped film enhances about three times to that observed in the undoped ZnO film. Among all the films examined, the 1.5 at.% Sn-doped film exhibits the maximum response (˜94.5 %) at the operating temperature of 275 °C for 100 ppm concentration of formaldehyde, which is much higher than the response (˜35 %) in the undoped film. The gas response of the film is attributed to the chemisorption of oxygen on the film surface and the subsequent reaction between the adsorbed oxygen species and the formaldehyde molecules.

  12. Investigations of ZnO thin films deposited by a reactive pulsed laser ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.; C.; SOO; H.; KANDEL; M.; A.; THOMAS; C.; P.; DAGHLIAN

    2009-01-01

    Highly transparent ZnO thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures by pulsed laser deposition in an oxygen atmosphere. The thin films were characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption, and photoluminescence. We demonstrated that oriented wurtzite ZnO thin films could be deposited at room temperature using a high purity zinc target. Variable temperature photoluminescence revealed new characteristics in the band edge emission. The underlying mechanism for the observed phenomena was also discussed.

  13. Schottky Junction Methane Sensors Using Electrochemically Grown Nanocrystalline-Nanoporous ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Basu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline-nanoporous ZnO thin films were prepared by an electrochemical anodization method, and the films were tested as methane sensors. It was found that Pd-Ag catalytic contacts showed better sensing performance compared to other noble metal contacts like Pt and Rh. The methane sensing temperature could be reduced to as low as 100∘C by sensitizing nanocrystalline ZnO thin films with Pd, deposited by chemical method. The sensing mechanism has been discussed briefly.

  14. GISAXS/GIXRD View of ZnO Films with Hierarchical Structural Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lučić Lavčević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO films constituted of porous sheet-like structures, formed by calcination of precursor, were examined using scanning electron microscopy and simultaneous small-angle scattering and diffraction of the synchrotron-sourced X-rays, under the grazing-incidence conditions. The presented analysis enabled insight into the complexity of the film morphology, which revealed substrate sensitivity on the microscopic and nanoscopic length scales. The average size and spatial arrangement of nanoparticles, single-crystal domains, and the average size and features of nanopores in sheet-like structures were determined for films deposited on glass, polycrystalline ZnO layer, and silicon.

  15. Temperature dependent photoluminescence characteristics of nanocrystalline ZnO films grown by sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, S.; Goswami, M.L.N.; Das, K.; Dhar, A. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, IIT Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Ray, S.K. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, IIT Kharagpur 721 302 (India)], E-mail: physkr@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2008-10-01

    The structural as well as optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films, with hexagonal shaped particles of size 30-35 nm grown on p-Si (100) substrates by sol-gel technique, are investigated. Selected-area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction patterns of annealed films reveal the formation of wurtzite structure. The mechanism of ultraviolet (UV) and green emission from ZnO thin films, post-annealed at various temperatures, is investigated using photoluminescence spectra. The oxygen content in annealed ZnO films plays an important role to suppress the green band emission. Temperature dependent photoluminescence spectra are recorded in the temperature range 10 K to 300 K to investigate different excitonic peaks in the UV-region.

  16. Role of Ni doping on transport properties of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dar, Tanveer Ahmad, E-mail: tanveerphysics@gmail.com; Agrawal, Arpana; Sen, Pratima [Laser Bhawan, School Of Physics, Devi Ahilaya University Takshashila Campus Khandwa Road Indore, Indore-452001 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Nickel doped (Ni=0.05) and undoped Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been prepared by Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The structural analysis of the films was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies which reveal absence of any secondary phase in the prepared samples. UV transmission spectra show that Ni doping reduces the transparency of the films. X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also shows the presence of metallic Ni along with +2 oxidation state in the sample. Low temperature magneto transport properties of the ZnO and NiZnO films are also discussed in view of Khosla fisher model. Ni doping in ZnO results in decrease in magnitude of negative MR.

  17. Pulsed laser deposition of aluminum-doped ZnO films at 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmelund, E.; Schou, Jørgen; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    Conducting, transparent films of aluminium-doped ZnO (AZO) have been produced at the laser wavelength 355 nm. The most critical property, the electric resistivity, is up to a factor of 8 above that for films produced at shorter wavelengths. In contrast, the transmission of visible light through...

  18. MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF ANNEALED ZnO THIN FILMS DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Lee; W. Gao; Z. Li; M. Hodgson; A. Asadov; J. Metson

    2005-01-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by dc (direct current) and rf (radio frequency) magnetron sputtering. Post-deposition annealing was performed in different atmospheres and at different temperatures. The correlation of the annealing conditions with the microstructure and properties of the ZnO films were investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, conductivity measurement and scanning electron microscopy. Only the strong 002peak could be observed by X-ray diffraction. The post-deposition annealing of ZnO films was found to alter the film's microstructure and properties, including crystallinity, porosity, grain size, internal stress level and resistivity. It was also found that after annealing, the conductivity of poorly conductive samples often improved. However, annealing does not improve the conductivity of samples with high conductivity prior to annealing. The resistivity of as-grown films annealing on the conductivity of ZnO, it is believed that annealing may alter the presence and distribution of oxygen defects, reduce the lattice stress, cause diffusion, grain coarsening and recrystallization. Annealing will reduce the density of grain boundaries in less dense films,which may decrease the resistivity of the films. On the other hand, annealing may also increase the porosity of thin films, leading to an increase in resistivity.

  19. Preparation and Photovoltaic Properties of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using ZnO Nanorods Stacking Films on AZO Substrate as Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Xina; Liu, Rong; Wang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional stacking of ZnO nanorods on conducting aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) glass were studied as efficient photoanodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By changing hydrothermal growth time and cycle times, the thickness of ZnO nanorods stacking films varied from 30 µm to 64 µm, and its influence on the energetic conversion efficiency of the DSSCs based on the stacking films photoanodes was investigated. The loading density of N719 on the surface of ZnO nanorods was studied to increase the efficiency of the cells. Annealing experiments showed that the AZO substrates remained good conductors until heated above 350 °C. A photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as ~2.0% together with ISC of ~9.5 mA/cm2, VOC of ~0.5 V and FF of ~41.4% was achieved for the DSSC using 50 µm-thick film stacking by ZnO nanorods as photoanode and N719 as sensitizer under illumination of AM1.5G solar light (power density of 100 mW/cm2). A charge separation and transfer mechanism was proposed for the ZnO nanorods stacking electrode-based DSSCs.

  20. Preparation and Photovoltaic Properties of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using ZnO Nanorods Stacking Films on AZO Substrate as Photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Wang, Xina; Liu, Rong; Wang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional stacking of ZnO nanorods on conducting aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) glass were studied as efficient photoanodes of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By changing hydrothermal growth time and cycle times, the thickness of ZnO nanorods stacking films varied from 30 µm to 64 µm, and its influence on the energetic conversion efficiency of the DSSCs based on the stacking films photoanodes was investigated. The loading density of N719 on the surface of ZnO nanorods was studied to increase the efficiency of the cells. Annealing experiments showed that the AZO substrates remained good conductors until heated above 350 °C. A photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as ~2.0% together with ISC of ~9.5 mA/cm2, VOC of ~0.5 V and FF of ~41.4% was achieved for the DSSC using 50 µm-thick film stacking by ZnO nanorods as photoanode and N719 as sensitizer under illumination of AM1.5G solar light (power density of 100 mW/cm2). A charge separation and transfer mechanism was proposed for the ZnO nanorods stacking electrode-based DSSCs. PMID:27451677

  1. Photoluminescence engineering in polycrystalline ZnO and ZnO-based compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Markevich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigations of photoluminescence (PL in ZnO and ZnO-based composite materials are presented. The PL and PL excitation (PLE spectra of undoped and doped with I group elements or rear earth ions ZnO polycrystalline films, ZnO, Zn1–xMgxO and ZnMgO–TiO2 ceramics were studied. The structural properties of the samples were investigated with X-ray diffraction. Polycrystalline films were prepared by a screen-printing method and annealed at TS = 500–1000 °C. The films annealed at TS < 800 °C exhibited intense UV emission, whereas defect-related one appeared at 800 °C and enhanced with increasing TS. Improvement of the PL and structural characteristics of ZnO films due to Li-doping were achieved. The PL bands caused by Sm and Ho ions were observed under ZnO band-to-band excitation. In the PL spectra of ZnO and Zn1–xMgxO ceramics, two types of PL bands were separated: i the bands, whose spectral positions were not influenced by the Mg content (green Cu-related as well as self-activated orange and red ones; ii the bands, spectral positions of which exhibited some blueshift with increasing Mg content (orange Li- and Ag-related and self-activated green ones. In the PL spectra of ZnMgO–TiO2 composites, an intense red emission was found to appear in addition to the broad blue-orange band inherent in ZnMgO alloy. The red emission was ascribed to Mg2TiO4 inclusions in ZnMgO matrix.

  2. Ultrafast dynamics of ZnO and ZnO-BaTiO3 thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Snigdhatanu; Chouthe, Sumedha; Seifert, Gerhard [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann Platz 3, D-06120, Halle (Germany); Boentgen, Tammo; Schmidt-Grund, Ruediger; Grundmann, Marius [Institute for Experimental Physics-II, University of Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy was performed at room temperature on ZnO thin film and a double layer thin film structure of BaTiO{sub 3}/ZnO, to investigate coupling between the layers via the charge carrier dynamics. Frequency-doubled Ti:Sa laser pulses (150 fs, 400 nm) were used as pump; induced transmission changes were probed by supercontinuum (320-600 nm) fs pulses. For ZnO, two photon absorption as well as direct excitation to the trap states close to the conduction band edge leads to transfer of carriers to the conduction band. The displaced carriers relax rapidly to the bottom of conduction band, and bleaching at 375 nm attributed to population of discrete exciton A is observed. Further increase in the density at exciton levels lead to a stimulated emission at 390 nm due to exciton-exciton scattering. Changes in refractive index induced by pump-pulse generates interferometric transmission changes between 400-600 nm. Similar contributions to the transient spectra are observed in BaTiO{sub 3}/ZnO. BaTiO{sub 3} does not show any femtosecond response. Difference in the dynamical behaviour of the contributions in ZnO and BaTiO{sub 3}/ZnO gives an indication of coupling between ZnO and BaTiO{sub 3}.

  3. Pulsed laser deposited Al-doped ZnO thin films for optical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly transparent and conducting Al-doped ZnO (Al:ZnO thin films were grown on glass substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. The profound effect of film thickness on the structural, optical and electrical properties of Al:ZnO thin films was observed. The X-ray diffraction depicts c-axis, plane (002 oriented thin films with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. Al-doping in ZnO introduces a compressive stress in the films which increase with the film thickness. AFM images reveal the columnar grain formation with low surface roughness. The versatile optical properties of Al:ZnO thin films are important for applications such as transparent electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding materials and solar cells. The obtained optical band gap (3.2–3.08 eV was found to be less than pure ZnO (3.37 eV films. The lowering in the band gap in Al:ZnO thin films could be attributed to band edge bending phenomena. The photoluminescence spectra gives sharp visible emission peaks, enables Al:ZnO thin films for light emitting devices (LEDs applications. The current–voltage (I–V measurements show the ohmic behavior of the films with resistivity (ρ~10−3 Ω cm.

  4. Influence of annealing temperature on ZnO thin films grown by dual ion beam sputtering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar Pandey; Saurabh Kumar Pandey; Vishnu Awasthi; Ashish Kumar; Uday P Deshpande; Mukul Gupta; Shaibal Mukherjee

    2014-08-01

    We have investigated the influence of in situ annealing on the optical, electrical, structural and morphological properties of ZnO thin films prepared on -type Si(100) substrates by dual ion beam sputtering deposition (DIBSD) system. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that all ZnO films have (002) preferred orientation. Full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of XRD from the (002) crystal plane was observed to reach to a minimum value of 0.139° from ZnO film, annealed at 600 °C. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements demonstrated sharp near-band-edge emission (NBE) at ∼ 380 nm along with broad deep level emissions (DLEs) at room temperature. Moreover, when the annealing temperature was increased from 400 to 600 °C, the ratio of NBE peak intensity to DLE peak intensity initially increased, however, it reduced at further increase in annealing temperature. In electrical characterization as well, when annealing temperature was increased from 400 to 600 °C, room temperature electron mobility enhanced from 6.534 to 13.326 cm2/V s, and then reduced with subsequent increase in temperature. Therefore, 600 °C annealing temperature produced good-quality ZnO film, suitable for optoelectronic devices fabrication. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study revealed the presence of oxygen interstitials and vacancies point defects in ZnO film annealed at 400 °C.

  5. Effect of ZnO films on CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ZnO high resistivity transparent (HRT) layers were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering on the 1 mm borosilicate glass with 150 nm ITO coating. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the as-deposited films were investigated by XRD, UV/Vis spectroscopy and four-probe technology. The interface characters of the ITO/ZnO and ZnO/CdS systems were studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling tests. The results show that ZnO has good optical and electrical properties. The insertion of the ZnO films decreases the energy barrier between ITO and CdS films. The energy conversion efficiency and quantum efficiency were found to be 12.77% (8.9%) and > 90% (79%) with or (without) ZnO films of CdTe solar cells. Furthermore, the effect of thickness, mobility and carrier density of ZnO films on CdTe solar cells was analyzed by AMPD-1D. (semiconductor materials)

  6. Stable and High-Performance Flexible ZnO Thin-Film Transistors by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Yu; Hsu, Che-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Tsai, Feng-Yu

    2015-10-14

    Passivation is a challenging issue for the oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies because it requires prolonged high-temperature annealing treatments to remedy defects produced in the process, which greatly limits its manufacturability as well as its compatibility with temperature-sensitive materials such as flexible plastic substrates. This study investigates the defect-formation mechanisms incurred by atomic layer deposition (ALD) passivation processes on ZnO TFTs, based on which we demonstrate for the first time degradation-free passivation of ZnO TFTs by a TiO2/Al2O3 nanolaminated (TAO) film deposited by a low-temperature (110 °C) ALD process. By combining the TAO passivation film with ALD dielectric and channel layers into an integrated low-temperature ALD process, we successfully fabricate flexible ZnO TFTs on plastics. Thanks to the exceptional gas-barrier property of the TAO film (water vapor transmission rate (WVTR)20 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), subthreshold swing10,000 s), air-storage (>1200 h), and bending (1.3 cm radius for 1000 times).

  7. Laser induced photoconductivity in sol–gel derived Al doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandari, F.; Ranjbar, M., E-mail: ranjbar@cc.iut.ac.ir; Kameli, P.; Salamati, H.

    2015-11-15

    In this paper Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films with 0, 3, 6 and 12 at. % Al concentration were prepared by sol–gel method on glass substrates. The deposited films were annealed at different temperatures of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C for 1 h in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed wurtzite crystalline structure for the films annealed above 400 °C. The films were subsequently irradiated by beams of excimer (KrF, λ = 248 nm) laser. The evolution of crystal structure, surface morphology and optical properties were studied using XRD, filed emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and UV–Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. Real-time measurement of electrical conductivity during laser irradiation showed a transient or persistent photoconductivity effect. The effect of laser energy on this photoconductivity was also investigated. Based on the observed photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the observed photoconductivity effect was described. - Highlights: • AZO (0–12 at. % Al) films were prepared by sol–gel method and annealed at different temperatures. • Excimer laser (λ = 248 nm) irradiation leads to improvement of crystalline structure. • Average optical transmission doesn't change and optical gap decreases by irradiation. • Photoconductivity was investigated by real-time measurement of electrical resistance. • Sample of 6% Al annealed at 450–500 °C showed the best photoconductivity effect.

  8. Acoustoelectric Effect on the Responses of SAW Sensors Coated with Electrospun ZnO Nanostructured Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ziya Ozturk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO was a very good candidate for improving the sensitivity of gas sensor technology. The preparation of an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on a 433 MHz Rayleigh wave based Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensor and the investigation of the acoustoelectric effect on the responses of the SAW sensor are reported. We prepared an electrospun ZnO nanostructured thin film on the SAW devices by using an electrospray technique. To investigate the dependency of the sensor response on the structure and the number of the ZnO nanoparticles, SAW sensors were prepared with different coating loads. The coating frequency shifts were adjusted to fall between 100 kHz and 2.4 MHz. The sensor measurements were performed against VOCs such as acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethanol, n-propanol and methanol vapor. The sensor responses of n-propanol have opposite characteristics to the other VOCs, and we attributed these characteristics to the elastic effect/acoustoelectric effect.

  9. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nanostructure undoped and boron doped ZnO films were deposited by USP technique. • Influences of doping on the surface and optical properties of the ZnO films were investigated. • XRD spectra of the films exhibited a variation in crystalline quality depending on the B content. - Abstract: ZnO is an II–VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO2) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200–1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (≥80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and

  10. Boron doped nanostructure ZnO films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Seniye, E-mail: seniyek@ogu.edu.tr; Ozbas, Omer

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Nanostructure undoped and boron doped ZnO films were deposited by USP technique. • Influences of doping on the surface and optical properties of the ZnO films were investigated. • XRD spectra of the films exhibited a variation in crystalline quality depending on the B content. - Abstract: ZnO is an II–VI compound semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.3 eV at room temperature. Doped with group III elements (B, Al or Ga), it becomes an attractive candidate to replace tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) or indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cell devices and flat panel display due to competitive electrical and optical properties. In this work, ZnO and boron doped ZnO (ZnO:B) films have been deposited onto glass substrates at 350 ± 5 °C by a cost-efficient ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The optical, structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanostructure undoped and ZnO:B films have been investigated. Electrical resistivity of films has been analyzed by four-probe technique. Optical properties and thicknesses of the films have been examined in the wavelength range 1200–1600 nm by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements. The optical constants (refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k)) and the thicknesses of the films have been fitted according to Cauchy model. The optical method has been used to determine the band gap value of the films. Transmission spectra have been taken by UV spectrophotometer. It is found that both ZnO and ZnO:B films have high average optical transmission (≥80%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the obtained ZnO has a hexagonal wurtzite type structure. The morphological properties of the films were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface morphology of the nanostructure films is found to depend on the concentration of B. As a result, ZnO:B films are promising contender for their potential use as transparent window layer and

  11. Enhanced luminescence properties of hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO (organic/inorganic) composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuba, M.; Muralidharan, G., E-mail: muraligru@gmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Pristine tris-(8-hydroxyquionoline)aluminum(Alq{sub 3}) and (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO hybrid) composites containing different weight percentages (5 wt%, 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt%) of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using the dip coating method. The optimum concentration of ZnO in Alq{sub 3} films to get the best luminescence yield has been identified. XRD pattern reveals the amorphous nature of pure Alq{sub 3} film. The Alq{sub 3} films containing different weight percentages of ZnO show the presence of crystalline ZnO in Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films. The FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of quinoline with absorption in the region 600−800 cm{sup −1}. The hybrid Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite films indicate the presence of Zn−O vibration band along with the corresponding Alq{sub 3} band. The band gap (HOMO–LUMO) of Alq{sub 3} film was calculated using absorption spectra and it is 2.87 eV for pristine films while it is 3.26 eV, 3.21 eV, 3.14 eV, 3.10 eV, 3.13 eV and 3.20 eV for the composite films containing 5–50 wt% of ZnO. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Alq{sub 3} films show a maximum PL intensity at 514 nm when excited at 390 nm. The ZnO incorporated composite films (Alq{sub 3}/ZnO) exhibit an emission in 485 nm and 514 nm. The composite films containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibit maximum luminescence yield. - Highlights: • The pure Alq{sub 3} and Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite were synthesized and coated on to a glass substrate using dip coating method. • Alq{sub 3}/ZnO composite film containing 30 wt% of ZnO exhibits two fold increases in luminescence intensity. • The shielding effect of ZnO on the Alq{sub 3} material suppresses the interactions among the host molecules in the excited state. • This leads to enhance the luminescence intensity in composite films.

  12. Decrease in work function of transparent conducting ZnO tin films by phosphorus ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gi-Seok; Hong, Sang-Jin; Park, Jong-Woon; Choi, Bum-Ho; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Dong-Chan

    2008-09-01

    To confirm the possibility of engineering the work function of ZnO thin films, we have implanted phosphorus ions into ZnO thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The fabricated films show n-type characteristics. It is shown that the electrical and optical properties of those thin films vary depending sensitively on the ion dose and rapid thermal annealing time. Compared to as-deposited ZnO films, the work-function of phosphorus ion-implanted ZnO thin films is observed to be lower and decreases with increasing ion doses. It is likely that the zinc or oxygen vacancies are firstly filled with the implanted phosphorus ions. With further increased ions, free electrons are generated as Zn2+ sites are replaced by those ions or interstitial phosphorus ions increase at the lattice sites, the fermi level by which approaches the conduction band and thus the work function decreases. Those films exhibit the optical transmittance higher than 85% within the visible wavelength range (up to 800 nm).

  13. Structural properties of ZnO films grown by picosecond pulsed-laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansiart, L. [GREMI, UMR 6606 CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Millon, E., E-mail: eric.millon@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, UMR 6606 CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Perriere, J. [INSP, UMR 7588 CNRS-Universite Paris VI, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Mathias, J.; Petit, A. [GREMI, UMR 6606 CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Seiler, W. [PIMM, UMR 8006 CNRS-ENSAM Paris, 151 bd de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Boulmer-Leborgne, C. [GREMI, UMR 6606 CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Textured and epitaxial ZnO films grown by picosecond pulsed-laser deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial relationships evidenced on c-cut and r-cut sapphire substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocrystallised ZnO films obtained with a growth rate 10 times greater than in nanosecond PLD. - Abstract: Zinc oxide thin films have been grown on c-cut (0 0 0 1) and r-cut (11{sup Macron }02) sapphire substrates by pulsed-laser deposition using a Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm in picosecond regime (pulse duration: 42 ps). The composition and the structural properties of the films have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction according to different substrate temperatures. The RBS spectra show a Zn/O ratio close to 1.1 with a constant in-depth oxygen concentration. The XRD diagrams in Bragg-Brentano geometry display a preferred orientation depending on the used substrate. The large width of XRD peaks is indicative of a small coherence length. In addition, according to the pole figures recorded in asymmetric configuration, epitaxial relationships between substrate and film are evidenced. An increase in the substrate temperature leads to a film crystalline quality improvement. The results are discussed regarding the well-known properties of ZnO films obtained by nanosecond and femtosecond PLD.

  14. Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline ZnO Solar Cells Based on Ruthenium(II Phendione Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shahroosvand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal complexes (RuII (phen2(phendione(PF62(1, [RuII (phen(bpy(phendione(PF62 (2, and (RuII (bpy2(phendione(PF62 (3 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and phendione = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione have been synthesized as photo sensitizers for ZnO semiconductor in solar cells. FT-IR and absorption spectra showed the favorable interfacial binding between the dye-molecules and ZnO surface. The surface analysis and size of adsorbed dye on nanostructure ZnO were further examined with AFM and SEM. The AFM images clearly show both, the outgrowth of the complexes which are adsorbed on ZnO thin film and the depression of ZnO thin film. We have studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phendione complexes, which gave power conversion efficiency of (η of 1.54% under the standard AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm−2 with a short-circuit photocurrent density (sc of 3.42 mA cm−2, an open-circuit photovoltage (oc of 0.622 V, and a fill factor (ff of 0.72. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 38% at 485 nm.

  15. Electrical properties of solution-deposited ZnO thin-film transistors by low-temperature annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chul; Oh, Ji Young; Koo, Jae Bon; Park, Chan Woo; Jung, Soon-Won; Na, Bock Soon; Chu, Hye Yong

    2014-11-01

    Flexible oxide thin-film transistors (Oxide-TFTs) have emerged as next generation transistors because of their applicability in electronic device. In particular, the major driving force behind solution-processed zinc oxide film research is its prospective use in printing for electronics. A low-temperature process to improve the performance of solution-processed n-channel ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated via spin-coating and inkjet-printing is introduced here. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a facile sonochemical method that was slightly modified based on a previously reported method. The influence of the annealing atmosphere on both nanoparticle-based TFT devices fabricated via spin-coating and those created via inkjet printing was investigated. For the inkjet-printed TFTs, the characteristics were improved significantly at an annealing temperature of 150 degrees C. The field effect mobility, V(th), and the on/off current ratios were 3.03 cm2/Vs, -3.3 V, and 10(4), respectively. These results indicate that annealing at 150 degrees C 1 h is sufficient to obtain a mobility (μ(sat)) as high as 3.03 cm2/Vs. Also, the active layer of the solution-based ZnO nanoparticles allowed the production of high-performance TFTs for low-cost, large-area electronics and flexible devices. PMID:25958581

  16. Electrical and optical properties of Ti doped ZnO films grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ti doped ZnO films were prepared on Corning XG glass substrate by ALD. • The electrical properties and optical properties were systematically investigated. • An optimized Ti doped ZnO films had low resistivity and excellent optical transmittance. - Abstract: Titanium doped zinc oxide (Ti doped ZnO) films were prepared by atomic layer deposition methods at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. The Ti content in Ti doped ZnO films was varied from 5.08 at.% to 15.02 at.%. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystallinity of the Ti doped ZnO films had degraded with increasing Ti content. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the microstructural evolution of the Ti doped ZnO films, showing that both the grain size and crystallinity reduced with increasing Ti content. The electrical resistivity of the Ti doped ZnO films showed a minimum value of 1.6 × 10−3 Ω cm with the Ti content of 6.20 at.%. Furthermore, the Ti doped ZnO films exhibited excellent transmittance

  17. Nanostructured Zn and ZnO nanowire thin films for mechanical and self-cleaning applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar, E-mail: ddebarun@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Nagaland, Chumukedima, Dimapur 797103 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Madhurima, V. [Department of Physics, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 610004 (India)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on various substrates. • Upon annealing Zn there is transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires. • ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic and exhibit wetting transition on UV exposure. • ZnO will be useful in self-cleaning, mechanical and oxidation resistance surfaces. - Abstract: Nanostructured Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on borosilicate glass, Quartz, sapphire, lanthanum aluminate and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The as-deposited films are nanocrystalline and show a morphology that consists of triangular nanosheets. The films are hydrophobic with contact angles between 102° and 120° with hardness and Young's modulus between 0.15–0.8 GPa and 18–300 GPa, respectively. Thermal annealing of the films at 500 °C results only in partial oxidation of Zn to ZnO, which indicates good oxidation resistance. Annealing also causes transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires that are polycrystalline in nature. The ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic with contact angles between 159° and 162°, contact angle hysteresis between 5° and 10° and exhibit a reversible superhydrophobic–hydrophilic transition under UV irradiation. The nanowires are much softer than the as-deposited Zn metal films, with hardness between 0.02 and 0.4 GPa and Young's modulus between 3 and 35 GPa. The current study thus demonstrates a simple process for fabrication of nanostructured Zn metal films followed by a one-step transformation to nanowires with properties that will be very attractive for mechanical and self-cleaning applications.

  18. Nanostructured Zn and ZnO nanowire thin films for mechanical and self-cleaning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on various substrates. • Upon annealing Zn there is transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires. • ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic and exhibit wetting transition on UV exposure. • ZnO will be useful in self-cleaning, mechanical and oxidation resistance surfaces. - Abstract: Nanostructured Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on borosilicate glass, Quartz, sapphire, lanthanum aluminate and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The as-deposited films are nanocrystalline and show a morphology that consists of triangular nanosheets. The films are hydrophobic with contact angles between 102° and 120° with hardness and Young's modulus between 0.15–0.8 GPa and 18–300 GPa, respectively. Thermal annealing of the films at 500 °C results only in partial oxidation of Zn to ZnO, which indicates good oxidation resistance. Annealing also causes transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires that are polycrystalline in nature. The ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic with contact angles between 159° and 162°, contact angle hysteresis between 5° and 10° and exhibit a reversible superhydrophobic–hydrophilic transition under UV irradiation. The nanowires are much softer than the as-deposited Zn metal films, with hardness between 0.02 and 0.4 GPa and Young's modulus between 3 and 35 GPa. The current study thus demonstrates a simple process for fabrication of nanostructured Zn metal films followed by a one-step transformation to nanowires with properties that will be very attractive for mechanical and self-cleaning applications

  19. Chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) films containing ZnO nanoparticles and plasticizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentini, Denice S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Smania, Arthur [Microbiology and Parasitology Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laranjeira, Mauro C.M., E-mail: mauro@qmc.ufsc.br [Mechanical Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Chemistry Department, QUITECH, Federal University of Santa Catarina, University Campus, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil)

    2010-05-10

    In this study ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by the Pechini method from a polyester by reacting citric acid with ethylene glycol in which the metal ions are dissolved, and incorporated into blend films of chitosan (CS) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with different concentrations of polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, Tween 80 (T80). These films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), swelling degree, degradation of films in Hank's solution and the mechanical properties. Besides these characterizations, the antibacterial activity of the films was tested, and the films containing ZnO nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus. The observed antibacterial activity in the composite films prepared in this work suggests that they may be used as hydrophilic wound and burn dressings.

  20. Metal-semiconductor transition in undoped ZnO films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO films were deposited on glass substrate by using spray pyrolysis method. Films were deposited at different solution molarities 0.02 and 0.1 M. The films are highly transparent in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum with a transmission reaching up values to 90%. Band gaps were calculated as 3.24 and 3.28 eV with the help of transmission spectrums. When the solution molarity of the sprayed solution is increased from 0.02 to 0.1 M, carrier concentrations of the films increase from 1.6x1019 cm-3 to 5.1x1019 cm-3. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements of these conducting and transparent films also showed, for the first time, a metal-semiconductor transition (MST). The deposited ZnO films show metallic conductivity above ∼420 K and semiconducting behavior at temperatures below it

  1. Nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E., E-mail: heredia.edu@gmail.com [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.; Casanova, J.; Cánepa, H. [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Craievich, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, 66318 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kellermann, G. [Universidade Federal do Paraná, 19044 Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • ZnO films synthesized by sol–gel were deposited by spin-coating on flat substrates. • Structural features of ZnO films with several thicknesses were characterized by means of different techniques. • The thicknesses of different ZnO thin films were determined by means of FESEM and AFM. • The nanoporous structures of ZnO thin films were characterized by GISAXS using IsGISAXS software. • The average densities of ZnO thin films were derived from (i) the critical angle in 1D XR patterns, (ii) the angle of Yoneda peak in 2D GISAXS images, (iii) minimization of chi2 using IsGISAXS best fitting procedure. - Abstract: ZnO thin films deposited on silica flat plates were prepared by spin-coating and studied by applying several techniques for structural characterization. The films were prepared by depositing different numbers of layers, each deposition being followed by a thermal treatment at 200 °C to dry and consolidate the successive layers. After depositing all layers, a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 3 h was also applied in order to eliminate organic components and to promote the crystallization of the thin films. The total thickness of the multilayered films – ranging from 40 nm up to 150 nm – was determined by AFM and FESEM. The analysis by GIXD showed that the thin films are composed of ZnO crystallites with an average diameter of 25 nm circa. XR results demonstrated that the thin films also exhibit a large volume fraction of nanoporosity, typically 30–40 vol.% in thin films having thicknesses larger than ∼70 nm. GISAXS measurements showed that the experimental scattering intensity is well described by a structural model composed of nanopores with shape of oblate spheroids, height/diameter aspect ratio within the 0.8–0.9 range and average diameter along the sample surface plane in the 5–7 nm range.

  2. Effect of substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of spray deposited ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larbah Y.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Undoped ZnO thin films have been prepared on glass substrates at different substrate temperatures by spray pyrolysis method. The effect of temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of n-type ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD results confirmed that the ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM measurements showed that the surface morphology of the films changed with temperature. The studies demonstrated that the ZnO film had a transmission of about 85 % and energy gap of 3.28 eV at 450 °C. The RBS measurements revealed that ZnO layers with a thickness up to 200 nm had a good stoichiometry.

  3. ZnSe and ZnO film growth by pulsed-laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y. R.; Zhu, S.; Han, S. W.; White, H. W.; Miceli, P. F.; Chandrasekhar, H. R.

    1998-05-01

    ZnSe and ZnO films have been deposited on (001) GaAs substrates under different pressures by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) with a 193 nm laser beam. The ambient pressures were changed from 8×10 -6 to 5×10 -2 Torr with high-purity argon gas for ZnSe and oxygen gas for ZnO. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was performed on these samples. The FWHM's of X-ray theta-rocking curves for the (004) peaks of ZnSe films were less than 0.5°. X-ray data show that high-quality ZnO films can be also synthesized by PLD.

  4. Annealing effects of sapphire substrate on properties of ZnO films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Z. [South China Normal University, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Guangzhou (China); Xu, J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai (China)

    2007-09-15

    The annealing effects of sapphire substrates on the quality of epitaxial ZnO films grown by dc reactive magnetron sputtering were studied. The atomic steps formed on (0001) sapphire ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates surface by annealing at high temperature were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Their influence on the growth of ZnO films was examined by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that the film quality is strongly affected by annealing treatment of the sapphire substrate surface. The optimum annealing temperature of sapphire substrates for ZnO grown by magnetron sputtering is 1400 C for 1 h in air. (orig.)

  5. Ultra violet sensors based on nanostructured ZnO spheres in network of nanowires: a novel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luykx A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe ZnO nanostructures consisting of micro spheres in a network of nano wires were synthesized by direct vapor phase method. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy measurements were carried out to understand the chemical nature of the sample. ZnO nanostructures exhibited band edge luminescence at 383 nm. The nanostructure based ZnO thin films were used to fabricate UV sensors. The photoresponse measurements were carried out and the responsivity was measured to be 50 mA W−1. The rise and decay time measurements were also measured.

  6. Preparation and gas-sensing property of parallel-aligned ZnO nanofibrous films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zikui Bai; Weilin Xu; Changsheng Xie; Mingchao Dong; Shunping Zhang; Jie Xu; Shili Xiao

    2013-08-01

    Parallel-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofibrous films fabricated by using electrospinning technique were used in gas sensors for the detection of ethanol and formaldehyde. The morphologies and crystal structures of the films were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE–SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. FE–SEM results showed that ZnO nanofibres had an approximate diameter of 100–300 nm and consisted of hexagonal wurtzite structure ZnO nanocrystals with a primary particle diameter of 20–50 nm. The results of resistance–temperature characteristics and responses to ethanol and formaldehyde indicated that the parallelaligned ZnO nanofibrous film had a low activation energy (0.246 eV), a low optimum operating temperature and a high response. The response and recovery had a high rate in the initial stage and a low rate in the later stage. The parallel-aligned ZnO nanofibrous film had excellent potential application for formaldehyde sensor.

  7. Near-infrared optical constants and optical polarization properties of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshman, J.M., E-mail: khoshman@ahu.edu.jo [Department of Physics, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Maan 71111 (Jordan); Manda, A.A. [College of Engineering, University of Dammam, Dammam 31451 (Saudi Arabia); Kordesch, M.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    The optical characteristics of ZnO thin films deposited on Si (111) and quartz at temperature < 50 °C using reactive RF sputtering deposition were examined within the near-infrared (NIR) region. From the X-ray diffraction observations, it was found that the films show a polycrystalline structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows the chemical bonding states of zinc and oxygen in the surface of the films and confirms the formation of Zn–O bonds. The field emission scanning electron microscopy and the atomic force microscopy images of the films shown an almost uniform distribution and the surfaces are smooth with grains of the order of 40–60 nm. The average surface roughness was in the range of 3.15–24.33 nm. Over a wavelength range 700–2500 nm, the optical constants of the films were obtained by analysis of the measured ellipsometric spectra using the Cauchy–Urbach model. Refractive indices and extinction coefficients of the ZnO films were determined to be in the range n = 1.65–1.73 and κ = 0.0060–0.029, respectively. Also, the s- and p-polarized optical properties (transmittance and reflectance) of the films have been measured at different angles of incidence in the UV–Vis–NIR spectral range. In addition, calculations have been carried out in order to determine the optical absorptance by using the conservation of energy. The films reveal a high transmittance (85%–95%), low reflectance (5%–15%), and very low absorptance (< 1%) at normal incidence. This means that the sputtered polycrystalline ZnO films could be good candidates for antireflection (AR) optical coatings. - Highlights: • The ZnO films exhibited a polycrystalline structure. • The as-deposited ZnO films are homogeneous and continuous. • The Cauchy–Urbach model can represent sufficiently the films in the NIR range. • The films reveal a high transmittance, low reflectance and very low absorptance. • Polycrystalline ZnO films could be good candidates for

  8. Dopant-induced modifications in structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by PLD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Jaweria Z.; Siraj, K.; Naseem, S.; Shaukat, S.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present work is to study the effect of yttrium doping concentration on the microstructure and optical behavior of ZnO thin films, deposited by pulsed laser deposition on silicon (001) substrates. The microstructural analysis of doped ZnO thin films shows columnar growth of the ZnO (002) plane under tensile stress, confirmed by Raman shifts of the E2 (high) mode. The optical properties are investigated by using a spectroscopic ellipsometer. Undoped and yttrium-doped ZnO films show high transparency in the visible region, and the estimated optical band gap energy is randomly shifted in the range 2.93-3.1 eV by increasing the yttrium doping level. Yttrium doping in ZnO is limited, which means that at doping concentrations higher than 3 wt.% of yttrium, the structural and optical properties show a shift towards those of undoped ZnO.

