WorldWideScience

Sample records for based super miniature

  1. A flexible super-capacitive solid-state power supply for miniature implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chuizhou; Gall, Oren Z; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2013-12-01

    We present a high-energy local power supply based on a flexible and solid-state supercapacitor for miniature wireless implantable medical devices. Wireless radio-frequency (RF) powering recharges the supercapacitor through an antenna with an RF rectifier. A power management circuit for the super-capacitive system includes a boost converter to increase the breakdown voltage required for powering device circuits, and a parallel conventional capacitor as an intermediate power source to deliver current spikes during high current transients (e.g., wireless data transmission). The supercapacitor has an extremely high area capacitance of ~1.3 mF/mm(2), and is in the novel form of a 100 μm-thick thin film with the merit of mechanical flexibility and a tailorable size down to 1 mm(2) to meet various clinical dimension requirements. We experimentally demonstrate that after fully recharging the capacitor with an external RF powering source, the supercapacitor-based local power supply runs a full system for electromyogram (EMG) recording that consumes ~670 μW with wireless-data-transmission functionality for a period of ~1 s in the absence of additional RF powering. Since the quality of wireless powering for implantable devices is sensitive to the position of those devices within the RF electromagnetic field, this high-energy local power supply plays a crucial role in providing continuous and reliable power for medical device operations.

  2. An Optimization of Super-Miniature X-ray Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Heo, Sung Hwan; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Electronic brachytherapy is now becoming popular because it has certain advantages over the radionuclide based brachytherapy sources. Unlike radionuclide based source, electronic brachytherapy system generates radiation using an X-ray tube. In case of radionuclide-based source, radiation is always produced regardless of needs. But X-ray produced from electronic brachytherapy system can be turned on and off thus we can get only the desired X-ray. Secondly, the dose rate can be easily controlled by adjusting operating voltage and current of electronic brachytherapy system. Lastly, electronic brachytherapy system precludes the hazards of handling the radioactive source. When we use the radiation for brachytherapy or intra-cavity imaging, one of the important concerns is the uniformity of X-ray dose distribution. Dose distribution from electronic brachytherapy system is determined by structure and geometry of X-ray target

  3. Holography based super resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Anwar; Mudassar, Asloob A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the simulation of a simple technique of superresolution based on holographic imaging in spectral domain. The input beam assembly containing 25 optical fibers with different orientations and positions is placed to illuminate the object in the 4f optical system. The position and orientation of each fiber is calculated with respect to the central fiber in the array. The positions and orientations of the fibers are related to the shift of object spectrum at aperture plane. During the imaging process each fiber is operated once in the whole procedure to illuminate the input object transparency which gives shift to the object spectrum in the spectral domain. This shift of the spectrum is equal to the integral multiple of the pass band aperture width. During the operation of single fiber (ON-state) all other fibers are in OFF-state at that time. The hologram recorded by each fiber at the CCD plane is stored in computer memory. At the end of illumination process total 25 holograms are recorded by the whole fiber array and by applying some post processing and specific algorithm single super resolved image is obtained. The superresolved image is five times better than the band-limited image. The work is demonstrated using computer simulation only.

  4. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information of the...... of the displacement. Systems for probing lateral displacements and in-plane vibrations (1-D and 2-D) are displayed, as will systems for probing angular velocity and torsional vibrations of rotating objects....

  5. A miniaturized silicon based device for nucleic acids electrochemical detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Petralia

    2015-12-01

    The system and the method here reported offer better advantages in term of analytical performances compared to the standard commercial optical-based real-time PCR systems, with the additional incomes of being potentially cheaper and easier to integrate in a miniaturized device.

  6. A Miniature-Based Image Retrieval System

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful

    2010-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of World Wide Web (WWW) and imaging technology, more and more images are available in the Internet and stored in databases. Searching the related images by the querying image is becoming tedious and difficult. Most of the images on the web are compressed by methods based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) including Joint Photographic Experts Group(JPEG) and H.261. This paper presents an efficient content-based image indexing technique for searching similar images using discrete cosine transform features. Experimental results demonstrate its superiority with the existing techniques.

  7. Miniaturized Aptamer-Based Assays for Protein Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bosco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of devices for cancer biomarker detection at early stages of the disease is one of the most critical issues in biomedicine. Towards this goal, to increase the assay sensitivity, device miniaturization strategies empowered by the employment of high affinity protein binders constitute a valuable approach. In this work we propose two different surface-based miniaturized platforms for biomarker detection in body fluids: the first platform is an atomic force microscopy (AFM-based nanoarray, where AFM is used to generate functional nanoscale areas and to detect biorecognition through careful topographic measurements; the second platform consists of a miniaturized electrochemical cell to detect biomarkers through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS analysis. Both devices rely on robust and highly-specific protein binders as aptamers, and were tested for thrombin detection. An active layer of DNA-aptamer conjugates was immobilized via DNA directed immobilization on complementary single-stranded DNA self-assembled monolayers confined on a nano/micro area of a gold surface. Results obtained with these devices were compared with the output of surface plasmon resonance (SPR assays used as reference. We succeeded in capturing antigens in concentrations as low as a few nM. We put forward ideas to push the sensitivity further to the pM range, assuring low biosample volume (μL range assay conditions.

  8. Embedded Based Miniaturized Universal Electrochemical Sensing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamin Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We created an embedded sensing platform based on STM32 embedded system, with integrated carbon-electrode ionic sensor by using a self-made plug. Given ration of concentration-unknown nitrate liquid samples, this platform is able to measure the nitrate concentration in neutral environment. Response signals which were transmitted by the sensor can be displayed via a serial port to the computer screen or via Bluetooth to the smartphone. Processed by a fitting function, signals are transformed into related concentration. Through repeating the experiment many times, the accuracy and repeatability turned out to be excellent. The results can be automatically stored on smartphone via Bluetooth. We created this embedded sensing platform for field water quality measurement. This platform also can be applied for other micro sensors’ signal acquisition and data processing.

  9. Miniature PCR based portable bioaerosol monitor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovski, I E; Usachev, E V; Agranovski, E; Usacheva, O V

    2017-01-01

    A portable bioaerosol monitor is greatly demanded technology in many areas including air quality control, occupational exposure assessment and health risk evaluation, environmental studies and, especially, in defence and bio-terrorism applications. Our recent groundwork allowed us to formulate the concept of a portable bioaerosol monitor, which needs to be light, user friendly, reliable and capable of detecting airborne pathogens within 1-1·5 h on the spot. Conceptually, the event of a bioaerosol concentration burst is determined by triggers to commence the representative air sampling with sequential real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmation of the targeted micro-organism present in the air. To minimize reagent consumption and idle running of the technology, an event of a bioaerosol burst is confirmed by three parameters: aerosol particle size, concentration and composition. Only particle sizes above 200 nm attract interest in the bioaerosol. Only an elevated aerosol concentration above the threshold (background aerosol concentration) is a signal to commence the analytical procedure. The combination of our previously developed personal bioaerosol sampler, aerosol particle counter based trigger and portable real-time PCR device formed the basis of the bioaerosol monitoring technology. The portable real-time PCR device was advanced to provide internally controlled detection, significantly reducing false-positive alarms. The technique is capable of detecting selected airborne micro-organisms on the spot within 30-80 min, depending on the genome organization of the particular strain. Due to recent outbreaks of infectious airborne diseases and the continuing threat of intentionally released bioaerosol attacks, investigations into the possibility of the early and reliable detection of pathogenic micro-organisms in the air is becoming increasingly important. The proposed technology consisting of a bioaerosol sampler, technology trigger and PCR device is

  10. Miniaturized sharp band-pass filter based on complementary electric-LC resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Yalda; Dadashzadeh, Golamreza; Oraizi, Homayoon

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a novel application of complementary electric-LC (CELC) resonator as a basic element to synthesize miniaturized sharp band-pass filters is introduced. The proposed metamaterial band-pass filter is a three-stage CELC-based device, where two shunt short-circuited stubs are employed in the input and output stages and a series gap is etched in the middle stage. By these means, a high-selectivity prototype band-pass filter with 2 % fractional bandwidth in S band is designed and fabricated. The out-of-band attenuation is better than 40 dB, and the upper and lower transition bands are also quite sharp due to the presence of two transmission zeros (nearly 60 and 30 dB fall in 0.2 GHz at lower and upper edges, respectively). Moreover, the filter is substantially miniaturized with a size of effective region of 1.3 cm × 1 cm at 2.9 GHz, which is quite smaller relative to conventional designs with the same performance. The fabrication and measurement of the proposed filter configuration attest to its expected desirable features. Therefore, the application of CELC resonator is proposed for super-compact sharp band-pass filters.

  11. A miniature origami biofuel cell based on a consumed cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Han, Yujie; Lou, Baohua; Zhang, Lingling; Han, Lei; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-11-10

    Considerable interest has been focused on miniature biofuel cells (BFCs) because of their portability and possibility to be implantable. Origami devices with hollow channels will provide novel insight into the assembly methods of miniature BFCs. Herein a miniature origami BFC has been fabricated from a MnO2-graphite flake consumed solid-state cathode. For further practical applications, miniature origami BFCs can directly generate energy from soft drinks.

  12. Convolutional Neural Network Based dem Super Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zixuan; Wang, Xuewen; Xu, Zekai; Hou, Wenguang

    2016-06-01

    DEM super resolution is proposed in our previous publication to improve the resolution for a DEM on basis of some learning examples. Meanwhile, the nonlocal algorithm is introduced to deal with it and lots of experiments show that the strategy is feasible. In our publication, the learning examples are defined as the partial original DEM and their related high measurements due to this way can avoid the incompatibility between the data to be processed and the learning examples. To further extent the applications of this new strategy, the learning examples should be diverse and easy to obtain. Yet, it may cause the problem of incompatibility and unrobustness. To overcome it, we intend to investigate a convolutional neural network based method. The input of the convolutional neural network is a low resolution DEM and the output is expected to be its high resolution one. A three layers model will be adopted. The first layer is used to detect some features from the input, the second integrates the detected features to some compressed ones and the final step transforms the compressed features as a new DEM. According to this designed structure, some learning DEMs will be taken to train it. Specifically, the designed network will be optimized by minimizing the error of the output and its expected high resolution DEM. In practical applications, a testing DEM will be input to the convolutional neural network and a super resolution will be obtained. Many experiments show that the CNN based method can obtain better reconstructions than many classic interpolation methods.

  13. A Fluorescence Based Miniaturized Detection Module for Toxin Producing Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, S. E.; Mistlberger, G.; Troi, L.; Lang, A.; Holly, C.; Klimant, I.

    2016-12-01

    Algal blooms are sensitive to external environmental conditions and may pose a serious threat to marine and human life having an adverse effect on the ecosystem. Harmful algal blooms can produce different toxins, which can lead to massive fish kills or to human disorders. Facing these problems, miniaturized and low-cost instrumentation for an early detection and identification of harmful algae classes has become more important over the last years. 1,2Based on the characteristic pigment pattern of different algae classes, we developed a miniaturized detection module, which is able to detect and identify algae classes after analyzing their spectral behavior. Our device combines features of a flow-cytometer and fluorimeter and is build up as a miniaturized and low-cost device of modular design. Similar to a fluorimeter, it excites cells in the capillary with up to 8 different excitation wavelengths recording the emitted fluorescence at 4 different emission channels. Furthermore, the device operates in a flow-through mode similar to a flow-cytometer, however, using only low-cost elements such as LEDs and photodiodes. Due to its miniaturized design, the sensitivity and selectivity increase, whereas background effects are reduced. With a sampling frequency of 140 Hz, we try to detect and count particular cell events even at a concentration of 2 cells / 7.3 µL illuminated volume. Using a self-learning multivariate algorithm, the data are evaluated autonomously on the device enabling an in-situ analysis. The flexibility in choosing excitation and emission wavelengths as well as the high sampling rate enables laboratory applications such as measuring induction kinetics. However, in its first application, the device is part of an open and modular monitoring system enabling the sensing of chemical compounds such as toxic and essential Hg, Cd, Pb, As and Cu trace metal species, nutrients and species related to the carbon cycle, VOCs and potentially toxic algae classes (FP7

  14. The SPL-based Neutrino Super Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E; Bobeth, C; Bouquerel, E; Caretta, O; Cupial, P; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Dracos, M; Fitton, M; Gaudiot, G; Kozien, M; Lacny, L; Lepers, B; Longhin, A; Loveridge, P; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Rooney, M; Skoczen, B; Szybinski, B; Ustrzycka, A; Vassilopoulos, N; Wilcox, D; Wroblewski, A; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V; Zito, M

    2012-01-01

    The EUROnu Super Beam work package has studied a neutrino beam based on SPL at CERN and aimed at MEMPHYS, a large water Cherenkov detector, proposed for the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (Fr\\'ejus tunnel, France), with a baseline of 130 km. The aim of this proposed experiment is to study the CP violation in the neutrino sector. In the study reported here, we have developed the conceptual design of the neutrino beam, especially the target and the magnetic focusing device. Indeed, this beam present several unprecedented challenges, like the high primary proton beam power (4 MW), the high repetition rate (50 Hz) and the low energy of the protons (4.5 GeV). The design is completed by a study of all the main component of the system, starting from the transport system to guide the beam to the target up to the beam dump.

