WorldWideScience

Sample records for based threat evaluation

  1. A Novel Two-Stage Dynamic Decision Support based Optimal Threat Evaluation and Defensive Resource Scheduling Algorithm for Multi Air-borne threats

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Huma; Hussain, Mukhtar; Khan, Shoab A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel two-stage flexible dynamic decision support based optimal threat evaluation and defensive resource scheduling algorithm for multi-target air-borne threats. The algorithm provides flexibility and optimality by swapping between two objective functions, i.e. the preferential and subtractive defense strategies as and when required. To further enhance the solution quality, it outlines and divides the critical parameters used in Threat Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (TEWA) into three broad categories (Triggering, Scheduling and Ranking parameters). Proposed algorithm uses a variant of many-to-many Stable Marriage Algorithm (SMA) to solve Threat Evaluation (TE) and Weapon Assignment (WA) problem. In TE stage, Threat Ranking and Threat-Asset pairing is done. Stage two is based on a new flexible dynamic weapon scheduling algorithm, allowing multiple engagements using shoot-look-shoot strategy, to compute near-optimal solution for a range of scenarios. Analysis part of this paper presents ...

  2. How Ego-threats Facilitate Contracts Based on Subjective Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander; Walzl, Markus

    We show that individuals' desire to protect their self-esteem against ego-threatening feedback can mitigate moral hazard in environments with purely subjective performance evaluations. In line with evidence from social psychology we assume that agents' react aggressively to evaluations...

  3. Real-time threat evaluation in a ground based air defence environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JN Roux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In a military environment a ground based air defence operator is required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect Defended Assets (DAs on the ground against aerial threats by assigning available Weapon Systems (WSs to engage enemy aircraft. Since this aerial environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making in stress situations, the associated responsibilities are typically divided between a number of operators and computerized systems that aid these operators during the decision making processes. One such a Decision Support System (DSS, a threat evaluation and weapon assignment system, assigns threat values to aircraft (with respect to DAs in real-time and uses these values to propose possible engagements of observed enemy aircraft by anti-aircraft WSs. In this paper a design of the threat evaluation part of such a DSS is put forward. The design follows the structured approach suggested in [Roux JN & van Vuuren JH, 2007, Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A review of the state of the art, ORiON, 23(2, pp. 151-187], phasing in a suite of increasingly complex qualitative and quantitative model components as more (reliable data become available.

  4. Threat Modeling-Oriented Attack Path Evaluating Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaohong; LIU Ran; FENG Zhiyong; HE Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate all attack paths in a threat tree,based on threat modeling theory,a weight distribution algorithm of the root node in a threat tree is designed,which computes threat coefficients of leaf nodes in two ways including threat occurring possibility and the degree of damage.Besides,an algorithm of searching attack path was also obtained in accordence with its definition.Finally,an attack path evaluation system was implemented which can output the threat coefficients of the leaf nodes in a target threat tree,the weight distribution information,and the attack paths.An example threat tree is given to verify the effectiveness of the algorithms.

  5. A Novel Two-Staged Decision Support based Threat Evaluation and Weapon Assignment Algorithm, Asset-based Dynamic Weapon Scheduling using Artificial Intelligence Techinques

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Huma; Hussain, Mukhtar; Khan, Shoab A

    2009-01-01

    Surveillance control and reporting (SCR) system for air threats play an important role in the defense of a country. SCR system corresponds to air and ground situation management/processing along with information fusion, communication, coordination, simulation and other critical defense oriented tasks. Threat Evaluation and Weapon Assignment (TEWA) sits at the core of SCR system. In such a system, maximal or near maximal utilization of constrained resources is of extreme importance. Manual TEWA systems cannot provide optimality because of different limitations e.g.surface to air missile (SAM) can fire from a distance of 5Km, but manual TEWA systems are constrained by human vision range and other constraints. Current TEWA systems usually work on target-by-target basis using some type of greedy algorithm thus affecting the optimality of the solution and failing in multi-target scenario. his paper relates to a novel two-staged flexible dynamic decision support based optimal threat evaluation and weapon assignment...

  6. Feature based passive acoustic detection of underwater threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkin, Rustam; Sutin, Alexander; Radhakrishnan, Sreeram; Bruno, Michael; Fullerton, Brian; Ekimov, Alexander; Raftery, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology is performing research aimed at determining the acoustical parameters that are necessary for detecting and classifying underwater threats. This paper specifically addresses the problems of passive acoustic detection of small targets in noisy urban river and harbor environments. We describe experiments to determine the acoustic signatures of these threats and the background acoustic noise. Based on these measurements, we present an algorithm for robustly discriminating threat presence from severe acoustic background noise. Measurements of the target's acoustic radiation signal were conducted in the Hudson River. The acoustic noise in the Hudson River was also recorded for various environmental conditions. A useful discriminating feature can be extracted from the acoustic signal of the threat, calculated by detecting packets of multi-spectral high frequency sound which occur repetitively at low frequency intervals. We use experimental data to show how the feature varies with range between the sensor and the detected underwater threat. We also estimate the effective detection range by evaluating this feature for hydrophone signals, recorded in the river both with and without threat presence.

  7. 采用时序多属性评价方法的空战威胁排序%Determining Air Combat Threat Sequencings by Time Series-Based Multi-Attribute Evaluation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可; 冯琦; 陈军; 周德云

    2015-01-01

    鉴于空战中威胁目标的多属性及动态变化特点,提出采用时序多属性评价方法来解决空战目标动态威胁排序问题。在建立空战威胁指标体系基础上,采用熵权法确定目标属性权重,并通过指数分布法确定各时刻权重,最后综合依据威胁目标多时刻的属性信息,实现了空战动态威胁排序。仿真结果说明该方法的合理性。%In view of the characteristic of the combat target dynamic multi-attribute,a time-series based multi-attribute method is introduced to solve the dynamic threat sequencing during air combat process. First,air combat threat?attribute system is established. Secondly,the weight of each attribute is determined by using entropy method and the weight of time is determined by using exponential distribution method. Finally,the evaluation model of air target dynamic threat is established based on time-series based Multi-Attribute method. The simulation results indicate that the method can increase the threat value of contrast ,and sequence air targets threat accurately and reasonably.

  8. Puerto Rico Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's...

  9. USVI Land-Based Threat to Benthic Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set describes the potential threat of sediment delivery and land-based sources of pollution to benthic habitats. This dataset is derived from NOAA's...

  10. Risk Evaluation of Complex Information System Based on Threat Propagation Sampling%基于威胁传播采样的复杂信息系统风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马刚; 杜宇鸽; 安波; 张博; 王伟; 史忠植

    2015-01-01

    互联网时代的信息安全已成为全社会关注的问题之一。信息系统是信息的载体,为有效评估大规模分布式复杂信息系统的风险,构建了一种基于威胁传播采样的复杂信息系统风险评估方法。该方法考虑到威胁在复杂信息系统中传播时,对资产结点的转移状态以及资产结点发出的威胁传播边进行采样来生成威胁传播树(threat propagation trees ,TPT ),然后通过计算威胁传播树中各资产结点的期望损失以及威胁传播树的概率来对整个复杂信息系统进行风险评估。实验分析表明,基于威胁传播采样的复杂信息系统风险评估方法,在生成威胁传播树时具有高效的时间效率,能够对复杂信息系统进行客观准确的风险评估,且在对复杂信息系统资产结点制定安全防护策略时,能够为安全风险管理者提供较为合理的安全指导建议。%Information security has been one of the focuses of social concern in the age of Internet . There is no doubt that accurately assessing the security of information medium is becoming the focus of the present information security work .For evaluating the risk of the large‐scale distributed complex information system ,we propose a risk evaluation method of the complex information system based on threat propagation sampling .Firstly ,when the threats propagate in the complex information system , the number of threat propagation trees (TPT ) is reduced by sampling the transition states of the asset nodes and the threat propagation edges emitted by the asset nodes ,then computing the expected value loss of each node in the threat propagation tree and the probability of each threat propagation tree to evaluate the risk of the complex information system .The experimental analysis not only shows the risk evaluation proposed in this paper has higher time‐efficient compared with the traditional combined strategy when producing the

  11. Technology transfer - insider protection workshop (Safeguards Evaluation Method - Insider Threat)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safeguards Evaluation Method - Insider Threat, developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a field-applicable tool to evaluate facility safeguards against theft or diversion of special nuclear material (SNM) by nonviolent insiders. To ensure successful transfer of this technology from the laboratory to DOE field offices and contractors, LLNL developed a three-part package. The package includes a workbook, user-friendly microcomputer software, and a three-day training program. The workbook guides an evaluation team through the Safeguards Evaluation Method and provides forms for gathering data. The microcomputer software assists in the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness. The software is designed for safeguards analysts with no previous computer experience. It runs on an IBM Personal Computer or any compatible machine. The three-day training program is called the Insider Protection Workshop. The workshop students learn how to use the workbook and the computer software to assess insider vulnerabilities and to evaluate the benefits and costs of potential improvements. These activities increase the students' appreciation of the insider threat. The workshop format is informal and interactive, employing four different instruction modes: classroom presentations, small-group sessions, a practical exercise, and ''hands-on'' analysis using microcomputers. This approach to technology transfer has been successful: over 100 safeguards planners and analysts have been trained in the method, and it is being used at facilities through the DOE complex

  12. Threat Assessment of Targets Based on Support Vector Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Huai-ping; LIU Jing-xu; CHEN Ying-wu

    2006-01-01

    In the context of cooperative engagement of armored vehicles, the threat factors of offensive targets are analyzed, and a threat assessment (TA) model is built based on a support v.ector machine (SVM) method. The SVM-based model has some advantages over the traditional method-based models: the complex factors of threat are considered in the cooperative engagement; the shortcomings of neural networks, such as local minimum and "over fitting", are overcome to improve the generalization ability; its operation speed is high and meets the needs of real time C2 of cooperative engagement; the assessment results could be more reasonable because of its self-learning capability. The analysis and simulation indicate that the SVM method is an effective method to resolve the TA problems.

  13. 基于概率神经网络的编队协同防空威胁评估%Threat Evaluation of Formation Cooperative Air Defense Based on Probabilistic Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董奎义; 杨根源; 王子明

    2011-01-01

    为了有效地进行防空作战部署,确保重点目标不受或少受损失,以防空作战实际需要为出发点,针对目前多平台协同防空作战中目标威胁评估问题普遍存在的不足,从舰艇编队的整体角度出发,运用概率神经网络的方法,建立了编队协同防空目标威胁评估问题的数学模型,给指挥员提供了正确决策.通过实例验证,证明了该模型的有效性和正确性.%To hold effectively the deployment of air defense operation and insure impunity of important targets or avoid losses, with actual needs of air defense operation as a starting point, based on the shortages of current targets threat evaluation in corporative air defense operation of multiple platforms, probabilistic neural network method is applied to built the mathematic model of formation cooperative air defense targets threat evaluation problem from the view point of the whole information, which provides accurate decision for commander . The usefulness and the accuracy of the model are proved by the example.

  14. Matching and fairness in threat-based mobile sensor coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Yu, Ma T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Yau, King Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Chin, Jren-Chit [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Rao, Nageswara S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sensors can be used to effect complete coverage of a surveillance area for a given threat over time, thereby reducing the number of sensors necessary. The surveillance area may have a given threat profile as determined by the kind of threat, and accompanying meteorological, environmental, and human factors. In planning the movement of sensors, areas that are deemed higher threat should receive proportionately higher coverage. We propose a coverage algorithm for mobile sensors to achieve a coverage that will match - over the long term and as quantified by an RMSE metric - a given threat profile. Moreover, the algorithm has the following desirable properties: (1) stochastic, so that it is robust to contingencies and makes it hard for an adversary to anticipate the sensor's movement, (2) efficient, and (3) practical, by avoiding movement over inaccessible areas. Further to matching, we argue that a fairness measure of performance over the shorter time scale is also important. We show that the RMSE and fairness are, in general, antagonistic, and argue for the need of a combined measure of performance, which we call efficacy. We show how a pause time parameter of the coverage algorithm can be used to control the trade-off between the RMSE and fairness, and present an efficient offline algorithm to determine the optimal pause time maximizing the efficacy. Finally, we discuss the effects of multiple sensors, under both independent and coordinated operation. Extensive simulation results - under realistic coverage scenarios - are presented for performance evaluation.

  15. Antimissile Threat Evaluation of Naval Formation Based on Grey Interval-number Relationship Decision-making%基于灰色区间关联决策的海上编队反导威胁评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元瀚; 李相民; 代进进

    2011-01-01

    如何对舰艇编队的来袭导弹威胁程度进行科学的评估与排序,是防空反导指挥中的重要环节.目前威判中常常考虑最大值所提供的信息,存在结果失真的情况,所以采用区间数来表示更有现实意义.分析了舰艇编队多目标威胁评判的指标体系,据此给出了影响目标威胁的主要因素,并给出了主要因素的隶属函数,将区间数和灰色理论结合,构建了灰色区间关联决策模型并应用于多目标威胁排序中,实例计算分析表明,所提出的方法较好地解决了多目标多指标问题,对舰艇编队反导威胁判断提供了一个有效的参考处理方法.%Aimed at the missile-raid target threat,how to evaluate and prioritize sceintifically is one of the most important parts in the anti-missile command system. Nowadays ,only the information provided by the maximum is taken into account and the general values are ignored, which will bring distortion into result. So, it is more meaningful to adopt interval-number. In this paper the index system of ship formation's multi-target threat evaluation is analyzed. The main factors effecting on the target threat including their functions of the membership grade are given based on this. Then ,by combining the interval number with the Grey relationship grade theory,a new decision-making model is constructed and applied to prioritize the threat sequence of the misslie-raid targets. Finally the model is applied to the multi-objective and multi-index problem. and the example shows that this method is feasible.

  16. 基于熵与TOPSIS法的空中目标威胁判断%Research on Aerial Targets Threat Evaluation Based on Entropy and TOPSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光源; 马海洋; 庞文强

    2011-01-01

    For all attribute weights and values were interval numbers, through the objective of minimizing the total deviation between the alternatives and ideal object, maximizing the total deviation between the alternatives and negative ideal object, and maximizing the entropy of weights of each coefficient, the optimal solution was the best index weight coefficients, which was solved by Lagrange multiple method. Based on four different distance measure between interval numbers, the evaluating model for optimization of targets was established by applying TOPSIS rule. Lastly, the example was illustrated to compare the ranking effects by different measure. The result proved the definition of HaiMing holds the best reliability.%针对舰艇对空防御空中目标威胁判断指标属性权重与属性值均为区间数的情况,通过以各方案与理想方案偏差最小、与负理想方案偏差最大,以及权系数熵的最大化为优化目标,用拉格朗口乘子法给出模型的最优解,得到指标的权重值;基于区间数的4种不同的距离度量方式,建立基于TOPSIS法的威胁判断模型;通过实例对比在不同距离度量下的排序效果,结论表明采用海明距离的排序结果可信性最高.

  17. Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A review of the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JN Roux

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In a military environment an operator is typically required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect defended assets against enemy threats by assigning available weapon systems to engage enemy craft. This environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making under severe stress conditions, and the associated responsibilities are usually divided between a number of operators and computerized decision support systems that aid these operators during the decision making processes. The aim in this paper is to review the state of the art of this kind of threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support process as it stands within the context of a ground based air defence system (GBADS at the turn of the twenty first century. However, much of the contents of the paper may be generalized to military environments other than a GBADS one.

  18. Overview of Threats and Failure Models for Safety-Relevant Computer-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This document presents a high-level overview of the threats to safety-relevant computer-based systems, including (1) a description of the introduction and activation of physical and logical faults; (2) the propagation of their effects; and (3) function-level and component-level error and failure mode models. These models can be used in the definition of fault hypotheses (i.e., assumptions) for threat-risk mitigation strategies. This document is a contribution to a guide currently under development that is intended to provide a general technical foundation for designers and evaluators of safety-relevant systems.

  19. Identification of threats using linguistics-based knowledge extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Peter A.

    2008-09-01

    One of the challenges increasingly facing intelligence analysts, along with professionals in many other fields, is the vast amount of data which needs to be reviewed and converted into meaningful information, and ultimately into rational, wise decisions by policy makers. The advent of the world wide web (WWW) has magnified this challenge. A key hypothesis which has guided us is that threats come from ideas (or ideology), and ideas are almost always put into writing before the threats materialize. While in the past the 'writing' might have taken the form of pamphlets or books, today's medium of choice is the WWW, precisely because it is a decentralized, flexible, and low-cost method of reaching a wide audience. However, a factor which complicates matters for the analyst is that material published on the WWW may be in any of a large number of languages. In 'Identification of Threats Using Linguistics-Based Knowledge Extraction', we have sought to use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and other similar text analysis techniques to map documents from the WWW, in whatever language they were originally written, to a common language-independent vector-based representation. This then opens up a number of possibilities. First, similar documents can be found across language boundaries. Secondly, a set of documents in multiple languages can be visualized in a graphical representation. These alone offer potentially useful tools and capabilities to the intelligence analyst whose knowledge of foreign languages may be limited. Finally, we can test the over-arching hypothesis--that ideology, and more specifically ideology which represents a threat, can be detected solely from the words which express the ideology--by using the vector-based representation of documents to predict additional features (such as the ideology) within a framework based on supervised learning. In this report, we present the results of a three-year project of the same name. We believe

  20. Snow White and the Seven Warnings: Threats to Authentic Evaluation (Assessment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes seven threats to authentic evaluation, and predicts implications. Warns educators to beware of the term "standards"; norm-referencing; aggregation; credibility, comparability, and calibration; multiple measures; schemes that rule out varieties of excellence; and "untests." (SR)

  1. Evaluating Threats in Multinational Marine Ecosystems: A Coast Salish First Nations and Tribal Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Gaydos

    Full Text Available Despite the merit of managing natural resources on the scale of ecosystems, evaluating threats and managing risk in ecosystems that span multiple countries or jurisdictions can be challenging. This requires each government involved to consider actions in concert with actions being taken in other countries by co-managing entities. Multiple proposed fossil fuel-related and port development projects in the Salish Sea, a 16,925 km2 inland sea shared by Washington State (USA, British Columbia (Canada, and Indigenous Coast Salish governments, have the potential to increase marine vessel traffic and negatively impact natural resources. There is no legal mandate or management mechanism requiring a comprehensive review of the potential cumulative impacts of these development activities throughout the Salish Sea and across the international border. This project identifies ongoing and proposed energy-related development projects that will increase marine vessel traffic in the Salish Sea and evaluates the threats each project poses to natural resources important to the Coast Salish. While recognizing that Coast Salish traditions identify all species as important and connected, we used expert elicitation to identify 50 species upon which we could evaluate impact. These species were chosen because Coast Salish depend upon them heavily for harvest revenue or as a staple food source, they were particularly culturally or spiritually significant, or they were historically part of Coast Salish lifeways. We identified six development projects, each of which had three potential impacts (pressures associated with increased marine vessel traffic: oil spill, vessel noise and vessel strike. Projects varied in their potential for localized impacts (pressures including shoreline development, harbor oil spill, pipeline spill, coal dust accumulation and nearshore LNG explosion. Based on available published data, impact for each pressure/species interaction was rated as

  2. 基于AHP模糊综合评价法的辐射源威胁等级评估%Threat degree assessment of radar radiation source based on AHP-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅雯; 夏伟杰; 吴连慧; 周梦晓; 翟羽佳

    2014-01-01

    在网络攻击掩护战机突防的网电对抗战场中,如何对目标组网雷达的威胁度进行科学的评估,是网电对抗作战指挥的重要环节。根据组网雷达辐射源威胁等级评估指标体系,结合层次分析法(AHP)和模糊综合评价法的优点,借助AHP计算指标权重的优势,将定量与定性相结合,对组网雷达威胁度进行评估,为网络攻击选择目标提供了理论依据。仿真结果验证了该算法的正确性与有效性。%In battlefield of penetration fighter covered by cyber attacks,It is an important part of operational command in cyberspace countermeasures to assess the threat degree of the netted radar system for target scientifically. According to the index system about the threat assessment of radar emitters for netted radar system,an evaluation method with the advantages of AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is proposed for the assessment of radar emitters,which calculates the index weights with AHP and combines quantitative and qualitative algorithms. It provided a theoretical basis for selecting the target in cyber at-tacks. Simulation test shows the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  3. Evaluation in a competitive utility environment: the threat of confidentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilities have become concerned that their competitors will desire access to energy-related data--including energy-efficiency data collected by utilities from their energy- efficiency programs--that they may regard as proprietary or confidential. In the future, disputes about confidentiality may focus more on costs and market information (as well as energy use and load data) than on energy-efficiency data per se. So far, the discussion has been limited to ratepayer-funded data. Consequently, many utilities are now requesting that the data (including evaluation data) they submit to their utility regulatory commissions remain confidential. Withholding utility information from the public is likely to harm the evaluation community that depends on the free flow of information for improving the practice of evaluation as well as for disseminating the lessons learned from particular program evaluations. Confidentiality will also have significant policy implications. In response to these concerns, in late 1995 and early 1996, we conducted a survey of state public utility commissions (PUCs) in the U.S. to assess: (1) the relative importance of the issue of confidential data in the regulatory arena; (2) the regulatory response to utility requests for confidentiality (e.g., formal policies, guidelines, rules and procedures, and decisions); and (3) the type of data filed as confidential with PUCS. We focus on the first two objectives of this study. In addition to our interviews, we reviewed selected state statutes, judicial and PUC decisions, rules and procedures, protective orders, and interim policy documents. Evaluators need to understand the context of confidentiality as well as the response of the regulatory commissions to confidentiality, because evaluators will need to adapt to a new environment where energy-related data and information may be harder to obtain and distribute. We propose that regulators conduct the following activities as soon as possible: 1. Assess

  4. The role of interpersonal processes in shaping inflammatory responses to social-evaluative threat

    OpenAIRE

    John-Henderson, NA; Stellar, JE; Mendoza-Denton, R; Francis, DD

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. In response to social-evaluative threat induced in the laboratory, lower (compared to higher) subjective social class of a participant predicts greater increases in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). In spite of the interpersonal nature of social-evaluation, little work has explored whether characteristics of the evaluator shape physiological responses in this context. In the current study, in a sample of 190 college students (male = 66), we explored whether...

  5. Decision Aid Tool and Ontology-Based Reasoning for Critical Infrastructure Vulnerabilities and Threats Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choraś, Michał; Flizikowski, Adam; Kozik, Rafał; Hołubowicz, Witold

    In this paper, a decision aid tool (DAT) for Critical Infrastructure threats analysis and ranking is presented. We propose the ontology-based approach that provides classification, relationships and reasoning about vulnerabilities and threats of the critical infrastructures. Our approach is a part of research within INSPIRE project for increasing security and protection through infrastructure resilience.

  6. Study on a Threat-Countermeasure Model Based on International Standard Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Horacio Ramirez Caceres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Many international standards exist in the field of IT security. This research is based on the ISO/IEC 15408, 15446, 19791, 13335 and 17799 standards. In this paper, we propose a knowledge base comprising a threat countermeasure model based on international standards for identifying and specifying threats which affect IT environments. In addition, the proposed knowledge base system aims at fusing similar security control policies and objectives in order to create effective security guidelines for specific IT environments. As a result, a knowledge base of security objectives was developed on the basis of the relationships inside the standards as well as the relationships between different standards. In addition, a web application was developed which displays details about the most common threats to information systems, and for each threat presents a set of related security control policies from different international standards, including ISO/IEC 27002.

  7. Use of the response-latency paradigm for eliciting and evaluating women's responses to the threat of date rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, RaeAnn E; Cahill, Shawn P

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the novel use of the response-latency paradigm to elicit women's hypothetical behavioral responses to the threat of acquaintance rape. There were 146 college women recruited and randomly assigned to 4 study conditions. In 3 of the conditions, the threat to which participants responded was experimentally controlled; in the fourth control condition, participants selected the level of threat themselves, following standard procedure of the response-latency paradigm. Results indicated that participant's responses became more intense as threat levels increased; this relationship was not moderated by whether the threat was controlled by the experimenter or the participant. These results indicate the response-latency paradigm is useful for eliciting and evaluating women's hypothetical responses to the threat of acquaintance rape to learn more about this process. PMID:24834746

  8. Effects of Self-Evaluation Threat on Schadenfreude Toward Strangers in a Reality TV Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitomi

    2016-06-01

    Schadenfreude toward strangers in a reality TV show may be affected by self-evaluation threat. This study extends previous work by adding a control group to positive and negative feedback groups in order to investigate the effects of self-evaluation threat. Sex of the target of schadenfreude and schadenfroh participant was considered. Among undergraduate students screened for low general self-esteem, 31 men (M = 20.3 ± 1.6 years old) and 59 women (M = 20.0 ± 1.2 years old) volunteered to participate. Participants performed a simple calculation task, and then received negative, positive, or no feedback regarding the task before completing the State Self-Esteem Scale and watching videos taken from American Idol that showed an applicant being criticized by judges. After watching videos, participants completed items related to schadenfreude. There were no differences in schadenfreude toward strangers between the three feedback groups. In addition to the Japanese tendency of reduced self-enhancement in self-threatening situations, targets with no psychological closeness may also explain the lack of a relationship between self-evaluation threat and schadenfreude. PMID:27170640

  9. The role of interpersonal processes in shaping inflammatory responses to social-evaluative threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Stellar, Jennifer E; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Francis, Darlene D

    2015-09-01

    In response to social-evaluative threat induced in the laboratory, lower (compared to higher) subjective social class of a participant predicts greater increases in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). In spite of the interpersonal nature of social-evaluation, little work has explored whether characteristics of the evaluator shape physiological responses in this context. In the current study, in a sample of 190 college students (male=66), we explored whether one's subjective social class interacts with the perceived social class of an evaluator to predict changes in Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) IL-6 in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Participants were randomly assigned to be the speaker or the evaluator. Extending past work, we found that while speakers low in subjective social class consistently respond with strong increases in IL-6 regardless of their perception of their evaluator's social class, speakers high in subjective social class responded with greater increases in IL-6 when their evaluator was perceived as high social class compared to when they were perceived as low social class. This finding highlights the importance of perceptions of the evaluator in informing inflammatory responses to a social-evaluative task.

  10. Threat, prejudice and stereotyping in the context of Japanese, North Korean, and South Korean intergroup relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Chris; Abrams, Dominic; Rosenthal, Harriet E.S.; Christian, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Integrated threat theory, realistic conflict theory, and group justification (based on social identity theory) were evaluated in the international context of Japanese prejudice toward North Korea and South Korea. Military threat emerged as an important addition to the four threats outlined by integrated threat theory. Three perceived North Korean threats (realistic [domestic] threat; intergroup anxiety; military threat) predicted prejudice toward North Korea. North Korean preju...

  11. Psychosocial Modeling of Insider Threat Risk Based on Behavioral and Word Use Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Noonan, Christine F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2013-10-01

    In many insider crimes, managers and other coworkers observed that the offenders had exhibited signs of stress, disgruntlement, or other issues, but no alarms were raised. Barriers to using such psychosocial indicators include the inability to recognize the signs and the failure to record the behaviors so that they can be assessed. A psychosocial model was developed to assess an employee’s behavior associated with an increased risk of insider abuse. The model is based on case studies and research literature on factors/correlates associated with precursor behavioral manifestations of individuals committing insider crimes. A complementary Personality Factor modeling approach was developed based on analysis to derive relevant personality characteristics from word use. Several implementations of the psychosocial model were evaluated by comparing their agreement with judgments of human resources and management professionals; the personality factor modeling approach was examined using email samples. If implemented in an operational setting, these models should be part of a set of management tools for employee assessment to identify employees who pose a greater insider threat.

  12. Physiological Response to Social Evaluative Threat in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, E Kale; Jones, Robin M; Corbett, Blythe A

    2016-09-01

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was employed to study response to social evaluative threat in male adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 21) and typical development (n = 13). Participants wore a mobile electrocardiogram to collect heart rate data. There were significant group effects on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic nervous system function, with lower values in ASD (F = 4.97). Bivariate correlations also showed a significant relationship between parent reports of social problems and RSA response to the TSST (r = -0.586). These findings suggest that autonomic dysregulation may contribute to social deficits in adolescents with ASD. PMID:27318810

  13. Is the Movement of Evidence-based Practice a Real Threat to Music Therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Masako Otera

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses what music therapists must work on to establish Evidence-based practice (EBP) in music therapy by referring to Saito's discussion of the misunderstandings and various interpretations of Evidence-based medicine (EBM), the issue of Empirically Supported Treatments (ESTs) in EBP in psychology (EBPP), and related discussions. Although the EBP movement tends to be recognized as a threat to music therapy, some recent discussions of EBM and EBP are encouraging for the developmen...

  14. Threats to Bitcoin Software

    OpenAIRE

    Kateraas, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Collect and analyse threat models to the Bitcoin ecosystem and its software. The create misuse case, attack trees, and sequence diagrams of the threats. Create a malicious client from the gathered threat models. Once the development of the client is complete, test the client and evaluate its performance. From this, assess the security of the Bitcoin software.

  15. On the early detection of threats in the real world based on open-source information on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Rajadell Rojas, O.; Worm, D.T.H.; Versloot, C.A.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to detect threats in an early stage and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time con

  16. Law enforcers recognition level emerging threats based on physical appearance and behavior signs the enemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radzievskiy R.M.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: examine the effectiveness of the training method of differential approach to the choice of means of influence on the action of law enforcers opponent with different levels of aggressiveness. Material : the experiment involved 15 students of the Kyiv National Academy of Internal Affairs and the 15 employees of the State Guard of Ukraine. Results : presented curriculum for special physical and tactical training. The program details the conceptual apparatus of THREATS and DANGERS manifestations of different levels of aggressiveness opponent (case analysis of its motor behavior. The study participants underwent 7 day course focused training. The basis of the course is an advanced theoretical base. The base is aimed at developing knowledge and skills of employees in determining the level of danger. Including threats from testing and modeling episodes of extreme situations the options cadets. Conclusions : In the simulated collision situations with aggressive opponent to the students significantly improved the adequacy of the response to the threat of execution time and within the legal grounds. Recognition was determined by the level of aggressiveness manifest manners enemy, his emotions, motivation, motor behavior, positional arrangement for 2 - 3 seconds. The program contributed to the development of qualities: attention, orientation, perception, motor lead.

  17. China Threat, What Threat?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, China has become the candidate of choice among "illusionist" hawks looking to justify Pentagon spending. Henry Rosemont, a professor emeritus at St Mary’s CoUege of Maryland and a visiting scholar in the Religious Studies Department at Brown University, recently wrote an article for Asia Times Online, saying that facts belie the claims of China’s military threat

  18. Radioactive Threat Detection with Scattering Physics: A Model-Based Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V; Chambers, D H; Breitfeller, E F; Guidry, B L; Verbeke, J M; Axelrod, M A; Sale, K E; Meyer, A M

    2010-01-21

    The detection of radioactive contraband is a critical problem in maintaining national security for any country. Emissions from threat materials challenge both detection and measurement technologies especially when concealed by various types of shielding complicating the transport physics significantly. The development of a model-based sequential Bayesian processor that captures both the underlying transport physics including scattering offers a physics-based approach to attack this challenging problem. It is shown that this processor can be used to develop an effective detection technique.

  19. Subjective Performance Evaluations, Self-esteem, and Ego-threats in Principal-agent Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    find that agents sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if the agents' payoff is independent of the principals' feedback. Based on our experimental analysis we propose a principal-agent model with subjective performance evaluations that accommodates...

  20. Cyber Security Threats to Safety-Critical, Space-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Atencia Yepez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based systems play an important role within national critical infrastructures. They are being integrated into advanced air-traffic management applications, rail signalling systems, energy distribution software etc. Unfortunately, the end users of communications, location sensing and timing applications often fail to understand that these infrastructures are vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. The following pages focus on concerns associated with potential cyber-attacks. These are important because future attacks may invalidate many of the safety assumptions that support the provision of critical space-based services. These safety assumptions are based on standard forms of hazard analysis that ignore cyber-security considerations This is a significant limitation when, for instance, security attacks can simultaneously exploit multiple vulnerabilities in a manner that would never occur without a deliberate enemy seeking to damage space based systems and ground infrastructures. We address this concern through the development of a combined safety and security risk assessment methodology. The aim is to identify attack scenarios that justify the allocation of additional design resources so that safety barriers can be strengthened to increase our resilience against security threats.

  1. 49 CFR 1515.9 - Appeal of security threat assessment based on other analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the applicant for an HME or TWIC poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1572.107. (2) TSA had determined that an air cargo worker poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1540.205. (3) TSA had... firms poses a security threat as provided in 49 CFR 1549.109. (b) Grounds for appeal. An applicant...

  2. Inadequate evaluation and management of threats in Australia's Marine Parks, including the Great Barrier Reef, misdirect Marine conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Bob; Farebrother, Graham

    2014-01-01

    The magnificence of the Great Barrier Reef and its worthiness of extraordinary efforts to protect it from whatever threats may arise are unquestioned. Yet almost four decades after the establishment of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia's most expensive and intensely researched Marine Protected Area, the health of the Reef is reported to be declining alarmingly. The management of the suite of threats to the health of the reef has clearly been inadequate, even though there have been several notable successes. It is argued that the failure to prioritise correctly all major threats to the reef, coupled with the exaggeration of the benefits of calling the park a protected area and zoning subsets of areas as 'no-take', has distracted attention from adequately addressing the real causes of impact. Australia's marine conservation efforts have been dominated by commitment to a National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. In so doing, Australia has displaced the internationally accepted primary priority for pursuing effective protection of marine environments with inadequately critical adherence to the principle of having more and bigger marine parks. The continuing decline in the health of the Great Barrier Reef and other Australian coastal areas confirms the limitations of current area management for combating threats to marine ecosystems. There is great need for more critical evaluation of how marine environments can be protected effectively and managed efficiently.

  3. Data and software tools for gamma radiation spectral threat detection and nuclide identification algorithm development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of radiological and nuclear threats is extremely important to national security. The federal government is spending significant resources developing new detection systems and attempting to increase the performance of existing ones. The detection of illicit radionuclides that may pose a radiological or nuclear threat is a challenging problem complicated by benign radiation sources (e.g., cat litter and medical treatments), shielding, and large variations in background radiation. Although there is a growing acceptance within the community that concentrating efforts on algorithm development (independent of the specifics of fully assembled systems) has the potential for significant overall system performance gains, there are two major hindrances to advancements in gamma spectral analysis algorithms under the current paradigm: access to data and common performance metrics along with baseline performance measures. Because many of the signatures collected during performance measurement campaigns are classified, dissemination to algorithm developers is extremely limited. This leaves developers no choice but to collect their own data if they are lucky enough to have access to material and sensors. This is often combined with their own definition of metrics for measuring performance. These two conditions make it all but impossible for developers and external reviewers to make meaningful comparisons between algorithms. Without meaningful comparisons, performance advancements become very hard to achieve and (more importantly) recognize. The objective of this work is to overcome these obstacles by developing and freely distributing real and synthetically generated gamma-spectra data sets as well as software tools for performance evaluation with associated performance baselines to national labs, academic institutions, government agencies, and industry. At present, datasets for two tracks, or application domains, have been developed: one that includes temporal

  4. Data and software tools for gamma radiation spectral threat detection and nuclide identification algorithm development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David; Fisher, Brian; Phifer, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    The detection of radiological and nuclear threats is extremely important to national security. The federal government is spending significant resources developing new detection systems and attempting to increase the performance of existing ones. The detection of illicit radionuclides that may pose a radiological or nuclear threat is a challenging problem complicated by benign radiation sources (e.g., cat litter and medical treatments), shielding, and large variations in background radiation. Although there is a growing acceptance within the community that concentrating efforts on algorithm development (independent of the specifics of fully assembled systems) has the potential for significant overall system performance gains, there are two major hindrances to advancements in gamma spectral analysis algorithms under the current paradigm: access to data and common performance metrics along with baseline performance measures. Because many of the signatures collected during performance measurement campaigns are classified, dissemination to algorithm developers is extremely limited. This leaves developers no choice but to collect their own data if they are lucky enough to have access to material and sensors. This is often combined with their own definition of metrics for measuring performance. These two conditions make it all but impossible for developers and external reviewers to make meaningful comparisons between algorithms. Without meaningful comparisons, performance advancements become very hard to achieve and (more importantly) recognize. The objective of this work is to overcome these obstacles by developing and freely distributing real and synthetically generated gamma-spectra data sets as well as software tools for performance evaluation with associated performance baselines to national labs, academic institutions, government agencies, and industry. At present, datasets for two tracks, or application domains, have been developed: one that includes temporal

  5. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE THREAT OF NAFTA ON U.S. CATFISH INDUSTRY USING A TRADITIONAL IMPORT DEMAND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ligeon, Carel; Jolly, Curtis M.; John D. Jackson

    1996-01-01

    The effects of increased exports from NAFTA member countries on the U.S. domestic catfish industry were evaluated. Results showed that the quantity of catfish imported will fall if the domestic price of catfish falls relative to the import price. Past imports have no effect on present imports. The income elasticity was negative indicating that imported catfish may be an inferior good. Doubling present levels of imports from NAFTA member countries is not a threat to the U.S. catfish industry.

  6. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  7. A knowledge-based approach to estimating the magnitude and spatial patterns of potential threats to soil biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiazzi, Alberto; Panagos, Panos; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B; Gardi, Ciro; Montanarella, Luca; Ballabio, Cristiano

    2016-03-01

    Because of the increasing pressures exerted on soil, below-ground life is under threat. Knowledge-based rankings of potential threats to different components of soil biodiversity were developed in order to assess the spatial distribution of threats on a European scale. A list of 13 potential threats to soil biodiversity was proposed to experts with different backgrounds in order to assess the potential for three major components of soil biodiversity: soil microorganisms, fauna, and biological functions. This approach allowed us to obtain knowledge-based rankings of threats. These classifications formed the basis for the development of indices through an additive aggregation model that, along with ad-hoc proxies for each pressure, allowed us to preliminarily assess the spatial patterns of potential threats. Intensive exploitation was identified as the highest pressure. In contrast, the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture was considered as the threat with least potential. The potential impact of climate change showed the highest uncertainty. Fourteen out of the 27 considered countries have more than 40% of their soils with moderate-high to high potential risk for all three components of soil biodiversity. Arable soils are the most exposed to pressures. Soils within the boreal biogeographic region showed the lowest risk potential. The majority of soils at risk are outside the boundaries of protected areas. First maps of risks to three components of soil biodiversity based on the current scientific knowledge were developed. Despite the intrinsic limits of knowledge-based assessments, a remarkable potential risk to soil biodiversity was observed. Guidelines to preliminarily identify and circumscribe soils potentially at risk are provided. This approach may be used in future research to assess threat at both local and global scale and identify areas of possible risk and, subsequently, design appropriate strategies for monitoring and protection of soil

  8. A knowledge-based approach to estimating the magnitude and spatial patterns of potential threats to soil biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiazzi, Alberto; Panagos, Panos; Yigini, Yusuf; Dunbar, Martha B; Gardi, Ciro; Montanarella, Luca; Ballabio, Cristiano

    2016-03-01

    Because of the increasing pressures exerted on soil, below-ground life is under threat. Knowledge-based rankings of potential threats to different components of soil biodiversity were developed in order to assess the spatial distribution of threats on a European scale. A list of 13 potential threats to soil biodiversity was proposed to experts with different backgrounds in order to assess the potential for three major components of soil biodiversity: soil microorganisms, fauna, and biological functions. This approach allowed us to obtain knowledge-based rankings of threats. These classifications formed the basis for the development of indices through an additive aggregation model that, along with ad-hoc proxies for each pressure, allowed us to preliminarily assess the spatial patterns of potential threats. Intensive exploitation was identified as the highest pressure. In contrast, the use of genetically modified organisms in agriculture was considered as the threat with least potential. The potential impact of climate change showed the highest uncertainty. Fourteen out of the 27 considered countries have more than 40% of their soils with moderate-high to high potential risk for all three components of soil biodiversity. Arable soils are the most exposed to pressures. Soils within the boreal biogeographic region showed the lowest risk potential. The majority of soils at risk are outside the boundaries of protected areas. First maps of risks to three components of soil biodiversity based on the current scientific knowledge were developed. Despite the intrinsic limits of knowledge-based assessments, a remarkable potential risk to soil biodiversity was observed. Guidelines to preliminarily identify and circumscribe soils potentially at risk are provided. This approach may be used in future research to assess threat at both local and global scale and identify areas of possible risk and, subsequently, design appropriate strategies for monitoring and protection of soil

  9. Effects of social comparison direction, threat, and self-esteem on affect, self-evaluation, and expected success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinwall, L G; Taylor, S E

    1993-05-01

    Two studies explored the conditions under which social comparisons are used to manage negative affect and naturalistic threats. Study 1 examined induced mood and dispositional self-esteem as determinants of affective responses to upward and downward comparisons. Consistent with a mood repair prediction, only low-self-esteem Ss in whom a negative mood had been induced reported improved mood after exposure to downward comparison information. Study 2 examined the impact of naturalistic threats on responses to comparison information. Relative to a no-comparison baseline, low-self-esteem Ss who had experienced a recent academic setback reported more favorable self-evaluations and greater expectations of future success in college after exposure to downward comparison information. These results remained significant after controlling statistically for general distress. Implications for downward comparison theory are discussed.

  10. Evaluation and Verification of the Global Rapid Identification of Threats System for Infectious Diseases in Textual Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Huff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Rapid Identification of Threats System (GRITS is a biosurveillance application that enables infectious disease analysts to monitor nontraditional information sources (e.g., social media, online news outlets, ProMED-mail reports, and blogs for infectious disease threats. GRITS analyzes these textual data sources by identifying, extracting, and succinctly visualizing epidemiologic information and suggests potentially associated infectious diseases. This manuscript evaluates and verifies the diagnoses that GRITS performs and discusses novel aspects of the software package. Via GRITS’ web interface, infectious disease analysts can examine dynamic visualizations of GRITS’ analyses and explore historical infectious disease emergence events. The GRITS API can be used to continuously analyze information feeds, and the API enables GRITS technology to be easily incorporated into other biosurveillance systems. GRITS is a flexible tool that can be modified to conduct sophisticated medical report triaging, expanded to include customized alert systems, and tailored to address other biosurveillance needs.

  11. Evaluation and Verification of the Global Rapid Identification of Threats System for Infectious Diseases in Textual Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The Global Rapid Identification of Threats System (GRITS) is a biosurveillance application that enables infectious disease analysts to monitor nontraditional information sources (e.g., social media, online news outlets, ProMED-mail reports, and blogs) for infectious disease threats. GRITS analyzes these textual data sources by identifying, extracting, and succinctly visualizing epidemiologic information and suggests potentially associated infectious diseases. This manuscript evaluates and verifies the diagnoses that GRITS performs and discusses novel aspects of the software package. Via GRITS' web interface, infectious disease analysts can examine dynamic visualizations of GRITS' analyses and explore historical infectious disease emergence events. The GRITS API can be used to continuously analyze information feeds, and the API enables GRITS technology to be easily incorporated into other biosurveillance systems. GRITS is a flexible tool that can be modified to conduct sophisticated medical report triaging, expanded to include customized alert systems, and tailored to address other biosurveillance needs.

  12. Evaluation of an algorithm for estimating a patient's life threat risk from an ambulance call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriwaki Yoshihiro

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Utilizing a computer algorithm, information from calls to an ambulance service was used to calculate the risk of patients being in a life-threatening condition (life threat risk, at the time of the call. If the estimated life threat risk was higher than 10%, the probability that a patient faced a risk of dying was recognized as very high and categorized as category A+. The present study aimed to review the accuracy of the algorithm. Methods Data collected for six months from the Yokohama new emergency system was used. In the system, emergency call workers interviewed ambulance callers to obtain information necessary to assess triage, which included consciousness level, breathing status, walking ability, position, and complexion. An emergency patient's life threat risk was then estimated by a computer algorithm applying logistic models. This study compared the estimated life threat risk occurring at the time of the emergency call to the patients' state or severity of condition, i.e. death confirmed at the scene by ambulance crews, resulted in death at emergency departments, life-threatening condition with occurrence of cardiac and/or pulmonary arrest (CPA, life-threatening condition without CPA, serious but not life-threatening condition, moderate condition, and mild condition. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios of the algorithm for categorizing A+ were calculated. Results The number of emergency dispatches over the six months was 73,992. Triage assessment was conducted for 68,692 of these calls. The study targets account for 88.8% of patients who were involved in triage calls. There were 2,349 cases where the patient had died or had suffered CPA. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio of the algorithm at predicting cases that would result in a death or CPA were 80.2% (95% confidence interval

  13. Coping with Self-Threat and the Evaluation of Self-Related Traits: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoefler

    Full Text Available A positive view of oneself is important for a healthy lifestyle. Self-protection mechanisms such as suppressing negative self-related information help us to maintain a positive view of ourselves. This is of special relevance when, for instance, a negative test result threatens our positive self-view. To date, it is not clear which brain areas support self-protective mechanisms under self-threat. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study the participants (N = 46 received a (negative vs. positive performance test feedback before entering the scanner. In the scanner, the participants were instructed to ascribe personality traits either to themselves or to a famous other. Our results showed that participants responded slower to negative self-related traits compared to positive self-related traits. High self-esteem individuals responded slower to negative traits compared to low self-esteem individuals following a self-threat. This indicates that high self-esteem individuals engage more in self-enhancing strategies after a threat by inhibiting negative self-related information more successfully than low self-esteem individuals. This behavioral pattern was mirrored in the fMRI data as dACC correlated positively with trait self-esteem. Generally, ACC activation was attenuated under threat when participants evaluated self-relevant traits and even more for negative self-related traits. We also found that activation in the ACC was negatively correlated with response times, indicating that greater activation of the ACC is linked to better access (faster response to positive self-related traits and to impaired access (slower response to negative self-related traits. These results confirm the ACC function as important in managing threatened self-worth but indicate differences in trait self-esteem levels. The fMRI analyses also revealed a decrease in activation within the left Hippocampus and the right thalamus under threat. This

  14. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats. PMID:24187744

  15. Defense against Insider Threat: a Framework for Gathering Goal-based Requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Eck, van P.A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Insider threat is becoming comparable to outsider threat in frequency of security events. This is a very worrying situation, as insider attacks have a high probability of success because insiders have authorized access and legitimate privileges. As a result, organizations can suffer financial losses

  16. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation discusses an effort to compute and post weekly MODIS forest change products for the conterminous US (CONUS), as part of a web-based national forest threat early warning system (EWS) known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The US Forest Service, NASA, USGS, and ORNL are working collaboratively to contribute weekly change products to this EWS. Large acreages of the nation's forests are being disturbed by a growing multitude of biotic and abiotic threats that can act either singularly or in combination. When common at regional scales, such disturbances can pose hazards and threats to floral and faunal bio-diversity, ecosystem sustainability, ecosystem services, and human settlements across the conterminous US. Regionally evident forest disturbances range from ephemeral periodic canopy defoliation to stand replacement mortality events due to insects, disease, fire, hurricanes, tornadoes, ice, hail, and drought. Mandated by the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003, this forest threat EWS has been actively developed since 2006 and on-line since 2010. The FCAV system employs 250-meter MODIS NDVI-based forest change products as a key element of the system, providing regional and CONUS scale products in near real time every 8 days. Each of our forest change products in FCAV is based on current versus historical 24 day composites of NDVI data gridded at 231.66 meter resolution. Current NDVI is derived from USGS eMODIS expedited products. MOD13 NDVI is used for constructing historical baselines. CONUS change products are computed for all forests as % change in the current versus historical NDVI for a given 24 day period. Change products are computed according to previous year, previous 3 year and previous 8 year historical baselines. The use of multiple baselines enables apparent forest disturbance anomalies to be more fully assessed. CONUS forest change products are posted each week on the FCAV, a web mapping service constructed and

  17. An Object Threat Assessment Method Based on Indefinite Multiple Attribute Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cui; SU Hai-bin; HOU Chao-zhen; WANG Xiao-yi

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of characteristics of threat assessment of aerial defense, a kind of MADM (multiple attribute decision making) method with unknown attribute weights and biased project on decision-maker is put forward. It can be used in dealing with the object threat assessment problem. A computing formula on project preference of decision-maker and one model of obtaining attribute optimization weight are set up. The method improves the veracity and reliability of computing object threat assessment, and the simulating result shows that this method is valid.