  9. Heteroepitaxial growth of nonpolar Cu-doped ZnO thin film on MnS-buffered (100) Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuru; Nguyen, Nam; Nagata, Takahiro; Takahashi, Kenichiro; Ri, Sung-Gi; Ishibashi, Keiji; Suzuki, Setsu; Chikyow, Toyohiro

    2015-06-01

    The preparation of nonpolar ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO thin films on Si substrates was studied for the application to the fabrication of green-light-emitting diodes. The use of rocksalt MnS and wurtzite AlN as buffer layers is a key technology for achieving the heteroepitaxial growth of nonpolar ZnO thin film on a (100) Si substrate. X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements revealed that deposition under a high oxygen partial pressure (∼1 Torr) can enhance the nonpolar crystallization of undoped ZnO, and can simultaneously suppress the formation of defects such as oxygen vacancies. These techniques can be also applied to the growth of Cu-doped ZnO. A room-temperature photoluminescence study revealed that nonpolar [11\\bar{2}0]-oriented Cu-doped ZnO film exhibits enhanced green emission owing to the doped Cu ions.

  10. Epitaxial ZnO films grown on ZnO-buffered c-plane sapphire substrates by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO films are hydrothermally grown on ZnO-buffered c-plane sapphire substrates at a low temperature of 70 deg. C. A radio-frequency (RF) reactive magnetron sputtering has been used to grow the ZnO buffer layers. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and room temperature photoluminescence are carried out to characterize the structure, morphology and optical property of the films. It is found that the films are stress-free. The epitaxial relationship between the ZnO film and the c-plane sapphire substrate is found to be ZnO (0 0 0 1)||Al2O3 (0 0 0 1) in the surface normal and ZnO[101-bar 0]||Al2O3[112-bar 0] in plane. Sapphire treatment, as such acid etching, nitridation, and oxidation are found to influence the nucleation of the film growth, and the buffer layers determine the crystalline quality of the ZnO films. The maximum PL quantum efficiency of ZnO films grown with hydrothermal method is found to be about 80% of single-crystal ZnO.

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of High-Crystalline Nanoporous ZnO Thin Films by Modified Thermal Evaporation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. S.; Hossain, M. F.; Razzak, S. M. A.; Haque, M. M.; Saha, D. K.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate high-crystalline nanoporous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films by a modified thermal evaporation system. First, zinc thin films have been deposited on bare glass substrate by the modified thermal evaporation system with pressure of 0.05mbar, source-substrate distance of 3cm and source temperature 700∘C. Then, high-crystalline ZnO thin film is obtained by annealing at 500∘C for 2h in atmosphere. The prepared ZnO films are characterized with various deposition times of 10min and 20min. The structural property was investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The optical bandgap and absorbance/transmittance of these films are examined by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometer. The surface morphological property has been observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). ZnO films have showed uniform nanoporous surface with high-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. The ZnO films prepared with 20min has excitation absorption-edge at 369nm, which is blueshifted with respect to the bulk absorption-edge appearing at 380nm. The gap energy of ZnO film is decreased from 3.14eV to 3.09eV with increase of the deposition time, which can enhance the excitation of ZnO films by the near visible light, and is suitable for the application of photocatalyst of waste water cleaning and polluted air purification.

  12. Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnO thin films on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca; Chen, X-Grant

    2015-02-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of superhydrophobic ZnO thin films surfaces by electrophoretic deposition process on aluminum substrates. • Effect of bath temperature on the physical and superhydrophobic properties of thin films. • The water contact angle of 155° ± 3 with roll off property has been observed on the film that was grown at bath temperatures of 50 °C. • The activation energy for electrophoretic deposition of SA-functionalized ZnO nanoparticle is calculated to be 0.50 eV. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic thin films have been fabricated on aluminum alloy substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using stearic acid (SA) functionalized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles suspension in alcohols at varying bath temperatures. The deposited thin films have been characterized using both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy and it is found that the films contain low surface energy zinc stearate and ZnO nanoparticles. It is also observed that the atomic percentage of Zn and O, roughness and water contact angle of the thin films increase with the increase of the deposited bath temperature. Furthermore, the thin film deposited at 50 °C, having a roughness of 4.54 ± 0.23 μm, shows superhydrophobic properties providing a water contact angle of 155 ± 3° with rolling off properties. Also, the activation energy of electrophoretic deposition of stearic-acid-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles is calculated to be 0.5 eV.

  13. A model bismuth oxide intergranular thin film in a ZnO twist grain boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, H S [INESC, Microsistemas and Nanotecnologias, Rua Alves Redol 1-9, P-1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-04-14

    The electronic properties of a model bismuth oxide intergranular film in ZnO were investigated using density functional plane wave calculations. It was found that oxygen excess plays a fundamental role in the appearance of electrical activity. The introduction by oxygen interstitials or zinc vacancies results in depletion of the charge in deep gap states introduced by the bismuth impurities. This makes the boundary less metallic and promotes the formation of acceptor states localized to the boundary core, resulting in Schottky barrier enhancement. The results indicate that the origin of electrical activity in thin intergranular bismuth oxide films is probably not distinct from that in decorated ZnO boundaries.

  14. Screen printed nanosized ZnO thick film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bindu Krishnan; V P N Nampoori

    2005-06-01

    Nanosized ZnO was prepared by polyol synthesis. Fluorescence spectrum of the ZnO colloid at varying pump intensities was studied. The powder was extracted and characterized by XRD and BET. The extracted powder was screen printed on glass substrates using ethyl cellulose as binder and turpinol as solvent. Coherent back scattering studies were performed on the screen printed sample which showed evidence of weak localization. The screen printed pattern showed strong UV emission.

  15. Theoretical study of the multiferroic properties in M-doped (M=Co, Cr, Mg) ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahoosh, S.G. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Apostolov, A.T. [University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Faculty of Hydrotechnics, Department of Physics, 1, Hristo Smirnenski Blvd., 1046 Sofia (Bulgaria); Apostolova, I.N. [University of Forestry, Faculty of Forest Industry, 10, Kl. Ohridsky Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Trimper, S. [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Wesselinowa, Julia M. [University of Sofia, Department of Physics, Blvd. J. Bouchier 5, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-01-01

    The origin of multiferroism is still an open problem in ZnO. We propose a microscopic model to clarify the occurrence of multiferroism in this material. Using Green's function technique we study the influence of ion doping and size effects on the magnetization and polarization of ZnO thin films. The calculations for magnetic Co- and Cr-ions are based on the s–d model, the transverse Ising model in terms of pseudo-spins and a biquadratic magnetoelectric coupling, whereas in case of nonmagnetic Mg-ions the model takes into account the Coulomb interaction and an indirect coupling between the pseudo-spins via the conduction electrons. We show that the magnetization M exhibits a maximum for a fixed concentration of the doping ions. Furthermore M increases with decreasing film thickness N. The polarization increases with increasing concentration of the dopant and decreasing N. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. - Highlights: • The paper analyzes the multiferroic properties of doped ZnO thin films by a microscopic model. • The magnetization exhibits a maximum at a fixed doping concentration. • The polarization increases with growing dopant concentration. • The ferroelectric transition temperature is enhanced for increasing dopant concentration.

  16. Study of structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtzite zinc oxides films (ZnO) were deposited on silicon (0 0 1) and corning glass substrates using the pulsed laser deposition technique. The laser fluence, target-substrate distance, substrate temperature of 300 deg. C were fixed while varying oxygen pressures from 2 to 500 Pa were used. It is observed that the structural properties of ZnO films depend strongly on the oxygen pressure and the substrate nature. The film crystallinity improves with decreasing oxygen pressure. At high oxygen pressure, the films are randomly oriented, whereas, at low oxygen pressures they are well oriented along [0 0 1] axis for Si substrates and along [1 0 3] axis for glass substrates. A honeycomb structure is obtained at low oxygen pressures, whereas microcrystalline structures were obtained at high oxygen pressures. The effect of oxygen pressure on film transparency, band gap Eg and Urbach energies was investigated.

  17. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films for photoelectrochemical splitting of water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monika Gupta; Vidhika Sharma; Jaya Shrivastava; Anjana Solanki; A P Singh; V R Satsangi; S Dass; Rohit Shrivastav

    2009-02-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide thin films (ZnO) were prepared on conducting glass support (SnO2: F overlayer) via sol–gel starting from colloidal solution of zinc acetate 2-hydrate in ethanol and 2-methoxy ethanol. Films were obtained by spin coating at 1500 rpm under room conditions (temperature, 28–35°C) and were subsequently sintered in air at three different temperatures (400, 500 and 600°C). The evolution of oxide coatings under thermal treatment was studied by glancing incidence X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Average particle size, resistivity and bandgap energy were also determined. Photoelectrochemical properties of thin films and their suitability for splitting of water were investigated. Study suggests that thin films of ZnO, sintered at 600°C are better for photoconversion than the films sintered at 400 or 500°C. Plausible explanations have been provided.

  18. Influence of high-pressure hydrogen treatment on structural and electrical properties of ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thin films were treated by high-pressure hydrogen (H2). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the surface morphology of ZnO films has been changed significantly by H2 treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the Zn(OH)2 phases formed after H2 treatment. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate that H atoms were doped into the surface of ZnO by forming H-O-Zn bond. The phenomenon shows that it is easy to form O-H bond in ZnO rather than H interstitial atom under high-pressure hydrogen circumstance.

  19. Superhydrophilic zinc oxide film prepared by controlling ZnO microrods growth and its attractive recyclable photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superhydrophilic functional materials have been found to be of great value for a variety of practical applications in recent years. In this paper, zinc oxide (ZnO) microrod films have been directly synthesized on a large-area zinc substrate via a simple solution method. Morphological and structural observation and crystallinity of the grown products were carried out using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet (UV)–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The influence of reaction time on the size and shapes of the as-prepared ZnO samples was studied. It was found that superhydrophilic ZnO films at reaction time of 20 h were made up of uniform pure ZnO microrods with 600 nm in average diameter and 6 μm in length. Room-temperature PL spectra of the ZnO products showed a UV emission and a broad green band. Photocatalytic performance and sample stability were studied. Under UV light irradiation over 95% of methylene blue was degraded by ZnO microrod films in 4 h, ZnO microrod film can be easily separated from the solution, and no observable performance degradation was observed after 5 cycles. - Highlights: • Superhydrophilic ZnO microrod films were successfully synthesized. • ZnO microrods are single crystalline with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. • ZnO microrod films can be easily separated from the solution. • Superhydrophilic ZnO microrod films can be reused

  20. Structural characterization of supported nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova, J.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Heredia, E.A., E-mail: eheredia@citedef.gob.ar [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.D.; Canepa, H.R. [CITEDEF-CINSO-CONICET Centro de Investigaciones en Solidos, Juan B. de La Salle 4397, B1603ALO, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kellermann, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Craievich, A.F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating technique were characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The structures of several thin films subjected to (i) isochronous annealing at 350, 450 and 550 deg. C, and (ii) isothermal annealing at 450 deg. C during different time periods, were characterized. The studied thin films are composed of ZnO nanocrystals as revealed by analysing several GIXD patterns, from which their average sizes were determined. Thin film thickness and roughness were determined from quantitative analyses of AFM images and XR patterns. The analysis of XR patterns also yielded the average density of the studied films. Our GISAXS study indicates that the studied ZnO thin films contain nanopores with an ellipsoidal shape, and flattened along the direction normal to the substrate surface. The thin film annealed at the highest temperature, T = 550 deg. C, exhibits higher density and lower thickness and nanoporosity volume fraction, than those annealed at 350 and 450 deg. C. These results indicate that thermal annealing at the highest temperature (550 deg. C) induces a noticeable compaction effect on the structure of the studied thin films.

  1. Characteristics of laser-annealed ZnO thin film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun-Je; Bak, Jun-Yong; Lee, Jong-Hoon [Department of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Seung, E-mail: hongseung@hhu.ac.k [Department of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Nak-Won [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Busan 609-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Young [Department of Radio Communication Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Department of Nano Technology, Dong Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-31

    We investigated the effects of laser annealing on ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs). ZnO layers were deposited on a bottom-gate patterned Si substrate by radio-frequency sputtering at room temperature. Laser annealing of the ZnO films reduced the full width at half maximum of the ZnO (002) diffraction peak from 0.49{sup o} to 0.1{sup o}. It reveals that the crystalline quality is improved by annealing effect. A SiO{sub 2} formed in low temperature was used as the gate dielectric. Unannealed ZnO-TFTs were operated in enhancement mode with a threshold voltage of 21.6 V. They had a field-effect mobility of 0.004 cm{sup 2}/Vs and an on/off current ratio of 134. Laser annealing of the ZnO-TFTs by 200 laser pulses reduced their threshold voltage to 0.6 V and increased their field-effect mobility to 5.08 cm{sup 2}/Vs. The increase of mobility is originated from the crystallization enhancement of ZnO films after laser annealing.

  2. ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic film prepared by the three-step method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Kai; Li Hua; Zhang Han; Xu Xiao-Liang; Gong Mao-Gang; Yang Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of the lotus leaf is mainly due to its surface micro-nano composite structure. In order to mimic the lotus structure, ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic films were prcpared via the three-step method. On thin buffer films of SiO2, which were first fabricated on glass substrates by the sol gel dip-coating method, a ZnO seed layer was deposited via RF magnetron sputtering. Then two different ZnO films, micro-nano and micro-only flower-like structures, were grown by the hydrothermal method. The prepared films have different hydrophobic properties after surface modification. The structures of the obtained ZnO films were characterized using x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. A conclusion that a micro-nano composite structure is more beneficial to hydrophobicity than a micro-only structure was obtained through research into the effect of structure on hydrophobic properties.

  3. ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic film prepared by the three-step method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; Li, Hua; Zhang, Han; Xu, Xiao-Liang; Gong, Mao-Gang; Yang, Zhou

    2009-05-01

    The hydrophobicity of the lotus leaf is mainly due to its surface micro-nano composite structure. In order to mimic the lotus structure, ZnO micro-nano composite hydrophobic films were prepared via the three-step method. On thin buffer films of SiO2, which were first fabricated on glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method, a ZnO seed layer was deposited via RF magnetron sputtering. Then two different ZnO films, micro-nano and micro-only flower-like structures, were grown by the hydrothermal method. The prepared films have different hydrophobic properties after surface modification. The structures of the obtained ZnO films were characterized using x-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. A conclusion that a micro-nano composite structure is more beneficial to hydrophobicity than a micro-only structure was obtained through research into the effect of structure on hydrophobic properties.

  4. Influence of process parameters on band gap of AI-doped ZnO film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diqiu HUANG; Xiangbin ZENG; Yajuan ZHENG; Xiaojin WANG; Yanyan YANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of process parameters, such as argon (Ar) flow rate, sputtering power and substrate temperature on the band gap of Al-doped ZnO film, Al-doped ZnO thin films were fabricated by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technology and deposited on polyimide and glass substrates. Under different Ar flow rates varied from 30 to 70 sccm, the band gap of thin films were changed from 3.56 to 3.67 eV. As sputtering power ranged from 125 to 200 W, the band gap was varied from 3.28 to 3.82 eV; the band gap was between 3.41 and 3.88 eV as substrate temperature increases from 150℃ to 300℃. Furthermore, the correlation between carrier concentration and band gap was investigated by HALL. These results demonstrate that the band gap of the Al-doped ZnO thin film can be adjusted by changing the Ar flow rate, sputtering power and substrate temperature, which can improve the performance of semiconductor devices related to Al-doped ZnO thin film.

  5. Effect of ZnO films on CdTe solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Tingliang; He Xulin; Zhang Jingquan; Feng Lianghuan; Wu Lili; Li Wei; Zeng Guanggen; Li Bing

    2012-01-01

    The ZnO high resistivity transparent (HRT) layers were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering on the 1mm borosilicate glass with 150 nm 1TO coating.The structural,optical and electrical properties of the as-deposited films were investigated by XRD,UV/Vis spectroscopy and four-probe technology.The interface characters of the ITO/ZnO and ZnO/CdS systems were studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling tests.The results show that ZnO has good optical and electrical properties.The insertion of the ZnO films decreases the energy barrier between ITO and CdS films.The energy conversion efficiency and quantum efficiency were found to be 12.77% (8.9%) and > 90% (79%) with or (without)ZnO films of CdTe solar cells.Furthermore,the effect of thickness,mobility and carrier density of ZnO films on CdTe solar cells was analyzed by AMPD-1D.

  6. Conductivity of ZnO nanowires, nanoparticles, and thin films using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Jason B; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A

    2006-12-21

    The terahertz absorption coefficient, index of refraction, and conductivity of nanostructured ZnO have been determined using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, a noncontact optical probe. ZnO properties were measured directly for thin films and were extracted from measurements of nanowire arrays and mesoporous nanoparticle films by applying Bruggeman effective medium theory to the composite samples. Annealing significantly reduces the intrinsic carrier concentration in the ZnO films and nanowires, which were grown by chemical bath deposition. The complex-valued, frequency-dependent photoconductivities for all morphologies were found to be similar at short pump-probe delay times. Fits using the Drude-Smith model show that films have the highest mobility, followed by nanowires and then nanoparticles, and that annealing the ZnO increases its mobility. Time constants for decay of photoinjected electron density in films are twice as long as those in nanowires and more than 5 times those for nanoparticles due to increased electron interaction with interfaces and grain boundaries in the smaller-grained materials. Implications for electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells are discussed.

  7. Manufacturing of patterned ZnO films with application for photoinitiated decolorization of malachite green in aqueous solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nina V Kaneva; Georgi G Yordanov; Ceco D Dushkin

    2010-04-01

    Patterned thin films, ZnO, are successfully prepared on glass substrates by the sol–gel method using dip-coating technique. The films, formed of ZnO nanocrystallites with hexagonal crystal structure, are characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The as obtained ZnO films are studied with respect to photo-initiated bleaching of malachite green in aqueous solutions. The bleaching process is investigated at various initial concentrations of malachite green in the aqueous solutions by using ZnO films of different thicknesses. The obtained results are promising for the development of ZnO photocatalysts by the sol–gel method.

  8. Pulsed laser deposited cobalt-doped ZnO thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Su, Xue-qiong; Lu, Yi; Chen, Jiang-bo

    2013-09-01

    To realize the room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), we prepared a series of Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at deposition temperatures 500°C under oxygen pressure from 2.5×10-4 Pa to 15 Pa. To elucidate the physical origin of RTFM, Co 2p spectra of cobalt-doped ZnO thin films was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The magnetic properties of films were measured by an alternating gradient magnetometer (AGM), and the electrical properties were detected by a Hall Effect instrument using the Van der Pauw method. XPS analysis shows that the Co2+ exists and Co clusters and elemental content change greatly in samples under various deposition oxygen pressures. Not only the valence state and elemental content but also the electrical and magnetic properties were changed. In the case of oxygen pressure 10 Pa, an improvement of saturation magnetic moment about one order of magnitude over other oxygen pressure experiments, and the film exhibits ferromagnetism with a curie temperature above room temperature. It was found that the value of carrier concentration in the Co-doped ZnO film under oxygen pressure 10Pa increases about one order of magnitude than the values of other samples under different oxygen pressure. Combining XPS with AGM measurements, we found that the ferromagnetic signals in cobalt-doped ZnO thin film deposited at 500 °C under oxygen pressure 10 Pa only appear with the detectable Co2+ spectra from incompletely oxidized Co metal or Co cluster. So oxygen pressure 10 Pa can be thought the best condition to obtain room-temperature dilute magnetic semiconductor about cobalt-doped ZnO thin films.

  9. Optical properties of Mn doped ZnO films and wires synthesized by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, M., E-mail: msima@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Mihut, L. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Vasile, E. [University “Politehnica”of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Department of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, No. 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Sima, Ma.; Logofatu, C. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2015-09-01

    Mn doped ZnO films and wires, having different manganese concentrations were synthesized by thermal oxidation of the corresponding ZnMn alloy films and wires electrodeposited on a gold substrate. Structural and optical properties were addressed with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). To estimate the manganese concentration in Mn doped ZnO films, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used. XRD patterns indicate that the incorporation of Mn{sup 2+} ions into the Zn{sup 2+} site of ZnO lattice takes place. Quenching of the ZnO PL appears due to Mn{sup 2+} ions in the ZnO lattice. Moreover, a significant decrease in the green emission of ZnO is reported in the case of the Mn doped ZnO wire array with a Mn concentration of 1.45%. The wurtzite ZnO has a total of 12 phonon modes, namely, one longitudinal acoustic (LA), two transverse acoustic (TA), three longitudinal optical (LO), and six transverse optical branches. Compared to the undoped ZnO, a gradual up-shift of the Raman lines assigned to the 2LA and A{sub 1} (LO) vibrational modes, from 482 and 567 cm{sup −1} to 532 and 580 cm{sup −1}, respectively, takes place for the Mn doped ZnO films having a Mn concentration between 2 and 15%. Additionally, in the case of the Mn doped ZnO films with 7 and 15% Mn concentration, Raman spectra show the appearance and increase in the relative intensity of the ZnO Raman line assigned to the TA + LO vibrational mode in the 600–750 cm{sup −1} spectral range. For the Mn-doped ZnO wires, the presence of the Raman line peaking at 527 cm{sup −1} confirms the insertion of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO lattice. - Highlights: • Mn doped ZnO films and wires grown by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy • Incorporation of Mn{sup 2+} ions into Zn{sup 2+} site of ZnO lattice • Appearance of a strong Raman line in the spectral range 600–800 cm{sup −1} at high Mn concentration • Compensation of the oxygen vacancy at higher

  10. Vibration optimization of ZnO thin film bulk acoustic resonator with ring electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zinan; Qian, Zhenghua; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    A rectangular ZnO thin film bulk acoustic resonator with ring electrodes is presented in this paper to demonstrate the existence of a nearly uniform displacement distribution at the central part of this typical resonator. The variational formulation based on two-dimensional scalar differential equations provides a theoretical foundation for the Ritz method adopted in our analysis. The resonant frequencies and vibration distributions for the thickness-extensional modes of this ring electrode resonator are obtained. The structural parameters are optimized to achieve a more uniform displacement distribution and therefore a uniform mass sensitivity, which guarantee the high accuracy and repeatable measurement for sensor detection in an air or a liquid environment. These results provide a fundamental reference for the design and optimization of the high quality sensor.

  11. ZnO thin film transistor immunosensor with high sensitivity and selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Pavel Ivanoff; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Duan, Ziqing; Lu, Yicheng; Solanki, Aniruddh; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2011-04-01

    A zinc oxide thin film transistor-based immunosensor (ZnO-bioTFT) is presented. The back-gate TFT has an on-off ratio of 108 and a threshold voltage of 4.25 V. The ZnO channel surface is biofunctionalized with primary monoclonal antibodies that selectively bind with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Detection of the antibody-antigen reaction is achieved through channel carrier modulation via pseudo double-gating field effect caused by the biochemical reaction. The sensitivity of 10 fM detection of pure EGFR proteins is achieved. The ZnO-bioTFT immunosensor also enables selectively detecting 10 fM of EGFR in a 5 mg/ml goat serum solution containing various other proteins.

  12. Effect of hydrogen doping in ZnO thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the role of hydrogen impurities in highly oriented ZnO thin films. Hydrogen intentionally incorporated was found to play an important role as a donor in n-type conduction, improving the free carrier concentration. The increase in the conductivity of ZnO thin films was attributed to the two centers assigned to isolated hydrogen atoms in the anti-bonding sites as well as bond-centered interstitial hydrogen located between the Zn-O bonds and Zn vacancy passivated by one or two hydrogen atoms. Micro Raman spectroscopy showed two additional modes at approximately 501 and 573 cm-1. These two peaks were attributed to damage to the crystal lattice, which could be explained by the optical-phonon branch at the zone boundary and host lattice defects, such as vacancy clusters, respectively.

  13. Characterization and Wettability of ZnO Film Prepared by Chemical Etching Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-xi; JIA Hui-ying; ZENG Jian-bo; CONG Qian; REN Lu-quan

    2013-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared by a chemical etching method and their wettability was investigated.The structure and surface composition structure were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy,X-ray photoelectronic spectrometry(XPS),X-ray diffraction(XRD) and Raman spectrometry.These analyses reveal that the etched films were large-scale micro-nanohierarchical structures composed of a Zn core and a ZnO coating.Superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angles of over 150° were obtained by n-octadecanethiol(ODT) modification.The XPS and Raman results indicate that ODT molecules were bound to the ZnO surface with the S head group by forming Zn—S bond.

  14. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of pulsed laser deposited Co-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karzazi, O., E-mail: ouiame_karzazi@hotmail.fr [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); LPS, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, BP 1796, Fes (Morocco); Sekhar, K.C. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); El Amiri, A. [LPTA, Université Hassan II-Casablanca, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 5366, Maârif (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS, Université J. Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Conde, O. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa and CeFEMA, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Levichev, S. [Research Institute for Chemistry, Nizhni Novgorod State University, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Agostinho Moreira, J. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007, Porto (Portugal); Chahboun, A. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); FST Tanger, Physics Department, BP 416, Tangier (Morocco); Almeida, A. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007, Porto (Portugal); Gomes, M.J.M. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-12-01

    Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O films with different Co concentrations (with x=0.00, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.30) were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The structural and optical properties of the films were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The magnetic properties were measured by conventional magnetometry using a SQUID and simulated by ab-initio calculations using Korring–Khon–Rostoker (KKR) method combined with coherent potential approximation (CPA). The effect of Co-doping on the GIXRD and Raman peaks positions, shape and intensity is discussed. PL studies demonstrate that Co-doping induces a decrease of the bandgap energy and quenching of the UV emission. They also suggest the presence of Zn interstitials when x≥0.15. The 10% Co-doped ZnO film shows ferromagnetism at 390 K with a spontaneous magnetic moment ≈4×10{sup −5} emu and coercive field ≈0.17 kOe. The origin of ferromagnetism is explained based on the calculations using KKR method. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O films (x=0.00, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.30) were grown by (PLD) technique. • Zn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}O film shows ferromagnetism above room temperature. • The origin of ferromagnetism behavior is attributed to the p-d hybridization. • Co-doping induces a decrease of the bandgap energy of the films.

  15. ZnO film with ultra-low background electron concentration grown by plasma-assisted MBE using Mg film as the buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mingming; Zhang, Quanlin; Su, Longxing; Su, Yuquan; Cao, Jiashi; Zhu, Yuan; Wu, Tianzhun; Gui, Xuchun [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Yang, Chunlei [Center for Photovoltaics and Solar Energy, Shen Zhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shen Zhen (China); Xiang, Rong, E-mail: xiangr2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Zikang, E-mail: phzktang@ust.hk [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► High quality ZnO film with ultra-low background electron concentration is grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy using Mg film as a buffer layer. ► High resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy indicate a high degree of crystallization. ► Hall measurement shows a carrier concentration as low as ∼10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. ► The mechanism of the improved crystallinity is discussed in detail. -- Abstract: High quality ZnO epilayer with background electron concentration as low as 2.6 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} was obtained by plasma-assisted MBE on c-sapphire using a thin Mg film as the buffer layer. High-resolution XRD measurement shows a sharp (0 0 2) peak with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of only 0.029°. Photoluminescence spectroscopy presents a weak defect-related near-edge emission. A metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) typed photodetector based on the material demonstrates a response of ∼43 A/W under the bias of 1 V and an ON/OFF ratio of 10{sup 4}. This un-doped ZnO with ultra-low background electron concentration could be a promising starting material for p-type doping.

  16. Optical and electrical studies of ZnO thin films heavily implanted with silver ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) with the thickness of 200 nm have been deposited on quartz substrates by using ion-beam sputtering technique. Then Ag+ ions with the energy of 30 keV have been implanted into as-deposited ZnO films to the fluences in the range of (0.25-1.00)×1017 ions/cm2 to form ZnO:Ag composite layers with different concentrations of the silver impurity. The analysis of the microstructure has shown that the thickness of the ZnO film decreases, and the Ag dopant concentration tends to the saturation with increasing Ag implantation fluence. The ZnO:Ag composite layers reveal the optical selective absorption at the wavelength of the surface plasmon resonance that is typical for silver nanoparticles dispersed in the ZnO matrix. The red shift of the plasmon resonance peak from 480 to 500 nm is observed with the increase in the implantation fluence to 0.75×1017 Ag ions/cm2. Then the absorption peak position starts the backward motion, and the absorption intensity decreases with the subsequent increase in the implantation fluence. The non-monotonic dependence of the absorption peak position on the implantation fluence has been analyzed within of Maxwell Garnet theory and taking into account the strong sputtering of ZnO films during implantation. The ZnO:Ag composite layers exhibit the p-type conductivity indicating that a part of Ag+ ions is in the form of acceptor impurities implanted into the ZnO lattice

  17. Role of evaporation time on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films deposited by thermal evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ijaz Ahmad; Noor, Mamoona; Rehman, Aatiqa; Farid, Amjad; Shahid, M. Attique Khan; Shafiq, M.

    2015-12-01

    Zinc oxide films are deposited on Si substrates by thermal evaporator for different evaporation times (ET). XRD pattern shows the development of different diffraction peaks related to Zn, ZnO and Zn2SiO4 phases which confirms the deposition of composite film. The orientation transformation is observed with increasing ET. The maximum peak intensity of ZnO (1 0 1) plane is observed at 3 h ET. The dislocation density observed in ZnO (1 0 1) plane varies from 1.53 × 10-3 nm-2 to 8.94 × 10-3 nm-2. The lattice parameters of ZnO are found to be a = 3.243 Å and c = 5.197 Å. FTIR analysis confirms the formation of ZnO films. SEM microstructures exhibit the formation nano-wires, nano-bars, nano-strips and nano-needles. The optical energy band gap of ZnO films deposited for various ET varies from 3.98 eV to 4.06 eV. Results show that the peak intensity of ZnO (1 0 1) plane, orientation transformation and the presence of Si content are responsible to increase the energy band gap of ZnO films.

  18. Homoepitaxy of ZnO and MgZnO Films at 90 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrentraut, Dirk [WPI-AIMR World Premier International Research Center—Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-85 (Japan); Goh, Gregory K.L., E-mail: g-goh@imre.a-star.edu.sg [IMRE Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Fujii, Katsushi [CIR Center for Interdisciplinary Research (CIR), Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aza Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ooi, Chin Chun; Quang, Le Hong [IMRE Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Fukuda, Tsuguo [WPI-AIMR World Premier International Research Center—Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-85 (Japan); Kano, Masataka [Daishinku Corporation Daishinku Corp., 2082 Maesaka, Kurodasho-cho, Nishiwaki, Hyogo 679-0303 (Japan); Zhang, Yuantao; Matsuoka, Takashi [IMR Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    The aqueous synthesis of uniform single crystalline homoepitaxial zinc oxide, ZnO, and magnesium zinc oxide, Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O, films under very low temperature conditions at T=90 °C and ambient pressure has been explored. A maximum Mg content of 1 mol% was recorded by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The growth on the polar (0 0 0 1) and (0 0 0 1¯) faces resulted in films that are strongly different in their structural and optical quality as evidenced by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, secondary electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. This is a result of the chemistry and temperature of the solution dictating the stability range of growth-governing metastable species. The use of trisodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}, yielded coalesced, mirror-like homoepitaxial films whereas adding magnesium nitrate hexahydrate, Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, favors the growth of films with pronounced faceting. - Graphical abstract: Homoepitaxial ZnO films grown from aqueous solution below boiling point of water on a ZnO substrate with off-orientation reveal parallel grooves that are characterized by (1 0 1{sup ¯} 1) facets. Adding trisodium citrate yields closed, single-crystalline ZnO films, which can further be functionalized. Alloying with MgO yields MgZnO films with low Mg content only. - Highlights: • A simple method to synthesize uniform single crystalline homoepitaxial ZnO and MgZnO films. • ZnO growth on (0 0 0 1) and (0 0 0 1{sup ¯}) face resulted in films that are strongly different in their structural and optical quality. • Single crystalline MgZnO film was fabricated under mild conditions (90 °C and ambient pressure). • Mg incorporation of nearly 1 mol% was obtained while maintaining single phase wurtzite structure.

  19. Homoepitaxial growth of ZnO thin film by pulsed laser deposition (PLD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Matthias; Wenckstern, Holger von; Hanisch, Christian; Hochmuth, Holger; Lorenz, Michael; Schmidt, Heidemarie; Grundmann, Marius [Universitaet Leipzig, Semiconductor Physics Group, Institut fuer ExperimentellePhysik II, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In this work ZnO thin films have been deposited homoepitaxially by PLD on ZnO single crystals grown by the hydrothermal method (purchased from CrysTec GmbH). These wafers have first been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and were found to show significant surface roughness in the as-received state. Therefore a thermal annealing method has been applied to the wafers prior to thin film growth, in order to improve the surface properties. An overview of the changes during annealing will be presented along with information on the optimal conditions for thermal annealing. Structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the thin films grown homoepitaxially on these optimized wafers will be discussed with respect to the growth conditions. Comparisons to properties of thin films grown heteroepitaxially on sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and SCAM (ScAlM{sub g}O{sub 4}) will be provided.

  20. Structural, electrical and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO films on PET substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeong-Guk; Kim, Jeong-Yeon; Lee, Seok-Jin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chungju National University, 72 Daehak-ro, Chungju, Chungbuk 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Hwan, E-mail: pjh@cjnu.ac.kr [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chungju National University, 72 Daehak-ro, Chungju, Chungbuk 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Dong-Gun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chungju National University, 72 Daehak-ro, Chungju, Chungbuk 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mun-Gi [Process Development Team 3, LG Display Co. Ltd., 1007, Deogeun-ri, Wollong-myeon, Paju Gyeonggi-do, 413-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    The effects of O{sub 2} plasma pretreatment on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO films on PET substrate were studied. Ga-doped ZnO films were fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering process. To improve surface energy and adhesion of PET substrate, O{sub 2} plasma pretreatment process was used prior to GZO sputtering. With increasing O{sub 2} plasma treatment time, the contact angle decreases and the RMS surface roughness increases significantly. The transmittance of GZO films on PET substrate in a wavelength of 550 nm was 70-84%. With appropriate O{sub 2} plasma treatment, the resistivity of GZO films on PET substrate was 3.4 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm.

  1. Enhanced optical band-gap of ZnO thin films by sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, P.; Naveen, C. S.; Shailaja, J.; Mahesh, H. M.

    2016-05-01

    Transparent ZnO thin films were prepared using different molar concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M & 0.8 M) of zinc acetate on soda lime glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating technique. The optical properties revealed that the transmittance found to decrease with increase in molar concentration. Absorption edge showed that the higher concentration film has increasingly red shifted. An increased band gap energy of the thin films was found to be direct allowed transition of ˜3.9 eV exhibiting their relevance for photovoltaic applications. The extinction coefficient analysis revealed maximum transmittance with negligible absorption coefficient in the respective wavelengths. The results of ZnO thin film prepared by sol-gel technique reveal its suitability for optoelectronics and as a window layer in solar cell applications.

  2. P-type ZnO films by phosphorus doping using plasma immersion ion-implantation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, S.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2013-03-01

    ZnO has been a subject of intense research in the optoelectronics community owing to its wide bandgap (3.3eV) and large exciton binding energy (60meV). However, difficulty in doping it p-type posts a hindrance in fabricating ZnO-based devices. In order to make p-type ZnO films, phosphorus implantation, using plasma immersion ion-implantation technique (2kV, 900W, 10μs pulse width) for 30 seconds, was performed on ZnO thin film deposited by RF Magnetron Sputtering (Sample A). The implanted samples were subsequently rapid thermal annealed at 700°C and 1000°C (Samples B and C) in oxygen environment for 30 seconds. Low temperature (8K) photoluminescence spectra reveal dominant donor-bound exciton (D°X) peak at 3.36eV for samples A and B. However, for Sample B the peaks around 3.31eV and 3.22eV corresponding to the free electron-acceptor (FA) and donor to acceptor pair peaks (DAP) are also observed. A dominant peak around 3.35eV, corresponding to acceptor bound exciton (A°X) peak, is detected for Sample C along with the presence of FA and DAP peaks around 3.31eV and 3.22eV. Moreover, the deep level peak around 2.5eV is higher for Sample B which may be due to implantation and acceptor related defects. However, for Sample C, the deep level peaks are very weak compared to the near band edge peaks confirming that these peaks are mainly due to intrinsic defects and not related to acceptors. These results clearly show us a promising way to achieve p-type ZnO films using phosphorus doping.