  15. A miniaturized ASIC-based multichannel scaler instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, M.N.; Turner, G.W.; McMillan, D.E.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Todd, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hiller, J.M. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A miniaturized multichannel scaler instrument has been developed to address size and operational constraints for data acquisition in a portable laser-induced luminescence system. The multichannel scaling (MCS) function is implemented as a programmable application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with standard interfaces for control and data acquisition. The instrument is microcontroller-based with sufficient computing power for data manipulation and algorithmic processing. The unit includes electronics for laser control, and amplification and pulse height discrimination of PMT pulses. Modification of the instrument should allow use in nuclear, chemical, and spectroscopy related applications including Mossbauer experiments. Interfaces are incorporated allowing both computer-controlled and stand alone operation. Implementation of the MCS function as an ASIC and comparison with conventional implementations are discussed. Full characterization of the MCS is presented including differential non-linearity (DNL), bin dead time, and bandwidth measurements.

  16. High Q, Miniaturized LCP-Based Passive Components

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2014-10-16

    Various methods and systems are provided for high Q, miniaturized LCP-based passive components. In one embodiment, among others, a spiral inductor includes a center connection and a plurality of inductors formed on a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) layer, the plurality of inductors concentrically spiraling out from the center connection. In another embodiment, a vertically intertwined inductor includes first and second inductors including a first section disposed on a side of the LCP layer forming a fraction of a turn and a second section disposed on another side of the LCP layer. At least a portion of the first section of the first inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the second inductor and at least a portion of the first section of the second inductor is substantially aligned with at least a portion of the second section of the first inductor.

  17. Piezo-based miniature high resolution stabilized gimbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasikov, Nir; Peled, Gal; Yasinov, Roman; Yetkariov, Rita

    2016-05-01

    Piezo motors are characterized by higher mechanical power density, fast response and direct drive. These features are beneficial for miniature gimbals. A gimbal based on such motors was developed. Diameter is 58 mm, weight is 190 grams. The gimbal carries two cameras: a Flir Quark and an HD day camera. The dynamic performance is as high as 3 rad/sec velocity and 100 rad/secΛ2 acceleration. A two axes stabilization algorithm was developed, yielding 80 micro radian stabilization. Further, a panoramic image capture, at a rate of six stabilized field of views per second, was developed. The manuscript reviews the gimbal structure and open architecture, allowing adaptation to other cameras (SWIR etc.), the control algorithm and presents experimental results of stabilization and of panoramic views taken on a vibration platform and on a UAV.

  18. User Equilibrium Exchange Allocation Algorithm Based on Super Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyi Dong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of super network is an effective method to various traffic networks with means of multiple decision-making. It provides us with a favorable pricing decision tool for it combines a practical transport network with the space pricing decision. Spatial price equilibrium problem has always been the important research direction of the Transport Economics and regional transportation planning. As to how to combine the two, this paper presents the user equilibrium exchange allocation algorithm based on super network, which successfully keep the classical spatial price equilibrium problems (SPE into a super-network analysis framework. Through super-network analysis, we can add two virtual nodes in the network, which correspond to the virtual supply node and the super-super-demand virtual node, analysis the user equivalence with the SPE equilibrium and find the concrete steps of users exchange allocation algorithm based on super-network equilibrium. Finally, we carried out experiments to verify. The experiments show that: through the user equilibrium exchange SPE allocation algorithm based on super-network, we can get the steady-state equilibrium solution, which demonstrate that the algorithm is reasonable.

  19. A contact-imaging based microfluidic cytometer with machine-learning for single-frame super-resolution processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiwei; Guo, Jinhong; Wang, Xiaolong; Yan, Mei; Kang, Yuejun; Yu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Lensless microfluidic imaging with super-resolution processing has become a promising solution to miniaturize the conventional flow cytometer for point-of-care applications. The previous multi-frame super-resolution processing system can improve resolution but has limited cell flow rate and hence low throughput when capturing multiple subpixel-shifted cell images. This paper introduces a single-frame super-resolution processing with on-line machine-learning for contact images of cells. A corresponding contact-imaging based microfluidic cytometer prototype is demonstrated for cell recognition and counting. Compared with commercial flow cytometer, less than 8% error is observed for absolute number of microbeads; and 0.10 coefficient of variation is observed for cell-ratio of mixed RBC and HepG2 cells in solution.

  20. Catalytic liquid marbles: Ag nanowire-based miniature reactors for highly efficient degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yue-E; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Chew, Wee Shern; Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi; Ling, Xing Yi

    2014-06-04

    Ag nanowire-based catalytic liquid marbles are fabricated as miniature reactors, which demonstrate highly efficient, support-free and rate-controllable heterogeneous degradation of methylene blue, with catalytic efficiency close to 100%. Our miniature catalytic liquid marbles are essential for reactions involving highly toxic/hazardous or costly reactants, where small volume preliminary reactions are preferred.

  1. Miniature Space Dosimeter Based on Semiconductor Oxides Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro and Clemson University have teamed for a miniature, ultra low power, space radiation dosimeter. We project this unit, "MicroRad", to be 50X...

  2. RF Front End Based on MEMS Components for Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, AlphaSense, Inc. and the Carnegie Mellon University propose to develop a RF receiver front end based on CMOS-MEMS components for miniaturized...

  3. RF Front End Based on MEMS Components for Miniaturized Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, AlphaSense, Inc. (AI) and the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) detail the development of RF front end based on MEMS components for miniaturized...

  4. Miniaturized MEMS-Based Gas Chromatograph for High Inertial Loads Associated with Planetary Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thorleaf Research, Inc. proposes to develop a rugged, miniaturized, low power MEMS-based gas chromatograph (GC) capable of handling the high inertial loads...

  5. Least-squares based iterative multipath super-resolution technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Wooseok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of multipath channel estimation for direct sequence spread spectrum signals. To resolve multipath components arriving within a short interval, we propose a new algorithm called the least-squares based iterative multipath super-resolution (LIMS). Compared to conventional super-resolution techniques, such as the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and the estimation of signal parameters via rotation invariance techniques (ESPRIT), our algorithm has several appealing features. In particular, even in critical situations where the conventional super-resolution techniques are not very powerful due to limited data or the correlation between path coefficients, the LIMS algorithm can produce successful results. In addition, due to its iterative nature, the LIMS algorithm is suitable for recursive multipath tracking, whereas the conventional super-resolution techniques may not be. Through numerical simulations, we show that the LIMS algorithm can resolve the first arrival path amo...

  6. OBJECT-BASED SUPER RESOLUTION FOR INTELLIGENT VISUAL SURVEILLANCE VIDEO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Construction of high resolution images from low resolution sequences is often important in surveillance applications. In this letter, an affine based multi-scale block-matching image registration algorithm is first proposed. The images to be registered are divided into overlapped blocks of different size according to its motions. The Least Square (LS) image registration algorithm is extended to match the blocks. Then an object based Super Resolution (SR) scheme is designed, the Maximum A Priori (MAP) super resolution algorithm is extended to enhance the resolution of the interest objects. Experimental results show that the proposed multi-scale registration method provides more accurate registration between frames. Further more, the object based super resolution scheme shows an enhanced performance compared with the traditional MAP method.

  7. An autonomous miniature wheeled robot based on visual feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Haichu

    2007-01-01

    Using two micro-motors,a novel omni-direction miniature wheeled robot is designed on the basis of the bi-corner driving principle.The robot takes advantage of the Bluetooth technology to wirelessly transmit data at a short distance.Its position and omni-direction motion are precise.A Charge Coupled Device(CCD)camera is used for measuring and for visual navigation.A control system is developed.The precision of the position is 0.5 mm,the resolution is about 0.05 mm,and the maximum velocity is about 52 mm/s.The visual navigation and control system allow the robot to navigate and track the target and to accomplish autonomous locomotion.

  8. A miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube for an intraoral dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Han Beom; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Cho, Sung Oh [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The number of human teeth that can be radiographically taken is limited. Moreover, at least two X-ray shots are required to get images of teeth from both sides of the mouth. In order to overcome the disadvantages of conventional dental radiography, a dental radiograph has been proposed in which an X-ray tube is inserted into the mouth while an X-ray detector is placed outside the mouth. The miniature X-ray tube is required small size to insert into the mouth. Recently, we have fabricated a miniature x-ray tube with the diameter of 7 mm using a carbon nanotube (CNT) field. But, commercialized miniature X-ray tube were adopted a thermionic type using tungsten filament. The X-ray tubes adopted thermionic emission has a disadvantage of increasing temperature of x-ray tube. So it need to cooling system to cool x-ray tube. On the other hands, X-ray tubes adopted CNT field emitters don't need cooling systems because electrons are emitted from CNT by applying high voltage without heating. We have developed the miniature x-ray tube that produce x-ray with uniform spatial distribution based on carbon nanotube field emitters. The fabricated miniature x-ray tube can be stably and reliably operated at 50kV without any vacuum pump. The developed miniature X-ray tube was applied for intraoral dental radiography that employs an intra-oral CNT-based miniature X-ray tube and extra-oral X-ray detectors. An X-ray image of many teeth was successfully obtained by a single X-ray shot using the intra-oral miniature X-ray tube system. Furthermore, images of both molar teeth of pig were simultaneously obtained by a single X-ray shot. These results show that the intraoral dental radiography, which employs an intraoral miniature X-ray tube and an extraoral X-ray detector, performs better than conventional dental radiography.

  9. Cancer detection based on Raman spectra super-paramagnetic clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Guizar-Ruiz, Juan Ignacio; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zerega, Brenda Esmeralda; Juárez-López, Héctor Alfonso; Vargas-Rodríguez, Héctor; Gallegos-Infante, Luis Armando; González-Silva, Ricardo Armando; Espinoza-Padilla, Pedro Basilio; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The clustering of Raman spectra of serum sample is analyzed using the super-paramagnetic clustering technique based in the Potts spin model. We investigated the clustering of biochemical networks by using Raman data that define edge lengths in the network, and where the interactions are functions of the Raman spectra's individual band intensities. For this study, we used two groups of 58 and 102 control Raman spectra and the intensities of 160, 150 and 42 Raman spectra of serum samples from breast and cervical cancer and leukemia patients, respectively. The spectra were collected from patients from different hospitals from Mexico. By using super-paramagnetic clustering technique, we identified the most natural and compact clusters allowing us to discriminate the control and cancer patients. A special interest was the leukemia case where its nearly hierarchical observed structure allowed the identification of the patients's leukemia type. The goal of this study is to apply a model of statistical physics, as the super-paramagnetic, to find these natural clusters that allow us to design a cancer detection method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of super-paramagnetic clustering in the discipline of spectroscopy where it is used for classification of spectra.

  10. A vacuum-sealed miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh

    2012-05-01

    A vacuum-sealed miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon nanotube field-emission electron source has been demonstrated. The diameter of the X-ray tube is 10 mm; the total length of the tube is 50 mm, and no external vacuum pump is required for the operation. The maximum tube voltage reaches up to 70 kV, and the X-ray tube generates intense X-rays with the air kerma strength of 108 Gy·cm2 min-1. In addition, X-rays produced from the miniature X-ray tube have a comparatively uniform spatial dose distribution.

  11. A vacuum-sealed miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube field emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Sung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh

    2012-01-01

    A vacuum-sealed miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon nanotube field-emission electron source has been demonstrated. The diameter of the X-ray tube is 10 mm; the total length of the tube is 50 mm, and no external vacuum pump is required for the operation. The maximum tube voltage reaches up to 70 kV, and the X-ray tube generates intense X-rays with the air kerma strength of 108 Gy·cm2 min−1. In addition, X-rays produced from the miniature X-ray tube have a comparatively uniform spatial dose ...

  12. Super Unit Cells in Aperture-Based Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Tanasković; Zoran Jakšić; Marko Obradov; Olga Jakšić

    2015-01-01

    An important class of electromagnetic metamaterials are aperture-based metasurfaces. Examples include extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnets with negative refractive index. We analyze a generalization of such metamaterials where a simple aperture is now replaced by a compound object formed by superposition of two or more primitive objects (e.g., rectangles, circles, and ellipses). Thus obtained “super unit cell” shows far richer behavior than the subobjects that compris...

  13. Multiframe Blind Super Resolution Imaging Based on Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元伟; 张立毅

    2016-01-01

    As an ill-posed problem, multiframe blind super resolution imaging recovers a high resolution image from a group of low resolution images with some degradations when the information of blur kernel is limited. Note that the quality of the recovered image is influenced more by the accuracy of blur estimation than an advanced regularization. We study the traditional model of the multiframe super resolution and modify it for blind deblurring. Based on the analysis, we proposed two algorithms. The first one is based on the total variation blind deconvolution algorithm and formulated as a functional for optimization with the regularization of blur. Based on the alternating minimization and the gradient descent algorithm, the high resolution image and the unknown blur kernel are esti-mated iteratively. By using the median shift and add operator, the second algorithm is more robust to the outlier influence. The MSAA initialization simplifies the interpolation process to reconstruct the blurred high resolution image for blind deblurring and improves the accuracy of blind super resolution imaging. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of our novel algorithms.