  18. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Glasser, Jerry; Kuper, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses an effort to compute and post weekly MODIS forest change products for the conterminous US (CONUS), as part of national forest threat early warning system (EWS) known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The US Forest Service, NASA, USGS, and ORNL are working collaboratively to contribute weekly change products to this EWS. Large acreages of the nation's forests are being disturbed by a growing multitude of biotic and abiotic threats that can act either singularly or in combination. When common at regional scales, such disturbances can pose hazards and threats to floral and faunal bio-diversity, ecosystem sustainability, ecosystem services, and human settlements across the conterminous US. Regionally evident forest disturbances range from ephemeral periodic canopy defoliation to stand replacement mortality events due to insects, disease, fire, hurricanes, tornadoes, ice, hail, and drought. Mandated by the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003, this forest threat EWS has been actively developed since 2006 and on-line since 2010. This FCAV system employs 250-meter MODIS NDVI-based forest change products as a key element of the system, providing regional and CONUS scale products in near real time every 8 days. Each forest change product in FCAV is based on current versus historical 24 day composite NDVI data gridded at 231.66 meter resolution. Current NDVI is derived from USGS eMODIS expedited products. MOD13 NDVI is used for constructing historical baselines. CONUS change products are computed for all forests as % change in the current versus historical NDVI. Change products are computed according to previous year, previous 3 years and previous 8 year historical baselines. The use of multiple baselines enables disturbance anomaly phenology to be more fully assessed. CONUS forest change products are posted each week on the FCAV, a web mapping service maintained by the National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center. The

  19. Is the Movement of Evidence-based Practice a Real Threat to Music Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Otera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses what music therapists must work on to establish Evidence-based practice (EBP in music therapy by referring to Saito's discussion of the misunderstandings and various interpretations of Evidence-based medicine (EBM, the issue of Empirically Supported Treatments (ESTs in EBP in psychology (EBPP, and related discussions. Although the EBP movement tends to be recognized as a threat to music therapy, some recent discussions of EBM and EBP are encouraging for the development of EBP in music therapy. This paper shows that an integration of evidence of multiple types with clinical expertise and the individual needs in clients has become a consensus of EBP. However, the issues related to conducting Randomized controlled Trials (RCTs and employment of standardized treatment protocols in music therapy have persisted as difficult problems. Because the issue of EBP is very complex and easily biased, effective learning of this issue should be promoted among music therapists so that they can successfully relate to the EBP movement and bring benefits to the field of music therapy. The author suggests that incorporating the ideas of EBP positively into the field of music therapy and constructing methodologies and theories will enhance EBP.

  20. A methodology for the evaluation of the turbine jet engine fragment threat to generic air transportable containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncontained, high-energy gas turbine engine fragments are a potential threat to air-transportable containers carried aboard jet aircraft. The threat to a generic example container is evaluated by probability analyses and penetration testing to demonstrate the methodology to be used in the evaluation of a specific container/aircraft/engine combination. Fragment/container impact probability is the product of the uncontained fragment release rate and the geometric probability that a container is in the path of this fragment. The probability of a high-energy rotor burst fragment from four generic aircraft engines striking one of the containment vessels aboard a transport aircraft is approximately 1.2 x 10-9 strikes/hour. Finite element penetration analyses and tests can be performed to identify specific fragments which have the potential to penetrate a generic or specific containment vessel. The relatively low probability of engine fragment/container impacts is primarily due to the low release rate of uncontained, hazardous jet engine fragments

  1. Forecasting Lightning Threat Using WRF Proxy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Given that high-resolution WRF forecasts can capture the character of convective outbreaks, we seek to: 1. Create WRF forecasts of LTG threat (1-24 h), based on 2 proxy fields from explicitly simulated convection: - graupel flux near -15 C (captures LTG time variability) - vertically integrated ice (captures LTG threat area). 2. Calibrate each threat to yield accurate quantitative peak flash rate densities. 3. Also evaluate threats for areal coverage, time variability. 4. Blend threats to optimize results. 5. Examine sensitivity to model mesh, microphysics. Methods: 1. Use high-resolution 2-km WRF simulations to prognose convection for a diverse series of selected case studies. 2. Evaluate graupel fluxes; vertically integrated ice (VII). 3. Calibrate WRF LTG proxies using peak total LTG flash rate densities from NALMA; relationships look linear, with regression line passing through origin. 4. Truncate low threat values to make threat areal coverage match NALMA flash extent density obs. 5. Blend proxies to achieve optimal performance 6. Study CAPS 4-km ensembles to evaluate sensitivities.

  2. Vulnerability of Water Resources under Climate and Land Use Change: Evaluation of Present and Future Threats for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtnebel, Hans-Peter; Wesemann, Johannes; Herrnegger, Mathew; Senoner, Tobias; Schulz, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    vulnerability were developed. A comparison with existing data (River Basin Management Plan and Groundwater Chemistry Regulation) shows a good agreement between the elaborated maps and observations for the present state. The Overall Vulnerability is very low and low for most parts of Austria, especially in the forested alpine region. Bigger cities like Vienna, Graz and Linz show medium vulnerabilities, due to the high water demand and low ecosystem services. Only in the north-eastern and south-eastern part of the country some water supply associations with high and very high overall vulnerability exist. Groundwater recharge is quite small in these regions and the water quality is limited due to intense agriculture and possible threats through landfills. The developed framework allows an evaluation of water quantity and quality vulnerabilities for large scales for the present and the future. Including ecosystem services and gross value added an overall vulnerability can be determined.

  3. Evaluating the response of complex systems to environmental threats: the Σ II method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Σ II method was developed to model and compute the probabilistic performance of systems that operate in a threatening environment. Although we emphasize the vulnerability of complex systems to earthquakes and to electromagnetic threats such as EMP (electromagnetic pulse), the method applies in general to most large-scale systems or networks that are embedded in a potentially harmful environment. Other methods exist for obtaining system vulnerability, but their complexity increases exponentially as the size of systems is increased. The complexity of the Σ II method is polynomial, and accurate solutions are now possible for problems for which current methods require the use of rough statistical bounds, confidence statements, and other approximations. For super-large problems, where the costs of precise answers may be prohibitive, a desired accuracy can be specified, and the Σ II algorithms will halt when that accuracy has been reached. We summarize the results of a theoretical complexity analysis - which is reported elsewhere - and validate the theory with computer experiments conducted both on worst-case academic problems and on more reasonable problems occurring in practice. Finally, we compare our method with the exact methods of Abraham and Nakazawa, and with current bounding methods, and we demonstrate the computational efficiency and accuracy of Σ II

  4. Genetic influences on the neural and physiological bases of acute threat: A research domain criteria (RDoC) perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Powers, Abigail; Jovanovic, Tanja; Koenen, Karestan C

    2016-01-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative aims to describe key dimensional constructs underlying mental function across multiple units of analysis-from genes to observable behaviors-in order to better understand psychopathology. The acute threat ("fear") construct of the RDoC Negative Valence System has been studied extensively from a translational perspective, and is highly pertinent to numerous psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and trauma-related disorders. We examined genetic contributions to the construct of acute threat at two units of analysis within the RDoC framework: (1) neural circuits and (2) physiology. Specifically, we focused on genetic influences on activation patterns of frontolimbic neural circuitry and on startle, skin conductance, and heart rate responses. Research on the heritability of activation in threat-related frontolimbic neural circuitry is lacking, but physiological indicators of acute threat have been found to be moderately heritable (35-50%). Genetic studies of the neural circuitry and physiology of acute threat have almost exclusively relied on the candidate gene method and, as in the broader psychiatric genetics literature, most findings have failed to replicate. The most robust support has been demonstrated for associations between variation in the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes with threat-related neural activation and physiological responses. However, unbiased genome-wide approaches using very large samples are needed for gene discovery, and these can be accomplished with collaborative consortium-based research efforts, such as those of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

  5. Physical Protection System Design Analysis against Insider Threat based on Game Theoretic Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo-Nam; Suh, Young-A; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Erich [The University of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2015-05-15

    This study explores the use of game-theoretic modeling of physical protection analysis by incorporating the implications of an insider threat. The defender-adversary interaction along with the inclusion of an insider is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem at an experimental fast reactor system. Non-detection probability and travel time are used as a baseline of physical protection parameters in this model. As one of the key features of the model is its ability to choose among security upgrades given the constraints of a budget, the study also performed cost benefit analysis for security upgrades options. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three types of adversary paths assisted by the insider and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. More work needs to be done to incorporate complex dimensions of insider threats, which include but are not limited to: a more realistic mapping of insider threat, accounting for information asymmetry between the adversary, insider, and defenders, and assignment of more pragmatic parameter values.

  6. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  7. Helping Parents Cope with Suicide Threats: An Approach Based on Nonviolent Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Haim; Dolberger, Dan Isaac

    2015-09-01

    Parent training in nonviolent resistance was adapted to deal with situations of suicide threat by children, adolescents, and young adults. The approach aims at reducing the risk potential and the mutual distress surrounding the threat-interaction. Parent training in nonviolent resistance has been shown to help parents move from helplessness to presence, from isolation to connectedness, from submission to resistance, from escalation to self-control, and from mutual distancing and hostility to care and support. Those emphases can be crucial for the diminution of suicide risk. Parents show good ability to implement the approach and report gains on various areas over and beyond the reduction in suicide threat. A particular advantage is that the method can be used also in cases where the young person threatening suicide is not willing to cooperate. PMID:25594236

  8. Standoff Methods for the Detection of Threat Agents: A Review of Several Promising Laser-Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bruce Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of explosives, explosive precursors, or other threat agents presents a number of technological challenges for optical sensing methods. Certainly detecting trace levels of threat agents against a complex background is chief among these challenges; however, the related issues of multiple target distances (from standoff to proximity and sampling time scales (from passive mines to rapid rate of march convoy protection for different applications make it unlikely that a single technique will be ideal for all sensing situations. A number of methods for spanning the range of optical sensor technologies exist which, when integrated, could produce a fused sensor system possessing a high level of sensitivity to threat agents and a moderate standoff real-time capability appropriate for portal screening of personnel or vehicles. In this work, we focus on several promising, and potentially synergistic, laser-based methods for sensing threat agents. For each method, we have briefly outlined the technique and report on the current level of capability.

  9. Evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas for maintaining biodiversity, securing habitats, and reducing threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldmann, Jonas

    of this thesis has been to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of protected area in securing biodiversity, by evaluating their ability to either improve conservation responses, the state of biodiversity, or alternatively to reduce the human pressures responsible for the loss of biodiversity. The scope...... of these categories a suite of relevant success matrices exist including; coverage, quality, and performance. This PhD thesis deals with the effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas using temporal data to explore whether protected areas have had a positive effect as a consequence of their establishment. The aim...... of the thesis has been exclusively terrestrial. Through the six chapters making up the core of this PhD I have explored the effectiveness of protected areas looking at general patterns transcending individual casestudies. This has involved using large scale existing global data sets, systematic literature...

  10. Trait Mindfulness Modulates Neuroendocrine and Affective Responses to Social Evaluative Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirk Warren; Weinstein, Netta; Creswell, J. David

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual differences in mindfulness have been associated with numerous self-report indicators of stress, but research has not examined how mindfulness may buffer neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses under controlled laboratory conditions. The present study investigated the role of trait mindfulness in buffering cortisol and affective responses to a social evaluative stress challenge versus a control task. Methods Participants completed measures of trait mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation before being randomized to complete the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum et al., 1993) or a control task. At points throughout the session, participants provided five saliva samples to assess cortisol response patterns, and completed four self-report measures of anxiety and negative affect to assess psychological responses. Results In accord with hypotheses, higher trait mindfulness predicted lower cortisol responses to the TSST, relative to the control task, as well as lower anxiety and negative affect. These relations remained significant when controlling for the role of other variables that predicted cortisol and affective responses. Conclusions The findings suggest that trait mindfulness modulates cortisol and affective responses to an acute social stressor. Further research is needed to understand the neural pathways through which mindfulness impacts these responses. PMID:22626868

  11. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  12. Evaluating the protection levels of armoured vehicles for KE, mine and IED threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Based on providing protection to the occupants of armoured vehicles a NATO standard is under implementation (STANAG 4569). The aim of this agreement is to standardize protection levels for armoured vehicle occupants to ensure that: a. Commanders in the field can select the right equipment to fulfil

  13. Ultrasensitive microchip based on smart microgel for real-time online detection of trace threat analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuo; Wang, Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Xie, Rui; Liu, Zhuang; Yu, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Chuan; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2016-02-23

    Real-time online detection of trace threat analytes is critical for global sustainability, whereas the key challenge is how to efficiently convert and amplify analyte signals into simple readouts. Here we report an ultrasensitive microfluidic platform incorporated with smart microgel for real-time online detection of trace threat analytes. The microgel can swell responding to specific stimulus in flowing solution, resulting in efficient conversion of the stimulus signal into significantly amplified signal of flow-rate change; thus highly sensitive, fast, and selective detection can be achieved. We demonstrate this by incorporating ion-recognizable microgel for detecting trace Pb(2+), and connecting our platform with pipelines of tap water and wastewater for real-time online Pb(2+) detection to achieve timely pollution warning and terminating. This work provides a generalizable platform for incorporating myriad stimuli-responsive microgels to achieve ever-better performance for real-time online detection of various trace threat molecules, and may expand the scope of applications of detection techniques. PMID:26858435

  14. The Shoreline Video Assessment Method (S-VAM): Using dynamic hyperlapse image acquisition to evaluate shoreline mangrove forest structure, values, degradation and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jock R; Duke, Norman C; Wood, Apanie L

    2016-08-30

    Climate change with human direct pressures represent significant threats to the resilience of shoreline habitats like mangroves. A rapid, whole-of-system assessment strategy is needed to evaluate such threats, better linking innovative remote sensing with essential on-ground evaluations. Using the Shoreline Video Assessment Method, we surveyed around 190km of the mostly mangrove-fringed (78%) coastline of Kien Giang Province, Vietnam. The aim was to identify anthropogenic drivers of degradation, establishing baseline for specific rehabilitation and protection strategies. Fish traps occupy at least 87% of shoreline mangroves, around which there were abundant human activities - like fishing, crabbing, farming, plus collecting firewood and foliage. Such livelihoods were associated with remnant, fringing mangrove that were largely degraded and threatened by erosion retreat, herbivory, and excessive cutting. Our assessment quantified associated threats to shoreline stability, along with previous rehabilitation intervention measures. The method offers key opportunities for effective conservation and management of vulnerable shoreline habitats. PMID:27293078

  15. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis potential for addressing radiological threats from a distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaona, I.; Serrano, J.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J. J.

    2014-06-01

    Although radioactive materials are nowadays valuable tools in nearly all fields of modern science and technology, the dangers stemming from the uncontrolled use of ionizing radiation are more than evident. Since preparedness is a key issue to face the risks of a radiation dispersal event, development of rapid and efficient monitoring technologies to control the contamination caused by radioactive materials is of crucial interest. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) exhibits appealing features for this application. This research focuses on the assessment of LIBS potential for the in-situ fingerprinting and identification of radioactive material surrogates from a safe distance. LIBS selectivity and sensitivity to detect a variety of radioactive surrogates, namely 59Co, 88Sr, 130Ba, 133Cs, 193Ir and 238U, on the surface of common urban materials at a distance of 30 m have been evaluated. The performance of the technique for nuclear forensics has been also studied on different model scenarios. Findings have revealed the difficulties to detect and to identify the analytes depending on the surface being interrogated. However, as demonstrated, LIBS shows potential enough for prompt and accurate gathering of essential evidence at a number of sites after the release, either accidental or intentional, of radioactive material. The capability of standoff analysis confers to LIBS unique advantages in terms of fast and safe inspection of forensic scenarios. The identity of the radioactive surrogates is easily assigned from a distance and the sensitivity to their detection is in the range of a few hundreds of ng per square centimeter.

  16. Evaluation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis potential for addressing radiological threats from a distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona, I.; Serrano, J.; Moros, J.; Laserna, J.J., E-mail: laserna@uma.es

    2014-06-01

    Although radioactive materials are nowadays valuable tools in nearly all fields of modern science and technology, the dangers stemming from the uncontrolled use of ionizing radiation are more than evident. Since preparedness is a key issue to face the risks of a radiation dispersal event, development of rapid and efficient monitoring technologies to control the contamination caused by radioactive materials is of crucial interest. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) exhibits appealing features for this application. This research focuses on the assessment of LIBS potential for the in-situ fingerprinting and identification of radioactive material surrogates from a safe distance. LIBS selectivity and sensitivity to detect a variety of radioactive surrogates, namely {sup 59}Co, {sup 88}Sr, {sup 130}Ba, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 193}Ir and {sup 238}U, on the surface of common urban materials at a distance of 30 m have been evaluated. The performance of the technique for nuclear forensics has been also studied on different model scenarios. Findings have revealed the difficulties to detect and to identify the analytes depending on the surface being interrogated. However, as demonstrated, LIBS shows potential enough for prompt and accurate gathering of essential evidence at a number of sites after the release, either accidental or intentional, of radioactive material. The capability of standoff analysis confers to LIBS unique advantages in terms of fast and safe inspection of forensic scenarios. The identity of the radioactive surrogates is easily assigned from a distance and the sensitivity to their detection is in the range of a few hundreds of ng per square centimeter. - Highlights: • Distant identification of radioactive surrogates on urban surfaces has been proved. • LIBS sensitivity to distant detection of radioactive surrogates has been checked. • Influences of the atmosphere on emission signals have been ascertained. • Usage of standoff LIBS for identifying

  17. 雷达网对侦察无人机突防的威胁评估模型%Threat Evaluation Model of Radar Network Against Reconnaissance UAV Penetration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新增; 李俊山; 慈林林; 余宁

    2011-01-01

    雷达网对侦察无人机突防具有非常大的威胁,结合无人机的突防战术,建立了雷达网威胁评估指标体系框架;并根据雷达网性能指标的相对性、不可比性和不确定性,运用模糊综合评估方法和层次分析法对雷达网的威胁度进行评估,最后归并获得的评价结果.事实表明,所建立的模型能较准确地评估雷达网对侦察无人机突防的威胁程度,对侦察无人机航迹规划具有一定的指导意义.%The threat of Radar Network to UAV penetration is very great, combined temporal penetration of UAV, radar Network threat evaluation index system framework was established, according to the relativity, incompatibility and uncertainty of the radar network performance index, with Fuzzy integrated judgment and applied to evaluate the threat degree of radar network, The result is acquired finally by merging. The facts indicated that the model established can exactly evaluate the threat degree of radar network to penetration UAV. It's useful to the planning of UAV fight path.

  18. A review and meta-analysis of age-based stereotype threat: negative stereotypes, not facts, do the damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Ruth A; Swift, Hannah J; Abrams, Dominic

    2015-03-01

    Stereotype threat effects arise when an individual feels at risk of confirming a negative stereotype about their group and consequently underperforms on stereotype relevant tasks (Steele, 2010). Among older people, underperformance across cognitive and physical tasks is hypothesized to result from age-based stereotype threat (ABST) because of negative age-stereotypes regarding older adults' competence. The present review and meta-analyses examine 22 published and 10 unpublished articles, including 82 effect sizes (N = 3882) investigating ABST on older people's (Mage = 69.5) performance. The analysis revealed a significant small-to-medium effect of ABST (d = .28) and important moderators of the effect size. Specifically, older adults are more vulnerable to ABST when (a) stereotype-based rather than fact-based manipulations are used (d = .52); (b) when performance is tested using cognitive measures (d = .36); and (c) occurs reliably when the dependent variable is measured proximally to the manipulation. The review raises important theoretical and methodological issues, and areas for future research.

  19. Categorizing threat : building and using a generic threat matrix.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, Laura; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Thomas, Sherry Reede; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The key piece of knowledge necessary for building defenses capable of withstanding or surviving cyber and kinetic attacks is an understanding of the capabilities posed by threats to a government, function, or system. With the number of threats continuing to increase, it is no longer feasible to enumerate the capabilities of all known threats and then build defenses based on those threats that are considered, at the time, to be the most relevant. Exacerbating the problem for critical infrastructure entities is the fact that the majority of detailed threat information for higher-level threats is held in classified status and is not available for general use, such as the design of defenses and the development of mitigation strategies. To reduce the complexity of analyzing threat, the threat space must first be reduced. This is achieved by taking the continuous nature of the threat space and creating an abstraction that allows the entire space to be grouped, based on measurable attributes, into a small number of distinctly different levels. The work documented in this report is an effort to create such an abstraction.

  20. Ozone threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone hole was first discovered in 1980. Thus 15 years even after the first warming, the world is no where near to the elimination of man made gases that threaten to destroy the ozone layer. Ozone depletion has become a matter of enormous threat which remains to be solved by the Scientists and intelligentia of the world. Ozone (O3) is a pungent poisonous gas. It forms a layer at a distance of about 15 miles above the earth's surface which helps shield living things from the sun shearing ultra violet light. If ozone is lost, more ultra violet light reaches the earth, which can lead to increasing rate of skin cancer, the death of micro organisms and the failure of crops and plants. It was in 1974 when it was discovered that Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) cold rise slowly to the upper atmosphere and destroy the earth's fragile ozone shield. Chlorofluorocarbons are commonly used as coolants (such as Freon) for home and automobile air conditioners and in the making of fast food containers. CFCs take about 100 years or more to reach he stratosphere to damage the ozone layers. In 1988, Scientists confirmed that upto 3% of the ozone layer over the more populated Northern Hemisphere has been destroyed. it is believed that for every 1% decrease in ozone, skin cancers are expected to rise 5 to 6 per cent due to the increase of ultraviolet light. Cases of cataracts and certain human immune system diseases are also expected to rise. (author)

  1. Assessing Database and Network Threats in Traditional and Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Lourida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is currently one of the most widely-spoken terms in IT. While it offers a range of technological and financial benefits, its wide acceptance by organizations is not yet wide spread. Security concerns are a main reason for this and this paper studies the data and network threats posed in both traditional and cloud paradigms in an effort to assert in which areas cloud computing addresses security issues and where it does introduce new ones. This evaluation is based on Microsoft’s STRIDE threat model and discusses the stakeholders, the impact and recommendations for tackling each threat.

  2. Clothing as a threat: aesthetics-based discrimination in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Fauquet-Alekhine, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the research is the discrimination of the Goth subculture members (ingroup) by those who conform to the dominant social norm (outgroup), discrimination when based solely on clothing style choices in the workplace. Using interviews & questionnaires, and applying theories of Social Identity, Self-Categorization, Self-Determination, Conformity, we found that aesthetics-based discrimination may begin with limited knowledge of the subculture depending on i) the source of information a...

  3. Community-Based Adaptation: A vital approach to the threat climate change poses to the poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul; Reid, Hannah

    2007-05-15

    Helping the millions of poor people at greatest risk from climate change to adapt to its impacts is a daunting task. One new approach that deserves greater support is community-based adaptation (CBA). This briefing paper outlines the concepts behind CBA, shares some early lessons learned, and calls for greater networking, information sharing and support for CBA activities.

  4. Are Standards-Based Quality Systems a Threat to the Internationalization of Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Whiteside, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the current shift in Australia's higher education system moving to a more explicit, standards-based quality system and its potential impact on international partnerships in teaching and learning, particularly in Asia. The new Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency and the underlying Higher Education Standards Framework…

  5. Interleaving Commands: a Threat to the Interoperability of Smartcard Based Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Talamo, Maurizio; Schunck, Christian H; Arcieri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Although smartcards are widely used, secure smartcard interoperability has remained a significant challenge. Usually each manufacturer provides a closed environment for their smartcard based applications including the microchip, associated firmware and application software. While the security of this "package" can be tested and certified for example based on the Common Criteria, the secure and convenient interoperability with other smartcards and smartcard applications is not guaranteed. Ideally one would have a middleware that can support various smartcards and smartcard applications. In our ongoing research we study this scenario with the goal to develop a way to certify secure smartcard interoperability in such an environment. Here we discuss and experimentally demonstrate one critical security problem: if several smartcards are connected via a middleware it is possible that a smartcard of type S receives commands that were supposed to be executed on a different smartcard of type S'. Such "external command...

  6. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  7. Is the Hybrid Threat a True Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Raugh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the “hybrid threat” discussed in General Marty Dempsey’s 2015 United States National Military Strategy make logical sense? In this paper I define the national security threat risk assessment process, examine the most significant US security threats, and study the hybrid threat. I conclude that the hybrid threat is the one that could most exploit our nation’s critical vulnerabilities- both from a security and foreign policy perspective. I conclude with a study of security and economic methods to reduce this threat.

  8. BioSense/SR-BioSpectra demonstrations of wide area/early warning for bioaerosol threats: program description and early test and evaluation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Buteau, Sylvie; Lahaie, Pierre; Mathieu, Pierre; Roy, Gilles; Nadeau, Denis; McFee, John; Ho, Jim; Rowsell, Susan; Ho, Nicolas; Babin, François; Cantin, Daniel; Healey, Dave; Robinson, Jennifer; Wood, Scott; Hsu, Jack

    2011-11-01

    Threats associated with bioaerosol weapons have been around for several decades and have been mostly associated with terrorist activities or rogue nations. Up to the turn of the millennium, defence concepts against such menaces relied mainly on point or in-situ detection technologies. Over the last 10 years, significant efforts have been deployed by multiple countries to supplement the limited spatial coverage of a network of one or more point bio-detectors using lidar technology. The addition of such technology makes it possible to detect within seconds suspect aerosol clouds over area of several tens of square kilometers and track their trajectories. These additional capabilities are paramount in directing presumptive ID missions, mapping hazardous areas, establishing efficient counter-measures and supporting subsequent forensic investigations. In order to develop such capabilities, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological-Nuclear, and Explosives Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI) have supported two major demonstrations based on spectrally resolved Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) lidar: BioSense, aimed at defence military missions in wide open spaces, and SR-BioSpectra, aimed at surveillance of enclosed or semienclosed wide spaces common to defence and public security missions. This article first reviews briefly the modeling behind these demonstration concepts. Second, the lidar-adapted and the benchtop bioaerosol LIF chambers (BSL1), developed to challenge the constructed detection systems and to accelerate the population of the library of spectral LIF properties of bioaerosols and interferents of interest, will be described. Next, the most recent test and evaluation (T&E) results obtained with SR-BioSpectra and BioSense are reported. Finally, a brief discussion stating the way ahead for a complete defence suite is provided.

  9. Are Standards-based Quality Systems a Threat to the Internationalization of Teaching and Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Thompson-Whiteside

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the current shift in Australia’s higher education system moving to a more explicit, standards-based quality system and its potential impact on international partnerships in teaching and learning, particularly in Asia. The new Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency and the underlying Higher Education Standards Framework have the potential to threaten a large number of transnational or cross-border programs delivered outside of Australia. With over one hundred and fifty thousand tertiary students studying Australian programs in Asia, the impact could be significant. It would also be significant for countries that leverage of Australian Universities to build human capacity within their country. The paper highlights the current practice of assuring equivalent and comparable academic standards in transnational education and explores how shifting to a more precise standards framework will require more explicit demonstration of standards across teaching, learning and student outcomes. If equivalent or comparable standards were to be achieved across the whole standards framework, it is likely to constrain the opportunities for internationalization and the formation of new transnational partnerships.

  10. Theory-Based Stakeholder Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Vedung, Evert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach to program theory evaluation called theory-based stakeholder evaluation or the TSE model for short. Most theory-based approaches are program theory driven and some are stakeholder oriented as well. Practically, all of the latter fuse the program perceptions of the various stakeholder groups into one unitary…

  11. Inducing Attitude Change toward Online Gaming among Adolescent Players Based on Dissonance Theory: The Role of Threats and Justification of Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The negative impact of online gaming on adolescents has received much attention. The question of how to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is a critical issue. Based on the concept of external justification in dissonance theory, this experimental study aimed to examine whether severity of threat and justification of effort would impact…

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes of Ugandan Preservice Science and Mathematics Teachers toward Global and Ugandan Science--and Technology-Based Problems and/or Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael; Tibanyendera, Basil; Seltzer-Kelly, Debbie

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a science, technology, and society (STS) teaching approach on the knowledge and attitudes of preservice science and mathematics teachers in Uganda toward global science and technology-based problems and/or threats. The responses of a baseline or control group (N = 50) and an experimental group (N = 50) to five…

  13. Cyber threat metrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  14. Fuzzy Similarity Measures Approach in Benchmarking Taxonomies of Threats against SMEs in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei

    2013-01-01

    There are various threats that militate against SMEs in developing economies. However, most SMEs fall on the conservative “TV News Effect” of most-publicized cyber-threats or incidences, with disproportionate mitigation measures. This paper endeavors to establish a taxonomy of threat agents to fill...... in the void. Various fuzzy similarity measures based on multi-attribute decision-making techniques have been employed in the evaluation. The taxonomy offers a panoramic view of cyber-threats in assessing mission-critical assets, and serves as a benchmark for initiating appropriate mitigation strategies. SMEs...

  15. Stereotype threat and arousal: effects on women's math performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Crandall, Christian S

    2003-06-01

    Theories of arousal suggest that arousal should decrease performance on difficult tasks and increase performance on easy tasks. An experiment tested the hypothesis that the effects of stereotype threat on performance are due to heightened arousal. The authors hypothesized that telling participants that a math test they are about to take is known to have gender differences would cause stereotype threat in women but not in men. In the experiment, each participant took two tests--a difficult math test and an easy math test. Compared to women in a "no differences" condition, women in the "gender differences" condition scored better on the easy math test and worse on the difficult math test. Men's performance was unaffected by the manipulation. These data are consistent with an arousal-based explanation of stereotype threat effects. Data were inconsistent with expectancy, evaluation apprehension, and persistence explanations of the stereotype threat phenomenon.

  16. Information-theoretic analysis of x-ray photoabsorption based threat detection system for check-point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuzhang; Allouche, Genevieve G.; Huang, James; Ashok, Amit; Gong, Qian; Coccarelli, David; Stoian, Razvan-Ionut; Gehm, Michael E.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present an information-theoretic framework for a systematic study of checkpoint x-ray systems using photoabsorption measurements. Conventional system performance analysis of threat detection systems confounds the effect of the system architecture choice with the performance of a threat detection algorithm. However, our system analysis approach enables a direct comparison of the fundamental performance limits of disparate hardware architectures, independent of the choice of a specific detection algorithm. We compare photoabsorptive measurements from different system architectures to understand the affect of system geometry (angular views) and spectral resolution on the fundamental limits of the system performance.

  17. A Review-Based Reputation Evaluation Approach for Web Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Hua Li; Xiao-Yong Du; Xuan Tian

    2009-01-01

    Web services are commonly perceived as an environment of both offering opportunities and threats.In this environment, one way to minimize threats is to use reputation evaluation, which can be computed, for example, through transaction feedback.However.the current feedback-based approach is inaccurate and inefiective because of its inner limitations(e.g.,feedback quality problem).As the main source of feedback, the qualities of existing on-line reviews are often varied greatly from low to high, the main reasons include:(1)they have no standard expression formats,(2)dishonest comments may exist among these reviews due to malicious attacking.Up to present,the quality problem of review has not been well solved, which greatly degrades their importance on service reputation evaluation. Therefore, we firstly present a novel evaluation approach for review quality in terms of multiple metrics. Then. we make a further improvement in service reputation evaluation based on those filtered reviews. Experimental results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach compared with the naive feedback-based approaches.

  18. Stereotype threat and executive functions: which functions mediate different threat-related outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Van Loo, Katie J; Boucher, Kathryn L

    2014-03-01

    Stereotype threat research shows that women's math performance can be reduced by activating gender-based math stereotypes. Models of stereotype threat assert that threat reduces cognitive functioning, thereby accounting for its negative effects. This work provides a more detailed understanding of the cognitive processes through which stereotype threat leads women to underperform at math and to take risks, by examining which basic executive functions (inhibition, shifting, and updating) account for these outcomes. In Experiments 1 and 2, women under threat showed reduced inhibition, reduced updating, and reduced math performance compared with women in a control condition (or men); however, only updating accounted for women's poor math performance under threat. In Experiment 3, only updating accounted for stereotype threat's effect on women's math performance, whereas only inhibition accounted for the effect of threat on risk-taking, suggesting that distinct executive functions can account for different stereotype threat-related outcomes.

  19. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Threats to Mediterranean rangelands: a case study based on the views of citizens in the Viotia prefecture, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazopoulos, Apostolos P; Arabatzis, Garyfallos; Abraham, Eleni M; Parissi, Zoi M

    2013-11-15

    Rangelands in Greece constitute a very important natural resource as they occupy 40% of the total surface. Not only is their forage production essential for the development of extensive livestock farming, but also they play a key role in outdoor recreational activities, protection from erosion, provision of water supplies and biodiversity conservation. However, land use changes, inappropriate management and wildfires threaten their existence. The research was conducted among the citizens of Viotia prefecture, an area close to Athens, Greece, using personal interviews with a structured questionnaire in 2008. The aim was to record citizens' opinions regarding the threats to rangelands. The results suggest that the main threats as perceived by the respondents, are land use changes especially for urban development, and wildfires. The application of cluster analysis highlighted the differentiation among the respondents in ranking these threats. The more ecologically aware citizens recognised that mismanagement, abandonment and agriculture also threaten rangelands. These threats can have a considerable impact on the lives of the local people. Policy makers and managers should take the opinions of local citizens into consideration, and engage them in decision making so that sustainable management policies could be applied.

  1. Threat Valuation Method Based on Gray System Prediction%基于灰色系统预测威胁赋值方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明辉

    2011-01-01

    Assets,threats and vulnerability is three basic elements for the information security risk assessment.In the risk assessment process,we must identify and evaluate these elements firstly.The accuracy of assignment will affect valuation results in the science and objectivity.The gray system prediction valuation method for threats is proposed by statistical properties.According to establishing the gray system prediction model,calculating the gray differential equation and inspecting residual,the frequency of current threats appearing is predicted by historical data.And then after processing by frequency and grade,threats are evaluated quantitatively.The above ways improve the objectivity and measurability.%资产、威胁、脆弱性是信息安全风险评估的三个基本要素,在风险评估过程中首先必须对这三个要素识别与赋值,赋值的准确度关系到评估结果的科学性和客观性。依据威胁的统计属性,提出用灰色系统预测给威胁赋值的方法,通过建立灰色系统预测模型、灰色微分方程计算、残差检验,用历史数据预测评估本期威胁出现的频率,再经过威胁频率等级化处理,进行定量化的威胁赋值,提高了信息系统风险评估的客观性和可度量性。

  2. A Security Threats Identification and Analysis Method Based on Attack Graph%一种基于攻击图的安全威胁识别和分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 连一峰; 陈恺; 刘玉岭

    2012-01-01

    Business system's security management needs to assess the system security situation by using network attack graph. It also needs to analyze the threats exploiting security vulnerabilities. Current security threat identification and analysis methods cannot handle the upper two problems very well at the same time. It cannot handle uncertainties occurred in the process of vulnerability exploiting threat analysis, either. A security threat identification and analysis method is proposed in this paper. The network attack graph is defined via Colored Petri Net (CPN) and an algorithm named NAGG is proposed to construct network attack graph based on the simulation results. We also give an algorithm named NAGD to simultaneously decompose network attack graph into several sub-attack-graphs, each corresponding to a specific vulnerability exploiting threat. The graph is loop-free and its longest attack path is limited to a certain predefined value. In order to prioritize all security threats for disposal, a vulnerability exploiting threat evaluating method named VETE is given to convert sub-attack graph into uncertain inference rule set. This method uses D-S evidence inference engine to calculate threat degree of each threat corresponding to the sub-attack-graph. At last, a typical Web application system is used as an example to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.%业务系统安全管理需要网络攻击图来评估系统整体安全性或态势,同时又需要对那些可能严重危害系统安全的脆弱性利用威胁进行重点分析和优先处置.现有安全威胁识别和分析方法无法兼顾这两个方面,也无法处理脆弱性利用威胁分析过程中的不确定性问题.作者提出了一种安全威胁识别和分析方法.利用颜色Petri网(CPN)定义网络攻击图,并给出了网络攻击图生成NAGG算法,根据攻击模型分析结果生成网络攻击图;给出了基于CPN仿真的网络攻击图分解NAGD算法,可一次性

  3. Investigating the genetic and environmental bases of biases in threat recognition and avoidance in children with anxiety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Jennifer Y F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adults with anxiety show biased categorization and avoidance of threats. Such biases may emerge through complex interplay between genetics and environments, occurring early in life. Research on threat biases in children has focuses on a restricted range of biases, with insufficient focus on genetic and environmental origins. Here, we explore differences between children with and without anxiety problems in under-studied areas of threat bias. We focused both on associations with anxious phenotype and the underlying gene-environmental correlates for two specific processes: the categorisation of threat faces and avoidance learning. Method Two-hundred and fifty 10-year old MZ and DZ twin pairs (500 individuals completed tasks assessing accuracy in the labelling of threatening facial expressions and in the acquisition of avoidant responses to a card associated with a masked threatening face. To assess whether participants met criteria for an anxiety disorder, parents of twins completed a self-guided computerized version of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA. Comparison of MZ and DZ twin correlations using model-fitting were used to compute estimates of genetic, shared and non-shared environmental effects. Results Of the 500 twins assessed, 25 (5% met diagnostic criteria for a current anxiety disorder. Children with anxiety disorders were more accurate in their ability to recognize disgust faces than those without anxiety disorders, but were commensurate on identifying other threatening face emotions (angry, fearful, sad. Children with anxiety disorders but also more strongly avoided selecting a conditioned stimulus than non-anxious children. While recognition of socially threatening faces was moderately heritable, avoidant responses were heavily influenced by the non-shared environment. Conclusion These data add to other findings on threat biases in anxious children. Specifically, we found biases in the labelling of

  4. Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

    2009-04-01

    Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems. PMID:19432644

  5. Information security threats and an easy-to-implement attack detection framework for wireless sensor network-based smart grid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, G.; Örenbaş, H.; Daş, R.; Kogias, D.; Baykara, M.; K, K.

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) when combined with various energy harvesting solutions managing to prolong the overall lifetime of the system and enhanced capabilities of the communication protocols used by modern sensor nodes are efficiently used in are efficiently used in Smart Grid (SG), an evolutionary system for the modernization of existing power grids. However, wireless communication technology brings various types of security threats. In this study, firstly the use of WSNs for SG applications is presented. Second, the security related issues and challenges as well as the security threats are presented. In addition, proposed security mechanisms for WSN-based SG applications are discussed. Finally, an easy- to-implement and simple attack detection framework to prevent attacks directed to sink and gateway nodes with web interfaces is proposed and its efficiency is proved using a case study.

  6. IT safety in production data networks (PDN). Tracking, evaluation and elimination of safety threats; IT-Sicherheit in Produktionsnetzen (PDN). Aufspueren, einschaetzen und beseitigen von Sicherheitsbedrohungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neider, Ulrich [DETACK GmbH, Ludwigsburg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    This contribution reports on the threats of production data networks. Within the context of the IT security, the risks of production data networks are not only based on a possible contamination by computer viruses. The author of this contribution increases awareness of dangers to whose production systems are faced. The author also presents a phase model from his own consulting practice in order to increase the safety of production data systems by implementation of a safety control. This phase model consists of the six following steps: (a) Stock taking of the state of the art; (b) Determination of the target (development of a safety concept); (c) Creation of an IT safety policy; (d) Application of IT safety policy; (e) Audit of the results (IT safety audit); (f) Regular safety tests.

  7. MTA Computer Based Evaluation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Lisa P.; And Others

    The MTA PLATO-based evaluation system, which has been implemented by a consortium of schools of medical technology, is designed to be general-purpose, modular, data-driven, and interactive, and to accommodate other national and local item banks. The system provides a comprehensive interactive item-banking system in conjunction with online student…

  8. 基于TOPSIS的战区高层反导威胁评估%Threat Assessment of the High Altitude Area Ballistic Missile Defense Based on TOPSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范学渊; 邢清华; 黄沛; 王小光

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, the characteristics of the high altitude area ballistic missile defense' s threat assessment are analyzed. Then the threat assessment's model index system is set up and quantitated, such as launch position of tactical ballistic missile (TBM) , forecasting impact point, range and so on. Finally, the theory of technique for order preference by similarity to idea solution (TOPSIS) based on weight of entropy is used to compute the model. The result shows that the threat assessment' s model and the algorithm is effective and useful for developing the battle manage of the high altitude area ballistic missile defense ' s.%在分析战区高层反导威胁评估特点的基础上,建立了以来袭TBM发射点、预测落点、射程等为核心的战区高层反导威胁评估模型指标体系并进行了相应的量化,然后利用基于熵值权重确定的TOPSIS理论对模型进行求解.通过实例证明所提出的战区高层反导威胁评估模型和算法的有效性,对研究美军的战区高层反导武器系统具有一定的借鉴意义.

  9. Application of passive millimeter-wave imaging and UHF-based synthetic aperture radar for threat detection

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Eric; Peichl, Markus; Dill, Stephan; Jirousek, Matthias; Kempf, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Passive millimeter-wave remote sensing for enhanced vision: For many military or peace-keeping operations it is necessary to provide better situational awareness to the commander of a vehicle with respect to possible threats in his local environment (predominantly ahead), at a distance of a few ten to a few hundred meters. As a beneficial part of a suitable multi-sensor system, an imaging radiometer with a sufficiently high frame rate and field of view is considered and will be presented i...

  10. The Threat of Uncertainty: Why Using Traditional Approaches for Evaluating Spacecraft Reliability are Insufficient for Future Human Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cirillo, William; Owens, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Through the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to evaluate potential approaches for sending humans beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). A key aspect of these missions is the strategy that is employed to maintain and repair the spacecraft systems, ensuring that they continue to function and support the crew. Long duration missions beyond LEO present unique and severe maintainability challenges due to a variety of factors, including: limited to no opportunities for resupply, the distance from Earth, mass and volume constraints of spacecraft, high sensitivity of transportation element designs to variation in mass, the lack of abort opportunities to Earth, limited hardware heritage information, and the operation of human-rated systems in a radiation environment with little to no experience. The current approach to maintainability, as implemented on ISS, which includes a large number of spares pre-positioned on ISS, a larger supply sitting on Earth waiting to be flown to ISS, and an on demand delivery of logistics from Earth, is not feasible for future deep space human missions. For missions beyond LEO, significant modifications to the maintainability approach will be required.Through the EMC evaluations, several key findings related to the reliability and safety of the Mars spacecraft have been made. The nature of random and induced failures presents significant issues for deep space missions. Because spare parts cannot be flown as needed for Mars missions, all required spares must be flown with the mission or pre-positioned. These spares must cover all anticipated failure modes and provide a level of overall reliability and safety that is satisfactory for human missions. This will require a large amount of mass and volume be dedicated to storage and transport of spares for the mission. Further, there is, and will continue to be, a significant amount of uncertainty regarding failure rates for spacecraft

  11. Evaluation of the level of threat and protective classification of the vegetation of Makehe Forest in Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve,west China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Dalin; HE Youjun; LIN Qinwen; CUI Guofa

    2007-01-01

    After investigating and studying the vegetation,we have established that Makehe Forest,in Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve,Qinghai Province,is host to a total of 364 different species,representing 173 "genera" in 55 different vegetative families.We propose five quantifiable indices for evaluating the level of threat to these plants:1) the distribution frequency of the "line transect";2) the distribution frequency of sample plots;3) the distribution density inside sample plots;4) the existing abundance in the forest region;and 5) plant fidelity.The results show that there are two endangered species,six vulnerable species,12 nearly threatened species and 344 safe species.The study tried to evaluate the urgency for conserving these plants,according to coefficients of closeness to disappearance,of genetic loss and of usefulness.Results also showed that the number of species of primary concern is two;of secondary concern,nine;of the third level,23;and of least concern,330 species.

  12. Development of a risk-ranking framework to evaluate potential high-threat microorganisms, toxins, and chemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, R; Tran, N; Paoli, G M; Jaykus, L A; Tompkin, B; Miliotis, M; Ruthman, T; Hartnett, E; Busta, F F; Petersen, B; Shank, F; McEntire, J; Hotchkiss, J; Wagner, M; Schaffner, D W

    2009-03-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Institute of Food Technologists developed a risk-ranking framework prototype to enable comparison of microbiological and chemical hazards in foods and to assist policy makers, risk managers, risk analysts, and others in determining the relative public health impact of specific hazard-food combinations. The prototype is a bottom-up system based on assumptions that incorporate expert opinion/insight with a number of exposure and hazard-related risk criteria variables, which are propagated forward with food intake data to produce risk-ranking determinations. The prototype produces a semi-quantitative comparative assessment of food safety hazards and the impacts of hazard control measures. For a specific hazard-food combination the prototype can produce a single metric: a final risk value expressed as annual pseudo-disability adjusted life years (pDALY). The pDALY is a harmonization of the very different dose-response relationships observed for chemicals and microbes. The prototype was developed on 2 platforms, a web-based user interface and an Analytica(R) model (Lumina Decision Systems, Los Gatos, Calif., U.S.A.). Comprising visual basic language, the web-based platform facilitates data input and allows use concurrently from multiple locations. The Analytica model facilitates visualization of the logic flow, interrelationship of input and output variables, and calculations/algorithms comprising the prototype. A variety of sortable risk-ranking reports and summary information can be generated for hazard-food pairs, showing hazard and dose-response assumptions and data, per capita consumption by population group, and annual p-DALY. PMID:19323766

  13. Addressing the threat of evidence-based practice to qualitative inquiry through increasing attention to quality: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Antonia M

    2008-02-01

    The current evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in healthcare emphasizes that clinical decision making should be based on the "best evidence" available, preferably the findings of randomized clinical trials. Within this context qualitative research findings are considered to have little value and the old debate in nursing has been re-ignited related to whether qualitative versus quantitative research findings provides the best empirical evidence for nursing practice. In response to this crisis qualitative scholars have been called upon by leaders in the field to clarify for outsiders what qualitative research is and to be more explicit in pointing out the utility of qualitative research findings. In addition, attention to "quality" in qualitative research has been identified as an area worthy of renewed focus. Within this paper two key problems related to addressing these issues are reviewed: disagreement not only among "outsiders" but also some nursing scholars related to the definition of "qualitative research", and a lack of consensus related how to best address "rigor" in this type of inquiry. Based on this review a set of standard requirements for qualitative research published in nursing journals is proposed that reflects a uniform definition of qualitative research and an enlarged yet clearly articulated conceptualization of quality. The approach suggested provides a framework for developing and evaluating qualitative research that would have both defensible scholarly merit and heuristic value. This will help solidify the argument in favor of incorporating qualitative research findings as part of the empirical "evidence" upon which evidence-based nursing is founded.