  3. Growth and optical characteristics of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk In Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of high-quality, smooth, and flat ZnO thin films on graphene layers and their photoluminescence (PL characteristics. For the growth of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers, ZnO nanowalls were grown using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on oxygen-plasma treated graphene layers as an intermediate layer. PL measurements were conducted at low temperatures to examine strong near-band-edge emission peaks. The full-width-at-half-maximum value of the dominant PL emission peak was as narrow as 4 meV at T = 11 K, comparable to that of the best-quality films reported previously. Furthermore, the stimulated emission of ZnO thin films on the graphene layers was observed at the low excitation energy of 180 kW/cm2 at room temperature. Their structural and optical characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and PL spectroscopy.

  4. Studies on nonvolatile resistance memory switching in ZnO thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L M Kukreja; A K Das; P Misra

    2009-06-01

    Six decades of research on ZnO has recently sprouted a new branch in the domain of resistive random access memories. Highly resistive and c-axis oriented ZnO thin films were grown by us using d.c. discharge assisted pulsed laser deposition on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates at room temperature. The resistive switching characteristics of these films were studied in the top-bottom configuration using current–voltage measurements at room temperature. Reliable and repeated switching of the resistance of ZnO thin films was obtained between two well defined states of high and low resistance with a narrow dispersion and small switching voltages. Resistance ratios of the high resistance state to low resistance state were found to be in the range of 2–5 orders of magnitude up to 20 test cycles. The conduction mechanism was found to be dominated by the Ohmic behaviour in low resistance states, while Poole–Frenkel emission was found to dominate in high resistance state. The achieved characteristics of the resistive switching in ZnO thin films seem to be promising for nonvolatile memory applications.

  5. Ultrafast Surface-Plasmon Enhancement of Exciton and Defect Luminescence in ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haglund R. F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond pump-probe and photoluminescence measurements in transmission and reflection show that ultraviolet band-edge and visible defect luminescence in ZnO films can be selectively enhanced by coupling to Ag surface-plasmon polaritons or localized surface plasmon resonances.

  6. Growth and optical characteristics of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Suk In; Tchoe, Youngbin; Baek, Hyeonjun; Hyun, Jerome K.; Yi, Gyu-Chul, E-mail: njkim36@gmail.com, E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Institute of Applied Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jaehyuk [Advanced Development Team, LED Business, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., San#24 Nongseo-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-City, Gyeonggi-Do 446–711 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Janghyun; Kim, Miyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151–744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam-Jung, E-mail: njkim36@gmail.com, E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Chemistry, Korea Military Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth of high-quality, smooth, and flat ZnO thin films on graphene layers and their photoluminescence (PL) characteristics. For the growth of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers, ZnO nanowalls were grown using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on oxygen-plasma treated graphene layers as an intermediate layer. PL measurements were conducted at low temperatures to examine strong near-band-edge emission peaks. The full-width-at-half-maximum value of the dominant PL emission peak was as narrow as 4 meV at T = 11 K, comparable to that of the best-quality films reported previously. Furthermore, the stimulated emission of ZnO thin films on the graphene layers was observed at the low excitation energy of 180 kW/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Their structural and optical characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and PL spectroscopy.

  7. Microstructural and Mechanical Studies of PVA Doped with ZnO and WO3 Composites Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Rithin Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites of ZnO and WO3 nanoparticles doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA matrix have been prepared using solvent casting method. The microstructural properties of prepared films were studied using FTIR, XRD, SEM, and EDAX techniques. In the doped PVA, many irregular shifts in the FTIR spectra have been observed and these shifts in bands can be understood on the basis of intra/intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the adjacent OH group of PVA. The chemical composition, phase homogeneity, and morphology of the polymer composites of the polymer film were studied using EDAX and SEM. These data indicate that the distribution of nanosized ZnO and WO3 dopants is uniform and confirm the presence of ZnO and WO3 in the film. The crystal structure and crystallinity of polymer composites were studied by XRD. It was found that the change in structural repositioning and crystallinity of the composites takes place due to the interaction of dopants and also due to complex formation. The mechanical studies of doped polymer films were carried out using universal testing machine (UTM at room temperature, indicating that the addition of the ZnO and WO3 with weight percentage concentration equal to 14% increases the tensile strength and Young’s modulus.

  8. Origins of conductivity improvement in fluoride-enhanced silicon doping of ZnO films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Nazanin; Vai, Alex T; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Dilworth, Jonathan R; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-06-01

    Fluoride in spray pyrolysis precursor solutions for silicon-doped zinc oxide (SiZO) transparent conductor thin films significantly improves their electrical conductivity by enhancing silicon doping efficiency and not, as previously assumed, by fluoride doping. Containing only earth-abundant elements, SiZO thus prepared rivals the best solution-processed indium-doped ZnO in performance. PMID:25879727

  9. Study of deposition parameters for the fabrication of ZnO thin films using femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Jaweria Zartaj; Siraj, Khurram; Latif, Anwar; Murray, Mathew; Jose, Gin

    2016-08-01

    Femtosecond (fs) pulsed laser deposition (fs-PLD) of ZnO thin film on borosilicate glass substrates is reported in this work. The effect of important fs-PLD parameters such as target-substrate distance, laser pulse energy and substrate temperature on structure, morphology, optical transparency and luminescence of as-deposited films is discussed. XRD analysis reveals that all the films grown using the laser energy range 120-230 μJ are polycrystalline when they are deposited at room temperature in a ~10-5 Torr vacuum. Introducing 0.7 mTorr oxygen pressure, the films show preferred c-axis growth and transform into a single-crystal-like film when the substrate temperature is increased to 100 °C. The scanning electron micrographs show the presence of small nano-size grains at 25 °C, which grow in size to the regular hexagonal shape particles at 100 °C. Optical transmission of the ZnO film is found to increase with an increase in crystal quality. Maximum transmittance of 95 % in the wavelength range 400-1400 nm is achieved for films deposited at 100 °C employing a laser pulse energy of 180 μJ. The luminescence spectra show a strong UV emission band peaked at 377 nm close to the ZnO band gap. The shallow donor defects increase at higher pulse energies and higher substrate temperatures, which give rise to violet-blue luminescence. The results indicate that nano-crystalline ZnO thin films with high crystalline quality and optical transparency can be fabricated by using pulses from fs lasers.

  10. Growth of crystalline ZnO films on the nitridated (0001) sapphire surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butashin, A. V.; Kanevsky, V. M.; Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Prosekov, P. A.; Kondratev, O. A.; Blagov, A. E.; Vasil’ev, A. L.; Rakova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Babaev, V. A.; Ismailov, A. M. [Dagestan State University (Russian Federation); Vovk, E. A.; Nizhankovsky, S. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Single Crystals (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    The surface morphology and structure of (0001) sapphire substrates subjected to thermochemical nitridation in a mixture of N{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2} gases are investigated by electron and probe microscopy and X-ray and electron diffraction. It is shown that an aluminum nitride layer is formed on the substrate surface and heteroepitaxial ZnO films deposited onto such substrates by magnetron sputtering have a higher quality when compared with films grown on sapphire.

  11. Photoelectrochemical characterization of dye-modified ZnO hybrid thin films prepared by electrochemical deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Nonomura, Kazuteru

    2006-01-01

    Dye-sensitized electrodeposited ZnO thin films were studied in their photoelectrochemical characteristics. Such electrodes can be applied for dye-sensitized solar cells. The main analysis techniques were wavelength- dependent photocurrent measurements to obtain the incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the films as well as time- and frequency- resolved measurements of the photocurrent (IMPS) and photovoltage (IMVS) to characterize in detail individual steps of photoelectr...

  12. Al doped ZnO thin films - microstructure, physical and sensor properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbov, N.; Balabanov, S.; Bineva, I.; Rachkova, A.; Krumov, E.; Starbova, K.

    2012-12-01

    Thin ZnO films doped with Al are deposited by spray pyrolysis onto glass substrates using starting solution of Zn-acetate + n.AlCl (where 0.1 detection of noxious gases is checked via resistivity measurements under saturated vapours of ethanol, acetone, ammonia, dimethylamine and formalin at room temperature. Finally the results obtained are discussed concerning the application of the ZnO:Al films studied in the field of sensor technique.

  13. Photoelectrocatrocatalytic hydrolysis of starch by using sprayed ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkal, R. T.; Shinde, S. S.; Rajpure, K. Y.; Bhosale, C. H.

    2013-05-01

    Thin films of zinc oxide have been deposited onto glass/FTO substrates at optimized 400 °C by using a chemical spray pyrolysis technique. Deposited films are character photocatalytic activity by using XRD, an SEM, a UV-vis spectrophotometer, and a PEC single-cell reactor. Films are polycrystalline and have a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure with c-axis (002) orientation growth perpendicular to the substrate surface. The observed direct band gap is about 3.22 eV for typical films prepared at 400 °C. The photocatalytic activity of starch with a ZnO photocatalyst has been studied by using a novel photoelectrocatalytic process.

  14. Ferromagnetic behaviour of Fe-doped ZnO nanograined films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris B. Straumal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the grain boundary (GB specific area sGB on the appearance of ferromagnetism in Fe-doped ZnO has been analysed. A review of numerous research contributions from the literature on the origin of the ferromagnetic behaviour of Fe-doped ZnO is given. An empirical correlation has been found that the value of the specific grain boundary area sGB is the main factor controlling such behaviour. The Fe-doped ZnO becomes ferromagnetic only if it contains enough GBs, i.e., if sGB is higher than a certain threshold value sth = 5 × 104 m2/m3. It corresponds to the effective grain size of about 40 μm assuming a full, dense material and equiaxial grains. Magnetic properties of ZnO dense nanograined thin films doped with iron (0 to 40 atom % have been investigated. The films were deposited by using the wet chemistry “liquid ceramics” method. The samples demonstrate ferromagnetic behaviour with Js up to 0.10 emu/g (0.025 μB/f.u.ZnO and coercivity Hc ≈ 0.03 T. Saturation magnetisation depends nonmonotonically on the Fe concentration. The dependence on Fe content can be explained by the changes in the structure and contiguity of a ferromagnetic “grain boundary foam” responsible for the magnetic properties of pure and doped ZnO.

  15. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012 (India)

    2013-06-15

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  16. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C–O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  17. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angshuman Deka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT on soda lime glass (SLG and indium-tin oxide (ITO coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C–O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  18. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Angshuman Deka; Karuna Kar Nanda

    2013-01-01

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C–O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  19. Effect of R.F. Power to the Structural Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of RF power variation (100 watt∼400 watt ) on the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films electrical, optical and structural properties were examined using current voltage (I-V) measurement, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). ZnO thin films were prepared at room temperature in pure argon atmosphere by a RF magnetron sputtering using ZnO target. The resistivity of thin film show the lowest at 300 watt. The absorption coefficient spectra obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer measurement show all films have low absorbance in visible and near infrared (IR) region but have high UV absorption properties using UV-VIS spectrophotometer (JASCO 670) . Highly oriented ZnO thin films [002] direction were obtained by using Rigaku Ultima IV. (author)

  20. Growth, structural and electrical properties of polar ZnO thin films on MgO (100) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nistor, M., E-mail: mnistor@infim.r [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Laboratory, L22 P.O. Box. MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Mandache, N.B. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Laboratory, L22 P.O. Box. MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Perriere, J.; Hebert, C. [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, CNRS UMR 7588, Campus Boucicaut, 140 rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Gherendi, F. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Laboratory, L22 P.O. Box. MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Seiler, W. [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie des Materiaux, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Metiers, CNRS UMR 8006, 151 Boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France)

    2011-03-31

    ZnO films have been grown on (100) oriented MgO substrates by pulsed-electron beam deposition in the room temperature to 500 {sup o}C range. Highly (00.2) textured films are obtained for a growth temperature higher than 200 {sup o}C, and epitaxial films are formed at 500 {sup o}C with the following epitaxial relationships: (1-1.0){sub ZnO} // (110){sub MgO} and (11.0){sub ZnO} // (110){sub MgO}, despite the difference in symmetry between film and substrate. The low temperature resistivity curves evidenced a metal-semiconductor transition for the ZnO films grown in the 300 to 500 {sup o}C range which has been interpreted in the frame of the model of conductivity in disordered oxides.

  1. Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Elastic Properties of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. D.; White, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O is an important oxide semiconductor in advanced display technologies. Despite its importance, little has been reported on the thermal and elastic properties of this material. Here, the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity, shear modulus, and internal friction of a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2Ga2ZnO7 films are presented. The thermal conductivity of a-In2Ga2ZnO7, measured from 100 K to room temperature, was found to be larger than that of a-InGaZnO4 over the entire temperature range. At room temperature the thermal conductivities were 1.9 W/m K and 1.4 W/m K for the a-In2Ga2ZnO7 and a-InGaZnO4 films, respectively. The shear modulus and internal friction of these films were measured in the temperature range of 340 mK to 65 K. At 4.2 K the shear modulus of the a-InGaZnO4 and a-In2 Ga2ZnO7 films was 44 GPa and 42 GPa, respectively. The internal friction of thin films at each composition exhibited a temperature dependence and magnitude that is in agreement with that observed in all amorphous solids. As the self-heating effect is of concern in the development of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O based thin film transistors on low thermal conductivity substrates, a thermal model of such a device utilizing a-In2Ga2ZnO7 or a-InGaZnO4 as the active layer was explored. It was found that the temperature increase of the thin film transistor channel is essentially independent of the thermal conductivity of the active layer.

  2. Nanostructured Zn and ZnO nanowire thin films for mechanical and self-cleaning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha; Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam; Madhurima, V.

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructured Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on borosilicate glass, Quartz, sapphire, lanthanum aluminate and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The as-deposited films are nanocrystalline and show a morphology that consists of triangular nanosheets. The films are hydrophobic with contact angles between 102° and 120° with hardness and Young's modulus between 0.15-0.8 GPa and 18-300 GPa, respectively. Thermal annealing of the films at 500 °C results only in partial oxidation of Zn to ZnO, which indicates good oxidation resistance. Annealing also causes transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires that are polycrystalline in nature. The ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic with contact angles between 159° and 162°, contact angle hysteresis between 5° and 10° and exhibit a reversible superhydrophobic-hydrophilic transition under UV irradiation. The nanowires are much softer than the as-deposited Zn metal films, with hardness between 0.02 and 0.4 GPa and Young's modulus between 3 and 35 GPa. The current study thus demonstrates a simple process for fabrication of nanostructured Zn metal films followed by a one-step transformation to nanowires with properties that will be very attractive for mechanical and self-cleaning applications.

  3. Preparation of manganese-doped ZnO thin films and their characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mondal; S R Bhattacharyya; P Mitra

    2013-04-01

    In this study, pure and manganese-doped zinc oxide (Mn:ZnO) thin films were deposited on quartz substrate following successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The film growth rate was found to increase linearly with number of dipping cycle. Characterization techniques of XRD, SEM with EDX and UV–visible spectra measurement were done to investigate the effect of Mn doping on the structural and optical properties of Mn:ZnO thin films. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction reveals that polycrystalline nature of the films increases with increasing manganese incorporation. Particle size evaluated using X-ray line broadening analysis shows decreasing trend with increasing manganese impurification. The average particle size for pure ZnO is 29.71nm and it reduces to 23.76nm for 5%Mn-doped ZnO. The strong preferred c-axis orientation is lost due to manganese (Mn) doping. The degree of polycrystallinity increases and the average microstrain in the films decreases with increasing Mn incorporation. Incorporation of Mn was confirmed from elemental analysis using EDX. As the Mn doping concentration increases the optical bandgap of the films decreases for the range of Mn doping reported here. The value of fundamental absorption edge is 3.22 eV for pure ZnO and it decreases to 3.06 eV for 5%Mn:ZnO.

  4. ZnO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY SPRAY-PYROLYSIS TECHNIQUE FROM ORGANO-METALLIC PRECURSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mikulics

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Presented experiments utilize methanolic solution of zinc acetyl-acetonate as a precursor and sapphire (001 as a substrate for deposition of thin films of ZnO. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed polycrystalline character of prepared films with preferential growth orientation along c-axis. The roughness of prepared films was assessed by AFM microscopy and represented by roughness root mean square (RMS value in range of 1.8 - 433 nm. The surface morphology was mapped by scanning electron microscopy showing periodical structure with several local defects. The optical transmittance spectrum of ZnO films was measured in wavelength range of 200-1000 nm. Prepared films are transparent in visible range with sharp ultra-violet cut-off at approximately 370 nm. Raman spectroscopy confirmed wurtzite structure and the presence of compressive stress within its structure as well as the occurrence of oxygen vacancies. The four-point Van der Pauw method was used to study the transport prosperities. The resistivity of presented ZnO films was found 8 × 10–2 Ω cm with carrier density of 1.3 × 1018 cm–3 and electron mobility of 40 cm2 V–1 s–1.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of pristine and annealed Ga doped ZnO thin films using sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhisek; Mohapatra, Saswat; Gouda, Himanshu Sekhar; Singh, Udai P.

    2016-05-01

    ZnO is a wide-band gap, transparent, polar semiconductor with unparalleled optoelectronic, piezoelectric, thermal and transport properties, which make it the material of choice for a wide range of applications such as blue/UV optoelectronics, energy conversion, transparent electronics, spintronic, plasmonic and sensor devices. We report, three sets of Ga doped Zinc Oxide (GZO) were fabricated in different sputtering power (100 watt, 200 watt and 300 watt). Thereafter films were annealed in nitrogen ambient for 30 minutes at 400° C. From the optical absorption spectroscopy it was found that pristine films are showing a 75% transmittance in the visible region of light and it increases after the annealing. However, for 300 W grown sample opposite trend has been achieved for the post annealed sample. X-ray diffraction pattern of all the pristine and annealed films showed a preferable growth orientation at (002) phase. Some other weak peaks were also appeared in different angle which indicates that films are polycrystalline in nature. XRD data also reveals that crystallite size increases with sputtering power up to 200 W and thereafter it decreases with the deposition power. It also noted that the crystallite size of the annealed film increases with compare to the non annealed films. At room temperature an enhancement in electrical properties of Ga doped ZnO thin films was noted for the annealed ZnO films except for the film deposited at 300 watt. More significantly, it was found that annealed thin films showed the resistivity in the range of 10-3 ˜ 10-4 ohm-cm. Such a high optical transmittance and conducting zinc-oxide thin film can be used as a window layer in solar cell.

  6. Structural, optical, spectroscopic and electrical properties of Mo-doped ZnO thin films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soumahoro, I. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, B.P. 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Colis, S., E-mail: colis@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, B.P. 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Schmerber, G.; Leuvrey, C.; Barre, S.; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, B.P. 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Muller, D. [Laboratoire ICube, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7357, 23 rue du Loess, B.P. 20, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Abd-lefdil, M.; Hassanain, N. [Université Mohammed V- Agdal, Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Petersen, J. [Department of Advanced Materials and Structure, Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, 66 rue du Luxembourg, Esch/Alzette 4002 (Luxembourg); Berrada, A. [Université Mohammed V- Agdal, Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Slaoui, A. [Laboratoire ICube, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7357, 23 rue du Loess, B.P. 20, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Dinia, A., E-mail: aziz.dinia@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, 23 rue du Loess, B.P. 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2014-09-01

    Undoped and Mo-doped ZnO (2% Mo) films about 1 μm thick were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on Si(100) and glass substrates at 30 and 300 °C. X-ray diffraction patterns show that all films exhibit the hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with a preferred orientation of the crystallites along the [002] direction. Plane view and cross-section transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the films present a columnar growth. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry indicates that Mo is homogeneously distributed inside the films. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that Mo doping leads to a reduction of the grain size and surface roughness. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the valence of the Mo ions in the ZnO matrix is + 5 and + 6. Optical measurements in the UV–Visible range show a transmittance increasing from about 60 to 80% when increasing the wavelength from 400 to 800 nm. A sharp absorption onset is observed at about 375 nm corresponding to the fundamental absorption edge of ZnO at 3.26 eV. This gap value remains unchanged upon Mo doping. The Hall effect measurements carried out at room temperature show that both undoped and Mo-doped ZnO films present an n-type conduction. The 2% Mo doping increases the carrier concentration and decreases the resistivity measured in pure ZnO by about three orders of magnitude. A comparison with 2% Al-doped ZnO films grown in the same conditions underlines the important role of the preparation conditions on the transport properties of ZnO based transparent conductive oxides. - Highlights: • ZnO and Zn{sub 0.98}Mo{sub 0.02}O films were grown by sputtering on glass and Si(100). • The concentration of defects increases upon doping. • Mo ions with 5 + and 6 + valences are uniformly distributed inside the layers. • Transmittance varies between 60 and 80% in the visible range. • The conductivity increases by about three orders of magnitude

  7. Improvement of Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticulate Thick Film Morphology for Ethanol Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukon Phanichphant

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis using zinc naphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%. The particles properties were analyzed by XRD, BET. The ZnO particle size and morphology was observed by SEM and HR-TEM revealing spheroidal, hexagonal, and rod-like morphologies. The crystallite sizes of ZnO spheroidal and hexagonal particles ranged from 10-20 nm. ZnO nanorods were ranged from 10-20 nm in width and 20-50 nm in length. Sensing films were produced by mixing the nanoparticles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as a vehicle binder. The paste was doctor-bladed onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by optical microscopy and SEM analysis. Cracking of the sensing films during annealing process was improved by varying the heating conditions. The gas sensing of ethanol (25-250 ppm was studied at 400 °C in dry air containing SiC as the fluidized particles. The oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the semiconductor was confirmed by mass spectroscopy (MS. The effect of micro-cracks was quantitatively accounted for as a provider of extra exposed edges. The sensitivity decreased notably with increasing crack of sensing films. It can be observed that crack widths were reduced with decreasing heating rates. Crack-free of thick (5 μm ZnO films evidently showed higher sensor signal and faster response times (within seconds than cracked sensor. The sensor signal increased and the response time decreased with increasing ethanol concentration.

  8. Achieving highly-enhanced UV photoluminescence and its origin in ZnO nanocrystalline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dinesh; Huso, Jesse; Morrison, John L.; Corolewski, Caleb D.; McCluskey, Matthew D.; Bergman, Leah

    2016-08-01

    ZnO is an efficient luminescent material in the UV-range ∼3.4 eV with a wide range of applications in optical technologies. Sputtering is a cost-effective and relatively straightforward growth technique for ZnO films; however, most as-grown films are observed to contain intrinsic defects which can significantly diminish the desirable UV-emission. In this research the defect dynamics and optical properties of ZnO sputtered films were studied via post-growth annealing in Ar or O2 ambient, with X-ray diffraction (XRD), imaging, transmission and Urbach analysis, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence (PL). The imaging, XRD, Raman and Urbach analyses indicate significant improvement in crystal morphology and band-edge characteristics upon annealing, which is nearly independent of the annealing environment. The native defects specific to the as-grown films, which were analyzed via PL, are assigned to Zni related centers that luminesce at 2.8 eV. Their presence is attributed to the nature of the sputtering growth technique, which supports Zn-rich growth conditions. After annealing, in either environment the 2.8 eV center diminished accompanied by morphology improvement, and the desirable UV-PL significantly increased. The O2 ambient was found to introduce nominal Oi centers while the Ar ambient was found to be the ideal environment for the enhancement of the UV-light emission: an enhancement of ∼40 times was achieved. The increase in the UV-PL is attributed to the reduction of Zni-related defects, the presence of which in ZnO provides a competing route to the UV emission. Also, the effect of the annealing was to decrease the compressive stress in the films. Finally, the dominant UV-PL at the cold temperature regime is attributed to luminescent centers not associated with the usual excitons of ZnO, but rather to structural defects.

  9. Effect of Oxidation Condition on Growth of N: ZnO Prepared by Oxidizing Sputtering Zn-N Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xuesi; Li, Guojian; Xiao, Lin; Chen, Guozhen; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped zinc oxide (N: ZnO) films have been prepared by oxidizing reactive RF magnetron-sputtering zinc nitride (Zn-N) films. The effect of oxidation temperature and oxidation time on the growth, transmittance, and electrical properties of the film has been explored. The results show that both long oxidation time and high oxidation temperature can obtain the film with a good transmittance (over 80 % for visible and infrared light) and a high carrier concentration. The N: ZnO film exhibits a special growth model with the oxidation time and is first to form a N: ZnO particle on the surface, then to become a N: ZnO layer, and followed by the inside Zn-N segregating to the surface to oxidize N: ZnO. The surface particle oxidized more adequately than the inside. However, the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results show that the lower N concentration results in the lower N substitution in the O lattice (No). This leads to the formation of n-type N: ZnO and the decrease of carrier concentration. Thus, this method can be used to tune the microstructure, optical transmittance, and electrical properties of the N: ZnO film.

  10. Effect of ZnO Addition on Structural Properties of ZnO-PANi/ Carbon Black Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project was to investigate the effect of ZnO addition on the structural properties of ZnO-PANi/ carbon black thin films. The sol gel method was employed for the preparation of ZnO sol. The sol was dried for 24 h at 100 degree Celsius and then annealed at 600 degree Celsius for 5 h. XRD characterization of the ZnO powder showed the formation of wurtzite type ZnO crystals. The ZnO powder were mixed into PANi/ carbon black solution which was dissolved into M-Pyrol, N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidinone (NMP) to produce a composite solution of ZnO-PANi/ carbon black. The weight ratio of ZnO were 4 wt %, 6 wt % and 8 wt %. The composite solutions were deposited onto glass substrates using a spin-coating technique to fabricate ZnO-PANi/ carbon black thin films. AFM characterization showed the decreasing of average roughness from 7.98 nm to 2.23 nm with the increment of ZnO addition in PANi/ carbon black films. The thickness of the films also decreased from 59.5 nm to 28.3 nm. FESEM image revealed that ZnO-PANi/ carbon black thin films have changed into agglomerated surface morphology resulting in the increment of porosity of the films. (author)

  11. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured undoped and Sn-doped ZnO thin films via sol–gel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, H., E-mail: cihataydin_26@hotmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Tunceli University, Tunceli 62000 (Turkey); El-Nasser, H.M. [Department of Physics, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq (Jordan); Aydin, C. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Yakuphanoglu, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey); Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Firat University, Elazig 23119 (Turkey)

    2015-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sn-doped ZnO films were prepared via facile sol–gel spin coating method. • The grain size of the films changes from 39.23 to 71.84 nm with Sn doping. • The refractive index dispersion of the films obeys the single oscillator model. - Abstract: Thin films of Sn-doped ZnO were prepared via facile sol–gel spin coating method. The structural and optical properties of the films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer. The X-ray results confirmed that all the ZnO thin films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferential orientation of (002) plane. The crystallite size and lattice parameter values of the films were obtained. Atomic force microscopy results indicate that the Sn-doped ZnO films have the nanostructure. The grain size values of the films were found to vary from 39.23 to 71.84 nm with Sn doping. The nanostructure of the Sn-doped ZnO films was also confirmed by scanning electron microcopy. The optical bandgaps of the films were calculated for the various Sn contents. The refractive index dispersion curves obey the single oscillator model. The optical constants and dispersion parameters of the ZnO films were changed with Sn doping. The obtained results suggest that the structural and optical properties of ZnO films can be controlled by Sn doping.

  12. Effects of UV-ozone treatment on radio-frequency magnetron sputtered ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of UV-ozone treatment on ZnO thin films prepared by using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering are investigated. Decrease in the density of oxygen vacancy as well as increase in the density of oxygen interstitial were inferred from the UV-ozone treated samples. It was also found that a considerable difference in the work function (0.25 eV) is induced by UV-ozone treatment implying a shift in Fermi level. This shift was confirmed by capacitance-voltage measurements, which demonstrated that the boundary between the inversion region and the depletion region of a ZnO-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor positively shifts when UV ozone treated. Our results clearly indicate that the threshold voltage of a thin film transistor can be adjusted by modifying the ZnO surface via UV ozone treatment. MOS capacitors fabricated with UV-ozone treated HfO2 and/or ZnO also yielded a smaller leakage current (∼ 73%-90% smaller) and a larger breakdown voltage (∼ 8%-11% larger). The physical mechanism behind the effect of the UV ozone treatment is addressed in this study with the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy.

  13. Structural and optical properties of ZnO films produced by a modified ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present a modification of the usual ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method and tested its ability to produce good quality films by producing ZnO films. Our method consists of keeping the sprayed substrate at room temperature and, after that, a thermal treatment under a chosen environment and temperature is made. We used this method to produce ZnO films considering two environments, air and air + vapor of zinc acetate, and two temperatures, 400 °C and 450 °C. The ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, thermogravimetry/simultaneum differential thermal analysis and Raman spectroscopy techniques, and results indicated that ZnO films produced under air + vapor of zinc acetate at 400 °C are the best films obtained by our modified method. - Highlights: • A variation of the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique is introduced. • ZnO films were produced using the modification of the USP technique. • High quality ZnO films were produced at a lower temperature than those used in other studies

  14. Growth of Ag thin films on ZnO(0 0 0 -1) investigated by AES and STM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duriau, E. [Interuniversity Microelectronic Center (IMEC), SPDT-MCA, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Agouram, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo c/Dr. Moliner no. 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux Electroniques (LPME), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Morhain, C. [Centre de Recherche sur l' HeteroEpitaxie et ses Applications (CRHEA), CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, F-06560 Valbonne Sophia-Antipolis (France); Seldrum, T. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux Electroniques (LPME), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Sporken, R. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux Electroniques (LPME), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Dumont, J. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux Electroniques (LPME), University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)]. E-mail: jacques.dumont@fundp.ac.be

    2006-11-15

    The growth of Ag films on ZnO(0 0 0 -1) has been investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). A high density of islands is nucleated at the earliest stages of the growth. An upstepping mechanism causes these islands to coalesce while the uncovered fraction of the ZnO surface remains constant (30%)

  15. Preparation of Cauliflower-like ZnO Films by Chemical Bath Deposition:Photovoltaic Performance and Equivalent Circuit of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiao Wang; Xia Cui; Yuan Zhang; Xiaorui Gao; Yueming Sun

    2013-01-01

    The uniform cauliflower-like ZnO films were deposited on the conducting substrate by a chemical bath deposition in urea/water solution.The film structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction,thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis,energy dispersive spectroscopy,selected area electron diffraction,field emission scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.The average diameter of ZnO nanoparticles and the petal thickness were 25 nm and 8 μm,respectively.Dyesensitized solar cells based on the cauliflower-like ZnO film electrode showed the short-circuit current density of 6.08 mA/cm2,the open-circuit photovoltage of 0.66 V,the fill factor of 0.55 and the overall conversion efficiency of 2.18%.The equivalent circuit of cells based on the ZnO film electrodes was measured by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.Furthermore,the analysis of equivalent circuit provided the relationship between the cell performance and the interfacial resistance,such as the shunt resistance and the series resistance.

  16. Effect of Zn Interstitials on Enhancing Ultraviolet Emission of ZnO Films Deposited by MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Ze; SUN Li-Jie; CHEN Xiao-Qing; WU Xiao-Peng; FU Zhu-Xi

    2010-01-01

    @@ ZnO films are grown on Si(111)substrates by a metal organic chemical vapor deposition method.Samples with different stoichiometric composition of Zn and O are obtained by varying Ⅱ/Ⅵ molar ratio between 3 and1/3 in precursors.The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence results show that the ultraviolet emission enhances with the increasing Zn/O composition ratio of the samples.It is suggested that the superfluous Zn atoms pile up at interstitial positions to form Zn interstitial defects.The radiated recombination of the coupling of free excitons with donor Zn interstitial enhances the ultraviolet emission of the samples.

  17. Investigation of low-temperature excitonic and defect emission from Ni-doped ZnO nanoneedles and V-doped ZnO nanostructured film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shubra; Ramachandra Rao, M S [Department of Physics, Materials Science Research Centre and Nanofunctional Materials Technology Centre, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Nakamura, Daisuke; Okada, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sakai, Kentaro [Cooperative Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)], E-mail: shubra6@gmail.com

    2010-02-15

    We report the growth and low-temperature photoluminescent characteristics of well-aligned Ni-doped ZnO nanoneedles and V-doped ZnO nanostructured thin film grown by a modified pulsed laser deposition technique. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the as-grown films show the presence of free excitonic as well as bound excitonic transitions, whose relative intensity changes with increasing temperature. Ni-doped ZnO films show a characteristic fine structure in the visible range (2.6-2.9 meV) attributed to either exciton-polariton longitudinal-transverse splitting or the splitting caused by electron-hole exchange interaction. The excitonic and visible region emission can be clearly seen as can the phonon replicas produced from longitudinal optical phonons. Different possible attributions of the various peaks in the emission band at low temperature have been discussed. The as-grown nanostructures of Ni- and V-doped ZnO thin films also clearly show the effect of doping on the microstructure of ZnO.

  18. Electrode loading effect and high temperature performance of ZnO thin film ultrasonic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. S.; Zhang, J.; Hou, R.; Zhao, C.; Kirk, K. J.; Hutson, D.; Hu, P. A.; Peng, S. M.; Zu, X. T.; Fu, Y. Q.

    2014-10-01

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films of 5.8 μm thick were sputter-deposited on ferritic carbon steel plates (25 × 25 × 3 mm3) and characterized for use as ultrasonic transducers at both room temperature and high temperatures. Electrode loading effects have been studied using two types of electrodes, i.e., sputtered Cr/Au (5/50 nm) and silver paste, with electrode diameters 0.7-2.5 mm. Longitudinal and transverse waves were obtained in pulse-echo tests using both types of electrodes. With a silver paste top electrode, a dominant longitudinal mode was obtained, but with a thin Cr/Au film as the top electrode, shear waves were more dominant. Pulse-echo tests of the ZnO transducers were also performed at elevated temperatures up to 450 °C using a carbon paste electrodes. The sputtered ZnO films maintained a stable crystalline structure and orientation at the elevated temperatures, and ZnO devices on ferritic carbon steel could be used successfully up to 400 °C. However, when the temperature was increased further, rapid surface oxidation of the ferritic carbon steel caused the failure of the transducer.

  19. Investigation of electrical and optical properties of MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films for OLED applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shafura, A. K.; Affendi, I. H. H.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Saurdi, I.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent investigations of the promising materials for optoelectronic have been demonstrated by introducing n-type inorganic material into conjugated polymer. The optical and electrical of nanocomposite films based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured of various deposition layers (1 to 3 layers) have been investigated. The MEH-PPV: ZnO nanocomposite films were deposited using spin-coating technique. The surface morphology nanocomposite films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope. From surface profiler measurement, we found that the thickness of nanocomposite films increased as deposition time increased. The optical properties were measured using photoluminescence spectroscope. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed that two deposition layers is the highest intensity at visible region (green emission) due to high energy transfer from particles to the polymer. The current density for two layers sample is due to aggregation of conjugated polymer chain hence form excited interchain exciton for optical excitation. This study will provide better performance and suitable for optoelectronic device especially OLEDs application.

  20. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, optical, structural and electrical investigation of sprayed pure and Sn-doped ZnO thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaf N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the transparent pure and Sn-doped zinc oxide (ZnO. The films were deposited onto microscope glass substrate which was heated at 350±5C° by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (U S P deposition technique. The concentrations of Sn were selected within the range of 0-3% by step of 0.5% and the time deposition is kept at 5 min. A (002-oriented wurtzite crystal structure was confirmed by X-rays patterns; and grain size varied within the range 7.37-14.84nm, and cristanillity is calculated goes from14.4 to 45.9%. Based on UV-VIS-IR analysis, the results revealed the high transparency of the sprayed films which exceeds 90%. The band gap energy was of 3.26-3.30 eV. The film thickness was estimated by spectroscopy ellipsometry and the found values were of 165-270nm. The refractive index is in the range of 2.75.The obtained electrical parameters were around 1018 cm−3, 3.6 cm2/Vs, 1.6Ω.cm; 5.8cm3/C. finally the Sn-doping has influenced the physical parameters of asground ZnO films

  1. Advanced LPCVD ZnO - Challenges in application for thin film solar cells and modules

    OpenAIRE

    Messerschmidt, Daniel; Aebi, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is used as a precursor during the growth of zinc oxide (ZnO) by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). By adding ethanol, the surface of the deposited ZnO layer is flattened and its roughness is decreased about sevenfold. The layers become increasingly stressed and their resistivity grows significantly. The present work proposes an explanation for the observed behavior based on the catalytic decomposition of ethanol at the ZnO surface and on the growth of selected crystal plane...