  14. Transformation media based super focusing antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Wanli; Lin Zhifang [Surface Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen Huanyang [Department of Physics, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: phlin@fudan.edu.c [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2009-11-07

    We propose a new kind of focusing antenna with a large effective diameter based on transformation optics. The device contains a traditional parabolic antenna embedded in a dielectric core and coated by a negative index shell. Numerical simulations are performed to illustrate its advantages. (fast track communication)

  15. THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND LOCALLY SUPPORTED BASES FOR BIVARIATE SUPER SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang Xu; Ren-hong Wang

    2004-01-01

    Super splines are bivariate splines defined on triangulations, where the smoothness enforced at the vertices is larger than the smoothness enforced across the edges. In this paper, the smoothness conditions and conformality conditions for super splines are presented.Three locally supported super splines on type-1 triangulation are presented. Moreover, the criteria to select local bases is also given. By using local supported super spline function, avariation-diminishing operator is built. The approximation properties of the operator are also presented.

  16. Machine Learning Based Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing for Lensless Blood Cell Counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT. However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR. Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR. When one captured low-resolution lensless cell image is input, an improved high-resolution cell image will be output. The experimental results show that the cell resolution is improved by 4×, and CNNSR has 9.5% improvement over the ELMSR on resolution enhancing performance. The cell counting results also match well with a commercial flow cytometer. Such ELMSR and CNNSR therefore have the potential for efficient resolution improvement in lensless blood cell counting systems towards POCT applications.

  17. Machine Learning Based Single-Frame Super-Resolution Processing for Lensless Blood Cell Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiwei; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Xu; Xu, Hang; Han, Zhi; Rong, Hailong; Yang, Haiping; Yan, Mei; Yu, Hao

    2016-11-02

    A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT). However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR) processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge. In this article, two machine learning based single-frame SR processing types are proposed and compared for lensless blood cell counting, namely the Extreme Learning Machine based SR (ELMSR) and Convolutional Neural Network based SR (CNNSR). Moreover, lensless blood cell counting prototypes using commercial CMOS image sensors and custom designed backside-illuminated CMOS image sensors are demonstrated with ELMSR and CNNSR. When one captured low-resolution lensless cell image is input, an improved high-resolution cell image will be output. The experimental results show that the cell resolution is improved by 4×, and CNNSR has 9.5% improvement over the ELMSR on resolution enhancing performance. The cell counting results also match well with a commercial flow cytometer. Such ELMSR and CNNSR therefore have the potential for efficient resolution improvement in lensless blood cell counting systems towards POCT applications.

  18. Miniaturized and reconfigurable notch antenna based on a BST ferroelectric thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Hung Viet [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Benzerga, Ratiba, E-mail: ratiba.benzerga@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Borderon, Caroline [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France); Delaveaud, Christophe [CEA-LETI, Minatec, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sharaiha, Ala [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Renoud, Raphael [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France); Paven, Claire Le [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR), IUT Saint-Brieuc, Université de Rennes 1, 22004 Saint-Brieuc (France); Pavy, Sabrina; Nadaud, Kevin; Gundel, Hartmut W. [IETR, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes (France)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • A miniature and agile antenna based on a BST MIM capacitor is simulated and made. • Mn{sup 2+} doped BST thin films are synthesized by chemical deposition and spin coating. • Permittivity and losses of the BST thin film are respectively 225 and 0.02 at 1 GHz. • A miniaturization rate of 70% is obtained with a MIM capacitance of 3.7 pF. • A frequency tunability of 14.5% and a tunability performance of 0.04 are measured. - Abstract: This work deals with the design, realization and characterization of a miniature and frequency agile antenna based on a ferroelectric Ba{sub 0,80}Sr{sub 0,20}TiO{sub 3} thin film. The notch antenna is loaded with a variable metal/insulator/metal (MIM) capacitor and is achieved by a monolithic method. The MIM capacitance is 3.7 pF, which results in a resonant frequency of 670 MHz compared to 2.25 GHz for the unloaded simulated antenna; the resulting miniaturization rate is 70%. The characterization of the antenna prototype shows a frequency tunable rate of 14.5% under an electric field of 375 kV/cm, with a tunability performance η = 0.04.

  19. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  20. Single image super-resolution based on image patch classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ping; Yan, Hua; Li, Jing; Sun, Jiande

    2017-06-01

    This paper proposed a single image super-resolution algorithm based on image patch classification and sparse representation where gradient information is used to classify image patches into three different classes in order to reflect the difference between the different types of image patches. Compared with other classification algorithms, gradient information based algorithm is simpler and more effective. In this paper, each class is learned to get a corresponding sub-dictionary. High-resolution image patch can be reconstructed by the dictionary and sparse representation coefficients of corresponding class of image patches. The result of the experiments demonstrated that the proposed algorithm has a better effect compared with the other algorithms.

  1. SiC-Based Miniature High-Temperature Cantilever Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Fralick, Gustave; Saad, George J.

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts a miniature cantilever-type anemometer that has been developed as a prototype of compact, relatively nonintrusive anemometers that can function at temperatures up to 600 C and that can be expected to be commercially mass-producible at low cost. The design of this anemometer, and especially the packaging aspect of the design, is intended to enable measurement of turbulence in the high-temperature, high-vibration environment of a turbine engine or in any similar environment. The main structural components of the anemometer include a single-crystal SiC cantilever and two polycrystalline SiC clamping plates, all made from chemical-vapor-deposited silicon carbide. Fabrication of these components from the same basic material eliminates thermal-expansion mismatch, which has introduced spurious thermomechanical stresses in cantilever-type anemometers of prior design. The clamping plates are heavily oxidized to improve electrical insulation at high temperature. A cavity that serves as a receptacle for the clamped end of the cantilever is etched into one end of one clamping plate. Trenches that collectively constitute a socket for a multipin electrical plug (for connection to external electronic circuitry) are etched into the opposite end of this clamping plate. Metal strips for electrical contact are deposited on one face of the other clamping plate. Piezoresistive single-crystal SiC thin-film strain gauges are etched in the n-type SiC epilayer in a Wheatstone-bridge configuration. Metal contact pads on the cantilever that extend into the clamping-receptacle area, are obtained by deposition and patterning using standard semiconductor photolithography and etching methods. The cantilever and the two clamping plates are assembled into a sandwich structure that is then clamped in a stainless-steel housing. The Wheatstone- bridge carrying SiC cantilever with the metal contact pads on the piezoresistors is slid into the receptacle in the bottom clamping plate

  2. Ground penetrating detection using miniaturized radar system based on solid state microwave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B M; Fu, L; Chen, X S; Lu, W; Guo, H; Gui, Y S; Hu, C-M

    2013-12-01

    We propose a solid-state-sensor-based miniaturized microwave radar technique, which allows a rapid microwave phase detection for continuous wave operation using a lock-in amplifier rather than using expensive and complicated instruments such as vector network analyzers. To demonstrate the capability of this sensor-based imaging technique, the miniaturized system has been used to detect embedded targets in sand by measuring the reflection for broadband microwaves. Using the reconstruction algorithm, the imaging of the embedded target with a diameter less than 5 cm buried in the sands with a depth of 5 cm or greater is clearly detected. Therefore, the sensor-based approach emerges as an innovative and cost-effective way for ground penetrating detection.

  3. 基于JXTA的Super-peer搜索方法设计%Design JXTA Based Super-peer Search Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李歆海; 李善平

    2003-01-01

    Efficient resource search method has significant impact on the scalability and availability of P2P network. Generally there are two search methods, pure Peer-to-Peer method and central index method. Recently, some search methods with super-peer concept are appearing, which are the compromise of those two methods and have favorable scalability and avafiability. In this paper, we compare the advantage and deficiency of these three kinds of search methods, and based on JXTA platform design the super-peer search method.

  4. Miniature magnetic devices for laser-based, table-top free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Eichner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Truly table-top sized radiation sources based on compact laser-plasma accelerators require compact and strong focusing devices and efficient short-period undulators. Complementing our recent theoretical work on the feasibility of a table-top FEL, we here present the design and successful experimental characterizations of a 5 mm period length undulator and miniature quadrupole magnets with field gradients of the order of 500  T/m.

  5. Improvement in QEPAS system based on miniaturized collimator and flat mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fupeng; Chang, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Zhaojun; Qin, Zengguang; Zhu, Cunguang

    2016-12-01

    An improved QEPAS (quartz enhanced photo-acoustic spectroscopy) system based on an optical structure comprising miniaturized collimator and flat mirror is proposed. The beam diameter of the miniaturized collimator is designed less than 0.2 mm in a 20 mm working distance. Experiments are set up to compare the beam quality and photo-acoustic performance of three optical structures (this one, fiber lead mode and conventional focus mode). By virtue of the micro-resonator tubes and flat mirror, the new proposed structure achieves a SNR of 260 for a 3000 ppmv water vapor sample, which is much better than 183 for the fiber lead mode and 193 for the conventional focus mode respectively. This test is achieved by using the same self-designed circuit with the same parameters. The proposed optical structure is simpler and easier for optical alignment, and provides an alternative way in improving and simplifying the QEPAS system for industrial applications.

  6. A Novel Miniaturized Mixer Based on a Wankel Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Wan, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Mixing in microfluidic systems is a challenge since the flow regime encountered in these systems is typically very low Reynolds number laminar flow, in which viscous forces dominate inertial forces, which precludes efficient turbulence-based mixing. Mixing based purely on diffusion is also not a practical alternative due to the long times required to achieve a sufficient level of mixing. The present study presents a pump based on Wankel geometry as a mixer for efficient mixing in a microfluidic system. Then, a novel modification to the internal geometry of the Wankel-pump-mixer is analyzed and is shown to enable robust mixing without the introduction of an additional system component and hence without the expense of undesirable dead volume. The Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) calculated from the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) field with a mixing measure is used to quantify the mixing.

  7. A miniature microbial fuel cell with conducting nanofibers-based 3D porous biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huawei; Halverson, Larry J.; Dong, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Miniature microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has received growing interest due to its potential applications in high-throughput screening of bacteria and mutants to elucidate mechanisms of electricity generation. This paper reports a novel miniature MFC with an improved output power density and short startup time, utilizing electrospun conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers as a 3D porous anode within a 12 μl anolyte chamber. This device results in 423 μW cm-3 power density based on the volume of the anolyte chamber, using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model biocatalyst without any optimization of bacterial culture. The device also excels in a startup time of only 1hr. The high conductivity of the electrospun nanofibers makes them suitable for efficient electron transfer. The mean pore size of the conducting nanofibers is several micrometers, which is favorable for bacterial penetration and colonization of surfaces of the nanofibers. We demonstrate that S. oneidensis can fully colonize the interior region of this nanofibers-based porous anode. This work represents a new attempt to explore the use of electrospun PEDOT nanofibers as a 3D anode material for MFCs. The presented miniature MFC potentially will provide a high-sensitivity, high-throughput tool to screen suitable bacterial species and mutant strains for use in large-size MFCs.

  8. Super Unit Cells in Aperture-Based Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Tanasković

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important class of electromagnetic metamaterials are aperture-based metasurfaces. Examples include extraordinary optical transmission arrays and double fishnets with negative refractive index. We analyze a generalization of such metamaterials where a simple aperture is now replaced by a compound object formed by superposition of two or more primitive objects (e.g., rectangles, circles, and ellipses. Thus obtained “super unit cell” shows far richer behavior than the subobjects that comprise it. We show that nonlocalities introduced by overlapping simple subobjects can be used to produce large deviations of spectral dispersion even for small additive modifications of the basic geometry. Technologically, some super cells may be fabricated by simple spatial shifting of the existing photolithographic masks. In our investigation we applied analytical calculations and ab initio finite element modeling to prove the possibility to tailor the dispersion including resonances for plasmonic nanocomposites by adjusting the local geometry and exploiting localized interactions at a subwavelength level. Any desired form could be defined using simple primitive objects, making the situation a geometrical analog of the case of series expansion of a function. Thus an additional degree of tunability of metamaterials is obtained. The obtained designer structures can be applied in different fields like waveguiding and sensing.

  9. Super pixel density based clustering automatic image classification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingxing; Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Tianxu

    2015-12-01

    The image classification is an important means of image segmentation and data mining, how to achieve rapid automated image classification has been the focus of research. In this paper, based on the super pixel density of cluster centers algorithm for automatic image classification and identify outlier. The use of the image pixel location coordinates and gray value computing density and distance, to achieve automatic image classification and outlier extraction. Due to the increased pixel dramatically increase the computational complexity, consider the method of ultra-pixel image preprocessing, divided into a small number of super-pixel sub-blocks after the density and distance calculations, while the design of a normalized density and distance discrimination law, to achieve automatic classification and clustering center selection, whereby the image automatically classify and identify outlier. After a lot of experiments, our method does not require human intervention, can automatically categorize images computing speed than the density clustering algorithm, the image can be effectively automated classification and outlier extraction.