  14. Asymmetric threat data mining and knowledge discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Asymmetric threats differ from the conventional force-on- force military encounters that the Defense Department has historically been trained to engage. Terrorism by its nature is now an operational activity that is neither easily detected or countered as its very existence depends on small covert attacks exploiting the element of surprise. But terrorism does have defined forms, motivations, tactics and organizational structure. Exploiting a terrorism taxonomy provides the opportunity to discover and assess knowledge of terrorist operations. This paper describes the Asymmetric Threat Terrorist Assessment, Countering, and Knowledge (ATTACK) system. ATTACK has been developed to (a) data mine open source intelligence (OSINT) information from web-based newspaper sources, video news web casts, and actual terrorist web sites, (b) evaluate this information against a terrorism taxonomy, (c) exploit country/region specific social, economic, political, and religious knowledge, and (d) discover and predict potential terrorist activities and association links. Details of the asymmetric threat structure and the ATTACK system architecture are presented with results of an actual terrorist data mining and knowledge discovery test case shown.

  15. Cyber threat model for tactical radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdziel, Michael T.

    2014-05-01

    The shift to a full information-centric paradigm in the battlefield has allowed ConOps to be developed that are only possible using modern network communications systems. Securing these Tactical Networks without impacting their capabilities has been a challenge. Tactical networks with fixed infrastructure have similar vulnerabilities to their commercial counterparts (although they need to be secure against adversaries with greater capabilities, resources and motivation). However, networks with mobile infrastructure components and Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANets) have additional unique vulnerabilities that must be considered. It is useful to examine Tactical Network based ConOps and use them to construct a threat model and baseline cyber security requirements for Tactical Networks with fixed infrastructure, mobile infrastructure and/or ad hoc modes of operation. This paper will present an introduction to threat model assessment. A definition and detailed discussion of a Tactical Network threat model is also presented. Finally, the model is used to derive baseline requirements that can be used to design or evaluate a cyber security solution that can be scaled and adapted to the needs of specific deployments.

  16. Identifying and Mitigating Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Organisations face many threats that coarsely can be separated in inside threats and outside threats. Threats from insiders are especially hard to counter since insiders have special knowledge and privileges. Therefore, malicious insider actions are hard to distinguish from benign actions. After...... discussing new definitions of insiders and insider threats, this article gives an overview of how to mitigate insider threats and discusses conflicting goals when dealing with insider threats....

  17. Disrupting Emerging Networks: Analyzing and Evaluating Jamaat al-Muslimeen (JAM) and the Development of an Extremist Threat in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Brandon; Aviles, Darby

    2012-01-01

    For the last decade, the primary U.S. and global focus has been on combating terrorism and extremist groups in the Middle East and Asia. Limited resources have been directed to the possibility of extremists groups existing in the Western Hemisphere or the threats that could emanate from this region. Knowing that terror organizations exist globally, a closer look at the possibility of a significant terror threat near U.S. borders is warranted. Recognizing this era of globalization, counter ter...

  18. Artificial Immune Danger Theory Based Model for Network Security Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixian Sun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the principles of immune danger theory, a danger theory based model for network security risk assessment is presented in this paper. Firstly, the principle of the danger theory is introduced. And then, with the improved concepts and formal definitions of antigen, antibody, danger signal, and detection lymphocyte for network security risk assessment presented, the distributed architecture of the proposed model is described. Following that, the principle of network intrusion detection is expounded. Finally, the method of network security risk assessment is given. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed model can evaluate the network attack threats in real time. Thus, it provides an effective risk evaluation solution to network security.

  19. Alternative Threat Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. King III

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many challenges facing risk analysis practitioners, perhaps the most difficult to overcome is in the field of terrorist threat analysis. When estimating the threat associated with naturally occurring events, historical data provides a great deal of insight into the frequency of those events. Threat associated with accidents applies many operations research tools to gauge future failure-rates (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis being perhaps the most widely known. However, estimating the probability of an individual's or group's attacking a specific (or even a generic target is an element of risk analysis in which art and intuition are applied far more regularly than is science.

  20. Using decision models to decompose anxiety-related bias in threat classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corey N; Skokin, Kimberly; Carlos, Brandon; Weaver, Alexandria

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with high levels of anxiety show preferential processing of threatening information, and this cognitive bias is thought to be an integral component of anxiety disorders. In threat classification tasks, this bias manifests as high-anxiety participants being more likely to classify stimuli as threatening than their low-anxiety counterparts. However, it is unclear which cognitive mechanisms drive this bias in threat classification. To better understand this phenomenon, threat classification data were analyzed with 2 decision models: a signal detection model and a drift-diffusion model. Signal detection models can dissociate measures of discriminability and bias, and diffusion models can further dissociate bias due to response preparation from bias due to stimulus evaluation. Individuals in the study completed a trait anxiety measure and classified threatening and neutral words based on whether they deemed them threatening. Signal detection analysis showed that high-anxiety participants had a bias driven by a weaker threat criterion than low-anxiety participants, but no differences in discriminability. Drift-diffusion analysis further decomposed the threat bias to show that it is driven by both an expectation bias that the threat response was more likely to be correct, and a stimulus bias driven by a weaker criterion for evaluating the stimuli under consideration. These model-based analyses provide valuable insight and show that multiple cognitive mechanisms underlie differential threat processing in anxiety. Implications for theories of anxiety are discussed.

  1. Training organizational supervisors to detect and prevent cyber insider threats: two approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee H. Andrews

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber insider threat is intentional theft from, or sabotage of, a cyber system by someone within the organization. This article explores the use of advanced cognitive and instructional principles to accelerate learning in organizational supervisors to mitigate the cyber threat. It examines the potential advantage of using serious games to engage supervisors. It also posits two systematic instructional approaches for this training challenge – optimal path modelling and a competency-based approach. The paper concludes by discussing challenges of evaluating training for seldom occurring real world phenomena, like detecting a cyber-insider threat.

  2. Insiders and Insider Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunker, Jeffrey; Probst, Christian W.

    2011-01-01

    Threats from the inside of an organization’s perimeters are a significant problem, since it is difficult to distinguish them from benign activity. In this overview article we discuss defining properties of insiders and insider threats. After presenting definitions of these terms, we go...... on to discuss a number of approaches from the technological, the sociological, and the socio-technical domain. We draw two main conclusions. Tackling insider threats requires a combination of techniques from the technical, the sociological, and the socio-technical domain, to enable qualified detection...... of threats, and their mitigation. Another important observation is that the distinction between insiders and outsiders seems to loose significance as IT infrastructure is used in performing insider attacks....

  3. Facing ambiguous threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Michael A; Bohmer, Richard M J; Edmondson, Amy C

    2006-11-01

    On February 1, 2003, the world watched in horror as the Columbia space shuttle broke apart while reentering the earth's atmosphere, killing all seven astronauts. Some have argued that NASA's failure to respond with appropriate intensity to the so-called foam strike that led to the accident was evidence of irresponsible or incompetent management. The authors' research, however, suggests that NASA was exhibiting a natural, albeit unfortunate, pattern of behavior common in many organizations. The foam strike is a prime example of what the authors call an ambiguous threat-a signal that may or may not portend future harm. Ambiguous threats differ from threats with obvious causes-say, a fire in the building-for which the response is clear. They also differ from unmistakable threats that may lack straightforward response paths (such as the frightening oxygen-tank explosion aboard Apollo 13). However, when the warning sign is ambiguous and the threat's potential effect is unclear, managers may choose to ignore or discount the risk. Such an approach can be catastrophic. Firms that do a good job of dealing with ambiguous threats do not improvise during a crisis; rather, they apply a rigorous set of detection and response capabilities that they have developed and practiced beforehand. In this article, the authors outline how to put such capabilities in place long before a crisis strikes. First, companies need to hone their teamwork and rapid problem-solving skills through practice. Second, they must learn to recognize weak signals, amplify the threat, and encourage employees to ask disconcerting "what if" questions in a safe environment. Finally, they should explore possible responses to threats through quick, low-cost experimentation. PMID:17131567

  4. Multi-platform comparison of ten commercial master mixes for probe-based real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of bioterrorism threat agents for surge preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzard, Gregory S; Baker, Daniel; Wolcott, Mark J; Norwood, David A; Dauphin, Leslie A

    2012-11-30

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United States Army Research Institute for Infectious Diseases have developed real-time PCR assays for the detection of bioterrorism threat agents. These assays all rely on a limited number of approved real-time PCR master mixes. Because the availability of these reagents is a critical element of bioterrorism preparedness, we undertook a joint national preparedness exercise to address the potential surge needs resulting from a large-scale bio-emergency. We identified 9 commercially-available potential alternatives to an existing approved master mix (LightCycler FastStart DNA Master HybProbes): the TaqMan Fast Universal PCR master mix, OmniMix HS, FAST qPCR master mix, EXPRESS qPCR SuperMix kit, QuantiFast Probe PCR kit, LightCycler FastStart DNA Master(PLUS) HybProbe, Brilliant II FAST qPCR master mix, ABsolute Fast QPCR Mix and the HotStart IT Taq master mix. The performances of these kits were evaluated by the use of real-time PCR assays for four bioterrorism threat agents: Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei and Francisella tularensis. The master mixes were compared for target-specific detection levels, as well as consistency of results among three different real-time PCR platforms (LightCycler, SmartCycler and 7500 Fast Dx). Real-time PCR analysis revealed that all ten kits performed well for agent detection on the 7500 Fast Dx instrument; however, the QuantiFast Probe PCR kit yielded the most consistently positive results across multiple real-time PCR platforms. We report that certain combinations of commonly used master mixes and instruments are not as reliable as others at detecting low concentrations of target DNA. Furthermore, our study provides laboratories the option to select from the commercial kits we evaluated to suit their preparedness needs.

  5. A VV&A evaluation system based on hierarchical evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Ke; YANG Ming; WANG Zi-cai

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation is the major activity of performing Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) of a simulation system. Unfortunately, there is a lack of reasonable and operable evaluation methods. Moreover,there are other problems to address in VV&A evaluation, such as index definition, conclusion analysis, etc. In this paper, a VV&A evaluation system is introduced to try to resolve these problems. The system is based on a method called hierarchical evaluation, and it uses a good combination of evaluation processes and indexes.First, a thorough analysis of the VV&A evaluation' s essentials and principles are given, then the uncertainty of the evaluation results caused by various analysis of the evaluators is pointed out, then a hierarchical evaluation mechanism based on evaluator weight and evaluation hierarchy is brought forward, and finally a comprehensive VV&A evaluation system with evaluation flow processing, index management and hierarchical evaluation fulfillment is established. The system gives good consideration to ease of operation, reasonableness of evaluation conclusion, and the ability to comprehensively resolve VV&A problems. Since VV&A is attracting more and more recognition, it is meaningful to provide a good system for implementing credible simulation systems. It is hoped that this VV&A evaluation will provide a good way.

  6. Scientific performance estimation of robustness and threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John R.; Sorensen, Eric; Stelzig, Chad A.; Mahler, Ronald P. S.; El-Fallah, Adel I.; Alford, Mark G.

    2002-07-01

    For the last three years at this conference we have been describing the implementation of a unified, scientific approach to performance estimation for various aspects of data fusion: multitarget detection, tracking, and identification algorithms; sensor management algorithms; and adaptive data fusion algorithms. The proposed approach is based on finite-set statistics (FISST), a generalization of conventional statistics to multisource, multitarget problems. Finite-set statistics makes it possible to directly extend Shannon-type information metrics to multisource, multitarget problems in such a way that information can be defined and measured even though any given end-user may have conflicting or even subjective definitions of what informative means. In this presentation, we will show how to extend our previous results to two new problems. First, that of evaluating the robustness of multisensor, multitarget algorithms. Second, that of evaluating the performance of multisource-multitarget threat assessment algorithms.

  7. A Knowledge-based Stampability Evaluation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The aim, characteristics and requirements of stampability evaluation are identified.As sam-pability evaluation is highly skill-intensive and requires a wide variety of design expertise and knowledge, a knowledge based system is proposed for implementing the stampability evaluation.The stampability eval uation knowledge representation,and processing phases are illustrated. A case study demonstrates the feasibility of the knowledge based approach to stampability evalu-ation.

  8. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2.5) for Rapid Identification of Ebola Virus Disease in Heat-Treated Blood Samples Obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Simon A; Bailey, Daniel; Matthews, Steven; Lumley, Sarah; Sweed, Angela; Ready, Derren; Eltringham, Gary; Richards, Jade; Vipond, Richard; Lukaszewski, Roman; Payne, Phillippa M; Aarons, Emma; Simpson, Andrew J; Hutley, Emma J; Brooks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Ebola virus (EBOV) detection is crucial for appropriate patient management and care. The performance of the FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) using whole-blood samples was evaluated in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom and was compared with results generated by a real-time Ebola Zaire PCR reference method. Samples were tested in diagnostic laboratories upon availability, included successive samples from individual patients, and were heat treated to facilitate EBOV inactivation prior to PCR. The BioThreat-E test had a sensitivity of 84% (confidence interval [CI], 64% to 95%) and a specificity of 89% (CI, 73% to 97%) in Sierra Leone (n = 60; 44 patients) and a sensitivity of 75% (CI, 19% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (CI, 97% to 100%) in the United Kingdom (n = 108; 70 patients) compared to the reference real-time PCR. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) indicated there was no significant difference between the methods at the 99% confidence level in either country. In 9 discrepant results (5 real-time PCR positives and BioThreat-E test negatives and 4 real-time PCR negatives and BioThreat-E test positives), the majority (n = 8) were obtained from samples with an observed or probable low viral load. The FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) therefore provides an attractive option for laboratories (either in austere field settings or in countries with an advanced technological infrastructure) which do not routinely offer an EBOV diagnostic capability.

  9. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  10. Ethical Proactive Threat Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, John; Sullins, John

    Through a provocative examination of the positive effects of computer security research on regular users, we argue that traditional security research is insufficient. Instead, we turn to a largely untapped alternative, proactive threat research, a fruitful research area but an ethical minefield. We discuss practices for ethical research and dissemination of proactive research.

  11. A novel two-stage evaluation system based on a Group-G1 approach to identify appropriate emergency treatment technology schemes in sudden water source pollution accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Hu, Qi; You, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Sudden water source pollution resulting from hazardous materials has gradually become a major threat to the safety of the urban water supply. Over the past years, various treatment techniques have been proposed for the removal of the pollutants to minimize the threat of such pollutions. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically select the most desirable alternative for different threat degrees. Therefore, a novel two-stage evaluation system was developed based on a circulation-correction improved Group-G1 method to determine the optimal emergency treatment technology scheme, considering the areas of contaminant elimination in both drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, the threat degree caused by the pollution was predicted using a threat evaluation index system and was subdivided into four levels. Then, a technique evaluation index system containing four sets of criteria weights was constructed in stage 2 to obtain the optimum treatment schemes corresponding to the different threat levels. The applicability of the established evaluation system was tested by a practical cadmium-contaminated accident that occurred in 2012. The results show this system capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency treatment technologies for drinking water source security. PMID:26449677

  12. Concealed Threat Detection at Multiple Frames-per-second

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J T

    2005-11-08

    In this LDRD project, our research purpose is to investigate the science and technology necessary to enable real-time array imaging as a rapid way to detect hidden threats through obscurants such as smoke, fog, walls, doors, and clothing. The goal of this research is to augment the capabilities of protective forces in concealed threat detection. In the current context, threats include people as well as weapons. In most cases, security personnel must make very fast assessments of a threat based upon limited amount of data. Among other attributes, UWB has been shown and quantified to penetrate and propagate through many materials (wood, some concretes, non-metallic building materials, some soils, etc.) while maintaining high range resolution. We have build collaborations with university partners and government agencies. We have considered the impact of psychometrics on target recognition and identification. Specifically we have formulated images in real-time that will engage the user's vision system in a more active way to enhance image interpretation capabilities. In this project, we are researching the use of real time (field programmable gate arrays) integrated with high resolution (cm scale), ultra wide band (UWB) electromagnetic signals for imaging personnel through smoke and walls. We evaluated the ability of real-time UWB imaging for detecting smaller objects, such as concealed weapons that are carried by the obscured personnel. We also examined the cognitive interpretation process of real time UWB electromagnetic images.

  13. A Secure Routing Protocol to Eliminate Integrity, Authentication and Sleep Deprivation Based Threats in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna E. Nallathambi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Network security in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET is a major issue. Some of the attacks such as modification, impersonation, Time To Live (TTL and sleep deprivation are due to misbehaviour of malicious nodes, which disrupts the transmission. Some of the existing security protocols such as ARAN, SAODV and SEAD are basically used to detect and eliminate one or two types of attacks. The major requirement of a secure protocol is to prevent and eliminate many attacks simultaneously which will make the MANETs more secured. Approach: We propose the algorithm that can prevent and also eliminate multiple attacks simultaneously, called MIST algorithm (Modification, Impersonation, Sleep deprivation and TTL attacks. This algorithm is written on Node Transition Probability (NTP based protocol which provides maximum utilization of bandwidth during heavy traffic with less overhead. Thus this has been named MIST NTP. Results: The proposed MIST NTP has been compared with NTP without the MIST algorithm, Authenticated Routing for Ad hoc Networks (ARAN and Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV. Extensive packet level simulations show that MIST NTP produces around 10% less end to end delay than ARAN, it even drops 30% fewer packets compared to malicious NTP on an average and around 50-60% fewer packets compared to AODV during multiple attacks. Conclusion: The results ensure that MIST NTP can break the greatest security challenge prevailing in MANETs by securing the MANET against several attacks at once.

  14. Web-based Projects Evaluation Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Al-Zoubi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This project designs a Web-based evaluation management system for the College of Arts and Sciences (CAS. Problem statement: The Msc students in College of Arts and Sciences (CAS in applied sciences had to take their final project as a project paper in order to fulfill the requirements of their programs and be able to graduate. The final project was evaluated in two parts; first part is representing 40% of the total mark and evaluated by evaluators. Second part was representing 60% of the total mark and evaluated by the student's supervisor. These evaluation were done manually. Both the evaluators and supervisors had to fill in the evaluation forms manually and submit them to the office. Approach: The design research methodology or sometimes called "improvement research" contained the major steps: Awareness the problem, suggestion, development, evaluation and conclusion. Results: Both evaluators and supervisors can fill in the evaluation forms through the Internet. Bring the advantage of saving time and resources over traditional paper and pencil scan sheet method. For enhancing the performance of current final project evaluation process in College of Arts and Sciences (CAS this study proposed a web based evaluation management system to replace the current paper forms used by the evaluators and supervisors. Conclusion: Implementing this system will enable the evaluation results to be entered, presume and retrieved anytime anywhere.

  15. Nuclear Threats and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Jacobs; Winston P. Nagan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legalit...

  16. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  17. Patient Safety Threat - Syringe Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HAIs HICPAC One & Only Campaign A Patient Safety Threat – Syringe Reuse Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... need to be aware of a very serious threat to their health - the reuse of needles or ...

  18. Threats to international science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisslinger, Carl

    The role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) as effective agents for promoting world science is seriously threatened. It is ironic that the threat comes from Norway and Denmark, two countries that have demonstrated a deep commitment to individual freedom and human rights. Motivated by a sincere desire to express their strongest disapproval of the “apartheid” policies of the government of the Republic of South Africa, these countries have passed laws that have the effect of rejecting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) principles of nondiscrimination and free circulation of scientists.

  19. End the nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1945 the United Nations was founded with one major goal in mind, and I quote, 'to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.' The founders noted that twice in the 20th Century major wars had brought 'untold sorrow to mankind.' Since its founding, 191 nations have joined the UN. We have no other place where all nations can work together for peace, a place where we can use verbal conflict rather than armed conflict to solve problems. And often, the UN, with US support, has provided armed force to help ensure the peace. The entire planet now faces global challenges including ensuring bio-diversity and ending the destruction of thousands of species; reversing the depletion of fishing stocks; controlling ocean dumping; preventing ozone depletion; halting global warming; controlling and eliminating terrorism and weapons of mass destruction; fighting pandemic diseases; ending the tragedy of crushing poverty and lack of clean drinking water; and addressing crises arising from failed States. No nation or even a small group of nations can succeed in addressing these issues alone. The United Nations is based on political insights that have led to successful governance principles and enhanced the wealth of nations. These values include market freedoms, religious liberty, an independent judiciary, government transparency and accountability, democracy, and a high level of respect for civil liberties and human rights. They have evolved into nearly universal goals and norms. The countries that have adhered to these principles are the most secure and healthy. The United Nations is guided by such countries, and simultaneously provides the only viable forum for the expression of the aspirations of the poor and the weak. The establishment of international norms of conduct is where idealism informs realism. We are called to nothing less than moral leadership. When moral leadership is coupled with power, it galvanizes the world. Moral leadership requires living up to one

  20. Threat modeling designing for security

    CERN Document Server

    Shostack, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Adam Shostack is responsible for security development lifecycle threat modeling at Microsoft and is one of a handful of threat modeling experts in the world. Now, he is sharing his considerable expertise into this unique book. With pages of specific actionable advice, he details how to build better security into the design of systems, software, or services from the outset. You'll explore various threat modeling approaches, find out how to test your designs against threats, and learn effective ways to address threats that have been validated at Microsoft and other top companies. Systems secur

  1. Stereotype Threat in Organizations: An Examination of its Scope, Triggers, and Possible Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Laura J. Kray; Shirako, Aiwa

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores stereotype threat in organizational contexts. Building on the understanding that stereotype threat involves concerns about confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group, we begin by elucidating the scope of potential stereotype threat effects in organizations. We first examine the ubiquity of evaluations in organizations, which are at the heart of stereotype threat. Next we specify the potential psychological consequences of stereotype threat on targeted individua...

  2. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Data (BASE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study was a five year study to characterize determinants of indoor air quality and occupant perceptions in...

  3. Performance-Based Evaluation and School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Audrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of instructional personnel is standard procedure in our Pre-K-12 public schools, and its purpose is to document educator effectiveness. With Race to the Top and No Child Left Behind waivers, states are required to implement performance-based evaluations that demonstrate student academic progress. This three-year study describes the…

  4. Persistence of threat-induced errors in police officers' shooting decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2015-05-01

    This study tested whether threat-induced errors in police officers' shooting decisions may be prevented through practice. Using a video-based test, 57 Police officers executed shooting responses against a suspect who rapidly appeared with (shoot) or without (don't shoot) a firearm. Threat was manipulated by switching on (high-threat) or switching off (low-threat) a "shootback canon" that could fire small plastic bullets at the officers. After an initial pretest, officers were divided over four different practice groups and practiced their shooting decisions for three consecutive weeks. Effects of practice were evaluated on a posttest. On the pretest, all groups experienced more anxiety and executed more false-positive responses under high-threat. Despite practice, these effects persisted on the posttest and remained equally strong for all practice groups. It is concluded that the impact of threat on police officers' shooting decisions is robust and may be hard to prevent within the limits of available practice. PMID:25683553

  5. 大学生数学刻板印象威胁实验研究%Study of Math-based Stereotype Threat Faced by University Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗苏梅; 徐文明

    2012-01-01

    There are all kinds of gender stereotypes in the field of education, which tend to impede the people to accept new things and hinder cognitive processing .The primary goal of this research investigate the impact of implicit versus explicit stereotype threat manipulations on Limitations of Working Memory. The author conducted 2×3 design in which 54female and male participants were asked to take a math test & operation-span task under conditions of stereotype threat or not. The results of experiment indicated that women under implicit versus explicit stereotype threat recalled fewer letters than men and women in a no threat control condition. Whereas, men under implicit versus explicit stereotype threat recalled letters as much as men in a no threat control condition. Explicit primes and implicit primes had a significant effect on women' Working Memory.%教育领域存在形形色色的性别刻板印象,而刻板印象刺激往往会阻碍人们接受新事物,给人们的认知带来负面的影响.对于女性来说,在内隐启动和外显启动范式下其工作记忆容量均小于控制组;对于男性被试来说,实验组的工作记忆容量与控制组没有显著差异.无论是内隐还是外显启动刻板印象威胁均对女性的工作记忆容量造成影响.

  6. The Development of a Scientific Evaluation System of Force-on-Force (FOF) Exercise for Performance-based Regulation in Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Moonsung; Jung, Myungtak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A terrorist attack or sabotage at a nuclear facility could lead result in a great amount of loss of life and social chaos, in addition to serious radiological damage. As threats have been evolved more intelligent, divergent, advanced, the international societies including IAEA encourage for all member states to establish the performance-based regulation using Forceon- Force (FOF) exercise, computer simulation. Consequently, the performance evaluation for physical protection at nuclear facilities should focus on properly reacting to threat scenarios. Physical protection should also include detecting, blocking, delaying, interrupting including the human and technical factors the adversary having malicious intention of the realistic main threat element before he accomplishes the goal based on Design Basis Threat (DBT). After the completion of the FOF evaluation system, KINAC will evaluate, and later strengthen its overall security program in response to changes in the threat environment, technological advancements, and lessons learned. As a result, substantial improvements to a nuclear facility security can be predicted. These improvements will focus on a plant security force, physical barriers, intrusion detection systems, surveillance systems, and access controls. Through the building a Force-on-Force scientific evaluation system, KINAC will establish an efficient physical protection implementation system for nuclear energy facilities.

  7. The Development of a Scientific Evaluation System of Force-on-Force (FOF) Exercise for Performance-based Regulation in Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A terrorist attack or sabotage at a nuclear facility could lead result in a great amount of loss of life and social chaos, in addition to serious radiological damage. As threats have been evolved more intelligent, divergent, advanced, the international societies including IAEA encourage for all member states to establish the performance-based regulation using Forceon- Force (FOF) exercise, computer simulation. Consequently, the performance evaluation for physical protection at nuclear facilities should focus on properly reacting to threat scenarios. Physical protection should also include detecting, blocking, delaying, interrupting including the human and technical factors the adversary having malicious intention of the realistic main threat element before he accomplishes the goal based on Design Basis Threat (DBT). After the completion of the FOF evaluation system, KINAC will evaluate, and later strengthen its overall security program in response to changes in the threat environment, technological advancements, and lessons learned. As a result, substantial improvements to a nuclear facility security can be predicted. These improvements will focus on a plant security force, physical barriers, intrusion detection systems, surveillance systems, and access controls. Through the building a Force-on-Force scientific evaluation system, KINAC will establish an efficient physical protection implementation system for nuclear energy facilities

  8. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  9. Biological Threats Detection Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among many decisive factors, which can have the influence on the possibility of decreases the results of use biological agents should be mentioned obligatory: rapid detection and identification of biological factor used, the proper preventive treatment and the medical management. The aims of identification: to identify the factor used, to estimate the area of contamination, to evaluate the possible countermeasure efforts (antibiotics, disinfectants) and to assess the effectiveness of the decontamination efforts (decontamination of the persons, equipment, buildings, environment etc.). The objects of identification are: bacteria and bacteria's spores, viruses, toxins and genetically modified factors. The present technologies are divided into: based on PCR techniques (ABI PRISM, APSIS, BIOVERIS, RAPID), immuno (BADD, RAMP, SMART) PCR and immuno techniques (APDS, LUMINEX) and others (BDS2, LUNASCAN, MALDI). The selected technologies assigned to field conditions, mobile and stationary laboratories will be presented.(author)

  10. Flood-threat zoning map of the urban area of Chocó (Quibdó. A study based on interpreting radar, satellite and aerial photograph images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir Maturana Córdoba

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A zoning map of areas which flood due to the Atrato River and its tributaries (the Cabí, Caraño and Yesca over-flowing in the urban area of Chocó (Quibdo was drawn up to be used by aid authorities and Quibdó city as a planning and control tool. This research relied on CIAF (Centro Interamericano de Fotointerpretación support and assessment. This entity is a subsidiary institution of the Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi which provided their installations and the required geographical material. This research was initially based on interpreting radar (INTERA, satellite (LANDSAT and aerial photographic images; this was verified by field verification of the in-terpreted data. Other variables such as climatic, geological, temperature, topographic conditions, historic and hydrological series and facts regarding the region were studied as additional information required for drawing conclusions. Aerial photographs provided the most reliable images due to their scales, quantity and quality and the date of when they were taken. Radar images (INTERA were also important when visually analysing a sector’s topography as they were produced by an active microwave sensor (totally eliminating climatic obstacles. On the contrary, satellite images did not have great relevance due to the amount of clouds hampering any kind of analysis. Complementing these results, a calibration curve for analysing this section’s maximum flow values was based on historical series data regarding the Atrato River’s flows and maximum levels recorded at the Quibdo hydrographical station and the river-bed’s cross-section. Implications that the river would overflow or has over-flowed were statistically estimated on these results, thereby setting the limits (supported by cartographic data for the corresponding areas at risk of flooding. A map marking areas at risk of flooding in the urban zone of Quibdó was then designed and a document prepared concluding that

  11. 基于 DBN 威胁评估的 MPC 无人机三维动态路径规划%MPC three-dimensional dynamic path planning for UAV based on DBN threat assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓光; 李青原; 邸若海

    2014-01-01

    The model predictive control (MPC)path planning algorithm can solve the problem of dynamic unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)path planning.Dynamic Bayesian network (DBN)is an effective tool for rea-soning and threat assessment.Considering the problem of path planning when the dynamic threat tags the UAV,the MPC path planning algorithm combined with DBN threat assessment is presented,which used the threat lever probability to describe the threat situation.A group of simulations demonstrate the efficiency of MPC three-dimensional dynamic path planning algorithm for UAV based on DBN threat assessment especially when the dynamic threat tags the UAV.%模型预测控制(model predictive control,MPC)路径规划算法适用于三维动态环境下的无人机(un-manned aerial vehicle,UAV)路径规划;动态贝叶斯网络(dynamic Bayesian network,DBN)能够有效推理战场态势,对无人机进行威胁评估。针对威胁尾随无人机时的路径规划问题,构建 DBN 威胁评估模型,将 UAV 在战场环境中的威胁态势用威胁等级概率表示,与 MPC 路径规划算法相结合,得到基于 DBN 威胁评估的 MPC UAV 路径规划算法。通过多组仿真分析表明,在三维动态环境下,特别是威胁尾随无人机时,基于 DBN 威胁评估的 MPC无人机路径规划算法可以得到有效的无人机路径。

  12. 基于 DBN 威胁评估的 MPC 无人机三维动态路径规划%MPC three-dimensional dynamic path planning for UAV based on DBN threat assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓光; 李青原; 邸若海

    2014-01-01

    模型预测控制(model predictive control,MPC)路径规划算法适用于三维动态环境下的无人机(un-manned aerial vehicle,UAV)路径规划;动态贝叶斯网络(dynamic Bayesian network,DBN)能够有效推理战场态势,对无人机进行威胁评估。针对威胁尾随无人机时的路径规划问题,构建 DBN 威胁评估模型,将 UAV 在战场环境中的威胁态势用威胁等级概率表示,与 MPC 路径规划算法相结合,得到基于 DBN 威胁评估的 MPC UAV 路径规划算法。通过多组仿真分析表明,在三维动态环境下,特别是威胁尾随无人机时,基于 DBN 威胁评估的 MPC无人机路径规划算法可以得到有效的无人机路径。%The model predictive control (MPC)path planning algorithm can solve the problem of dynamic unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)path planning.Dynamic Bayesian network (DBN)is an effective tool for rea-soning and threat assessment.Considering the problem of path planning when the dynamic threat tags the UAV,the MPC path planning algorithm combined with DBN threat assessment is presented,which used the threat lever probability to describe the threat situation.A group of simulations demonstrate the efficiency of MPC three-dimensional dynamic path planning algorithm for UAV based on DBN threat assessment especially when the dynamic threat tags the UAV.

  13. Mobile based optical form evaluation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Sinan YÜKSEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical forms that contain multiple-choice answers are widely used both for electing students and evaluating student achievements in education systems in our country and worldwide. Optical forms are evaluated by employing optical mark recognition techniques through optical readers. High cost of these machines, limited access to them, long waiting time for evaluation results make the process hard for educationists working in cities or countries. In this study, a mobile application was developed for the educationists who own mobile phones or tablets for the purpose of evaluating students' answer sheets quickly and independent of location and optical readers. Optical form recognition, reading and evaluation processes are done on the image of student's answer sheet that is taken with the mobile phone or tablet of educationist. The Android based mobile application that we developed has a user-friendly interface, high success rate and is the first of our knowledge application that operates on mobile platforms in this field.

  14. Prejudice towards Muslims in The Netherlands: testing integrated threat theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco González, Karina; Verkuyten, Maykel; Weesie, Jeroen; Poppe, Edwin

    2008-12-01

    This study uses integrated threat theory to examine Dutch adolescents' (N=1,187) prejudice towards Muslim minorities. One out of two participants was found to have negative feelings towards Muslims. Perceived symbolic and realistic threat and negative stereotypes were examined as mediators between antecedent factors (in-group identification, intergroup contact, and the endorsement of multiculturalism) and prejudice. Based on structural equation modelling, it was found that stereotypes and symbolic threats, but not realistic threats, predicted prejudice towards Muslims. Further, it was found that the effect of in-group identification on prejudice was fully mediated by symbolic threat, the effect of contact was partially mediated by stereotypes, and the effect of the endorsement of multiculturalism was mediated by both symbolic threat and stereotypes. In addition, contact and multiculturalism were directly associated with prejudice towards Muslims. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Fuzzy logic based sensor performance evaluation of vehicle mounted metal detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeynayake, Canicious; Tran, Minh D.

    2015-05-01

    Vehicle Mounted Metal Detector (VMMD) systems are widely used for detection of threat objects in humanitarian demining and military route clearance scenarios. Due to the diverse nature of such operational conditions, operational use of VMMD without a proper understanding of its capability boundaries may lead to heavy causalities. Multi-criteria fitness evaluations are crucial for determining capability boundaries of any sensor-based demining equipment. Evaluation of sensor based military equipment is a multi-disciplinary topic combining the efforts of researchers, operators, managers and commanders having different professional backgrounds and knowledge profiles. Information acquired through field tests usually involves uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision due to variations in test and evaluation conditions during a single test or series of tests. This report presents a fuzzy logic based methodology for experimental data analysis and performance evaluation of VMMD. This data evaluation methodology has been developed to evaluate sensor performance by consolidating expert knowledge with experimental data. A case study is presented by implementing the proposed data analysis framework in a VMMD evaluation scenario. The results of this analysis confirm accuracy, practicability and reliability of the fuzzy logic based sensor performance evaluation framework.

  16. Gauging U.S. Emergency Medical Services workers' willingness to respond to pandemic influenza using a threat- and efficacy-based assessment framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Barnett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emergency Medical Services workers' willingness to report to duty in an influenza pandemic is essential to healthcare system surge amidst a global threat. Application of Witte's Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM has shown utility for revealing influences of perceived threat and efficacy on non-EMS public health providers' willingness to respond in an influenza pandemic. We thus propose using an EPPM-informed assessment of EMS workers' perspectives toward fulfilling their influenza pandemic response roles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We administered an EPPM-informed snapshot survey about attitudes and beliefs toward pandemic influenza response, to a nationally representative, stratified random sample of 1,537 U.S. EMS workers from May-June 2009 (overall response rate: 49%. Of the 586 respondents who met inclusion criteria (currently active EMS providers in primarily EMS response roles, 12% indicated they would not voluntarily report to duty in a pandemic influenza emergency if asked, 7% if required. A majority (52% indicated their unwillingness to report to work if risk of disease transmission to family existed. Confidence in personal safety at work (OR = 3.3 and a high threat/high efficacy ("concerned and confident" EPPM profile (OR = 4.7 distinguished those who were more likely to voluntarily report to duty. Although 96% of EMS workers indicated that they would probably or definitely report to work if they were guaranteed a pandemic influenza vaccine, only 59% had received an influenza immunization in the preceding 12 months. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: EMS workers' response willingness gaps pose a substantial challenge to prehospital surge capacity in an influenza pandemic. "Concerned and confident" EMS workers are more than four times as likely to fulfill pandemic influenza response expectations. Confidence in workplace safety is a positively influential modifier of their response willingness. These findings can inform

  17. Research on Threat Assessment to Aerial Target Based on Bayesian Network%基于贝叶斯网络的空中目标威胁估计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱波; 方立恭; 金钊

    2011-01-01

    针对当前威胁估计中存在的问题,提出了基于贝叶斯网络的空中目标威胁估计方法.从威胁估计的概念出发,构建了基于贝叶斯网络的威胁估计功能框架,在对输入的防空作战事件进行分类定义的基础上,给出了事件关联在贝叶斯网络中的实现方法,同时对模型的建立步骤进行了说明.在融合了目标威胁先验信息的基础上,通过战场观测到的不确定信息进行推理,威胁估计结果具有很强的可信性,相应的建模思路可为威胁估计系统的构建提供有益的参考.最后以一个示例说明了该方法的有效性.%Aimming at the present problems existing in threat assessment, a novel air defense oriented threat assessment method based on bayesian network is proposed in this paper. In the view of threat assessment's definition, a function framework which is based on bayseian network is built up. Meanwhile, by the classification definition of input air defense events, the corresponding implement approach of event correlation in bayesian network is presented, among which the modeling procedure is described in detail. By combing the prior information of threat assessment, the threat assessment method presented in this paper employs the uncertain information which is obtained from the battlefield observation to carry out the inference, the result of which has strong dependability. Also, the relevant modeling thread can provide a reference for building the threat assessment system. Finally, a demonstration is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  18. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  19. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mesinger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  20. Financial Derivatives (Based on Two Supports Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Socaciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we build a PDE like Black-Scholes equation in hypothesis of a financial derivative that is dependent on two supports (usual is dependent only on one support, like am
    option based on gold, when national currency has a great float.
    Keywords: Financial derivatives, derivatives evaluation, derivatives based on two supports, extended Itō like lemma.

  1. Psychoanalysis and the nuclear threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.B.; Jacobs, D.; Rubin, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    {ital Psychoanalysis and the Nuclear Threat} provides coverage of the dynamic and clinical considerations that follow from life in the nuclear age. Of special clinical interest are chapters dealing with the developmental consequences of the nuclear threat in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and those exploring the technical issues raised by the occurrence in analytic and psychotherapeutic hours of material related to the nuclear threat. Additional chapters bring a psychoanalytic perspective to bear on such issues as the need to have enemies, silence as the real crime, love, work, and survival in the nuclear age, the relationship of the nuclear threat to issues of mourning and melancholia, apocalyptic fantasies, the paranoid process, considerations of the possible impact of gender on the nuclear threat, and the application of psychoanalytic thinking to nuclear arms strategy. Finally, the volume includes the first case report in the English language---albeit a brief psychotherapy---involving the treatment of a Hiroshima survivor.

  2. Optical Sensor Based Corn Algorithm Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical sensor based algorithms for corn fertilization have developed by researchers in several states. The goal of this international research project was to evaluate these different algorithms and determine their robustness over a large geographic area. Concurrently the goal of this project was to...

  3. Threat Detection in Tweets with Trigger Patterns and Contextual Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitters, M.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Worm, D.T.H.; Bouma, H.

    2014-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activities in open sources on the internet. Early detection of threats based on internet information could assist in the prevention of incidents. However, the amount of data in social media, blogs and forums rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  4. Reverse Modeling and Autonomous Extrapolation of RF Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguk Noh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the investigation of the basic components of reverse modeling and autonomous extrapolation of radio frequency (RF threats in electronic warfare settings. To design and test our system, we first model RF threats using the radioactive parameters received. The enemy radar simulated with a transponder or emitter transmits electronic signals; next, the sensors of the system intercept those signals as radioactive parameters. We generate the attributes of RF threats during communication between the electronic emissions of RF threats and the receivers of our system in various electronic warfare scenarios. We then utilize the data acquired through our system to reversely model RF threats. Our system carries out the reverse extrapolation process for the purpose of identifying and classifying threats by using profiles compiled through a series of machine learning algorithms, i.e., naive Bayesian classifier, decision tree, and k-means clustering algorithms. This compilation technique, which is based upon the inductive threat model, could be used to analyze and predict what a real-time threat is. We summarize empirical results that demonstrate our system capabilities of reversely modeling and autonomously extrapolating RF threats in simulated electronic warfare settings.

  5. Analysis of volcanic threat from Nisyros Island, Greece, with implications for aviation and population exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinvig, H. S.; Winson, A.; Gottsmann, J.

    2010-06-01

    Nisyros island in the South Aegean volcanic arc, Greece, is a Quaternary composite volcano with a 3.8 km wide caldera that in 1996 entered a volcano-seismic crisis, which heralded the islands' return to a state of unrest. The caldera has been the locus of at least thirteen phreatic eruptions in historical times, the most recent in 1888, and the system is still presently affected by considerable hydrothermal activity. Although the recent unrest waned off without eruption, there are still open questions relating to the current threat of volcanic activity from the island. Here, we perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the volcanic threat of Nisyros using a threat analysis protocol established as part of the USGS National Volcano Early Warning System (NVEWS). The evaluation involves a methodical assessment of fifteen hazard and exposure factors, and is based on a score system, whereby the higher the score, the higher the threat is. Uncertainty in assessment criteria are expressed by allowing for a conservative and an extreme score for each factor. We draw our analysis from published data as well as from results of our research on Nisyros over the past years. Our analysis yields a conservative threat score of 163 and an extreme score of 262. The most adverse exposure factors include significant scores relating to aviation and population exposure to volcanic hazards from Nisyros. When looked at in comparison to US volcanoes both scores place Nisyros in the "Very High Threat (VHT)" category, grouping it with volcanoes such as Redoubt, Mount Ranier and Crater Lake. We identify a short-fall in recommended surveillance efforts for VHT volcanoes given existing monitoring capabilities on the island. We discuss potential pitfalls of applying the NVEWS scheme to Nisyros and suggest potential adaptation of analysis scheme to match industrial and societal conditions in Europe. At the same time, our findings indicate that that volcanic threat posed by Nisyros volcano may

  6. An Object-Group Threat Assessment Method Based on Attribute Significance of Multi-Field Expert Systems%基于专家知识属性重要度的集群目标威胁评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大荣; 郭安学; 李云生; 徐红兵; 霍勇谋

    2009-01-01

    结合计算机网络和专家知识库集成技术,研究了集群目标威胁评估的一类新方法.首先,在给出多领域专家知识集成评估系统定义和集群目标威胁度赋值规则的基础上,结合统计方法和历史数据库建立专家知识属性重要度模型;然后,提出了该集成评估系统的运行规则,并结合多领域专家知识集成技术,构造了集群目标威胁评估的网络化评估系统;最后,仿真实验验证了系统的有效性和合理性.该系统成功应用于型号武器系统的实际工程实例表明,这种评估方法具有良好的更新能力和应用前景.%A new method of threat assessment to object-group was researched by combining computer network with integrated technology of experts' database. The attribute significance model of experts' database was presented by combining integrated system of multi-field experts and assignment rule of threat degree of object-group with statistical method and historical database; the network evaluation system used for evaluating object-group threat was constructed by the proposed operation rule of the system combined with multi-field experts knowledge intergrated technology; the simulation used for e-valuating object-group threat was performed by a certain type gun-missile intergrated air defense system. The simulated results show that the evaluation method has better updating capability and applied prospect.

  7. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.

    2008-01-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging ...

  8. UNIX-based operating systems robustness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming

    1996-01-01

    Robust operating systems are required for reliable computing. Techniques for robustness evaluation of operating systems not only enhance the understanding of the reliability of computer systems, but also provide valuable feed- back to system designers. This thesis presents results from robustness evaluation experiments on five UNIX-based operating systems, which include Digital Equipment's OSF/l, Hewlett Packard's HP-UX, Sun Microsystems' Solaris and SunOS, and Silicon Graphics' IRIX. Three sets of experiments were performed. The methodology for evaluation tested (1) the exception handling mechanism, (2) system resource management, and (3) system capacity under high workload stress. An exception generator was used to evaluate the exception handling mechanism of the operating systems. Results included exit status of the exception generator and the system state. Resource management techniques used by individual operating systems were tested using programs designed to usurp system resources such as physical memory and process slots. Finally, the workload stress testing evaluated the effect of the workload on system performance by running a synthetic workload and recording the response time of local and remote user requests. Moderate to severe performance degradations were observed on the systems under stress.

  9. Heat Waves Are Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159694.html Heat Waves Are Health Threats Drink plenty of water and ... 2016 SATURDAY, July 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heat waves are more than uncomfortable, they can be deadly. ...

  10. The level of knowledge about parasitic diseases and the threats resulting from their presence in the environment evaluated in a group of parents of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniadek, Agnieszka; Cepuch, Grażyna; Ochender, Katarzyna; Salamon, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Despite a significant civilization advancement, parasitic diseases still pose a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. Children's susceptibility to these infections stems from their immature immune system and lack of basic hygiene routines. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge which parents of preschool children's possess about parasitic diseases in their children's environment. The study was carried out in the group of 151 parents of preschool children living both in the city and in the country. The survey was carried out by means of a diagnostic poll with the application of a self-designed research questionnaire. To make the evaluation even more objective, a special scale was created in which parents could score points for their answers (0 - wrong answer, 1 - correct answer). The total number of points ranging from 0 to 9 indicated an unsatisfactory level of knowledge, from 10 to 13 - satisfactory level, from 14 to 16 - good level and from 17 to 20 - very good level of parents' awareness. The results of the study reveal that the level of parents' knowledge about parasitic diseases is only satisfactory. A statistically significant relationship was observed between the variables such as education and sex. The higher education, the higher level of knowledge. Moreover, women were more knowledgeable in the field of parasitic diseases than men were. Financial status of the family did not influence the level of parents' awareness. Well-planned educational programmes might have a positive influence on developing proper hygiene routines in families, which, in turn, will limit the risk of spreading parasitoses in the population of children. PMID:26342507

  11. Fire tests to evaluate the potential fire threat and its effects on HEPA filter integrity in cell ventilation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 7920

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a result of a DOE (Tiger Team) Technical Safety Appraisal (November 1990) of the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), ORNL Building 7920, a number of fire protection concerns were identified. The primary concern was the perceived loss of ventilation system containment due to the thermal destruction and/or breaching of the prefilters and/or high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA `s) and the resultant radioactive release to the external environment. The following report describes the results of an extensive fire test program performed by the Fire Research Discipline (FRD) of the Special Projects Division of Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) and funded by ORNL to address these concerns. Full scale mock-ups of a REDC hot cell tank pit, adjacent cubicle pit, and associated ventilation system were constructed at LLNL and 13 fire experiments were conducted to specifically answer the questions raised by the Tiger Team. Our primary test plan was to characterize the burning of a catastrophic solvent spill (kerosene) of 40 liters and its effect on the containment ventilation system prefilters and HEPA filters. In conjunction with ORNL and Lockwood Greene we developed a test matrix that assessed the fire performance of the prefilters and HEPA filters; evaluated the fire response of the fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) epoxy ventilation duct work; the response and effectiveness of the fire protection system, the effect of fire in a cubicle on the vessel off-gas (VOG) elbow, and other fire safety questions.