  2. Structural and photoluminescent properties of ZnO films deposited by radio frequency reactive sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Zinc oxide films with c-axis preferred orientation were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by radio frequency (RF) reactive sputtering. The properties of the sam- ples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluorescent-spectrophotometer. The effect of sputtering power and substrate temperature on the structural and photoluminescent (PL) properties of the ZnO films was investigated. The results indicated that when the sputtering power is 100 W and the substrate temperature is 300-400℃, it is suitable for the growth of high c-axis orientation and small strain ZnO films. A violet peak at about 380 nm and a blue band at about 430 nm were observed in the room temperature photolumines- cence spectra, and the origin of blue emission was investigated.

  3. Structural and photoluminescent properties of ZnO films deposited by radio frequency reactive sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG XingPing; WANG ZhiGuang; SONG Yin; JI Tao; ZANG Hang; YANG YingHu; JIN YunFan

    2007-01-01

    Zinc oxide films with c-axis preferred orientation were deposited on silicon (100)substrates by radio frequency (RF) reactive sputtering. The properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluorescent-spectrophotometer. The effect of sputtering power and substrate temperature on the structural and photoluminescent (PL) properties of the ZnO films was investigated. The results indicated that when the sputtering power is 100 W and the substrate temperature is 300-400℃, it is suitable for the growth of high c-axis orientation and small strain ZnO films. A violet peak at about 380 nm and a blue band at about 430 nm were observed in the room temperature photoluminescence spectra, and the origin of blue emission was investigated.

  4. Superior environment resistance of quartz crystal microbalance with anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Wei, E-mail: weiqiang.tju@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin (China); Wei, Li; Shaodan, Wang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin (China); Yu, Bai [Beijing Institute of Spacecrafts Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: ZnO nanorod array being prepared by an in situ method on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process and surface modification with coated TiO{sub 2} by sol–gel methods to form a superhydrophobic TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film the anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film with a sharp, pencil-like structure exhibiting excellent superhydrophobicity (water contact angle of 155°), non-sticking water properties, and an autonomous cleaning property under UV irradiation. The anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film facilitates the precise measurement and extended lifetime of the QCM for the detection of organic gas molecules. - Highlights: • This work combines, for the first time, the advantage of the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film on photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition, and puts forward a solution to satisfy weatherability of quartz crystal microbalance in long-term application. • The anatase TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film with pencil structure exhibit excellent super-hydrophobicity (water contact angle can reach 155°), no-sticking water properties and self-cleaning property under UV irradiation. • The photocatalysis and reversible super-hydrophobic and super-hydrophilic transition of the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod composite film is stable in long-term application. - Abstract: The precise measurement of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in the detection and weighing of organic gas molecules is achieved due to excellent superhydrophobicity of a deposited film composite. Photocatalysis is utilized as a method for the self-cleaning of organic molecules on the QCM for extended long-term stability in the precision of the instrument. In this paper, ZnO nanorod array is prepared via in situ methods on the QCM coated with Au film via hydrothermal process. Subsequently, a TiO{sub 2}/ZnO composite film is synthesized by surface modification with TiO{sub 2} via sol–gel methods. Results

  5. Influence of In doping on electro-optical properties of ZnO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Rambu; D Sirbu; A V Sandu; G Prodan; V Nica

    2013-04-01

    Thin metallic films of Zn and In/Zn were deposited onto glass substrates by thermal evaporation under vacuum. The metallic films were submitted to a thermal oxidation in air, at 623 K, for different oxidation times (30–90 min), in order to be oxidized. Structural andmorphological analyses (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) revealed that the obtained undoped and In-doped ZnO thin films possess a polycrystalline structure. Transmission spectra were recorded in spectral domain from 280 to 1400 nm. The influence of In doping and oxidation parameters as well, on the optical parameters (transmittance, optical bandgap, Urbach energy) were analysed. It was clearly evidenced that by In doping, the optical properties of ZnO films were improved. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity was studied using surface-type cells with Ag electrodes. The obtained results indicate that In-doped ZnO films exhibit an enhancement of electrical conductivity with few orders of magnitude when compared with non-doped ones.

  6. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the behavior of dual ion beam sputtered ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undoped ZnO thin films were grown on p-type Si (1 0 0) substrates at different oxygen partial pressure by dual ion beam sputtering deposition system at a constant growth temperature of 400 °C. The crystallinity, surface morphology, optical, elemental and electrical properties of these ZnO thin films was studied. The minimum value of full-width at half-maximum of the θ-rocking curve obtained from x-ray diffraction of the ZnO (0 0 2) plane, was reported to be 0.1865° from ZnO film grown at 50% of (O2/(O2 + Ar))%. Crystalline property of ZnO films was observed to degrade with the increase in oxygen partial pressure. Photoluminescence measurements demonstrated sharp near-band-edge emission at ∼381 nm at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study revealed presence of oxygen interstitials and vacancies as point defects in ZnO films. Electrical resistivity of ZnO was found to increase with the increase in oxygen partial pressure. (paper)

  7. Structural, morphological, optical and opto-thermal properties of Ni-doped ZnO thin films using spray pyrolysis chemical technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rajeh; A Barhoumi; A Mhamdi; G Leroy; B Duponchel; M Amlouk; S Guermazi

    2016-02-01

    Nickel-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO : Ni) at different percentages were deposited on glass substrates using a chemical spray technique. The effect of Ni concentration on the structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence (PL) properties of the ZnO : Ni thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all films consist of single phase ZnO and was well crystallized in würtzite phase with the crystallites preferentially oriented towards the (002) direction parallel to the c-axis. The optical transmittance measurement was found to be higher than 90%, the optical band gap values of ZnO thin films decreased after doping from 3.29 to 3.21 eV. A noticeable change in optical constants was observed between undoped and Ni-doped ZnO. Room-temperature PL is observed for ZnO, and Ni-doped ZnO thin films.

  8. Effect of aluminium doping on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R.; Ravi, G., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630003 (India); Hayakawa, Y. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan)

    2015-06-24

    We systematically investigated the structural, morphological and optical properties of 0.05 mol % Al doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) thin films deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. The influences of Al doping in ZnO thin films are characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction study. ZnO and Al:ZnO thin films have showed hexagonal wurtzite structure without any secondary phase in c-axis (002) orientation. The SEM images also proved the hexagonal rod like morphologies for both films. All the films exhibited transmittance of 70-80% in the visible range up to 800 nm and cut-off wavelength observed at ∼390 nm corresponding to the fundamental absorption of ZnO. The band gap of the ZnO thin films slightly widened with the Al doping. The photoluminescence properties have been studied for Al: ZnO thin films and the results are presented in detail.

  9. Electrical characteristics of ZnO nanorods reinforced polymer nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO nanorods have been prepared by simple chemical method, which is used to fabricate organic bistable devices (OBDs). OBDs are fabricated by incorporating different weight percent (wt %) of chemically synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorods into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the spin coated ZnO+PMMA nanocomopsite thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate showed current hysteresis behaviour, which is an indication of memory effect. The samples exhibit two distinct resistance states, ON and OFF states, characterised by relatively low and high resistance of the OBDs, respectively. It is also observed that with change in ZnO dopant concentration the value of ON/OFF current changes. Higher ON/OFF current ratio is desired for practical applications. Current conduction mechanism of the devices has been explained invoking various existing models, and it has been found that the trapped-charge-limited conduction mechanism was dominant in our samples

  10. Heteroepitaxial ZnO films on diamond: Optoelectronic properties and the role of interface polarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Fabian, E-mail: Fabian.Schuster@wsi.tum.de; Hetzl, Martin; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall 4, 85748 Garching (Germany); Magén, Cesar [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA) - Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA) and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Fundación ARAID, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Arbiol, Jordi [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, ICMAB-CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, CAT (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, CAT (Spain)

    2014-06-07

    We demonstrate the growth of heteroepitaxial ZnO films on (110) diamond substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and report on a major advance in structural quality, as confirmed by XRD and high-resolution TEM measurements. The growth direction is found to be along the polar c-axis with Zn-polarity, deduced from annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging. This is important information, as simulations of the electronic band structure reveal the ZnO polarity to dominate the electronic structure of the interface: the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas on the ZnO side or a two-dimensional hole gas on the diamond side are predicted for Zn- and O-polarity, respectively. In addition, photoluminescence and absorption studies exhibit good optical properties and reveal stimulated emission for optical excitation above a threshold of 30 kW/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Electrical characteristics of ZnO nanorods reinforced polymer nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Snigdha; Roy, Asim, E-mail: 28.asim@gmail.com [Department of Physics National Institute Technology Silchar Silchar-788010, Assam (India)

    2015-05-15

    ZnO nanorods have been prepared by simple chemical method, which is used to fabricate organic bistable devices (OBDs). OBDs are fabricated by incorporating different weight percent (wt %) of chemically synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanorods into polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Current-voltage (I-V) measurements of the spin coated ZnO+PMMA nanocomopsite thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate showed current hysteresis behaviour, which is an indication of memory effect. The samples exhibit two distinct resistance states, ON and OFF states, characterised by relatively low and high resistance of the OBDs, respectively. It is also observed that with change in ZnO dopant concentration the value of ON/OFF current changes. Higher ON/OFF current ratio is desired for practical applications. Current conduction mechanism of the devices has been explained invoking various existing models, and it has been found that the trapped-charge-limited conduction mechanism was dominant in our samples.

  12. Enhanced luminescence in Eu-doped ZnO nanocrystalline films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Keigo, E-mail: ksuzuki@murata.com; Murayama, Koji; Tanaka, Nobuhiko [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 10-1, Higashikotari 1-chome, Nagaokakyo, Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan)

    2015-07-20

    We found an enhancement of Eu{sup 3+} emissions in Eu-doped ZnO nanocrystalline films fabricated by microemulsion method. The Eu{sup 3+} emission intensities were increased by reducing annealing temperatures from 633 K to 533 K. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the size reduction enhances the energy transfer from ZnO nanoparticles to Eu{sup 3+} ions. Also, the shift of the charge-transfer band into the low-energy side of the absorption edge is found to be crucial, which seems to expedite the energy transfer from O atoms to Eu{sup 3+} ions. These findings will be useful for the material design of Eu-doped ZnO phosphors.

  13. Dependence of Photovoltaic Property of ZnO/Si Heterojunction Solar Cell on Thickness of ZnO Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-Ying; ZHONG Sheng; SUN Li-Jie; FU Zhu-Xi

    2008-01-01

    N-ZnO/p-Si heterojunctions are prepared by sputtering deposition of intrinsic ZnO films on p-Si substrates.Thicknesses of ZnO films are altered by varying the deposition time from I h to 3 h.The electrical properties of these structures are analysed from capacitance-voltage ( C- V) and current-voltage (I- V) characteristics performed in a dark room.The results demonstrated that all the samples show strong rectifying behaviour.Photovoltalc property for the samples with different thicknesses of ZnO films are investigated by measuring open circuit voltage and short circuit current.It is found that photovoltages are kept to be almost constant of 32OmV along with the thickness while photocurrents changing a lot.The variation mechanism of the photovoltalc effect as a function of thickness of ZnO films is investigated.

  14. Characterization of the ZnO thin film prepared by single source chemical vapor deposition under low vacuum condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Hong(邓宏); B.; GONG; A.; J.; Petrella; J.; J.; Russell; R.; N.; Lamb

    2003-01-01

    A novel technique is developed for growing high quality ZnO thin films by means of single source chemical vapor deposition (SS CVD) under low vacuum conditions with the precursor of zinc carbamate Zn4O(CO2Net2)6. SEM, AFM and XRD studies show that the resultant thin films have high density, smooth surface, uniform polycrystalline structure and excellent c-axis orientation. XPS investigation indicates that the ZnO films are free of decomposed precursor residues in the bulk. Careful quantitative XPS analysis reveals that the ZnO films are stoichiometric with O/Zn atomic ratio very close to that of ZnO single crystal.

  15. Effects of sapphire substrates surface treatment on the ZnO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinzhen [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)], E-mail: agwyz@yahoo.com.cn; Chu Benli [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2008-06-01

    The surface treatment effects of sapphire substrate on the ZnO thin films grown by magnetron sputtering were studied. The sapphire substrates properties have been investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction rocking curves (XRCs). The results show that sapphire substrate surfaces have the best quality by CMP with subsequent chemical etching. The surface treatment effects of sapphire substrate on the ZnO thin films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Results show that the intensity of (0 0 2) diffraction peak of ZnO thin films on sapphire substrates treated by CMP with subsequent chemical etching was strongest, FWHM of (0 0 2) diffraction peak is the narrowest and the intensity of UV peak of PL spectrum is strongest, indicating surface treatment on sapphire substrate preparation may improve ZnO thin films crystal quality and photoluminescent property.

  16. Influence Applied Potential on the Formation of Self-Organized ZnO Nanorod Film and Its Photoelectrochemical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azimah Abd Samad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on the facile formation of ZnO nanorod photocatalyst electrodeposited on Zn foil in the production of hydrogen gas via water photoelectrolysis. Based on the results, ZnO nanorod films were successfully grown via electrochemical deposition in an optimum electrolyte set of 0.5 mM zinc chloride and 0.1 M potassium chloride at pH level of 5-6 and electrochemical deposition temperature of around 70°C. The study was also conducted at a very low stirring rate with different applied potentials. Applied potential was one of the crucial aspects in the formation of self-organized ZnO nanorod film via control of the field-assisted dissolution and field-assisted deposition rates during the electrochemical deposition process. Interestingly, low applied potentials of 1 V during electrochemical deposition produced a high aspect ratio and density of self-organized ZnO nanorod distribution on the Zn substrate with an average diameter and length of ~37.9 nm and ~249.5 nm, respectively. Therefore, it exhibited a high photocurrent density that reached 17.8 mA/cm2 under ultraviolet illumination and 12.94 mA/cm2 under visible illumination. This behaviour was attributed to the faster transport of photogenerated electron/hole pairs in the nanorod’s one-dimensional wall surface, which prevented backward reactions and further reduced the number of recombination centres.

  17. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, F.A., E-mail: felipe.garces@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Budini, N. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe S3000AOM (Argentina)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknesses • Film thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness.

  18. Room temperature pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films as photoluminiscence gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla-Rueda, D.; Vadillo, J.M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, UMA Campus Teatinos, s/n, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Laserna, J.J., E-mail: laserna@uma.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, UMA Campus Teatinos, s/n, 29071 Malaga (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elaboration of functional ZnO thin films by PLD at room temperature is possible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence quenching of ZnO thin films may be used for NO{sub 2} sensors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of oxygen during deposition is required to get films of better quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films exhibited linear behaviour in the range between 26 and 100 ppm. - Abstract: Zinc oxide thin films with optical sensing capabilities for NO{sub 2} have been elaborated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto glass substrates at room temperature with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm). Morphology, chemical composition and optical characteristics of the films were evaluated as a function of laser fluence, gas pressure and target-to-substrate distance. Films exhibit excellent morphological and optical (transmittance and photoluminescence) properties. The films have been evaluated as fluorescence sensors for NO{sub 2} in the concentration range between 26 and 200 ppm.

  19. Substrate Temperature Effects on Room Temperature Sensing Properties of Nanostructured ZnO Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jonnala Rakesh; Mani, Ganesh Kumar; Shankar, Prabakaran; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using chemical spray pyrolysis technique at different substrate temperatures such as 523, 623 and 723 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the formation of polycrystalline films with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure and revealed the change in preferential orientation of the crystal planes. Scanning electron micrographs showed the formation of uniformly distributed spherical shaped grains at low deposition temperature and pebbles like structure at the higher temperature. Transmittance of 85% was observed for the film deposited at 723 K. The band gap of the films was found to be increased from 3.15 to 3.23 eV with a rise in deposition temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films was found to be improved with an increase in substrate temperature. Surface of ZnO thin films deposited at 523 K, 623 K and 723 K were found to be hydrophobic with the contact angles of 92°, 105° and 128° respectively. The room temperature gas sensing characteristics of all the films were studied and found that the film deposited at 623 K showed a better response towards ammonia vapour. PMID:27398478

  20. Structural and optical properties of dense vertically aligned ZnO nanorods grown onto silver and gold thin films by galvanic effect with iron contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ZnO nanorods were grown on Au and Ag films in aqueous solution by galvanic effect. • The method is prone to metal contamination which can influence the ZnO properties. • Iron doping improves the lattice matching between ZnO and the substrate. • Energy levels of point defects are lowered and the light emission is red-shifted. • Galvanic-induced nucleation starts and proceeds continuously during the growth. - Abstract: Dense arrays of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods have been grown onto either silver or gold seedless substrates trough a simple hydrothermal method by exploiting the galvanic effect between the substrate and metallic parts. The nanorods exhibit larger bases and more defined hexagonal shapes, in comparison with standard non-galvanic wet-chemistry synthesis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the iron contamination, associated with the galvanic contact, significantly improves the in-plane compatibility of ZnO with the Au and Ag cubic lattice. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicate that the contamination does not affect the number density of localized defects, but lowers their energy levels uniformly; differently, the band-edge emission is not altered appreciably. Finally, we have found that the ZnO hetero-nucleation by galvanic effect initiates at different times in different sites of the substrate area. Our results can be useful for the fabrication of high performance piezonanodevices comprising high-density metal-to-ZnO nanoscaled junctions without intermediate polycrystalline layers

  1. Nanostructured ZnO Films Electrodeposited on Hydrophilic Substrate Utilizing Cooperative Surface Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Lirong; JIN Zhengguo; WU Weibing; BU Shaojing

    2006-01-01

    Nanoporous amorphous ZnO films with lamellar structure were electrodeposited on the hydrophilic substrate by utilizing cooperative surface assembly of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) at a very low concentration and inorganic species Zn(NO3)2 under the influence of an electrostatic potential. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the range of low-angle and wide-angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis light absorption spectroscopy. The formation mechanism of the films was elementarily discussed.

  2. Current-voltage characterization of Au contact on sol-gel ZnO films with and without conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of Au/n-type ZnO and Au/polyaniline (PANI)/n-type ZnO devices. ZnO films were prepared by the sol-gel method. For Au/n-type ZnO devices, native defects and impurities resident within the ZnO depletion region contribute to barrier thinning of, carrier hopping across, and tunneling through the Schottky barrier. This leads to the formation of nonalloyed ohmic contacts. However, rectifying junctions were formed on n-type ZnO by employing the simple technique of spin-coating PANI to act as the electron-blocking layer. Our present results suggest that the ZnO depletion region at the PANI/n-type ZnO interface is not the origin of the rectifying behavior of Au/PANI/n-type ZnO contact. In addition, the presence of the built-in potential of Au/PANI/n-type ZnO devices could result in the shift of the J-V curve toward negative voltage. Excellent agreement between simulated and measured data was obtained when the built-in potential was taken into account in the J-V relationship.

  3. Effect of Nano ZnO on the Optical Properties of Poly(vinyl chloride Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasan Al-Taa’y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties of pure and doped poly(vinyl chloride (PVC films, prepared by using casting technique, with different nanosize zinc oxide (ZnO concentrations (1–20 wt% have been studied. Parameters such as extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, Urbach energy, optical conductivity, infinitely high frequency dielectric constant, and average refractive index were studied by using the absorbance and transmittance measurement from computerized UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-1601 PC in the spectral range 200–800 nm. This study reveals that the optical properties of PVC are affected by the doping of ZnO where the absorption increases and transmission decreases as ZnO concentration increases. The extinction coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts, infinitely high frequency dielectric constant, and average refractive index values were found to increase with increasing impurity percentage. The Urbach energy values are found to be decreasing with increasing ZnO concentration. The optical conductivity increased with photon energy after being doped and with the increase of ZnO concentration.

  4. Growth of b-axis oriented VO2 thin films on glass substrates using ZnO buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VO2 thin films are grown on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition using vanadium metal as a target. In this study, a ZnO thin film was used as a buffer layer for the growth of VO2 thin films on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the VO2 thin film had b-axis preferential orientation on a c-axis oriented ZnO buffer layer. The thickness of the ZnO buffer layer and the oxygen pressure during VO2 deposition were optimized to grow highly b-axis oriented VO2 thin films. The metal-insulator transition properties of the VO2 film samples were investigated in terms of infrared reflectance and electrical resistance with varying temperatures.

  5. Growth of ZnO Thin Films on Lattice-Matched Substrates by Pulsed-Laser Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余庆选; 徐波; 吴气虹; 廖源; 王冠中; 方容川

    2003-01-01

    ZnO films were grown on GaN and sapphire substrates by pulse laser deposition, respectively. The effects of crystalline quality on the optical properties in ZnO epitaxial layers were investigated by x-ray rocking curve and photoluminescence. The x-ray rocking curve of the film deposited on the GaN substrate has the full width half maximum (FWHM) of 0.45°, whereas the FWHM of the x-ray θ-rocking curve of the ZnO film deposited on a sapphire substrate was measured to be about 0.77°. In photoluminescence (PL) measurement, the intensity of UV photoluminescence for the ZnO film on the GaN substrate decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude in comparison with that of the ZnO film on sapphire. It is concluded that the UV luminescence intensity almost does not depend on the textured growth of the ZnO thin film.

  6. Thickness-dependent growth orientation of F-doped ZnO films formed by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyung-Mun; Choi, Yong-June; Park, Hyung-Ho, E-mail: hhpark@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Geun Young [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, and SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    ZnO thin films were doped with fluorine using atomic layer deposition (ALD) with an in-house F source at a deposition temperature of 140 °C. Structural and morphological properties of the resulting F-doped ZnO (ZnO:F) films were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray diffraction. During the initial growth stage of up to 200 ALD cycles, no difference was observed between the preferred growth orientations of undoped ZnO and ZnO:F films. However, after 300 ALD cycles, ZnO and ZnO:F films showed (002) and (100) preferred orientation, respectively. This difference in preferred growth orientation arose from the perturbation-and-passivation effect of F doping, which involves F anions filling the oxygen-related defect sites in the ZnO lattice. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic analyses were carried out to investigate the surface plane dependency of the films' work functions, which confirmed that the ZnO and ZnO:F films had different growth behaviors.

  7. Photoluminescence, ellipsometric, optical and morphological studies of sprayed Co-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençyılmaz, O.; Atay, F.; Akyüz, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, undoped and cobalt (Co)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) films were successfully produced by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique at low temperature (350°C). The optical and surface properties were investigated as a function of Co content. The optical parameters (thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficient) were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and it was seen that the refractive index and extinction coefficient values of Co-doped ZnO films decreased slightly depending on the increasing of Co doping. For investigation, the transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the films, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and PL spectroscopy were used at room temperature. The transmittance spectra show that transmittance values decreased and Co+2 ions substitute Zn+2 ions of ZnO lattice. The optical band gap values decreased from 3.26 eV to 2.85 eV with the changing of Co content. The results of PL spectra exhibit the position of the different emission peaks unchanged but the intensity of peaks increased with increasing Co doping. Also, the surface properties of the films were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and these results indicated that the surface morphology and roughness values were prominently changed with Co doping.

  8. Preparation of cadmium-doped ZnO thin films by SILAR and their characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Mondal; P Mitra

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide (Cd : ZnO) thin films were deposited from sodium zincate bath following a chemical dipping technique called successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction reveals that polycrystalline nature of the films increases with increasing cadmium incorporation. Particle size evaluated using X-ray line broadening analysis shows decreasing trend with increasing cadmium impurification. The average particle size for pure ZnO is 36.73nm and it reduces to 29.9 nm for 10% Cd:ZnO, neglecting strain broadening. The strong preferred c-axis orientation is lost due to cadmium doping and degree of polycrystallinity of the films also increases with increasing Cd incorporation. Incorporation of cadmium was confirmed from elemental analysis using EDX. The optical bandgap of the films decreases with increasing Cd dopant. The value of fundamental absorption edge is 3.18 eV for pure ZnO and it decreases to 3.11 eV for 10% Cd:ZnO.

  9. Facile Synthesis of 3D Porous Flower-like ZnO Micro/nanostructure Films and Their Photocatalytic Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-ling Yang; Guang Tao Fei; Hui Li; Hao-miao Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    3D porous flower-like ZnO micro/nanostructure films grown on Ti substrates are synthesized via a very facile electrodeposition technique followed by heat treatment process.The ZnO architecture is assembled with ultra thin sheets,which consist of numbers of nanoparticles and pores,and the size of the nanoparticles can be controlled by adjusting the electrodeposition time or calcination temperature.It is worth noting that this synthetic method can provide an effective route for other porous metal oxide nanostructure films.Moreover,the photocatalytic performance shows the porous ZnO is an ideal photocatalyst.

  10. Enhancement of near-band edge photoluminescence of ZnO film buffered with TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO films were deposited on Si substrate by RF-sputtering using titanium nitride (TiN) as buffer layer that was deposited at different thicknesses: 160 and 2290 nm. Despite the lattice mismatch of up to 6.35% between ZnO and TiN, the ZnO films deposited on TiN buffer layers show enhanced near-band-edge photoluminescence (PL) emission at room temperature which is two times higher of magnitude than those grown directly on Si. The PL enhancement intensity, provided by TiN buffer introduction, is attributed to the improvement of ZnO crystalline quality and stoichiometry. The use of a good electrical conductor which has high thermal stability like TiN as buffer layer for the blue emission enhancement of ZnO would make it promising for optoelectronic applications. - Highlights: ► Use of TiN buffer layer for blue emission enhancement of ZnO films is reported. ► The near-band edge photoluminescence intensity of buffered ZnO films is doubled. ► Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses are correlated

  11. The Theoretical Investigation and Analysis of High-Performance ZnO Double-Gate Double-Layer Insulator Thin-Film Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hai-Xia; HU Rong; YANG Yin-Tang

    2012-01-01

    A novel structure of a ZnO thin-film transistor with a double-gate and double-layer insulator is proposed to improve device performance.Compared with the conventional ZnO thin-film transistor structure,the novel thinfilm transistor has a higher on-state current,steeper sub-threshold characteristics and a lower threshold voltage,owing to the double-gate and high-k dielectric.Based on two-dimensional simulation,the potential channel distribution and the reasons for the improvement in performance are investigated.%A novei structure of a ZnO thin-film transistor with a double-gate and double-layer insulator is proposed to improve device performance. Compared with the conventional ZnO thin-Rim transistor structure, the novel thin-Sim transistor has a higher on-state current, steeper sub-threshold characteristics and a lower threshold voltage, owing to the double-gate and high-k dielectric. Based on two-dimensional simulation, the potential channel distribution and the reasons for the improvement in performance are investigated.

  12. Photoactive Langmuir-Blodgett, Freely Suspended and Free Standing Films of Carboxylate Ligand-Coated ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczesny, Jan; Wolska-Pietkiewicz, Małgorzata; Binkiewicz, Ilona; Wadowska, Monika; Wróbel, Zbigniew; Matuła, Kinga; Nogala, Wojciech; Lewiński, Janusz; Hołyst, Robert

    2016-06-01

    A new possibility for the formation of macroscopic and photoactive structures from zinc oxide nanocrystals is described. Photoactive freely suspended and free-standing films of macroscopic area (up to few square millimeters) and submicrometer thickness (up to several hundreds of nanometers) composed of carboxylate ligand-coated zinc oxide nanocrystallites (RCO2-ZnO NCs) of diameter less than 5 nm are prepared according to a modified Langmuir-Schaefer method. First, the suspension of RCO2-ZnO NCs is applied onto the air/water interface. Upon compression, the films become turbid and elastic. The integrity of such structures is ensured by interdigitation of ligands stabilizing ZnO NCs. Great elasticity allows transfer of the films onto a metal frame as a freely suspended film. Such membranes are afterward extracted from the supporting frame to form free-standing films of macroscopic area. Because the integrity of the films is maintained by ligands, no abolishment of quantum confinement occurs, and films retain spectroscopic properties of initial RCO2-ZnO NCs. The mechanism of formation of thin films of RCO2-ZnO NCs at the air/water interface is discussed in detail. PMID:27158733

  13. Electrodeposition of Mg doped ZnO thin film for the window layer of CIGS solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mang; Yi, Jie; Yang, Sui; Cao, Zhou; Huang, Xiaopan; Li, Yuanhong; Li, Hongxing; Zhong, Jianxin

    2016-09-01

    Mg doped ZnO (ZMO) film with the tunable bandgap can adjust the conduction band offset of the window/chalcopyrite absorber heterointerface to positive to reduce the interface recombination and resulting in an increasement of chalcopyrite based solar cell efficiency. A systematic study of the effect of the electrodeposition potential on morphology, crystalline structure, crystallographic orientation and optical properties of ZMO films was investigated. It is interestingly found that the prepared doped samples undergo a significant morphological change induced by the deposition potential. With negative shift of deposition potential, an obvious morphology evolution from nanorod structrue to particle covered films was observed. A possible growth mechanism for explaining the morphological change is proposed and briefly discussed. The combined optical techniques including absorption, transmission and photoluminescence were used to study the obtained ZMO films deposited at different potential. The sample deposited at -0.9 V with the hexagonal nanorods morphology shows the highest optical transparency of 92%. The photoluminescence spectra reveal that the crystallization of the hexagonal nanorod ZMO thin film deoposited at -0.9 V is much better than the particles covered ZMO thin film. Combining the structural and optical properties analysis, the obtained normal hexagonal nanorod ZMO thin film could potentially be useful in nanostructured chalcopyrite solar cells to improve the device performance.

  14. Physical properties of Ga-doped ZnO thin films by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: In this work, we report the structural, optical and electrical properties of the transparent conducting GZO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method. We sought optimum deposition conditions yielding GZO films with desired physical properties, specifically good crystalline quality microstructure, low resistivity and high transparency. The electrical conductivity and mobilities of GZO thin films are very good as compared with previous reported spray pyrolysed films. - Abstract: Gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin films were prepared using the simple, flexible and cost-effective spray pyrolysis technique. The physical properties of the films were studied as a function of increasing gallium dopant concentration from 1 to 9 at.%. The films were characterized by various methods to understand their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the films were polycrystalline in nature having a hexagonal wurtzite type crystal structure with a preferred grain orientation in the (0 0 2) direction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements reveal that the surface morphology of the films changes continuously with a decrease in the grain size due to Ga doping. All the films showed nearly 90% of transparency in the entire visible region. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed with an increase in Ga doping. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurement of the deposited films indicates incorporation of Ga in ZnO lattice. At 3 at.% Ga doping, the film has lowest resistivity of 6.8 x 10-3 cm while the carrier concentration is highest.

  15. Production of ZnO and CdO-ZnO thin Films by Extraction-Pyrolytic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovs, A.; Kiselova, O.; Rogulis, U.; Serga, V.; Ignatans, R.

    2016-06-01

    The extraction-pyrolytic method has been applied to produce the ZnO and CdO-ZnO thin films on glass and quartz glass substrates. According to X-ray diffraction measurements, the ZnO and CdO phases have been produced with an average size of crystallites about 8-42 nm in the films. The thickness of the layers measured by a profilometer has been up to 150 nm. The surface morphology measurements show that the surface of the films may be rough and non-continuous. The SEM results confirm the dependence between the preparation procedure and the quality of the thin film.

  16. Characterization of piesoelectric ZnO thin films and the fabrication of piezoelectric micro-cantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Raegan Lynn

    2005-08-01

    In Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), a microcantilever is raster scanned across the surface of a sample in order to obtain a topographical image of the sample's surface. In a traditional, optical AFM, the sample rests on a bulk piezoelectric tube and a control loop is used to control the tip-sample separation by actuating the piezo-tube. This method has several disadvantages--the most noticeable one being that response time of the piezo-tube is rather long which leads to slow imaging speeds. One possible solution aimed at improving the speed of imaging is to incorporate a thin piezoelectric film on top of the cantilever beam. This design not only improves the speed of imaging because the piezoelectric film replaces the piezo-tube as an actuator, but the film can also act as a sensor. In addition, the piezoelectric film can excite the cantilever beam near its resonance frequency. This project aims to fabricate piezoelectric microcantilevers for use in the AFM. Prior to fabricating the cantilevers and also part of this project, a systematic study was performed to examine the effects of deposition conditions on the quality of piezoelectric ZnO thin films deposited by RF sputtering. These results will be presented. The deposition parameters that produced the highest quality ZnO film were used in the fabrication of the piezoelectric cantilevers. Unfortunately, the fabricated cantilevers warped due to the intrinsic stress of the ZnO film and were therefore not usable in the AFM. The complete fabrication process will be detailed, the results will be discussed and reasons for the warping will be examined.

  17. Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Esmaieli Ghodsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Retraction Notice    The paper "Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route" by H. Absalan and F. E. Ghodsi, which appeared in Iranian Journal of Physics Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 423-428 (in Farsi is translation of the paper "Comparative Study of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Different Sol-Gel Route" by F. E. Ghodsi and H. Absalan, which appeared in ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol 118 (2010 (in English and for this reason is retracted from this journal.The corresponding author  (and also the first author is the only responsible person for this action.   

  18. Thin Solid Films Topical Special Issue on ZnO related transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Jinn P.; Endo, Tamio; Ellmer, Klaus; Gessert, Tim; Ginley, David

    2016-04-01

    World-wide research activities on ZnO and related transparent conductive oxides (TCO) in thin film, nanostructured, and multilayered forms are driven by the vast potential of these materials for optoelectronic, microelectronic, and photovoltaic applications. Renewed interest in ZnO applications is partly stimulated by cost reduction in material processing and device development. One of the most important issues is doping and alloying with Al, Ga, In, Sn, etc. in order to tune properties. When highly doped, these materials are used as transparent-conducting contacts on solar cells, as well as in catalytic, spintronic, and surface acoustic wave devices. Film growth conditions, including substrate type and orientation, growth temperature, deposition rate, and ambient atmosphere, all play important roles in determining structural, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties.

  19. Growth behavior and field emission property of ZnO nanowire arrays on Au and Ag films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hyun Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a facile method to control the growth and areal density of zinc-oxide (ZnO nanowire arrays using gold or silver films deposited on aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO layers coated on glass substrates. Nanowires exceeding 5 μm in length grew on both the glass/AZO-layer and on the glass/AZO-layer/Au-film where the areal array density was controlled primarily by changing the annealing temperature. In contrast, the nanowire arrays grew only on the AZO surface but not on the Ag film owing to the formation of an Ag-oxide layer. We fabricated field emitter devices with density controlled ZnO nanowire arrays and low turn-on electric field of ∼6 V/μm and a field enhancement factor of up to 1188 were obtained with density controlled ZnO nanowire arrays.

  20. Sea-Urchin-Like ZnO Nanoparticle Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles synthesized using a chemical solution method. Solution approaches to synthesizing ZnO nanostructures have several advantages including low growth temperatures and high potential for scaling up. We investigated the influence of reaction times on the thickness and morphology of sea-urchin-like ZnO nanoparticles, and XRD patterns show strong intensity in every direction. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were developed using the synthesized ZnO nanostructures as photoanodes. The DSSCs comprised a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass with dense ZnO nanostructures as the working electrode, a platinized FTO glass as the counter electrode, N719-based dye, and I-/I3-liquid electrolyte. The DSSC fabricated using such nanostructures yielded a high power conversion efficiency of 1.16% with an incident photo-to-current efficiency (IPCE as high as 15.32%. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the characteristics of DSSCs. An improvement in the electron transport in the ZnO photoanode was also observed.

  1. Comparisons of Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Films Grown on Sapphire and Si(001)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱东江; 吴惠桢; 徐晓玲; 陈奶波

    2002-01-01

    Zinc oxide films were grown on sapphire and Si(001) substrates by reactive electron beam evaporation at low substrate temperatures. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) are employed to characterize the as-grown films. The AFM measurements have shown that all of the ZnO films present pillar-like growth properties, but the dimensional uniformity of the ZnO crystal pillars grown on sapphire was better than that on Si(001). The XRD results indicated that the prepared ZnO films both on sapphire and Si(001) were all highly c-axis oriented; the linewidths of ZnO (002) are only 0.19° and 0.28°, respectively. The PLE characterizations revealed the continuum absorption of the samples grown on sapphire. However, in the PLE spectra of the ZnO films grown on Si(001) substrates, a broad peak appears at the high-energy region, which indicates the formation of ZnO quantum dot structures on Si(001).