  10. Miniature Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on EBG Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A new design of a planar microwave filter, based on rejection band properties of an electrically small electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure, is proposed. The proposed EBG structure demonstrates effective impedance manipulation, exhibits a simple analysis, and is about three times smaller...... as compared to stepped-impedance hairpin (SIH) resonators with similar response. The new bandpass filter has a reduced footprint and can be fabricated in standard thick-film manufacturing technology. Measured and simulated results exhibit good agreement. The measured results show improvement in the filter...

  11. Miniature fiber optic sensor based on fluorescence energy transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, David L.; Schultz, Jerome S.

    1992-04-01

    Optical fiber biosensors based on fluorescence assays have several distinct advantages when measuring biological analytes such as metabolites, cofactors, toxins, etc. Not only are optical signals immune to electronic interferences, but the polychromatic nature of most fluorochemical assays provides more potentially useful data about the system being studied. One of the most common difficulties normally encountered with optical biosensors is the inability to routinely recalibrate the optical and electronic components of the system throughout the life of the sensor. With this in mind, we present an optical fiber assay system for glucose based on a homogeneous singlet/singlet energy transfer assay along with the electronic instrumentation built to support the sensor system. In the sensor probe, glucose concentrations are indirectly measured from the level of fluorescence quenching caused by the homogeneous competition assay between TRITC labeled concanavalin A (receptor) and FITC labeled Dextran (ligand). The FITC signal is used to indicate glucose concentrations and the TRITC signal is used for internal calibration. Data is also presented on a protein derivatization procedure that was used to prevent aggregation of the receptor protein in solution. Also, a molecular model is described for the singlet/singlet energy transfer interactions that can occur in a model system composed of a monovalent ligand (FITC labeled papain) and a monovalent receptor (TRITC labeled concanavalin A).

  12. Amylin Detection with a Miniature Optical-Fiber Based Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaowen; Ann, Matsko; Hughes, Adam; Reeves, Mark

    We present results of a biosensor based on shifts in the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles self-assembled on the end of an optical fiber. This system allows for detection of protein expression in low sensing volumes and for scanning in cell cultures and tissue samples. Positive and negative controls were done using biotin/avidin and the BSA/Anti-BSA system. These demonstrate that detection is specific and sensitive to nanomolar levels. Sensing of amylin, an important protein for pancreatic function, was performed with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. The measured data demonstrates the difference in sensitivity to the two types of antibodies, and titration experiments establish the sensitivity of the sensor. Further experiments demonstrate that the sensor can be regenerated and then reused.

  13. Miniature Bose-Einstein condensate system design based on a transparent atom chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jingfang; Xu, Xinping; Jiang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Haichao; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new miniature Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) system based on a transparent atom chip with a compact external coil structure. A standard six-beam macroscopic magneto-optical trap (MOT) is able to be created near the chip surface due to the chip’s transparency. A novel wire pattern consisting of a double-z wire and a z-shaped wire is designed on the transparent atom chip. With a vertical bias magnetic field, the double-z wire can create the quadrupole magnetic field of an intermediate chip MOT, which is suitable for transporting atoms from the macroscopic MOT to the chip z-wire trap efficiently. The compact external coil structure is designed with a rectangular frameless geometry consisting of only four coil pairs and its volume is less than 0.3 liters. The maximum system power consumption during the BEC generation procedure is about 45 W. The miniature system is evaluated, and about 3 × 106 atoms can be loaded into the chip z-wire trap. The miniature chip BEC system has the advantages of small volume and low power consumption, and it has great potential for practical applications of BEC.

  14. Miniature optical coherence tomography system based on silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo-Balbás, Eduardo; Pandraud, Gregory; French, Patrick J.

    2008-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a promising medical imaging technique. It has found applications in many fields of medicine and has a large potential for the optical biopsy of tumours. One of the technological challenges impairing faster adoption of OCT is the relative complexity of the optical instrumentation required, which translates into expensive and bulky setups. In this paper we report an implementation of Time Domain OCT (TD-OCT) based on a silicon photonic platform. The devices are fabricated using Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers, on which rib waveguides are defined. While most of the components needed are well-known in this technology, a fast delay line with sufficient scanning range is a specific requirement of TD-OCT. In the system reported, this was obtained making use of the thermo-optical effect of silicon. By modulating the thermal resistance of the waveguide to the substrate, it is possible to establish a trade-off between maximum working frequency and power dissipation. Within this trade-off, the systems obtained can be operated in the kHz range, and they achieve temperature shifts corresponding to scanning ranges of over 2mm. Though the current implementation still requires external sources and detectors to be coupled to the Planar Lightwave Circuit (PLC), future work will include three-dimensional integration of these components onto the substrate. With the potential to include the read-out and driving electronics on the same die, the reported approach can yield extremely compact and low-cost TD-OCT systems, enabling a wealth of new applications, including gastrointestinal pills with optical biopsy capabilities.

  15. Study of Super-Twisting sliding mode control for U model based nonlinear system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Yang; Xueli WU; Jianan HUO; Shenyang ZHUANG

    2016-01-01

    The Super-Twisting control algorithm is adopted to analyze the U model based nonlinear control system in order to solve the controller design problems of non-affine nonlinear systems. The non-affine nonlinear systems are studied, the neural network approximation of the nonlinear function is performed, and the Super-Twisting control algorithm is used to control. The convergence of the Super-Twisting algorithm is proved by selecting an appropriate Lyapunov function. The Matlab simulation is car...

  16. Deep Learning based Super-Resolution for Improved Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Guerrero, Sergio Escalera; Rasti, Pejman

    2015-01-01

    Action recognition systems mostly work with videos of proper quality and resolution. Even most challenging bench- mark databases for action recognition, hardly include videos of low-resolution from, e.g., surveillance cameras. In videos recorded by such cameras, due to the distance between people...... and cameras, people are pictured very small and hence challenge action recognition algorithms. Simple upsampling methods, like bicubic interpolation, cannot retrieve all the detailed information that can help the recognition. To deal with this problem, in this paper we combine results of bicubic interpolation...... with results of a state-of- the-art deep learning-based super-resolution algorithm, through an alpha-blending approach. The experimental results obtained on down-sampled version of a large subset of Hoolywood2 benchmark database show the importance of the proposed system in increasing the recognition rate...

  17. Design, Fabrication and Temperature Sensitivity Testing of a Miniature Piezoelectric-Based Sensor for Current Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Lao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid capacity, reliability, and efficient distribution of power have been major challenges for traditional power grids in the past few years. Reliable and efficient distribution within these power grids will continue to depend on the development of lighter and more efficient sensing units with lower costs in order to measure current and detect failures across the grid. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a miniature piezoelectric-based sensor for AC current measurements in single conductors, which are used in power transmission lines. Additionally presented in this paper are the thermal testing results for the sensor to assess its robustness for various operating temperatures.

  18. Efficient Super-Peer-Based Queries Routing: Simulation and Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Anis; Nachouki, Gilles; Hajjar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) Data-sharing systems now generate a significant portion of internet traffic. P2P systems have emerged as a popular way to share huge volumes of data. Requirements for widely distributed information systems supporting virtual organizations have given rise to a new category of P2P systems called schema- based. In such systems each peer is a database management system in itself, ex-posing its own schema. A fundamental problem that confronts peer-to-peer applications is the efficient location of the node that stores a desired data item. In such settings, the main objective is the efficient search across peer databases by processing each incoming query without overly consuming bandwidth. The usability of these systems depends on effective techniques to find and retrieve data; however, efficient and effective routing of content- based queries is an emerging problem in P2P networks. In this paper, we propose an architecture, based on super-peers, and we focus on query routing. Our approach conside...

  19. Motivating Calculus-Based Kinematics Instruction with Super Mario Bros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordine, Jeffrey C.

    2011-09-01

    High-quality physics instruction is contextualized, motivates students to learn, and represents the discipline as a way of investigating the world rather than as a collection of facts and equations. Inquiry-oriented pedagogy, such as problem-based instruction, holds great promise for both teaching physics content and representing the process of doing real science.2 A challenge for physics teachers is to find instructional contexts that are meaningful, accessible, and motivating for students. Today's students are spending a growing fraction of their lives interacting with virtual environments, and these environments—physically realistic or not—can provide valuable contexts for physics explorations3-5 and lead to thoughtful discussions about decisions that programmers make when designing virtual environments. In this article, I describe a problem-based approach to calculus-based kinematics instruction that contextualizes students' learning within the Super Mario Bros. video game—a game that is more than 20 years old, but still remarkably popular with today's high school and college students.

  20. The SUPER Program: A Research-based Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernakovich, J. G.; Boone, R. B.; Boot, C. M.; Denef, K.; Lavallee, J. M.; Moore, J. C.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Producing undergraduates capable of broad, independent thinking is one of the grand challenges in science education. Experience-based learning, specifically hands-on research, is one mechanism for increasing students' ability to think critically. With this in mind, we created a two-semester long research program called SUPER (Skills for Undergraduate Participation in Ecological Research) aimed at teaching students to think like scientists and enhancing the student research experience through instruction and active-learning about the scientific method. Our aim was for students to gain knowledge, skills, and experience, and to conduct their own research. In the first semester, we hosted active-learning workshops on "Forming Hypotheses", "Experimental Design", "Collecting and Managing Data", "Analysis of Data", "Communicating to a Scientific Audience", "Reading Literature Effectively", and "Ethical Approaches". Each lesson was taught by different scientists from one of many ecological disciplines so that students were exposed to the variation in approach that scientists have. In the second semester, students paired with a scientific mentor and began doing research. To ensure the continued growth of the undergraduate researcher, we continued the active-learning workshops and the students attended meetings with their mentors. Thus, the students gained technical and cognitive skills in parallel, enabling them to understand both "the how" and "the why" of what they were doing in their research. The program culminated with a research poster session presented by the students. The interest in the program has grown beyond our expectations, and we have now run the program successfully for two years. Many of the students have gone on to campus research jobs, internships and graduate school, and have attributed part of their success in obtaining their positions to their experience with the SUPER program. Although common in other sciences, undergraduate research experiences are

  1. A super base station based centralized network architecture for 5G mobile communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Qian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ever increasing mobile data traffic demand, the mobile operators are deploying a heterogeneous network with multiple access technologies and more and more base stations to increase the network coverage and capacity. However, the base stations are isolated from each other, so different types of radio resources and hardware resources cannot be shared and allocated within the overall network in a cooperative way. The mobile operators are thus facing increasing network operational expenses and a high system power consumption. In this paper, a centralized radio access network architecture, referred to as the super base station (super BS, is proposed, as a possible solution for an energy-efficient fifth-generation (5G mobile system. The super base station decouples the logical functions and physical entities of traditional base stations, so different types of system resources can be horizontally shared and statistically multiplexed among all the virtual base stations throughout the entire system. The system framework and main functionalities of the super BS are described. Some key technologies for system implementation, i.e., the resource pooling, real-time virtualization, adaptive hardware resource allocation are also highlighted.

  2. A new fabrication process for the SOI-based miniature electric field sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Yang Pengfei; Peng Chunrong; Fang Dongming; Xia Shanhong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new fabrication process for the SOI-based novel miniature electric field sensor.This new process uses polyimide film to release the SiO2 layer.Compared with the CO2 critical point release method,it significantly improves the device surface cleanliness and shortens the process flow.The impurity on the base layer is analyzed.The problem of peak and butterfly-type contamination occurring on the base layer of the SOI wafer during the DRIE process is discussed and solved by thickening the photoresist layer and coating with polyimide film twice.This new process could fabricate MEMS sensors and actuators such as SOI-based electric field sensors,gyroscopes,and micro mirrors and can be an alternative fabrication process compared to commercial SOIMUMPS fabrication processes.

  3. A New Fractal-Based Miniaturized Dual Band Patch Antenna for RF Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Shrestha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of wireless communications in recent years has made it necessary to develop compact, lightweight multiband antennas. Compact antennas can achieve the same performance as large antennas do with low price and with greater system integration. Dual-frequency microstrip antennas for transmission and reception represent promising approach for doubling the system capacity. In this work, a miniaturized dual band antenna operable at 2.45 and 5.8 GHz is constructed by modifying the standard microstrip patch antenna geometry into a fractal structure. In addition to miniaturization and dual band nature, the proposed antenna also removes unwanted harmonics without the use of additional filter component. Using a finite-element-method-based high frequency structure simulator (HFSS, the antenna is designed and its performance in terms of return loss, impedance matching, radiation pattern, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR is demonstrated. Simulation results are shown to be in close agreement with performance measurements from an actual antenna fabricated on an FR4 substrate. The proposed antenna can be integrated with a rectifier circuit to develop a compact rectenna that can harvest RF energy in both of these frequency bands at a reduction in size of 25.98% relative to a conventional rectangular patch antenna.