  12. Evaluation of the threat of marine CO2 leakage-associated acidification on the toxicity of sediment metals to juvenile bivalves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Short-term tests using juveniles of bivalves to study the effects of CO2 dissolved. • CO2 causes effects if the threshold concentration of the organism is overlapped. • Flows of escaped CO2 would affect the geochemical composition of sediment–seawater. • CO2-induced acidification would affect differently to marine sediment toxicity. - Abstract: The effects of the acidification associated with CO2 leakage from sub-seabed geological storage was studied by the evaluation of the short-term effects of CO2-induced acidification on juveniles of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum. Laboratory scale experiments were performed using a CO2-bubbling system designed to conduct ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were exposed for 10 days to elutriates of sediments collected in different littoral areas that were subjected to various pH treatments (pH 7.1, 6.6, 6.1). The acute pH-associated effects on the bivalves were observed, and the dissolved metals in the elutriates were measured. The median toxic effect pH was calculated, which ranged from 6.33 to 6.45. The amount of dissolved Zn in the sediment elutriates increased in parallel with the pH reductions and was correlated with the proton concentrations. The pH, the pCO2 and the dissolved metal concentrations (Zn and Fe) were linked with the mortality of the exposed bivalves

  13. Biosecurity and Vector Behaviour: Evaluating the Potential Threat Posed by Anglers and Canoeists as Pathways for the Spread of Invasive Non-Native Species and Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lucy G.; White, Piran C. L.; Stebbing, Paul D.; Stentiford, Grant D.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive non-native species (INNS) endanger native biodiversity and are a major economic problem. The management of pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment is a key target in the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi biodiversity targets for 2020. Freshwater environments are particularly susceptible to invasions as they are exposed to multiple introduction pathways, including non-native fish stocking and the release of boat ballast water. Since many freshwater INNS and aquatic pathogens can survive for several days in damp environments, there is potential for transport between water catchments on the equipment used by recreational anglers and canoeists. To quantify this biosecurity risk, we conducted an online questionnaire with 960 anglers and 599 canoeists to investigate their locations of activity, equipment used, and how frequently equipment was cleaned and/or dried after use. Anglers were also asked about their use and disposal of live bait. Our results indicate that 64% of anglers and 78.5% of canoeists use their equipment/boat in more than one catchment within a fortnight, the survival time of many of the INNS and pathogens considered in this study and that 12% of anglers and 50% of canoeists do so without either cleaning or drying their kit between uses. Furthermore, 8% of anglers and 28% of canoeists had used their equipment overseas without cleaning or drying it after each use which could facilitate both the introduction and secondary spread of INNS in the UK. Our results provide a baseline against which to evaluate the effectiveness of future biosecurity awareness campaigns, and identify groups to target with biosecurity awareness information. Our results also indicate that the biosecurity practices of these groups must improve to reduce the likelihood of inadvertently spreading INNS and pathogens through these activities. PMID:24717714

  14. Evaluation of the threat of marine CO{sub 2} leakage-associated acidification on the toxicity of sediment metals to juvenile bivalves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basallote, M. Dolores, E-mail: dolores.basallote@uca.es [Cátedra UNESCO/UNITWIN WiCop, Departamento de Química-Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Polígono Río San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli [Departamento de Ecología y Gestión Costera, Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Río San Pedro, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); De Orte, Manoela R.; Del Valls, T. Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada [Cátedra UNESCO/UNITWIN WiCop, Departamento de Química-Física, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Polígono Río San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Short-term tests using juveniles of bivalves to study the effects of CO{sub 2} dissolved. • CO{sub 2} causes effects if the threshold concentration of the organism is overlapped. • Flows of escaped CO{sub 2} would affect the geochemical composition of sediment–seawater. • CO{sub 2}-induced acidification would affect differently to marine sediment toxicity. - Abstract: The effects of the acidification associated with CO{sub 2} leakage from sub-seabed geological storage was studied by the evaluation of the short-term effects of CO{sub 2}-induced acidification on juveniles of the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum. Laboratory scale experiments were performed using a CO{sub 2}-bubbling system designed to conduct ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were exposed for 10 days to elutriates of sediments collected in different littoral areas that were subjected to various pH treatments (pH 7.1, 6.6, 6.1). The acute pH-associated effects on the bivalves were observed, and the dissolved metals in the elutriates were measured. The median toxic effect pH was calculated, which ranged from 6.33 to 6.45. The amount of dissolved Zn in the sediment elutriates increased in parallel with the pH reductions and was correlated with the proton concentrations. The pH, the pCO{sub 2} and the dissolved metal concentrations (Zn and Fe) were linked with the mortality of the exposed bivalves.

  15. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Dan E; Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  16. Familiarity Threat Arguement Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Aschauer, Ewald

    2013-01-01

    and clients, we identify their subjective theories of trust and discuss them against the backdrop of recent trust research to develop four hypotheses. In the second study, the hypotheses are tested in an OLS regression based on data from 218 auditor-client dyads in Germany. Then, our interpretations......-reliance on the clients’ abilities do. The long-term engagement of the audit firm and relationships characterized by strong identification-based trust, however, contribute to a climate of professional skepticism. Besides the theoretical contribution, the practical implications of our findings for (re...

  17. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A MacLean

    Full Text Available The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses.

  18. High-angular Resolution Laser Threat Warner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design and development aspects of a high-angular resolution laser-threat Warner developed at the Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi are presented. It describes a high-angular resolution laser-threat warner capable of giving warning with a resolution of i 3" when it is exposed to laser radiation from visible and near-IR pulsed solid-state laser source. It has a field of view of 90' in the azimuth direction, whereas the elevation coverage is between -5" and + 25". It is capable of handling multiple types of laser threats covering wavelength from 400 nm to 1100 nm and has an operational range of 4 km for a Q-switched laser source energy (10 ns of 10 mJ/pulse and output beam divergence of 1 mrad. The paper also describes its simulated evaluation process and field-testing which it has undergone. The result of field-testing confirms that it meets all its performance specifications mentioned above.

  19. Detecting underwater improvised explosive threats (DUIET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Terry

    2010-04-01

    Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) have presented a major threat in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. These devices are powerful homemade land mines that can be small and easily hidden near roadsides. They are then remotely detonated when Coalition Forces pass by either singly or in convoys. Their rapid detection, classification and destruction is key to the safety of troops in the area. These land based bombs will have an analogue in the underwater theater especially in ports, lakes, rivers and streams. These devices may be used against Americans on American soil as an element of the global war on terrorism (GWOT) Rapid detection and classification of underwater improvised explosive devices (UIED) is critical to protecting innocent lives and maintaining the day to day flow of commerce. This paper will discuss a strategy and tool set to deal with this potential threat.

  20. 28 CFR 36.208 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct threat. 36.208 Section 36.208... ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.208 Direct threat. (a) This part does not... individual poses a direct threat to the health or safety of others. (b) Direct threat means a...

  1. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  2. 基于生态威胁的湖泊生态安全指标体系研究%Study on the Index System of Lake Ecological Security Based on Ecological Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌; 王举位; 桂凌; 张征; 闫国振

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of different levels of ecological security definitions, the lake ecological security was identified by reverse thinking as the lake kept sustainable development under various ecological threats and its form of embodying was each index changes dynamically within the range of sustainable development. The theory and model of lake ecological threats were proposed and Delphi method was applied to divide the characteristics of lake ecological threats into eutrophication, lake shrinkage and water pollution. On this basis, by the methods of analytical hierarchy process and principle component analysis, the lake ecological security index system involving 35 indexes were assessed so as to construct lake ecological security indicator system.%在分析不同层次生态安全定义的基础上,采用逆向思维定义了湖泊生态安全,即湖泊在各种生态威胁冲击下仍保持可持续发展的状态,其表现形式为湖泊各项指标在可持续发展范围内的动态波动;提出了湖泊生态威胁理论与模型,并采用德尔菲法把湖泊生态威胁特征分为富营养化、湖泊萎缩和水污染,基于此通过层次分析法和主成分分析法筛选出了评价湖泊生态安全的35个指标,从而构建了湖泊生态安全指标体系.

  3. Evaluating Theory-Based Evaluation: Information, Norms, and Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, W. Jake; Sisco, Melissa; Hill, Dawn; Malter, Frederic; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose

    2012-01-01

    Programmatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social…

  4. Credit risk evaluation based on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Gu, Jing; Zhou, Zongfang

    2016-07-01

    Social media has been playing an increasingly important role in the sharing of individuals' opinions on many financial issues, including credit risk in investment decisions. This paper analyzes whether these opinions, which are transmitted through social media, can accurately predict enterprises' future credit risk. We consider financial statements oriented evaluation results based on logit and probit approaches as the benchmarks. We then conduct textual analysis to retrieve both posts and their corresponding commentaries published on two of the most popular social media platforms for financial investors in China. Professional advice from financial analysts is also investigated in this paper. We surprisingly find that the opinions extracted from both posts and commentaries surpass opinions of analysts in terms of credit risk prediction. PMID:26739372

  5. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.

    2008-01-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response—as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic—strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension. PMID:19015102

  6. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N

    2008-06-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response-as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic--strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension. PMID:19015102

  7. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  8. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  9. Environmental metabolomics: a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marion G

    2007-02-01

    Metabolomic approaches have the potential to make an exceptional contribution to understanding how chemicals and other environmental stressors can affect both human and environmental health. However, the application of metabolomics to environmental exposures, although getting underway, has not yet been extensively explored. This review will use a SWOT analysis model to discuss some of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that are apparent to an investigator venturing into this relatively new field. SWOT has been used extensively in business settings to uncover new outlooks and identify problems that would impede progress. The field of environmental metabolomics provides great opportunities for discovery, and this is recognized by a high level of interest in potential applications. However, understanding the biological consequence of environmental exposures can be confounded by inter- and intra-individual differences. Metabolomic profiles can yield a plethora of data, the interpretation of which is complex and still being evaluated and researched. The development of the field will depend on the availability of technologies for data handling and that permit ready access metabolomic databases. Understanding the relevance of metabolomic endpoints to organism health vs adaptation vs variation is an important step in understanding what constitutes a substantive environmental threat. Metabolomic applications in reproductive research are discussed. Overall, the development of a comprehensive mechanistic-based interpretation of metabolomic changes offers the possibility of providing information that will significantly contribute to the protection of human health and the environment.

  10. Decentralised bioenergy systems: A review of opportunities and threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decentralised bioenergy systems are receiving increasing attention due to the potential ability to support local development, create local employment, and contribute to climate change mitigation. These issues, along with other bioenergy sustainability issues, are reviewed through eighteen international case studies with the objective of identifying opportunities and threats to decentralised bioenergy systems. The case studies were selected based on feedstock type, bioenergy type, production capacity, synergistic alliances, ownership structure and physical locations. This variation was used to provide a basis for evaluating opportunities and threats from different contexts. Commercial viability remains the primary concern for the sustainability of decentralised bioenergy systems. There are, however, opportunities for compounding benefits through integrating small scale decentralised bioenergy systems with other production systems. Integrated production, including closed loop models, allow waste materials from one process to be used as inputs in other production processes, and thereby increasing economic, social and environmental outcomes. Synergistic opportunities along the bioenergy production chain, which include feedstock production, bioenergy marketing and distribution could also be exploited by communities and other investors to minimise decentralised production risk. - Research Highlights: → Small scale decentralised bioenergy production is a potentially sustainable energy system. →Economic viability limits small scale decentralised bioenergy production. → Synergistic alliances along the bioenergy production chain could enhance viability.

  11. Environmental metabolomics: a SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marion G

    2007-02-01

    Metabolomic approaches have the potential to make an exceptional contribution to understanding how chemicals and other environmental stressors can affect both human and environmental health. However, the application of metabolomics to environmental exposures, although getting underway, has not yet been extensively explored. This review will use a SWOT analysis model to discuss some of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that are apparent to an investigator venturing into this relatively new field. SWOT has been used extensively in business settings to uncover new outlooks and identify problems that would impede progress. The field of environmental metabolomics provides great opportunities for discovery, and this is recognized by a high level of interest in potential applications. However, understanding the biological consequence of environmental exposures can be confounded by inter- and intra-individual differences. Metabolomic profiles can yield a plethora of data, the interpretation of which is complex and still being evaluated and researched. The development of the field will depend on the availability of technologies for data handling and that permit ready access metabolomic databases. Understanding the relevance of metabolomic endpoints to organism health vs adaptation vs variation is an important step in understanding what constitutes a substantive environmental threat. Metabolomic applications in reproductive research are discussed. Overall, the development of a comprehensive mechanistic-based interpretation of metabolomic changes offers the possibility of providing information that will significantly contribute to the protection of human health and the environment. PMID:17269710

  12. Information fusion: telling the story (or threat narrative)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2014-06-01

    Today's operators face a "double whammy" - the need to process increasing amounts of information, including "Twitter-INT"1 (social information such as Facebook, You-Tube videos, blogs, Twitter) as well as the need to discern threat signatures in new security environments, including those in which the airspace is contested. To do this will require the Air Force to "fuse and leverage its vast capabilities in new ways."2 For starters, the integration of quantitative and qualitative information must be done in a way that preserves important contextual information since the goal increasingly is to identify and mitigate violence before it occurs. To do so requires a more nuanced understanding of the environment being sensed, including the human environment, ideally from the "emic" perspective; that is, from the perspective of that individual or group. This requires not only data and information that informs the understanding of how the individuals and/or groups see themselves and others (social identity) but also information on how that identity filters information in their environment which, in turn, shapes their behaviors.3 The goal is to piece together the individual and/or collective narratives regarding threat, the threat narrative, from various sources of information. Is there a threat? If so, what is it? What is motivating the threat? What is the intent of those who pose the threat and what are their capabilities and their vulnerabilities?4 This paper will describe preliminary investigations regarding the application of prototype hybrid information fusion method based on the threat narrative framework.

  13. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Xiao; Orazem, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  14. Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Consuelo Juanita

    2006-12-01

    Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

  15. Sea Level Threat in Tuvalu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Aung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently the impacts of climate change, in particular, sea level rise, had been a major concern for many Pacific island countries. In early 2000, there were a series of media coverage over sea level rise issues using Tuvalu as an example. The daily life of Tuvalu revolves around the ocean and the immediate threat on the islands people, economy, environment and its islands is of concern to the Tuvalu government. The Tuvalu government has concluded that Tuvalu was destined to become the first nation to be sunk by global warming because it is one of the smallest and lowest-lying countries in the world. Approach: In this study, sea level data from the Australian project will be focussed on despite the fact that the length of data is not sufficiently long. The AusAID funded South Pacific Sea Level and climate monitoring project was set up in response to concerns raised by Pacific island countries over the potential impacts of an enhanced greenhouse effect on climate and sea levels in the South Pacific for 20 years. Results: Based upon the 15½ years of sea level data from the project, the sea level rise rate in Tuvalu as at september 2008 was 5.9 mM year-1. This was about four times higher than the global average of 1-2 mm year-1. Sea level in the Tuvalu area had risen approximately 9.14 cm since the inception of the project 15½ years ago. However, it was to be noted that the land is quite stable and the rate of land sinking is -0.06 mM year-1 only. Accordingly, there was no significant impact on the sea level trends. Conclusion: Although the data length is just over 15 years, the sea level trend values do not fluctuate significantly since 1999. It simply indicated that the rate of sea level rise in the Tuvalu region was not accelerating as anticipated by the community.

  16. Threats to the consumer market of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavriil Aleksandrovich Agarkov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This papers reviews the main threats to the today's consumer market and offers a historic tour of their existence. The results of a comprehensive diagnostics technique of economic safety of the consumer market in the region taking into account the impact of threats are presented. In the basis of the procedure is an indicative method of analysis, in which diagnosis is carried out on a set of criterial parameters. Along with a comprehensive assessment, the paper offers a detailed analysis of one of the method's modules - evaluation of consumer protection as the most vulnerable category of participants in the consumer market. A classification of prejudice of consumers in accordance with international studies is considered. The conducted study showed that, in general, there is a positive trend of economic safety of the consumer market in the region for the period from 2003 to 2010, but, according to some modules (evaluation of consumer protection, the situation has worsened for the majority of the subjects discussed during the reviewed period. The results of economic safety diagnostics of the consumer market actors can be used in the formation of program-target events to neutralize the negative trends in the consumer market

  17. New Frontiers of Network Security: The Threat Within

    CERN Document Server

    Sanyal, Sugata; Gupta, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 70% of information security threats originate from inside an organization. Opportunities for insider threats have been increasing at an alarming rate with the latest trends of mobility (portable devices like Laptop, smart phones etc.), ubiquitous connectivity (wireless or through 3G connectivity) and this trend increases as more and more web-based applications are made available over the Internet. Insider threats are generally caused by current or ex-employees, contractors or partners, who have authorized access to the organization's network and servers. Theft of confidential information is often for either material gain or for willful damage. Easy availability of hacking tools on the Internet, USB devices and wireless connectivity provide for easy break-ins. The net result is losses worth millions of dollars in terms of IP theft, leakage of customer / individual information, etc. This paper presents an understanding of Insider threats, attackers and their motives and suggests mitigation techniques at ...

  18. Is China Threat a Hoax?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Weigan; Ma Zongshi

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing Olympics has focused unprecedented world attention on China this year. Many people hail the Games as an occasion that showcases China's growing contribution to world development and harmony. But intent on politicizing this global event, a few modern Cassandras still cling to the flawed China Threat theory. In this paper, the author traces the origins of this fallacious theory. He sees it as a product of Western empiricism viewed through an historical and philosophical prism. He argues that the assertion of threat arises from a generalization of historical facts. The assertion links China's growing clout with declining Western dominance in international affairs. Starting with the myth that peace is possible only among democracies, the theory predicts the inevitability of conflict between the West and China, a country with an alleged expansionist tradition and under an authoritarian system.

  19. Psychological and Cortisol Responses to and Recovery From Exposure to a Body Image Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkin Lamarche

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of body image research has failed to measure what occurs beyond the immediate presentation of a body image threat, or after a body image threat is no longer present. This is particularly true for physiological outcomes. The present study examined psychological and cortisol responses to, and recovery from, a body composition assessment as a social-evaluative body image threat. Women (N = 64 were randomized into either a control or threat group. Participants completed a measure of social physique anxiety and provided a sample of saliva (to assess cortisol at baseline, and immediately following and 20 min following their condition. The threat group reported higher social physique anxiety following the threat in comparison with both baseline levels and recovery levels. Cortisol was higher immediately following the threat in comparison with baseline levels. Findings support the inclusion of a recovery time point in body image research to provide a more complete picture of the psychobiology of body image experiences.

  20. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one o...

  1. Subordinates as Threats to Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai; Segendorff, Björn

    2001-01-01

    A leader of an organization may view a subordinate as threatening or weakening the leader's position. The threat may increase with the subordinate's ability and reduce the rents the leader wins. In particular, a leader who trains his subordinate reduces the cost to the owner of a firm in replacing the leader, and so reduces the leader's bargaining power. The leader therefore provides inefficiently low training for the subordinate.

  2. Filling in biodiversity threat gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joppa, Lucas; O'Connor, Brian; Visconti, Piero;

    2016-01-01

    increase to 10,000 times the background rate should species threatened with extinction succumb to pressures they face (4). Reversing these trends is a focus of the Convention on Biological Diversity's 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity and its 20 Aichi Targets and is explicitly incorporated...... into the United Nations' 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We identify major gaps in data available for assessing global biodiversity threats and suggest mechanisms for closing them....

  3. Rethinking climate change as a security threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch, Corinne

    2011-10-15

    Once upon a time climate change was a strictly environment and development issue. Today it has become a matter of national and international security. Efforts to link climate change with violent conflict may not be based on solid evidence, but they have certainly captured the attention of governments. They have played a vital role in raising the much-needed awareness of climate change as an issue that deserves global action. But at what cost? Focusing on climate change as a security threat alone risks devolving humanitarian responsibilities to the military, ignoring key challenges and losing sight of those climate-vulnerable communities that stand most in need of protection.

  4. Cybersecurity Public Sector Threats and Responses

    CERN Document Server

    Andreasson, Kim J

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has given rise to new opportunities for the public sector to improve efficiency and better serve constituents in the form of e-government. But with a rapidly growing user base globally and an increasing reliance on the Internet, digital tools are also exposing the public sector to new risks. An accessible primer, Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses focuses on the convergence of globalization, connectivity, and the migration of public sector functions online. It identifies the challenges you need to be aware of and examines emerging trends and strategies from around

  5. Mobile based optical form evaluation system

    OpenAIRE

    YÜKSEL, Asım Sinan; İbrahim Arda ÇANKAYA; Mehmet Ali YALÇINKAYA; Nurullah ATEŞ

    2016-01-01

    Optical forms that contain multiple-choice answers are widely used both for electing students and evaluating student achievements in education systems in our country and worldwide. Optical forms are evaluated by employing optical mark recognition techniques through optical readers. High cost of these machines, limited access to them, long waiting time for evaluation results make the process hard for educationists working in cities or countries. In this study, a mobile application was develope...

  6. Antibiotic and Antimicrobial Resistance: Threat Report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This report, Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 gives a first- ...

  7. Protection without detection: a threat mitigation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joshua; McCoy, Joseph R.; Ratazzi, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Networking systems and individual applications have traditionally been defended using signature-based tools that protect the perimeter, many times to the detriment of service, performance, and information flow. These tools require knowledge of both the system on which they run and the attack they are preventing. As such, by their very definition, they only account for what is known to be malicious and ignore the unknown. The unknown, or zero day threat, can occur when defenses have yet to be immunized via a signature or other identifier of the threat. In environments where execution of the mission is paramount, the networks and applications must perform their function of information delivery without endangering the enterprise or losing the salient information, even when facing zero day threats. In this paper we, describe a new defensive strategy that provides a means to more deliberately balance the oft mutually exclusive aspects of protection and availability. We call this new strategy Protection without Detection, since it focuses on network protection without sacrificing information availability. The current instantiation analyzes the data stream in real time as it passes through an in-line device. Critical files are recognized, and mission-specific trusted templates are applied as they are forwarded to their destination. The end result is a system which eliminates the opportunity for propagation of malicious or unnecessary payloads via the various containers that are inherent in the definition of standard file types. In some cases, this method sacrifices features or functionality that is typically inherent in these files. However, with the flexibility of the template approach, inclusion or exclusion of these features becomes a deliberate choice of the mission owners, based on their needs and amount of acceptable risk. The paper concludes with a discussion of future extensions and applications.

  8. Team Primacy Concept (TPC) Based Employee Evaluation and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniute, Eivina I.; Alfred, Mary V.

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how employees learn from Team Primacy Concept (TPC) based employee evaluation and how they use the feedback in performing their jobs. TPC based evaluation is a form of multirater evaluation, during which the employee's performance is discussed by one's peers in a face-to-face team setting. The study used Kolb's…

  9. The role of threats in animal cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cant, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    In human societies, social behaviour is strongly influenced by threats of punishment, even though the threats themselves rarely need to be exercised. Recent experimental evidence suggests that similar hidden threats can promote cooperation and limit within-group selfishness in some animal systems. In other animals, however, threats appear to be ineffective. Here I review theoretical and empirical studies that help to understand the evolutionary causes of these contrasting patterns, and identi...

  10. A model-based evaluation system of enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Junwei; Ye Yang; Wang Jian

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the architecture of enterprise modeling, proposesindicator selection principles and indicator decomposition methods, examines the approaches to the evaluation of enterprise modeling and designs an evaluation model of AHP. Then a model-based evaluation system of enterprise is presented toeffectively evaluate the business model in the framework of enterprise modeling.

  11. Competency Based Evaluation Guide for Teachers. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk State Coll., VA.

    This teacher evaluation instrument is designed to test the competencies of inservice and preservice teachers. Four categories of skills are evaluated: (1) instructional programs and processes; (2) classroom management and logistics; (3) professional development and interactions with others; and (4) exceptional students. Within each category,…

  12. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  13. 24 CFR 9.131 - Direct threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct threat. 9.131 Section 9.131... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.131 Direct threat. (a) This part does not require the agency..., privileges, advantages and accommodations of that agency when that individual poses a direct threat to...

  14. Security of radioactive sources: Threats and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general issue of the security of radioactive sources is presented as a prime but constitutive element of radiation safety, focusing particularly on the perceived threats for the malevolent use of radioactive sources and on the possible answers to these threats. The paper discusses the source security threat and the possible international response, and presents an overall outlook for the future. (author)

  15. The spatial distribution of threats to plant species with extremely small populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjing; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Jizhong; Qu, Hong; Mu, Xianyun; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2016-04-01

    Many biological conservationists take actions to conserve plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP) in China; however, there have been few studies on the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP. Hence, we selected distribution data of PSESP and made a map of the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP in China. First, we used the weight assignment method to evaluate the threat risk to PSESP at both country and county scales. Second, we used a geographic information system to map the spatial distribution of threats to PSESP, and explored the threat factors based on linear regression analysis. Finally, we suggested some effective conservation options. We found that the PSESP with high values of protection, such as the plants with high scientific research values and ornamental plants, were threatened by over-exploitation and utilization, habitat fragmentation, and a small sized wild population in broad-leaved forests and bush fallows. We also identified some risk hotspots for PSESP in China. Regions with low elevation should be given priority for ex- and in-situ conservation. Moreover, climate change should be considered for conservation of PSESP. To avoid intensive over-exploitation or utilization and habitat fragmentation, in-situ conservation should be practiced in regions with high temperatures and low temperature seasonality, particularly in the high risk hotspots for PSESP that we proposed. Ex-situ conservation should be applied in these same regions, and over-exploitation and utilization of natural resources should be prevented. It is our goal to apply the concept of PSESP to the global scale in the future.

  16. Agent Based Processing of Global Evaluation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, M Shahriar; Joarder, Md Mahbubul Alam

    2011-01-01

    Load balancing across a networked environment is a monotonous job. Moreover, if the job to be distributed is a constraint satisfying one, the distribution of load demands core intelligence. This paper proposes parallel processing through Global Evaluation Function by means of randomly initialized agents for solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems. A potential issue about the number of agents in a machine under the invocation of distribution is discussed here for securing the maximum benefit from Global Evaluation and parallel processing. The proposed system is compared with typical solution that shows an exclusive outcome supporting the nobility of parallel implementation of Global Evaluation Function with certain number of agents in each invoked machine.

  17. GIS-Based Evaluation of Danger in Karst Collapse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, feasibility and advantage of GIS technology are discussed to make a quantitative evaluation of karst collapses, a fast and precise evaluation method for developing interface between the karst collapse and GIS-based evaluation model is used to predict major natural geological disasters. A complete procedure of fuzzy-hierarchical GIS-based evaluation of karst collapses is illustrated with the karst collapses in western urban area of Guilin, China.

  18. Automatic summary evaluation based on text grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Branny, Emilia

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a method for evaluating automatically generated text summaries. The method is inspired by research in text grammars by Teun Van Dijk. It addresses a text as a complex structure, the elements of which are interconnected both on the level of form and meaning, and the well-formedness of which should be described on both of these levels. The method addresses current problems of summary evaluation methods, especially the problem of quantifying informativity, as well as th...

  19. Risk-driven security testing using risk analysis with threat modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Palanivel, Maragathavalli; Selvadurai, Kanmani

    2014-01-01

    Security testing is a process of determining risks present in the system states and protects them from vulnerabilities. But security testing does not provide due importance to threat modeling and risk analysis simultaneously that affects confidentiality and integrity of the system. Risk analysis includes identification, evaluation and assessment of risks. Threat modeling approach is identifying threats associated with the system. Risk-driven security testing uses risk analysis results in test...

  20. Geographical linkages between threats and imperilment in freshwater fish in the Mediterranean Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero, Miguel; Hermoso, Virgilio; Levin, Noam; Kark, Salit

    2010-01-01

    Aim The level of imperilment of mediterranean freshwater fish is among the highest recorded for any group of organisms evaluated to date. Here, we describe the geographical patterns in the incidence of threats affecting mediterranean freshwater fish and test whether the effects of specific threats are spatially related to the degree of imperilment of fish faunas. Location The Mediterranean Basin Biome. Methods From the IUCN Red List, we recorded the six main threats to 232 e...

  1. New Threat to World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aggregate amount of money and credit in the global economy has risen sharply over the past 30 years,with its growth rate and stock far exceeding that of the real economy or real assets of the world.This is the view of Xiang Songzuo,professor at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology,whose opinion was first published in a recent article in China Business News.Xiang said this situation is a real threat to the world economy.Excerpts of his article are reprinted below:

  2. Symbian `vulnerability' and Mobile Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    Modern technologies are becoming ever more integrated with each other. Mobile phones are becoming increasing intelligent, and handsets are growing ever more like computers in functionality. We are entering a new era - the age of smart houses, global advanced networks which encompass a wide range of devices, all of them exchanging data with each other. Such trends clearly open new horizons to malicious users, and the potential threats are self evident. In this paper, we study and discuss one of the most famous mobile operating systems 'Symbian'; its vulnerabilities and recommended protection technologies.

  3. Is energy cropping in Europe compatible with biodiversity? – Opportunities and threats to biodiversity from land-based production of biomass for bioenergy purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Frederiksen, P.; Grandin, U.; Heikkilä, R.; Krogh, P.H.; Izakovicová, Z.; Johansen, A.; Meiresonne, L.; Spijker, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on literature and six country studies (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Slovakia) this paper discusses the compatibility of the EU 2020 targets for renewable energy with conservation of biodiversity. We conclude that increased demand for biomass for bioenergy purposes may lead t

  4. Exploring the Structure of Human Defensive Responses from Judgments of Threat Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Laura A; Ahn, Curie; Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    How humans react to threats is a topic of broad theoretical importance, and also relevant for understanding anxiety disorders. Many animal threat reactions exhibit a common structure, a finding supported by human evaluations of written threat scenarios that parallel patterns of rodent defensive behavior to actual threats. Yet the factors that underlie these shared behavioral patterns remain unclear. Dimensional accounts rooted in Darwin's conception of antithesis explain many defensive behaviors. Across species, it is also clear that defensive reactions depend on specific situational factors, a feature long emphasized by psychological appraisal theories. Our study sought to extend prior investigations of human judgments of threat to a broader set of threats, including natural disasters, threats from animals, and psychological (as opposed to physical) threats. Our goal was to test whether dimensional and specific patterns of threat evaluation replicate across different threat classes. 85 healthy adult subjects selected descriptions of defensive behaviors that indicated how they would react to 29 threatening scenarios. Scenarios differed with respect to ten factors, e.g., perceived dangerousness or escapability. Across scenarios, we correlated these factor ratings with the pattern of defensive behaviors subjects endorsed. A decision tree hierarchically organized these correlation patterns to successfully predict each scenario's most common reaction, both for the original sample of subjects and a separate replication group (n = 22). At the top of the decision tree, degree of dangerousness interacted with threat type (physical or psychological) to predict dimensional approach/avoidance behavior. Subordinate nodes represented specific defensive responses evoked by particular contexts. Our ecological approach emphasizes the interplay of situational factors in evoking a broad range of threat reactions. Future studies could test predictions made by our results to help

  5. Exploring the Structure of Human Defensive Responses from Judgments of Threat Scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Harrison

    Full Text Available How humans react to threats is a topic of broad theoretical importance, and also relevant for understanding anxiety disorders. Many animal threat reactions exhibit a common structure, a finding supported by human evaluations of written threat scenarios that parallel patterns of rodent defensive behavior to actual threats. Yet the factors that underlie these shared behavioral patterns remain unclear. Dimensional accounts rooted in Darwin's conception of antithesis explain many defensive behaviors. Across species, it is also clear that defensive reactions depend on specific situational factors, a feature long emphasized by psychological appraisal theories. Our study sought to extend prior investigations of human judgments of threat to a broader set of threats, including natural disasters, threats from animals, and psychological (as opposed to physical threats. Our goal was to test whether dimensional and specific patterns of threat evaluation replicate across different threat classes. 85 healthy adult subjects selected descriptions of defensive behaviors that indicated how they would react to 29 threatening scenarios. Scenarios differed with respect to ten factors, e.g., perceived dangerousness or escapability. Across scenarios, we correlated these factor ratings with the pattern of defensive behaviors subjects endorsed. A decision tree hierarchically organized these correlation patterns to successfully predict each scenario's most common reaction, both for the original sample of subjects and a separate replication group (n = 22. At the top of the decision tree, degree of dangerousness interacted with threat type (physical or psychological to predict dimensional approach/avoidance behavior. Subordinate nodes represented specific defensive responses evoked by particular contexts. Our ecological approach emphasizes the interplay of situational factors in evoking a broad range of threat reactions. Future studies could test predictions made by our

  6. A methodology for capability-based technology evaluation for systems-of-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biltgen, Patrick Thomas

    2007-12-01

    Post-Cold War military conflicts have highlighted the need for a flexible, agile joint force responsive to emerging crises around the globe. The 2005 Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) acquisition policy document mandates a shift away from stove-piped threat-based acquisition to a capability-based model focused on the multiple ways and means of achieving an effect. This shift requires a greater emphasis on scenarios, tactics, and operational concepts during the conceptual phase of design and structured processes for technology evaluation to support this transition are lacking. In this work, a methodology for quantitative technology evaluation for systems-of-systems is defined. Physics-based models of an aircraft system are exercised within a hierarchical, object-oriented constructive simulation to quantify technology potential in the context of a relevant scenario. A major technical challenge to this approach is the lack of resources to support real-time human-in-the-loop tactical decision making and technology analysis. An approach that uses intelligent agents to create a "Meta-General" capable of forecasting strategic and tactical decisions based on technology inputs is used. To demonstrate the synergy between new technologies and tactics, surrogate models are utilized to provide intelligence to individual agents within the framework and develop a set of tactics that appropriately exploit new technologies. To address the long run-times associated with constructive military simulations, neural network surrogate models are implemented around the forecasting environment to enable rapid trade studies. Probabilistic techniques are used to quantify uncertainty and richly populate the design space with technology-infused alternatives. Since a large amount of data is produced in the analysis of systems-of-systems, dynamic, interactive visualization techniques are used to enable "what-if" games on assumptions, systems, technologies, tactics, and

  7. Threat sensitivity in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhtadie, Luma; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-02-01

    Life stress is a major predictor of the course of bipolar disorder. Few studies have used laboratory paradigms to examine stress reactivity in bipolar disorder, and none have assessed autonomic reactivity to laboratory stressors. In the present investigation we sought to address this gap in the literature. Participants, 27 diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and 24 controls with no history of mood disorder, were asked to complete a complex working memory task presented as "a test of general intelligence." Self-reported emotions were assessed at baseline and after participants were given task instructions; autonomic physiology was assessed at baseline and continuously during the stressor task. Compared to controls, individuals with bipolar disorder reported greater increases in pretask anxiety from baseline and showed greater cardiovascular threat reactivity during the task. Group differences in cardiovascular threat reactivity were significantly correlated with comorbid anxiety in the bipolar group. Our results suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing stress reactivity-including the use of physiological parameters that differentiate between maladaptive and adaptive profiles of stress responding-can yield valuable information regarding stress sensitivity and its associations with negative affectivity in bipolar disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25688436

  8. The threat of illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligence services, the army, the navy, the air force and the police together work to avoid illicit trafficking around the world by taking actions as follows: examining the risks and threats of illicit trafficking of radioactive material by terrorists or criminals; gaining a better understanding of current and future patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of radioactive material; determining progress on efforts to establish detection capabilities at borders and to exchange information on developments in detection technology and response methodologies through installation of radiation detection equipment; strengthening existing networks and cooperation for sharing information on illicit trafficking reports on incidents involving smuggling, theft, loss and illegal disposal, illegal possession and transfer, and attempted illegal sales of the material; examining how an enhanced export/import regime can assist in combating illicit trafficking control through unauthorized movement of radioactive material; sharing information on activities intended to implement international obligations, recommendations and guidance relevant to nuclear security; suggest actions by which the international effort, through the IAEA, would be strengthened. This paper examines the threat and context of illicit nuclear trafficking of radioactive material, what is being done to combat such trafficking and highlights where more needs to be done

  9. Art-Based Evaluation in Research Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julliard, Kell N.; Gujral, Jeetinder Kaur; Hamil, Sarah W.; Oswald, Elaine; Smyk, Amy; Testa, Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Study uses art to evaluate an all day seminar for graduate students on research methods, to explore students' feelings about research concepts, and to foster understanding of these concepts. Results suggest that the seminar was able to reduce most participants' anxiety about research without a loss of creativity and energy. (Author/GCP)

  10. Does by-catch pose a threat for the conservation of seabird populations in the southern Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean? A questionnaire based survey of local fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. KARRIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies worldwide have shown that incidental catches (by-catch of seabirds in fishing gear might pose a considerable risk for the conservation of their populations. Nevertheless reliable data on by-catch rates of seabirds in European marine ecosystems are patchy and need to be improved. This study constitutes a first attempt at the evaluation of by-catch rates in the southern Ionian Sea. Data were obtained by distributing a specific questionnaire to the fishers of Zakynthos Island. 150 professional fishers (representing 90% of the local fishing fleet participated in the research, and were interviewed during July-December 2010. The information collected showed that commercial longline and (to a lesser extent gillnet fishery gears caused incidental catches mostly of Scopoli’s Shearwater and Mediterranean Shag. The temporal analysis of the incidental bird mortality showed that seabirds were more susceptible to be trapped in fishery gears set around sunrise during spring and summer whereas spatial analysis of by-catch data indicated variations in the number of seabirds caught in different fishery areas.

  11. Complementary methods to plan pedestrian evacuation of the French Riviera's beaches in case of tsunami threat: graph- and multi-agent-based modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sahal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small amplitude tsunamis have impacted the French Mediterranean shore (French Riviera in the past centuries. Some caused casualties; others only generated economic losses. While the North Atlantic and Mediterranean tsunami warning system is being tested and is almost operational, no awareness and preparedness measure is being implemented at a local scale. Evacuation is to be considered along the French Riviera, but no plan exists within communities. We show that various approaches can provide local stakeholders with evacuation capacities assessments to develop adapted evacuation plans through the case study of the Cannes–Antibes region. The complementarity between large- and small-scale approaches is demonstrated with the use of macro-simulators (graph-based and micro-simulators (multi-agent-based to select shelter points and choose evacuation routes for pedestrians located on the beach. The first one allows automatically selecting shelter points and measuring and mapping their accessibility. The second one shows potential congestion issues during pedestrian evacuations, and provides leads for the improvement of urban environment. Temporal accessibility to shelters is compared to potential local and distal tsunami travel times, showing a 40 min deficit for an adequate crisis management in the first scenario, and a 30 min surplus for the second one.

  12. Complementary methods to plan pedestrian evacuation of the French Riviera's beaches in case of tsunami threat: graph- and multi-agent-based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahal, A.; Leone, F.; Péroche, M.

    2013-07-01

    Small amplitude tsunamis have impacted the French Mediterranean shore (French Riviera) in the past centuries. Some caused casualties; others only generated economic losses. While the North Atlantic and Mediterranean tsunami warning system is being tested and is almost operational, no awareness and preparedness measure is being implemented at a local scale. Evacuation is to be considered along the French Riviera, but no plan exists within communities. We show that various approaches can provide local stakeholders with evacuation capacities assessments to develop adapted evacuation plans through the case study of the Cannes-Antibes region. The complementarity between large- and small-scale approaches is demonstrated with the use of macro-simulators (graph-based) and micro-simulators (multi-agent-based) to select shelter points and choose evacuation routes for pedestrians located on the beach. The first one allows automatically selecting shelter points and measuring and mapping their accessibility. The second one shows potential congestion issues during pedestrian evacuations, and provides leads for the improvement of urban environment. Temporal accessibility to shelters is compared to potential local and distal tsunami travel times, showing a 40 min deficit for an adequate crisis management in the first scenario, and a 30 min surplus for the second one.

  13. Terrorism and global security: The nuclear threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the seven years since this book was first published, the threat of nuclear terrorism has increased dramatically. The enormous destructive potential of nuclear technology inevitably raises the specter of the use of nuclear explosives or radioactivity by insurgent groups. The author explores the political bases of terrorism by considering the factors that might foster nuclear terrorism, the forms it could take, and the probable consequences of such acts. New to this edition is the author's examination of the essential distinctions between lawful insurgencies and terrorism, as well as his analysis of the impact of recent U.S. foreign policy. The author explores the United State's all-consuming rivalry with the Soviet Union, arguing that it has created an atmosphere ripe for anti-U.S. terrorism and that the only viable option for the super-powers is cooperation in an effort to control terrorist activities. He also discusses the ''Reagan doctrine,'' which he believes has increased the long-term threat of nuclear terrorism against the U.S. by its continuing support of authoritarian regimes and by its active opposition to Marxist regimes such as those in Nicaragua and Angola. The book concludes by presenting the first coherent strategy for countering nuclear terrorism-embracing both technological and behavioral measures. The proposal includes policies for deterrence and situation management on national and international scales and emphasizes the logic of a major reshaping of world order

  14. Frequently updated noise threat maps created with use of supercomputing grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczodrak Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative supercomputing grid services devoted to noise threat evaluation were presented. The services described in this paper concern two issues, first is related to the noise mapping, while the second one focuses on assessment of the noise dose and its influence on the human hearing system. The discussed serviceswere developed within the PL-Grid Plus Infrastructure which accumulates Polish academic supercomputer centers. Selected experimental results achieved by the usage of the services proposed were presented. The assessment of the environmental noise threats includes creation of the noise maps using either ofline or online data, acquired through a grid of the monitoring stations. A concept of estimation of the source model parameters based on the measured sound level for the purpose of creating frequently updated noise maps was presented. Connecting the noise mapping grid service with a distributed sensor network enables to automatically update noise maps for a specified time period. Moreover, a unique attribute of the developed software is the estimation of the auditory effects evoked by the exposure to noise. The estimation method uses a modified psychoacoustic model of hearing and is based on the calculated noise level values and on the given exposure period. Potential use scenarios of the grid services for research or educational purpose were introduced. Presentation of the results of predicted hearing threshold shift caused by exposure to excessive noise can raise the public awareness of the noise threats.

  15. Online Tracking Parameter Adaptation based on Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Chau D.P.; Badie J.; Bremond F.; Thonnat M.

    2013-01-01

    International audience Parameter tuning is a common issue for many tracking algorithms. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes an online parameter tuning to adapt a tracking algorithm to various scene contexts. In an offline training phase, this approach learns how to tune the tracker parameters to cope with different contexts. In the online control phase, once the tracking quality is evaluated as not good enough, the proposed approach computes the current context and tunes th...

  16. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vantine, H C

    2002-10-04

    The nuclear/radioactive threat to homeland security posed by terrorists can be broken into four categories. Of highest concern is the use of an improvised nuclear device (IND). An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon, and terrorist groups are actively attempting to acquire nuclear weapons. Detonation of an IND could dwarf the devastation of the September 11 attack on the World Trade Center. Dealing with the aftermath of an IND would be horrific. Rescue efforts and cleanup would be hazardous and difficult. Workers would have to wear full protection suits and self-contained breathing apparatus. Because of the residual radioactivity, in certain locations they could only work short times before acquiring their ''lifetime'' dose. As with the Chernobyl event, some rescue workers might well expose themselves to lethal doses of radiation, adding to the casualty toll. Enormous volumes of contaminated debris would have to be removed and disposed. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) or ''dirty bombs'' as they are often called. RDDs spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of an RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Radioactive materials are used all over the world for medical, industrial, and research applications. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Stories in the press suggest inadequate controls on radiological materials in parts of the world. The effects of an RDD vary widely, and are measured in terms of contamination area, health effects to the exposed population, and economic consequences. Even a negligible, but measurable, exposure would exploit the general public's fear of things

  17. Evidence for unique threat-processing mechanisms in psychopathic and anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Allison J; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Li, Wen; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2011-12-01

    Behaviorally, psychopathy and anxiety display opposite patterns of threat sensitivity and response inhibition. However, it is unclear whether this is due to shared or to separate underlying processes. To address this question, we evaluated whether the threat sensitivity of psychopathic and anxious offenders relates to similar or different components of Gray and McNaughton's (2000) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory using a sample of 87 prisoners and a task that crossed threat onset with attentional focus. Psychopathy was associated with significantly weaker fear-potentiated startle (FPS) under conditions that presented threat cues after alternative, goal-directed cues. Conversely, anxiety was associated with significantly stronger FPS when threat appeared first and was the focus of attention. Furthermore, these differences were statistically independent. The results suggest that the abnormal sensitivity to threat cues associated with psychopathy and anxiety relate to different underlying processes and have implications for understanding the relationship between low- and high-anxious psychopathy. PMID:21590315

  18. Assessment of wind erosion threat for soils in cadastral area of Hajske

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution illustrates the application of methods of erosion threat assessment in lan adaptation projects. Calculations of the soil erosion index of particular soil blocks are demonstrated for the cadastral area of Hajske. Two methods for assessment of erosion threat have been applied. First the assessment based on the ecological soil-quality units (ESQU) has been performed. Next, the Pasak method for a detailed analysis of the soil erosion threat was applied. Both of the mentioned approaches are recommended for the land adaption projects. Based on the results, the soil blocks have been ranked by their soil erosion threat. (authors)

  19. Constraint-Based Partial Evaluation for Imperative Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ying(金英); JIN Chengzhi(金成植)

    2002-01-01

    Constraint-based partial evaluation (CBPE) is a program optimization technique based on partial evaluation (PE) and constraint solving. Conventional PE only utilizes given parameter values to specialize programs. However, CBPE makes use of not only given values but also the following information: (a) the relationship between input parameters and program variables; (b) logical structure of a program to be evaluated. In this paper, a formal description of CBPE method for imperative languages is presented, and some related problems are discussed.