  2. Effects of annealing temperature on the magnetoresistance in Ta/NiFe/Ta films by ZnO intercalations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibiting many superior physical properties was inserted into the Ta/NiFe/Ta films as nano-oxide intercalations. Different annealing temperatures and ZnO thickness significantly affected the magnetoresistance (MR) in NiFe films. The 4-nm thick ZnO film annealed at 200 °C had a MR of 2.41%, which was more than 70% higher than that of the 1-nm thick ZnO annealed film (MR=1.40%). However, the further increase in annealing temperature to 300 °C rapidly deteriorated the MR performance of the films. Diffusion and interface reactions occur between the crystal ZnO and the adjacent NiFe layer. Lower-temperature annealing improved the interface, increasing the specular reflection of spin-polarized electrons to some extent. However, higher-temperature annealing induced severe diffusion and interface reactions, which led to a sharp decline in MR performance. - Highlights: • Combining NiFe with ZnO, thereby producing NiFe/ZnO interfaces. • Investigating the effects of annealing temperatures on the magnetoresistance. • Explaining the corresponding relationship between MR and microstructure

  3. Effects of annealing temperature on the magnetoresistance in Ta/NiFe/Ta films by ZnO intercalations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lei, E-mail: Lding@hainu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Yu, Guang-hua; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Chong-jun; Teng, Jiao [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xiang, Dao-ping [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Tropical Island Resources, Ministry of Education, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

    2015-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibiting many superior physical properties was inserted into the Ta/NiFe/Ta films as nano-oxide intercalations. Different annealing temperatures and ZnO thickness significantly affected the magnetoresistance (MR) in NiFe films. The 4-nm thick ZnO film annealed at 200 °C had a MR of 2.41%, which was more than 70% higher than that of the 1-nm thick ZnO annealed film (MR=1.40%). However, the further increase in annealing temperature to 300 °C rapidly deteriorated the MR performance of the films. Diffusion and interface reactions occur between the crystal ZnO and the adjacent NiFe layer. Lower-temperature annealing improved the interface, increasing the specular reflection of spin-polarized electrons to some extent. However, higher-temperature annealing induced severe diffusion and interface reactions, which led to a sharp decline in MR performance. - Highlights: • Combining NiFe with ZnO, thereby producing NiFe/ZnO interfaces. • Investigating the effects of annealing temperatures on the magnetoresistance. • Explaining the corresponding relationship between MR and microstructure.

  4. Slope selection-driven Ostwald ripening in ZnO thin film growth

    OpenAIRE

    González-González, A; Polop, C.; Vasco, E.

    2012-01-01

    The morphology evolution of polycrystalline ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition was investigated by atomic force microscopy and compared with morphologies simulated in 2 + 1 dimensions from a mesoscopic continuum model of selection of surface slopes. The distinctive feature of such an evolution is that the competition between grains gives rise to a singular grain coarsening mechanism, which although it matches the fingerprints of the Ostwald ripening, it remains operative under atypica...

  5. Pump-probe measurement of ZnO epitaxial thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, A; Goto, T; Chen, Y; Yao, T; Kasuya, A

    1999-01-01

    Time-resolved optical absorption spectra of ZnO epitaxial thin films have been measured by using a pump-probe technique with subpicosecond time resolution. We have observed following three structures in the differential absorption spectra: saturation of the exciton absorption, bandgap renormalization and optical gain. The optical gain is thought to be due to electron-hole plasma. From the temporal changes of these structures, the dynamical properties of the photo-excited carriers are discussed.

  6. Thermal conductivity of ZnO thin film produced by reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thin films have been produced by reactive sputtering with different oxygen contents in the sputtering gas. As a result of transmission electronic microscopy observation, each film consist of two layers: an interfacial layer close to the substrate, with a thickness of about 200 nm, composed of very fine crystal grains and an upper layer above the interfacial layer, composed of column-shaped grains aligned along the out-plane direction. The grain diameter ranges from 35 to 100 nm depending on the oxygen partial pressure. The in-plane and out-plane thermal conductivity have been measured at room temperature. The out-plane thermal conductivity of the interfacial layer is 2.3 W m-1 K-1, independent on the oxygen partial pressure. The out-plane thermal conductivity of the upper layer is 5.4, 7.1, and 4.0 W m-1 K-1, and the in-plane thermal conductivity 4.86, 6.01, and 2.66 W m-1 K-1, for the O2 30%, 60%, and 90% ZnO film, respectively. Both out-plane and in-plane thermal conductivity decrease with the decrease of grain diameter. The thermal conductance of grain boundary has been estimated with the phonon diffusion mismatch model, and the intrinsic thermal conductivity within ZnO grains has been calculated with a cylinder-structured composite model. The result shows that the thermal conductivity of the ZnO thin films is dominated by the intrinsic thermal conductivity, which is a function of grain size.

  7. Carrier dynamics and gain spectra at room-temperature in epitaxial ZNO thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ping; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Wong, K. S.;

    1999-01-01

    Carrier dynamics of epitaxial ZnO thin film was investigated using a frequency up-conversion tehcnique. At lower carrier densities, the decay time of free exciton recombination was measured to be 24 ps. Rapid decay times of a few picoseconds were observed at higher carrier densities, which show a...... transition of two dynamic processes. The comparison of calculated gain spectrum and experimental data gave evidence that the transition is form exciton-exciton scattering to the recombination of electron hole plasma....

  8. Improved sensing response of photo activated ZnO thin film for hydrogen peroxide detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S; Nandhini, V; Jeyaprakash, B G

    2016-11-15

    The nanostructured ZnO thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis technique. Formation of polycrystalinity with hexagonal wurtzite structure was observed from the structural study. Highly dense spherical shaped nanoparticles with fine crystallites were observed from the surface morphological studies. The light induced hydrogen peroxide vapour sensing was done using chemi-resistive method and its effect on the sensing response was studied and reported. PMID:27491004

  9. Amorphous-nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO transparent conducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Betriu, X., E-mail: xdiezbetriu@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Rioboo, R.; Marcos, J. Sanchez-; Cespedes, E.; Espinosa, A.; Andres, A. de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al- doped ZnO films by RF- sputtering as amorphous TCO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural characterization confirms amorphous-nanocrystalline nature of samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical gap dependence on substrate and grain size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistivity correlates to the optical bandgap. - Abstract: Al-doped ZnO films have been deposited at room temperature by means of RF sputtering under different conditions and subjected to annealing treatments looking for amorphous Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) films in the search for their integration into the emerging area of the flexible electronics. Structural studies have been performed as well as optical and electrical characterization. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used for the determination of the optical gap for films grown on Si and the films thickness. The amorphous fraction of the films (up to 86%) depends on the substrate and RF power but not on the annealing temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C for glass substrates. The resistivity is found to be independent of the amorphous degree and correlates to the optical bandgap which presents three regimes depending on the annealing temperature.

  10. Oxidation of ZnO thin films during pulsed laser deposition process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E De Posada; L Moreira; J Pérez De La Cruz; M Arronte; L V Ponce; T Flores; J G Lunney

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed laser deposition of ZnO thin films, using KrF laser, is analysed. The films were deposited on (001) sapphire substrates at 400 °C, at two different oxygen pressures (0.3 and 0.4 mbar) and two different target–substrate distances (30 and 40 mm). It is observed that in order to obtain good quality in the photoluminescence of the films, associated with oxygen stoichiometry, it is needed to maximize the time during which the plasma remains in contact with the growing film (plasma residence time), which is achieved by selecting suitable combinations of oxygen pressures and target to substrate distances. It is also discussed that for the growth parameters used, the higher probability for ZnO films growth results from the oxidation of Zn deposited on the substrate and such process takes place during the time that the plasma is in contact with the substrate. Moreover, it is observed that maximizing the plasma residence time over the growing film reduces the rate of material deposition, favouring the surface diffusion of adatoms, which favours both Zn–O reaction and grain growth.

  11. On tuning the orientation of grains of spray pyrolysed ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of varying spray rate on the structure and optoelectronic properties of spray pyrolysed ZnO film is analysed. ZnO films were characterised using different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, electrical resistivity measurement, and optical absorption. The XRD analysis proved that, with the increase in spray rate, orientation of the grains changed from (1 0 1) plane to (0 0 2) plane. The films exhibited luminescence in two regions-one was the 'near band-edge' (NBE) (∼380 nm) emission and the other one was the 'blue-green emission' (∼503 nm). Intensity of the blue-green emission decreased after orientation of grains shifted to (0 0 2) plane. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the films asserts that spray rate has major role in improving the crystallographic properties of the films. Moreover resistivity of the films could be lowered to 2.4 x 10-2 Ω cm without any doping or post-deposition annealing.

  12. ZnO(101) films by pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Angappane; N R Selvi; G U Kulkarni

    2009-06-01

    We have employed pulsed reactive crossed-beam laser ablation (PRCLA) to deposit a (101) oriented ZnO film. In this method, a supersonic jet of oxygen pulse is made to cross the laser plume from a zinc metal target while being carried to the Si(111) substrate. The obtained deposit was nanocrystalline ZnO as confirmed by a host of characterization techniques. When the substrate was held at varying temperatures, from room temperature to 900°C, the crystallinity of the obtained films increased as expected, but importantly, the crystallographic orientation of the films was varied. High substrate temperatures produced the usual (001) oriented films, while lower substrate temperatures gave rise to increasingly (101) oriented films. The substrate held at room temperature contained only the (101) orientation. The film morphology also varied with the substrate temperature, from being nanoparticulate to rod-like deposits for higher deposition temperatures. Surprisingly, the (101) orientation showed reactivity with acetone forming carbonaceous nanostructures on the surface.

  13. Characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited through vacuum evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Arturo; Juarez, Héctor; Pacio, Mauricio; Perez, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Summary This work presents a novel technique to deposit ZnO thin films through a metal vacuum evaporation technique using colloidal nanoparticles (average size of 30 nm), which were synthesized by our research group, as source. These thin films had a thickness between 45 and 123 nm as measured by profilometry. XRD patterns of the deposited thin films were obtained. According to the HRSEM micrographs worm-shaped nanostructures are observed in samples annealed at 600 °C and this characteristic disappears as the annealing temperature increases. The films obtained were annealed from 25 to 1000 °C, showing a gradual increase in transmittance spectra up to 85%. The optical band gaps obtained for these films are about 3.22 eV. The PL measurement shows an emission in the red and in the violet region and there is a correlation with the annealing process. PMID:25977868

  14. Characterization of nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited through vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alberto Alvarado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel technique to deposit ZnO thin films through a metal vacuum evaporation technique using colloidal nanoparticles (average size of 30 nm, which were synthesized by our research group, as source. These thin films had a thickness between 45 and 123 nm as measured by profilometry. XRD patterns of the deposited thin films were obtained. According to the HRSEM micrographs worm-shaped nanostructures are observed in samples annealed at 600 °C and this characteristic disappears as the annealing temperature increases. The films obtained were annealed from 25 to 1000 °C, showing a gradual increase in transmittance spectra up to 85%. The optical band gaps obtained for these films are about 3.22 eV. The PL measurement shows an emission in the red and in the violet region and there is a correlation with the annealing process.

  15. Sonicated sol–gel preparation of nanoparticulate ZnO thin films with various deposition speeds: The highly preferred c-axis (0 0 2) orientation enhances the final properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M.F., E-mail: firz_solarzelle@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M.H. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z. [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Sahdan, M.Z. [Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Centre (MiNT), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Musa, M.Z. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zainun, A.R. [Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Suriani, A.B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia); Md Sin, N.D. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Abd Hamid, S.B. [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Universiti Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Minimum stress of highly c-axis oriented ZnO was grown at suitable deposition speed. • The ZnO crystal orientation was influenced by strain/stress of the film. • Minimum stress/strain of ZnO film leads to lower defects. • Bandgap and defects were closely intertwined with strain/stress. • We report additional optical and electrical properties based on deposition speed. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates at various deposition speeds by a sonicated sol–gel dip-coating technique. This work studies the effects of deposition speed on the crystallisation behaviour and optical and electrical properties of the resulting films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that thin films were preferentially oriented along the (0 0 2) c-axis direction of the crystal. The transformation sequence of strain and stress effects in ZnO thin films has also been studied. The films deposited at a low deposition speed exhibited a large compressive stress of 0.78 GPa, which decreased to 0.43 GPa as the deposition speed increased to 40 mm/min. Interestingly, the enhancement in the crystallinity of these films led to a significant reduction in compressive stress. All films exhibited an average transmittance of greater than 90% in the visible region, with absorption edges at ∼380 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicated that the intensity of the emission peaks varied significantly with deposition speed. The optical band gap energy (E{sub g}) was evaluated as 3.276–3.289 eV, which increased with decreasing compressive stress along the c-axis. The energy band gap of the resulting ZnO films was found to be strongly influenced by the preferred c-axis (0 0 2) orientation.

  16. Microstructures, optical and electrical properties of In-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO and indium-doped ZnO (IxZO) thin films were prepared on silica-glass substrates by the sol-gel method. The thin films were crystallized at 600 deg. C and 700 deg. C for 1 h in 6.9 x 10-1 Torr under pure O2 atmosphere. The analyzed results were compared to investigate the structural characteristics and optical properties. The surface morphology of the IxZO films was different from that of the ZnO films, and showed a thin overlay structure. In addition, the crystallization of IxZO film was depleted at higher crystallized temperatures. From XRD analysis, the ZnO and IxZO thin films possessed hexagonal structures. Notably, micro-In2O3 phases were observed in the IxZO thin films using EDS. Both of In2O3 phases and the crystallization mechanism not only improved the peeling of structure, but also improved the electrical conductivity of IxZO thin films. For the PL spectrum, the optical property of the IxZO film was raised at a higher crystallization temperature. Although the In2O3 phases reduced the structural defects of IxZO thin film, the optical effect of the residual In3+ was not enhanced completely at higher crystallized temperatures.

  17. Bias-voltage dependent ultraviolet photodetectors prepared by GaOx + ZnO mixture phase nanocrystalline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •GaOx + ZnO thin films sputtered and annealed exhibit interesting and unique optical properties, especially deep UV photo response. •GaOx + ZnO thin films can be used to fabricate efficient deep UV photodetectors. •The mixture phase nature of GaOx + ZnO thin films is revealed to be responsible for the unique characteristics of the photodetectors. •Two bands in UV range can be adjusted by a applied voltage when the PDs were fabricated using the mixture phase nature of GaOx + ZnO thin films. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors were prepared by using the GaOx + ZnO mixture phase thin films sputtered on sapphire as the photoresponse layer. The devices show good photoresponse in UV range. More interestingly, the device responsivity in the wavelength less than 280 nm range rapidly increases with increasing the applied voltage and becomes dominant for the bias ⩾3.0 V. X-ray diffraction, absorption and cathodoluminescence measurements firmly reveal the mixture phases in the thin films. Electric field dependent detrapping of photo-excited carriers in nanocrystals in the films shall be responsible for the observed bias-voltage dependent deep UV photoresponse of the devices

  18. Electrical and optical properties of p-type codoped ZnO thin films prepared by spin coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Trilok Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Swart, H. C.; Purohit, L. P.

    2016-03-01

    Undoped, doped and codoped ZnO thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using a spin coating technique. Zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonium acetate and aluminum nitrate were used as precursor for zinc, nitrogen and aluminum, respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that the thin films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure for the undoped, doped and co-doped ZnO. The transmittance of the films was above 80% and the band gap of the film varied from 3.20 eV to 3.24 eV for undoped and doped ZnO. An energy band diagram to describe the photoluminescence from the thin films was also constructed. This diagram includes the various defect levels and possible quasi-Fermi levels. A minimum resistivity of 0.0834 Ω-cm was obtained for the N and Al codoped ZnO thin films with p-type carrier conductivity. These ZnO films can be used as a window layer in solar cells and in UV lasers.

  19. Fabrication of ZnO nanoparticles-embedded hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films by electrochemical deposition technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Pei-Zeng; Li Rui-Shan; Pan Xiao-Jun; Xie Er-Qing

    2013-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles-embedded hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (ZnO-DLC) films have been prepared by electrochemical deposition in ambient conditions.The morphology,composition,and microstructure of the films have been investigated.The results show that the resultant films are hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films embedded with ZnO nanoparticles in wurtzite structure,and the content and size of the ZnO nanoparticles increase with increasing deposition voltage,which are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),Raman,and transmission electron microscope (TEM).Furthermore,a possible mechanism used to describe the growth process of ZnO-DLC films by electrochemical deposition is also discussed.

  20. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agouram, S.; Zuniga Perez, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Universitat de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Burjassot (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    ZnO films were grown on GaAs(100), GaAs(111)A and GaAs(111)B substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and tertiarybutanol (t-butanol) were used as Zn and O precursors, respectively. The influence of the growth temperature and GaAs substrate orientation on the crystalline orientation and morphology of the ZnO grown films has been analysed. Crystallinity of grown films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD); thickness and morphology of ZnO films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM results reveal significant differences between morphologies depending on growth temperature but not significant differences were detected on the texture of grown films. (orig.)

  1. Growth of n-type ZnO thin films by using mixture gas of hydrogen and argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xin; Wang Shi-Qi; Lian Gui-Jun; Xiong Guang-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    High-quality oxide semiconductor ZnO thin films were prepared on single-crystal sapphire and LaAlO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the mixture gas of hydrogen and argon. Low resistivity n-type ZnO thin films with smoother surface were achieved by deposition at 600℃ in 1Pa of the mixture gas. In addition, ferromagnetism was observed in Co-doped ZnO thin films and rectification Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves were found in p-GaN/n-ZnO and p-CdTe/n-ZnO heterostructure junctions. The results indicated that using mixture gas of hydrogen and argon in PLD technique was a flexible method for depositing high-quality n-type oxide semiconductor films, especially for the multilayer thin film devices.

  2. Growth of epitaxial ZnO films on sapphire substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Adam R.; Allen, Martin W.; Reeves, Roger J.

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial layers of ZnO have been grown on c-plane, (0001) sapphire substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The oxygen:zinc flux ratio was found to be crucial in obtaining a film with a smooth surface and good crystallinity. When increasing film thickness from ~80 to 220 nm we observed an increase in the streakiness of RHEED images, and XRD revealed a reduction in crystal strain and increase in crystal alignment. A film with surface roughness of 0.5 nm and a XRD rocking curve FWHM of 0.1 for the main ZnO peak (0002) was achieved by depositing a low temperature ZnO buffer layer at 450 °C and then growing for 120 minutes at 700 °C with a Zn-cell temperature of 320 °C and an oxygen partial pressure of 7e-7 Torr. We found novel structures on two samples grown outside of our ideal oxygen:zinc flux ratio. SEM images of a sample believed to have been grown in a Zn-rich environment showed flower like structures up to 150 um in diameter which appear to have formed during growth. Another sample believed to have been deposited in a Zn-deficient environment had rings approximately 1.5 um in diameter scattered on its surface.

  3. Photovoltaic performance of Gallium-doped ZnO thin film/Si nanowires heterojunction diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Guvenc; Aksoy Akgul, Funda; Emrah Unalan, Husnu; Turan, Rasit

    2016-04-01

    In this work, photovoltaic performance of Ga-doped ZnO thin film/Si NWs heterojunction diodes was investigated. Highly dense and vertically well-aligned Si NW arrays were successfully synthesised on a p-type (1 0 0)-oriented Si wafer through cost-effective metal-assisted chemical etching technique. Ga-doped ZnO thin films were deposited onto Si NWs via radio frequency magnetron sputtering to construct three-dimensional heterostructures. Photovoltaic characteristics of the fabricated diodes were determined with current density (J)-voltage (V) measurements under simulated solar irradiation of AM 1.5 G. The optimal open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, fill factor and power conversion efficiency were found to be 0.37 V, 3.30 mA cm-2, 39.00 and 0.62%, respectively. Moreover, photovoltaic diodes exhibited relatively high external quantum efficiency over the broadband wavelengths between 350 and 1100 nm interval of the spectrum. The observed photovoltaic performance in this study clearly indicates that the investigated device structure composed of Ga-doped ZnO thin film/Si NWs heterojunctions could facilitate an alternative pathway for optoelectronic applications in future, and be a promising alternative candidate for high-performance low-cost new-generation photovoltaic diodes.

  4. Ethanol gas sensing properties of Al2O3-doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D R Patil; L A Patil; D P Amalnerkar

    2007-12-01

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ethanol vapours at 300°C. Aluminium oxide grains dispersed around ZnO grains would result into the barrier height among the grains. Upon exposure of ethanol vapours, the barrier height would decrease greatly leading to drastic increase in conductance. It is reported that the surface misfits, calcination temperature and operating temperature can affect the microstructure and gas sensing performance of the sensor. The efforts are, therefore, made to create surface misfits by doping Al2O3 into zinc oxide and to study the sensing performance. The quick response and fast recovery are the main features of this sensor. The effects of microstructure and additive concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response time and recovery time of the sensor in the presence of ethanol vapours were studied and discussed.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Varying Concentrations of Ag-doped ZnO Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachlica, Justin; Wadie-Ibrahim, Patrick; Sahiner, M. Alper

    Silver doped ZnO is a promising compound for photovoltaic solar cell use. Doping this compound with varying amounts of silver will theoretically make this type of thin film more efficient by reducing the overall resistance and increasing the voltage and current output. The extent of this promise is being tested experimentally, by analysis of both the electrical and the surface roughness properties of the cells. Ag-doped Zinc Oxide is deposited by method of Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated Glass. Annealing effects were also observed by varying the temperature at which the annealing occurred after synthesis of the sample. Thickness is confirmed by use of Ellipsometery. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements confirmed a ZnO crystal structure on the thin films. The active dopant carrier concentrations were determined using a Hall Effect Measuring System. Finally, the photovoltaic properties of the film are recorded by using a Keithley Source Meter. The structural characterization and electrical results of the effect of Ag doping on ZnO will then be discussed.

  6. Water-assisted nitrogen mediated crystallisation of ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muydinov, R. [Technical University Berlin, Institute of Semiconducting- and High-Frequency Technologies, Einsteinufer 25, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Steigert, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Heterogeneous Material Systems, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Schönau, S.; Ruske, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Silicon Photovoltaics, Kekuléstraße 5, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kraehnert, R.; Eckhardt, B. [Technical University Berlin, Institute of Technical Chemistry, Straße des 17. Juni 124, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Lauermann, I. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Heterogeneous Material Systems, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Szyszka, B. [Technical University Berlin, Institute of Semiconducting- and High-Frequency Technologies, Einsteinufer 25, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen mediated crystallisation (NMC) being performed in oxygen atmosphere at T ≥ 600 °C is an effective approach to obtain very well (00l)-textured ZnO films. A use of NMC-seed layers remarkably improves electrical transport properties of subsequently deposited ZnO:Al contacts. In this work, crystallisation of quasi-amorphous, nitrogen doped ZnO seed layers has been performed using water vapours at overpressure and temperatures around 100 °C. This approach allows employment of soda-lime float-glass or temperature sensitive film stacks as a substrate. We propose here possible mechanism of water-assisted NMC and grope for optimised crystallisation conditions on the basis of optical, microscopic, and textural investigation. Low temperature water-assisted crystallisation of 20 nm thick ZnO layers was compared with high temperature annealing methods in terms of composition, microstructure and crystallinity. Electrical properties such as electron Hall mobility (μ{sub e}), concentration of free electrons (N{sub e}) and sheet resistance (R{sub sh}) have been evaluated and compared for functional ZnO:Al films obtained on glass and on differently crystallised NMC-seed layers. It was found that the crystallised with water assistance at low temperature ZnO seed layers provide comparable improvement in crystallinity and electrical properties of subsequently grown functional ZnO:Al films with respect to the ones crystallised at high temperature. Use of optimised water-assisted crystallisation of seed layers has allowed decreasing R{sub sh} of thin (130–270 nm) functional ZnO:Al films twice compared to the glass substrate. Both provide this effect: increase in μ{sub e} and increase of N{sub e}. - Highlights: • Amorphous ZnO:N films can be crystallised in autoclave at temperatures around 100 °C. • Such water-assisted crystallisation provides well-crystalline ZnO seed layers. • Use of these seed layers resulted in stress-free ZnO:Al contacts with twice lower R

  7. Epitaxial electrodeposition of ZnO thin film on GaN(0001) bulk single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, Keigo; Yoshida, Tsukasa [Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems (CIPS), Environmental and Renewable Energy Systems (ERES) Division, Graduate School of Engineering, Gifu University (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    Ga terminated surface of heavily doped conductive GaN(0001) bulk single crystal was used as a rotating disk electrode (RDE) to electrodeposit ZnO thin film employing reduction of O{sub 2}. Although the native surface was rather inactive for the reduction of O{sub 2}, it was activated by dipping in HCl and further by prolonged electrolysis to reduce O{sub 2} in a Zn{sup 2+} free solution. Koutecky-Levich analysis revealed important kinetic constants, such as the standard charge transfer rate constant (k{sup 0}) of 2.4 x 10{sup -14} cm s{sup -1} and the transfer coefficient ({alpha}) of 0.11 at 70 C for the reduction of O{sub 2} at the most activated GaN(0001). Electrodeposition of ZnO from the bath containing ZnCl{sub 2} lead to an epitaxial growth of ZnO in a ZnO[100] parallel GaN[100] alignment as confirmed from the XRD {omega} scan with {theta} adjusted to ZnO(10 anti 12). The higher level of epitaxy was achieved for the more active surfaces of GaN as estimated from narrowing of the full width at half maximum (fwhm) of the peaks in the XRD {omega} -scan. Such films were also fully covering the surface of GaN as found in the SEM observation. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Defect-band mediated ferromagnetism in Gd-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Venkatesh, S.

    2015-01-07

    Gd-doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition with Gd concentrations varying from 0.02–0.45 atomic percent (at. %) showed deposition oxygen pressure controlled ferromagnetism. Thin films prepared with Gd dopant levels (

  9. Detailed microstructure analysis of as-deposited and etched porous ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous ZnO thin films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. • Surface enhancement factors were deduced from geometrical considerations. • Enlargement of the inter-grain spaces have been achieved by HCl chemical etching. • Microstructural parameters were deduced from SEM, AFM and optical measurements. - Abstract: ZnO nanostructured materials in thin film forms are of particular interest for photovoltaic or photocatalysis processes but they suffer from a lack of simple methods for optimizing their microstructure. We have demonstrated that microporous ZnO thin films with optimized inter grain accessibility can be produce by radio frequency magnetron sputtering process and chemical etching with 2.75 mM HCl solution for different duration. The as-deposited ZnO thin films were first characterized in terms of structure, grain size, inter grain space, open cavity depth and total thickness of the film by XRD, AFM, SEM, profilometry and optical measurements. A specific attention was dedicated to the determination of the surface enhancement factor (SEF) by using basic geometrical considerations and images treatments. In addition, the porous fraction and its distribution in the thickness have been estimated thanks to the optical simulation of the experimental UV–Visible–IR spectrums using the Bruggeman dielectric model and cross section SEM images analysis respectively. This study showed that the microstructure of the as-deposited films consists of a dense layer covered by a porous upper layer developing a SEF of 12–13 m2 m−2. This two layers architecture is not modified by the etching process. The etching process only affects the upper porous layer in which the overall porosity and the inter-grain space increase with the etching duration. Column diameter and total film thickness decrease at the same time when the films are soaked in the HCl bath. The microporous structure obtained after the etching process could

  10. Reflectometric measurement of n-hexane adsorption on ZnO2 nanohybrid film modified by hydrophobic gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebők, Dániel; Csapó, Edit; Ábrahám, Nóra; Dékány, Imre

    2015-04-01

    Zinc-peroxide/poly(styrenesulfonate) nanohybrid thin films (containing 20 bilayers: [ZnO2/PSS]20, d ∼ 500 nm) were prepared using layer-by-layer (LbL) method. The thin film surface was functionalized by different surface modifying agents (silanes, alkylthiols and hydrophobized nanoparticles). Based on the experimental results of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and contact angle measurements (as prequalifications) the octanethiol covered gold nanoparticles (OT-AuNPs) were selected for further vapour adsorption studies. Reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfS) was used to measure n-hexane vapour adsorption on the original and modified nanohybrid films in a gas flow platform. The thin film provides only the principle of the measurement (by interference phenomenon), the selectivity and hydrophobicity is controlled and enhanced by surface functionalization (by dispersion interaction between the alkyl chains). The interference pattern shift (Δλ) caused by the increase of the optical thickness of the thin film due to vapour adsorption was investigated. It was found that due to the surface functionalization by hydrophobic nanoparticles the effect of water vapour adsorption decreased significantly, while for n-hexane opposite tendency was observed (the effective refractive index and thus the interference pattern shift increased drastically). The correlation between QCM technique and optical method (RIfS) was specified: linear specific adsorbed amount vs. wavelength shift calibration curves were determined in the pr = 0-0.4 relative vapour pressure range. The thin film is suitable for sensorial application (e.g. volatile organic compound/VOC sensor).

  11. ZnO Nanowire-Based Corona Discharge Devices Operated Under Hundreds of Volts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Zhu, Rong; Zong, Xianli

    2016-02-01

    Minimizing the voltage of corona discharges, especially when using nanomaterials, has been of great interest in the past decade or so. In this paper, we report a new corona discharge device by using ZnO nanowires operated in atmospheric air to realize continuous corona discharge excited by hundreds of volts. ZnO nanowires were synthesized on microelectrodes using electric-field-assisted wet chemical method, and a thin tungsten film was deposited on the microchip to enhance discharging performance. The testing results showed that the corona inception voltages were minimized greatly by using nanowires compared to conventional dischargers as a result of the local field enhancement of nanowires. The corona could be continuously generated and self-sustaining. It was proved that the law of corona inception voltage obeyed the conventional Peek's breakdown criterion. An optimal thickness of tungsten film coated over ZnO nanowires was figured out to obtain the lowest corona inception voltage. The ion concentration of the nanowire-based discharger attained 1017/m3 orders of magnitude, which is practicable for most discharging applications.

  12. ZnO Nanowire-Based Corona Discharge Devices Operated Under Hundreds of Volts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Zhu, Rong; Zong, Xianli

    2016-12-01

    Minimizing the voltage of corona discharges, especially when using nanomaterials, has been of great interest in the past decade or so. In this paper, we report a new corona discharge device by using ZnO nanowires operated in atmospheric air to realize continuous corona discharge excited by hundreds of volts. ZnO nanowires were synthesized on microelectrodes using electric-field-assisted wet chemical method, and a thin tungsten film was deposited on the microchip to enhance discharging performance. The testing results showed that the corona inception voltages were minimized greatly by using nanowires compared to conventional dischargers as a result of the local field enhancement of nanowires. The corona could be continuously generated and self-sustaining. It was proved that the law of corona inception voltage obeyed the conventional Peek's breakdown criterion. An optimal thickness of tungsten film coated over ZnO nanowires was figured out to obtain the lowest corona inception voltage. The ion concentration of the nanowire-based discharger attained 10(17)/m(3) orders of magnitude, which is practicable for most discharging applications.

  13. ZnO Nanowire-Based Corona Discharge Devices Operated Under Hundreds of Volts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Zhu, Rong; Zong, Xianli

    2016-12-01

    Minimizing the voltage of corona discharges, especially when using nanomaterials, has been of great interest in the past decade or so. In this paper, we report a new corona discharge device by using ZnO nanowires operated in atmospheric air to realize continuous corona discharge excited by hundreds of volts. ZnO nanowires were synthesized on microelectrodes using electric-field-assisted wet chemical method, and a thin tungsten film was deposited on the microchip to enhance discharging performance. The testing results showed that the corona inception voltages were minimized greatly by using nanowires compared to conventional dischargers as a result of the local field enhancement of nanowires. The corona could be continuously generated and self-sustaining. It was proved that the law of corona inception voltage obeyed the conventional Peek's breakdown criterion. An optimal thickness of tungsten film coated over ZnO nanowires was figured out to obtain the lowest corona inception voltage. The ion concentration of the nanowire-based discharger attained 10(17)/m(3) orders of magnitude, which is practicable for most discharging applications. PMID:26880727

  14. ALD grown nanostructured ZnO thin films: Effect of substrate temperature on thickness and energy band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO thin films with high transparency have been grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition at various temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 300 °C. Efforts have been made to observe the effect of substrate temperature on the thickness of the deposited thin films and its consequences on the energy band gap. A remarkably high growth rate of 0.56 nm per cycle at a substrate temperature of 200 °C for ZnO thin films have been achieved. This is the maximum growth rate for ALD deposited ZnO thin films ever reported so far to the best of our knowledge. The studies of field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry patterns confirm the deposition of uniform and high quality nanosturtured ZnO thin films which have a polycrystalline nature with preferential orientation along (100 plane. The thickness of the films deposited at different substrate temperatures was measured by ellipsometry and surface profiling system while the UV–visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies have been used to evaluate the optical properties of the respective thin films. It has been observed that the thickness of the thin film depends on the substrate temperatures which ultimately affect the optical and structural parameters of the thin films.

  15. Tuning of undoped ZnO thin film via plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition and its application for an inverted polymer solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-jin Jin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the tuning of structural and optical properties of ZnO thin film and its correlation to the efficiency of inverted solar cell using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD. The sequential injection of DEZn and O2 plasma was employed for the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin film. As the growth temperature of ZnO film was increased from 100 °C to 300 °C, the crystallinity of ZnO film was improved from amorphous to highly ordered (002 direction ploy-crystal due to self crystallization. Increasing oxygen plasma time in PEALD process also introduces growing of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO nanocrystal. Excess of oxygen plasma time induces enhanced deep level emission band (500 ∼ 700 nm in photoluminescence due to Zn vacancies and other defects. The evolution of structural and optical properties of PEALD ZnO films also involves in change of electrical conductivity by 3 orders of magnitude. The highly tunable PEALD ZnO thin films were employed as the electron conductive layers in inverted polymer solar cells. Our study indicates that both structural and optical properties rather than electrical conductivities of ZnO films play more important role for the effective charge collection in photovoltaic device operation. The ability to tune the materials properties of undoped ZnO films via PEALD should extend their functionality over the wide range of advanced electronic applications.

  16. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn doped ZnO Thin Film Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Baras, Abdulaziz

    2011-07-01

    Diluted magnetic oxide (DMO) research is a growing field of interdisciplinary study like spintronic devices and medical imaging. A definite agreement among researchers concerning the origin of ferromagnetism in DMO has yet to be reached. This thesis presents a study on the structural and magnetic properties of DMO thin films. It attempts to contribute to the understanding of ferromagnetism (FM) origin in DMO. Pure ZnO and Mn doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using different deposition conditions. This was conducted in order to correlate the change between structural and magnetic properties. Structural properties of the films were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) was used to investigate the magnetic properties of these films. The structural characterizations showed that the quality of pure ZnO and Mn doped ZnO films increased as oxygen pressure (PO) increased during deposition. All samples were insulators. In Mn doped films, Mn concentration decreased as PO increased. The Mn doped ZnO samples were deposited at 600˚C and oxygen pressure from 50-500mTorr. All Mn doped films displayed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM). However, at 5 K a superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior was observed in these samples. This result was accounted for by the supposition that there were secondary phase(s) causing the superparamagnetic behavior. Our findings hope to strengthen existing research on DMO origins and suggest that secondary phases are the core components that suppress the ferromagnetism. Although RTFM and SPM at low temperature has been observed in other systems (e.g., Co doped ZnO), we are the first to report this behavior in Mn doped ZnO. Future research might extend the characterization and exploration of ferromagnetism in this system.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of thermally oxidized ZnO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Rambu; N Iftimie

    2014-05-01

    Metallic zinc thin films were deposited onto glass substrates using vacuum thermal evaporation method. By thermal oxidation of as-deposited Zn films, in ambient conditions, at different temperatures (570, 670 and 770 K, respectively, for 1 h) zinc oxide thin films were obtained. The structural characteristics of the obtained films were investigated by X-ray diffraction technique and atomic force microscopy. Characteristic XRD patterns of oxidized films show small and narrow peaks superimposed on the large broad background of the amorphous component of the substrate. Optical transmittance spectra were recorded and it was observed that the transmittances of the studied films increased with increasing oxidation temperature. The values of the optical bandgap, g, evaluated from Tauc plots, were found to be ranged between 3.22 and 3.27 eV. Electrical conductivity measurements were performed and it was observed that, after performing a heat treatment, the electrical conductivity of analysed samples decreased with one or two orders of magnitude. The gas sensitivity was investigated for some reducing gases such as acetone, methane and liquefied petroleum gas and it was observed that the films studied were selective to acetone.

  18. MEMS-based ZnO Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor for Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minrui Wang; Jing Wang; Yan Cui; Liding Wang

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the design and fabrication of a MEMS-based ZnO piezoelectric tactile sensor, which can be integrated on to the endoscopic grasper used in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The sensor includes a silicon substrate,platinum bottom electrode, platinum top electrode, and a ZnO piezoelectric thin film, which is sandwiched between the two-electrode layers. The sensitivity of the micro-force sensor is analyzed in theory and the sensor exhibits high sensitivity about 7 pc/uN. The application of this tactile sensor to MIS will allow the surgeon feeling the touch force between the endoscopic grasper and tissue in real-time, and manipulating the tissue safely.