  4. Biosensing with Paper-Based Miniaturized Printed Electrodes–A Modern Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia M. Silveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available From the bench-mark work on microfluidics from the Whitesides’s group in 2007, paper technology has experienced significant growth, particularly regarding applications in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Besides the structural properties supporting microfluidics, other advantageous features of paper materials, including their versatility, disposability and low cost, show off the great potential for the development of advanced and eco-friendly analytical tools. Consequently, paper was quickly employed in the field of electrochemical sensors, being an ideal material for producing custom, tailored and miniaturized devices. Stencil-, inkjet-, or screen-printing are the preferential techniques for electrode manufacturing. Not surprisingly, we witnessed a rapid increase in the number of publications on paper based screen-printed sensors at the turn of the past decade. Among the sensing strategies, various biosensors, coupling electrochemical detectors with biomolecules, have been proposed. This work provides a critical review and a discussion on the future progress of paper technology in the context of miniaturized printed electrochemical biosensors.

  5. UWB Miniature Antenna Based on the CRLH-TL with Increase Gain for Electromagnetic Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kenari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel ultra-wideband (UWB miniature antenna based on the composite right-left handed transmission line (CRLH-TL structure with enhancement gain is proposed and investigated. With CRLH metamaterial (MTM technology embedded, the proposed UWB and miniature antenna is presented with best in bandwidth, size, efficiency and radiation patterns. To realize characteristics of the antenna, the printed -shaped gaps into the rectangular radiation patches are used. This antenna is constructed of the two unit cells, also presented antenna is designed from 2.25 GHz to 4.7 GHz which corresponding to 70.5% bandwidth. The overall size of the presented antenna is 10.8mm×6.9mm×0.8mm or 0.09λ0× 0.05λ0 × 0.006λ0 at the operating frequency f = 2.5 GHz (where λ0 is free space wavelength. The radiation peak gain and the maximum efficiency which occurs at 4.6 GHz, are 3.96dBi and 63.6%, respectively.

  6. Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Super-Resolution Using Sub-Pixel Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    AFIT/GE/ENG/03-18 REDUNDANT DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED SUPER-RESOLUTION USING SUB-PIXEL IMAGE REGISTRATION THESIS Daniel L. Ward Second...position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GE/ENG/03-18 REDUNDANT DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED...O3-18 REDUNDANT DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM BASED SUPER-RESOLUTION USING SUB-PIXEL IMAGE REGISTRATION THESIS Daniel Lee Ward, B.S.E.E. Second

  7. Advanced image processing package for FPGA-based re-programmable miniature electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovod, Vladimir I.; Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.

    2005-05-01

    Nova Sensors produces miniature electronics for a variety of real-time digital video camera systems, including foveal sensors based on Nova's Variable Acuity Superpixel Imager (VASITM) technology. An advanced image-processing package has been designed at Nova Sensors to re-configure the FPGA-based co-processor board for numerous applications including motion detection, optical, background velocimetry and target tracking. Currently, the processing package consists of 14 processing operations that cover a broad range of point- and area-applied algorithms. Flexible FPGA designs of these operations and re-programmability of the processing board allows for easy updates of the VASITM sensors, and for low-cost customization of VASITM sensors taking into account specific customer requirements. This paper describes the image processing algorithms implemented and verified in Xilinx FPGAs and provides the major technical performances with figures illustrating practical applications of the processing package.

  8. Adaptive filter for a miniature MEMS based attitude and heading reference system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mei; WANG Yong-quan; ZHANG Yan-hua

    2006-01-01

    An extended Kalman filter with adaptive gain was used to build a miniature attitude and heading reference system based on a stochastic model. The adaptive filter has six states with a time variable transition matrix. When the system is in the non-acceleration mode, the accelerometer measurements of the gravity and the compass measurements of the heading have observability and yield good estimates of the states. When the system is in the high dynamic mode and the bias has converged to an accurate estimate, the attitude calculation will be maintained for a long interval of time. The adaptive filter tunes its gain automatically based on the system dynamics sensed by the accelerometers to yield optimal performance.

  9. GF-4 Images Super Resolution Reconstruction Based on POCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Lina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The super resolution reconstruction of GF-4 is made by projection on convex sets (POCS. Papoulis-Gerchberg is used to construct reference frame which can reduce iteration and improve algorithm efficiency.Vandewalle is used to estimate motion parameter which is benefit to block process. Tested and analyzed by real GF-4 series images, it shows that sharpness of super resolution result is positive correlatie to frame amount, and signal to noise ratio (SNR is negative correlate to frame amount. After processing by 5 frames, information entropy (IE changes little; sharpness (average gradient increases from 7.803 to 14.386; SNR reduces a little, from 3.411 to 3.336. The experiment shows that after super resolution reconstruction, sharpness and detail information of results can be greatly improved.

  10. Miniaturized thermocycler based on thermoelectric heating for diagnosis of sexually transmitted disease by DNA amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Jo, Ga Eun; Kim, Kyong Soo; Back, Seung Min; Choi, Hyuk

    2017-05-01

    Sexually transmitted disease (STD) is among the most common infectious diseases; therefore, it is necessary to develop sensitive early diagnostic techniques. As the gold standard, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been most widely employed for STD diagnosis; however, PCR requires large and expensive instruments. In this study, miniaturized thermal cycler using Peltier modules was developed for the PCR analysis. In comparison with the conventional PCR instrument, the Peltier-based micro-PCR (P-mPCR) device developed in this study enables one to amplify and successfully distinguish between DNA of different sizes. Furthermore, by using the clinical vaginal sample collected with the vaginal swab and tampon, different kinds of STD bacteria could be detected with high accuracy (˜94.19%) and high sensitivity (˜95.6%). Therefore, the P-mPCR device will be applicable in STD diagnosis as well as the detection of other bacteria/viruses using DNA amplification in regions including those with limited resources.

  11. Molecular Similarity Based on Super-Ball Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The molecular similarity of 139 organic compounds was calculated by the topologic index method, the flexible super-ball algorithm was used to scan similar molecules and structures. The results show that the properties of organic compounds estimated from this method are reliable.

  12. Wavelet Transform of Super-Resolutions Based on Radar and Infrared Sensor Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    0I Q’UAL1 INwPO¶= I VI STATEMB r AApproved for public release; Distribution Unlimited NAVY CASE 77545 WAVELET TRANSFORM OF SUPER-RESOLUTIONS BASED ON...INVENTION It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide a structure and method for applying the forward and reverse Wavelet Transform (WT...invention, the noisy super- 10 resolution of infrared imaging is combined with the Wavelet transform for radar corner back-scattering size information

  13. Study of Super-Twisting sliding mode control for U model based nonlinear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua ZHANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Super-Twisting control algorithm is adopted to analyze the U model based nonlinear control system in order to solve the controller design problems of non-affine nonlinear systems. The non-affine nonlinear systems are studied, the neural network approximation of the nonlinear function is performed, and the Super-Twisting control algorithm is used to control. The convergence of the Super-Twisting algorithm is proved by selecting an appropriate Lyapunov function. The Matlab simulation is carried out to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the described method. The result shows that the output of the controlled system can be tracked in a very short time by using the designed Super-Twisting controller, and the robustness of the controlled system is significantly improved as well.

  14. Technique for the residual life assessment of high temperature components based on creep-rupture testing on welded miniature specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garzillo, A.; Guardamagna, C.; Moscotti, L.; Ranzani, L. [Ente Nazionale per l`Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    Following the present trend in the development of advanced methodologies for residual life assessment of high temperature components operating in power plants, particularly in non destructive methods, a testing technique has been set up at ENEL-CRAM based on creep-rupture testa in an argon on welded miniature specimens. Five experimental systems for creep-rupture tests in an argon atmosphere have been set up which include high accuracy systems, vacuum chambers and exrwnsometer devices. With the aim of establishing and validating the suitability of the experimental methodology, creep-rupture and interrupted creep testing programmes have been performed on miniature specimens (2 mm diameter and 10 mm gauge lenght). On the basis of experience gathered by various European research laboratories, a miniature specimen construction procedure has been developed using a laser welding technique for joining threaded heads to sample material. Low alloy ferritic steels, such as virgin 2.25CrlMo, 0.5Cr 0.5Mo 0.25V, and IN 738 superalloy miniature specimens have been investigated and the results, compared with those from standard specimens, show a regular trend in deformation vs time. Additional efforts to provide guidelines for material sampling from each plant component will be required in order to reduce uncertainties in residual life prediction.

  15. A miniature batteryless health and usage monitoring system based on hybrid energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenling; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2011-04-01

    The cost and size of the state-of-the-art health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are determined by capacity of on-board energy storage which limits their large scale deployment. In this paper, we present a miniature low-cost mechanical HUMS integrated circuit (IC) based on the concept of hybrid energy harvesting where continuous monitoring is achieved by self-powering, where as the programming, localization and communication with the sensor is achieved using remote RF powering. The self-powered component of the proposed HUMS is based on our previous result which used a controllable hot electron injection on floatinggate transistor as an ultra-low power signal processor. We show that the HUMS IC can seamlessly switch between different energy harvesting modes based on the availability of ambient RF power and that the configuration, programming and communication functions can be remotely performed without physically accessing the HUMS device. All the measured results presented in this paper have been obtained from prototypes fabricated in a 0.5 micron standard CMOS process and the entire system has been successfully integrated on a 1.5cm x 1.5cm package.

  16. Characterizing super-spreading in microblog: An epidemic-based information propagation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Bai; Wu, Bin; Shang, Suiming; Zhang, Yunlei; Shi, Chuan

    2016-12-01

    As the microblogging services are becoming more prosperous in everyday life for users on Online Social Networks (OSNs), it is more favorable for hot topics and breaking news to gain more attraction very soon than ever before, which are so-called "super-spreading events". In the information diffusion process of these super-spreading events, messages are passed on from one user to another and numerous individuals are influenced by a relatively small portion of users, a.k.a. super-spreaders. Acquiring an awareness of super-spreading phenomena and an understanding of patterns of wide-ranged information propagations benefits several social media data mining tasks, such as hot topic detection, predictions of information propagation, harmful information monitoring and intervention. Taking into account that super-spreading in both information diffusion and spread of a contagious disease are analogous, in this study, we build a parameterized model, the SAIR model, based on well-known epidemic models to characterize super-spreading phenomenon in tweet information propagation accompanied with super-spreaders. For the purpose of modeling information diffusion, empirical observations on a real-world Weibo dataset are statistically carried out. Both the steady-state analysis on the equilibrium and the validation on real-world Weibo dataset of the proposed model are conducted. The case study that validates the proposed model shows that the SAIR model is much more promising than the conventional SIR model in characterizing a super-spreading event of information propagation. In addition, numerical simulations are carried out and discussed to discover how sensitively the parameters affect the information propagation process.

  17. Readout electronics for CBM-TOF super module quality evaluation based on 10 Gbps ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, D.; Cao, P.; Huang, X.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Q.; Li, B.; Li, J.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2017-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter-Time of Flight (CBM-TOF) wall uses high performance of Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) assembled in super modules to identify charged particles with high channel density and high measurement precision at high event rate. Electronics meet the challenge for reading data out from a super module at high speed of about 6 Gbps in real time. In this paper, the readout electronics for CBM-TOF super module quality evaluation is proposed based on 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The digitized TOF data from one super module will be concentrated at the front-end electronics residing on the side of the super module and transmitted to an extreme speed readout module (XSRM) housed in the backend crate through the PCI Express (PCIe) protocol via optic channels. Eventually, the XSRM transmits data to the data acquisition (DAQ) system through four 10 Gbps Ethernet ports in real time. This readout structure has advantages of high performance and expansibility. Furthermore, it is easy to operate. Test results on the prototype show that the overall data readout performance for each XSRM can reach up to 28.8 Gbps, which means XSRM can meet the requirement of reading data out from 4 super modules with 1280 channels in real time.

  18. Maintenance-free super-capacitor-based WSN power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrascu, Mihai G.; Svasta, Paul; Vladescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Super-capacitors are highly reliable devices, outlasting any existing battery in operating conditions, cycle number and ruggedness. They are perfect candidates for energy storage in remote wireless sensor network nodes. Other applications [1] use a combination of rechargeable battery as the main storage device and a low capacity EDLC as energy buffer. This paper describes the design and the results from a module consisting of a single large capacitor, a MPPC charger and a boost converter. Unlike other devices, this prototype uses one storage device (a single EDLC), it does not involve software components [2] and it can operate from a single solar cell.

  19. Particle Filter with Novel Nonlinear Error Model for Miniature Gyroscope-Based Measurement While Drilling Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Yuan, Gannan; Li, Wang

    2016-03-15

    The derivation of a conventional error model for the miniature gyroscope-based measurement while drilling (MGWD) system is based on the assumption that the errors of attitude are small enough so that the direction cosine matrix (DCM) can be approximated or simplified by the errors of small-angle attitude. However, the simplification of the DCM would introduce errors to the navigation solutions of the MGWD system if the initial alignment cannot provide precise attitude, especially for the low-cost microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors operated in harsh multilateral horizontal downhole drilling environments. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear error model (NNEM) by the introduction of the error of DCM, and the NNEM can reduce the propagated errors under large-angle attitude error conditions. The zero velocity and zero position are the reference points and the innovations in the states estimation of particle filter (PF) and Kalman filter (KF). The experimental results illustrate that the performance of PF is better than KF and the PF with NNEM can effectively restrain the errors of system states, especially for the azimuth, velocity, and height in the quasi-stationary condition.