  20. Threat affects risk preferences in movement decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. O'Brien

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional states such as sadness, anger, and threat have been shown to play a critical role in decision-making processes. Here we addressed the question of whether risk preferences are influenced by postural threat and whether this influence generalizes across motor tasks. We examined risk attitudes in the context of arm-reaching and whole-body leaning movements, expecting that increased postural threat would lead to proportionally similar changes in risk-sensitivity for each motor task. Healthy young adults were shown a series of two-alternative forced-choice lotteries, where they were asked to choose between a riskier lottery and a safer lottery on each trial. Our lotteries consisted of different monetary rewards and target sizes. Subjects performed each choice task at ground level and atop an elevated platform. In the presence of this postural threat, increased physiological arousal was correlated with decreased movement variability. To determine risk-sensitivity, we quantified the frequency with which a subject chose the riskier lottery and fit lottery responses to a choice model based on cumulative prospect theory. Subjects exhibited idiosyncratic changes in risk-sensitivity between motor tasks and between elevations. However, we found that overweighting of small probabilities increased with postural threat in the whole-body task, indicating a more cautious, risk-averse strategy is ascribed to the possibility of a fall. Subjects were also more risk-seeking in the whole-body movements than in arm-reaching at low elevation; this behavior does not seem to derive from consistent distortions in utility or probability representations but may be explained by subjects’ inaccurate estimation of their own motor variability. Overall, our findings suggest that implicit threat can modify risk attitudes in the motor domain, and the threat may induce risk-aversion in salient movement tasks.

  1. Effects of threat management interactions on conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Nancy A; Wilson, Kerrie A; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Hanson, Jeffrey O; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-12-01

    Decisions need to be made about which biodiversity management actions are undertaken to mitigate threats and about where these actions are implemented. However, management actions can interact; that is, the cost, benefit, and feasibility of one action can change when another action is undertaken. There is little guidance on how to explicitly and efficiently prioritize management for multiple threats, including deciding where to act. Integrated management could focus on one management action to abate a dominant threat or on a strategy comprising multiple actions to abate multiple threats. Furthermore management could be undertaken at sites that are in close proximity to reduce costs. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to prioritize investments in fire management, controlling invasive predators, and reducing grazing pressure in a bio-diverse region of southeastern Queensland, Australia. We compared outcomes of 5 management approaches based on different assumptions about interactions and quantified how investment needed, benefits expected, and the locations prioritized for implementation differed when interactions were taken into account. Managing for interactions altered decisions about where to invest and in which actions to invest and had the potential to deliver increased investment efficiency. Differences in high priority locations and actions were greatest between the approaches when we made different assumptions about how management actions deliver benefits through threat abatement: either all threats must be managed to conserve species or only one management action may be required. Threatened species management that does not consider interactions between actions may result in misplaced investments or misguided expectations of the effort required to mitigate threats to species.

  2. Disarming the Threat to Feminist Identification: An Application of Personal Construct Theory to Measurement and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Martin, Annelise; Brewster, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals endorse feminist values but do not identify as feminist. The present set of studies tests the concept of threat, grounded in G. A. Kelly's personal construct theory of personality, as a potential factor in feminist nonidentification. Study 1 introduces the theoretically grounded "Feminist Threat Index" and evaluates its…

  3. Enhanced Memory for both Threat and Neutral Information Under Conditions of Intergroup Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong eZhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effect of intergroup threat on cognitive outcomes such as memory. Different theoretical perspectives can inform how intergroup threat should affect memory for threat-relevant and neutral information, such as the mood-congruency approach, Yerkes-Dodson law, Easterbrook’s theory, and also evolutionary perspectives. To test among these, we conducted two experiments to examine how exposure to intergroup threats affected memory compared to control conditions. In study 1, we manipulated symbolic threat and examined participants’ memory for threat and neutral words. In study 2, memory performance was assessed following the induction of realistic threat. Across the studies, in the control condition participants showed better memory for threat-related than neutral information. However, participants under threat remembered neutral information as well as threat-related information. In addition, participants in the threat condition remembered threat-related information as well as participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of automatic vigilance processes but also the effects of threat on arousal and its effect on information processing. This latter perspective, suggests paradoxically, that under some circumstances involving an outgroup threat, non-threatening information about outgroups can be extensively processed.

  4. Evaluating the bases of supplier segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Marc; Magnan, Gregory M.; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2010-01-01

    A taxonomy of segmentation bases is presented which builds a multi-disciplinary approach to the categorization of suppliers. Supplier segmentation, from a purchasing perspective, still appears to be in the early stages of providing a coherent strategic intent behind supplier assessment. Whilst fr...... segmentation covering supply market conditions, product/service characteristics, supplier characteristics, buyer characteristics, and buyer-supplier relational factors.......A taxonomy of segmentation bases is presented which builds a multi-disciplinary approach to the categorization of suppliers. Supplier segmentation, from a purchasing perspective, still appears to be in the early stages of providing a coherent strategic intent behind supplier assessment. Whilst...... opportunism. We augment existing approaches with reference to inter-organisational theory and the resource-based view to show different modes of inter-firm value creation that act as constituents of a strategic intent for segmentation. Our resulting taxonomy draws together a holistic view of supplier...

  5. Evaluative Judgments Are Based on Evaluative Information: Evidence Against Meaning Change in Evaluative Context Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Martin F.

    Trait adjectives have both evaluative and denotative meanings. Evaluation of a trait varies with the context of other traits attributed to the person. The meaning-change interpretation suggests that denotative change in trait meaning underlies evaluative change. The evaluative-halo interpretation attributes context effects of single trait ratings…

  6. Evaluating Computer-Based Assessment in a Risk-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Stan; Steven, Christine; Ricketts, Chris

    2009-01-01

    There are three purposes for evaluation: evaluation for action to aid the decision making process, evaluation for understanding to further enhance enlightenment and evaluation for control to ensure compliance to standards. This article argues that the primary function of evaluation in the "Catherine Wheel" computer-based assessment (CBA) cyclic…

  7. Performance Evaluation of Triangulation Based Range Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bordegoni

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The performance of 2D digital imaging systems depends on several factors related with both optical and electronic processing. These concepts have originated standards, which have been conceived for photographic equipment and bi-dimensional scanning systems, and which have been aimed at estimating different parameters such as resolution, noise or dynamic range. Conversely, no standard test protocols currently exist for evaluating the corresponding performances of 3D imaging systems such as laser scanners or pattern projection range cameras. This paper is focused on investigating experimental processes for evaluating some critical parameters of 3D equipment, by extending the concepts defined by the ISO standards to the 3D domain. The experimental part of this work concerns the characterization of different range sensors through the extraction of their resolution, accuracy and uncertainty from sets of 3D data acquisitions of specifically designed test objects whose geometrical characteristics are known in advance. The major objective of this contribution is to suggest an easy characterization process for generating a reliable comparison between the performances of different range sensors and to check if a specific piece of equipment is compliant with the expected characteristics.

  8. Model-based Type B uncertainty evaluations of measurement towards more objective evaluation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boumans

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a more objective Type B evaluation. This can be achieved when Type B uncertainty evaluations are model-based. This implies, however, grey-box modelling and validation instead of white-box modelling and validation which are appropriate for Type A evaluation.

  9. Evaluating Web-Based Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Teresa M.; Walters, L. Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Accounting educators continuously seek ways to effectively integrate instructional technology into accounting coursework as a means to facilitate active learning environments and address the technology-driven learning preferences of the current generation of students. Most accounting textbook publishers now provide interactive, web-based learning…

  10. Anthropogenic Threats and Conservation Needs of Blue Whales, Balaenoptera musculus indica, around Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, A; Brownell, R. L.; Tershy, B.; Croll, D.

    2016-01-01

    Blue whales in the Northern Indian Ocean are a morphologically and acoustically distinct population restricted to these waters. Off Sri Lanka a portion of the population concentrates near shore where they are exposed to a range of anthropogenic threats. We review available data to determine anthropogenic threats/stressors faced by this population and assign subjective rankings for the population-level severity of each threat/stressor based on severity, scope, and immediacy. With the cessation...

  11. Pattern Specialization Based on Partial Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Design pattern enables software architecture generality and reusability, but which depresses the high performance. The pattern specialization was built on partial evaluation technology to reduce the overheads of design pattern. The design patterns were classified to extract the common features, and the corresponding pattern specializations were constructed. In the pattern specialization, the optimization opportunities were identified, and the specialization methods and conditions were described. The syntax of binding time analysis was defined, and the semantic depicted the invariant of usage context. The virtual invocation and dispatch were eliminated, which enhances the running efficiency. This pattern specialization is a high-level specialization for improving the performance of software aimed at design level that is orthogonal with the low-level code optimization.

  12. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  13. Benefits of integrating complementarity into priority threat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadés, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; van Leeuwen, Stephen; Walters, Belinda; Firn, Jennifer; Reeson, Andrew; Martin, Tara G; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-04-01

    Conservation decision tools based on cost-effectiveness analysis are used to assess threat management strategies for improving species persistence. These approaches rank alternative strategies by their benefit to cost ratio but may fail to identify the optimal sets of strategies to implement under limited budgets because they do not account for redundancies. We devised a multiobjective optimization approach in which the complementarity principle is applied to identify the sets of threat management strategies that protect the most species for any budget. We used our approach to prioritize threat management strategies for 53 species of conservation concern in the Pilbara, Australia. We followed a structured elicitation approach to collect information on the benefits and costs of implementing 17 different conservation strategies during a 3-day workshop with 49 stakeholders and experts in the biodiversity, conservation, and management of the Pilbara. We compared the performance of our complementarity priority threat management approach with a current cost-effectiveness ranking approach. A complementary set of 3 strategies: domestic herbivore management, fire management and research, and sanctuaries provided all species with >50% chance of persistence for $4.7 million/year over 20 years. Achieving the same result cost almost twice as much ($9.71 million/year) when strategies were selected by their cost-effectiveness ranks alone. Our results show that complementarity of management benefits has the potential to double the impact of priority threat management approaches.

  14. DOE site-specific threat assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility manager faced with the challenges of protecting a nuclear facility against potential threats must consider the likelihood and consequences of such threats, know the capabilities of the facility safeguards and security systems, and make informed decisions about the cost-effectivness of safeguards and security upgrades. To help meet these challenges, the San Francisco Operations Office of the Department of Energy, in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has developed a site-specific threat assessment approach and a quantitative model to improve the quality and consistency of site-specific threat assessment and resultant security upgrade decisions at sensitive Department of Energy facilities. 5 figs

  15. Phishing - A Growing Threat to E-Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, M Tariq

    2011-01-01

    In today's business environment, it is difficult to imagine a workplace without access to the web, yet a variety of email born viruses, spyware, adware, Trojan horses, phishing attacks, directory harvest attacks, DoS attacks, and other threats combine to attack businesses and customers. This paper is an attempt to review phishing - a constantly growing and evolving threat to Internet based commercial transactions. Various phishing approaches that include vishing, spear phishng, pharming, keyloggers, malware, web Trojans, and others will be discussed. This paper also highlights the latest phishing analysis made by Anti-Phishing Working Group (APWG) and Korean Internet Security Center.

  16. A Framework For Performance Evaluation Of ASIPs in Network-Based IDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Nezakatolhoseini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays efficient usage of high-tech security tools and appliances is considered as an importantcriterion for security improvement of computer networks. Based on this assumption, Intrusion Detectionand Prevention Systems (IDPS have key role for applying the defense in depth strategy. In this situation,by increasing network bandwidth in addition to increasing number of threats, Network-based IDPSeshave been faced with performance challenge for processing of huge traffic in the networks. A generalsolution for this bottleneck is exploitation of efficient hardware architectures for performanceimprovement of IDPS. In this paper a framework for analysis and performance evaluation of applicationspecific instruction set processors is presented for usage in application of attack detection in NetworkbasedIntrusion Detection Systems(NIDS. By running this framework as a security application on V850,OR1K, MIPS32, ARM7TDMI and PowerPC32 microprocessors, their performance has been evaluatedand analyzed. For performance improvement, the compiler optimization levels are employed and at theend; base on O2 optimization level a new combination of optimization flags is presented. The experimentsshow that the framework results 18.10% performance improvements for pattern matching on ARM7TDMImicroprocessors.

  17. Evaluation of CT-based SUV normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriese, Joke; Beels, Laurence; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Pottel, Hans

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine patients’ lean body mass (LBM) and lean tissue (LT) mass using a computed tomography (CT)-based method, and to compare standardized uptake value (SUV) normalized by these parameters to conventionally normalized SUVs. Head-to-toe positron emission tomography (PET)/CT examinations were retrospectively retrieved and semi-automatically segmented into tissue types based on thresholding of CT Hounsfield units (HU). The following HU ranges were used for determination of CT-estimated LBM and LT (LBMCT and LTCT):  -180 to  -7 for adipose tissue (AT), -6 to 142 for LT, and 143 to 3010 for bone tissue (BT). Formula-estimated LBMs were calculated using formulas of James (1976 Research on Obesity: a Report of the DHSS/MRC Group (London: HMSO)) and Janmahasatian et al (2005 Clin. Pharmacokinet. 44 1051-65), and body surface area (BSA) was calculated using the DuBois formula (Dubois and Dubois 1989 Nutrition 5 303-11). The CT segmentation method was validated by comparing total patient body weight (BW) to CT-estimated BW (BWCT). LBMCT was compared to formula-based estimates (LBMJames and LBMJanma). SUVs in two healthy reference tissues, liver and mediastinum, were normalized for the aforementioned parameters and compared to each other in terms of variability and dependence on normalization factors and BW. Comparison of actual BW to BWCT shows a non-significant difference of 0.8 kg. LBMJames estimates are significantly higher than LBMJanma with differences of 4.7 kg for female and 1.0 kg for male patients. Formula-based LBM estimates do not significantly differ from LBMCT, neither for men nor for women. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SUV normalized for LBMJames (SUVLBM-James) (12.3%) was significantly reduced in liver compared to SUVBW (15.4%). All SUV variances in mediastinum were significantly reduced (CVs were 11.1-12.2%) compared to SUVBW (15.5%), except SUVBSA (15.2%). Only SUVBW and SUVLBM-James show

  18. Evaluation of shape complexity based on STL data

    OpenAIRE

    B. Valentan; T. Brajlih; I. Drstvensek; J. Balic

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to present a part complexity, based on basic information of the STL data.Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a few methods of evaluating the complexity of the shape, based on the parts STL data. Methods vary from very simple based on the number of triangles in STL file and the parts volume, to the more complex mathematical determination based on the relations of the basic STL data.Findings: We discovered that evaluation of shape complexity based ...

  19. Evaluation of computer-based ultrasonic inservice inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the principles, practices, terminology, and technology of computer-based ultrasonic testing for inservice inspection (UT/ISI) of nuclear power plants, with extensive use of drawings, diagrams, and LTT images. The presentation is technical but assumes limited specific knowledge of ultrasonics or computers. The report is divided into 9 sections covering conventional LTT, computer-based LTT, and evaluation methodology. Conventional LTT topics include coordinate axes, scanning, instrument operation, RF and video signals, and A-, B-, and C-scans. Computer-based topics include sampling, digitization, signal analysis, image presentation, SAFI, ultrasonic holography, transducer arrays, and data interpretation. An evaluation methodology for computer-based LTT/ISI systems is presented, including questions, detailed procedures, and test block designs. Brief evaluations of several computer-based LTT/ISI systems are given; supplementary volumes will provide detailed evaluations of selected systems

  20. Evaluation of computer-based ultrasonic inservice inspection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.V. Jr.; Angel, L.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Park, W.R.; Schuster, G.J.; Taylor, T.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report presents the principles, practices, terminology, and technology of computer-based ultrasonic testing for inservice inspection (UT/ISI) of nuclear power plants, with extensive use of drawings, diagrams, and LTT images. The presentation is technical but assumes limited specific knowledge of ultrasonics or computers. The report is divided into 9 sections covering conventional LTT, computer-based LTT, and evaluation methodology. Conventional LTT topics include coordinate axes, scanning, instrument operation, RF and video signals, and A-, B-, and C-scans. Computer-based topics include sampling, digitization, signal analysis, image presentation, SAFI, ultrasonic holography, transducer arrays, and data interpretation. An evaluation methodology for computer-based LTT/ISI systems is presented, including questions, detailed procedures, and test block designs. Brief evaluations of several computer-based LTT/ISI systems are given; supplementary volumes will provide detailed evaluations of selected systems.

  1. Reasoning about threats: From observables to situation assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.; Marck, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a mechanism to assess threats that are based on observables. Observables are properties of persons, i.e., their behavior and interaction with other persons and objects. We consider observables that can be extracted from sensor signals and intelligence. In this paper, we discuss situation

  2. Assessing the recent terrorist threat to the Malacca Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Chalk, Peter

    2010-01-01

    "In light of these recent threats this article examines the likelihood of sea-based extremist violence in the region, JI (Jemaah Islamiya) capacity to operate in an offshore environment and whether Southeast Asia is a place that al-Qaida would seek to exploit in terms of maritime attacks."

  3. 49 CFR 1540.209 - Fees for security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... current cost of conducting security threat assessments. TSA determines fee amounts and any necessary revisions to the fee amounts based on current costs, using a method of analysis consistent with widely accepted accounting principles and practices, and calculated in accordance with the provisions of 31...

  4. Laser Remediation of Threats Posed by Small Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Rogers, Jan R.; Hovater, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The continually increasing amount of orbital debris in near Earth space poses an increasing challenge to space situational awareness. Recent collisions of spacecraft caused abrupt increases in the density of both large and small debris in near Earth space. An especially challenging class of threats is that due to the increasing density of small (1 mm to 10 cm dimension) orbital debris. This small debris poses a serious threat since: (1) The high velocity enables even millimeter dimension debris to cause serious damage to vulnerable areas of space assets, e.g., detector windows; (2) The small size and large number of debris elements prevent adequate detection and cataloguing. We have identified solutions to this threat in the form of novel laser systems and novel ways of using these laser systems. While implementation of the solutions we identify is challenging we find approaches offering threat mitigation within time frames and at costs of practical interest. We base our analysis on the unique combination of coherent light specifically structured in both space and time and applied in novel ways entirely within the vacuum of space to deorbiting small debris. We compare and contrast laser based small debris removal strategies using ground based laser systems with strategies using space based laser systems. We find laser systems located and used entirely within space offer essential and decisive advantages over groundbased laser systems.

  5. Stereotype Threat and Test Performance: A Primer for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander H.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2007-01-01

    Ethical guidelines require school psychologists to ensure that their assessment practices are nondiscriminatory, but typical discussions on this topic neglect the possible discriminatory effects of cultural stereotypes on assessment results. Recent research on "stereotype threat" shows that students' knowledge of stereotype-based negative…

  6. On the experience of feeling powerful: perceived power moderates the effect of stereotype threat on women's math performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Katie J; Rydell, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    This research examined whether feeling powerful can eliminate the deleterious effect of stereotype threat (i.e., concerns about confirming a negative self-relevant stereotype) on women's math performance. In Experiments 1 and 2, priming women with high power buffered them from reduced math performance in response to stereotype threat instructions, whereas women in the low and control power conditions showed poorer math performance in response to threat. Experiment 3 found that working memory capacity is one mechanism through which power moderates the effect of threat on women's math performance. In the low and control power conditions, women showed reduced working memory capacity in response to stereotype threat, accounting for threat's effect on performance. In contrast, women in the high power condition did not show reductions in working memory capacity or math performance in response to threat. This work demonstrates that perceived power moderates stereotype threat-based performance effects and explains why this occurs.

  7. Are needs to manage uncertainty and threat associated with political conservatism or ideological extremity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Napier, Jaime L; Thorisdottir, Hulda; Gosling, Samuel D; Palfai, Tibor P; Ostafin, Brian

    2007-07-01

    Three studies are conducted to assess the uncertainty- threat model of political conservatism, which posits that psychological needs to manage uncertainty and threat are associated with political orientation. Results from structural equation models provide consistent support for the hypothesis that uncertainty avoidance (e.g., need for order, intolerance of ambiguity, and lack of openness to experience) and threat management (e.g., death anxiety, system threat, and perceptions of a dangerous world) each contributes independently to conservatism (vs. liberalism). No support is obtained for alternative models, which predict that uncertainty and threat management are associated with ideological extremism or extreme forms of conservatism only. Study 3 also reveals that resistance to change fully mediates the association between uncertainty avoidance and conservatism, whereas opposition to equality partially mediates the association between threat and conservatism. Implications for understanding the epistemic and existential bases of political orientation are discussed. PMID:17620621

  8. Threats: power, family mealtimes, and social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Alexa; Potter, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    One of the most basic topics in social psychology is the way one agent influences the behaviour of another. This paper will focus on threats, which are an intensified form of attempted behavioural influence. Despite the centrality to the project of social psychology, little attention has been paid to threats. This paper will start to rectify this oversight. It reviews early examples of the way social psychology handles threats and highlights key limitations and presuppositions about the nature and role of threats. By contrast, we subject them to a programme of empirical research. Data comprise video records of a collection of family mealtimes that include preschool children. Threats are recurrent in this material. A preliminary conceptualization of features of candidate threats from this corpus will be used as an analytic start point. A series of examples are used to explicate basic features and dimensions that build the action of threatening. The basic structure of the threats uses a conditional logic: if the recipient continues problem action/does not initiate required action then negative consequences will be produced by the speaker. Further analysis clarifies how threats differ from warnings and admonishments. Sequential analysis suggests threats set up basic response options of compliance or defiance. However, recipients of threats can evade these options by, for example, reworking the unpleasant upshot specified in the threat, or producing barely minimal compliance. The implications for broader social psychological concerns are explored in a discussion of power, resistance, and asymmetry; the paper ends by reconsidering the way social influence can be studied in social psychology.

  9. Threat by association: do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-09-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the threatening group, carry over to other groups that individuals actually do encounter in their local environment (e.g., immigrants). The main goal of our studies was to experimentally identify this carry-over effect of intergroup threat. Specifically, we hypothesized that (by definition relatively abstract) symbolic threats (e.g., threats to the ingroup's worldview) have an especially strong carry-over potential because those threats can be easily attributed to other outgroups. We tested these predictions in one correlational and two experimental studies. The results of all three studies confirmed our hypothesis that particularly distant symbolic threats were predictive of intolerance towards local outgroups.

  10. Tropical montane cloud forests: current threats and opportunities for their conservation and sustainable management in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Meave, Jorge A; González-Espinosa, Mario; Ramírez-Marcial, Neptalí

    2011-03-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are among the most threatened ecosystems globally in spite of their high strategic value for sustainable development due to the key role played by these forests in hydrological cycle maintenance and as reservoirs of endemic biodiversity. Resources for effective conservation and management programs are rarely sufficient, and criteria must be applied to prioritize TMCF for conservation action. This paper reports a priority analysis of the 13 main regions of TMCF distribution in Mexico, based on four criteria: (1) forest quality, (2) threats to forest permanence, (3) threats to forest integrity, and (4) opportunities for conservation. Due to the diverse socio-environmental conditions of the local communities living in Mexican TMCF regions, their associated social characteristics were also evaluated to provide a background for the planning of conservation actions. A set of indicators was defined for the measurement of each criterion. To assign priority values for subregions within each main region, an international team of 40 participants evaluated all the indicators using multicriteria decision-making analysis. This procedure enabled the identification of 15 subregions of critical priority, 17 of high priority, and 10 of medium priority; three more were not analysed due to lack of information. The evaluation revealed a number of subjects that had hitherto been undetected and that may prove useful for prioritization efforts in other regions where TMCF is similarly documented and faces equally severe threats. Based on this analysis, key recommendations are outlined to advance conservation objectives in those TMCF areas that are subjected to high pressure on forest resources.

  11. Prevent, Counter, and Respond - A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2016-FY2020)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s second core mission is reducing global nuclear dangers by preventing the acquisition of nuclear weapons or weapons-usable materials, countering efforts to acquire such weapons or materials, and responding to nuclear or radiological incidents. In 2015, NNSA reorganized its nonproliferation activities based on core competencies and realigned its counterterrorism and counterproliferation functions to more efficiently address both current and emerging threats and challenges. The reorganization accompanied the March 2015 release of the first ever Prevent, Counter, and Respond – A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats. This report, which NNSA will update annually, highlights key nuclear threat trends and describes NNSA’s integrated threat reduction strategy.

  12. Detecting Security threats in the Router using Computational Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Visumathi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Information security is an issue of global concern. As the Internet is delivering great convenience and benefits to the modern society, the rapidly increasing connectivity and accessibility to the Internet is also posing a serious threat to security and privacy, to individuals, organizations, and nations alike. Finding effective ways to detect, prevent, and respond to intrusions and hacker attacks of networked computers and information systems. This paper presents a knowledge discovery frame work to detect DoS attacks at the boundary controllers (routers. The idea is to use machine learning approach to discover network features that can depict the state of the network connection. Using important network data (DoS relevant features, we have developed kernel machine based and soft computing detection mechanisms that achieve high detection accuracies. We also present our work of identifying DoS pertinent features and evaluating the applicability of these features in detecting novel DoS attacks. Architecture for detecting DoS attacks at the router is presented. We demonstrate that highly efficient and accurate signature based classifiers can be constructed by using important network features and machine learning techniques to detect DoS attacks at the boundary controllers.

  13. The Trier Social Stress Test as a paradigm to study how people respond to threat in social interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Ute Frisch; Häusser, Jan A.; Andreas eMojzisch

    2015-01-01

    In our lives, we face countless situations in which we are observed and evaluated by our social interaction partners. Social-evaluative threat is frequently associated with strong neurophysiological stress reactions, in particular, an increase in cortisol levels. Yet, social variables do not only cause stress, but they can also buffer the neurophysiological stress response. Furthermore, social variables can themselves be affected by the threat or the threat-induced neurophysiological stress r...

  14. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  15. [Counterfeit medicines: a growing threat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbereau, S

    2006-12-01

    The medical drug market has undergone considerable transformation in recent years. Like other products, medicines have been affected by globalization. Free trade policies have had a number of negative effects including a reduction in quality control not only for some products but also for raw materials and finished products. The global environment has also created conditions conducive to counterfeit medicines. The term counterfeit medicine is defined differently from one country to another in terms of quality, legality and fraudulent intent. This situation prompted the WHO to propose the following definition: "A counterfeit medicine is one which is deliberately and fraudulently mislabeled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products and counterfeit products may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients or with fake packaging." Weak pharmaceutical regulation often compounded by widespread corruption in developing countries has greatly facilitated the development of this illicit market with harmful and costly effects on public health. Due to the lack of pharmocovigilance accidents involving use of counterfeit drugs go unreported. For this reason it is not possible to measure the economic impact. While counterfeiting has become a major threat in developing countries, it also affects industrialized countries. Fraudulent behavior occurs all over the world.

  16. Detector evaluation for improved situational awareness: Receiver operator characteristic curve based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Nieuwenhuizen, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    In military and civilian operations good situational awareness is a prerequisite to make proper decisions. The situational awareness is among others based upon intelligence, threat analysis and detection, altogether element of the so-called DIM (detection, identification, monitoring) system. In case

  17. Game Theoretic Risk Analysis of Security Threats

    CERN Document Server

    Bier, Vicki M

    2008-01-01

    Introduces reliability and risk analysis in the face of threats by intelligent agents. This book covers applications to networks, including problems in both telecommunications and transportation. It provides a set of tools for applying game theory TO reliability problems in the presence of intentional, intelligent threats

  18. The Nature of the Bioterrorism Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regens, J. L.

    2003-02-25

    This analysis provides an overview of the nature of the bioterrorism threat. It identifies potential CDC Class A biological agents that are likely candidates for use in a terrorist incident and describes the known sources of vulnerability. The paper also summarizes S&T resources/needs and assesses response options for achieving effective biodefense against terrorist threats.

  19. Cosmic Impacts: The DoomsDay Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaha, J.

    1998-07-01

    Recent science fiction movies (Deep Impact and Armageddon) have brought public attention to the threat of possible impacts from space. Just how real is this threat and what would be the consequences of such an impact? Can we do anything to prevent it? The survival of civilization may depend on it.

  20. How you perceive threat determines your behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Fernandes Junior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of processing emotional stimuli usually produces deleterious effects on task performance when it distracts from a task. One common explanation is that brain resources are consumed by emotional stimuli, diverting resources away from executing the task. Viewing unpleasant stimuli also generates defensive reactions, and these responses may be at least partially responsible for the effect of the emotional modulation observed in various reaction time (RT paradigms. We investigated whether modulatory effects on RT vary if we presented threat stimuli to prompt different defensive responses. To trigger different responses, we manipulated threat perception by moving the direction of threatening stimuli. Threatening or neutral stimuli were presented as distractors during a bar orientation discrimination task. The results demonstrated that threat stimuli directed towards the observer produced a decrease in RT; in contrast, threat stimuli directed away from the observer produced an increase in RT, when compared to neutral stimuli. Accelerated RT during direct threat stimuli was attributed to increased motor preparation resulting from strong activation of the defense response cascade. In contrast, no direct threat stimuli likely activated the defense cascade, but less intensively, prompting immobility. Different threat stimuli produced varying effects, which was interpreted as evidence that the modulation of RT by emotional stimuli represents the summation of attentional and motivational effects. Additionally, participants who had been previously exposed to diverse types of violent crime were more strongly influenced by direct threat stimuli. In sum, our data support the concept that emotions are indeed action tendencies.

  1. Threat by association : Do distant intergroup threats carry-over into local intolerance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Thijs; van Zomeren, Martijn; Otten, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are often confronted with intergroup threats, yet many of these threats emanate from distant groups that most individuals are unlikely to encounter in their local environment. An important yet unanswered question is whether reactions to those threats, such as intolerance towards the thre

  2. Indicators of implicit and explicit social anxiety influence threat-related interpretive bias as a function of working memory capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske eSalemink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interpretive biases play a crucial role in anxiety disorders. The aim of the current study was to examine factors that determine the relative strength of threat-related interpretive biases that are characteristic of individuals high in social anxiety. Different (dual process models argue that both implicit and explicit processes determine information processing biases and behaviour, and that their impact is moderated by the availability of executive resources such as working memory capacity (WMC. Based on these models, we expected indicators of implicit social anxiety to predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals low, but not high in WMC. Indicators of explicit social anxiety should predict threat-related interpretive bias in individuals high, but not low in WMC. As expected, WMC moderated the impact of implicit social anxiety on threat-related interpretive bias, although the simple slope for individuals low in WMC was not statistically significant. The hypotheses regarding explicit social anxiety (with fear of negative evaluation used as an indicator were fully supported. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Evaluating Curriculum-Based Measurement from a Behavioral Assessment Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Roof, Claire M.; Klubnick, Cynthia; Carfolite, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Curriculum-based measurement Reading (CBM-R) is an assessment procedure used to evaluate students' relative performance compared to peers and to evaluate their growth in reading. Within the response to intervention (RtI) model, CBM-R data are plotted in time series fashion as a means modeling individual students' response to varying levels of…

  4. Evaluation of a Community-Based Aging Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Wang, Chun-Hou; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chang, Ming-Chen; Wang, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the outcome and process of a community-based aging intervention program for the elderly in Taiwan. The program included education on nutrition and dietary behavior and on physical activities. Outcome and process evaluations were conducted. The program may have had some effects on decreasing some dietary behavioral problems and…

  5. Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design......) in the curriculum and a mean to choose cases for further case study (third phase)....

  6. The Threat of Terrorist Organizations in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Siboni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the threat of terrorism in cyberspace and examines the truth of the perceptions of this threat that have formed in recent years. It examines the capabilities that a non-state actor can achieve and whether these can constitute a real threat to the national security of states. For an analysis of the main threats facing a state from a multi-year perspective and in light of anticipated changes in a state’s strategic balance, the factors that threaten the state are presented and the roots of the threat are identified. The article thus examines whether terrorism, whose impact is generally tactical, could make (or perhaps has already made the transition to a cyber weapon capability with strategic impact. Specifically, the question is could terrorists develop cyber weapon capabilities that could inflict widespread damage or damage over time, of the sort that brings states to their knees and causes critical systems to crash.

  7. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-07

    This report is the culmination of a project in which data from several industries confronting internal security threats were collected and analyzed. The industries and threats involved are deemed to be analogous in one or more respects to potential threats confronting decision makers in the nuclear industry. The analog internal threats consist of bank frauds and embezzlements over $10,000, computer crimes of various types and insider drug thefts from drug manufactures and distributors. These data have been subjected to careful analysis utilizing both descriptive and formal statistical techniques. A number of findings are quite suggestive as to the general nature of the internal threat and are discussed and interpreted in terms of thenuclear industry analogy.

  8. EVALUATION OF SIFT AND SURF FOR VISION BASED LOCALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Xiaozhi; Soheilian, Bahman; Habets, Emmanuel; PAPARODITIS, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Vision based localization is widely investigated for the autonomous navigation and robotics. One of the basic steps of vision based localization is the extraction of interest points in images that are captured by the embedded camera. In this paper, SIFT and SURF extractors were chosen to evaluate their performance in localization. Four street view image sequences captured by a mobile mapping system, were used for the evaluation and both SIFT and SURF were tested on different image sc...

  9. Objective Evaluation Method of Steering Comfort Based on Movement Quality Evaluation of Driver Steering Maneuver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yiyong; LIU Yahui; WANG Man; JI Run; JI Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.

  10. EVALUATING PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPROACH OF IMAGE-BASED POSITIONING

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X; Wang, J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, researches in the domain of location-based services have increasingly focused on developing and utilizing alternative positioning techniques for in GPS-denied environment. Image based positioning technique holds good promise for such applications. In this paper, a previously proposed image-based positioning system using photogrammetric methods has been put into rigorous evaluation. The precision and accuracy of such photogrammetric approach of image-based positioning is depen...

  11. Lange’s Metalmark Butterfly Threat Assessment and Ranking of Potential Management Alternatives: Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff and other interested scientists and parties held a workshop on April 11 and 12, 2013, to evaluate threats and rank potential...

  12. The Cybercitizen Dimension: A Quantitative Study Using a Threat Avoidance Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Debbie L.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of information security is understated and theory-based empirical research that explains computer users voluntary IT threat avoidance behavior is lacking. Most existing information security research on individual behaviors has been focused in organizational settings where the threat avoidance behavior is mandatory and dictated by…

  13. Research on Maintainability Evaluation Model Based on Fuzzy Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Maintainability influencing attributes are analyzed, their weight and value calculating methods are given, and the maintainability fuzzy evaluation method is proposed based on the relative closeness. According to the maintenance task simulation operated in virtual environment, the maintainability virtual evaluation model is built by analyzing the maintenance task for each replaceable unit of product.At last, a case study is given based upon the main landing gear system of a certain type civil aircraft, and the result indicates that the model is suitable for maintainability qualitative evaluation and can support maintainability concurrent design.

  14. The threat of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There have always been enormous gaps between the potential of a weapon and the abilities and/or the will to employ it by terrorists. New means and methods of violence with unknown outcomes could be less appealing for sub-national groups. Conventional 'off the shelf' weaponry is thus likely to remain the major tools for traditional terrorists. However, the analysis show that while the risk of nuclear terrorism may be remote, it should not and cannot be excluded. Rigorous standards and means the protection, control and accounting of fissile materials are thus needed. 'Nuclear terrorism' can be defined as acts of violence and destruction where the means applied are nuclear devices, or threats of use of such means, to create a condition of fear, to get attention, or to blackmail to have wider effect on others than the directly targeted victim(s). Nuclear terrorism is a subset of radiological terrorism, were the means (or threats) applied are radioactive substances. While being distinctly dissimilar in terms of technical approaches and damage potentials, many of the features with regards to public threat perception are likely to be similar. No non-state actors have ever deployed or used a nuclear device, and the number of (publicly known) nuclear bomb treats has been limited. However, there is a disturbing interest among some terrorist organizations in acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities, probably for tactical purposes. The biological and chemical programs of the Japanese 'Aum Shinrikyo' cult that culminated in the Tokyo metro attack is highly publicized. Less well-known is the nuclear weapon program of the group. Nuclear material was acquired from the sect's properties in Australia and markets were explored to purchase nuclear technology via straw trading companies. Another highly profiled terrorist group with obvious nuclear intentions is the 'Al- Qa'ida', the group of bin Laden. The recent trail for the bombings of the U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya

  15. Radiological threat, public and media: a psychosociological view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear risk has become a major social communication along the 20. century because of its critical socio-political impact. That communication is not limited to expert speeches and simple acceptation. The way people understand that kind of threat is based on beliefs and on imaginary pictures. Consequently, and because it shapes people attitude, expectations and behaviours, their analysis is a key for policy and prevention. We will present, in the light of the research on risk perception and social psychology theoretical background, how people can manage with the nuclear fear. Some particular points will be studied: the nature of nuclear threat and fear, the cultural and media coverage and the consequences of this threat on behaviour. We will first focus on what a societal threat is and of which nature is the nuclear threat. We will rely on statistical data on risk perception. We have to consider the two main fields of information: first the nuclear threat as a mass destruction weapon and second, the radiological risk as a consequence of civil use of radiological material. Those two aspects, deeply related for most people, make the roots for the described fears. Then, the perception of the risks relative to nuclear is necessarily influenced by this representation. The representation of the nuclear power is and will be for next years, related to the nuclear mushroom as experimentally pointed o ut by Fiske, both with the abnormal children of Chernobyl. How can we change that vision? Not to be a liar, it will be hard work because it a old story, a long construction of what will be the future of mankind, something deeply influenced by media, movie, geopolitical facts like the cold war or technological accident like Three Mile Island or Chernobyl. It has to deal with the problem of media transmission of fears, which is a problem in itself, but due to the scientific base of our problem, particularly relevant. Moreover, there is a strong cultural background that maintains

  16. Radiological threat, public and media: a psychosociological view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciszewski, T. [University Rene Descartes - Paris 5, 92 - Boulogne (France)

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear risk has become a major social communication along the 20. century because of its critical socio-political impact. That communication is not limited to expert speeches and simple acceptation. The way people understand that kind of threat is based on beliefs and on imaginary pictures. Consequently, and because it shapes people attitude, expectations and behaviours, their analysis is a key for policy and prevention. We will present, in the light of the research on risk perception and social psychology theoretical background, how people can manage with the nuclear fear. Some particular points will be studied: the nature of nuclear threat and fear, the cultural and media coverage and the consequences of this threat on behaviour. We will first focus on what a societal threat is and of which nature is the nuclear threat. We will rely on statistical data on risk perception. We have to consider the two main fields of information: first the nuclear threat as a mass destruction weapon and second, the radiological risk as a consequence of civil use of radiological material. Those two aspects, deeply related for most people, make the roots for the described fears. Then, the perception of the risks relative to nuclear is necessarily influenced by this representation. The representation of the nuclear power is and will be for next years, related to the nuclear mushroom as experimentally pointed o ut by Fiske, both with the abnormal children of Chernobyl. How can we change that vision? Not to be a liar, it will be hard work because it a old story, a long construction of what will be the future of mankind, something deeply influenced by media, movie, geopolitical facts like the cold war or technological accident like Three Mile Island or Chernobyl. It has to deal with the problem of media transmission of fears, which is a problem in itself, but due to the scientific base of our problem, particularly relevant. Moreover, there is a strong cultural background that maintains

  17. Overall test evaluation based on trajectory tracking data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正明; 段晓君

    2001-01-01

    According to the trajectory characteristics of ballistic missile, a reduced parameter model is constructed based on difference between telemetry trajectory and trajectory tracking data. By virtue of Bayesian theory and data fusion technique, a new test evaluation method is put forth, which can make full use of the trajectory tracking data, shooting range test data and relevant information. Since the impact point can be derived from trajectory difference and its kinetic characteristics, evaluation of the impact point is a special case of this method. The accurate evaluation and the accuracy of evaluation results can be provided by the new method.

  18. Logistics Enterprise Evaluation Model Based On Fuzzy Clustering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pei-hua; Yin, Hong-bo

    In this thesis, we introduced an evaluation model based on fuzzy cluster algorithm of logistics enterprises. First of all,we present the evaluation index system which contains basic information, management level, technical strength, transport capacity,informatization level, market competition and customer service. We decided the index weight according to the grades, and evaluated integrate ability of the logistics enterprises using fuzzy cluster analysis method. In this thesis, we introduced the system evaluation module and cluster analysis module in detail and described how we achieved these two modules. At last, we gave the result of the system.

  19. Web-Based Tools for Collaborative Evaluation of Learning Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Nesbit

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of large repositories of web-based learning resources has increased the need for valid and usable evaluation tools. This paper reviews current approaches to learning object evaluation and introduces eLera, a set of web-based tools we have developed for communities of teachers, learners, instructional designers and developers. Compatible with current metadata standards, eLera provides a learning object review instrument (LORI and other features supporting collaborative evaluation. eLera provides limited translation of evaluations and subject taxonomies across communities using different languages and terminology. eLera is designed to assist researchers to gather data on evaluation processes and has been used to teach educators how to assess the quality of multimedia learning resources.

  20. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley Holmes, Thomas; Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P.

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, [1]). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.×4 in.×16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.×16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  1. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, ). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.x4 in.x16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.x16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are 137Cs and 235U.

  2. A proposed benchmark problem for cargo nuclear threat monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Thomas Wesley, E-mail: twholmes@ncsu.edu [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Calderon, Adan; Peeples, Cody R.; Gardner, Robin P. [Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes, Nuclear Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    There is currently a great deal of technical and political effort focused on reducing the risk of potential attacks on the United States involving radiological dispersal devices or nuclear weapons. This paper proposes a benchmark problem for gamma-ray and X-ray cargo monitoring with results calculated using MCNP5, v1.51. The primary goal is to provide a benchmark problem that will allow researchers in this area to evaluate Monte Carlo models for both speed and accuracy in both forward and inverse calculational codes and approaches for nuclear security applications. A previous benchmark problem was developed by one of the authors (RPG) for two similar oil well logging problems (Gardner and Verghese, 1991, ). One of those benchmarks has recently been used by at least two researchers in the nuclear threat area to evaluate the speed and accuracy of Monte Carlo codes combined with variance reduction techniques. This apparent need has prompted us to design this benchmark problem specifically for the nuclear threat researcher. This benchmark consists of conceptual design and preliminary calculational results using gamma-ray interactions on a system containing three thicknesses of three different shielding materials. A point source is placed inside the three materials lead, aluminum, and plywood. The first two materials are in right circular cylindrical form while the third is a cube. The entire system rests on a sufficiently thick lead base so as to reduce undesired scattering events. The configuration was arranged in such a manner that as gamma-ray moves from the source outward it first passes through the lead circular cylinder, then the aluminum circular cylinder, and finally the wooden cube before reaching the detector. A 2 in.x4 in.x16 in. box style NaI (Tl) detector was placed 1 m from the point source located in the center with the 4 in.x16 in. side facing the system. The two sources used in the benchmark are {sup 137}Cs and {sup 235}U.

  3. Evaluating Work-Based Learning: Insights from an Illuminative Evaluation Study of Work-Based Learning in a Vocational Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, Estelle

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines an illuminative evaluation study of the work-based module in a vocational qualification in Animal Health offered for the paraveterinary industry by a distance education institution in South Africa. In illuminative evaluation, a programme is studied by qualitative methods to gain an in-depth understanding of its "instructional…

  4. Moldability Evaluation for Molded Parts Based on Fuzzy Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Moldability evaluation for molded parts, which is the basis of concurrent design, is a key design stage in injection molding design. By moldability evaluation the design problems can be found timely and an optimum plastic part design achieved. In this paper, a systematic methodology for moldability evaluation based on fuzzy logic is proposed. Firstly, fuzzy set modeling for six key design attributes of molded parts is carried out respectively. Secondly, on the basis of this, the relationship between fuzzy sets for design attributes and fuzzy sets for moldability is established by fuzzy rules that are based on domain experts' experience and knowledge. At last the integral moldability for molded parts is obtained through fuzzy reasoning. The neural network based fuzzy reasoning approach presented in this paper can improve fuzzy reasoning efficiency greatly, especially for system having a large number of rules and complicated membership functions. An example for moldability evaluation is given to show the feasibility of this proposed methodology.

  5. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism. PMID:23390971

  6. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.

  7. What Is Going On Around Here? Intolerance of Uncertainty Predicts Threat Generalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Morriss

    Full Text Available Attending to stimuli that share perceptual similarity to learned threats is an adaptive strategy. However, prolonged threat generalization to cues signalling safety is considered a core feature of pathological anxiety. One potential factor that may sustain over-generalization is sensitivity to future threat uncertainty. To assess the extent to which Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU predicts threat generalization, we recorded skin conductance in 54 healthy participants during an associative learning paradigm, where threat and safety cues varied in perceptual similarity. Lower IU was associated with stronger discrimination between threat and safety cues during acquisition and extinction. Higher IU, however, was associated with generalized responding to threat and safety cues during acquisition, and delayed discrimination between threat and safety cues during extinction. These results were specific to IU, over and above other measures of anxious disposition. These findings highlight: (1 a critical role of uncertainty-based mechanisms in threat generalization, and (2 IU as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorder development.

  8. Evaluation of an Internet, Stage-Based Physical Activity Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Ronald L.; Hardy, Aaron; Aldana, Steven G.; George, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of online, stage-based materials on exercise behavior and stage of readiness to change. College faculty participated in stage-based, action-message, or control groups. Occupational and leisure activity, 7-day physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks.…

  9. Research on Performance Evaluation by IDSS Based on AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xuelian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Talent resource is the primary resource. There are two sides as the starting point and foothold in this paper. One is how to evaluate the performance of science and technology talents flow by IDSS (Intelligence Decision Supporting System. Another is how to guide the innovation work of science and technology according to the evaluation results. The evaluation index on performance system has hierarchical structure. So AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process is applied to evaluate the performance. Evaluation model is established and illustrated by the cases in this paper. It can be seen that the flow of performance is influenced by the growth rate of important scientific and technological achievements. Furthermore, some constructive suggestions are given based on the results of evaluation.

  10. External threat and the definition of deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudedale, P; Smith-Cunnien, P; Parker, J; Inverarity, J

    1984-05-01

    Research ( Lauderdale , 1976; Schachter , 1951) suggests that an external threat to a group can lead to the rejection of deviant members of the group and alteration of group communication patterns and solidarity. This study sought to extend those findings, integrate them with concepts from Simmel 's (1917/1955) work on group conflict, and link them to key issues in the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior. We examined the effect of variation in level of threat, the relationship between deviant status and nonconformity to the central task norm, the role of high-status actors in deviance designation, the relationship between rejection and negative definition of the deviant, and the effects of rejection and negative definition on group solidarity. Hypotheses were tested in an experimental design involving three conditions (strong threat, weak threat, and no threat). The results suggest that (a) the level of threat is directly related to the extent of rejection and negative definition, (b) nonconformity to the central task norm is not systematically related to deviant status, (c) high-status actors are more involved in the rejection of the deviant, (d) sociometric rejection of the deviant is accompanied by negative definition in the strong-threat condition, and (e) the level of group solidarity is related to the extent of rejection and negative definition. Implications of these findings are discussed relative to the societal reaction approach to deviant behavior and analogous processes in other social groups.