  19. Mixing ALD/MLD-grown ZnO and Zn-4-aminophenol layers into various thin-film structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Pia; Sood, Anjali; Liu, Xuwen; Karppinen, Maarit

    2013-11-14

    Building 2D inorganic-organic hybrids by combining inorganic and organic constituents with molecular-layer precision is an attractive approach to fabricate novel materials with a tailored combination of properties from both entities. Here we demonstrate the potential of the combined atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD) technique for the state-of-the-art synthesis of such materials and to fabricate both homogeneous thin-film mixtures and nanolaminates of ZnO and the Zn-4-aminophenol inorganic-organic hybrid. The thin films are deposited by varying the number of precursor cycles during the depositions. Diethyl zinc and 4-aminophenol (AP) are used as precursors for the Zn-AP hybrid depositions, and diethyl zinc and water for the ZnO depositions. The characterization of the mixed Zn-AP and ZnO films reveals that crystallinity, density, surface roughness, chemical stability, hardness and contact modulus are sensitively altered by even a minor insertion of Zn-AP hybrid into the ZnO structure. Fabrication of Zn-AP + ZnO nanolaminates with different thicknesses of the Zn-AP and ZnO layers provides us with an even better way to control the hardness and contact modulus, and also to enhance the chemical stability of the films.

  20. A comparison between different ohmic contacts for ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several metals that form ohmic contacts for ZnO thin films, such as copper, aluminum and silver. The aim of this work is to make a comparison between these ohmic contacts. To achieve this purpose, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique, and characterized by the I–V measurements at room temperature. Two strips of each metal were thermally evaporated on the surface of the film and measurements were first recorded in the dark and room light, then in the dark before and after annealing for Al, which was found to be the best in the set. Films with aluminum contacts gave the smallest resistivity, best ohmicity and they are slightly affected by light as required. On the other hand, copper was found to be the worst, and films with copper contacts gave the largest resistivity, worst ohmicity and they are the most affected by light. Annealing improved the aluminum contacts due to alloying and doping. (paper)

  1. Optical SHG for ZnO films with different morphology stimulated by UV-laser thermotreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebothe, J [Laboratoire LTME, Universite de Reims, Reims (France); Miedzinski, R [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Czestochowa (Poland); Kapustianyk, V [Scientific-Technical and Educational Centre of Low Temperature Studies, Ivan FrankoNational University of Lviv, Lviv (Ukraine); Turko, B [Scientific-Technical and Educational Centre of Low Temperature Studies, Ivan FrankoNational University of Lviv, Lviv (Ukraine); Kulyk, B [Scientific-Technical and Educational Centre of Low Temperature Studies, Ivan FrankoNational University of Lviv, Lviv (Ukraine); Gruhn, W [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Czestochowa (Poland); Kityk, I V [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University of Czestochowa, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    We have discovered a strong influence of the ZnO grain sizes on the output second harmonic generation stimulated by nanosecond pulses of 371 nm nitrogen laser during simultaneous superposition of the electrostatic electric field with electric strength about 2 kV/cm. To explore an influence of film morphology on the second order optical susceptibility we have explored the films prepared by electron sputtering with averaged grain sizes about 1000 nm and films synthesized by rf-magnetron sputtering on the two different substrates - glass and amorphous quartz with average grain sizes about 137 nm and 29 nm, respectively. Comparing the UV-induced optical second harmonic generation for the ZnO films with different grain sizes we have concluded that the samples with nanorods are characterized by considerably larger second order susceptibility (up to 5.7 pm/V at 1064 nm fundamental wavelength) compared to those for the films with smaller grain sizes (1.5 pm/V). This may be caused by a fact that UV-illumination deals only effectively with simultaneous electric field treatment enhancing the second order optical susceptibility. A correlation between the temperature of local laser thermo-heating and the output optical second harmonic generation may indicate on principal role of the local thermal expansion in the observed output second harmonic generation.

  2. Different magnetothermoelectric behavior in Al- and Ga-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Han; Fang, Liang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn; Tian, Dexiang; Wu, Fang; Li, Wanjun

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • The effect of magnetic field on the thermoelectric property was investigated. • The tendencies of the |S| for AZO and GZO varying with magnetic field were observed. • Magnetic field can decrease the |S| of AZO but increase that of GZO. -- Abstract: This essay mainly focuses on the influence of magnetic filed on thermoelectric properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films. The Seebeck coefficients (S) of AZO and GZO films show opposite behavior as a function of the magnetic field intensity (B), which should be attributed to the effect of magnetic field on the effective electron number and potential barrier at grain boundary. For GZO film, with higher electron number, the influence of magnetic field on the effective electron number is the dominant factor, while more potential barriers at grain boundaries exist in AZO film due to the Al–O bond length with a higher mismatch to Zn–O bond length than the Ga–O bond length, so the effect of magnetic field on the potential barriers at grain boundaries dominates in AZO film.

  3. Transparent conductive Al-doped ZnO thin films grown at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuping; Lu Jianguo; Bie Xun; Gong Li; Li Xiang; Song Da; Zhao Xuyang; Ye Wenyi; Ye Zhizhen [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Aluminum-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al, AZO) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering from a Zn-Al alloy target at room temperature. The effects of the Ar-to-O{sub 2} partial pressure ratios on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of AZO films were studied in detail. AZO films grown using 100:4 to 100:8 Ar-to-O{sub 2} ratio result in acceptable quality films with c-axis orientated crystals, uniform grains, 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm resistivity, greater than 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} electron concentration, and high transmittance, 90%, in the visible region. The lowest resistivity of 4.11x10{sup -3} {Omega} cm was obtained under the Ar-to-O{sub 2} partial pressure ratio of 100:4. A relatively strong UV emission at {approx}3.26 eV was observed in the room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that Al was introduced into ZnO and substitutes for Zn and doped the film n-type.

  4. Polycrystalline ZnO Films Deposited on Glass by RF Reactive Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Heng-xiang; HE Yun-yao; Wang Qi-feng; JIN Guo-juan; FANG Ze-bo; WANG Yin-yue

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline ZnO films were prepared on glass wafer using Zn targets by radio frequency(RF)reactive sputtering technique under different deposition conditions.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical transmittance spectrum were employed to analyze the structure and optical character of the films.The strain and stress in films, as well as the packing density are calculated in terms of refractive index of films measured with an elliptic polarization analyzer.It is the deposition conditions that have great effects on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films.Under the optimal conditions,the only evident peak in XRD spectrum was (002) peak with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.20° showing the grain size of 42.8 nm.The packing density,the stress in (002) plane and the average optical transmittance in the visible region were about 97%,-1.06×109 N/m2 and 92%, respectively.

  5. High quality ZnO film prepared on ITO substrate for H{sub 2} sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthick, K.; Vijayalakshmi, K., E-mail: viji71naveen@yahoo.com

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we report the temperature effect on the properties of ZnO films prepared on ITO coated glass substrate by a spray pyrolysis technique. XRD studies revealed the polycrystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure. The promoting effect of ITO on the crystal quality of ZnO film is reflected in the film prepared at 350 °C. The red-shift in the PL peak with increase in temperature was confirmed from the decrease in the optical band gap of the film, contributed partially by the size effect and partially by the strain relaxation of ZnO crystallites. Highly compact and porous morphology of the films with large RMS roughness favored the surface reactivity with H{sub 2} gas. The large response of ZnO/ITO sensor at low operating temperature, with fast response and recovery was attributed to the microstructure of the ITO underlayer. - Highlights: • Preferred (0 0 2) orientation of ZnO improved with substrate temperature. • Intense red-shift was observed with less violet emission. • SEM revealed highly compact morphology of the films with large RMS roughness. • High sensitivity of ZnO/ITO towards H{sub 2} at lower operating temperature.

  6. High-Hall-Mobility Al-Doped ZnO Films Having Textured Polycrystalline Structure with a Well-Defined (0001) Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Junichi; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Five hundred-nanometer-thick ZnO-based textured polycrystalline films consisting of 490-nm-thick Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited on 10-nm-thick Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films exhibited a high Hall mobility (μ H) of 50.1 cm(2)/Vs with a carrier concentration (N) of 2.55 × 10(20) cm(-3). Firstly, the GZO films were prepared on glass substrates by ion plating with dc arc discharge, and the AZO films were then deposited on the GZO films by direct current magnetron sputtering (DC-MS). The GZO interface layers with a preferential c-axis orientation play a critical role in producing AZO films with texture development of a well-defined (0001) orientation, whereas 500-nm-thick AZO films deposited by only DC-MS showed a mixture of the c-plane and the other plane orientation, to exhibit a μ H of 38.7 cm(2)/Vs with an N of 2.22 × 10(20) cm(-3). PMID:27365000

  7. Optical and Recombination Losses in Thin Film Solar Cells Based on Heterojunctions n-ZnS (n-CdS) / p-CdTe with Current Collecting Contacts ITO and ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    O.A. Dobrozhan; A.S. Opanasyuk; V.V. Grynenko

    2014-01-01

    The optical and recombination losses in auxiliary and absorbing layers of solar cells based on heterojunctions n-ZnS / p-CdTe and n-CdS / p-CdTe with current collecting front sublayers ITO and ZnO were determined. As a result, spectral dependence of light transmittance (T) of solar cells, taking into account its reflections from the boundaries of the contacting materials and in case of absorption in the auxiliary layers of solar cells was calculated. The influence of optical and recombination...

  8. Optical constants and near infrared emission of Er doped ZnO sol–gel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vettumperumal, R. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, Sri Paramakalyani College, Alwarkurichi 627412, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalyanaraman, S., E-mail: mayura_priya2003@yahoo.co.in [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, Sri Paramakalyani College, Alwarkurichi 627412, Tamil Nadu (India); Thangavel, R., E-mail: rtvel_au@yahoo.co.in [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2015-02-15

    Erbium (Er) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) sol–gel thin films were deposited on glass substrate using the spin coating method. The effect of erbium concentration and annealing temperature on structural and optical properties was studied. The annealed film was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDX), micro-Raman, photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis spectroscopy. All the films showed a wurtzite structure of polycrystalline nature with an average crystal size of 27.44 nm at 500 °C and 29.28 nm at 600 °C. The Raman spectra confirmed the absence of secondary phases in the Er doped ZnO films and the longitudinal optical phonon mode was upto the fifth order. Densely packed surfaces of the films were observed from SEM images. The presence and distribution of Zn, O and Er elements in the deposited films were confirmed by EDX analysis. The calculated value of exciton binding energy of ZnO film was 60 meV with a maximum value of 72 meV being observed for Er doped films. The near infra-red emission peak was observed at 1.63 eV through PL spectra studies. The average transmission was 80% with the calculated value of optical band gap being 3.26–3.32 eV. An increase in the refractive index value predicts the substitutional incorporation of Er ions in ZnO with the maximum optical conductivity being observed in the UV region. - Highlights: • Higher exciton binding energy in the doped ZnO films. • Near infrared emission is observed and better than ZnO. • Refractive index is calculated by theoretical and experimental means. • Maximum optical conductivity in the UV region.

  9. Velocity surface measurements for ZnO films over /001/-cut GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.; Liu, Yongsheng; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    1994-01-01

    A potential application for a piezoelectic film deposited on a GaAs substrate is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Knowledge of the SAW properties of the filmed structure is critical for the optimum design of such devices. In this article, the measurements of the velocity surface, which directly affects the SAW diffraction, on the bare and metallized ZnO/SiO2 or Si3N4/GaAs /001/-cut samples are reported using two different techniques: (1) knife-edge laser probe, (2) line-focus-beam scanning acoustic microscope. Comparisons, such as measurement accuracy and tradeoffs, between the former (dry) and the latter (wet) method are given. It is found that near the group of zone axes (110) propagation direction the autocollimating SAW property of the bare GaAs changes into a noncollimating one for the layered structure, but a reversed phenomenon exists near the group of zone axes (100) direction. The passivation layer of SiO2 or Si3N4 (less than 0.2 micrometer thick) and the metallization layer change the relative velocity but do not significantly affect the velocity surface. On the other hand, the passivation layer reduces the propagation loss by 0.5-1.3 dB/microseconds at 240 MHz depending upon the ZnO film thickness. Our SAW propagation measurements agree well with theorectical calculations. We have also obtained the anisotropy factors for samples with ZnO films of 1.6, 2.8, and 4.0 micrometer thickness. Comparisons concerning the piezoelectric coupling and acoustic loss between dc triode and rf magnetron sputtered ZnO films are provided.

  10. Annealing induced reorientation of crystallites in Sn doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, K.; Vasanthi, M.; Thirumurugan, K.; Sakthivel, B.; Karthika, K.

    2014-11-01

    Tin doped ZnO thin films were prepared by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using a perfume atomizer and subsequently annealed under different temperatures from 350 °C to 500 °C in steps of 50 °C. The structural, optical, electrical, photoluminescence and surface morphological properties of the as-deposited films were studied and compared with that of the annealed films. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that as-deposited film exhibits preferential orientation along the (0 0 2) plane and it changes in favour of (1 0 0) plane after annealing. The increase in crystallite size due to annealing is explained on the basis of Ostwald ripening effect. It is found that the optical transmittance and band gap increases with increase in annealing temperature. A slight decrease in resistivity caused by annealing is discussed in correlation with annealing induced defect modifications and surface morphology.

  11. Photoelectrocatrocatalytic hydrolysis of starch by using sprayed ZnO thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.T.Sapkal; S.S.Shinde; K.Y.Rajpure; C.H.Bhosale

    2013-01-01

    Thin films of zinc oxide have been deposited onto glass/FTO substrates at optimized 400 ℃ by using a chemical spray pyrolysis technique.Deposited films are characterized for their structural,morphological optical and photocatalytic activity by using XRD,an SEM,a UV-vis spectrophotometer,and a PEC single-cell reactor.Films are polycrystalline and have a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure with c-axis (002) orientation growth perpendicular to the substrate surface.The observed direct band gap is about 3.22 eV for typical films prepared at 400 ℃.The photocatalytic activity of starch with a ZnO photocatalyst has been studied by using a novel photoelectrocatalytic process.

  12. Real structure of the ZnO epitaxial films on (0001) leucosapphire substrates coated by ultrathin gold layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V.; Kolymagin, A. B.; Vasilyev, A. L.; Kanevsky, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The real structure of ZnO films formed by magnetron sputtering on (0001) leucosapphire substrates coated by an ultrathin (less than 0.7 nm) Au buffer layer has been studied by high-resolution microscopy. It is shown that modification of the leucosapphire substrate surface by depositing ultrathin Au layers does not lead to the formation of Au clusters at the film–substrate interface but significantly improves the structural quality of ZnO epitaxial films. It is demonstrated that the simplicity and scalability of the technique used to modify the substrate surface in combination with a high (above 2 nm/s) film growth rate under magnetron sputtering make it possible to obtain high-quality (0001) ZnO epitaxial films with an area of 5–6 cm{sup 2}.

  13. Fabrication and photoelectric properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Wang, Xiangfu; Meng, Lan; Yan, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped ZnO films deposited by a novel thermal decomposition method under different annealing temperature process have been reported. The effects of annealing temperature on the morphology and properties of the films are systematically studied. The resulting spectra demonstrate that the Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped ZnO films possessed the property of up-conversion, converting IR light into visible light that can be absorbed by amorphous silicon solar cell. After all, inner photoelectric effect of the Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped ZnO films in the amorphous as a light scattering layer are also found with an infrared 980 nm laser as excitation source.

  14. Oxygen pressure-dependent band gap modification in Cu-doped and -undoped ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effect of oxygen flow rate on the energy band gap of the c-axis-oriented ZnO and Zn0.95Cu0.05O films, deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, is reported. An increase of the oxygen flow rate (partial pressure) during deposition results in an increase in the band gap (Eg) of Zn0.95Cu0.05O films from 2.80 to 3.10 eV. The maximum observed enhancement is 10.5%. For the same oxygen flow rate (partial pressure), the band gap of a Zn0.95Cu0.05O film is found to be lower than that of ZnO as predicted by Ferhat et al (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 94 142502). A correlation has been observed between the residual strain and the band gap of doped and undoped ZnO films. (paper)

  15. Double-beam pulsed laser deposition for the growth of Al-incorporated ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, L. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, AP 70-186, C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Sánchez-Aké, C., E-mail: citlali.sanchez@ccadet.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, AP 70-186, C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Bizarro, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2014-05-01

    Pulsed laser deposition in a delayed-double beam configuration is used to incorporate in situ Al in ZnO thin films. In this configuration, two synchronized pulsed-laser beams are employed to ablate independently a ZnO and an Al target. We investigated the effects of relative time delay of plasma plumes on the composition of the films with the aim of evaluating the performance of this technique to produce doped materials. Relative delay between plumes was found to control the incorporation of Al in the film in the range from 14% to 30%. However, to produce low impurity concentration of Al-doped ZnO (with Al incorporation less than 2%) the fluence used to produce the plasmas has more influence over the film composition than the relative plume delay. The minimum incorporation of Al corresponded to a relative delay of 0 μs, due to the interaction between plumes during their expansion.

  16. Effects of Al Doping on the Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Liu, Juan; Dai, Ning; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2016-09-01

    The tuning of structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique is reported in this work. With the increasing Al doping level, the evolution from (002) to (100) diffraction peaks indicates the change in growth mode of ZnO films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been applied to study the thickness, optical constants, and band gap of AZO films. Due to the increasing carrier concentration after Al doping, a blue shift of band gap and absorption edge can be observed, which can be interpreted by Burstein-Moss effect. The carrier concentration and resistivity are found to vary significantly among different doping concentration, and the optimum value is also discussed. The modulations and improvements of properties are important for Al-doped ZnO films to apply as transparent conductor in various applications.

  17. Optical and structural properties of electrochemically deposited ZnO nanorod arrays suitable for improvement of the light harvesting in thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of study of the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods (NR) arrays electrochemically deposited on two type substrates – the ITO surface on the front side of Si heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells and on stainless steel plate used for formation of a-Si:H thin film solar cells, are reported. The surface morphology of the NS arrays is examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy and AFM. The spectra of specular diffused and total reflection, and haze ratio in reflectance are compared before and after deposition of the ZnO NR arrays. In the case of deposition on ITO surface of SHJ solar cells the values of the direct and diffused reflection of the ZnO NR array decrease demonstrating good antireflection properties. Deposition of ZnO NS arrays on stainless steel plates leads to increasing the values of the diffused reflection and the total reflectance. Possible application of ZnO NS structures for the processing of advanced Si based solar cells for increasing light harvesting is discussed

  18. Photocatalytic activities of wet oxidation synthesized ZnO and ZnO-TiO2 thick porous films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruiqun; Han, Jie; Yan, Xiaodong; Zou, Chongwen; Bian, Jiming; Alyamani, Ahmed; Gao, Wei

    2011-05-01

    Highly porous zinc oxide (ZnO) film was produced by using reactive magnetron sputtering zinc target followed by wet oxidation. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was mixed to the porous films by using either TiO2 target magnetron sputter deposition or sol-spin method. The film thickness could reach 50 μm with uniform porosity. On the sputtering prepared ZnO-TiO2 film surface, fine nanorods with small anatase TiO2 nano-clusters on the tips were observed by SEM and TEM, and the titanium (Ti) composition was determined by XPS as 0.37%. The sol-spin treatment could increase the Ti composition to 4.9%, with reduced pore size compared to the untreated ZnO porous film. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the Ti containing porous film has strong ultraviolet-visible light emission. In the photo-catalysis testing, ZnO and ZnO-TiO2 have similar photo-catalysis activity under 365 nm UV irradiation, but under visible light, the photocatalysis activities of ZnO-TiO2 films were twice higher than that of ZnO porous film, implying promising applications of this porous oxide composite for industrial and dairy farm wastewater treatment.

  19. Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited aluminium-doped ZnO thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Tewari; A Bhattacharjee

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) were deposited on cleaned glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis technique using Zn(CH3COO)2 as precursor solution. Also, aluminium-doped thin films of ZnO were prepared by using AlCl3 as doping solution for aluminium. The dopant concentration [Al/Zn atomic percentage (at%)] was varied from 0 to 1.5 at% in thin films of ZnO prepared in different depositions. Structural characterization of the deposited films was performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. It confirmed that all the films were of zinc oxide having polycrystalline nature and possessing typical hexagonal wurtzite structure with crystallite size varying between 100.7 and 268.6 nm. The films exhibited changes in relative intensities and crystallite size with changes in the doping concentration of Al. The electrical studies established that 1 at% of Aldoping was the optimum for enhancing electrical conduction in ZnO thin films and beyond that the distortion caused in the lattice lowered the conductivity. The films also exhibited distinct changes in their optical properties at different doping concentrations, including a blue shift and slight widening of bandgap with increasing Al dopant concentration.

  20. Strain mismatch induced tilted heteroepitaxial (000l) hexagonal ZnO films on (001) cubic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bo Soo [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Stan, Liliana; Usov, Igor O.; DePaula, Raymond F.; Arendt, Paul N.; Nastasi, Michael; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lee, Jung-Kun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Harriman, Tres A.; Lucca, Don A. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK (United States); MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Park, Bae Ho [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, Department of Physics, Konkuk University Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    A novel strain mismatch induced tilted epitaxy method has been demonstrated for producing high quality (000l) hexagonal films on (001) cubic substrates. Highly oriented hexagonal (000l) ZnO films are grown on cubic (001) MgO substrates using Sm{sub 0.28}Zr{sub 0.72}O{sub 2-{delta}} (SZO) as a template. The large lattice mismatch of >13% between the obvious crystallographic matching directions of the template and substrate means that cube-on-cube epitaxy is energetically unfavorable, leading to growth instead of two high index, low energy compact planes, close to the {l_brace}111{r_brace} orientation. These planes give three different in-plane orientations resulting from coincidence site lattice matching (12 in-plane orientations in total) and provide a pseudo-hexagonal symmetry surface for the ZnO to grow on. The texture of the ensuing (000l) ZnO layer is markedly improved over the template. The work opens up both a new avenue for growing technologically important hexagonal structures on a range of readily available, (001) cubic substrates, as well as showing that there are wide possibilities for heteroepitaxial growth of a range of dissimilar materials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bing-chu; LIU Xiao-yan; GAO Fei; MA Xue-long

    2008-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared by direct current(DC) reactive magnetron sputtering under different oxygen partial pressures.And then the samples were annealed in vacuum at 450 ℃. The effects of the oxygen partial pressures and the treatment of annealing in vacuum on the photoluminescence and the concentration of six intrinsic defects in ZnO thin films such as oxygen vacancy(Vo),zinc vacancy(VZn), antisite oxygen(OZn), antisite zinc(ZnO), interstitial oxygen(Oi) and interstitial zinc(Zni) were studied. The results show that a green photoluminescence peak at 520 nm can be observed in all the samples, whose intensity increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure; for the sample annealed in vacuum, the intensity of the green peak increases as well. The green photoluminescence peak observed in ZnO may be attributed to zinc vacancy, which probably originates from transitions between electrons in the conduction band and zinc vacancy levels, or from transitions between electrons in zinc vacancy levels and up valence band.

  2. Improvement in the Grain Growth of Plasma-Treated Nano-Sized ZnO Films and Their Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mi; Chou, Ching-Chuan; Lin, Ching-Cheng; Koo, Horng-Show

    2015-11-01

    The well-aligned ZnO nanorods were rapidly grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate using Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film as seed layer by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal chemical route. The optimal growth conditions for the well-aligned ZnO nanorods were obtained by modulating H2 plasma pretreatment time for the seed layer and synthesis time for ZnO nanorods. The H2 plasma effect of the seed layer on the alignment, growth rate and crysallinity of ZnO nanods is also demonstrated. The synthesized ZnO nanorods were annealed in atmosphere of N2, O2 and H2 + N2 mixed gas to improve the related physical characteristics, the ZnO nanorods on grapheme/ITO substrate were also investigated. The results show that the alignment and growth rate of ZnO nanorods depends on the physical characteristics and roughness of the seed layer, which can be improved by H2 plasma pretreatment. The average growth rate of ZnO nanorods synthesized by microwave hydrothermal technique is about 2.2 μm/hr which significantly superior to other conventional techniques. After the appropriate N2 annealing treatment, good quality and well-aligned ZnO nanorods, which are single crystal with stacking defects and pyramid or candle shape, were obtained. A fundamental model of the effect of H2 plasma pretreatment on the surface of seed layer and the growth of ZnO nanorods using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal chemical route is also described. PMID:26726662

  3. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO films grown on InP by thermally oxidizing metallic Zn films

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S J; Zhang, J Y; Lu, Y M; Shen, D Z; Fan, X W

    2003-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO films grown on (001) InP substrates by thermal oxidization of metallic Zn films, in which oxygen vacancies and interstitial Zn ions are compensated by P ions diffusing from (001) InP substrates, are investigated. X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that P ions have diffused into the Zn films and chemically combined with Zn ions to form Zn sub 3 P sub 2. Intense free exciton emission dominates the PL spectra of ZnO films with very weak deep-level emission. Low-temperature PL spectra at 79 K are dominated by neutral-donor bound exciton emission at 3.299 eV (I sub 4) with a linewidth of 17.3 meV and neutral-acceptor bound exciton emission at 3.264 eV. The free exciton emission increases with increasing temperature and eventually dominates the emission spectrum for temperature higher than 170 K. Furthermore, the visible emission around 2.3 eV correlated with oxygen deficiencies and interstitial Zn defects was quenched to a remarkable degree by P diffusing from InP substrate...

  4. Transparent and conductive Al/F and In co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, A.; Taibi, M.; El hat, A.; Mzerd, A.

    2016-02-01

    In doped ZnO (IZO), In-Al co-doped ZnO (IAZO) and In-F co-doped ZnO (IFZO) were deposited on glass substrates at 350 °C by spray pyrolysis technique. The structural, optical and electrical properties of as-deposited thin films were investigated and compared. A polycrystalline and (002) oriented wurtzite crystal structure was confirmed by X-ray patterns for all films; and the full width at half -maximum (FWHM) of (002) diffraction peak increased after co-doping. The investigation of the optical properties was performed using Uv-vis spectroscopy. The average transmittances of all the films were between 70 and 85%. Hall Effect measurements showed that the electrical conductivity of co-doped films increased as compared with IZO thin film. The highest conductivity of about 16.39 Ω-1 cm-1 was obtained for as-deposited IFZO thin film. In addition, the thin films were annealed at 350 °C for two hour under Ar atmosphere and their optical, electrical properties and the associated photoluminescence (PL) responses of selected films were analysed. After annealing, the electrical conductivity of all thin films was improved and the optical transmittance remained above 70%. Room temperature PL revealed that the annealed IAZO thin film had a strong green emission than that of IZO film.

  5. Influence of pH on ZnO nanocrystalline thin films prepared by sol–gel dip coating method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sivakumar; V Senthil Kumar; N Muthukumarasamy; M Thambidurai; T S Senthil

    2012-06-01

    ZnO nanocrystalline thin films have been prepared on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating method. ZnO thin films have been coated at room temperature and at four different pH values of 4, 6, 8 and 10. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that ZnO nanocrystalline thin films are of hexagonal structure and the grain size was found to be in the range of 25–45 nm. Scanning electron microscopic images show that the surface morphology improves with increase of pH values. TEM analysis reveals formation of ZnO nanocrystalline with an average grain size of 44 nm. The compositional analysis results show that Zn and O are present in the sample. Optical band studies show that the films are highly transparent and exhibit a direct bandgap. The bandgap has been found to lie in the range of 3.14–3.32 eV depending on pH suggesting the formation of ZnO nanocrystalline thin films.

  6. Structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis: Effect of precursor concentration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F Zahedi; R S Dariani; S M Rozati

    2014-05-01

    ZnO thin films have been prepared using zinc acetate precursor by spray pyrolytic decomposition of zinc acetate on glass substrates at 450 °C. Effect of precursor concentration on structural and optical properties has been investigated. ZnO films are polycrystalline with (002) plane as preferential orientation. The optical transmission spectrum shows that transmission increases with decrease in the concentration and the maximum transmission in visible region is about 95% for ZnO films prepared with 0.1 M. The direct band-gap value decreases from 3.37 to 3.19 eV, when the precursor concentration increases from 0.1 to 0.4 M. Photoluminescence spectra at room temperature show an ultraviolet (UV) emission at 3.26 eV and two visible emissions at 2.82 and 2.38 eV. Lowest resistivity is obtained at 2.09 cm for 0.3 M. The current–voltage characteristic of the ZnO thin films were measured in dark and under UV illumination. The values of photocurrent and photoresponsivity at 5 V are increased with increase in precursor concentration and reaches to maximum value of 1148 A and 0.287 A/W, respectively which is correlated to structural properties of ZnO thin films.

  7. Synthesis of PS colloidal crystal templates and ordered ZnO porous thin films by dip-drawing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Zhifeng [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Jin Zhengguo [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: zhgjin@tju.edu.cn; Li Wei [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qiu Jijun [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao Juan [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu Xiaoxin [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2006-05-15

    Polystyrene spheres (PS) were synthesized by an emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization technique and the PS colloidal crystal templates were assembled orderly on clean glass substrates by dip-drawing method from emulsion of PS. Porous ZnO thin films were prepared by filling the ZnO sol into the spaces among the close-packed PS templates and then annealing to remove the PS templates. The effects of ZnO precursor sol concentration and dipping time in sol on the porous structure of the thin films were studied. The results showed an ordered ZnO porous thin film with designed pore size that depended on the sol concentration and PS size could be obtained. And the shrinkage of pore diameter was about 30-43%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated the thin film was wurtzite structure. The transmittance spectrum showed that optical transmittance decreased with the decrease of wavelength, but kept above 80% optical transmittances beyond the wavelength of 550 nm. Optical band gap of the porous ZnO thin film (fired at 500 deg. C) was 3.22 eV.

  8. Effect of self-organization, defects, impurities, and autocatalytic processes on the parameters of ZnO films and nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezdrogina, M. M., E-mail: Margaret.M@mail.ioffe.ru; Eremenko, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Levitskii, V. S. [Saint-Petersburg State Electrotechnical University (LETI) (Russian Federation); Petrov, V. N.; Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kaidashev, E. M.; Langusov, N. V. [Southern Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The effects of the parameters of ZnO-film deposition onto different substrates using the method of ac magnetron sputtering in a gas mixture of argon and oxygen hare studied. The phenomenon of self-organization is observed, which leads to invariability of the surface morphology of the ZnO films upon a variation in the substrate materials and deposition parameters. The parameters of the macro- and micro-photoluminescence spectra of the films differ insignificantly from the parameters of the photoluminescence spectra of bulk ZnO crystals obtained by the method of hydrothermal growth. The presence of intense emission with a narrow full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) in different regions of the spectrum allows ZnO films obtained by magnetron sputtering doped with rare-earth metal impurities (REIs) to be considered as a promising material for the creation of optoelectronic devices working in a broad spectral range. The possibility of the implementation of magnetic ordering upon legierung with REIs significantly broadens the functional possibilities of ZnO films. The parameters of the photoluminescence spectra of ZnO nanorods are determined by their geometrical parameters and by the concentration and type of the impurities introduced.

  9. Thermal activation of nitrogen acceptors in ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangbegnon, J.K.; Talla, K.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2010-06-15

    Nitrogen doping in ZnO is inhibited by spontaneous formation of compensating defects. Perfect control of the nitrogen doping concentration is required, since a high concentration of nitrogen could induce the formation of donor defects involving nitrogen. In this work, the effect of post-growth annealing in oxygen ambient on ZnO thin films grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition, using NO as both oxidant and nitrogen dopant, is studied. After annealing at 700 C and above, low-temperature photoluminescence shows the appearance of a transition at {proportional_to}3.23 eV which is interpreted as pair emission involving a nitrogen acceptor. A second transition at {proportional_to}3.15 eV is also discussed. This work suggests annealing as a potential means for p-type doping using nitrogen (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. The magnetic ordering in high magnetoresistance Mn-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Venkatesh, S.

    2016-03-24

    We studied the nature of magnetic ordering in Mn-doped ZnO thin films that exhibited ferromagnetism at 300 K and superparamagnetism at 5 K. We directly inter-related the magnetisation and magnetoresistance by invoking the polaronpercolation theory and variable range of hopping conduction below the metal-to-insulator transition. By obtaining a qualitative agreement between these two models, we attribute the ferromagnetism to the s-d exchange-induced spin splitting that was indicated by large positive magnetoresistance (∼40 %). Low temperature superparamagnetism was attributed to the localization of carriers and non-interacting polaron clusters. This analysis can assist in understanding the presence or absence of ferromagnetism in doped/un-doped ZnO.

  11. ZnO buffer layer for metal films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon

    2014-09-16

    Dramatic improvements in metallization integrity and electroceramic thin film performance can be achieved by the use of the ZnO buffer layer to minimize interfacial energy between metallization and adhesion layers. In particular, the invention provides a substrate metallization method utilizing a ZnO adhesion layer that has a high work of adhesion, which in turn enables processing under thermal budgets typically reserved for more exotic ceramic, single-crystal, or metal foil substrates. Embodiments of the present invention can be used in a broad range of applications beyond ferroelectric capacitors, including microelectromechanical systems, micro-printed heaters and sensors, and electrochemical energy storage, where integrity of metallized silicon to high temperatures is necessary.

  12. Characterization of sputtered ZnO films under different sputter-etching time of substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cui-ping; YANG Bao-he; QIAN Li-rong; XU Sheng; DAI Wei; LI Ming-ji; LI Xiao-wei; GAO Cheng-yao

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline ZnO films are prepared using radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrates which are sputteretched for different time.Both the size of ZnO grains and the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness decrease,as the sputteretching time of the substrate increases.More Zn atoms are bound to O atoms in the films,and the defect concentration is decreased with increasing sputter-etching time of substrate.Meanwhile,the crystallinity and c-axis orientation are improved at longer sputter-etching time of the substrate.The Raman peaks at 99 cm-1,438 cm-1 and 589 cm-1 are identified as E2(low),E2(high) and E1(LO) modes,respectively,and the position of E1(LO) peak blue shifts at longer sputter-etching time.The transmittances of the films,which are deposited on the substrate and etched for 10 min and 20 min,are higher in the visible region than that of the films deposited under longer sputter-etching time of 30 min.The bandgap increases from 3.23 eV to 3.27 eV with the increase of the sputter-etching time of substrate.

  13. Antibacterial and barrier properties of oriented polymer films with ZnO thin films applied with atomic layer deposition at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vähä-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland); Pitkänen, Marja; Salo, Erkki; Kenttä, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland); Tanskanen, Anne, E-mail: Anne.Tanskanen@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Sajavaara, Timo, E-mail: timo.sajavaara@jyu.fi [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Putkonen, Matti; Sievänen, Jenni; Sneck, Asko; Rättö, Marjaana [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: Maarit.Karppinen@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044, VTT (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Concerns on food safety, and need for high quality and extended shelf-life of packaged foods have promoted the development of antibacterial barrier packaging materials. Few articles have been available dealing with the barrier or antimicrobial properties of zinc oxide thin films deposited at low temperature with atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto commercial polymer films typically used for packaging purposes. The purpose of this paper was to study the properties of ZnO thin films compared to those of aluminum oxide. It was also possible to deposit ZnO thin films onto oriented polylactic acid and polypropylene films at relatively low temperatures using ozone instead of water as an oxidizing precursor for diethylzinc. Replacing water with ozone changed both the structure and the chemical composition of films deposited on silicon wafers. ZnO films deposited with ozone contained large grains covered and separated probably by a more amorphous and uniform layer. These thin films were also assumed to contain zinc salts of carboxylic acids. The barrier properties of a 25 nm ZnO thin film deposited with ozone at 100 °C were quite close to those obtained earlier with ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} of similar apparent thickness on similar polymer films. ZnO thin films deposited at low temperature indicated migration of antibacterial agent, while direct contact between ZnO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films and bacteria promoted antibacterial activity. - Highlights: • Thin films were grown from diethylzinc also with ozone instead of water at 70 and 100 °C. • ZnO films deposited with diethylzinc and ozone had different structures and chemistries. • Best barrier properties obtained with zinc oxide films close to those obtained with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} • Ozone as oxygen source provided better barrier properties at 100 °C than water. • Both aluminum and zinc oxide thin films showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli.