  20. Particle Filter with Novel Nonlinear Error Model for Miniature Gyroscope-Based Measurement While Drilling Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of a conventional error model for the miniature gyroscope-based measurement while drilling (MGWD system is based on the assumption that the errors of attitude are small enough so that the direction cosine matrix (DCM can be approximated or simplified by the errors of small-angle attitude. However, the simplification of the DCM would introduce errors to the navigation solutions of the MGWD system if the initial alignment cannot provide precise attitude, especially for the low-cost microelectromechanical system (MEMS sensors operated in harsh multilateral horizontal downhole drilling environments. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear error model (NNEM by the introduction of the error of DCM, and the NNEM can reduce the propagated errors under large-angle attitude error conditions. The zero velocity and zero position are the reference points and the innovations in the states estimation of particle filter (PF and Kalman filter (KF. The experimental results illustrate that the performance of PF is better than KF and the PF with NNEM can effectively restrain the errors of system states, especially for the azimuth, velocity, and height in the quasi-stationary condition.

  1. Miniature, Low-Power, Waveguide Based Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Spacecraft Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagama, TIlak; Aslam, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen; Allen, John E., Jr.; Annen, John N.; Jennings, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers have a venerable heritage as flight instruments. However, obtaining an accurate spectrum exacts a penalty in instrument mass and power requirements. Recent advances in a broad class of non-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) devices, generally called spatial heterodyne spectrometers, offer distinct advantages as flight optimized systems. We are developing a miniaturized system that employs photonics lightwave circuit principles and functions as an FTS operating in the 7-14 micrometer spectral region. The inteferogram is constructed from an ensemble of Mach-Zehnder interferometers with path length differences calibrated to mimic scan mirror sample positions of a classic Michelson type FTS. One potential long-term application of this technology in low cost planetary missions is the concept of a self-contained sensor system. We are developing a systems architecture concept for wide area in situ and remote monitoring of characteristic properties that are of scientific interest. The system will be based on wavelength- and resolution-independent spectroscopic sensors for studying atmospheric and surface chemistry, physics, and mineralogy. The self-contained sensor network is based on our concept of an Addressable Photonics Cube (APC) which has real-time flexibility and broad science applications. It is envisaged that a spatially distributed autonomous sensor web concept that integrates multiple APCs will be reactive and dynamically driven. The network is designed to respond in an event- or model-driven manner or reconfigured as needed.

  2. Miniature atomic scalar magnetometer for space based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Strohbehn, Kim; Tejada, Francisco; Andreou, Andreas G.; Kitching, John; Knappe, Svenja; Lehtonen, S. John; London, Shaughn M.; Kafel, Matiwos

    2016-08-01

    A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm3 so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips. The SOS-CMOS chip also hosts the Helmholtz coil and associated circuitry to stimulate the magnetically sensitive atomic resonance and temperature sensors. The prototype instrument has a total mass of fewer than 500 g and uses less than 1 W of power, while maintaining a sensitivity of 15 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, comparable to present state-of-the-art absolute magnetometers.

  3. Miniaturized analytical instrumentation for electrochemiluminescence assays: a spectrometer and a photodiode-based device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Marta M P S; Bobes-Limenes, Pablo; Pérez-Junquera, Alejandro; González-García, María Begoña; Hernández-Santos, David; Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    Herein, a new miniaturized analytical instrumentation for electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays is presented. A photodiode integrated in an ECL cell combined with a potentiostat/galvanostat, all integrated in a one-piece instrument (μSTAT ECL), was developed. In addition, a complementary micro-spectrometer integrated in a similar ECL cell for luminescence spectra recording is also proposed. Both cells are intended to be used with screen-printed electrodes and all the devices are portable and small sized. Their performance was corroborated with two innovative proofs-of-concept that centered on the luminol transduction chemistry: a first time reported ECL assay based on the enzymatic reaction between an indoxyl substrate and the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, and the electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) process triggered by the electro-oxidized luminol to the acceptor fluorescein. The photodiode system revealed to be more sensitive than the spectrometer device in collecting the light; however, with the latter, it is possible to discriminate different luminescent species according to their maximum wavelength emission, which is extremely useful for carrying out simple and simultaneous ECL multiplex analyzes. The spectrometer device works as an excellent accessory to couple with the μSTAT ECL instrument, complementing the experiments. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the ECL-RET: from luminol-H2O2 system to fluorescein, the micro-spectrometer for the light collection and the 3D representation of the ECL-RET reaction.

  4. BONDING OF MINIATURE PARTS WITH ADHESIVES AND VISION BASED PROCEDURE INSPECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaodong; Jürgen Hesselbach

    2004-01-01

    Bonding with adhesives is an important technique for building up hybrid microsystems.Some adhesives are tested with capillary dispensing system for microassembly,and volume of droplets less than 10 nl with good repeatability can be acquired.1-part UV curing adhesive hardens rapidly and is suitable for bonding of transparent microparts.Light-activated adhesive starts the curing process in an adjustable short period of time after the radiation of visible light,and thus suits bonding of non-transparent microparts.A method is proposed for bonding the guides of a miniature linear motor being developed by collaborate research center 516 (SFB516) in Germany.With the method high assembly accuracy in the vertical direction can be guaranteed.By making small grooves on the stator for containing adhesive,the deterioration of the accuracy due to the thickness of adhesive layer can be avoided.The criteria on deciding the size of the groove are given and analyzed.Vision based inspection method is introduced for automatic assembly of the guides.The dispensing volume and position of dispensed adhesive droplets can be detected for ensuring the bonding quality.

  5. Energy-efficient miniature-scale heat pumping based on shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossmer, Hinnerk; Wendler, Frank; Gueltig, Marcel; Lambrecht, Franziska; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kohl, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Cooling and thermal management comprise a major part of global energy consumption. The by far most widespread cooling technology today is vapor compression, reaching rather high efficiencies, but promoting global warming due to the use of environmentally harmful refrigerants. For widespread emerging applications using microelectronics and micro-electro-mechanical systems, thermoelectrics is the most advanced technology, which however hardly reaches coefficients of performance (COP) above 2.0. Here, we introduce a new approach for energy-efficient heat pumping using the elastocaloric effect in shape memory alloys. This development is mainly targeted at applications on miniature scales, while larger scales are envisioned by massive parallelization. Base materials are cold-rolled textured Ti49.1Ni50.5Fe0.4 foils of 30 μm thickness showing an adiabatic temperature change of +20/-16 K upon superelastic loading/unloading. Different demonstrator layouts consisting of mechanically coupled bridge structures with large surface-to-volume ratios are developed allowing for control by a single actuator as well as work recovery. Heat transfer times are in the order of 1 s, being orders of magnitude faster than for bulk geometries. Thus, first demonstrators achieve values of specific heating and cooling power of 4.5 and 2.9 W g-1, respectively. A maximum temperature difference of 9.4 K between heat source and sink is reached within 2 min. Corresponding COP on the device level are 4.9 (heating) and 3.1 (cooling).

  6. Miniature atomic scalar magnetometer for space based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Strohbehn, Kim; Tejada, Francisco; Andreou, Andreas G; Kitching, John; Knappe, Svenja; Lehtonen, S John; London, Shaughn M; Kafel, Matiwos

    2016-08-01

    A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope (87)Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm(3) so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips. The SOS-CMOS chip also hosts the Helmholtz coil and associated circuitry to stimulate the magnetically sensitive atomic resonance and temperature sensors. The prototype instrument has a total mass of fewer than 500 g and uses less than 1 W of power, while maintaining a sensitivity of 15 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, comparable to present state-of-the-art absolute magnetometers.

  7. Infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiubao; Gao, Hang; Sun, Yicheng; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua

    2013-09-01

    With the wide application of infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), military, aerospace, public security and other applications have higher and higher requirements on the spatial resolution of infrared images. However, traditional super-resolution imaging methods have increasingly unable to meet this requirement in technology. In this paper, we adopt the achievement that the human retina micro-motion is the important reason why the human has the hyperacuity ability. Based on the achievement, we bring forward an infrared super-resolution imaging method based on retina micro-motion. In the method, we use the piezoelectric ceramic equipment to control the infrared detector moving variably within a plane parallel to the focal plane. The motion direction is toward each other into a direction of 90°. In the four directions of the movement, we get four sub-images and generate a high spatial resolution infrared image by image interpolation method. In the process of the shifting movement of the detector, we set the threshold of the detector response and record the response time difference when adjacent pixel responses are up to the threshold. By the method, we get the object's edges, enhance them in the high resolution infrared image and get the super-resolution infrared image. The experimental results show that our proposed super-resolution imaging methods can improve the spatial resolution of the infrared image effectively. The method will offer a new idea for the super-resolution reconstruction of infrared images.

  8. Pairwise Operator Learning for Patch Based Single-image Super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-14

    Motivated by the fact that image patches could be inherently represented by matrices, single-image super-resolution is treated as a problem of learning regression operators in a matrix space in this paper. The regression operators that map low-resolution image patches to high-resolution image patches are generally defined by left and right multiplication operators. The pairwise operators are respectively used to extract the raw and column information of low-resolution image patches for recovering high-resolution estimations. The patch based regression algorithm possesses three favorable properties. Firstly, the proposed super-resolution algorithm is efficient during both training and testing, because image patches are treated as matrices. Secondly, the data storage requirement of the optimal pairwise operator is far less than most popular single-image super-resolution algorithms because only two small sized matrices need to be stored. Lastly, the super-resolution performance is competitive with most popular single-image super-resolution algorithms because both raw and column information of image patches is considered. Experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed patch-based single-image superresolution algorithm.

  9. Experimental Study on Machining Shape Hole of Ni-based Super-heat-resistant Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inconel 718 and Waspaloy, Nickel-based super-heat-resistant alloy, are high-strength, thermal-resistant and corrosion-resistant alloy that are widely used in parts of gas turbines and airplane engines. Due to their extremely tough and thermal-resistant nature, they are well known as materials that are difficult to cut. Shape holes on a disc of an aircraft engine, made of Ni-based super-heat-resistant alloy, are required with good surface integrity and geometric accuracy. This kind of shape hole is produced ...

  10. Real-time analysis and visualization for single-molecule based super-resolution microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Kechkar

    Full Text Available Accurate multidimensional localization of isolated fluorescent emitters is a time consuming process in single-molecule based super-resolution microscopy. We demonstrate a functional method for real-time reconstruction with automatic feedback control, without compromising the localization accuracy. Compatible with high frame rates of EM-CCD cameras, it relies on a wavelet segmentation algorithm, together with a mix of CPU/GPU implementation. A combination with Gaussian fitting allows direct access to 3D localization. Automatic feedback control ensures optimal molecule density throughout the acquisition process. With this method, we significantly improve the efficiency and feasibility of localization-based super-resolution microscopy.

  11. Real-time analysis and visualization for single-molecule based super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechkar, Adel; Nair, Deepak; Heilemann, Mike; Choquet, Daniel; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Accurate multidimensional localization of isolated fluorescent emitters is a time consuming process in single-molecule based super-resolution microscopy. We demonstrate a functional method for real-time reconstruction with automatic feedback control, without compromising the localization accuracy. Compatible with high frame rates of EM-CCD cameras, it relies on a wavelet segmentation algorithm, together with a mix of CPU/GPU implementation. A combination with Gaussian fitting allows direct access to 3D localization. Automatic feedback control ensures optimal molecule density throughout the acquisition process. With this method, we significantly improve the efficiency and feasibility of localization-based super-resolution microscopy.

  12. Miniaturization in Otothyris Myers, 1927 (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaina Cristine Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many species of freshwater fishes are considered miniatures, nevertheless, their identification as miniatures is frequently based only on an arbitrary criterion of small body size. Although some species of Otothyris had been suggested to be miniature, informations about the process and consequences of miniaturization in the genus are lacking. Here, we detail developmental events of loss, fusion, and modifications in several bones, the laterosensory system, and even the brain, that in sum demonstrate miniaturization in all species of the genus. Our results may be useful in the recognition of other miniature species of loricariids.

  13. Accessing the third dimension in localization-based super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, Bassam; El Beheiry, Mohamed; Izeddin, Ignacio; Darzacq, Xavier; Dahan, Maxime

    2014-08-21

    Only a few years after its inception, localization-based super-resolution microscopy has become widely employed in biological studies. Yet, it is primarily used in two-dimensional imaging and accessing the organization of cellular structures at the nanoscale in three dimensions (3D) still poses important challenges. Here, we review optical and computational techniques that enable the 3D localization of individual emitters and the reconstruction of 3D super-resolution images. These techniques are grouped into three main categories: PSF engineering, multiple plane imaging and interferometric approaches. We provide an overview of their technical implementation as well as commentary on their applicability. Finally, we discuss future trends in 3D localization-based super-resolution microscopy.

  14. Ultra-compact chiral metamaterial with negative refractive index based on miniaturized structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minhua; Song, Jian; Wu, Fei

    2017-03-01

    An ultra-compact chiral metamaterial with thin thickness and small unit cells is proposed. Echelon meandered conjugated gammadions are introduced into the planar miniaturized design. In particular, the ratio between period (p) and resonant wavelength (λ) is as small as 1/10.8 in experiment. Negative refractive indexes for circularly polarized waves are demonstrated and the effective parameters are retrieved. The effects of the length of the swing arms, number of folded lines and dielectric layer thickness on the optical activity have also been investigated. This miniaturized structure has great potential application in electronic and photonic devices with small size and integration.