  11. Towards securing SCADA systems against process-related threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadziosmanovic, Dina; Bolzoni, Damiano; Hartel, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    We propose a tool-assisted approach to address process-related threats on SCADA systems. Process-related threats have not been addressed before in a systematic manner. Our approach consists of two steps: threat analysis and threat mitigation. For the threat analysis, we combine two methodologies (PH

  12. A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, K; Sokkappa, P

    2008-10-29

    This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that

  13. THE BIOTERRORISM THREAT: TECHNOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. F. PILAT

    2000-03-01

    Bioterrorism--along with biowarfare, from which it may not always be distinguishable in practice--will be a feature of the strategic landscape in the 21st century and is high on the US national security agenda. Bioterrorism poses a potential threat to the US population, agriculture, interests, friends and allies, and military forces (asymmetric threats). Yet these possibilities have not been widely pursued or realized by terrorists. The perceived threat is far worse than anything experienced to date, and is largely technologically driven.

  14. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Vitor Sérgio; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe complications of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection has presented variations over recent decades since the advent of penicillin. Gonococcal endocarditis (GE) still remains an ever-present threat afflicting the society’s poor and sexually active young population. This entity frequently requires surgical intervention and usually exhibits a poor outcome. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis does not usually exceed 4 weeks. One of the characteristics of GE is a proclivity for aortic valve involvement with large vegetation and valve ring abscess formation. The authors report the case of a young man with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, weakness, and progressive heart failure symptoms, who had no previous history of genital complaints or cardiopathy. The physical examination was consistent with acute aortic insufficiency, which was most probably of an infectious origin. The echocardiogram showed thickened aortic cusps and valve insufficiency. After hospital admission, the patient’s clinical status worsened rapidly and he died on the second day. The autopsy findings disclosed aortic valve destruction with vegetation and a ring abscess besides signs of septic shock, such as diffuse alveolar damage, acute tubular necrosis, and zone 3 hepatocellular necrosis. The blood culture isolated N. gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. The authors call attention to the pathogen of this particular infectious endocarditis, and the need for early diagnosis and evaluation by a cardiac surgery team. PMID:27547739

  15. Gonococcal endocarditis: an ever-present threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Kawabata, Vitor Sérgio; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe complications of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection has presented variations over recent decades since the advent of penicillin. Gonococcal endocarditis (GE) still remains an ever-present threat afflicting the society's poor and sexually active young population. This entity frequently requires surgical intervention and usually exhibits a poor outcome. The interval between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis does not usually exceed 4 weeks. One of the characteristics of GE is a proclivity for aortic valve involvement with large vegetation and valve ring abscess formation. The authors report the case of a young man with a 2-week history of fever, malaise, weakness, and progressive heart failure symptoms, who had no previous history of genital complaints or cardiopathy. The physical examination was consistent with acute aortic insufficiency, which was most probably of an infectious origin. The echocardiogram showed thickened aortic cusps and valve insufficiency. After hospital admission, the patient's clinical status worsened rapidly and he died on the second day. The autopsy findings disclosed aortic valve destruction with vegetation and a ring abscess besides signs of septic shock, such as diffuse alveolar damage, acute tubular necrosis, and zone 3 hepatocellular necrosis. The blood culture isolated N. gonorrhoeae resistant to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. The authors call attention to the pathogen of this particular infectious endocarditis, and the need for early diagnosis and evaluation by a cardiac surgery team. PMID:27547739

  16. Superluminous Supernovae: No Threat from Eta Carinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian; Melott, A. L.; Fields, B. D.; Anthony-Twarog, B. J.

    2008-05-01

    Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of 1044 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to η Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a distance of about 2.3 kpc. η Carinae appears ready to detonate. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma-Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, η Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over 104 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possible effect of supernovae, endocrine disruption induced by blue light near the peak of the optical spectrum. This is a possibility for nearby supernovae at distances too large to be considered "dangerous” for other reasons. However, due to reddening and extinction by the interstellar medium, η Carinae is unlikely to trigger such effects to any significant degree.

  17. Superluminous supernovae: No threat from Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Brian C; Fields, Brian D; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J

    2007-01-01

    Recently Supernova 2006gy was noted as the most luminous ever recorded, with a total radiated energy of ~10^44 Joules. It was proposed that the progenitor may have been a massive evolved star similar to Eta Carinae, which resides in our own galaxy at a (poorly determined) distance of ~2.5 kpc. Eta Carinae appears ready to detonate, and in fact had an outburst in 1843. Although it is too distant to pose a serious threat as a normal supernova, and given its rotation axis is unlikely to produce a Gamma Ray Burst oriented toward the Earth, Eta Carinae is about 30,000 times nearer than 2006gy, and we re-evaluate it as a potential superluminous supernova. We find that given the large ratio of emission in the optical to the X-ray, atmospheric effects are negligible. Ionization of the atmosphere and concomitant ozone depletion are unlikely to be important. Any cosmic ray effects should be spread out over ~10^4 y, and similarly unlikely to produce any serious perturbation to the biosphere. We also discuss a new possib...

  18. Threat, security and attitude formation among the young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Furio

    1985-12-01

    The perception of threat to security on the part of young people reflects a central aspect of the societal phenomenon of attitude formation, whose primary function is, ideally, to meet the need for security. In all modern societies, however, the process of socialization — which by its very nature is educational in that it prepares individuals to function as members of society — operates on the principle of systematically frustrating this need by employing a system of reward and punishment based on competition. This system creates a fundamental insecurity and a corresponding attitude (de)formation in the individual, which is exploited by the state in order to consolidate the power of the dominant groups. Due to this fundamental insecurity, the individual is incapable of coping rationally with threat and seeks pseudo-security, e.g., in conformity. Threat — particularly global threat — is perceived as an external factor over which the individual has no control, i.e., it is perceived as falling exclusively within the province of those in power, whose control is further strengthened by this perception. Since the essential damage to the individual's attitude system has been done by the time he leaves school, this undesirable condition of modern societies can only be rectified by a socialization process in general — and an educational process in particular — which cultivates in the individual the development of critical judgment, free self-realization and the spirit of co-operation instead of competition.

  19. ISO9126 BASED SOFTWARE QUALITY EVALUATION USING CHOQUET INTEGRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkareem M. Alashqar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating software quality is an important and essential issue in the development process because it helps to deliver a competitive software product. A decision of selecting the best software based on quality attributes is a type of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM processes where interactions among criteria should be considered. This paper presents and develops quantitative evaluations by considering interactions among criteria in the MCDM problems. The aggregator methods such as Arithmetic Mean (AM and Weighted Arithmetic Mean (WAM are introduced, described and compared to Choquet Integral (CI approach which is a type of fuzzy measure used as a new method for MCDM. The comparisons are shown by evaluating and ranking software alternatives based on six main quality attributes as identified by the ISO 9126-1 standard. The evaluation experiments depend on real data collected from case studies.

  20. Redesigning Computer-based Learning Environments: Evaluation as Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, Matthias R; Ricarte, Ivan M L

    2007-01-01

    In the field of evaluation research, computer scientists live constantly upon dilemmas and conflicting theories. As evaluation is differently perceived and modeled among educational areas, it is not difficult to become trapped in dilemmas, which reflects an epistemological weakness. Additionally, designing and developing a computer-based learning scenario is not an easy task. Advancing further, with end-users probing the system in realistic settings, is even harder. Computer science research in evaluation faces an immense challenge, having to cope with contributions from several conflicting and controversial research fields. We believe that deep changes must be made in our field if we are to advance beyond the CBT (computer-based training) learning model and to build an adequate epistemology for this challenge. The first task is to relocate our field by building upon recent results from philosophy, psychology, social sciences, and engineering. In this article we locate evaluation in respect to communication s...

  1. A study of combined evaluation of suppliers based on correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heting Qiu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Selection of logistics service providers is an important issue in supply chain management. But different evaluation methods may lead to different results, which could cause inconsistent conclusions. This paper makes use of a new perspective to combine with a variety of methods to eliminate the deviation of different single evaluation methods. Design/methodology/approach: This paper expounds the application of the combined evaluation method based on correlation. Entropy method, factor analysis, grey colligation evaluation and AHP have been used for research. Findings: According to the evaluate result, the ranking of suppliers obtained by each method have obvious differences. The result shows that combined evaluation method can eliminate the deviation of different single evaluation methods. Originality/value: The combined evaluation method makes up for the defects of single evaluation methods and obtains a result that is more stable and creditable with smaller deviation. This study can provide the enterprise leaders with more scientific method to select their cooperative companies. 

  2. Data Base on Peer Evaluation of Research in the Netherlands - PER-Base - 1993-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drooge, L.; de Jong, S.; Faber, M.; Westerheijden, D.

    2013-01-01

    PER-Base contains information on institutional research evaluation in the Netherlands. It covers results from evaluations with the 'Vereniging van Samenwerkende Nederlandse Universiteiten' - VSNU 1993, VSNU 1994 and VSNU 1998 protocols as well as the 'Standard Evaluation Protocol' - SEP 2003-2009 an

  3. Evaluating performance of a Bluetooth-based classroom tool

    OpenAIRE

    Davidrajuh, Reggie

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of a Bluetooth wireless technology based classroom tool. The classroom tool is to help lecturers automate their assignment tests. First, a testing prototype of the tool is presented; the testing prototype uses one master device and two slave devices on Pico-net. As it will be expensive to build prototype for a large class, simulation study is done to evaluate performance of the tool for large classes. The simulation study reveals ...

  4. A questionnaire based evaluation of teaching methods amongst MBBS students

    OpenAIRE

    Muneshwar JN, Mirza Shiraz Baig, Zingade US, Khan ST

    2013-01-01

    The medical education and health care in India are facing serious challenges in content and competencies. Heightened focus on the quality of teaching in medical college has led to increased use of student surveys as a means of evaluating teaching. Objectives: A questionnaire based evaluation of 200 students (I MBBS & II MBBS) about teaching methods was conducted at a Govt Medical College & Hospital, Aurangabad (MS) with intake capacity of 150 students &established since 50 last years. Methods...

  5. Acid Rain: The Silent Environmental Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmud, Mia

    1992-01-01

    Describes the silent environmental threat posed by acid rain. Caused mainly by manmade pollutants, acid rain damages water and trees, decreases visibility, corrodes monuments, and threatens public health. The article includes guidelines for action. (SM)

  6. Cyber threats in social networking websites

    CERN Document Server

    Gharibi, Wajeb

    2012-01-01

    A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called nodes, which are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, and exchange of finance, relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. A cyber threat can be both unintentional and intentional, targeted or non targeted, and it can come from a variety of sources, including foreign nations engaged in espionage and information warfare, criminals, hackers, virus writers, disgruntled employees and contractors working within an organization. Social networking sites are not only to communicate or interact with other people globally, but also one effective way for business promotion. In this paper, we investigate and study the cyber threats in social networking websites. We go through the amassing history of online social websites, classify their types and also discuss the cyber threats, suggest the anti-threats strategies and visualize the future trends of such hoppy popular websi...

  7. Hydrology: Indo-Gangetic groundwater threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendorf, Scott; Benner, Shawn G.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing groundwater extraction supports hundreds of millions of people across the Indo-Gangetic Basin. Data suggests that despite the increase in withdrawals, groundwater depletion is localized and the most widespread threat is contamination.

  8. Advanced Insider Threat Mitigation Workshop Instructional Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O' Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is an update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios. This report is a compilation of workshop materials consisting of lectures on technical and administrative measures used in Physical Protection (PP) and Material Control and Accounting (MC&A) and methods for analyzing their effectiveness against a postulated insider threat. The postulated threat includes both abrupt and protracted theft scenarios. Presentation is envisioned to be through classroom instruction and discussion. Several practical and group exercises are included for demonstration and application of the analysis approach contained in the lecture/discussion sessions as applied to a hypothetical nuclear facility.

  9. Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159744.html Heat Waves Pose Big Health Threats Kids, elderly among those ... can be inherently dangerous, but the initial heat waves every summer can be particularly perilous to those ...

  10. Cyber Threats In Social Networking Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeb Ghari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called nodes, which areconnected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, and exchange of finance, relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. A cyber threat can be both unintentional and intentional, targeted or non targeted, and it can come from a variety of sources, including foreign nations engaged in espionage and information warfare, criminals, hackers, virus writers, disgruntled employees and contractors working within an organization. Social networking sitesare not only to communicate or interact with other people globally, but also one effective way for business promotion. In this paper, we investigate and study the cyber threats in social networking websites. We go through the amassing history of online social websites, classify their types and also discuss the cyber threats, suggest the anti-threats strategies and visualize the future trends of such hoppy popular websites.

  11. Interfacing a biosurveillance portal and an international network of institutional analysts to detect biological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, Flavia; Shigematsu, Mika; Chow, Catherine; McKnight, C Jason; Linge, Jens; Doherty, Brian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Declich, Silvia; Barker, Mike; Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Donachie, Alastair; Mawudeku, Abla; Blench, Michael; Arthur, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project, launched in 2008, is aimed at improving global early alerting and risk assessment and evaluating the feasibility and opportunity of integrating the analysis of biological, chemical, radionuclear (CBRN), and pandemic influenza threats. At a time when no international collaborations existed in the field of event-based surveillance, EAR's innovative approach involved both epidemic intelligence experts and internet-based biosurveillance system providers in the framework of an international collaboration called the Global Health Security Initiative, which involved the ministries of health of the G7 countries and Mexico, the World Health Organization, and the European Commission. The EAR project pooled data from 7 major internet-based biosurveillance systems onto a common portal that was progressively optimized for biological threat detection under the guidance of epidemic intelligence experts from public health institutions in Canada, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The group became the first end users of the EAR portal, constituting a network of analysts working with a common standard operating procedure and risk assessment tools on a rotation basis to constantly screen and assess public information on the web for events that could suggest an intentional release of biological agents. Following the first 2-year pilot phase, the EAR project was tested in its capacity to monitor biological threats, proving that its working model was feasible and demonstrating the high commitment of the countries and international institutions involved. During the testing period, analysts using the EAR platform did not miss intentional events of a biological nature and did not issue false alarms. Through the findings of this initial assessment, this article provides insights into how the field of epidemic intelligence can advance through an

  12. Interfacing a biosurveillance portal and an international network of institutional analysts to detect biological threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo, Flavia; Shigematsu, Mika; Chow, Catherine; McKnight, C Jason; Linge, Jens; Doherty, Brian; Dente, Maria Grazia; Declich, Silvia; Barker, Mike; Barboza, Philippe; Vaillant, Laetitia; Donachie, Alastair; Mawudeku, Abla; Blench, Michael; Arthur, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Early Alerting and Reporting (EAR) project, launched in 2008, is aimed at improving global early alerting and risk assessment and evaluating the feasibility and opportunity of integrating the analysis of biological, chemical, radionuclear (CBRN), and pandemic influenza threats. At a time when no international collaborations existed in the field of event-based surveillance, EAR's innovative approach involved both epidemic intelligence experts and internet-based biosurveillance system providers in the framework of an international collaboration called the Global Health Security Initiative, which involved the ministries of health of the G7 countries and Mexico, the World Health Organization, and the European Commission. The EAR project pooled data from 7 major internet-based biosurveillance systems onto a common portal that was progressively optimized for biological threat detection under the guidance of epidemic intelligence experts from public health institutions in Canada, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The group became the first end users of the EAR portal, constituting a network of analysts working with a common standard operating procedure and risk assessment tools on a rotation basis to constantly screen and assess public information on the web for events that could suggest an intentional release of biological agents. Following the first 2-year pilot phase, the EAR project was tested in its capacity to monitor biological threats, proving that its working model was feasible and demonstrating the high commitment of the countries and international institutions involved. During the testing period, analysts using the EAR platform did not miss intentional events of a biological nature and did not issue false alarms. Through the findings of this initial assessment, this article provides insights into how the field of epidemic intelligence can advance through an

  13. Voxel-based frog phantom for internal dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A voxel-based frog phantom has been developed for radiation protection of the environment. The voxel-based frog phantom was applied to evaluating self-absorbed fractions (self-AFs), which are defined as the fraction of energy emitted by a radiation source that is absorbed within the source organ. The self-AFs were evaluated for both photons and electrons in the spleen, kidneys, and liver using Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, self-S values (μGy/MBq·s) for 18F and 90Y in the organs were calculated using the results of the self-AFs. Consequently, the voxel-based frog phantom was found to be useful for the organ dose evaluations, which have not been proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It was also confirmed that the self-AFs and self-S values are largely dependent on the mass of the source organ. (author)

  14. A online credit evaluation method based on AHP and SPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingtao; Zhang, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Online credit evaluation is the foundation for the establishment of trust and for the management of risk between buyers and sellers in e-commerce. In this paper, a new credit evaluation method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the set pair analysis (SPA) is presented to determine the credibility of the electronic commerce participants. It solves some of the drawbacks found in classical credit evaluation methods and broadens the scope of current approaches. Both qualitative and quantitative indicators are considered in the proposed method, then a overall credit score is achieved from the optimal perspective. In the end, a case analysis of China Garment Network is provided for illustrative purposes.

  15. WIRELESS NETWORKS: DEVELOPMENTS, THREATS AND COUNTERMEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiana Mohamad Noor; Wan Haslina Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses current threats in wireless networks and some academia research reviews regarding the matters. Significant and persistent threats discussed are sniffing, Man In the Middle Attack (MITM), Rogue Access Points (RAP), Denial Of Services (DoS) and social engineering attacks. Some current developments of wireless communication technology such as short range communication, cloud computing, bring your own device policy (BYOD), devices tethering and convergences of WiFi and cellul...

  16. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  17. Advanced insider threat mitigation workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Larsen, Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); O Brien, Mike [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edmunds, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Insiders represent a formidable threat to nuclear facilities. This set of workshop materials covers methodologies to analyze and approaches to mitigate the threat of an insider attempting abrupt and protracted theft of nuclear materials. This particular set of materials is a n update of a January 2008 version to add increased emphasis on Material Control and Accounting and its role with respect to protracted insider nuclear material theft scenarios.

  18. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurren...

  19. Nuclear power threats, public opposition and green electricity adoption: Effects of threat belief appraisal and fear arousal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the extent to which willingness to oppose nuclear power and intention to adopt green electricity are related to the cognitive and emotional appraisal of threats deriving from nuclear power. The analysis draws on a theoretical framework which introduces emotional fear arousal as a direct behavioural antecedent of coping behaviour into a model based on cognitive centred Protection Motivation Theory (PMT, Maddux and Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1983) and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM, Witte, 1992, 1998). Hypothesized relations are tested in a nationally representative online study conducted in April and May 2012, one year after the Fukushima accident. Results support the hypothesized influences of perceived threat, fear arousal and perceived coping efficacy. Support for the proposed effects of fear control is rather limited. Findings contribute to extending previous knowledge on the role of cognitive and emotional appraisal processes induced by awareness of threats from nuclear power as behavioural antecedents of both opposing nuclear power and adopting green electricity. Findings of the study have implications for nuclear power policy and activism, as well as for institutional and commercial promoters of voluntary residential green electricity adoption. - Highlights: • Nationally representative online survey on nuclear power conducted in Spain in April and May 2012. • Opposition to nuclear power and green electricity adoption are related to threat beliefs. • Emotional fear arousal motivates nuclear opposition and green electricity uptake. • Significant behavioural effects of coping efficacy are confirmed. • Influences of fear control on behaviour intentions are rather weak

  20. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    . To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  1. Development, Use and Maintenance of the Design Basis Threat. Implementing Guide (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a resolution by the IAEA General Conference in September 2002, the IAEA adopted an integrated approach to protection against nuclear terrorism. This approach coordinates IAEA activities concerned with physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear installations, nuclear material accountancy, detection of and response to trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material, the security of radioactive sources, security in the transport of nuclear and other radioactive material, emergency response and emergency preparedness in Member States and at the IAEA, and promotion of adherence by States to relevant international instruments. The IAEA also helps to identify threats and vulnerability related to the security of nuclear and other radioactive material. However, it is the responsibility of the States to provide for the physical protection of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities, to ensure the security of such material in transport, and to combat illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movement of radioactive material. Physical protection systems are intended to prevent unacceptable consequences arising from malicious activities. The more serious the consequences, the more important it is to have a high degree of confidence that physical protection will be effective as planned. The need for a high level of confidence in the effectiveness of physical protection has long been recognized by those concerned about nuclear material and nuclear facilities. Nuclear material and facilities have the potential for a variety of unacceptable radiological and proliferation consequences if subjected to a malicious act. The highest level of confidence in physical protection demands a close correlation between protective measures and the threat. This approach is firmly grounded in the fundamental principle that physical protection of nuclear assets under the jurisdiction of a State should be based on the State's evaluation of the

  2. Development, use and maintenance of the design basis threat. Implementing guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a resolution by the IAEA General Conference in September 2002, the IAEA adopted an integrated approach to protection against nuclear terrorism. This approach coordinates IAEA activities concerned with physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear installations, nuclear material accountancy, detection of and response to trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material, the security of radioactive sources, security in the transport of nuclear and other radioactive material, emergency response and emergency preparedness in Member States and at the IAEA, and promotion of adherence by States to relevant international instruments. The IAEA also helps to identify threats and vulnerability related to the security of nuclear and other radioactive material. However, it is the responsibility of the States to provide for the physical protection of nuclear and other radioactive material and associated facilities, to ensure the security of such material in transport, and to combat illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movement of radioactive material. Physical protection systems are intended to prevent unacceptable consequences arising from malicious activities. The more serious the consequences, the more important it is to have a high degree of confidence that physical protection will be effective as planned. The need for a high level of confidence in the effectiveness of physical protection has long been recognized by those concerned about nuclear material and nuclear facilities. Nuclear material and facilities have the potential for a variety of unacceptable radiological and proliferation consequences if subjected to a malicious act. The highest level of confidence in physical protection demands a close correlation between protective measures and the threat. This approach is firmly grounded in the fundamental principle that physical protection of nuclear assets under the jurisdiction of a State should be based on the State's evaluation of the

  3. Selection Strategy of Information System Security Technologies Based on Threat%基于威胁的信息系统安全技术选择策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方玲; 仲伟俊; 梅姝娥

    2014-01-01

    The game theory was employed to study the selection of security technologies and the optimization of resource allo-cation at the basis of the threat types to organization information system.The factors like the definite types of threats, the charac-teristics of information system security technologies, the cost and efficiency of them and so on were all considered together.And some conclusions were resulted.First, the organizations should choose security technologies with the ability to deal with or miti-gate most of the threats they would encounter probably during the management of information system security, i.e.to select secur-ity technologies at the basis of threats.Second, in order to optimize the resources allocation, the organizations could determine the corresponding security technology choosing probability according to the expected loss of every kind of threat.Compare to the researches considering that one information system security technology has only one general detection rate and false detection rate, the model has an innovation that one security technology has different detection rates and false detection rates to different threats, which is more practical.%利用博弈论研究了基于信息系统安全威胁类型的安全技术选择与资源优化配置问题,同时考虑了具体威胁类型、信息系统安全技术特征、成本与组合效率等因素,指出了组织在信息系统安全管理时所选择的安全技术首先应当能够处理或弱化其所面临的大部分威胁,即以威胁为安全技术选择的基础,并且组织为了实现对有限资源的优化配置,应根据各种威胁导致的期望损失来确定相应的安全技术选择概率。模型将安全技术对不同威胁的检测率与误检率加以区分,较一种安全技术对所有威胁只有一个笼统的检测率和误检率更具实际意义。

  4. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Schuster

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests. This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking in stereotype threat (ST and no threat (NT situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113. We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss

  5. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss implications for

  6. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat. PMID:19245886

  7. Evaluation of Evidence-based Nursing Pain Management Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Eaton, Linda H; Gordon, Debra B; Hoyle, Christine; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2015-08-01

    It is important to ensure that cancer pain management is based on the best evidence. Nursing evidence-based pain management can be examined through an evaluation of pain documentation. The aim of this study was to modify and test an evaluation tool for nursing cancer pain documentation, and describe the frequency and quality of nursing pain documentation in one oncology unit via the electronic medical system. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used for this study at an oncology unit of an academic medical center in the Pacific Northwest. Medical records were examined for 37 adults hospitalized during April and May 2013. Nursing pain documentations (N = 230) were reviewed using an evaluation tool modified from the Cancer Pain Practice Index to consist of 13 evidence-based pain management indicators, including pain assessment, care plan, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, monitoring and treatment of analgesic side effects, communication with physicians, and patient education. Individual nursing documentation was assigned a score ranging from 0 (worst possible) to 13 (best possible), to reflect the delivery of evidence-based pain management. The participating nurses documented 90% of the recommended evidence-based pain management indicators. Documentation was suboptimal for pain reassessment, pharmacologic interventions, and bowel regimen. The study results provide implications for enhancing electronic medical record design and highlight a need for future research to understand the reasons for suboptimal nursing documentation of cancer pain management. For the future use of the data evaluation tool, we recommend additional modifications according to study settings. PMID:26256215

  8. Nuclear threat. A clear and present danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was disappointed at the discussion in the review conference of the NPT held in 2005. The fact may be caused by the estrangement between the international urgent issues related to the non-proliferation and the effectiveness of archaic measures through the NPT. However, it should not be recognized that the international obligation and worth of NPT has been gone. The NPT referred the typical international situation under the cold war era. Although several permanent issues of the nuclear non-proliferation exist in current discussions, the activities relevant to the NPT may not be effect against newly unstable situations after the September 11th of 2001. Urgent challenges to be taken are that we must strictly analyze the interventions between 'the clear and present danger' of our world and the nuclear herms, and must take appropriate actions toward them without influences from previous international situations that might be subsisted in current international treaties and agreements. This paper identified the features of nuclear threats based on the four categories and examined the possibilities of nuclear terrorism from previous facts with the inductive inference. The results identified the possibility of nuclear facility attack and of radioactive materials theft by the Polico-Religious Groups and others are stood out. The authors would suggest the important of urgent recognition to establish the certain security system against nuclear terrorism. (author)

  9. Designing and Evaluating Conative Game-Based Learning Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønau-Fog, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    It is an essential prerequisite to design for motivation in game-based learning applications, tools and activities. However, how is it possible to design and evaluate motivational game-based learning scenarios in a systematic process-oriented manner based on conation and player engagement? While....... These concepts will then be utilized to introduce the foundation of a framework consisting of three stages: initiation, exploration and captivation. The stages are intended to sustain the learners’ conation beyond gamification and the framework may thus be helpful in the design and evaluation of conative game-based...... conation is related to the perseverance, determination and tenacity players exhibit when playing an interesting game, player engagement describes in detail what it is that causes a player to keep playing - Not only through fun and gamification drivers such as points and levels, but by utilizing triggers...

  10. Disentangling Islamophobia: The Differential Effects of Symbolic, Realistic, and Terroristic Threat Perceptions as Mediators Between Social Dominance Orientation and Islamophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Uenal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is threefold. First, based on ongoing theoretical discussions on the dimensionality of Islamophobia, this study analyzes whether Islamophobia empirically constitutes a one-dimensional construct or rather a multidimensional construct consisting of anti-Muslim prejudice and anti-Islam sentiment. Second, the effects of symbolic, realistic, and terroristic (safety threats on Islamophobia were analyzed concurrently. Finally, within the framework of the revised Integrated Threat Theory (Stephan & Renfro, 2002, and in order to test the mediating effect of threats, SDO is tested as an antecedent of perceived threat and Islamophobia. Respondents from Berlin (N = 355 participated in an online survey. The results indicate that Islamophobia empirically constitutes a two-dimensional phenomenon, consisting of anti-Muslim and anti-Islam sentiment. Whereas symbolic threat is related to both types of Islamophobia, realistic threat is associated only with anti-Muslim prejudice, and terroristic threat is associated only with anti-Islam sentiment. Finally, the results indicate that the relationship between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia is mediated by threats. Symbolic threats mediate the relationships between SDO and both dimensions of Islamophobia. Realistic threats mediate the relationship between SDO and anti-Muslim prejudice and terroristic threats between SDO and anti-Islam sentiment.

  11. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF RICE BRAN WAX AS OINTMENT BASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

    2004-01-01

    Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the...

  12. Evaluation of problem-based learning in medical students’ education

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD HADI IMANIEH; SEYED MOHSEN DEHGHANI; AHMAD REZA SOBHANI; MAHMOOD HAGHIGHAT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In traditional medical education systems much interest is placed on the cramming of basic and clinical facts without considering their applicability in the future professional career. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novice medical training method (problem-based learning) as compared to the contemporary teacher-based medical education or traditional methods. Methods: Selection of the study subjects was done through simple sampling and according to the division of medical s...

  13. Threat driven modeling framework using petri nets for e-learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamparia, Aditya; Pandey, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities at various levels are main cause of security risks in e-learning system. This paper presents a modified threat driven modeling framework, to identify the threats after risk assessment which requires mitigation and how to mitigate those threats. To model those threat mitigations aspects oriented stochastic petri nets are used. This paper included security metrics based on vulnerabilities present in e-learning system. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System designed to provide a normalized method for rating vulnerabilities which will be used as basis in metric definitions and calculations. A case study has been also proposed which shows the need and feasibility of using aspect oriented stochastic petri net models for threat modeling which improves reliability, consistency and robustness of the e-learning system.

  14. Threat driven modeling framework using petri nets for e-learning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamparia, Aditya; Pandey, Babita

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerabilities at various levels are main cause of security risks in e-learning system. This paper presents a modified threat driven modeling framework, to identify the threats after risk assessment which requires mitigation and how to mitigate those threats. To model those threat mitigations aspects oriented stochastic petri nets are used. This paper included security metrics based on vulnerabilities present in e-learning system. The Common Vulnerability Scoring System designed to provide a normalized method for rating vulnerabilities which will be used as basis in metric definitions and calculations. A case study has been also proposed which shows the need and feasibility of using aspect oriented stochastic petri net models for threat modeling which improves reliability, consistency and robustness of the e-learning system. PMID:27119050

  15. A Quantitative Threats Analysis for the Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered marine mammal endemic to the southeastern United States. The primary threats to manatee populations are collisions with watercraft and the potential loss of warm-water refuges. For the purposes of listing, recovery, and regulation under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), an understanding of the relative effects of the principal threats is needed. This work is a quantitative approach to threats analysis, grounded in the assumption that an appropriate measure of status under the ESA is based on the risk of extinction, as quantified by the probability of quasi-extinction. This is related to the qualitative threats analyses that are more common under the ESA, but provides an additional level of rigor, objectivity, and integration. In this approach, our philosophy is that analysis of the five threat factors described in Section 4(a)(1) of the ESA can be undertaken within an integrated quantitative framework. The basis of this threats analysis is a comparative population viability analysis. This involves forecasting the Florida manatee population under different scenarios regarding the presence of threats, while accounting for process variation (environmental, demographic, and catastrophic stochasticity) as well as parametric and structural uncertainty. We used the manatee core biological model (CBM) for this viability analysis, and considered the role of five threats: watercraft-related mortality, loss of warm-water habitat in winter, mortality in water-control structures, entanglement, and red tide. All scenarios were run with an underlying parallel structure that allowed a more powerful estimation of the effects of the various threats. The results reflect our understanding of manatee ecology (as captured in the structure of the CBM), our estimates of manatee demography (as described by the parameters in the model), and our characterization of the mechanisms by which the threats act on manatees. As an

  16. Developing a Kano-Based Evaluation Model for Innovation Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Tzuoh Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on developing a psychology-based evaluation procedure for innovative design. The divergent thinking part of the main innovative design procedure which discussed in this paper is the extensive QFD developed by the author (Wu. The major performance of QFD is to identify the customers’ requirements and their priorities. Then, the proposed extensive QFD helps transform the high priority requirements into appropriate technical characteristics. According to the priorities of product characteristics, the prior engineering parameters will be identified to be the key performances to redesign. For identifying the requirements and achieving the attractive design, we introduce the Kano model to construct the evaluation model. The proposed Kano-based evaluation procedure is mainly used in two stages of the innovative design. First, the evaluation process was used in QFD stage to help identify attractive customers’ requirements, and the other was used in the extension stage to help assess concepts. The flowchart of proposed innovative design procedure with psychology-based evaluation has also been developed. A case study, exercise equipment design, is adopted to explain and verify feasibility of the proposed approach.

  17. Increasing influence of China in the world: threat or challenge?

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlištová, Miloslava

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor's work named Increasing influence of China in the world: threat or challenge? is based on positive and negative impacts of Chinese economic growth in the world in three different ways: 1) Chinese counterfeiters and their influence on world economy 2)impact of dynamic economic growth of China on the world economy 3)Effect of foreign and chinese companies in China and their impact on the world.

  18. Threats to Aquatic Environments: Is Aquaculture a Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Naylor, Rosamond L.

    2004-01-01

    Marine ecosystems and fisheries face serious threats from over-fishing, run-off of land-based pollutants, introductions and invasions of exotic species, coastal development and habitat alteration, unintended by-catch, and climate change. Annual global fish catches fluctuate between 80 and 90 million metric tonnes (MMT) and appear to be declining. As a result of limitations on wild capture, aquaculture has emerged as a major player in seafood production and marketing worldwide. During the past...

  19. Evaluation of Sift and Surf for Vision Based Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaozhi; Soheilian, Bahman; Habets, Emmanuel; Paparoditis, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Vision based localization is widely investigated for the autonomous navigation and robotics. One of the basic steps of vision based localization is the extraction of interest points in images that are captured by the embedded camera. In this paper, SIFT and SURF extractors were chosen to evaluate their performance in localization. Four street view image sequences captured by a mobile mapping system, were used for the evaluation and both SIFT and SURF were tested on different image scales. Besides, the impact of the interest point distribution was also studied. We evaluated the performances from for aspects: repeatability, precision, accuracy and runtime. The local bundle adjustment method was applied to refine the pose parameters and the 3D coordinates of tie points. According to the results of our experiments, SIFT was more reliable than SURF. Apart from this, both the accuracy and the efficiency of localization can be improved if the distribution of feature points are well constrained for SIFT.

  20. @tomic 2012 Seminar on Design Basis Threat for Cyber Attacks on the Nuclear Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 30, 2012 the Dutch National Coordinator for Security and Counter terrorism hosted the @tomic 2012 Seminar on Design Basis Threat for Cyber Attacks on the Nuclear Sector. A DBT is a comprehensive description of the motivation, intentions and capabilities of potential adversaries against which protection systems are designed and evaluated. The traditional DBT approach is based on a physical security perspective. It was proposed, however, that it can be modified to fit the cyber threat. The aim of the seminar was to identify possible approaches to developing a DBT ICT for the nuclear sector that takes into account the speed at which cyber tools and methods evolve. The seminar was attended by a select group of participants from government, academia and the nuclear industry. The seminar started with several presentations on the development of a DBT ICT by representatives from the Dutch National Coordinator for Security and Counter terrorism and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Ministry of Economic Affairs currently developing the Dutch DBT ICT, presented the Dutch approach and the current state of affairs. In addition, the keynote speech focused on the constant innovations within the cyber sector. To enable the discussion the participants took part in a red-blue team policy exercise to brainstorm about potential attacks, vulnerabilities and defensive measures. In the end the participants formulated five potential cases against which defensive measures should be in place. After the policy exercise, a discussion on the needs of a DBT ICT ensued. During the discussion various approaches were mentioned including; a scenario-based DBT (as in the exercise), protection requirements based on functional analysis of dependencies, vulnerabilities and interfaces, the adoption of existing requirements, and several combinations of these approaches; — The scenario-based approach requires the definition of reasonably likely modi operandi of attack on the

  1. Web-Based Evaluation System for Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momani, Alaa

    2010-01-01

    E-learning systems have become an issue in recent years. A learning management system (LMS) is an electronic environment helps the educational society to communicate, exchange information, manage, and schedule the learning process. This study has provided a web-based evaluation system that may help the users to choose the convenient system…

  2. Formative Evaluation of a Web-Based Course in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Julia; Reynolds, Ross

    1999-01-01

    Describes the formative-evaluation process for the EuroMET (European Meteorological Education and Training) project, Web-Based university courses in meteorology that were created to address the education and training needs of professional meteorologists and students throughout Europe. Usability and interactive and multimedia elements are…

  3. Inspection Based Evaluation of a Danish Road Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how an inspection-based evaluation of a Danish road bridge may be performed using the BRIDGE1 and BRIDGE2 bridge management systems produced within the EC-supported research programme "Assessment of Performance and Optimal Strategies for Inspection and Maintenance...

  4. Evaluation of a Spiritually Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Louisa K.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors empirically evaluated a spiritually based 1-day child maltreatment training program. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up results indicated that participants' recognition of hypothetical maltreatment did not increase after training. Furthermore, although participants decreased their use of items known to dissuade decisions to report, they…

  5. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  6. Planar straightness error evaluation based on particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jian; Zheng, Huawen; Cao, Yanlong; Yang, Jiangxin

    2006-11-01

    The straightness error generally refers to the deviation between an actual line and an ideal line. According to the characteristics of planar straightness error evaluation, a novel method to evaluate planar straightness errors based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. The planar straightness error evaluation problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. According to minimum zone condition the mathematical model of planar straightness together with the optimal objective function and fitness function is developed. Compared with the genetic algorithm (GA), the PSO algorithm has some advantages. It is not only implemented without crossover and mutation but also has fast congruence speed. Moreover fewer parameters are needed to set up. The results show that the PSO method is very suitable for nonlinear optimization problems and provides a promising new method for straightness error evaluation. It can be applied to deal with the measured data of planar straightness obtained by the three-coordinates measuring machines.

  7. A dynamic performance evaluation method based on SD-BSC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Chun-xian; PAN Xiao-dong; HU Xian-wu

    2007-01-01

    Taking into consideration the disadvantage of Balanced Scorecard (BSC) not being able to reflect time delay, nonlinear problems of causal relationship and being lack of effective simulation, we combined it with the characteristics of the System Dynamics (SD). Basing on the background of manufacturing enterprises,through SD integrating with the BSC we established a new performance evaluation method-SD-BSC method to overcome the disadvantage of BSC. A performance evaluation model of SD-BSC is provided and the simulation results are analyzed which show different production policies will lead to different customer's satisfaction degrees. The SD-BSC dynamic performance evaluation method can reflect dynamic, complex causal feedback relationship and time delay, so it compensates for the disadvantage of traditional financial performance evaluation method, and at the same time makes the BSC perfect.

  8. Evaluating a Pivot-Based Approach for Bilingual Lexicon Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pivot-based approach for bilingual lexicon extraction is based on the similarity of context vectors represented by words in a pivot language like English. In this paper, in order to show validity and usability of the pivot-based approach, we evaluate the approach in company with two different methods for estimating context vectors: one estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word association between source words (resp., target words and pivot words and the other estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word alignment tools for statistical machine translation. Empirical results on two language pairs (e.g., Korean-Spanish and Korean-French have shown that the pivot-based approach is very promising for resource-poor languages and this approach observes its validity and usability. Furthermore, for words with low frequency, our method is also well performed.

  9. Physics-based damage predictions for simulating testing and evaluation (T and E) experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addessio, F.L.; Schraad, M.W.; Lewis, M.W.

    1999-03-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report addresses the need to develop computational techniques and physics-based material models for simulating damage to weapons systems resulting from ballistic threats. Modern weapons systems, such as fighter aircraft, are becoming more dependent upon composite materials to reduce weight, to increase strength and stiffness, and to resist adverse conditions resulting from high temperatures and corrosion. Unfortunately, damaged components can have severe and detrimental effects, as evidenced by statistics from Desert Storm indicating that 75% of aircraft losses were attributable to fuel system vulnerability with hydrodynamic ram being the primary kill mechanism. Therefore, this project addresses damage predictions for composite systems that are subjected to ballistic threats involving hydrodynamic ram. A computational technique for simulating fluid-solid interaction phenomena and physics-based material models have been developed for this purpose.

  10. Formulation and evaluation of rice bran wax as ointment base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

    2004-07-01

    Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the present study indicate, rice bran wax can be used as a good component in ointment base, comparable with white wax. PMID:22557151

  11. Evaluation of PCR-based beef sexing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleny, Reinhard; Bernreuther, Alexander; Schimmel, Heinz; Pauwels, Jean

    2002-07-17

    Analysis of the sex of beef meat by fast and reliable molecular methods is an important measure to ensure correct allocation of export refunds, which are considerably higher for male beef meat. Two PCR-based beef sexing methods have been optimized and evaluated. The amelogenin-type method revealed excellent accuracy and robustness, whereas the bovine satellite/Y-chromosome duplex PCR procedure showed more ambiguous results. In addition, an interlaboratory comparison was organized to evaluate currently applied PCR-based sexing methods in European customs laboratories. From a total of 375 samples sent out, only 1 false result was reported (female identified as male). However, differences in the performances of the applied methods became apparent. The collected data contribute to specify technical requirements for a common European beef sexing methodology based on PCR. PMID:12105941

  12. Performance evaluation of sensor allocation algorithm based on covariance control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The covariance control capability of sensor allocation algorithms based on covariance control strategy is an important index to evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Owing to lack of standard performance metric indices to evaluate covariance control capability, sensor allocation ratio, etc, there are no guides to follow in the design procedure of sensor allocation algorithm in practical applications. To meet these demands, three quantified performance metric indices are presented, which are average covariance misadjustment quantity (ACMQ), average sensor allocation ratio (ASAR) and matrix metric influence factor (MMIF), where ACMQ, ASAR and MMIF quantify the covariance control capability, the usage of sensor resources and the robustness of sensor allocation algorithm, respectively. Meanwhile, a covariance adaptive sensor allocation algorithm based on a new objective function is proposed to improve the covariance control capability of the algorithm based on information gain. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm have the advantage over the preceding sensor allocation algorithm in covariance control capability and robustness.

  13. Evaluation methodology for query-based scene understanding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, Todd P.; Ross, Timothy D.; Culbertson, Jared L.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we are proposing a method for the principled evaluation of scene understanding systems in a query-based framework. We can think of a query-based scene understanding system as a generalization of typical sensor exploitation systems where instead of performing a narrowly defined task (e.g., detect, track, classify, etc.), the system can perform general user-defined tasks specified in a query language. Examples of this type of system have been developed as part of DARPA's Mathematics of Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (MSEE) program. There is a body of literature on the evaluation of typical sensor exploitation systems, but the open-ended nature of the query interface introduces new aspects to the evaluation problem that have not been widely considered before. In this paper, we state the evaluation problem and propose an approach to efficiently learn about the quality of the system under test. We consider the objective of the evaluation to be to build a performance model of the system under test, and we rely on the principles of Bayesian experiment design to help construct and select optimal queries for learning about the parameters of that model.

  14. EU conference - 'The microbial threat'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mevius, D.J.; Sprenger, M.J.W.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1999-01-01

    A global or European strategy should be developed to deal with increasing antimicrobial resistance. This strategy includes surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and monitoring of the use of antimicrobial agents in animals and humans. In animals, surveillance should be focussed on potential...... transfer of resistant, zoonotic, food-born pathogens and resistance genes to humans. In humans the surveillance should be clinically relevant. Guidelines for rational therapy should be implemented and 'antibiotic teams' should be installed in each hospital to evaluate the prescription of antibiotics...... and its compliance with guidelines. Keeping animals for food production involves the responsibility for their well being. This includes treatment of infections. However, the use of feed additive, growth-promoting antimicrobials related to therapeutics in human medicine, should be banned immediately...

  15. China's Competitive Threat to Latin America: An Analysis for 1990-2002.

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Sanjaya; Weiss, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores China's competitive threat to Latin America in trade in manufactured goods. The direct threat to exports to third country markets appears small: Latin America and the Caribbean's (LAC's) trade structure is largely complementary to that of China. In bilateral trade, several LAC countries are increasing primary and resource-based exports to China. However, the pattern of trade, with LAC specializing increasingly in resource-based products and China in manufactured goods, see...

  16. INFORMATION SYSTEM SECURITY THREATS CLASSIFICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sandro Gerić; Željko Hutinski

    2007-01-01

    Information systems are exposed to different types of security risks. Theconsequences of information systems security (ISS) breaches can vary from e.g. damaging the data base integrity to physical "destruction" of entire information system facilities, and can result with minor disruptions in less important segments of information systems, or with significant interruptions in information systems functionality. The sources of security risks are different, and can origin from inside or outside o...

  17. Threat Mitigation: The Asteroid Tugboat

    OpenAIRE

    Schweickart, Russell; Chapman, Clark; Durda, Dan; Hut, Piet

    2006-01-01

    The Asteroid Tugboat (AT) is a fully controlled asteroid deflection concept using a robotic spacecraft powered by a high efficiency, electric propulsion system (ion or plasma) which docks with and attaches to the asteroid, conducts preliminary operations, and then thrusts continuously parallel to the asteroid velocity vector until the desired velocity change is achieved. Based on early warning, provided by ground tracking and orbit prediction, it would be deployed a decade or more prior to a ...

  18. An Evaluation of Total Project Risk Based on Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Doskočil

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the use of fuzzy logic as a support of evaluation of total project risk. A brief description of actual project risk management, fuzzy set theory, fuzzy logic and the process of calculation is given. The major goal of this paper is to present am new expert decision-making fuzzy model for evaluating total project risk. This fuzzy model based on RIPRAN method. RIPRAN (RIsk PRoject ANalysis) method is an empirical method for the analysis of project risks. The Fuzzy Logic To...

  19. AHP-FCE Based Physical Exercise Risk Evaluation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi-zhi; DING Yong-sheng; XU Hong-an

    2007-01-01

    Exercise is a highly proven and beneficial health promotion modality. But it is very difficult to determine whether the person during exercise is safe. A unique and comprehensive approach is proposed to perform physical exercise risk evaluation (PERE), in which personalized factors are determined basing on grey correlation analysis, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is used to structure the large numbers of risk factors, and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) is applied to fuzzify the factors and compute the exercise risk level. Finally, an actual calculation example is used to verify the feasibility of the method.

  20. Research on Fault Evaluation of Armament Equipment Based on ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The levels of simulation are introduced, and the importance of virtual prototyping of armament equipment is discussed and steps of virtual prototyping are outlined. The faults that affect firing performance are discussea, ADAMS is first to be introduced to armament equipment,and a virtual prototyping model of artillery is established with the help of Fortran language based on analysis of topology of artillery and forces applied on it. The plan of fault evaluation is brought forward, the modules are analyzed, and the concept of fault evaluation function is introduced Finally, the perspective of virtual technology is presented.