  14. Conductive ZnO:Zn Composites for High-Rate Sputtering Deposition of ZnO Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li Qin; Dubey, Mukul; Simões, Raul; Fan, Qi Hua; Neto, Victor

    2015-02-01

    We report an electrically conductive composite prepared by sintering ZnO and metallic Zn powders. Microstructure analysis combined with electrical conductivity studies indicated that when the proportion of metallic Zn reached a threshold (˜20 wt.%), a metal matrix was formed in accordance with percolation theory. This composite has potential as a sputtering target for deposition of high-quality ZnO. Use of the ZnO:Zn composite completely eliminates target poisoning effects in reactive sputtering of the metal, and enables deposition of thin ZnO films at rates much higher than those obtained by sputtering of pure ZnO ceramic targets. The optical transmittance of the ZnO films prepared by use of this composite is comparable with that of films produced by radio frequency sputtering of pure ZnO ceramic targets. The sputtering characteristics of the conductive ZnO:Zn composite target are reported, and possible mechanisms of the high rate of deposition are also discussed.

  15. Electron mobility and injection dynamics in mesoporous ZnO, SnO₂, and TiO₂ films used in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwana, Priti; Docampo, Pablo; Johnston, Michael B; Snaith, Henry J; Herz, Laura M

    2011-06-28

    High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells are usually fabricated using nanostructured TiO(2) as a thin-film electron-collecting material. However, alternative metal-oxides are currently being explored that may offer advantages through ease of processing, higher electron mobility, or interface band energetics. We present here a comparative study of electron mobility and injection dynamics in thin films of TiO(2), ZnO, and SnO(2) nanoparticles sensitized with Z907 ruthenium dye. Using time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity measurements, we show that, for ZnO and SnO(2) nanoporous films, electron injection from the sensitizer has substantial slow components lasting over tens to hundreds of picoseconds, while for TiO(2), the process is predominantly concluded within a few picoseconds. These results correlate well with the overall electron injection efficiencies we determine from photovoltaic cells fabricated from identical nanoporous films, suggesting that such slow components limit the overall photocurrent generated by the solar cell. We conclude that these injection dynamics are not substantially influenced by bulk energy level offsets but rather by the local environment of the dye-nanoparticle interface that is governed by dye binding modes and densities of states available for injection, both of which may vary from site to site. In addition, we have extracted the electron mobility in the three nanoporous metal-oxide films at early time after excitation from terahertz conductivity measurements and compared these with the time-averaged, long-range mobility determined for devices based on identical films. Comparison with established values for single-crystal Hall mobilities of the three materials shows that, while electron mobility values for nanoporous TiO(2) films are approaching theoretical maximum values, both early time, short distance and interparticle electron mobility in nanoporous ZnO or SnO(2) films offer considerable scope for improvement.

  16. Synthesis of nano ZnO thin film on Al foil by rf glow discharge plasma and its effect on E. coli and P. aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahi, Jagannath; Nayak, Bijan B.; Behera, Debadhyan; Subudhi, Umakanta; Acharya, Bhabani S. [CSIR - Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2012-09-15

    Nano ZnO thin films were deposited on thin Al foils by a rf glow discharge plasma method in which sublimed zinc acetate vapor (precursor) reacted with oxygen plasma inside a low-pressure reactor. The films were microstructurally characterized using XRD, TEM, FESEM, optical reflectance and micro-Raman spectroscopy methods. In view of the good scope of ZnO coating in food packaging, the antibacterial activity in the ZnO thin films was studied by exposing the films to E. coli and P. aeruginosa for up to 8 h. Bacterial cell inhibition of up to 98-99 % was observed in the thin films. (orig.)

  17. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of Cu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cu-doped ZnO thin films were fabricated on glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method. All samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The grain size and film thickness of the Cu-doped ZnO thin film decreased as a function of the Cu concentrations. All prepared films showed a very high transmittance above 89% in the visible region (400-800 nm). Two oxidation states of Cu in +1 and +2 were identified in the ZnO thin film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Their photocatalytic activities were investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under blacklight fluorescent tubes. The film prepared from the Zn2+ solution containing 0.5 mol% of copper ions had the highest photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution as a function of the initial concentrations was evaluated according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The reaction rate (k) and adsorption equilibrium constant (K) over 1 cm2 of 0.5 mol% Cu-doped ZnO thin film are 15.92 μM h-1 and 0.049 μM-1, respectively.

  18. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of Cu-doped ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongnavakit, P. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Amornpitoksuk, P., E-mail: ampongsa@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry and Center for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); NANOTEC Center of Excellence at Prince of Songkla University (CENE), Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Suwanboon, S. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); NANOTEC Center of Excellence at Prince of Songkla University (CENE), Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Ndiege, N. [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Institute, W181 Chemistry Building, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, IA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Cu-doped ZnO thin films were fabricated on glass substrates by the sol-gel dip-coating method. All samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The grain size and film thickness of the Cu-doped ZnO thin film decreased as a function of the Cu concentrations. All prepared films showed a very high transmittance above 89% in the visible region (400-800 nm). Two oxidation states of Cu in +1 and +2 were identified in the ZnO thin film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Their photocatalytic activities were investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) dye under blacklight fluorescent tubes. The film prepared from the Zn{sup 2+} solution containing 0.5 mol% of copper ions had the highest photocatalytic activity. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution as a function of the initial concentrations was evaluated according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The reaction rate (k) and adsorption equilibrium constant (K) over 1 cm{sup 2} of 0.5 mol% Cu-doped ZnO thin film are 15.92 {mu}M h{sup -1} and 0.049 {mu}M{sup -1}, respectively.

  19. Realization of Cu-Doped p-Type ZnO Thin Films by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suja, Mohammad; Bashar, Sunayna B; Morshed, Muhammad M; Liu, Jianlin

    2015-04-29

    Cu-doped p-type ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments reveal a shallow acceptor state at 0.15 eV above the valence band edge. Hall effect results indicate that a growth condition window is found for the formation of p-type ZnO thin films, and the best conductivity is achieved with a high hole concentration of 1.54 × 10(18) cm(-3), a low resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm, and a moderate mobility of 6.65 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitor devices have been fabricated on the Cu-doped ZnO films, and the characteristics of capacitance-voltage measurements demonstrate that the Cu-doped ZnO thin films under proper growth conditions are p-type. Seebeck measurements on these Cu-doped ZnO samples lead to positive Seebeck coefficients and further confirm the p-type conductivity. Other measurements such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, Raman, and absorption spectroscopies are also performed to elucidate the structural and optical characteristics of the Cu-doped p-type ZnO films. The p-type conductivity is explained to originate from Cu substitution of Zn with a valency of +1 state. However, all p-type samples are converted to n-type over time, which is mostly due to the carrier compensation from extrinsic defects of ZnO. PMID:25835032

  20. Characterization and properties of ZnO1-xSx alloy films fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of ZnO1-xSx alloy films (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) were grown on quartz substrates by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering of ZnS ceramic target, using oxygen and argon as working gas. X-ray diffraction measurement shows that the ZnO1-xSx films have wurtzite structure with (0 0 2) preferential orientation in O-rich side (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.23) and zinc blende structure with (1 1 1) preferential orientation in S-rich side (0.77 ≤ x ≤ 1). However, when the S content is in the range of 0.23 1-xSx film consists of two phases of wurtzite and zinc blende or amorphous ZnO1-xSx phase. The band gap energy of the films shows non-linear dependence on the S content, with an optical bowing parameter of about 2.9 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement reveals that the PL spectrum of the wurtzite ZnO1-xSx is dominated by visible band and its PL intensity and intensity ratio of UV to visible band decrease greatly compared with undoped ZnO. All as-grown ZnO1-xSx films behave insulating, but show n-type conductivity for w-ZnO1-xSx and maintain insulating properties for β-ZnO1-xSx after annealed. Mechanisms of effects of S on optical and electrical properties of the ZnO1-xSx alloy are discussed in the present work.

  1. Comprehensive study of the surface morphology evolution induced by thermal annealing in single-crystalline ZnO films and ZnO bulks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, N.; Oh, D. C. [Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ko, H. J. [Korea Photonics Technology Institute, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, D. S.; Hong, S. K. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yao, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    We report on the evolution of the surface morphology induced by thermal annealing in N{sub 2} ambient over a wide temperature range of 500 - 1200 .deg. C in single-crystalline ZnO films and ZnO bulks. The surface morphology is seriously changed by the annealing temperature, and the evolution can be categorized into three regions: island growth, island agglomeration, and pit formation. Island growth at low temperatures below 700 .deg. C, is ascribed to the atomic migration to reduce surface energy, which causes surface roughening. Island agglomeration at intermediate temperatures of 700 - 900 .deg. C is ascribed to the migration and the evaporation of surface atoms, which causes surface flattening. Pit formation at high temperatures above 900 .deg. C is ascribed to the atomic evaporation by high vapor pressure, which causes surface destruction. On the other hand, the bulk lattice is continuously improved with increasing annealing temperature in the temperature regions before the surface-destruction region, which is attributed to the reduction in the numbers of point and line defects caused by recrystallization. As a result, the best surface morphology and the best bulk lattice are obtained at an annealing temperature of 900 .deg. C. The common surface-morphology evolution of ZnO films and ZnO bulks with increasing annealing temperature can be summarized using the three steps of surface roughening by island growth, surface flattening by island agglomeration, and surface destruction by pit formation.

  2. Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires and Their Photovoltaic Application: ZnO Nanowires/AgGaSe2 Thin Film Core-Shell Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Peksu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, hydrothermal technique was employed for the synthesis of well-aligned dense arrays of ZnO nanowires (NWs on a wide range of substrates including silicon, soda-lime glass (SLG, indium tin oxide, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Results showed that ZnO NWs can be successfully grown on any substrate that can withstand the growth temperature (~90°C and precursor solution chemicals. Results also revealed that there was a strong impact of growth time and ZnO seed layer deposition route on the orientation, density, diameter, and uniformity of the synthesized nanowires. A core-shell n-ZnO NWs/p-AgGaSe2 (AGS thin film solar cell was fabricated as a device application of synthesized ZnO nanowires by decoration of nanowires with ~700 nm thick sputtering deposited AGS thin film layer, which demonstrated an energy conversion efficiency of 1.74% under 100 mW/cm2 of simulated solar illumination.

  3. Effect of annealing treatment on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; FANG Liang; CHEN Ximing; LIU Gaobin; LIU Jun; YANG Fengfan; FU Guangzong; KONG Chunyang

    2007-01-01

    Highly conductive and transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were prepared from a zinc target containing Al (1.5 wt.%) by direct current (DC) and radio frequency (RF) reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of AZO films as-deposited and submitted to annealing treatment (at 300 and 400 ℃, respectively) were characterized using various techniques. The experimental results show that the properties of AZO thin films can be further improved by annealing treatment. The crystallinity of ZnO films improves after annealing treatment. The transmittances of the AZO thin films prepared by DC and RF reactive magnetron sputtering are up to 80% and 85% in the visible region, respectively. The electrical resistivity of AZO thin films prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering can be as low as tering have better structural and optical properties than that prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering.

  4. Effect of In doping on the properties and antibacterial activity of ZnO films prepared by spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, C; Pavithra, G; Dhanapandian, S; Dhamodharan, P

    2015-10-01

    Pure and In-doped ZnO thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results showed that all films were polycrystalline in nature with the wurzite structure. A change in preferential orientation from (002) to (101) plane was observed with increase in content of Indium. A reduce in crystallite size was observed with increase of In content. The small sized grains with the porous nature of the film was observed from SEM analysis. AFM study depicted polycrystalline nature and uniformly distributed grains with small pores in the doped film. A decrease in band gap was noticed with increase in In content. The absence of green emission in PL spectra indicated the decreased oxygen defects. The decrease in the resistivity with increase of Hall mobility was noted for the doped film. A better antibacterial activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus by doped ZnO thin film. PMID:25997176

  5. Local vibrational modes competitions in Mn-doped ZnO epitaxial films with tunable ferromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Qiang [National Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); School of Physics and Engineering, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China); Fu, Maoxiang; Liu, Guolei, E-mail: liu-guolei@sdu.edu.cn; Zhang, Huaijin; Yan, Shishen; Chen, Yanxue; Mei, Liangmo [National Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials and School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Jiao, Jun [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, Oregon 97207-0751 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    We reported spectroscopic investigations of high quality Mn-doped ZnO (ZnMnO) films grown by oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Raman scattering spectra revealed two local vibrational modes (LVMs) associated with Mn dopants at 523 and 712 cm{sup −1}. The LVMs and magnetic properties of ZnMnO films can be synchronously modulated by post annealing processing or by introducing tiny Co. The relative intensity of two LVMs clearly shows competitions arising from uncompensated acceptor and donor defects competition for ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic films. The experimental results indicated that LVM at 523 cm{sup −1} is attributed to Mn—(Zinc-vacancy) complexes, while LVM at 712 cm{sup −1} is attributed to Mn—(Oxygen-vacancy) complexes.

  6. Temperature dependence of the spin relaxation in highly degenerate ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestgard, M. C.; Siegel, G.; Tiwari, A., E-mail: tiwari@eng.utah.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Roundy, R.; Raikh, M. [Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    Zinc oxide is considered a potential candidate for fabricating next-generation transparent spintronic devices. However, before this can be achieved, a thorough scientific understanding of the various spin transport and relaxation processes undergone in this material is essential. In the present paper, we are reporting our investigations into these processes via temperature dependent Hanle experiments. ZnO thin films were deposited on c-axis sapphire substrates using a pulsed laser deposition technique. Careful structural, optical, and electrical characterizations of the films were performed. Temperature dependent non-local Hanle measurements were carried out using an all-electrical scheme for spin injection and detection over the temperature range of 20–300 K. From the Hanle data, spin relaxation time in the films was determined at different temperatures. A detailed analysis of the data showed that the temperature dependence of spin relaxation time follows the linear-in-momentum Dyakonov-Perel mechanism.

  7. Enhanced stimulated emission in ZnO thin films using microdisk top-down structuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomenyo, K.; Kostcheev, S.; Lérondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6281, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, CS 42060, 10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Gadallah, A.-S. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6281, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, CS 42060, 10004 Troyes Cedex (France); Department of Laser Sciences and Interactions, National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Rogers, D. J. [Nanovation, 8, route de Chevreuse, 78117 Châteaufort (France)

    2014-05-05

    Microdisks were fabricated in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films using a top-down approach combining electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. These microdisk structured thin films exhibit a stimulated surface emission between 3 and 7 times higher than that from a reference film depending on the excitation power density. Emission peak narrowing, reduction in lasing threshold and blue-shifting of the emission wavelength were observed along with enhancement in the emitted intensity. Results indicate that this enhancement is due to an increase in the internal quantum efficiency combined with an amplification of the stimulated emission. An analysis in terms of waveguiding is presented in order to explain these effects. These results demonstrate that very significant gains in emission can be obtained through conventional microstructuration without the need for more onerous top-down nanostructuration techniques.

  8. Effect of tin doping on optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedia, F.Z.; Bedia, A. [URMER, Abou-Bakr Belkaid University, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Maloufi, N., E-mail: nabila.maloufi@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d’Étude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR-CNRS 7239, Université de Lorraine, 57045 Metz (France); Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France); Aillerie, M.; Genty, F. [LMOPS-EA 4423, Université de Lorraine, 57070 Metz (France); Supelec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Benyoucef, B. [URMER, Abou-Bakr Belkaid University, 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • (0–2%) Sn-doped ZnO films grown by spray pyrolysis on glass substrates. • Transmittance up to 93% in visible region, sharp absorption edge at 360 nm. • Blue shift of optical band gap: E{sub g} = 3.27 eV for 0% Sn; Eg{sub max} = 3.30 eV for 0.5% Sn. • All the optical parameters reach threshold values for 0.5% Sn-doped ZnO films. • Good physical properties suited for films integration in optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: Sn-doped ZnO thin films with 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% Sn were grown by spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates under optimized conditions. High resolution Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy characterization showed that the films consist of hexagonal-like grains. A comprehensive study of the optical properties was performed and the dispersion constants were determined. The effect of Sn content on the optical band gap and the optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constants, and dispersion parameters) was studied. These Sn-doped ZnO thin films are highly transparent (73–93%) in the visible region. A blue shift of the optical band gap, attributed to the Burstein Moss effect, was observed for the Sn-doped films. All the optical dispersion parameters depend on the Sn content of the films, but were found to reach threshold values at a Sn content of 0.5%. These optical parameters are discussed in terms of the single oscillator model. This study demonstrated that this 0.5% Sn-doped ZnO thin film has enhanced physical properties, allowing its better integration in optoelectronic devices.

  9. Effect of tin doping on optical properties of nanostructured ZnO thin films grown by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • (0–2%) Sn-doped ZnO films grown by spray pyrolysis on glass substrates. • Transmittance up to 93% in visible region, sharp absorption edge at 360 nm. • Blue shift of optical band gap: Eg = 3.27 eV for 0% Sn; Egmax = 3.30 eV for 0.5% Sn. • All the optical parameters reach threshold values for 0.5% Sn-doped ZnO films. • Good physical properties suited for films integration in optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: Sn-doped ZnO thin films with 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% Sn were grown by spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates under optimized conditions. High resolution Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy characterization showed that the films consist of hexagonal-like grains. A comprehensive study of the optical properties was performed and the dispersion constants were determined. The effect of Sn content on the optical band gap and the optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constants, and dispersion parameters) was studied. These Sn-doped ZnO thin films are highly transparent (73–93%) in the visible region. A blue shift of the optical band gap, attributed to the Burstein Moss effect, was observed for the Sn-doped films. All the optical dispersion parameters depend on the Sn content of the films, but were found to reach threshold values at a Sn content of 0.5%. These optical parameters are discussed in terms of the single oscillator model. This study demonstrated that this 0.5% Sn-doped ZnO thin film has enhanced physical properties, allowing its better integration in optoelectronic devices

  10. Influence of Doping and Annealing on Structural, Optical and Electrical properties Amorphous ZnO Thin Films Prepared by PLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar AbduAlwahab Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The optical gap of the films was calculated from the curve of absorption coefficient (αhע2 vs. hע and was found to be 3.8 eV at room temperature, and this value decreases from 3.8 to 3.58 eV with increasing of annealing temperature up to 473-673 K, and increases with the Ga doping. λ cutoff was calculated for ZnO and showed an increase with increasing annealing temperature and shifting to longer wavelength, while with doping the λcutoff shifted to shorter wavelength. The photoluminescence (PL results indicate that the pure ZnO thin films grown at room temperature show strong peaks at 640 nm , but  GaO doped ZnO films showed a band emission in the yellow-green spectral region (380 to 450nm.

  11. Co doping induced structural and optical properties of sol–gel prepared ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gungor, Ebru, E-mail: egungor@mehmetakif.edu.tr [Energy Systems Engineering Department, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur 15030 (Turkey); Gungor, Tayyar [Energy Systems Engineering Department, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Burdur 15030 (Turkey); Caliskan, Deniz [Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ceylan, Abdullah [SNTG Laboratory, Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozbay, Ekmel [Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • Transparent metal oxides are related to ZnO. • Optical transmission spectrum of Co doped ZnO thin films. • Determination of optical band gap using photoluminescence measurement. • Deposition thin film by using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. - Abstract: The preparation conditions for Co doping process into the ZnO structure were studied by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Structural and optical properties of the Co:ZnO thin films as a function of Co concentrations were examined. It was observed that hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO is dominant up to the critical value, and after the value, the cubic structural phase of the cobalt oxide appears in the X-ray diffraction patterns. Every band-edge of Co:ZnO films shifts to the lower energies and all are confirmed with the PL measurements. Co substitution in ZnO lattice has been proved by the optical transmittance measurement which is observed as the loss of transmission appearing in specific region due to Co{sup 2+} characteristic transitions.

  12. Microwave Assisted Growth of ZnO Nanorods and Nanopolypods Nanostructure Thin Films for Gas and Explosives Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of uniformly distributed and densely packed array of zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods (NRs and nanorods (NRs/nanopolypods (NPPs was successfully achieved through microwave-assisted chemical route at low temperature. The ZnO NRs and NRs/NPPs were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The ZnO NRs were of 100–150 nm diameter and 0.5–1 μm length, while the NPPs were of diameter about 150–200 nm and 1.5–2 μm pod length. The prepared films are polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along (002 plane with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. These films were studied for the sensing properties of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, oxygen, and hazardous explosives, that is, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramines (RDX, in the temperature ranges of 25–425 °C and 100–200 °C, respectively. The grown nanostructure films showed reliable stable response to several on-off cycles, and reduction in sensor recovery time was found with the increase in temperature. ZnO NRs and NRs/NPPs showed better sensitivity and recovery time for both LPG and oxygen, as compared to the literature-reported results for ZnO thin films.

  13. Influence of Annealing on Properties of ZnO Films Grown via Plasma-enhanced MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Bai-jun; LIU Da-li; LI Wan-cheng; FANG Xiu-jun; DU Guo-tong; YANG Hong-jun; WANG Jinz-hong; ZHANG Yuan-tao; YANG Xiao-tian; LIU Bo-yang; MA Yan; YANG Tian-peng

    2003-01-01

    The structural and the optical properties of ZnO films with high quality grown via plasma-enhanced metal-organic chemical vapour deposition(MOCVD) on C-plane sapphire substrate were studied. The crystallinity and the optical properties of the films are greatly improved having been annealed in oxygen plasma atmosphere. The structure, the band gap and the binding energy of O1s electrons, and the molar ratio of O to Zn were determined by X-ray diffraction(XRD), photoluminescence(PL) and X-ray photoelectron scan methods. For both the annealed and the as-grown films, the exciton peak features were observed at room temperature. The band-edge photoluminescence of the annealed film is much stronger than that of the as-grown film, and the exciton peak relating to the deep level at 439 nm disappears. The molar ratio of O to Zn in the annealed film is 0.91, while it is 0.78 for the as-grown film.

  14. Heavy lithium-doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ardyanian; N Sedigh

    2014-10-01

    Lithium-doped ZnO thin films (ZnO : Li) were prepared by spray pyrolysis method on the glass substrates for ( = [Li]/[Zn]) value varied between 5 and 70%. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Hall effect and sheet resistance measurements. XRD results show that for ≤ 50%, the structure of the films tends to be polycrystals of wurtzite structure with preferred direction along (0 0 2). The best crystalline order is found at = 20% and the crystal structure is stable until = 60%. The Hall effect results describe that Li doping leads to change in the conduction type from - to -type, again it changes to -type at = 70% and is attributed to self-compensation effect. Moreover, the carrier density was calculated in the order of 1013 cm-3. The resistivity of Li-doped films decreases until 22 cm at = 50%. Optical bandgap was reduced slightly, from 3.27 to 3.24 eV as a function of the grain size. Optical transmittance in the visible range reaches = 97%, by increasing of Li content until = 20%. Electrical and optical properties are coherent with structural results.

  15. Hydrogen influence on the electrical and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown under different atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I., E-mail: lorite@physik.uni-leipzig; Wasik, J.; Michalsky, T.; Schmidt-Grund, R.; Esquinazi, P.

    2014-04-01

    In this work we studied the changes of the electrical and optical properties after hydrogen plasma treatment of polycrystalline ZnO thin films grown under different atmosphere conditions. The obtained results show that the gas used during the growth process plays an important role in the way hydrogen is incorporated in the films. The hydrogen doping can produce radiative and non-radiative defects that reduce the UV emission in ZnO films grown in oxygen atmosphere but it passivates defects created when the films are grown in nitrogen atmosphere. Impedance spectroscopy measurements show that these effects are related to regions where hydrogen is mostly located, either at the grain cores or boundaries. We discuss how hydrogen strongly influences the initial semiconducting behavior of the ZnO thin films. - Highlights: • Effectiveness of hydrogen treatment depends on the thin film growth conditions. • There is no detection of secondary phases after treatment by IS. • Hydrogen incorporation changes optical and electrical ZnO properties.

  16. Effect of Al and Mg Doping on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T Yusuf

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the influence of aluminum and magnesium doping on the optical and electrical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO thin films for solar cell application. Zinc acetate dehydrates was used as starting material. Aluminum chloride and tin chloride were added to each solution to serve as dopants. X-ray diffractions were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD which revealed crystalline and hexagonal wurtzite structure. All the films showed more than 80% transparency in the visible region. The optical band gap of undoped ZnO thin film was found to be 3.12ev while that of Al-doped and Mg-doped ZnO film was estimated to be 3.16eV and 3.26eV respectively. The resistivity of the films measured were 2.51×10–4 Ω cm for Al-doped, 2.53×10–4 Ω cm for mg-doped and 2.61×10-4 Ω cm for undoped ZnO respectively. The quality of the films deposited in this work is a promising window layer component of a solar cell. The variation in the band gap observed in this work could be explained by Burstein–Moss effect which was fully explained in the discussion section of this work.

  17. Role of growth temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashish, E-mail: dr.akmr@gmail.com [Materials Science Division, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Kumar, Parmod [Materials Science Division, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Kumar, Kaushal [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 247667 (India); Singh, Trilok [Graduate School of Engineering, Toin University of Yokohama, 1614 Kurogane-cho, Aoba, Yokohama, Kanagawa 225-8503 (Japan); Singh, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, 110016 (India); Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D. [Materials Science Division, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, 110067 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Present study focuses on the influence of growth temperature on electrical and optical properties of polycrystalline ZnO thin films on sapphire substrates grown by atomic layer deposition technique. Dimethylzinc and de-ionized water were used as precursors by varying the growth temperature ranging from 70 to 130 °C. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO with preferred (103) orientation. AFM results infer the growth of good quality films with root mean square roughness ∼1 nm for all these films having same thickness. The free carrier concentration and mobility of samples is found to increase whereas resistivity decreases with increasing growth temperature. The electrical results are well corroborated on the basis of photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Photoluminescence and Raman measurements show that these ZnO thin films have very low defect concentrations. In particular, this study demonstrates that a device quality ZnO material with improved electrical parameters is obtained at the level of 100 °C which can be used for applications such as Schottky diodes for cross-bar memory applications and in hybrid organic/semiconductor junction devices. - Highlights: • Influence of growth temperature on various properties of ALD grown ZnO thin films. • Very smooth surface with root mean square roughness ∼1 nm. • Free carrier concentration and mobility increases with growth temperature. • Device quality ZnO films (improved electrical parameters) are obtained at 100 °C.

  18. Studies on visible light photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongodi, G.; Anandan, P.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Jayavel, R.

    2015-09-01

    Nanostructured cobalt doped ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel spin coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD results showed that the thin films were well crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDAX and XPS revealed that Co was doped into ZnO structure. FESEM images revealed that the films possess granular morphology without any crack and confirm that Co doping decreases the grain size. UV-Vis transmission spectra show that the substitution of Co in ZnO leads to band gap narrowing. The Co doped ZnO films were found to exhibit improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue dye under visible light in comparison with the undoped ZnO film. The decrease in grain size and extending light absorption towards the visible region by Co doping in ZnO film contribute equally to the improved photocatalytic activity. The bactericidal efficiency of Co doped ZnO films were investigated against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. The optical density (OD) measurement showed better bactericidal activity at higher level of Co doping in ZnO.

  19. Photoelectrocatalytic decolorization and degradation of textile effluent using ZnO thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkal, R T; Shinde, S S; Mahadik, M A; Mohite, V S; Waghmode, T R; Govindwar, S P; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2012-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass at substrate temperature of 400 °C and used as electrode in photoelectrocatalytic reactor. The untreated textile effluent was circulated through photoelectrocatalytic reactor under UVA illumination for the decolorization and degradation. Textile effluent was decolorized by 93% within 3h at room temperature with significant reduction in COD (69%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of samples before and after decolorization confirmed the degradation of dyes molecules from textile effluent into simpler oxidizable products. Phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in toxic nature of textile effluent after treatment.

  20. Photoelectrocatalytic decolorization and degradation of textile effluent using ZnO thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkal, R T; Shinde, S S; Mahadik, M A; Mohite, V S; Waghmode, T R; Govindwar, S P; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2012-09-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass at substrate temperature of 400 °C and used as electrode in photoelectrocatalytic reactor. The untreated textile effluent was circulated through photoelectrocatalytic reactor under UVA illumination for the decolorization and degradation. Textile effluent was decolorized by 93% within 3h at room temperature with significant reduction in COD (69%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of samples before and after decolorization confirmed the degradation of dyes molecules from textile effluent into simpler oxidizable products. Phytotoxicity study revealed reduction in toxic nature of textile effluent after treatment. PMID:22727863

  1. Combined effect of oxygen deficient point defects and Ni doping in radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposited ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni doped ZnO thin films with oxygen deficiency have been synthesized on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique using argon plasma. The combined effect of point defects generated due to oxygen vacancies and Ni doping on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films has been studied in this work. Ni doping concentrations were varied and the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied as a function of doping concentrations. The films were characterized with X-ray diffractometer, UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. Oxygen deficient point defects (Schottky defects) made the ZnO thin film highly conducting while incorporation of Ni dopant made it more functional regarding their electrical and optical properties. The films were found to have tunable electrical conductivity with Ni doping concentrations. - Highlights: • ZnO thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique • Synthesis process was stimulated to introduce Schottky-type point defects. • Point defects and external doping of Ni made ZnO thin films more functional. • Point defect induced high electrical conductivity in ZnO thin film. • Significant shift in optical bandgap observed in ZnO with Ni doping concentrations

  2. Ferromagnetism in laser ablated ZnO and Mn-doped ZnO thin films: A comparative study from magnetization and Hall effect measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Hoa Hong, E-mail: nguyen.hoahong@univ-tours.f [Laboratoire LEMA, UMR 6157 CNRS - Universite F. Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Chikoidze, Ekaterina; Dumont, Yves [Laboratoire GeMAC, UMR 8635 CNRS - Universite de Versailles, Place A. Briand, 92195 Meudon (France)

    2009-11-15

    Room temperature FM was observed in pristine ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. It seems to originate from other defects but not oxygen vacancies. Magnetization of thinner films is much larger than that of the thicker films, indicating that defects are mostly located at the surface and/or the interface between the film and the substrate. Data on the Fe:ZnO and Mn:ZnO films show that a transition-metal doping does not play any essential role in introducing the magnetism into ZnO. In the case of Mn doping, the magnetic moment could be very slightly enhanced. Hall effect measurements reveal that an incorporation of Mn does not change the carrier type, but decreases the carrier concentration, and increases the Hall mobility, resulting in more resistive Mn:ZnO films. Since no anomalous Hall effect was observed, it is understood that the observed FM is not due to the interaction between the free-carrier and the Mn impurity.

  3. Microstructure and polarity of epitaxial ZnO films grown on LSAT(111) substrate studied by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuzi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: yzliu@blem.ac.cn; Ying, M.J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Du, X.L. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)]. E-mail: xldu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Zeng, Z.Q. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Mei, Z.X. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Jia, J.F. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xue, Q.K. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang, Z. [Beijing University of Technology, 100 Pingle Yuan, Chao Yang District, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2005-05-30

    Transmission electron microscopy is used to investigate the structural characteristics of epitaxial ZnO thin films grown on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}){sub 0.7}(111) (LSAT) by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. It is found that the growth temperature plays a key role in the formation of microstructures in ZnO film. Growth temperature dependence of rotation domain, interface and dislocation structures is studied, and the mechanism for polarity selection is discussed.

  4. Microstructural and conductivity comparison of Ag films grown on amorphous TiO2 and polycrystalline ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannenberg, Rand; Stach, Eric; Glenn, Darin; Sieck, Peter; Hukari, Kyle

    2001-03-26

    8 nm thick Ag films were sputter deposited onto amorphous TiO{sub 2} underlayers 25 nm thick, and also amorphous TiO{sub 2} (25 nm)/ZnO (5 nm) multiunderlayers. The substrates were back-etched Si with a 50 nm thick LPCVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} electron transparent membrane. The ZnO, sputtered onto amorphous TiO{sub 2}, formed a continuous layer with a grain size of 5 nm in diameter, on the order of the film thickness. There are several microstructural differences in the Ag dependent on the underlayers, revealed by TEM. First a strong {l_brace}0001{r_brace} ZnO to {l_brace}111{r_brace} Ag fibre-texture relationship exists. On TiO{sub 2} the Ag microstructure shows many abnormal grains whose average diameter is about 60-80 nm, whereas the films on ZnO show few abnormal grains. The background matrix of normal grains on the TiO{sub 2} is roughly 15 nm, while the normal grain size on the ZnO is about 25 nm. Electron diffraction patterns show that the film on ZnO has a strong {l_brace}111{r_brace} orientation, and dark field images with this diffraction condition have a grain size of about 30 nm. In a region near the center of the TEM grid where there is the greatest local heating during deposition, Ag films grown on amorphous TiO{sub 2} are discontinuous, whereas on ZnO, the film is continuous. When films 8 nm films are grown on solid glass substrates, those with ZnO underlayers have sheet resistances of 5.68 {Omega}/, whereas those on TiO{sub 2} are 7.56 {Omega}/, and when 16 nm thick, the corresponding sheet resistances are 2.7 {Omega}/ and 3.3 {Omega}/. The conductivity difference is very repeatable. The improved conductivity is thought to be a combined effect of reduced grain boundary area per unit volume, the predominance of low grain boundary resistivity Coincidence Site Lattice boundaries from the Ag {l_brace}111{r_brace} orientation, and Ag planarization on ZnO resulting in less groove formation on deposition, concluded from atomic force microscopy.

  5. Low-temperature-annealed alumina/polyimide gate insulators for solution-processed ZnO thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The surface property of the polyimide gate insulator was successfully modified by the introduction of a low-temperature-annealed amorphous alumina interlayer. • The alumina/polyimide gate insulator showed excellent electrical insulating properties. • The solution-processed ZnO TFT with the alumina/polyimide gate insulator exhibited reasonable TFT performance. - Abstract: We report here a low-temperature-annealed alumina/polyimide gate insulator with excellent electrical insulating properties for solution-processed ZnO TFTs. In this study, 150 nm-thick polyimide and 20 nm-thick alumina thin films were deposited by a simple spin-coating followed by a 200 °C-annealing process. With the deposition of the alumina interlayer, the surface of the polyimide film was successfully modified. We prepared ZnO TFTs annealed at 230 °C to investigate the potential of the prepared gate insulator. The field-effect mobility and the on/off current ratio of solution-processed ZnO TFTs with an alumina/polyimide gate insulator were 0.11 cm2/V s and 1.8 × 105, respectively, whereas a ZnO TFT with a polyimide gate insulator was inactive. The alumina interlayer introduced here might provide a compatible interface for the ZnO semiconductor

  6. Room temperature analysis of dielectric function of ZnO-based thin film on fused quartz substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Robi; Sutjahja, Inge M.; Winata, Toto; Rusydi, Andrivo; Darma, Yudi

    2015-09-01

    A set of sample consist of pure ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO film were grown on fused-quartz substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Here, we report room temperature spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis (covering energy range of 0.5 to 6.3 eV) of pure ZnO film and Cu doped ZnO film at 8 in at. %. The thickness of pure ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO film using in this study is about 350 nm. To extract the dielectric function of ZnO thin film, multilayer modeling is performed which takes into account reflections at each interface through Fresnel coefficients. This method based on Drude-Lorentz models that connect with Kramers-Kronig relations. The best fitting of Ψ (amplitude ratio) and Δ (phase difference) taken by SE measurement are obtained reasonably well by mean the universal fitting of three different photon incident angles. The imaginary part of dielectric function (ɛ2) show the broad peak at around 3.3 eV assigned as combination of optical band energy edge with excitonic states. The exitonic states could not be observed clearly in this stage. The evolution of extracted dielectric function is observable by introducing 8% Cu as indicated by decreasing of excitonic intensity. This result indicates the screening of excitonic state. This study will bring us to have a good undestanding for the role of Cu impurities for ZnO thin films.

  7. Smart chemical sensors using ZnO semiconducting thin films for freshness detection of foods and beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanto, Hidehito; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Dougami, Naganori; Habara, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kusano, Eiji; Kinbara, Akira; Douguchi, Yoshiteru

    1998-07-01

    The sensitivity of the chemical sensor, based on the resistance change of Al2O3-doped and SnO2-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al and ZnO:SnO2) thin film, is studied for exposure to various gases. It is found that the ZnO:Al and ZnO:Sn thin film chemical sensor has a high sensitivity and excellent selectivity for amine (TMA and DMA) gas and ethanol gas, respectively. The ZnO:Al (5.0 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to odors from rotten sea foods, such as salmon, sea bream, oyster, squid and sardine, responds to the freshness change of these sea foods. The ZnO:SnO2 (78 wt%) thin film chemical sensor which exhibit a high sensitivity for exposure to aroma from alcohols, such as wine, Japanese sake, and whisky, responds to the freshness change of these alcohols.