  15. Fiber-optical sensor with miniaturized probe head and nanometer accuracy based on spatially modulated low-coherence interferogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiereux, Frank; Lehmann, Peter; Pfeifer, Tilo; Schmitt, Robert

    2007-06-10

    Fiber-optical sensors have some crucial advantages compared with rigid optical systems. They allow miniaturization and flexibility of system setups. Nevertheless, optical principles such as low-coherence interferometry can be realized by use of fiber optics. We developed and realized an approach for a fiber-optical sensor, which is based on the analysis of spatially modulated low-coherence interferograms. The system presented consists of three units, a miniaturized sensing probe, a broadband fiber-coupled light source, and an adapted Michelson interferometer, which is used as an optical receiver. Furthermore, the signal processing procedure, which was developed for the interferogram analysis in order to achieve nanometer measurement accuracy, is discussed. A system prototype has been validated thoroughly in different experiments. The results approve the accuracy of the sensor.

  16. Super-Resolution Scanning Laser Microscopy Based on Virtually Structured Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yanan; Wang, Benquan; Yao, Xincheng

    2015-01-01

    Light microscopy plays a key role in biological studies and medical diagnosis. The spatial resolution of conventional optical microscopes is limited to approximately half the wavelength of the illumination light as a result of the diffraction limit. Several approaches-including confocal microscopy, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, photoactivated localization microscopy, and structured illumination microscopy-have been established to achieve super-resolution imaging. However, none of these methods is suitable for the super-resolution ophthalmoscopy of retinal structures because of laser safety issues and inevitable eye movements. We recently experimentally validated virtually structured detection (VSD) as an alternative strategy to extend the diffraction limit. Without the complexity of structured illumination, VSD provides an easy, low-cost, and phase artifact-free strategy to achieve super-resolution in scanning laser microscopy. In this article we summarize the basic principles of the VSD method, review our demonstrated single-point and line-scan super-resolution systems, and discuss both technical challenges and the potential of VSD-based instrumentation for super-resolution ophthalmoscopy of the retina.

  17. Super-Hydrophobic/Icephobic Coatings Based on Silica Nanoparticles Modified by Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained from nanocomposite materials based on silica nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS using spin coating and chemical vapor deposition methods. Scanning electron microscope images reveal the porous structure of the silica nanoparticles, which can trap small-scale air pockets. An average water contact angle of 163° and bouncing off of incoming water droplets suggest that a super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained based on the silica nanoparticles and POTS coating. The monitored water droplet icing test results show that icing is significantly delayed by silica-based nano-coatings compared with bare substrates and commercial icephobic products. Ice adhesion test results show that the ice adhesion strength is reduced remarkably by silica-based nano-coatings. The bouncing phenomenon of water droplets, the icing delay performance and the lower ice adhesion strength suggest that the super-hydrophobic coatings based on a combination of silica and POTS also show icephobicity. An erosion test rig based on pressurized pneumatic water impinging impact was used to evaluate the durability of the super-hydrophobic/icephobic coatings. The results show that durable coatings have been obtained, although improvement will be needed in future work aiming for applications in aerospace.

  18. A new cathode material for super-valent battery based on aluminium ion intercalation and deintercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Jiang, Bo; Xiong, Weiyi; Sun, He; Lin, Zheshuai; Hu, Liwen; Tu, Jiguo; Hou, Jungang; Zhu, Hongmin; Jiao, Shuqiang

    2013-11-29

    Due to their small footprint and flexible siting, rechargeable batteries are attractive for energy storage systems. A super-valent battery based on aluminium ion intercalation and deintercalation is proposed in this work with VO2 as cathode and high-purity Al foil as anode. First-principles calculations are also employed to theoretically investigate the crystal structure change and the insertion-extraction mechanism of Al ions in the super-valent battery. Long cycle life, low cost and good capacity are achieved in this battery system. At the current density of 50 mAg(-1), the discharge capacity remains 116 mAhg(-1) after 100 cycles. Comparing to monovalent Li-ion battery, the super-valent battery has the potential to deliver more charges and gain higher specific capacity.

  19. APES-based procedure for super-resolution SAR imagery with GPU parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaojian; Xu, Guangyao

    2015-10-01

    The amplitude and phase estimation (APES) algorithm is widely used in modern spectral analysis. Compared with conventional Fourier transform (FFT), APES results in lower sidelobes and narrower spectral peaks. However, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging with large scene, without parallel computation, it is difficult to apply APES directly to super-resolution radar image processing due to its great amount of calculation. In this paper, a procedure is proposed to achieve target extraction and parallel computing of APES for super-resolution SAR imaging. Numerical experimental are carried out on Tesla K40C with 745 MHz GPU clock rate and 2880 CUDA cores. Results of SAR image with GPU parallel computing show that the parallel APES is remarkably more efficient than that of CPU-based with the same super-resolution.

  20. Single image super-resolution reconstruction method based on LC-KSVD algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaolan; Liu, Yijun

    2017-05-01

    A good dictionary has direct impact to the result of super-resolution image reconstruction. For solving the problem that dictionary learning only contains representation ability but no class information using K-SVD algorithm, this paper proposes single image super-resolution algorithm based on LC-KSVD (Label consist K-SVD). The algorithm adds classifier parameter constraints into the process of dictionary learning and classifier parameters in the process, making the dictionary possess good representation and discrimination ability. The experimental results show that the algorithm has high reconstruction results and good robustness.

  1. Model-based tracking of miniaturized grippers using particle swarm optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheggi, Stefano; Yoon, ChangKyu; Gracias, David H.; Misra, Sarthak

    2016-01-01

    Micro-sized agents can benefit robotic minimally invasive surgery since they can be inserted into the human body and use natural pathways such as arteries and veins or the gastrointestinal tract, to reach their target for drug delivery or diagnosis. Recently, miniaturized agents with shape-changing

  2. Miniature Earthmover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    International Machinery Corporation (IMC) developed a miniature earthmover, the 1/8 scale Caterpillar D11N Track-type Tractor, with trademark product approval and manufacturing/marketing license from Caterpillar, Inc. Through Marshall Space Flight Center assistance, the company has acquired infrared remote control technology, originally developed for space exploration. The technology is necessary for exports because of varying restrictions on radio frequency in foreign countries. The Cat D11N weighs only 340 pounds and has the world's first miniature industrial internal combustion engine. The earthmover's uses include mining, construction and demolition work, and hazardous environment work. IMC also has designs of various products for military use and other Caterpillar replicas.

  3. Development and characterization of cobalt based nanostructured super hydrophobic coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, H.; Sultan, U.; Joya, Y. F.; Ahmed, S.; Awan, M. S.; Arshad, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    A super hydrophobic coating on the surface of glass substrate has been developed using chemical bath deposition (CBD) process. A water contact angle (WCA) greater than 150° has been achieved. Cobalt Chloride (CoCl2) has been used as the main precursor to investigate optimum composition and high superhydrophobicity. The water droplet has been observed to slide with a sliding angle less than ∼⃒3°. This effect is particularly due to the surface morphology (roughness) and low surface energy that causes water droplet to form a large contact angle thus allowing the surface to show water-repellent properties. Deposition time is the primary parameter affecting the coating properties and a different WCA value has been observed by increasing time. Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) images show the presence of a nano flower-like morphology that helps in imparting superhydrophobic behavior. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) indicate the coating to be composed of cobalt as the main constituent. Contact Angle Measurement confirms the contact angle value to be greater than 170°.

  4. Development of Management System for Regional Pollution Source Based on SuperMap Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the integration of C#.net and SuperMap Objects(tool software of component GIS),the management system of regional pollution source is developed.It mainly includes the demand analysis of system,function design,database construction,program design and concrete realization in the management aspect of pollution source.

  5. A miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on organic electrochemical transistor for sensitive determination of chemical oxygen demand in wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jianjun; Lin, Shiwei; Zeng, Min; Yang, Yue

    2016-05-01

    A three-electrode configuration is often required in the conventional photoelectrochemical measurements. Nevertheless, one common drawback is the reference electrode and the counter electrode used in the measurements, which has been proved to be an impediment for the miniaturization. In this study, a simple, cost-effective and miniature photoelectrochemical sensor based on high sensitive organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) is developed and used for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in wastewaters. The devices show detection limit down to 0.01 mg/L COD, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the conventional photoelectrochemical method. The excellent sensing performance can be contributed to the novel sensing mechanism of OECT devices. That is, the devices are sensitive to the potential changes induced by the photoelectrochemical reaction on TiO2 nanotube arrays gate electrodes. Real sample analyses are also carried out. The results demonstrate that the measured COD values using the OECT devices and the standard dichromate methods are in a good agreement. Since the proposed sensor is constructed on a miniature transistor, it is expected that the device shows a promising application on the integrated COD monitoring platform.

  6. Development and Miniaturization of RF based probes for Electron Density Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    To make a diagnostics on plasmas for materials processing plasmas accompanying with deposition of non-conducting films in etching and/or CVD processes, curling probe (CP) with a spiral slot antenna has been recently developed as a compact diagnostic tool which enables the local electron density measurement. The electron density is obtained from a shift of the probe resonance frequency in discharge ON and OFF monitored by a network analyzer (NWA). A conventional CP has a diameter larger than 15 mm typically, because a slot length of the CP is as long as several tens millimeters for its resonance frequency less than several GHz. Further miniaturization of the CP was required to expand applicable range to various plasma sources like a narrow-gap parallel plate discharge. We tried miniaturization of the CP down to less than 3 mm in the probe diameter by fabricating narrow spiral slot antenna, and experimentally and numerically the miniaturized probe was investigated how much influence the slot width has on probe resonance characteristics and electron density measurements. In the case of the conventional CP made of stainless steel, 0.3-mm-wide normal slot antenna, the resonance spectra was clearly observed regardless of antenna materials of copper or stainless steel (SS). However, when the slot width was reduced down to 0.03 mm, the slot resonance was strongly dependent on the antenna materials. Namely the resonance peak was almost vanished for the SS antenna, whereas clearly appeared for the copper antenna. In general, the narrower the slot is, the higher attenuation factor the slot has for electromagnetic wave propagating along the slot. In such an attenuated transmission line of the narrow slot, high electric conductivity of the antenna seems preferable for the slot resonance. Furthermore, the miniaturized CP with the copper antenna was also introduced into low pressure (< 1Pa) Ar plasma. The resonance frequency was confirmed to changes sensitively with electron

  7. Correlative atomic force microscopy and localization-based super-resolution microscopy: revealing labelling and image reconstruction artefacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrate, Aitor; Casado, Santiago; Flors, Cristina

    2014-03-17

    Hybrid microscopy: A correlative microscopy tool that combines in situ super-resolution fluorescence microscopy based on single-molecule localization and atomic force microscopy is presented. Direct comparison with high- resolution topography allows the authors to improve fluorescence labeling and image analysis in super-resolution imaging.

  8. Miniature objective lens for array digital pathology: design improvement based on clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Brian; Pierce, Mark; Graviss, Edward A.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2016-03-01

    A miniature objective designed for digital detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was evaluated for diagnostic accuracy. The objective was designed for array microscopy, but fabricated and evaluated at this stage of development as a single objective. The counts and diagnoses of patient samples were directly compared for digital detection and standard microscopy. The results were found to be correlated and highly concordant. The evaluation of this lens by direct comparison to standard fluorescence sputum smear microscopy presented unique challenges and led to some new insights in the role played by the system parameters of the microscope. The design parameters and how they were developed are reviewed in light of these results. New system parameters are proposed with the goal of easing the challenges of evaluating the miniature objective and maintaining the optical performance that produced the agreeable results presented without over-optimizing. A new design is presented that meets and exceeds these criteria.

  9. CAD-based Monte Carlo Program for Integrated Simulation of Nuclear System SuperMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yican; Song, Jing; Zheng, Huaqing; Sun, Guangyao; Hao, Lijuan; Long, Pengcheng; Hu, Liqin

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) method has distinct advantages to simulate complicated nuclear systems and is envisioned as routine method for nuclear design and analysis in the future. High fidelity simulation with MC method coupled with multi-physical phenomenon simulation has significant impact on safety, economy and sustainability of nuclear systems. However, great challenges to current MC methods and codes prevent its application in real engineering project. SuperMC is a CAD-based Monte Carlo program for integrated simulation of nuclear system developed by FDS Team, China, making use of hybrid MC-deterministic method and advanced computer technologies. The design aim, architecture and main methodology of SuperMC were presented in this paper. SuperMC2.1, the latest version for neutron, photon and coupled neutron and photon transport calculation, has been developed and validated by using a series of benchmarking cases such as the fusion reactor ITER model and the fast reactor BN-600 model. SuperMC is still in its evolution process toward a general and routine tool for nuclear system. Warning, no authors found for 2014snam.conf06023.