  1. Criteria to evaluate SAT-based training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper present some coefficients of error obtained to evaluate the quality of the design development and implementation of SAT-based personnel training programs. With the attainment of these coefficients, with the use of the GESAT system, is facilitated the continuos evaluation of training programs and the main deficiencies in the design, development and implementation of training programs are obtained, through the comparison between the program features and their standards or wanted features and doing an statistics analysis of the data kept in the GESAT system

  2. Weapons of mass destruction - current security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication brings a complex and comprehensive view of the weapons of mass destruction phenomenon in the context of present military and political situation. It emphasizes the threat posed by proliferation of these destructive devices and their carriers as well as the threat present in their possession by unpredictable totalitarian regimes or terrorist groups. The publication is structured into four basic parts: Introduction Into The Topic, Nuclear Weapons, Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons. The Introduction reflects the latest developments on the field of military technologies, which lead to the development of new destructive devices with characteristics comparable to basic types of WMDs - nuclear, chemical and biological. Based on the definition of WMD as 'weapon systems with enormous impact causing mass destruction, population, equipment and material losses', the modern mass destruction devices are assorted here, such as ecological, radiological and beam weapons, aerosol and container intelligent ammunition, the outburst of dangerous chemical substances from infrastructure, non-conventional weapons and military devices. The Nuclear Weapons part depicts the most destructive device of mass destruction mankind ever invented in close detail. It maps the history of most significant discoveries in nuclear physics, development and construction of the first nuclear weapons, accumulation of nuclear warheads and their carriers in the Cold war era, attempts of nuclear disarmament and reducing the number of nuclear weapons in possession of superpowers and their proliferation in the world's crisis regions including North Korea and Iran. The chapters devoted to theoretical grounds and physical principles of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons' functioning, the main categories and types, as well as destructive effects and consequences of use contain an adequate mathematical apparatus. This chapter's conclusion brings the overview of nuclear armament of states that

  3. Evaluation Method of Web Site Based on Web Structure Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiJun-e; ZhouDong-ru

    2003-01-01

    The structure of Web site became more complex than before. During the design period of a Web site, the lack of model and method results in improper Web structure,which depend on the designer's experience. From the point of view of software engineering, every period in the software life must be evaluated before starting the next period's work. It is very important and essential to search relevant methods for evaluating Web structure before the site is completed. In this work, after studying the related work about the Web structure mining and analyzing the major structure mining methods (Page-rank and Hub/Authority), a method based on the Page-rank for Web structure evaluation in design stage is proposed. A Web structure modeling language WSML is designed, and the implement strategies for evaluating system of the Web site structure are given out. Web structure mining has being used mainly in search engines before. It is the first time to employ the Web structure mining technology to evaluate a Web structure in the design period of a Web site. It contributes to the formalization of the design documents for Web site and the improving of software engineering for large scale Web site, and the evaluating system is a practical tool for Web site construction.

  4. Threat navigator: grouping and ranking malicious external threats to current and future urban smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, Alexandr; Montoya, Lorena; Ceccarelli, Andrea; Le, Anhtuan; Ionita, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Deriving value judgements about threat rankings for large and entangled systems, such as those of urban smart grids, is a challenging task. Suitable approaches should account for multiple threat events posed by different classes of attackers who target system components. Given the complexity of the

  5. Detecting Threat E-mails using Bayesian Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, M Tariq; Jan, Tariq R; Shah, Nisar A

    2011-01-01

    Fraud and terrorism have a close connect in terms of the processes that enables and promote them. In the era of Internet, its various services that include Web, e-mail, social networks, blogs, instant messaging, chats, etc. are used in terrorism not only for communication but also for i) creation of ideology, ii) resource gathering, iii) recruitment, indoctrination and training, iv) creation of terror network, and v) information gathering. A major challenge for law enforcement and intelligence agencies is efficient and accurate gathering of relevant and growing volume of crime data. This paper reports on use of established Na\\"ive Bayesian filter for classification of threat e-mails. Efficiency in filtering threat e-mail by use of three different Na\\"ive Bayesian filter approaches i.e. single keywords, weighted multiple keywords and weighted multiple keywords with keyword context matching are evaluated on a threat e-mail corpus created by extracting data from sources that are very close to terrorism.

  6. On the correlation among threats, errors, and undesired states in air traffic control based on a Bayesian network model%民航空管威胁、差错与意外状态相关性的贝叶斯网络方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海峰; 白福利; 李彤

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed to introduce a Bayesian network model developed by the author to investigate the correlation among the threats, errors, and undesired states in the air traffic control. In this model, we have taken the Bayesian Network (BN) as the theoretical foundation for analyzing the quantitative method on the database of Threat and Error Management (TEM) . For our research purpose, we have adopted six types of safety states most frequently to be dealt with (that is, the interior procedure threat, the adjacent units threat, the air traffic threat, equipment operating error, procedure error, and communication error) to establish our BN network model. While discussing the relations among the undesired states in the air and all threats and errors concerned, we have established a risk assessment model with reference to the Bayesian Network. All this has enabled the given model we have developed to provide the predictive probability in advance as for the incoming threats and errors so as to find necessary means to work out the corresponding subsequent measures to deal with the undesired states and all other threats and errors. Thus, we have thoroughly founded our research results on a database of TEM and the proper application of Bayesian network. Thus, the above research results of ours make us draw the following conclusions: (1) There actually exist significant gaps among the results based on the study of the resultant probability and the anticipating probability. While the resultant probability mainly indicates the probability of threats and errors likely to come about under the premise of accident status, it allows the flight control workers to use all the information of forecasting as the main indicators to determine the likely events due to the threat and error factors under control. (2) If any undesired states in the air occur, the posterior probability of the interior progress threats can be made as high as to 77 % , which can be thought of as the most

  7. From Presidential Protection to Campus Security: A Brief History of Threat Assessment in North American Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Marisa R.; Cameron, J. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the development of behavioral threat assessment within colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, from the original Secret Service model used to evaluate threats against the U.S. president, to its adaptations for workplace settings and United States and Canadian secondary schools, to its…

  8. Surveillance of the bioterrorist threat: a primary care response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D M; Barley, M A; Chapman, R S

    2004-03-01

    Threats from bioterrorism are of national and international concern. We outline a system of disease surveillance covering a selection of diseases linked to potential bioterrorist threats, based on the weekly returns service of the Royal College of General Practitioners and covering a surveillance population of 650,000 in England and Wales. Practices record working diagnoses and the episode type (distinguishing new episodes of illness from ongoing consultations) on patients' computerised medical records. These are interrogated twice weekly by using automated routines. The registered population and persons consulting for each Read code (group of codes) are counted in sex and age specific groups and the data forwarded electronically to the Research Unit, where the results are consolidated by region (North, Central, South). Weekly incidence rates between October 2001 and September 2002 were compared with the weekly average over the past seven years for 13 selected conditions. Detailed data are presented for three conditions (asthma, infections of the skin, disorders of the peripheral nervous system). For asthma increased incidence was reported in weeks 31 and 32 of 2002, predominantly in the Central region. For the other two conditions no unusual peaks of incidence were observed in any region. Operational research based on disciplined recording of morbidity in general practice can deliver timely surveillance data on bioterrorist threats.

  9. Evaluation of Evidence-Based Nursing Pain Management Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Eaton, Linda H.; Gordon, Debra B.; Hoyle, Christine; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important to ensure that cancer pain management is based on the best evidence. Nursing evidence-based pain management can be examined through an evaluation of pain documentation. Aims This study aimed to (a) modify and test an evaluation tool for nursing cancer pain documentation, and (b) describe the frequency and quality of nursing pain documentation in one oncology unit via electronic medical system. Design and Setting A descriptive cross-sectional design was used for this study at an oncology unit of an academic medical center in the Pacific Northwest. Methods Medical records were examined for 37 adults hospitalized during April and May of 2013. Nursing pain documentations (N = 230) were reviewed using an evaluation tool modified from the Cancer Pain Practice Index to consist of 13 evidence-based pain management indicators, including pain assessment, care plan, pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, monitoring and treatment of analgesic side effects, communication with physicians, and patient education. Individual nursing documentation was assigned a score from 0 (worst possible) to 13 (best possible), to reflect the delivery of evidence-based pain management. Results The participating nurses documented 90% of the recommended evidence-based pain management indicators. Documentation was suboptimal for pain reassessment, pharmacologic interventions, and bowel regimen. Conclusions The study results provide implications for enhancing electronic medical record design and highlight a need for future research to understand the reasons for suboptimal nursing documentation of cancer pain management. For the future use of the data evaluation tool, we recommend additional modifications according to study settings. PMID:26256215

  10. Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilland, D. [Kirkland AFB, NM (United States). Air Force Research Lab.; Phipps, G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Optics & Technologies Dept.; Jingle, C.; Newton, G. [Schafer Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Air Force Research Laboratory`s Satellite Threat Warning and Attack Reporting (STW/AR) program will provide technologies for advanced threat warning and reporting of radio frequency (RF) and laser threats. The STW/AR program objectives are: (a) develop cost- effective technologies to detect, identify, locate, characterize, and report attacks or interference against U.S. and Allied satellites. (b) demonstrate innovative, light-weight, low-power, laser and RF sensors. The program focuses on the demonstration of RF and laser sensors. The RF sensor effort includes the investigation of interferometric antenna arrays, multi-arm spiral and butler matrix antennas, wideband receivers, adaptive processors, and improved processing algorithms. The laser sensor effort includes the investigation of alternative detectors, broadband grating and optical designs, active pixel sensing, and improved processing algorithms.

  11. Threat detection, precautionary responses, and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Nesse, Randolph M

    2011-03-01

    Study of the anxiety disorders may be a particularly useful vehicle for demonstrating how foundational sciences (e.g. cognitive-affective neuroscience, evolutionary psychology) can advance psychiatric theory and research. Here we consider important potential advances and remaining future challenges when basic research on threat detection and precautionary responses is used to address the anxiety disorders. We emphasize the potential value of a model of threat detection and precautionary responses that integrates cognitive-affective neuroscience and evolutionary approaches for understanding the anxiety disorders. However, we also suggest that substantial additional work is needed in order to link systematically the psychobiological mechanisms posited by basic work on threat detection and precautionary responses to the complex phenomena seen in the clinic. PMID:21147162

  12. On the special status of "ego threats".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, D E

    1992-05-01

    This article comments on a recent article by Heatherton, Herman, and Polivy (1991) in which they suggest that ego threats are a prerequisite to affectively induced disinhibition of food intake in restrained eaters and current dieters. In contrast, the present review suggests that mood induction procedures that involve no apparent threat (e.g., viewing a frightening film) can also prompt disinhibition in restrained eaters. Thus, any mood induction procedure that does not directly physically threaten the S may disinhibit restrained eaters. It is concluded that recommendations to focus future research on ego threats are premature and may serve to obscure the mechanisms by which changes in affective state influence food intake in dieters. PMID:1507070

  13. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  14. Evaluation of Liquefaction Return Period for Bangalore Based on Standard Penetration Test Data: Performance Based Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin, K. S.; Sitharam, T. G.

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: The conventional liquefaction evaluation is based on a deterministic approach. However in this method the uncertainty in the earthquake loading is not properly taken into account. However recent research in this field indicates that this uncertainty in the earthquake loading has to be considered in the liquefaction potential evaluation. Moreover the evaluation of liquefaction return period is not possible in the conventional deterministic methods. This study explained the m...

  15. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-06

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling.

  16. International trade drives biodiversity threats in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, M; Moran, D; Kanemoto, K; Foran, B; Lobefaro, L; Geschke, A

    2012-06-01

    Human activities are causing Earth's sixth major extinction event-an accelerating decline of the world's stocks of biological diversity at rates 100 to 1,000 times pre-human levels. Historically, low-impact intrusion into species habitats arose from local demands for food, fuel and living space. However, in today's increasingly globalized economy, international trade chains accelerate habitat degradation far removed from the place of consumption. Although adverse effects of economic prosperity and economic inequality have been confirmed, the importance of international trade as a driver of threats to species is poorly understood. Here we show that a significant number of species are threatened as a result of international trade along complex routes, and that, in particular, consumers in developed countries cause threats to species through their demand of commodities that are ultimately produced in developing countries. We linked 25,000 Animalia species threat records from the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List to more than 15,000 commodities produced in 187 countries and evaluated more than 5 billion supply chains in terms of their biodiversity impacts. Excluding invasive species, we found that 30% of global species threats are due to international trade. In many developed countries, the consumption of imported coffee, tea, sugar, textiles, fish and other manufactured items causes a biodiversity footprint that is larger abroad than at home. Our results emphasize the importance of examining biodiversity loss as a global systemic phenomenon, instead of looking at the degrading or polluting producers in isolation. We anticipate that our findings will facilitate better regulation, sustainable supply-chain certification and consumer product labelling. PMID:22678290

  17. 49 CFR 1540.203 - Security threat assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... check conducted by TSA. (2) A security threat assessment conducted under 49 CFR part 1572 for the... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security threat assessment. 1540.203 Section 1540... Security Threat Assessments § 1540.203 Security threat assessment. (a) Each operator subject to...

  18. 49 CFR 1572.5 - Standards for security threat assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for security threat assessments. 1572.5... CREDENTIALING AND SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS Procedures and General Standards § 1572.5 Standards for security threat assessments. (a) Standards. TSA determines that an applicant poses a security threat...

  19. Allocation of New Construction Land Based on Land Competitiveness Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Connotation of land competitiveness is expatiated from both the narrow sense and broad sense. Evaluation index system of land competitiveness is established according to the 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and 2008 China Land Resources Statistical Yearbook. Efficiency Coefficient Method and Principal Component Analysis Method are used to evaluate the land competitiveness of 31 provincial units in China. Result shows that in the year 2007, land competitiveness gradually decreases from southeast to northwest. The land competitiveness and GDP per unit land have significant negative correlation. The rank of approved new construction land has low positive correlation with the rank of land competitiveness in China. This indicates that there is little correlation between the allocation of regional new construction land and the land use efficiency. Therefore, it is suggested that regional allocation of new construction land should be treated differently based on the evaluation result of land competitiveness.

  20. Testability integrated evaluation method based on testability virtual test data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guanjun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Testability virtual test is a new test method for testability verification, which has the advantages such as low cost, few restrictions and large sample of test data. It can be used to make up the deficiency of testability physical test. In order to take the advantage of testability virtual test data effectively and to improve the accuracy of testability evaluation, a testability integrated evaluation method is proposed in this paper based on testability virtual test data. Considering the characteristic of testability virtual test data, the credibility analysis method for testability virtual test data is studied firstly. Then the integrated calculation method is proposed fusing the testability virtual and physical test data. Finally, certain helicopter heading and attitude system is presented to demonstrate the proposed method. The results show that the testability integrated evaluation method is feasible and effective.

  1. Testability integrated evaluation method based on testability virtual test data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guanjun; Zhao Chenxu; Qiu Jing; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Testability virtual test is a new test method for testability verification, which has the advantages such as low cost, few restrictions and large sample of test data. It can be used to make up the deficiency of testability physical test. In order to take the advantage of testability virtual test data effectively and to improve the accuracy of testability evaluation, a testability integrated eval-uation method is proposed in this paper based on testability virtual test data. Considering the char-acteristic of testability virtual test data, the credibility analysis method for testability virtual test data is studied firstly. Then the integrated calculation method is proposed fusing the testability vir-tual and physical test data. Finally, certain helicopter heading and attitude system is presented to demonstrate the proposed method. The results show that the testability integrated evaluation method is feasible and effective.

  2. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a

  3. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  4. Nash bargaining with a nondeterministic threat

    CERN Document Server

    Soileau, Kerry Michael

    2008-01-01

    We consider bargaining problems which involve two participants, with a nonempty closed, bounded convex bargaining set of points in the real plane representing all realizable bargains. We also assume that there is no definite threat or disagreement point which will provide the default bargain if the players cannot agree on some point in the bargaining set. However, there is a nondeterministic threat: if the players fail to agree on a bargain, one of them will be chosen at random with equal probability, and that chosen player will select any realizable bargain as the solution, subject to a reasonable restriction.

  5. Assimilation potential of water column biota: Mesocosm-based evaluations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Ansari, Z.A.; Sadhasivan, A.; Naik, S.; Sawkar, K.

    adversely affect living organisms. The adverse effects of water pollution on human beings hold manifold threats and are detrimental to the health of living organisms. There are tangible increases in the following. • Disease-causing agents • Oxygen... capabilities to deal with situations of increased nutrient and pollutant load is very helpful. Moreover, any information from assimilation studies can be a useful pointer in decision-making. The term 'assimi lation' is a general one, holding different...

  6. Threat Mitigation: The Asteroid Tugboat

    CERN Document Server

    Schweickart, R; Durda, D; Hut, P; Chapman, Clark; Durda, Dan; Hut, Piet; Schweickart, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The Asteroid Tugboat (AT) is a fully controlled asteroid deflection concept using a robotic spacecraft powered by a high efficiency, electric propulsion system (ion or plasma) which docks with and attaches to the asteroid, conducts preliminary operations, and then thrusts continuously parallel to the asteroid velocity vector until the desired velocity change is achieved. Based on early warning, provided by ground tracking and orbit prediction, it would be deployed a decade or more prior to a potential impact. On completion of the initial rendezvous with the near-Earth object (NEO) the AT would first reduce the uncertainty in the orbit of the asteroid via Earth tracking of its radio transponder while it is station keeping with the asteroid. If on analysis of tracking data a deflection is required the AT would execute a reconnaissance phase collecting and processing information about the physical characteristics of the asteroid to support subsequent operations. The AT would then dock at the appropriate pole (i....

  7. A New Trust Evaluation for Trust-based RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjawat Charoenrien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trust-based recommender systems provide the recommendations on the most suitable items for the individual users by using the trust values from their trusted friends. Usually, the trust values are obtained directly from the users, or by calculated using the similarity values between the pair of users. However, the current trust value evaluation can cause the following three problems. First, it is difficult to identify the co-rated items for calculating the similarity values between the users. Second, the current trust value evaluation still has symmetry property which makes the same trust value on both directions (trustor and trustee. Finally, the current trust value evaluation does not focus on how to adjust the trust values for the remote user. To eliminate all of these problems, our purposed method consists of three new factors. First, the similarity values between the users are calculated using a latent factor model instead of the co-rated items. Second, in order to identify the trustworthiness for every user in trust network, the degrees of reliability are calculated. Finally, we use the number of hops for adjusting the trust value for the remote users who are expected to be low trust as shown in the real-world application concept. This trust evaluation leads to better predicted rating and getting more predictable ratings. Consequently, from our experiment, the more efficiency trust-based recommender system is obtained, comparing with the classical method on both accuracy and coverage.

  8. Model-based efficiency evaluation of combine harvester traction drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Häberle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the research the drive train of the combine harvesters is investigated in detail. The focus on load and power distribution, energy consumption and usage distribution are explicitly explored on two test machines. Based on the lessons learned during field operations, model-based studies of energy saving potential in the traction train of combine harvesters can now be quantified. Beyond that the virtual machine trial provides an opportunity to compare innovative drivetrain architectures and control solutions under reproducible conditions. As a result, an evaluation method is presented and generically used to draw comparisons under local representative operating conditions.

  9. User centred evaluation of a recommendation based image browsing system

    OpenAIRE

    Leelanupab, T.; Hopfgartner, F.; Jose, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to recommend images by mining user interactions based on implicit feedback of user browsing. The underlying hypothesis is that the interaction implicitly indicates the interests of the users for meeting practical image retrieval tasks. The algorithm mines interaction data and also low-level content of the clicked images to choose diverse images by clustering heterogeneous features. A user-centred, task-oriented, comparative evaluation was undertake...

  10. An experimental evaluation of ontology-based user profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfgartner, Frank; Jose, Joemon M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of research works have been carried out to improve the information retrieval process by exploiting external knowledge, e.g. by employing ontologies. Even though ontologies seem to be a promising technique to improve the retrieval process, hardly any study has been performed to evaluate the use of ontologies over a longer time period to model user interests. In this work we introduce an ontology based video recommender system that exploits implicit relevance feedback ...

  11. Evidence-based evaluation of therapeutic measures for sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Juan; Liu, Ling; Li, Meng-qiu; ZHANG Wen-wu; SI Yang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various treatment for sleep disorders in order to provide the best therapeutic regimen for the evidence-based treatment of sleep disorders. Methods Sleep disorder, insomnia, restless legs syndrome or RLS, obstructive sleep apnea or OSA, narcolepsy, REM behaviour disorder or RBD, treatment or therapy were used as retrieval words. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect were used for retrieval, and manual searching was also use...

  12. The effectiveness of e-learning: Based on students’ evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudaleva Irina; Kabasheva Irina; Kovaleva Elvina

    2016-01-01

    There was a survey done on the effectiveness of distance learning based on electronic educational resources of Kazan Federal University (KFU). The survey showed the attitude of the students to practical use of distance learning which came out as neutrally-positive. Most students evaluate distance learning at KFU as effective. Economic analysis showed that significant factors in the effectiveness are: timeliness of E-Learning appearance at the university, interface of Electronic Educational Re...

  13. An academic program for experience-based seismic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have been involved in a project, sponsored by the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, to develop knowledge-based expert systems to aid in the implementation of the Seismic Qualification Utility Group (SQUG) approach for the seismic qualification of equipment in operating nuclear power plants. This approach, being founded on the use of engineering judgment in the application of prior earthquake experience data, requires comprehensive training. There seems to be general consensus that the experience-based approach is a more cost-effective means of qualifying nuclear power plant equipment when compared to the more traditional analytical methods. The experience-based approach has a number of potential applications in civil engineering, including bridge evaluation and design, seismic adequacy of general structures, foundation design, and water and wastewater treatment plant design and operation. The objective of this paper is to outline an academic curriculum, at the master's level, to educate structural engineers to use and further develop the experience-based approach for seismic evaluation. In the long term, this could lead to the development of academic programs in experience-based assessment and design for a wide range of applications in maintaining the nation's infrastructure

  14. Stereotype threat and lift effects in motor task performance: the mediating role of somatic and cognitive anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to replicate the stereotype threat and lift effects in a motor task in a neutral sex-typed activity, using somatic and cognitive anxiety as key mediators of these phenomena. It was hypothesized that an ingroup/outgroup social categorization based on gender would have distinctive effects for female and male participants. A total of 161 French physical education students were randomly assigned to three threat conditions--no threat, female threat, and male threat--thus leading to a 3 x 2 (threat by gender) design. The analyses revealed a stereotype lift effect on the performances for both male and female participants, as well as a stereotype threat effect only for female participants. They also indicated that somatic anxiety had a mediating effect on the performance of female participants targeted by a negative stereotype, but that it had a facilitating effect on their performance. The stereotype threat and lift effects on motor tasks were replicated in a neutral sex-typed activity and somatic anxiety seems to have a facilitating mediating effect of the relationships between the gender-conditions (control or female threat) interaction and free-throw performance. The model used to distinguish somatic and cognitive anxiety appeared to be a relevant means of explaining the stereotype threat and lift mechanisms.

  15. Performance-based concept on seismic evaluation of existing bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chi Sung; Wen-I Liao; W.Phillip Yen

    2009-01-01

    Conventional seismic evaluation of existing bridges explores the ability of a bridge to survive under significant earthquake excitations. This approach has several major drawbacks, such as only a single structural performance of near collapse is considered, and the simplified approach of adopting strength-based concept to indirectly estimate the nonlinear behavior of a structure lacks accuracy. As a result, performance-based concepts that include a wider variety of structural performance states of a given bridge excited by different levels of earthquake intensity is needed by the engineering community. This paper introduces an improved process for the seismic evaluation of existing bridges. The relationship between the overall structural performance and earthquakes with varying levels of peak ground acceleration (PGA) can successfully be linked. A universal perspective on the seismic evaluation of bridges over their entire life-cycle can be easily obtained to investigate multiple performance objectives. The accuracy of the proposed method, based on pushover analysis, is proven in a case study that compares the results from the proposed procedure with additional nonlinear time history analyses.

  16. Threat Mitigation: The Gravity Tractor

    CERN Document Server

    Schweickart, R; Durda, D; Hut, P; Chapman, Clark; Durda, Dan; Hut, Piet; Schweickart, Russell

    2006-01-01

    The Gravity Tractor (GT) is a fully controlled asteroid deflection concept using the mutual gravity between a robotic spacecraft and an asteroid to slowly accelerate the asteroid in the direction of the "hovering" spacecraft. Based on early warning, provided by ground tracking and orbit prediction, it would be deployed a decade or more prior to a potential impact. Ion engines would be utilized for both the rendezvous with the asteroid and the towing phase. Since the GT does not dock with or otherwise physically contact the asteroid during the deflection process there is no requirement for knowledge of the asteroid's shape, composition, rotation state or other "conventional" characteristics. The GT would first reduce the uncertainty in the orbit of the asteroid via Earth tracking of its radio transponder while station keeping with the asteroid. If, after analysis of the more precise asteroid orbit a deflection is indeed indicated, the GT would "hover" above the surface of the asteroid in the direction of the r...

  17. Risk modeling, assessment, and management of lahar flow threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, M F; Santos, J R; Haimes, Y Y

    2003-12-01

    The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines is considered one of the most violent and destructive volcanic activities in the 20th century. Lahar is the Indonesian term for volcanic ash, and lahar flows resulting from the massive amount of volcanic materials deposited on the mountain's slope posed continued post-eruption threats to the surrounding areas, destroying lives, homes, agricultural products, and infrastructures. Risks of lahar flows were identified immediately after the eruption, with scientific data provided by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other research institutions. However, competing political, economic, and social agendas subordinated the importance of scientific information to policy making. Using systemic risk analysis and management, this article addresses the issues of multiple objectives and the effective integration of scientific techniques into the decision-making process. It provides a modeling framework for identifying, prioritizing, and evaluating policies for managing risk. The major considerations are: (1) applying a holistic approach to risk analysis through hierarchical holographic modeling, (2) applying statistical methods to gain insight into the problem of uncertainty in risk assessment, (3) using multiobjective trade-off analysis to address the issue of multiple decisionmakers and stakeholders in the decision-making process, (4) using the conditional expected value of extreme events to complement and supplement the expected value in quantifying risk, and (5) assessing the impacts of multistage decisions. Numerical examples based on ex post data are formulated to illustrate applications to various problems. The resulting framework from this study can serve as a general baseline model for assessing and managing risks of natural disasters, which the Philippines' lead agency-the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC)-and other related organizations can use for their decision

  18. Caprock Breach: A Threat to Secure Geologic Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, A. P.; Dong, W.

    2013-12-01

    The integrity of caprock in providing a reliable barrier is crucial to several environmental geosciences endeavours related to geologic sequestration of CO2, deep geologic disposal of hazardous wastes and contaminants. The integrity of geologic barriers can be compromised by several factors. The re-activation of dormant fractures and development of new fractures in the caprock during the injection process are regarded as effects that can pose a threat to storage security. Other poromechanical influences of pore structure collapse due to chemically induced erosion of the porous fabric resulting in worm-hole type features can also contribute to compromising storage security. The assessment of the rate of steady or transient seepage through defects in the caprock can allow geoscientists to make prudent evaluations of the effectiveness of a sequestration strategy. While complicated computational simulations can be used to calculate leakage through defects, it is useful to explore alternative analytical results that could be used in providing preliminary estimates of leakage rates through defects in the caprock in a storage setting. The relevance of such developments is underscored by the fact that the permeability characteristics of the storage formation, the fracture and the surficial rocks overlying the caprock can rarely be quantified with certainty. This paper presents the problem of a crack in a caprock that connects to a storage formation and an overburden rock or surficial soil formation. The geologic media are maintained at constant far-field flow potentials and leakage takes place at either steady or transient conditions. The paper develops an analytical result that can be used to estimate the steady seepage through the crack. The analytical result can also be used to estimate the leakage through hydraulically non-intersecting cracks and leakage from caprock-well casing interfaces. The analytical result is used to estimate the accuracy of a computational

  19. Defensive activation to (un)predictable interoceptive threat: The NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroijen, Mathias; Fantoni, Simona; Rivera, Carmen; Vervliet, Bram; Schruers, Koen; van den Bergh, Omer; van Diest, Ilse

    2016-06-01

    Potentially life-threatening interoceptive sensations easily engage the behavioral defensive system. Resulting fear and anxiety toward interoceptive threat are functionally distinct states that are hypothesized to play a prominent role in the etiology of panic disorder. The present study aimed to investigate whether fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle responses occur to predictable and unpredictable interoceptive threat, respectively. Therefore, we modified the NPU threat test (Schmitz & Grillon, ) and replaced the aversive electrocutaneous stimulus with an aversive interoceptive stimulus (a breathing occlusion, making it briefly impossible to breathe). Healthy participants (N = 48) underwent three instructed conditions. A visual cue signaled the occlusion in the predictable condition (P), whereas another cue was unrelated to the occurrence of the occlusion in the unpredictable condition (U). The safe condition (N) also had a visual cue, but no occlusion. Both fear- and anxiety-potentiated startle blink responses were observed in response to predictable and unpredictable respiratory threat, respectively. The current study presents and validates the NPU respiratory threat test (NPUr) as an ecologically valid paradigm to study both anxiety and fear in response to a panic-relevant interoceptive threat. The paradigm allows future testing of contextual generalization, investigation of different clinical groups, and more explicit comparisons of defensive responding to interoceptive versus exteroceptive threats.

  20. Technological Innovations to Counter CBRNE Threat Vectors and Ecotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseashta, Ashok

    The ubiquitous presence of sensors for enhanced situational awareness necessitates an innovative, articulate, and focused review of their design, architecture, functionality, and interoperability. A comprehensive overview of the latest and state-of-the art technological innovations in point and stand-off sensing/detection platforms with the objective of countering threats arising from chemical-biological-nuclear-high yield explosives (CBRNE) is the focus of this investigation. Ongoing research efforts and future research directions based on advanced approaches, including nanomaterials to develop materials, devices, and systems for potential use in sensing and detection of such threat vectors are articulated. The concept of advanced sciences convergences is introduced to examine the feasibility of potentially new and innovative research directions for persistent surveillance of CBRNE agents and infectious diseases. The intentional release of such agents in the environment constitutes ecological sabotage. Advanced sensing/detection platforms for CBRNE are used to detect threats to the environment. Issues associated with the use of nanomaterials regarding societal implications and dual-use concerns are addressed by studying fate and transport and the development of guidelines for a risk-assessment model. A roadmap of the future of nanomaterials, in terms of complexity, a nexus of disciplines, and its emerging potential to provide advanced, futuristic, and a paradigm-shifting platform is presented.

  1. Building relationships with foreign governments in support of threat reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of any multinational effort in support of threat reduction depends on the relationship developed between the nation receiving the assistance and the donor nations. The effectiveness of this relationship must be based on a solid legal and cooperative framework that establishes the ground rules for the interaction between all parties involved. The author proposes in this paper to outline major considerations by the donor nation and the nation receiving the assistance as they establish an effective approach to threat-reduction efforts. The legal framework needs to be founded on a well-developed, country-to-country agreement that establishes general ground rules and officially recognizes the collaborative effort in an internationally binding document between signatories. This document normally addresses such issues as liability, tax exemptions, import duties, contracts, applicable environmental regulations, etc. Also, of utmost importance is the establishment of a collaborative framework. The basis for such a collaborative framework must be the buy-in into a common objective, the willingness to share concerns and work toward resolutions, and continuous communications. Only when a proper legal framework and a collaborative approach are established can effective relationships be built to enhance threat-reduction efforts. (author)

  2. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  3. Threats and Vulnerabilities of RFID and Beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter discusses both security and privacy threats to RFID systems, in a balanced way. We first outline the general architecture of an RFID system, the stakeholders managing the different components, and identify the specific properties of RFID systems relevant for privacy and security. We the

  4. Avoidance: From threat encounter to action execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Arnaudova

    2015-01-01

    Every day we encounter many threats to survival: a car speeding on a small street or an angry neighbor carrying an axe. Mostly, people go through their days not worrying that their chance of survival might be small. They avoid many dangers without even thinking about them (e.g., looking at both side

  5. Extensible threat taxonomy for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union-sponsored project Vital Infrastructure Threats and Assurance (VITA) has the objective of exploring and showing new paths in Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) R&D. This paper describes one of VITA’s results: the idea and the development of a novel extensible and generic thre

  6. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  7. 'NRBC' threat: is this concept still valid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 10 years ago, after the Sarin attack in Tokyo, the world discover that terrorists could use again radio-nuclear, chemical or biological agents to launch attacks, just to cause terror and disruption of western economies. This has forged the acronym 'NRBC'. In terms of likelihood, nuclear and radiological attacks could be considered among the most easy to prepare, and some possible acts are listed in this paper. A considerable amount of work has been prepared for the preparedness against radio-nuclear attacks, during the last 3 years, by World Health Organization (WHO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Atomic Energy Agency (AEN) as well as by the International Commission of Radio Protection (ICRP). A series of documents have been issued from international cooperation. These documents shows specificities to the R/N threat in terms of health consequences, that make this threat less prone to international cooperative efforts than biological threats. In addition, the Ministers of Health of the G7 countries have created an 'Global Health Security Initiative' (GHSI) in 2002 to anticipate crisis such as the anthrax problem, or other possible NRBC threats

  8. Diversity, Racial Threat and Metropolitan Housing Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that as the percent black or percent Hispanic grows, that group's residential segregation from whites tends to increase as well. Typically, these findings are explained in terms of white discriminatory reaction to the perceived threat associated with minority population growth. The present analysis examines whether…

  9. The silent threat of low genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Across the Caribbean, protected coastal waters have served as primary feeding and breeding grounds for the endangered Antillean manatee. Unfortunately, these same coastal waters are also a popular “habitat” for humans. In the past, the overlap between human and manatee habitat allowed for manatee hunting and threatened the survival of these gentle marine mammals. Today, however, threats are much more inadvertent and are often related to coastal development, degraded habitats and boat strikes. In the state of Florida, decades of research on the species’ biological needs have helped conservationists address threats to its survival. For example, low wake zones and boater education have protected manatees from boat strikes, and many of their critical winter refuges are now protected. The Florida population has grown steadily, thus increasing from approximately 1,200 in 1991 to more than 5,000 in 2010. It is conceivable that in Florida manatees may one day be reclassified as “threatened” rather than “endangered.” Yet, in other parts of the Caribbean, threats still loom. This includes small, isolated manatee populations found on islands that can be more susceptible to extinction and lack of genetic diversity. To ensure the species’ long-term viability, scientists have turned their sights to the overall population dynamics of manatees throughout the Caribbean. Molecular genetics has provided new insights into long-term threats the species faces. Fortunately, the emerging field of conservation genetics provides managers with tools and strategies for protecting the species’ long-term viability.

  10. The Missing Piece in Threat Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Denis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Common systems for sharing intelligence on security threats have not been designed to efficiently process feedback from infrastructure providers. In order to fill this gap, we introduce DIP, a new description language to expose changes being made on a network that are relevant to security research and prevention.

  11. Conservation presence, not socioeconomics, leads to differences in pastoralist perceived threats to argali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley M. Sarmento

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based conservation approaches that keep people on landscapes increasingly complement preservationist models of reserves without people. Evaluations of community conservation have shown that economic incentives and socioeconomics primarily drive people’s attitudes and perceptions. Work at Mongolia’s Ikh Nart Nature Reserve demonstrates how to achieve successful conservation by integrating local people into the overall program. Using a short questionnaire, we interviewed pastoralist families across two soums (similar to a U.S. county in Ikh Nart. We examined (1 pastoralists’ perceived threats to argali sheep (Ovis ammon, (2 socioeconomic differences among pastoralists, and (3 differences between pastoralists from different soums. We found that 15 years of conservation activities—education, research, and modest ecotourism—that occurred in the northern soum led to influences on people’s perceptions toward argali conservation. Compared with pastoralists from southern Ikh Nart, pastoralists from the northern part of the reserve more likely knew that argali are protected and understood primary threats to the species. Socioeconomic factors, such as age, sex, and wealth, did not significantly influence responses. The negligible economic incentives in Ikh Nart did not lead to response differences. Our results demonstrate that conservation can influence people across socioeconomic classes without providing large economic incentives.

  12. Best practices in ranking communicable disease threats: a literature review, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eleanor Charlotte; Taft, Rachel; Geary, Katie; Ciotti, Massimo; Suk, Jonathan E

    2016-04-28

    The threat of serious, cross-border communicable disease outbreaks in Europe poses a significant challenge to public health and emergency preparedness because the relative likelihood of these threats and the pathogens involved are constantly shifting in response to a range of changing disease drivers. To inform strategic planning by enabling effective resource allocation to manage the consequences of communicable disease outbreaks, it is useful to be able to rank and prioritise pathogens. This paper reports on a literature review which identifies and evaluates the range of methods used for risk ranking. Searches were performed across biomedical and grey literature databases, supplemented by reference harvesting and citation tracking. Studies were selected using transparent inclusion criteria and underwent quality appraisal using a bespoke checklist based on the AGREE II criteria. Seventeen studies were included in the review, covering five methodologies. A narrative analysis of the selected studies suggests that no single methodology was superior. However, many of the methods shared common components, around which a 'best-practice' framework was formulated. This approach is intended to help inform decision makers' choice of an appropriate risk-ranking study design. PMID:27168585

  13. Simulation-based decision support for evaluating operational plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe simulation-based decision support techniques for evaluation of operational plans within effects-based planning. Using a decision support tool, developers of operational plans are able to evaluate thousands of alternative plans against possible courses of events and decide which of these plans are capable of achieving a desired end state. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of a decision support system that helps operational analysts understand the consequences of numerous alternative plans through simulation and evaluation. Operational plans are described in the effects-based approach to operations concept as a set of actions and effects. For each action, we examine several different alternative ways to perform the action. We use a representation where a plan consists of several actions that should be performed. Each action may be performed in one of several different alternative ways. Together these action alternatives make up all possible plan instances, which are represented as a tree of action alternatives that may be searched for the most effective sequence of alternative actions. As a test case, we use an expeditionary operation with a plan of 43 actions and several alternatives for these actions, as well as a scenario of 40 group actors. Decision support for planners is provided by several methods that analyze the impact of a plan on the 40 actors, e.g., by visualizing time series of plan performance. Detailed decision support for finding the most influential actions of a plan is presented by using sensitivity analysis and regression tree analysis. Finally, a decision maker may use the tool to determine the boundaries of an operation that it must not move beyond without risk of drastic failure. The significant contribution of this study is the presentation of an integrated approach for evaluation of operational plans.

  14. Efficient p-value evaluation for resampling-based tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, K.

    2011-01-05

    The resampling-based test, which often relies on permutation or bootstrap procedures, has been widely used for statistical hypothesis testing when the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic is unavailable or unreliable. It requires repeated calculations of the test statistic on a large number of simulated data sets for its significance level assessment, and thus it could become very computationally intensive. Here, we propose an efficient p-value evaluation procedure by adapting the stochastic approximation Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. The new procedure can be used easily for estimating the p-value for any resampling-based test. We show through numeric simulations that the proposed procedure can be 100-500 000 times as efficient (in term of computing time) as the standard resampling-based procedure when evaluating a test statistic with a small p-value (e.g. less than 10( - 6)). With its computational burden reduced by this proposed procedure, the versatile resampling-based test would become computationally feasible for a much wider range of applications. We demonstrate the application of the new method by applying it to a large-scale genetic association study of prostate cancer.

  15. Nuclear threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. A database, Nordic Nuclear Safety Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute phase of an accident and the possibility of high exposure of the populations are always the most important threats in the emergency preparedness work. Radioactive contamination from an accident can however also cause long time effects for land use and enhanced doses to special population groups and economic problems for agriculture, grazing animals, reindeer industry, hunting, freshwater fishing, tourism and recreation. For planning purposes it is always valuable to be aware of potential radiation hazard and other potential threats in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. Thus, mapping such threats in a Nordic context is an important factor in emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries. The project has dealt with threats from the north west of Russia and the Baltic states. The results from the different activities in the project is generated in a web based database called the 'the base of knowledge'. (orig.)

  16. Towards Reliable Evaluation of Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Arun

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results of research into the effects of environment-induced noise on the evaluation process for anomaly detectors in the cyber security domain. This research was conducted during a 10-week summer internship program from the 19th of August, 2012 to the 23rd of August, 2012 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The research performed lies within the larger context of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) Smart Grid cyber security project, a Department of Energy (DoE) funded effort involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and the University of Southern California/ Information Sciences Institute. The results of the present effort constitute an important contribution towards building more rigorous evaluation paradigms for anomaly-based intrusion detectors in complex cyber physical systems such as the Smart Grid. Anomaly detection is a key strategy for cyber intrusion detection and operates by identifying deviations from profiles of nominal behavior and are thus conceptually appealing for detecting "novel" attacks. Evaluating the performance of such a detector requires assessing: (a) how well it captures the model of nominal behavior, and (b) how well it detects attacks (deviations from normality). Current evaluation methods produce results that give insufficient insight into the operation of a detector, inevitably resulting in a significantly poor characterization of a detectors performance. In this work, we first describe a preliminary taxonomy of key evaluation constructs that are necessary for establishing rigor in the evaluation regime of an anomaly detector. We then focus on clarifying the impact of the operational environment on the manifestation of attacks in monitored data. We show how dynamic and evolving environments can introduce high variability into the data stream perturbing detector performance. Prior research has focused on understanding the impact of this

  17. Evaluation on Indicator System of Food Economic Project Evaluation based on Combination Weight and TOPSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Aiying Shang; Weihua Li; Huijuan Sun; Xiumin Zhao; Zhigang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    This study takes the drawback that the project performance has great influence on food enterprise performance into consideration, through the introduction of financial indicators, indicators of internal processes, learning and development indicators, to build a new comprehensive performance evaluation index system for food economic projects. Based on this, performance indicators data of food economic project is collected and then further processed, which lays the foundation for determining in...

  18. Shape-based feature selection for microcalcification evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Joan; Cufi, Xavier; Regincos, Jordi; Espanol, Josep; Pont, Josep; Barcelo, Carles

    1998-06-01

    This work focuses on the selection of a set of shape-based features in order to assist radiologists in differentiating between malignant and benignant clustered microcalcifications in mammograms. The results obtained allow the creation of a model for the evaluation of the benignant or malignant character of the microcalcifications in a mammogram, based exclusively on the following parameters: number of clusters, number of holes, area, Feret elongation, roughness and elongation. The performance of the classification scheme is close to the mean performance of three expert radiologists, which allows to consider the proposed method for assisting the diagnosis and encourages to continue the investigation in this field. Additionally, the work is based on an unpublished database formed by patients of the Regional Health Area of Girona, which in the future may contribute to increase the digital mammogram databases.

  19. Implementation and Performance Evaluation of IPSec VPN Based on Netfilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-yuan; JIANG Yi-xin; LIN Chuang; LI Yan-xi

    2005-01-01

    We mainly explore two problems when combining IPSec module into TCP/IP stack by porting the famous IPSec software (FreeS/WAN) into a security gateway. One is how to implement the IPSec module based on Netfilter in Linux 2.4. x kernel. The other problem is the performance evaluation. We test the throughput of our security gateway before and after applying IPSec with different encryption/decryption algorithms, including the software-based and hardware-based method. With these testing data, we analyze further system performance bottleneck. In the end, we also infer the quantitative relation between the system throughput and the speed of encryption/decryption algorithm and propose some valuable conclusions for improving performance.

  20. An Evaluation of Computer-Based Instruction in Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Merkel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a tremendous increase in the availability of computer-based instructional (CBI materials. Some studies have shown an improvement in learning when CBI is used. However, many researchers believe the current studies are inadequate. While CBI software should be thoroughly tested by developers, as educators, we should be concerned about whether or not the CBI materials we use are improving learning in our classrooms with our students. We present an evaluation of a computer-based hypermedia tutorial that was delivered over our General Microbiology website. We found that CBI was at least as effective as text-based material. However, of all students who used CBI, only those who explored most of the site benefited from using the site. Tracking each student's use of the CBI was critical for understanding who was learning and why.

  1. An Evaluation of Computer-Based Instruction in Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry S. Leventhal

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a tremendous increase in the availability of computer-based instructional (CBI materials. Some studies have shown an improvement in learning when CBI is used. However, many researchers believe the current studies are inadequate. While CBI software should be thoroughly tested by developers, as educators, we should be concerned about whether or not the CBI materials we use are improving learning in our classrooms with our students. We present an evaluation of a computer-based hypermedia tutorial that was delivered over our General Microbiology website. We found that CBI was at least as effective as text-based material. However, of all students who used CBI, only those who explored most of the site benefited from using the site. Tracking each student's use of the CBI was critical for understanding who was learning and why.

  2. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... risk estimates. The examples use Danish surveillance data from previously published studies to evaluate systems aimed at risk-based detection of new cases of an endemic infection, i.e. Salmonella in dairy cattle herds (Example 1), and for substantiating the absence of a specific infection, i...... are: A: to detect an emerging disease or infection, if it becomes introduced into a population; or B: to substantiate freedom from a condition in a population; or C: to detect cases and estimate the prevalence of an endemic condition in a population. In risk-based surveillance these aims should be met...

  3. Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Danny H [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with

  4. Evaluation of shape complexity based on STL data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Valentan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to present a part complexity, based on basic information of the STL data.Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a few methods of evaluating the complexity of the shape, based on the parts STL data. Methods vary from very simple based on the number of triangles in STL file and the parts volume, to the more complex mathematical determination based on the relations of the basic STL data.Findings: We discovered that evaluation of shape complexity based only on basic data of STL data gives us some basic view on part complexity.Research limitations/implications: For parts with large block volume/part volume ratio and thinner parts with free form surfaces only the first method is suitable and gives suitable results.Practical implications: The complexity of the shape of a part is an important factor for all manufacturing procedures. When using conventional machining, the parts complexity presents a key factor in determining the optimal way of manufacturing. Also, when using rapid tooling (for example silicon rubber moulding the complexity of the part determines the parting plane layout and eventual tool construction (inserts, cores, etc.. Even when using certain rapid prototyping procedures, the support material consumption depends highly on the complexity of the part and together with the problem of optimal orientation and position of the part, significantly influences the manufacturing costs. At the end of the article a few test method are presented that try to determine the complexity regarding to the procedure by which the part will be manufactured.Originality/value: Choosing maximum efficient manufacturing processes on base of part complexity is a new perspective in manufacturing, which, properly evolved and complied can cause revolution in manufacturing optimization, especially in hybrid manufacturing processes.

  5. Approach to Weighted Geometric Evaluation Based on Projection Pursuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shanlin; Wang Shuo; Gong Daning

    2006-01-01

    Weighted geometric evaluation approach based on Projection pursuit (PP) model is presented in this paper to optimize the choice of schemes. By using PP model, the multi-dimension evaluation index values of schemes can be synthesized into projection value with one dimension. The scheme with a bigger projection value is much better, so the schemes sample can be an optimized choice according to the projection value of each scheme. The modeling of PP based on accelerating genetic algorithm can predigest the realized process of projection pursuit technique, can overcome the shortcomings of large computation amount and the difficulty of computer programming in traditional projection pursuit methods, and can give a new method for application of projection pursuit technique to optimize choice of schemes by using weighted geometric evaluation. The analysis of an applied sample shows that applying PP model driven directly by samples data to optimize choice of schemes is both simple and feasible, that its projection values are relatively decentralized and profit decision-making, that its applicability and maneuverability are high. It can avoid the shortcoming of subjective weighing method, and its results are scientific and objective.