  8. Development of uniformly grown ZnO NPs films using single precursor solution by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, M. Sekhar [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry (India); Prashantha, M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Physics (India); Reddy, N. Koteeswara, E-mail: dr_nkreddy@rediffmail.com [Center for Nanoscience and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science (India); Ramesh, K. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Physics (India)

    2013-03-15

    In this article, we have reported the controlled synthesis of uniformly grown zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) films by a simple, low-cost, and scalable pulsed spray pyrolysis technique. From the surface analysis it is noticed that the as-deposited films have uniformly dispersed NPs-like morphology. The structural studies reveal that these NPs films have highly crystalline hexagonal crystal structure, which are preferentially orientated along the (001) planes. The size of the NPs varied between 5 and 100 nm, and exhibited good stoichiometric chemical composition. Raman spectroscopic analysis reveals that these ZnO NPs films have pure single phase and hexagonal crystal structure. These unique nanostructured films exhibited a low electrical resistivity (5 {Omega}cm) and high light transmittance (90 %) in visible region.

  9. Friction and wear behavior of nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films deposited via MOCVD under dry contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S. Mbamara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most researches on doped ZnO thin films are tilted toward their applications in optoelectronics and semiconductor devices. Research on their tribological properties is still unfolding. In this work, nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films were deposited on 304 L stainless steel substrate from a combination of zinc acetate and ammonium acetate precursor by MOCVD technique. Compositional and structural studies of the films were done using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS and X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The frictional behavior of the thin film coatings was evaluated using a ball-on-flat configuration in reciprocating sliding under dry contact condition. After friction test, the flat and ball counter-face surfaces were examined to assess the wear dimension and failure mechanism. Both friction behavior and wear (in the ball counter-face were observed to be dependent on the crystallinity and thickness of the thin film coatings.

  10. High quality p-type ZnO film growth by a simple method and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO FeiYan; DENG Hong; DAI LiPing; CHEN JinJu; YUAN ZhaoLin; LI Yan

    2008-01-01

    P-type ZnO:N films have been grown successfully by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using Hall-effect measurement and PL spectra were employed to analyze the structural, electrical and optical properties and study the influence of substrate temperature on the film. Results showed that with a lower substrate temperature, the film exhibited p-type conduction and its resistivity decreased when the substrate temperature increased. When the substrates temperature was 400℃, p-type ZnO films perature was too high, the film was transformed from p-type to n-type conduction.

  11. Influence of substrate on structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO films grown by SILAR method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F N Jiménez-García; C L Londoño-Calderón; D G Espinosa-Arbeláez; A Del Real; M E Rodríguez-García

    2014-10-01

    ZnO films were obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method from four different substrates: glass microslides, corning glass, quartz and silicon with and without oxide layer. For films deposition, a precursor solution of ZnSO4 was used, complexed with ammonium hydroxide. Prior to the film deposition, wettability of the substrates was analysed using a CCD camera. It was found that the Si without the oxide layer substrate shows hydrophobic behaviour, which makes the films less adherent and not uniform, while in the other substrates, the behaviour was optimal for the growing process. ZnO films grown on glass microslides, corning glass, quartz and Si with oxide layer were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV–Vis techniques. According to the XRD patterns, the films were polycrystalline, with hexagonal wurtzite structure and the patterns mentioned showed significant differences in crystallite sizes, microstrain and texture coefficient with respect to the employed substrates. The morphology of the ZnO films constituted by rice-like and flower-like structures shows differences in form and size depending on the substrate. The UV–Vis spectroscopy results show that the substrate did not influence the band gap energy value obtained from films.

  12. Vapor phase epitaxial growth of zinc oxide single crystal films. ZnO tan kessho maku no kiso seicho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuga, M. (Yamanashi Univ., Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-08-10

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a material which has widely been used in a life for a long time, but its history of growth and application as single crystal is very short. Nevertheless, it has now possibility to be applied in all fields of photoelectronics such as light emission, wave guidance and sensor, etc.. In this article, in case when this ZnO film is made to show vapor phase growth on a sapphire substrate, why a single crystal layer is formed irrespective of the difference of the lattice systems and a big mismatch, and what effects do exist on its crystalline and electric properties are introduced from the viewpoint of crystal engineering. It also states on the growth reaction of ZnO films, the epitaxial relationship between ZnO and sapphire and the crystal growth mechanism, and the electric properties of ZnO epitaxial film separately, and discusses on issues still remained unsolved at the present and the direction of progress in the future. 39 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Cycling behaviour of sponge-like nanostructured ZnO as thin-film Li-ion battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garino, Nadia, E-mail: nadia.garino@iit.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Lamberti, Andrea; Gazia, Rossana; Chiodoni, Angelica [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Gerbaldi, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.gerbaldi@polito.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); GAME Lab, Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Zn is thermally oxidized in ambient air to obtain sponge-like ZnO film. • Polycrystalline, transparent, porous thin film is obtained. • Film exhibits stabile specific capacity (∼300 mAh g{sup −1}) after prolonged cycling. • Sponge-like ZnO film shows promising prospects as Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Single phase wurtzitic porous ZnO thin films are obtained by a simple two-step method, involving the sputtering deposition of a sponge-like metallic Zn layer, followed by a moderately low temperature treatment for the complete zinc oxidation. Thanks to its 3D nanostructuration, the superimposition of small branches able to grow in length almost isotropically and forming a complex topography, sponge-like ZnO can combine the fast transport properties of one dimensional material and the high surface area usually provided by nanocrystalline electrodes. When galvanostatically tested in lithium cell, after the initial decay, it can provide an almost stable specific capacity higher than 50 μAh cm{sup −2} after prolonged cycling at estimated 0.7 C, with very high Coulombic efficiency.

  14. Cycling behaviour of sponge-like nanostructured ZnO as thin-film Li-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zn is thermally oxidized in ambient air to obtain sponge-like ZnO film. • Polycrystalline, transparent, porous thin film is obtained. • Film exhibits stabile specific capacity (∼300 mAh g−1) after prolonged cycling. • Sponge-like ZnO film shows promising prospects as Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: Single phase wurtzitic porous ZnO thin films are obtained by a simple two-step method, involving the sputtering deposition of a sponge-like metallic Zn layer, followed by a moderately low temperature treatment for the complete zinc oxidation. Thanks to its 3D nanostructuration, the superimposition of small branches able to grow in length almost isotropically and forming a complex topography, sponge-like ZnO can combine the fast transport properties of one dimensional material and the high surface area usually provided by nanocrystalline electrodes. When galvanostatically tested in lithium cell, after the initial decay, it can provide an almost stable specific capacity higher than 50 μAh cm−2 after prolonged cycling at estimated 0.7 C, with very high Coulombic efficiency

  15. Effect of different sol concentrations on the properties of nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on FTO substrates by sol-gel spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ikhyun; Kim, Younggyu; Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Dongwan; Park, Minju; Kim, Haeun; Lee, Wookbin; Leem, Jaeyoung [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongsu [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO thin films grown on fluorine-doped tinoxide (FTO) substrates were fabricated using the spin-coating method. The structural and the optical properties of the ZnO thin films prepared using different sol concentrations were investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) measurements, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry. The surface morphology of the ZnO thin films, as observed in the SEM images, exhibited a mountain-chain structure. XRD results indicated that the thin films were preferentially orientated along the direction of the c-axis and that the grain size of the ZnO thin films increased with increasing sol concentration. The PL spectra showed a strong ultraviolet emission peak at 3.22 eV and a broad orange emission peak at 2.0 eV. The intensities of deep-level emission (DLE) gradually increased with increasing sol concentration from 0.4 to 1.0 M. The transmittance spectra of the ZnO thin films showed that the ZnO thin films were transparent (∼85%) in the visible region and exhibited sharp absorption edges at 375 nm. Thus, The Urbach energy of ZnO thin films decreased with increasing sol concentration.

  16. Effect of deposition parameters and strontium doping on characteristics of nanostructured ZnO thin film by chemical bath deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeba, N. H.; Naduvath, J.; Abraham, A.; Weiss, M. P.; Diener, Z. J.; Remillard, S. K.; DeYoung, P. A.; Philip, R. R.

    2014-10-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of ZnO and Sr-doped ZnO (ZnO:Sr) on ultrasonically cleaned soda lime glass substrates are synthesized through successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction. The XRD profiles of ZnO and ZnO:Sr films prepared at different number of deposition cycles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along (002) direction. The crystallites are found to be nano sized, having variation in size with the increase in number of depositions cycles and also with Sr doping. Optical absorbance studies reveal a systematically controllable blueshift in band gap of Sr-doped ZnO films. SEM images indicate enhanced assembling of crystallites to form elongated rods as number of dips increased in Sr doped ZnO. The films are found to be n-type with the Sr doping having little effect on the electrical properties.

  17. Effect of depth of traps in ZnO polycrystalline thin films on ZnO-TFTs performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Montes, Maria I.; Baldenegro-Perez, Leonardo A.; Sanchez-Zeferino, Raul; Rojas-Blanco, Lizeth; Becerril-Silva, Marcelino; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A.; Ramirez-Bon, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    ZnO thin films were processed by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature on p-Si/SiO2 substrates under pure argon (Ar:O2 = 100:0 vol.%) and argon-oxygen mixture (Ar:O2 = 99:1 vol.%) gas environment. Morphological, optical and electrical characteristics of the ZnO films are reported, and they show a clear relationship with the gas mixture employed for the sputtering process. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed the formation of grains of 15.3 and 19.9 nm average sizes and thicknesses of 59 nm and 82 nm for films growth in pure argon and argon-oxygen, respectively. Photoluminescence measurements at room temperature showed the violet emission band (centered at 3 eV) which was only detected in the ZnO film grown under pure argon. From thermally stimulated conductivity measurements two traps with 0.27 and 0.14 eV activation energies were identified for films grown in pure argon and argon-oxygen mixture, respectively. The trap at 0.27 eV is associated with a level located below the conduction band edge and it is supported by the PL band centered at 3 eV. Both types of ZnO films were used as the active channel layer in thin film transistors with thermal SiO2 as gate dielectric. Field effect mobility, threshold voltage and current ratio were improved in the devices with ZnO channel deposited with the argon-oxygen mixture (99% Ar/1% O2 vol.). Threshold voltage decreased from 25 V to 15 V, field effect mobility and current ratio increased from 0.8 to 2.4 cm2/Vs and from 102 to 106, in that order.

  18. The Annealing Effects of ZnO Thin Films on Characteristic Parameters of Au/ZnO Schottky Contacts on n-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Toprak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 200 nm ZnO thin films have been grown on n type Silicon substrates by DC sputtering technique. One of the thin films has been annealed at 300 ºC for 45 minutes. The Au front contacts on ZnO thin films have been formed by evaporation of Au metal by means of shadow mask. It has been seen that the rectification ratio of Au/ZnO device obtained using annealed ZnO thin film is higher than the one obtained using unannealed ZnO thin film. The characteristic parameters of Au/ZnO junctions such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance obtained by current-voltage (I-V measurements of the structures at room temperature and in dark have been compared with each others. 200 nm ZnO thin films have been grown on n type Silicon substrates by DC sputtering technique. One of the thin films has been annealed at 300 ºC for 45 minutes. The Au front contacts on ZnO thin films have been formed by evaporation of Au metal by means of shadow mask. It has been seen that the rectification ratio of Au/ZnO device obtained using annealed ZnO thin film is higher than the one obtained using unannealed ZnO thin film. The characteristic parameters of Au/ZnO junctions such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance obtained by current-voltage (I-V measurements of the structures at room temperature and in dark have been compared with each others. 200 nm ZnO thin films have been grown on n type Silicon substrates by DC sputtering technique. One of the thin films has been annealed at 300 ºC for 45 minutes. The Au front contacts on ZnO thin films have been formed by evaporation of Au metal by means of shadow mask. It has been seen that the rectification ratio of Au/ZnO device obtained using annealed ZnO thin film is higher than the one obtained using unannealed ZnO thin film. The characteristic parameters of Au/ZnO junctions such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance obtained by current-voltage (I-V measurements of the structures at

  19. Ion induced modifications of Mn-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunami, N.; Itoh, M.; Kato, M.; Okayasu, S.; Sataka, M.; Kakiuchida, H.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied ion impact effects on atomic structure in terms of X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption and electrical resistivity of Mn(6%)-doped ZnO films under 100 MeV Xe ion impact at room temperature. We find the monotonic reduction of the XRD intensity to 1/50 of that of unirradiated film at 5 × 1014 cm-2 and the lattice compaction of 0.6% for the ion fluence >1013 cm-2, little bandgap change (Curie law: χ = χo + C/T (i.e., paramagnetic) and the Curie constant C decreases to a half of that before irradiation (CO = 0.012 emu cm-3 K) at 100 MeV Xe ion fluence of 1012 cm-2. Relationship is discussed between modifications of the magnetic property and change in the valence of Mn, using a simple and crude argument.

  20. Auger and photoluminescence analysis of ZnO nanowires grown on AlN thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Ramin, E-mail: yousefi.ramin@gmail.com [Solid State Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kamaluddin, Burhanuddin [Solid State Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Hajakbari, Fatemeh [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Campus, Islamic Azad University, 14665-678 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    ZnO nanowires were grown on AlN thin film deposited on the glass substrates using a physical vapor deposition method in a conventional tube furnace without introducing any catalysts. The temperature of the substrates was maintained between 500 and 600 deg. C during the growth process. The typical average diameters of the obtained nanowires on substrate at 600 and 500 deg. C were about 57 and 22 nm respectively with several micrometers in length. X-ray diffraction and Auger spectroscopy results showed Al diffused from AlN thin film into the ZnO nanowires for the sample grown at 600 deg. C. Photoluminescence of the nanowires exhibits appearance of two emission bands, one related to ultraviolet emission with a strong peak at 380-382 nm, and the other related to deep level emission with a weak peak at 503-505 nm. The ultraviolet peak of the nanowires grown at 500 deg. C was blue shifted by 2 nm compared to those grown at 600 deg. C. This shift could be attributed to surface effect.

  1. Nanocystalline ZnO films prepared via polymeric precursor method (Pechini)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, C.; Doria, J.; Paucar, C.; Hernandez, M. [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Mosquera, A.; Rodriguez, J.E. [Grupo CYTEMAC, Universidad del Cauca, Calle 5 No 4-70, Popayan (Colombia); Gomez, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia); Baca, E. [Grupo de Ingenieria de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Moran, O., E-mail: omoranc@unal.edu.c [Laboratorio de Materiales Ceramicos y Vitreos, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin, A.A. 568, Medellin (Colombia)

    2010-09-01

    The polymeric precursor method (Pechini) was employed to prepare high-quality nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films. Briefly, the process started off with the preparation of a coating solution by the Pechini process followed by a coating of the glass substrates by a dip-coating technique and subsequent heat-treatment of the as-deposited films up to 550 {sup o}C for 30 min. The Rietveld profile analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed the wuerzite structure as expected for ZnO with a P6{sub 3}mc symmetry. No additional peaks were observed that would correspond to any secondary crystalline phase. The average crystallites size was 20 nm as calculated by Sherrer's equation. UV-vis spectroscopy showed sharp ultraviolet absorption edges at {approx}380 nm. The absorption edge analysis yielded optical band gap energy of 3.24 eV with electronic transition of the direct transition type. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed asymmetric and symmetric stretching modes of the carboxyl group (C=O). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed a crack-free surface morphology indicating that coating of the amorphous glass substrates was homogeneous on large surface areas. The temperature dependent conductivity featured a typical semiconducting-like behavior with resistivity approaching 3x10{sup -1} {Omega} cm at 220 K.

  2. ZnO transparent conductive oxide for thin film silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, T.; Dominé, D.; Feltrin, A.; Despeisse, M.; Meillaud, F.; Bugnon, G.; Boccard, M.; Cuony, P.; Haug, F.-J.; Faÿ, S.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2010-03-01

    There is general agreement that the future production of electric energy has to be renewable and sustainable in the long term. Photovoltaic (PV) is booming with more than 7GW produced in 2008 and will therefore play an important role in the future electricity supply mix. Currently, crystalline silicon (c-Si) dominates the market with a share of about 90%. Reducing the cost per watt peak and energy pay back time of PV was the major concern of the last decade and remains the main challenge today. For that, thin film silicon solar cells has a strong potential because it allies the strength of c-Si (i.e. durability, abundancy, non toxicity) together with reduced material usage, lower temperature processes and monolithic interconnection. One of the technological key points is the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) used for front contact, barrier layer or intermediate reflector. In this paper, we report on the versatility of ZnO grown by low pressure chemical vapor deposition (ZnO LP-CVD) and its application in thin film silicon solar cells. In particular, we focus on the transparency, the morphology of the textured surface and its effects on the light in-coupling for micromorph tandem cells in both the substrate (n-i-p) and superstrate (p-i-n) configurations. The stabilized efficiencies achieved in Neuchâtel are 11.2% and 9.8% for p-i-n (without ARC) and n-i-p (plastic substrate), respectively.

  3. Structural and Luminescent Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-Liang; LIN Bi-Xia; HONG Liang; MENG Xiang-Dong; FU Zhu-Xi

    2004-01-01

    ZnO thin films were successfully deposited on Si (100) substrates by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at atmospheric pressure (1 atm). The only solid source used here is zinc acetate, (CHsCOO)2Zn, and the carrier gas is nitrogen. The sample, which was prepared at 550℃ during growth and then annealed in air at 900℃ , has only a ZnO (002) diffraction peak at 34.6° with its FWHM of 0.23° in the XRD pattern. The room-temperature PL spectrum shows a strong ultraviolet emission with the peak centred at 380nm. We analysed the effects of many factors, such as the source, substrates, growth and annealing temperatures, and annealing ambience, on the structural and optical properties of our prepared ZnO films.

  4. Influence of Ag thickness of aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hung-Wei, E-mail: hwwu@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Computer and Communication, Kun Shan University, No. 949, Dawan Rd., Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ru-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China); Hsiung, Chin-Min; Chu, Chien-Hsun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highly conducting aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (5-15 nm)/aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm) multilayer thin films were deposited on glass substrate by rf magnetron sputtering (for top/bottom aluminum-doped ZnO films) and e-beam evaporation (for Ag film). The transmittance is more than 70% for wavelengths above 400 nm with the Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. The resistivity is 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm, which can be decreased to 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} {Omega}-cm with the increase of the Ag layer thickness to 15 nm. The Haacke figure of merit has been calculated for the films with the best value being 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}. It was shown that the multilayer thin films have potential for applications in optoelectronics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO Transparent Conducting Oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AZO films (30 nm) made by RF sputtering; E-beam evaporation for Ag film (5-15 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of Ag thickness on optical and electrical properties were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality multilayer film with optimal intermediate Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm resistivity, 91.89% transmittance at 470 nm obtained and reproducible.

  5. Sol–Gel and Thermally Evaporated Nanostructured Thin ZnO Films for Photocatalytic Degradation of Trichlorophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Sawsan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present work, thermal evaporation and sol–gel coating techniques were applied to fabricate nanostructured thin ZnO films. The phase structure and surface morphology of the obtained films were investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM, respectively. The topography and 2D profile of the thin ZnO films prepared by both techniques were studied by optical profiler. The results revealed that the thermally evaporated thin film has a comparatively smoother surface of hexagonal wurtzite structure with grain size 12 nm and 51 m2/g. On the other hand, sol–gel films exhibited rough surface with a strong preferred orientation of 25 nm grain size and 27 m2/g surface area. Following deposition process, the obtained films were applied for the photodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP in water in presence of UV irradiation. The concentrations of TCP and its intermediates produced in the solution during the photodegradation were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC at defined irradiation times. Complete decay of TCP and its intermediates was observed after 60 min when the thermal evaporated photocatalyst was applied. However, by operating sol–gel catalyst, the concentration of intermediates initially increased and then remained constant with irradiation time. Although the degradation of TCP followed first-order kinetic for both catalysts, higher photocatalytic activity was exhibited by the thermally evaporated ZnO thin film in comparison with sol–gel one.

  6. ZnO transparent conductive electrodes embedded with Pt nanoclusters for high-efficiency GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyurin; Gil, Youngun; Jeong, Seonghoon; Oh, Munsik; Kim, Hyunsoo; Lee, Sung-Nam; Ahn, Kwang-Soon

    2016-01-01

    ZnO transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) embedded with Pt nanoclusters were developed for the fabrication of reliable and efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The 200-nmthick ZnO films sputtered on Pt nanoclusters showed good TCE performance, i.e., a specific contact resistance of ˜10-5 Ωcm2, a sheet resistance of 50 Ω/sq, and an optical transmittance of 81.5% at 450 nm. LEDs fabricated with the ZnO TCEs embedded with Pt nanoclusters showed lower forward voltages and improved device reliability as compared to the reference LEDs fabricated with pure ZnO TCEs. This is attributed to the role of the interfacial Pt nanoclusters, suppressing the generation of sputtering surface damage on p-GaN and hence enhancing the carrier transport via Ohmic formation.

  7. Growth of residual stress-free ZnO films on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate at room temperature for MEMS devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jitendra; Akhtar, Jamil [Sensors & Nanotechnology Group, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Ranwa, Sapana; Kumar, Mahesh, E-mail: mkumar@iitj.ac.in [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Jodhpur 342011 (India)

    2015-06-15

    ZnO thick Stress relaxed films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on 2”-wafer of SiO{sub 2}/Si at room temperature. The residual stress of ZnO films was measured by measuring the curvature of wafer using laser scanning method and found in the range of 0.18 x 10{sup 9} to 11.28 x 10{sup 9} dyne/cm{sup 2} with compressive in nature. Sputter pressure changes the deposition rates, which strongly affects the residual stress and surface morphologies of ZnO films. The crystalline wurtzite structure of ZnO films were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and a shift in (0002) diffraction peak of ZnO towards lower 2θ angle was observed with increasing the compressive stress in the films. The band gap of ZnO films shows a red shift from ∼3.275 eV to ∼3.23 eV as compressive stress is increased, unlike the stress for III-nitride materials. A relationship between stress and band gap of ZnO was derived and proposed. The stress-free growth of piezoelectric films is very important for functional devices applications.

  8. Violet-blue-green emission and shift in Mg-doped ZnO films with different ratios of oxygen to argon gas flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Haixia, E-mail: chxia8154@163.com [School of Science, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710065 (China); Ding Jijun [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Guo Wenge [School of Science, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710065 (China); Shi Feng [Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR 97601 (United States); Li Yingfeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By magnetron sputtering technique, Mg-doped ZnO films were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structures and surface morphology of Mg-doped ZnO films were discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties in Mg-doped ZnO films were systematically investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral shift of violet-blue emission was discussed in detail. - Abstract: Mg-doped ZnO films were deposited using radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering at different ratios of oxygen to argon gas flow. The crystal structures, surface morphology and optical properties of Mg-doped ZnO thin films were analyzed. The results indicated that three main emission peaks located at 400, 440 and 483 nm were observed in Mg-doped ZnO films. Violet peak at 400 nm and blue peak centered at 440 nm shifted to 392 nm and 422 nm, respectively, as the ratio of oxygen to argon gas flow is increased. The spectra shift mechanism was discussed, which would be caused by small amount of Zn nanoparticles in Mg-doped ZnO films. The electrons on the Zn conduction band will go across the interface for energy equilibration, and then transition to Zn vacancies and the top of the valence band, which may cause spectra shift.

  9. Growth of residual stress-free ZnO films on SiO2/Si substrate at room temperature for MEMS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thick Stress relaxed films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on 2”-wafer of SiO2/Si at room temperature. The residual stress of ZnO films was measured by measuring the curvature of wafer using laser scanning method and found in the range of 0.18 x 109 to 11.28 x 109 dyne/cm2 with compressive in nature. Sputter pressure changes the deposition rates, which strongly affects the residual stress and surface morphologies of ZnO films. The crystalline wurtzite structure of ZnO films were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and a shift in (0002) diffraction peak of ZnO towards lower 2θ angle was observed with increasing the compressive stress in the films. The band gap of ZnO films shows a red shift from ∼3.275 eV to ∼3.23 eV as compressive stress is increased, unlike the stress for III-nitride materials. A relationship between stress and band gap of ZnO was derived and proposed. The stress-free growth of piezoelectric films is very important for functional devices applications

  10. Effects of Annealing on Luminescence of ZnO Films Deposited on Si Substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁兆元; 李伙全

    2005-01-01

    Effects of growth ambience, annealing ambience and temperature on the photoluminescence (PL) emission properties of ZnO films deposited on Si (100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering have been investigated. After annealing, the crystal quality of ZnO films was markedly improved, and the intensity of UV emission peak increased obviously. By varying the flow rate ratio of 02/Ar, annealing atmosphere in oxygen-deficient or oxygen-rich ambience and heating temperature during deposition, the evolution of peak intensities and positions for blue and green emission is formed. This is attributed to the deposition and annealing parameters that control the desorptions and adsorptions of oxygen atoms on the films, and leads to the changes of concentrations of Zinc and oxygen vacancies in the films.

  11. Thin Film growth and characterization of Ti doped ZnO by RF/DC magnetron sputtering

    KAUST Repository

    Baseer Haider, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thin film Ti doped ZnO (Ti-ZnO) film were grown on sapphire (0001) substrate by RF and DC magnetron sputtering. Films were grown at a substrate temperature of 250 °C with different Ti/Zn concentration. Surface chemical study of the samples was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the stoichiometry and Ti/Zn ratio for all samples. Surface morphology of the samples were studied by atomic force microscopy. X-ray diffraction was carried out to determine the crystallinity of the film. No secondary phases of TixOy was observed. We observed a slight increase in the lattice constant with the increase in Ti concentration in ZnO. No ferromagnetic signal was observed for any of the samples. However, some samples showed super-paramagnetic phase. © 2015 Materials Research Society.

  12. Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial Al-doped ZnO film on sapphire with GaN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films with thickness in the range of 0.5-0.9 μm were grown epitaxially on epi-GaN/sapphire (0001) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD; XeCl, λ=308 nm). The growth parameters such as substrate temperature, oxygen pressure and pulse repetition rate were established in a sequential manner to obtain highly epitaxial ZnO:Al film. The best films were obtained at substrate temperature of 400 deg. C, oxygen pressure of 1 mTorr and pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and low temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies confirm the high quality epitaxial nature of the film with near match and stacking order between ZnO and GaN

  13. Study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO Thin Films for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianlin [University of California, Riverside

    2016-03-31

    This project on study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO thin films for solid state lighting was carried out by research group of Prof. Jianlin Liu of UCR during the four-year period between August 2011 and July 2015. Tremendous progress has been made on the proposed research. This final report summarizes the important findings.

  14. Study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO Thin Films for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianlin [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This project on study of p-type ZnO and MgZnO thin films for solid state lighting was carried out by research group of Prof. Jianlin Liu of UCR during the four-year period between August 2011 and July 2015. Tremendous progress has been made on the proposed research. This final report summarizes the important findings.

  15. Structural and optical properties of single-phase ZnO1−xSx alloy films epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We grew epitaxial ZnO1-xSx (x ≤ 0.18) films by PLD with a ZnS ceramic target and O2. • Lattice parameters (c, a) and Eg of single-phase ZnO1−xSx alloys were determined. • C and a expand from 5.204 to 5.366 Å and 3.255 to 3.329 Å with increasing S content. • The optical bandgap shrinks from 3.27 to 2.92 eV with a bowing parameter of 2.91 eV. • In-plane perfectly matched ZnOS/MgZnO heterostructures with max. barrier are proposed. -- Abstract: We report on a detailed investigation of the structural and optical properties of single crystalline ZnO1−xSx thin films, placing emphasis on the elucidation of the correlation of the band gap and lattice parameters, particularly the lattice constant a, with the S content in the alloy films. High-quality ZnO1−xSx thin films with different S concentrations Xs (0 ⩽ Xs ⩽ 0.18) were grown epitaxially on c-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition using a ZnS ceramic target with varying O2 partial pressures. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that all grown ZnO1−xSx thin films have a single-phase wurtzite structure. With increasing Xs value from 0 to 0.18, both lattice constants c and a expand monotonically from 5.204 to 5.366 Å and from 3.255 to 3.329 Å, respectively, while the optical band gap shrinks from 3.27 to 2.92 eV with a bowing parameter of 2.91 eV. Based on these information, ZnOS/MgZnO heterostructures that have a perfect in-plane lattice match and a maximum barrier height can be proposed, which might eventually lead to new optoelectronic devices with superior performance

  16. ZnO Nanowire-Based Corona Discharge Devices Operated Under Hundreds of Volts

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenming; Zhu, Rong; Zong, Xianli

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing the voltage of corona discharges, especially when using nanomaterials, has been of great interest in the past decade or so. In this paper, we report a new corona discharge device by using ZnO nanowires operated in atmospheric air to realize continuous corona discharge excited by hundreds of volts. ZnO nanowires were synthesized on microelectrodes using electric-field-assisted wet chemical method, and a thin tungsten film was deposited on the microchip to enhance discharging perform...

  17. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-12-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications. PMID:26956599

  18. ZnO Nanoparticles/Reduced Graphene Oxide Bilayer Thin Films for Improved NH3-Sensing Performances at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Huiling; Yuan, Zhen; Zheng, Weijian; Ye, Zongbiao; Liu, Chunhua; Du, Xiaosong

    2016-03-01

    ZnO nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO) thin film were deposited on gold interdigital electrodes (IDEs) in sequence via simple spraying process, which was further restored to ZnO/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) bilayer thin film by the thermal reduction treatment and employed for ammonia (NH3) detection at room temperature. rGO was identified by UV-vis absorption spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyses, and the adhesion between ZnO nanoparticles and rGO nanosheets might also be formed. The NH3-sensing performances of pure rGO film and ZnO/rGO bilayer films with different sprayed GO amounts were compared. The results showed that ZnO/rGO film sensors exhibited enhanced response properties, and the optimal GO amount of 1.5 ml was achieved. Furthermore, the optimal ZnO/rGO film sensor showed an excellent reversibility and fast response/recovery rate within the detection range of 10-50 ppm. Meanwhile, the sensor also displayed good repeatability and selectivity to NH3. However, the interference of water molecules on the prepared sensor is non-ignorable; some techniques should be researched to eliminate the effect of moisture in the further work. The remarkably enhanced NH3-sensing characteristics were speculated to be attributed to both the supporting role of ZnO nanoparticles film and accumulation heterojunction at the interface between ZnO and rGO. Thus, the proposed ZnO/rGO bilayer thin film sensor might give a promise for high-performance NH3-sensing applications.

  19. Electrochemical deposition of nano-structured ZnO on the nanocrystalline TiO2 film and its characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One-dimensional structure of ZnO nanorod arrays on nanocrystalline TiO2/ITO conductive glass substrates has been fabricated by cathodic reduction electrochemical deposition methods in the three-electrode system,with zinc nitrate aqueous solution as the electrolyte,and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra.The effects of film substrates,electrolyte concentration,deposition time,and methenamine (HMT) addition on ZnO deposition and its luminescent property were investigated in detail.The results show that,compared with on the ITO glass substrate,ZnO is much easily achieved by electrochemical deposition on the TiO2 nanoparticle thin films.ZnO is hexagonally structured wurtzite with the c-axis preferred growth,and further forms nanorod arrays vertically on the substrates.It is favorable to the growth of ZnO to extend the deposition time,to increase the electrolyte concentration,and to add a certain amount of HMT in the system,consequently improving the crystallinity and orientation of ZnO arrays.It is demonstrated that the obtained ZnO arrays with high crystallinity and good orientation display strong band-edge UV (375 nm) and weak surface-state-related green (520 nm) emission peaks.

  20. Microwave-assisted low temperature fabrication of ZnO thin film electrodes for solar energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic Zn thin films were electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates and oxidized under air by conventional radiant and microwave post-annealing methods to obtain ZnO thin film electrodes. The temperature of each post-annealing method was varied systematically and the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of electrodes was evaluated. The best photocurrent density achieved by the conventional radiant annealing method at 425 °C for 15 min was 93 μA cm−2 at 1.23 V vs. NHE and the electrode showed an incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 28.2%. X-ray diffractogram of this electrode showed that the oxidation of Zn to ZnO was not completed during the radiant annealing process as evident by the presence of metallic Zn in the electrode. For the electrode oxidized from Zn to ZnO under microwave irradiation, a photocurrent of 130 μA cm−2 at 1.23 V vs. NHE and IPCE of 35.6% was observed after annealing for just 3 min, during which the temperature reached 250 °C. The photocurrent was 40% higher for the microwave annealed sample; this increase was attributed to higher surface area by preserving the nanostructure, confirmed by SEM surface topographical analysis, and better conversion yields to crystalline ZnO. Overall, it was demonstrated that oxidation of Zn to ZnO can be accomplished by microwave annealing five times faster than that of conventional annealing, thus resulting in a ~ 75% power saving. This study shows that microwave processing of materials offers significant economic and performance advantages for industrial scale up. - Highlights: • Conversion of Zn to ZnO by microwave and radiant annealing was conducted. • Microwave conversion was 5 times faster compared to radiant annealing. • Photoelectrochemical performance of microwave annealed ZnO was 40% higher. • Microwave annealing results in a 75% energy saving

  1. Effects of temperature and pressure on the structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited on fused silica via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at substrate temperatures from 300°C to 800°C and ambient oxygen pressures ranging from 10-2 mTorr to 240 mTorr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra indicated that wurtzite ZnO was obtained in all cases. The highly c-oriented ZnO films were obtained for oxygen pressures above 11 mTorr. The room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra demonstrated that all the films exhibited strong near-band-edge (NBE) emission, while deep-level (DL) emission was also observed in films deposited at oxygen pressures below 80 mTorr. From analysis of the XRD, Raman and photoluminescence PL data, an optimal condition was identified for the deposition of highly crystallized ZnO films.

  2. Achieving Antifingerprinting and Antibacterial Effects in Smart-Phone Panel Applications Using ZnO Thin Films without a Protective Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Jin; Park, Byeong-Ju; Eom, Ji-Ho; Choi, Min-Ju; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2016-01-13

    When crystalline ZnO films with a thickness of 30 nm and hydrophilic properties were deposited at room temperature onto a glass substrate via radio frequency sputtering, they exhibited antifingerprinting qualities following annealing treatment that was simple and accomplished at low temperature (100 °C). Hydrophobic properties were achieved using as-deposited ZnO films with hydrophilic properties via annealing treatment without the deposition of a protective layer with hydrophobic properties. The annealed 30 nm ZnO films showed a high transmittance (∼91.3%) comparable to that of a glass substrate at a wavelength of 550 nm. The annealed films showed strong antibacterial activity against E. coli and S. aureus bacteria. The ZnO films with a thickness of 30 nm showed predominant mechanical durability with strong antibacterial activity for smart-phone panel applications. PMID:26691534

  3. Broad-band three dimensional nanocave ZnO thin film photodetectors enhanced by Au surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengwei; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Min; Lin, Qingfeng; Lu, Linfeng; Xue, Xinzhong; Zhu, Xufei; Cui, Yanxia; Fan, Zhiyong; Ding, Yiling; Tian, Li; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Dongdong

    2016-04-28

    ZnO semiconductor films with periodic 3D nanocave patterns were fabricated by the thermal nanoimprinting technology, which is promising for photodetectors with enhanced light harvesting capability. The Au nanoparticles were further introduced into the ZnO films, which boosts the UV response of ZnO films and extends the photodetection to visible regions. The best UV photoresponse was detected on the 3D nanocave ZnO-Au hybrid films, attributing to the light trapping mechanism of 3D periodic structures and the driving force of the Schottky barrier at the ZnO/Au interface, while the high visible photoresponse of ZnO-Au hybrid films mainly results from the hot electron generation and injection process over the Schottky junctions mediated by Au surface plasmon resonances. The work provides a cost-effective pathway to develop large-scale periodic 3D nanopatterned thin film photodetectors and is promising for the future deployment of high performance optoelectronic devices. PMID:27073045

  4. Photoluminescence study of p-type vs. n-type Ag-doped ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver doped ZnO films have been grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Hall measurements indicate that p-type conductivity is realized for the films deposited at 500 °C and 750 °C. Transmission electron microscopy images show more obvious and higher density of stacking faults (SFs) present in the p-type ZnO films as compared to the n-type films. Top view and cross sectional photoluminescence of the n- and p-type samples revealed free excitonic emission from both films. A peak at 3.314 eV, attributed to SF emission, has been observed only for the n-type sample, while a weak neutral acceptor peak observed at 3.359 eV in the p-type film. The SF emission in the n-type sample suggests localization of acceptor impurities nearby the SFs, while lack of SF emission for the p-type sample indicates the activation of the Ag acceptors in ZnO

  5. Development of Galactose Biosensor Based on Functionalized ZnO Nanorods with Galactose Oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    K. Khun; Z. H. Ibupoto; Nur, O; Willander, M

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication of galactose biosensor based on functionalised ZnO nanorods is described. The galactose biosensor was developed by immobilizing galactose oxidase on