  6. Efficient Satellite Scheduling Based on Improved Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengyue Mao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite scheduling is a typical multi-peak, many-valley, nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem. How to effectively implement the satellite scheduling is a crucial research in space areas.This paper mainly discusses the performance of VEGA (Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithm based on the study of basic principles of VEGA algorithm, algorithm realization and test function, and then improves VEGA algorithm through introducing vector coding, new crossover and mutation operators, new methods to assign fitness and hold good individuals. As a result, the diversity and convergence of improved VEGA algorithm of improved VEGA algorithm have been significantly enhanced and will be applied to Earth-Mars orbit optimization. At the same time, this paper analyzes the results of the improved VEGA, whose results of performance analysis and evaluation show that although VEGA has a profound impact upon multi-objective evolutionary research,  multi-objective evolutionary algorithm on the basis of Pareto seems to be a more effective method to get the non-dominated solutions from the perspective of diversity and convergence of experimental result. Finally, based on Visual C + + integrated development environment, we have implemented improved vector evaluation algorithm in the satellite scheduling.

  7. Value-Added Models for Teacher Preparation Programs: Validity and Reliability Threats, and a Manageable Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Heiser, Lawrence A.; McCormick, Jazarae K.; Forgan, James

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes standardized student assessments are increasingly used in value-added evaluation models to connect teacher performance to P-12 student learning. These assessments are also being used to evaluate teacher preparation programs, despite validity and reliability threats. A more rational model linking student performance to candidates who…

  8. A new evaluation methodology for literature-based discovery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Pratt, Wanda

    2009-08-01

    While medical researchers formulate new hypotheses to test, they need to identify connections to their work from other parts of the medical literature. However, the current volume of information has become a great barrier for this task. Recently, many literature-based discovery (LBD) systems have been developed to help researchers identify new knowledge that bridges gaps across distinct sections of the medical literature. Each LBD system uses different methods for mining the connections from text and ranking the identified connections, but none of the currently available LBD evaluation approaches can be used to compare the effectiveness of these methods. In this paper, we present an evaluation methodology for LBD systems that allows comparisons across different systems. We demonstrate the abilities of our evaluation methodology by using it to compare the performance of different correlation-mining and ranking approaches used by existing LBD systems. This evaluation methodology should help other researchers compare approaches, make informed algorithm choices, and ultimately help to improve the performance of LBD systems overall.

  9. Trust Evaluation Model based on Multiple Service Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Ma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available when the most trusted models evaluate level of trust about service entities at present, the credibility of the service attributes whether the two sides trading result is credible is rather ambiguous, which makes the evaluation model lack of persuasion, and not very good depict the complexity and uncertainty of trust relationship between the two sides. In view of the above questions, learning trust relationship from human society, according to the service of the node itself, abstracting representative multiple service attributes from the trusted relationship of the node service, service requester comprehensive evaluates multiple service attributes provided by service provider based on personal interest, and combines with the trust value, decide whether to trade finally; after the transaction, service request calculates QoS(quality of service difference degree according to actual QoS and service provider’own QoS claimed to judge the credibility of service provider, then gives corresponding rewards and punishment and trust update. Simulation results show that the model can evaluative accurately the node’s trust degree and effectively control of malicious nodes attack, when the malicious nodes have a higher proportion in the system ,it can still keep high success rate.

  10. Threat perception and familiarity moderate the androgen response to competition in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia; Fernandes, Alexandre; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2013-01-01

    Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen-dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T) changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity with the opponent and the subjective evaluation of the outcome as threat or challenge. Challenge/threat occurs in goal relevant situations and represent different motivational states arising from the individuals’ subjective evaluation of the interplay between the task demands and coping resources possessed. For challenge the coping resources exceed the task demands, while threat represents a state where coping resources are insufficient to meet the task demands. In this experiment women competed in pairs, against a same sex opponent using the number tracking test as a competitive task. Losers appraised the competition outcome as more threatening than winners, and displayed higher post-competition T levels than winners. No differences were found either for cortisol (C) or for dehydroepiandrosterone. Threat, familiarity with the opponent and T response were associated only in the loser condition. Moderation analysis suggests that for the women that lost the competition the effect of threat on T is moderated by familiarity with the opponent. PMID:23847564

  11. Threat perception and familiarity moderate the androgen response to competition in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia; Fernandes, Alexandre; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F

    2013-01-01

    Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen-dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T) changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity with the opponent and the subjective evaluation of the outcome as threat or challenge. Challenge/threat occurs in goal relevant situations and represent different motivational states arising from the individuals' subjective evaluation of the interplay between the task demands and coping resources possessed. For challenge the coping resources exceed the task demands, while threat represents a state where coping resources are insufficient to meet the task demands. In this experiment women competed in pairs, against a same sex opponent using the number tracking test as a competitive task. Losers appraised the competition outcome as more threatening than winners, and displayed higher post-competition T levels than winners. No differences were found either for cortisol (C) or for dehydroepiandrosterone. Threat, familiarity with the opponent and T response were associated only in the loser condition. Moderation analysis suggests that for the women that lost the competition the effect of threat on T is moderated by familiarity with the opponent.

  12. Threat perception and familiarity moderate the androgen response to competition in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity with the opponent and the subjective evaluation of the outcome as threat or challenge. Challenge/Threat occurs in goal relevant situations and represent different motivational states arising from the individuals’ subjective evaluation of the interplay between the task demands and coping resources possessed. For challenge the coping resources exceed the task demands, while threat represents a state where coping resources are insufficient to meet the task demands. In this experiment women competed in pairs, against a same sex opponent using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Losers appraised the competition outcome as more threatening than winners, and displayed higher post-competition T levels than winners. No differences were found either for Cortisol (C or for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Threat, familiarity with the opponent and T response were associated only in the loser condition. Moderation analysis suggests that for the women that lost the competition the effect of threat on T is moderated by familiarity with the opponent.

  13. Evaluation of Liquefaction Return Period for Bangalore Based on Standard Penetration Test Data: Performance Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Vipin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The conventional liquefaction evaluation is based on a deterministic approach. However in this method the uncertainty in the earthquake loading is not properly taken into account. However recent research in this field indicates that this uncertainty in the earthquake loading has to be considered in the liquefaction potential evaluation. Moreover the evaluation of liquefaction return period is not possible in the conventional deterministic methods. This study explained the methods for evaluating the probability of liquefaction and the return period of liquefaction based on probabilistic approach. Approach: In this study the geotechnical data was collected from 450 bore holes in Bangalore, India, covering an area of 220 km2. The seismic hazard analysis for the study area is carried out using Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA and the peak acceleration at ground surface was evaluated for site class-D after considering local site effects. For assessment of site class, shear wave velocity profiles in the city had been obtained using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW survey. Based on this data the probabilistic liquefaction analysis was done to evaluate the probability of liquefaction in the study area. Based on the performance based approach the liquefaction return period for the study area was also evaluated. Results: The results showed the variation of liquefaction susceptibility for the study area. The corrected standard penetration values required to prevent the liquefaction for return periods of 475 and 2500 years were also presented here. Conclusion/Recommendations: The spatial variation of probability of liquefaction and the factor of safety against liquefaction evaluated using the two methods match well for the study area.

  14. Study of Math-based Stereotype Threat Faced by University Students II--Psychological Mechanism%大学生数学刻板印象威胁实验研究Ⅱ--心理机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文明; 李晓东; 罗苏梅

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this research was to investigate the Psychological Mechanism of stereotype threat on Limitations of Working Memory. All dependent Variables were examined using 3 priming (Implicit versus Explicit versus no threat)×2 processing load (high, low)×2 retention duration (Length, Short).The study revealed the processing load affected Limitations of Working Memory, and retention duration had effect on Working Memory. The results of experiment also indicated in explicit stereotype activation effects women reported more anxiety on high processing load task, but less Self-handicapping than Other groups. However, in implicit stereotype activation effects women reported less anxiety on high processing load task, but more self-handicapping than other groups. The experiment Support hypotheses of dual process model for how explicit and implicit stereotype threat cues influence Working Memory through separate mechanisms.%通过实验考察刻板印象威胁影响个体的工作记忆容量的心理机制。实验采用3启动方式(外显启动,内隐启动,控制组)×2加工负荷(高负荷,低负荷)×2保持时间(长时间保持,短时间保持)3因素完全随机实验设计。结果发现,无论在外显组还是在内隐组,加工负荷对工作记忆容量的影响具有主效应,而保持时间主效应同样也显著。实验结果表明,外显高负荷组的女性报告更多的焦虑,却表现出较少的自我妨碍;内隐高负荷组的女性表现出更多的自我妨碍却报告更少的焦虑。因此,实验结果支持双加工模型,即内隐和外显刻板印象威胁通过不同的机制影响工作记忆。

  15. The effectiveness of e-learning: Based on students’ evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudaleva Irina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There was a survey done on the effectiveness of distance learning based on electronic educational resources of Kazan Federal University (KFU. The survey showed the attitude of the students to practical use of distance learning which came out as neutrally-positive. Most students evaluate distance learning at KFU as effective. Economic analysis showed that significant factors in the effectiveness are: timeliness of E-Learning appearance at the university, interface of Electronic Educational Resources (EER system on the university website; constant use of E-Learning elements by teachers in the process of education; evaluating the necessity of use of E-learning elements at the university; availability of video connection with the teacher as an E-learning element.

  16. Neurally based measurement and evaluation of environmental noise

    CERN Document Server

    Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with methods of measurement and evaluation of environmental noise based on an auditory neural and brain-oriented model. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) and the interaural cross-correlation function (IACF) mechanisms for signals arriving at the two ear entrances. Even when the sound pressure level of a noise is only about 35 dBA, people may feel annoyed due to the aspects of sound quality. These aspects can be formulated by the factors extracted from the ACF and IACF. Several examples of measuring environmental noise—from outdoor noise such as that of aircraft, traffic, and trains, and indoor noise such as caused by floor impact, toilets, and air-conditioning—are demonstrated. According to the noise measurement and evaluation, applications for sound design are discussed. This book provides an excellent resource for students, researchers, and practitioners in a wide range of fields, such as the automotive, railway, and electronics industries, and soundscape, architec...

  17. Performance Evaluation of a Biometric System Based on Acoustic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Villacorta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic electronic scanning array for acquiring images from a person using a biometric application is developed. Based on pulse-echo techniques, multifrequency acoustic images are obtained for a set of positions of a person (front, front with arms outstretched, back and side. Two Uniform Linear Arrays (ULA with 15 l/2-equispaced sensors have been employed, using different spatial apertures in order to reduce sidelobe levels. Working frequencies have been designed on the basis of the main lobe width, the grating lobe levels and the frequency responses of people and sensors. For a case-study with 10 people, the acoustic profiles, formed by all images acquired, are evaluated and compared in a mean square error sense. Finally, system performance, using False Match Rate (FMR/False Non-Match Rate (FNMR parameters and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, is evaluated. On the basis of the obtained results, this system could be used for biometric applications.

  18. Formability Evaluation of Sheet Metals Based on Global Strain Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Lin, Jianping; Min, Junying; Ye, You; Kang, Liugen

    2016-06-01

    According to the conventional methods for formability evaluation, e.g., forming limit curve (FLC), limit dome height, and total elongation, inconsistent results are observed when comparing the formability of four advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) with an ultimate tensile strength grade of 1000 MPa. The strain distribution analysis with the aid of digital image correlation technique shows that different uniform deformation capabilities of sheet metals under the same loading conditions are responsible for this inconsistency. In addition, metallurgical analysis suggests that inhomogeneous microstructure distribution and phase transformation during deformation in some materials play important roles in the uniform deformation capability of sheet metal. Limit strains on the commonly used FLC only relate to the major and minor strains of local deforming elements associated with the onset of necking. However, the formability of a sheet metal component is determined by the strain magnitudes of all deforming elements involved during the forming process. Hence, the formability evaluation of sheet metals from a global aspect is more applicable for practical engineering. A new method based on two indices (i.e., which represent global formability and uniform deformation capability, respectively) is proposed to evaluate the formability of sheet metals based on global strain distribution. The formability and evolution of deformation uniformity of the investigated AHSS at different stress states are studied with this new method. Compared with other formability evaluation methods, the new method is demonstrated to be more appropriate for practical engineering, and it is applicable to both in-plane and out-of-plane deformation. Additionally, the global formability of sheet metals can be more comprehensively understood with this new method.

  19. Evaluating conducting network based transparent electrodes from geometrical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ankush [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, 560064 Bangalore (India); Kulkarni, G. U., E-mail: guk@cens.res.in [Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, 560013 Bangalore (India)

    2016-01-07

    Conducting nanowire networks have been developed as viable alternative to existing indium tin oxide based transparent electrode (TE). The nature of electrical conduction and process optimization for electrodes have gained much from the theoretical models based on percolation transport using Monte Carlo approach and applying Kirchhoff's law on individual junctions and loops. While most of the literature work pertaining to theoretical analysis is focussed on networks obtained from conducting rods (mostly considering only junction resistance), hardly any attention has been paid to those made using template based methods, wherein the structure of network is neither similar to network obtained from conducting rods nor similar to well periodic geometry. Here, we have attempted an analytical treatment based on geometrical arguments and applied image analysis on practical networks to gain deeper insight into conducting networked structure particularly in relation to sheet resistance and transmittance. Many literature examples reporting networks with straight or curvilinear wires with distributions in wire width and length have been analysed by treating the networks as two dimensional graphs and evaluating the sheet resistance based on wire density and wire width. The sheet resistance values from our analysis compare well with the experimental values. Our analysis on various examples has revealed that low sheet resistance is achieved with high wire density and compactness with straight rather than curvilinear wires and with narrower wire width distribution. Similarly, higher transmittance for given sheet resistance is possible with narrower wire width but of higher thickness, minimal curvilinearity, and maximum connectivity. For the purpose of evaluating active fraction of the network, the algorithm was made to distinguish and quantify current carrying backbone regions as against regions containing only dangling or isolated wires. The treatment can be helpful in

  20. Evaluating conducting network based transparent electrodes from geometrical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankush; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting nanowire networks have been developed as viable alternative to existing indium tin oxide based transparent electrode (TE). The nature of electrical conduction and process optimization for electrodes have gained much from the theoretical models based on percolation transport using Monte Carlo approach and applying Kirchhoff's law on individual junctions and loops. While most of the literature work pertaining to theoretical analysis is focussed on networks obtained from conducting rods (mostly considering only junction resistance), hardly any attention has been paid to those made using template based methods, wherein the structure of network is neither similar to network obtained from conducting rods nor similar to well periodic geometry. Here, we have attempted an analytical treatment based on geometrical arguments and applied image analysis on practical networks to gain deeper insight into conducting networked structure particularly in relation to sheet resistance and transmittance. Many literature examples reporting networks with straight or curvilinear wires with distributions in wire width and length have been analysed by treating the networks as two dimensional graphs and evaluating the sheet resistance based on wire density and wire width. The sheet resistance values from our analysis compare well with the experimental values. Our analysis on various examples has revealed that low sheet resistance is achieved with high wire density and compactness with straight rather than curvilinear wires and with narrower wire width distribution. Similarly, higher transmittance for given sheet resistance is possible with narrower wire width but of higher thickness, minimal curvilinearity, and maximum connectivity. For the purpose of evaluating active fraction of the network, the algorithm was made to distinguish and quantify current carrying backbone regions as against regions containing only dangling or isolated wires. The treatment can be helpful in predicting

  1. Evaluation of social network user sentiments based on fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneva, E. E.; Banokin, P. I.; Yefremov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The article introduces social network user sentiment evaluation with proposed technique based on fuzzy sets. The advantage of proposed technique consists in ability to take into account user's influence as well as the fact that a user could be an author of several messages. Results presented in this paper can be used in mechanical engineering to analyze reviews on products as well as in robotics for developing user communication interface. The paper contains experimental data and shows the steps of sentiment value calculation of resulting messages on a certain topic. Application of proposed technique is demonstrated on experimental data from Twitter social network.

  2. The Evidence-Based Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Eliana V; Bollard, Edward R

    2016-09-01

    Anemia is a prevalent disease with multiple possible etiologies and resultant complications. Iron deficiency anemia is a common cause of anemia and is typically due to insufficient intake, poor absorption, or overt or occult blood loss. Distinguishing iron deficiency from other causes of anemia is integral to initiating the appropriate treatment. In addition, identifying the underlying cause of iron deficiency is also necessary to help guide management of these patients. We review the key components to an evidence-based, cost-conscious evaluation of suspected iron deficiency anemia. PMID:27542426

  3. Evaluation of the integrated community based home care model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Uys

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1999-2000 the Integrated Community-Based Home Care model for the care of people with AIDS in communities were implemented in seven sites across the country. The post-implementation evaluation showed that most respondents felt that the model could be replicated if a functioning and informed network including all partners, and a strong management team were in place. The effects of the project were mainly positive for all stakeholders (hospice, clinic, hospital, PWA and their carers, professionals and other community members. Hospitals and community- based services became more aware of and involved in the needs of PWA and felt that the model enabled them to address these needs. PWA and their carers felt supported and respected.

  4. Wavelet-based deconvolution of ultrasonic signals in nondestructive evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HERRERA Roberto Henry; OROZCO Rubén; RODRIGUEZ Manuel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the inverse problem of reconstructing reflectivity function of a medium is examined within a blind deconvolution framework. The ultrasound pulse is estimated using higher-order statistics, and Wiener filter is used to obtain the ultrasonic reflectivity function through wavelet-based models. A new approach to the parameter estimation of the inverse filtering step is proposed in the nondestructive evaluation field, which is based on the theory of Fourier-Wavelet regularized deconvolution (ForWaRD). This new approach can be viewed as a solution to the open problem of adaptation of the ForWaRD framework to perform the convolution kernel estimation and deconvolution interdependently. The results indicate stable solutions of the estimated pulse and an improvement in the radio-frequency (RF) signal taking into account its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and axial resolution. Simulations and experiments showed that the proposed approach can provide robust and optimal estimates of the reflectivity function.

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PCF BASED AWG DEMULTIPLEXERS FOR OPTICAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JYOTHI DIGGE,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we emphasize on the design and simulation of four channel, Photonic crystal Fiber(PCF based arrayed waveguide (AWG Demultiplexers for optical communication network. We have considered two types of AWG Demultiplexers, namely multicore and dual concentric core PCF.The simulation is performed for 1550nm central wavelength. The change in the effective index and dispersion is evaluated. The results show that dual concentric core PCF based AWG offers a dispersion of -4200 ps/nm/km dispersion and multicore PCF AWG offers -3500ps/nm/km dispersion, enabling the separation of wavelength. Finite difference time domain (FDTD and Beam Propagation method is used for the analysis. The spectral response shows that the device hasa wide free spectral range(FSR sufficient enough to provide 100GHz Channel separation.

  6. Genetic algorithm-based evaluation of spatial straightness error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔长彩; 车仁生; 黄庆成; 叶东; 陈刚

    2003-01-01

    A genetic algorithm ( GA ) -based approach is proposed to evaluate the straightness error of spatial lines. According to the mathematical definition of spatial straightness, a verification model is established for straightness error, and the fitness function of GA is then given and the implementation techniques of the proposed algorithm is discussed in detail. The implementation techniques include real number encoding, adaptive variable range choosing, roulette wheel and elitist combination selection strategies, heuristic crossover and single point mutation schemes etc. An application example is quoted to validate the proposed algorithm. The computation result shows that the GA-based approach is a superior nonlinear parallel optimization method. The performance of the evolution population can be improved through genetic operations such as reproduction, crossover and mutation until the optimum goal of the minimum zone solution is obtained. The quality of the solution is better and the efficiency of computation is higher than other methods.

  7. Naval submarine base Kings Bay and Bangor soil evaluations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Joseph; Patteson, Raymond; Wesenberg, Donald L.; Attaway, Stephen W.

    2004-08-01

    This report provides soil evaluation and characterization testing for the submarine bases at Kings Bay, Georgia, and Bangor, Washington, using triaxial testing at high confining pressures with different moisture contents. In general, the samples from the Bangor and Kings Bay sites appeared to be stronger than a previously used reference soil. Assuming the samples of the material were representative of the material found at the sites, they should be adequate for use in the planned construction. Since soils can vary greatly over even a small site, a soil specification for the construction contractor would be needed to insure that soil variations found at the site would meet or exceed the requirements. A suggested specification for the Bangor and Kings Bay soils was presented based on information gathered from references plus data obtained from this study, which could be used as a basis for design by the construction contractor.

  8. Ecological evaluation of Beijing economy based on emergy indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M. M.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Ji, X.; Zhang, L. X.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-05-01

    An integrated ecological evaluation of the Beijing economy was presented in the paper based on the emergy accounting with the data in 2004. Through calculating environmental and economic inputs within and outside the Beijing economy, this paper discusses the Beijing's resource structure, economic situation and trade status based on a series of emergy indicators. Through the comparison of the systematic indicators of Beijing with those of the selected Chinese cities, the general status of the Beijing economy in China is identified. The results also show that most indicators of Beijing are located at middle levels among the selected Chinese cities. Particularly, the environmental impacts, expressed by the ratio of waste to the renewable emergy, and the ratio of waste to the total emergy use, are 84.2 and 0.26, respectively in Beijing in 2004, which indicate that the Beijing economy is greatly reliant on the imported intensive fuels, goods and services with high empower density and environmental loading.

  9. A Physicist Looks at the Terrorist Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Many people fear a terrorist nuclear device, smuggled into the United States, as the one weapon that could surpass the destruction and impact of 9-11. I'll review the design of nuclear weapons, with emphasis on the kinds that can be developed by rogue nations, terrorist groups, and high-school students. Saddam, prior to the first gulf war, was developing a uranium bomb, similar to the one that destroyed Hiroshima. His calutrons (named after my university) were destroyed by the United Nations. The North Korean nuclear weapon was, like the U.S. bomb used on Nagasaki, based on plutonium. Its test released the energy equivalent of about 400 tons of TNT. Although some people have speculated that they were attempting to build a small bomb, it is far more likely that this weapon was a fizzle, with less than 1 percent of the plutonium exploded. In contrast, the energy released from burning jet fuel at the 9-11 World Trade Center attack was the equivalent of 900 tons of TNT for each plane -- over twice that of the North Korean Nuke. The damage came from the fact that gasoline delivers 10 kilocalories per gram, about 15 times the energy of an equal weight of TNT. It is this huge energy per gram that also accounts for our addiction to gasoline; per gram, high performance lithium-ion computer batteries carry only 1 percent as much energy. A dirty bomb (radiological weapon) is also unattractive to terrorists because of the threhold effect: doses less than 100 rem produce no radiation illness and will leave no dead bodies at the scene. That may be why al Qaeda instructed Jose Padilla to abandon his plans for a dirty bomb attack in Chicago, and to try a fossil fuel attack (natural gas) instead. I will argue that the biggest terrorist threat is the conventional low-tech one, such as an airplane attack on a crowded stadium using the explosive fuel that they can legally buy at the corner station.

  10. A freshwater biodiversity hotspot under pressure - assessing threats and identifying conservation needs for ancient Lake Ohrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostoski, G.; Albrecht, C.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2010-12-01

    Immediate conservation measures for world-wide freshwater resources are of eminent importance. This is particularly true for so-called ancient lakes. While these lakes are famous for being evolutionary theatres, often displaying an extraordinarily high degree of biodiversity and endemism, in many cases these biota are also experiencing extreme anthropogenic impact. Lake Ohrid, a major European biodiversity hotspot situated in a trans-frontier setting on the Balkans, is a prime example for a lake with a magnitude of narrow range endemic taxa that are under increasing anthropogenic pressure. Unfortunately, evidence for a "creeping biodiversity crisis" has accumulated over the last decades, and major socio-political changes have gone along with human-mediated environmental changes. Based on field surveys, monitoring data, published records, and expert interviews, we aimed to (1) assess threats to Lake Ohrids' (endemic) biodiversity, (2) summarize existing conservation activities and strategies, and (3) outline future conservation needs for Lake Ohrid. We compiled threats to both specific taxa (and in cases to particular species) as well as to the lake ecosystems itself. Major conservation concerns identified for Lake Ohrid are: (1) watershed impacts, (2) agriculture and forestry, (3) tourism and population growth, (4) non-indigenous species, (5) habitat alteration or loss, (6) unsustainable exploitation of fisheries, and (7) global climate change. Among the major (well-known) threats with high impact are nutrient input (particularly of phosphorus), habitat conversion and silt load. Other threats are potentially of high impact but less well known. Such threats include pollution with hazardous substances (from sources such as mines, former industries, agriculture) or climate change. We review and discuss institutional responsibilities, environmental monitoring and ecosystem management, existing parks and reserves, biodiversity and species measures, international

  11. [Land and marine fauna constituting a threat for recreational divers in the tropics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-09-01

    Due to intensively growing international tourism, increasing numbers of people leave for countries with hot climates, where various threats for human health and life exist. Besides climatic and sanitary conditions, a rich fauna, represented by predators and venomous animals, can be included. Based on available world literature and their own observations, the authors present the threats that a tourist can possibly encounter whilst relaxing on the beach or during recreational diving in tropical waters. When staying in water, a large threat is posed by marine fish of prey (sharks, barracuda, muraena), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, anemones) and venomous animals (fish, sea snakes). On land, on the other hand, a threat can be posed by venomous arthropods (scorpions, spiders) and Hymenoptera insects. The study presents the most important representatives of fauna present in coastal areas frequently visited by diving enthusiasts. Also, clinical image and conduct in the case of body injures are discussed. PMID:19112854

  12. Stereotype threat among black and white women in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W

    2014-07-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat-the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes-to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one's ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women.

  13. Evaluation of PCR based coprodiagnosis of human opisthorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensvold, C R; Saijuntha, W; Sithithaworn, P; Wongratanacheewin, S; Strandgaard, H; Ornbjerg, N; Johansen, M V

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a recently developed PCR test for the detection of Opisthorchis viverrini in human faecal samples was evaluated using two parasitological methods as references. During a survey of foodborne trematodes (FBT) in the Vientiane Province, Lao PDR, 85 samples were collected and evaluated for FBT eggs by the Kato Katz (KK) technique, the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) and a PCR analysis for the distinction between O. viverrini and other FBT. The two parasitological methods did not differ in the ability of detecting FBT eggs, and a single KK reading was characterized by a sensitivity of 85% when compared to two FECT readings. The PCR tested positive only in cases where eggs had been demonstrated by parasitological examination. However, the PCR tested negative in some samples with very high egg counts. Demonstrating a PCR sensitivity of approximately 50% in samples with faecal egg counts>1000, the previously reported PCR sensitivity based on in vitro studies was not supported. It is believed that technical problems rather than diagnostic reference related issues were responsible for the relatively low PCR performance. Further studies should aim at optimizing DNA extraction and amplification, and future PCR evaluation should include specificity control such as the scanning electron microscopy of eggs in test samples or the expulsion of adult trematodes from PCR tested individuals. PMID:16253202

  14. Entropy-Based Credit Evaluation for Mobile Telephone Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zong-Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The arrears problem puzzled most mobile communication corporations in China. In information theory, the Shannon entropy is a measure of the uncertainty in a signal or random event. Motivated by entropy theory especially the Shannon Entropy, in this study, one called customer information entropy is defined and proposed to credit evaluation for arrearage customers of cellular telephone. The proposed customer information entropy is based on customer’s behavior attributes. Arrearage customers often include malevolent ones and non-malevolent ones. 52364 arrearage customers among a total number of 400000 ones in a mobile communication corporation are chosen for experiment. The proposed measure yields good results in its application of credit evaluation for 52364 arrearage customers in August and September. Its correct evaluation rates for malevolent and non-malevolent of the 52364 arrearage ones both are over 90.0%: among the 52364 arrearage customers, 90.75% of the non-malevolent ones, whose entropy changes is less than zero, while for the entropy changes of the malevolent ones, 95.36% is equal to zero and 1.57% is more than zero. The experimental results indicate that the entropy changes of the non-malevolent ones could be considered as negative and nonnegative for the malevolent ones. The proposed show its potential practicality.

  15. An Evaluation of Total Project Risk Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Doskočil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of fuzzy logic as a support of evaluation of total project risk. A brief description of actual project risk management, fuzzy set theory, fuzzy logic and the process of calculation is given. The major goal of this paper is to present am new expert decision-making fuzzy model for evaluating total project risk. This fuzzy model based on RIPRAN method. RIPRAN (RIsk PRoject ANalysis method is an empirical method for the analysis of project risks. The Fuzzy Logic Toolbox in MATLAB software was used to create the decision-making fuzzy model. The advantage of the fuzzy model is the ability to transform the input variables The Number of Sub-Risks (NSR and The Total Value of Sub-Risks (TVSR to linguistic variables, as well as linguistic evaluation of the Total Value of Project Risk (TVPR – output variable. With this approach it is possible to simulate the risk value and uncertainty that are always associated with real projects. The scheme of the model, rule block, attributes and their membership functions are mentioned in a case study. The use of fuzzy logic is a particular advantage in decision-making processes where description by algorithms is extremely difficult and criteria are multiplied.

  16. Measurement-Based Performance Evaluation of Advanced MIMO Transceiver Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology and the results of performance investigations on a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transceiver scheme for frequency-selective radio channels. The method relies on offline simulations and employs real-time MIMO channel sounder measurement data to ensure a realistic channel modeling. Thus it can be classified in between the performance evaluation using some predefined channel models and the evaluation of a prototype hardware in field experiments. New aspects for the simulation setup are discussed, which are frequently ignored when using simpler model-based evaluations. Example simulations are provided for an iterative ("turbo" MIMO equalizer concept. The dependency of the achievable bit error rate performance on the propagation characteristics and on the variation in some system design parameters is shown, whereas the antenna constellation is of particular concern for MIMO systems. Although in many of the considered constellations turbo MIMO equalization appears feasible in real field scenarios, there exist cases with poor performance as well, indicating that in practical applications link adaptation of the transmitter and receiver processing to the environment is necessary.

  17. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  18. MODEL-BASED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION APPROACH FOR MOBILE AGENT SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin; Mi Zhengkun; Meng Xudong

    2004-01-01

    Claimed as the next generation programming paradigm, mobile agent technology has attracted extensive interests in recent years. However, up to now, limited research efforts have been devoted to the performance study of mobile agent system and most of these researches focus on agent behavior analysis resulting in that models are hard to apply to mobile agent systems. To bridge the gap, a new performance evaluation model derived from operation mechanisms of mobile agent platforms is proposed. Details are discussed for the design of companion simulation software, which can provide the system performance such as response time of platform to mobile agent. Further investigation is followed on the determination of model parameters. Finally comparison is made between the model-based simulation results and measurement-based real performance of mobile agent systems. The results show that the proposed model and designed software are effective in evaluating performance characteristics of mobile agent systems. The proposed approach can also be considered as the basis of performance analysis for large systems composed of multiple mobile agent platforms.

  19. Strength-based crisis programming: Evaluating the process of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hootz, Terra; Mykota, David B; Fauchoux, Laurissa

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a utilization-focused process evaluation framework was used to explore client and service providers' experiences of Crisis Management Services (CMS), their perceptions of the services provided, and the process of client engagement CMS offers. CMS is a strength-based program that targets individuals who experience crises every day. The Community-University Institute for Social Research facilitated the evaluation by engaging academic expertise in a coordinated collaborative approach to community-university partnerships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the clients and service providers. The general inductive approach was used for transcript analysis with seven themes emerging. A conceptual model of service delivery is presented, which integrates the interviews conducted with clients and service providers. Results affirm that the establishment of a close personal strength-based relationship is key to client engagement. Collaborative goal setting with informal and formal community resources viewed as potential assets, characterizes the process that enables clients to live at their optimal level of independence. This study is unique as it provides valuable insight on the perspectives of vulnerable individuals in crisis situations. Through the establishment of community-university partnerships the gap between scholarly research and its applicability to community organizations is narrowed with opportunities for improving the quality of life enhanced. PMID:26512431

  20. Performance Evaluation in Network-Based Parallel Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezhgosha, Kamyar

    1996-01-01

    Network-based parallel computing is emerging as a cost-effective alternative for solving many problems which require use of supercomputers or massively parallel computers. The primary objective of this project has been to conduct experimental research on performance evaluation for clustered parallel computing. First, a testbed was established by augmenting our existing SUNSPARCs' network with PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) which is a software system for linking clusters of machines. Second, a set of three basic applications were selected. The applications consist of a parallel search, a parallel sort, a parallel matrix multiplication. These application programs were implemented in C programming language under PVM. Third, we conducted performance evaluation under various configurations and problem sizes. Alternative parallel computing models and workload allocations for application programs were explored. The performance metric was limited to elapsed time or response time which in the context of parallel computing can be expressed in terms of speedup. The results reveal that the overhead of communication latency between processes in many cases is the restricting factor to performance. That is, coarse-grain parallelism which requires less frequent communication between processes will result in higher performance in network-based computing. Finally, we are in the final stages of installing an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) switch and four ATM interfaces (each 155 Mbps) which will allow us to extend our study to newer applications, performance metrics, and configurations.

  1. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Duggan, Ruth [SNL

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  2. Community Changes Address Common Health Threat

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-30

    This podcast helps residents living in multiunit housing, like apartments and condos, understand the threat of secondhand smoke. It also helps residents understand what steps they can take to breathe a little easier if involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke.  Created: 9/30/2013 by Division of Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 9/30/2013.

  3. Handsets Malware Threats and Facing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Elfattah, Marwa M A; Sarhan, Ebada

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, mobile handsets combine the functionality of mobile phones and PDAs. Unfortunately, mobile handsets development process has been driven by market demand, focusing on new features and neglecting security. So, it is imperative to study the existing challenges that facing the mobile handsets threat containment process, and the different techniques and methodologies that used to face those challenges and contain the mobile handsets malwares. This paper also presents a new approach to group the different malware containment systems according to their typologies.

  4. Avian influenza: an emerging pandemic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xian Wen; Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-12-01

    While we are facing the threat of an emerging pandemic from the current avian flu outbreak in Asia, we have learned important traits of the virus responsible for the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic that made it so deadly. By using stockpiled antiviral drugs effectively and developing an effective vaccine, we can be in a better position than ever to mitigate the global impact of an avian influenza pandemic. PMID:16392727

  5. Virtual World-Based Information Security Learning: Design and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoo, Jungwoo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest and enthusiasm for the application of virtual worlds in learning and training. This research proposes a design framework of a virtual world-based learning environment that integrates two unique features of the virtual world technology, immersion and interactivity, with an instructional strategy that promotes self-regulatory learning. We demonstrate the usefulness and assess the effectiveness of our design in the context of information security learning. In particular, the information security learning module implemented in Second Life was incorporated into an Introduction to Information Security course. Data from pre- and post- learning surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning module. Overall, the results strongly suggest that the virtual world-based learning environment enhances information security learning, thus supporting the effectiveness of the proposed design framework. Additional results suggest that learner traits have an important influence on learning outcomes through perceived enjoyment. The study offers useful design and implementation guidelines for organizations and universities to develop a virtual world-based learning environment. It also represents an initial step towards the design and explanation theories of virtual world-based learning environments.

  6. Evaluating Peptide Mass Fingerprinting-based Protein Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senthilkumar Damodaran; Troy D. Wood; Priyadharsini Nagarajan; Richard A. Rabin

    2007-01-01

    Identification of proteins by mass spectrometry (MS) is an essential step in pro- teomic studies and is typically accomplished by either peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) or amino acid sequencing of the peptide. Although sequence information from MS/MS analysis can be used to validate PMF-based protein identification, it may not be practical when analyzing a large number of proteins and when high- throughput MS/MS instrumentation is not readily available. At present, a vast majority of proteomic studies employ PMF. However, there are huge disparities in criteria used to identify proteins using PMF. Therefore, to reduce incorrect protein identification using PMF, and also to increase confidence in PMF-based protein identification without accompanying MS/MS analysis, definitive guiding principles are essential. To this end, we propose a value-based scoring system that provides guidance on evaluating when PMF-based protein identification can be deemed sufficient without accompanying amino acid sequence data from MS/MS analysis.

  7. Plant operator performance evaluation based on cognitive process analysis experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an experiment to clarify plant operators' cognitive processes that has been performed, to improve the man-machine interface which supports their diagnoses and decisions. The cognitive processes under abnormal conditions were evaluated by protocol analyses interviews, etc. in the experiment using a plant training simulator. A cognitive process model is represented by a stochastic network, based on Rasmussen's decision making model. Each node of the network corresponds to an element of the cognitive process, such as observation, interpretation, execution, etc. Some observations were obtained as follows, by comparison of Monte Carlo simulation results with the experiment results: A process to reconfirm the plant parameters after execution of a task and feedback paths from this process to the observation and the task definition of next task were observed. The feedback probability average and standard deviation should be determined for each incident type to explain correctly the individual differences in the cognitive processes. The tendency for the operator's cognitive level to change from skill-based to knowledge-based via rule-based behavior was observed during the feedback process

  8. Evidence-based evaluation of therapeutic measures for sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Juan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various treatment for sleep disorders in order to provide the best therapeutic regimen for the evidence-based treatment of sleep disorders. Methods Sleep disorder, insomnia, restless legs syndrome or RLS, obstructive sleep apnea or OSA, narcolepsy, REM behaviour disorder or RBD, treatment or therapy were used as retrieval words. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect were used for retrieval, and manual searching was also used. Related clinical guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized controlled clinical trials, retrospective case analysis, case-observation studies and reviews were collected and evaluated by Jadad Scale. Results Forty related articles were selected as following: 6 clinical guidelines, 12 systematic reviews, 5 randomized controlled trials, 2 retrospective case analysis, 1 case-observation study and 14 reviews. Thirty-three were of high quality, while 7 were of low quality with score. According to the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and side effects of various therapies, it is suggested as following: 1 insomnia is the most common in sleep disorders; the treatment methods of insomnia mainly include drug therapy and cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; the two kinds of therapy have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the combination therapy of drugs and CBT is the best treatment plan. 2 The first-line treatment of primary RLS is dopamine agonists and anti-seizure drugs; however, the treatment of secondary RLS is mainly etiologic treatment. 3 The main treatments of OSAS are nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP, oral orthotics and surgery, and nCPAP is the first-line treatments. 4 The medication of narcolepsy is mainly modafinil, hydroxy butyric acid sodium and antidepressants, and the specific choosingshould accord to clinical classifications. 5 The main treatments of RBD include general treatments such as avoiding triggers, insuring the

  9. Persistent and novel threats to the biodiversity of Kazakhstan’s steppes and semi-deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Johannes; Koshkin, Maxim A; Bragina, Tatyana M; Katzner, Todd Eli; Milner-Gulland, E J; Schreiber, Dagmar; Sheldon, Robert; Shmalenko, Alyona; Smelansky, Ilya; Terraube, Julien; Urazaliev, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    Temperate grasslands have suffered disproportionally from conversion to cropland, degradation and fragmentation. A large proportion of the world’s remaining near-natural grassland is situated in Kazakhstan. We aimed to assess current and emerging threats to steppe and semi-desert biodiversity in Kazakhstan and evaluate conservation research priorities. We conducted a horizon-scanning exercise among conservationists from academia and practice. We first compiled a list of 45 potential threats. These were then ranked by the survey participants according to their perceived severity, the need for research on them, and their novelty. The highest-ranked threats were related to changes in land use (leading to habitat loss and deterioration), direct persecution of wildlife, and rapid infrastructure development due to economic and population growth. Research needs were identified largely in the same areas, and the mean scores of threat severity and research need were highly correlated. Novel threats comprised habitat loss by photovoltaic and wind power stations, climate change and changes in agriculture such as the introduction of biofuels. However, novelty was not correlated with threat severity or research priority, suggesting that the most severe threats are the established ones. Important goals towards more effective steppe and semi-desert conservation in Kazakhstan include more cross-sector collaboration (e.g. by involving stakeholders in conservation and agriculture), greater allocation of funds to under-staffed areas (e.g. protected area management), better representativeness and complementarity in the protected area system and enhanced data collection for wildlife monitoring and threat assessments (including the use of citizen-science databases).

  10. The Threat to Religious Liberties and the European Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Kiska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article analyzes the 3 chief threats facing religious liberty today in Europe, namely: (1 hate speech legislation; (2 anti-discrimination laws; (3 attacks on parental rights. Concrete examples are given of offenses to religious freedom. Additionally, the black letter law is set out in each section with suggested action points for national governments. The Article also discusses the Lautsi v. Italy judgment of the European Court of Human Rights, explaining its importance and using it as evidence to establish the political nature of the Strasbourg based court.

  11. Bot armies as threats to network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2007-04-01

    "Botnets", or "bot armies", are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software. Bot armies pose one of the most serious security threats to all networks. Botnets, remotely controlled and operated by botmasters or botherders, can launch massive denial of service attacks, multiple penetration attacks, or any other malicious network activity on a massive scale. While bot army activity has, in the past, been limited to fraud, blackmail, and other forms of criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet; for launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers and networks; and for large-scale, coordinated data gathering from thousands of users and computers on any network has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but the threats they pose. In a "botnet" or "bot army", computers can be used to spread spam, launch denial-of-service attacks against Web sites, conduct fraudulent activities, and prevent authorized network traffic from traversing the network. In this paper we discuss botnets and the technologies that underlie this threat to network and computer security. The first section motivates the need for improved protection against botnets, their technologies, and for further research about botnets. The second contains background information about bot armies and their key underlying technologies. The third section presents a discussion of the types of attacks that botnets can conduct and potential defenses against them. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for future research and development.

  12. Mere effort and stereotype threat performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jeremy P; Harkins, Stephen G

    2007-10-01

    Although the fact that stereotype threat impacts performance is well established, the underlying process(es) is(are) not clear. Recently, T. Schmader and M. Johns (2003) argued for a working memory interference account, which proposes that performance suffers because cognitive resources are expended on processing information associated with negative stereotypes. The antisaccade task provides a vehicle to test this account because optimal performance requires working memory resources to inhibit the tendency to look at an irrelevant, peripheral cue (the prepotent response) and to generate volitional saccades to the target. If stereotype threat occupies working memory resources, then the ability to inhibit the prepotent response and to launch volitional saccades will be impaired, and performance will suffer. In contrast, S. Harkins's (2006) mere effort account argues that stereotype threat participants are motivated to perform well, which potentiates the prepotent response, but also leads to efforts to counter this tendency if participants recognize that the response is incorrect, know the correct response, and have the opportunity to make it. Results from 4 experiments support the mere effort but not the working memory interference account.

  13. Evidence-based evaluation of treatment strategy for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Meng-qiu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To formulate the best treatment plan for multiple sclerosis (MS patients by evaluating the therapeutic efficacy and side effect of various evidence-based programs. Methods Key words were defined as multiple sclerosis, immunomodulatory therapy and therapy, etc. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang data bases for Scientific Journals in China and National Knowledge Infrastructure for Chinese Scientific Journals Database. Additionally, we applied manual searching and screened out conference paper and academic dissertation, etc, from various references. After that we obtained and evaluated by Jadad scales on systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and observational study cases about glucocorticoids, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin, IFN-β, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab, fingolimod. Results After screening, all seventeen selected resources included systematic reviews 6 articles, randomized controlled trials 7 articles, controlled clinical trials 2 articles, observational study cases 2 articles, among which fifteen articles were proved to be high quality (according to Jadad scoring system, five score 4, six score 5, four score 7, two chapters were judged to be low quality scoring 3. Finally, we summerize that: 1 The first choice of treatment for acute relapses is glucocorticoids and we suggest that plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin may be tried as an alternative therapy in acute MS relapse, especially in case of contraindications to intravenous methylprednisolone. 2 Immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatment (IFN-β, glatiramer acetate, mitoxantrone, natalizumab can be an option to prevent new relapses and progression of disability. 3 Fingolimod is an oral treatment for multiple sclerosis to improve treatment adherence. Conclusion Using evidence-based medicine methods can provide us best clinical evidence on MS treatment.

  14. Culture, threat, and mental illness stigma: identifying culture-specific threat among Chinese-American groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence H; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C

    2013-07-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one's family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002 to 2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures.

  15. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159168.html Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer ... THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- With the Zika threat growing in the United States, people need ...

  16. Introduction to Administrative Programs that Mitigate the Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Gretchen K.; Rogers, Erin; Landers, John; DeCastro, Kara

    2012-09-01

    This presentation begins with the reality of the insider threat, then elaborates on these tools to mitigate the insider threat: Human Reliability Program (HRP); Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Program; Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

  17. Future of Health Care Delivery in Iran, Opportunities and Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Majdzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of important social and technological trends on health care delivery, in the context of developing “Iran's Health System Reform Plan by 2025”.Methods: A detailed review of the national and international literature was done to identify the main trends affecting health system. To collect the experts’ opinions about important trends and their impact on health care delivery, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs and semi-structured in-depth interviews techniques were used. The study was based on the STEEP model. Final results were approved in an expert’s panel session.Results: The important social and technological trends, affecting health system in Iran in the next 15 years are demographic transition, epidemiologic transition, increasing bio-environmental pollution, increasing slums, increasing private sector partnership in health care delivery, moving toward knowledge-based society, development of information and communication technology, increasing use of high technologies in health system, and development of traditional and alternative medicine. The opportunities and threats resulting from the above mentioned trends were also assessed in this study.Conclusion: Increasing healthcare cost due tosome trends like demographic and epidemiologic transition and uncontrolled increase in using new technologies in health care is one of the most important threats that the health system will be facing. The opportunities that advancement in technology and moving toward knowledge-based society create are important and should not be ignored.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF TIME-DRIVEN ACTIVITY BASED COSTING BASED ON ABC’S DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Kristensen, Thomas Borup

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a description of the development of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in four variants. This is used to characterize and evaluated the changes made in Time-Driven ABC (TDABC). It is found that TDABC in some cases reaches back to cost calculations prior to ABC (e.g. homogenous...

  19. Formative Evaluations of a Web-Based Masters Program: Insights for Web-Based Course Developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Chun; Howard, Marvin; Thompson, Ann D.

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the various formative evaluation activities that have been conducted for the Masters of Science in Agronomy Distance Education Program at Iowa State University and to provide useful recommendations for educators involved in World Wide Web-based course development. It was found that those faculty members…

  20. Evaluation of a Telerehabilitation System for Community-Based Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Schutte

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of web-based portals, while increasing in popularity in the fields of medicine and research, are rarely reported on in community-based rehabilitation programs.  A program within the Pennsylvania Office of Vocational Rehabilitation’s Hiram G. Andrews Center, the Cognitive Skills Enhancement Program (CSEP, sought to enhance organization of program and participant information and communication between part- and full-time employees, supervisors and consultants. A telerehab system was developed consisting of (1 a web-based portal to support a variety of clinical activities and (2 the Versatile Integrated System for Telerehabilitation (VISyTER video-conferencing system to support the collaboration and delivery of rehabilitation services remotely.  This descriptive evaluation examines the usability of the telerehab system incorporating both the portal and VISyTER. Telerehab system users include CSEP staff members from three geographical locations and employed by two institutions. The IBM After-Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ and Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ, the Telehealth Usability Questionnaire (TUQ, and two demographic surveys were administered to gather both objective and subjective information. Results showed generally high levels of usability.  Users commented that the telerehabilitation system improved communication, increased access to information, improved speed of completing tasks, and had an appealing interface. Areas where users would like to see improvements, including ease of accessing/editing documents and searching for information, are discussed.