  10. Vibration Analysis of Aeroengine Blisk Structure Based on a Prestressed CMS Super-Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For vibration analysis of aeroengine blisk structure, a prestressed component modal synthesis (CMS super-element method is put forward with the fixed interface prestressing and free interface super-element approach. Based on this method, natural vibration characteristics of blisk structure are calculated at different modal truncation numbers. Comparing with the accurate result of global method, the selection principle of modal truncation number is obtained which affects the accuracy of prestressed CMS super-element method. Vibration response of two-stage blisk structure is calculated by this method, and the effects of different blade aspect ratios have been discussed on vibration characteristics. The results show that prestressed CMS super-element method is in the high accuracy and efficiency on blisk vibration analysis. Resonant frequencies in vibration response are nearly the same between the first-stage blisk and the second-stage blisk, and they are both approximately located in the range 588 Hz–599 Hz. The maximum displacement and dynamic stress are at blade tip and root of the first-stage blisk, respectively. Blade aspect ratio is a key factor of blisk vibration; the effects of blade aspect ratio on natural frequencies are different in the conditions of fixed width and fixed length. This research provides the theoretical basis for dynamic design of aeroengine compressor rotor system.

  11. Group-based single image super-resolution with online dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuan; Wang, Dingwen; Shi, Wenxuan; Deng, Dexiang

    2016-12-01

    Recently, sparse representation has been successfully used in single image super-resolution reconstruction. Unlike the traditional single image super-resolution methods such as image interpolation, the super-resolution with sparse representation reconstructs image with one or several constant dictionaries learned from external databases. However, the contents can vary significantly across different patches in a single image, and the fixed dictionaries cannot suit for every patch. This paper presents a novel approach for single image super-resolution based on sparse representation, which uses group as the basic unit, and trains dictionary with external database and the input low-resolution image itself for each group to ensure that the dictionary is suitable for the patches in the group. Simultaneous sparse coding algorithm is used to accelerate the processing and improve the result. Extensive experiments on natural images show that our method achieves better results than some state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both objective and human visual evaluations.

  12. A miniaturized electrochemical toxicity biosensor based on graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes for assessment of priority pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Wu, Guanlan; Lu, Nan [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117 (China); Yuan, Xing, E-mail: yuanx@nenu.edu.cn [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117 (China); Li, Baikun, E-mail: baikun@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed. • The cytotoxicity detection vessel was miniaturized to the 96-well plate. • The electrochemical behavior of HepG2 cell was investigated for the first time. • The mixture signal of adenine and hypoxanthine was separated successfully. • The biosensor was used to assess the toxicity of heavy metals and phenols. - Abstract: The study presented a sensitive and miniaturized cell-based electrochemical biosensor to assess the toxicity of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were used as the biological recognition agent to measure the changes of electrochemical signals and reflect the cell viability. The graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed in a facile and green way. Based on the hybrid composite modified pencil graphite electrode, the cell culture and detection vessel was miniaturized to a 96-well plate instead of the traditional culture dish. In addition, three sensitive electrochemical signals attributed to guanine/xanthine, adenine, and hypoxanthine were detected simultaneously. The biosensor was used to evaluate the toxicity of six priority pollutants, including Cd, Hg, Pb, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol. The 24 h IC{sub 50} values obtained by the electrochemical biosensor were lower than those of conventional MTT assay, suggesting the enhanced sensitivity of the electrochemical assay towards heavy metals and phenols. This platform enables the label-free and sensitive detection of cell physiological status with multi-parameters and constitutes a promising approach for toxicity detection of pollutants. It makes possible for automatical and high-throughput analysis on nucleotide catabolism, which may be critical for life science and toxicology.

  13. Projection based image restoration, super-resolution and error correction codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karl Gregory

    Super-resolution is the ability of a restoration algorithm to restore meaningful spatial frequency content beyond the diffraction limit of the imaging system. The Gerchberg-Papoulis (GP) algorithm is one of the most celebrated algorithms for super-resolution. The GP algorithm is conceptually simple and demonstrates the importance of using a priori information in the formation of the object estimate. In the first part of this dissertation the continuous GP algorithm is discussed in detail and shown to be a projection on convex sets algorithm. The discrete GP algorithm is shown to converge in the exactly-, over- and under-determined cases. A direct formula for the computation of the estimate at the kth iteration and at convergence is given. This analysis of the discrete GP algorithm sets the stage to connect super-resolution to error-correction codes. Reed-Solomon codes are used for error-correction in magnetic recording devices, compact disk players and by NASA for space communications. Reed-Solomon codes have a very simple description when analyzed with the Fourier transform. This signal processing approach to error- correction codes allows the error-correction problem to be compared with the super-resolution problem. The GP algorithm for super-resolution is shown to be equivalent to the correction of errors with a Reed-Solomon code over an erasure channel. The Restoration from Magnitude (RFM) problem seeks to recover a signal from the magnitude of the spectrum. This problem has applications to imaging through a turbulent atmosphere. The turbulent atmosphere causes localized changes in the index of refraction and introduces different phase delays in the data collected. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and hyperspectral imaging systems are capable of simultaneously recording multiple images of different polarizations or wavelengths. Each of these images will experience the same turbulent atmosphere and have a common phase distortion. A projection based restoration

  14. Miniaturized and Ferrite Based Tunable Bandpass Filters in LCP and LTCC Technologies for SoP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Arabi, Eyad A.

    2015-04-01

    Wireless systems with emerging applications are leaning towards small size, light-weight and low cost. Another trend for these wireless devices is that new applications and functionalities are being added without increasing the size of the device. To accomplish this, individual components must be miniaturized and the system should be designed to maximize the integration of the individual components. The high level of 3D integration feasible in system on package design (SoP) concept can fulfill the latter requirement. Bandpass filters are important components on all wireless systems to reject the unwanted signals and reduce interference. Being mostly implemented with passive and distributed components, bandpass filters take considerable space in a wireless system. Moreover, with emerging bands and multiple applications encompassed in a single device, many bandpass filters are required. The miniaturization related to bandpass filters can be approached by three main ways: (1) at the component level through the miniaturization of individual bandpass filters, (2) at the system level through the use of tunable filters to reduce the overall number of filters, and (3) at the system level through the high level of integration in a 3D SoP platform. In this work we have focused on all three aspects of miniaturization of band pass filters mentioned above. In the first part of this work, a low frequency (1.5 GHz global positioning system (GPS) band) filter implemented through 3D lumped components in two leading SoP technologies, namely low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) and the liquid crystal polymers (LCP) is demonstrated. The miniaturized filter is based on a second order topology, which has been modified to improve the selectivity and out-of-band rejection without increasing the size. Moreover, for the case of LCP, the filter is realized in an ultra-thin stack up comprising four metallization layers with an overall thickness of only 100 _m. Due to its ultra

  15. Carbon Nanofiber-Based, High-Frequency, High-Q, Miniaturized Mechanical Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Epp, Larry W.; Bagge, Leif

    2011-01-01

    High Q resonators are a critical component of stable, low-noise communication systems, radar, and precise timing applications such as atomic clocks. In electronic resonators based on Si integrated circuits, resistive losses increase as a result of the continued reduction in device dimensions, which decreases their Q values. On the other hand, due to the mechanical construct of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators, such loss mechanisms are absent, enabling higher Q-values for both BAW and SAW resonators compared to their electronic counterparts. The other advantages of mechanical resonators are their inherently higher radiation tolerance, a factor that makes them attractive for NASA s extreme environment planetary missions, for example to the Jovian environments where the radiation doses are at hostile levels. Despite these advantages, both BAW and SAW resonators suffer from low resonant frequencies and they are also physically large, which precludes their integration into miniaturized electronic systems. Because there is a need to move the resonant frequency of oscillators to the order of gigahertz, new technologies and materials are being investigated that will make performance at those frequencies attainable. By moving to nanoscale structures, in this case vertically oriented, cantilevered carbon nanotubes (CNTs), that have larger aspect ratios (length/thickness) and extremely high elastic moduli, it is possible to overcome the two disadvantages of both bulk acoustic wave (BAW) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators. Nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) that utilize high aspect ratio nanomaterials exhibiting high elastic moduli (e.g., carbon-based nanomaterials) benefit from high Qs, operate at high frequency, and have small force constants that translate to high responsivity that results in improved sensitivity, lower power consumption, and im - proved tunablity. NEMS resonators have recently been demonstrated using topdown

  16. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  17. Experimental Design for Visualization of Audio Spectrum Based on Flash and SuperShape%基于Flash平台和SuperShape的网络音频频谱可视化实验设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈童; 李松林

    2013-01-01

    SuperShape公式是用来描述自然界中几何形态的数学公式,在建模和形态发生学领域有着普遍的应用.在充分分析SuperShape 3D的基础上,使用ActionScript语言优化实现了SuperShape 3D公式,并采用线框、粒子、Flat和Phong着色方式对SuperShape图形进行了渲染,达到了使用SuperShape可视化网络音频频谱的目的.%SuperShape, a mathematical formula to be used to describe the geometry of nature, is extensively applied in the field of modeling and morphogenesis. Based on the analysis of SuperShape3D, the SuperShape3D formula was programmed using ActionScript. Moreover, the SuperShape was rendered using wireframe, particles, flat shading and phong shading, achieving the visualization of audio spectrum in SuperShape3D.

  18. A flexible and miniaturized hair dye based photodetector via chemiluminescence pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chang; Sun, Da-Shiuan; Lin, Ya-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Tso; Cheng, Chieh; Sun, Wen-Hsien; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2017-04-15

    A flexible and miniaturized metal semiconductor metal (MSM) biomolecular photodetector was developed as the core photocurrent system through chemiluminescence for hydrogen peroxide sensing. The flexible photocurrent sensing system was manufactured on a 30-µm-thick crystalline silicon chip by chemical etching process, which produced a flexible silicon chip. A surface texturization design on the flexible device enhanced the light-trapping effect and minimized reflectivity losses from the incident light. The model protein streptavidin bound to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was successfully immobilized onto the sensor surface through high-affinity conjugation with biotin. The luminescence reaction occurred with luminol, hydrogen peroxide and HRP enzyme, and the emission of light from the catalytic reaction was detected by underlying flexible photodetector. The chemiluminescence in the miniaturized photocurrent sensing system was successfully used to determine the hydrogen peroxide concentration in real-time analyses. The hydrogen peroxide detection limit of the flexible MSM photodetector was 2.47mM. The performance of the flexible MSM photodetector maintained high stability under bending at various bending radii. Moreover, for concave bending, a significant improvement in detection signal intensity (14.5% enhancement compared with a flat configuration) was observed because of the increased photocurrent, which was attributed to enhancement of light trapping. Additionally, this detector was used to detect hydrogen peroxide concentrations in commercial hair dye products, which is a significant issue in the healthcare field. The development of this novel, flexible and miniaturized MSM biomolecular photodetector with excellent mechanical flexibility and high sensitivity demonstrates the applicability of this approach to future wearable sensor development efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Super-High Resolution Time Interval Measurement Method Based on Time-Space Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Bao-Qiang; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the principle of quantized delay-time, a super-high resolution time interval measurement method is proposed based on time-space relationships.Using the delay-time stability that time and frequency signal travel in a specific medium, the measured time interval can be quantized.Combined with the phase coincidence detection technique, the measurement of time can be changed into the measurement of space length.The resolution and the stability of the measurement system are easily improved.Experimental results show that the measurement resolution of the measured time interval depends on the length difference of the double delay-time unit.When the length difference is set up on millimeter level or sub-millimeter level, super-high measurement resolution from hundreds of picosecond to tens of picosecond can be obtained.

  20. Radial Basis Function Neural Network Based Super-Resolution Restoration for an Underspled Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏秉华; 金伟其; 牛丽红

    2004-01-01

    To achieve restoration of high frequency information for an underspled and degraded low-resolution image, a nonlinear and real-time processing method-the radial basis function (RBF) neural network based super-resolution method of restoration is proposed. The RBF network configuration and processing method is suitable for a high resolution restoration from an underspled low-resolution image. The soft-competition learning scheme based on the k-means algorithm is used, and can achieve higher mapping approximation accuracy without increase in the network size. Experiments showed that the proposed algorithm can achieve a super-resolution restored image from an underspled and degraded low-resolution image, and requires a shorter training time when compared with the multiplayer perception (MLP) network.

  1. Characterization of miniature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors based on hollow silica tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pinggang; Fang, Guocheng; Wang, Daihua

    2016-09-01

    A miniature fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (MOFPI) fabricated by splicing a hollow silica tube (HST) with inner diameter of 4 µm to the end of a single-mode fiber is investigated and experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical relationship between the free spectrum range and the length of HST is verified by fabricating several MOFPIs with different lengths. We characterize the MOFPIs for temperature, liquid refractive index, and strain. Experimental results show that the sensitivities of the temperature, liquid refractive index, and strain are 16.42 pm/°C,-118.56 dB/RIU, and 1.21 pm/µɛ, respectively.

  2. Real-Time analysis and visualization for single-molecule based super-resolution microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kechkar, Adel; Nair, Deepak; Heilemann, Mike; Choquet, Daniel; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Accurate multidimensional localization of isolated fluorescent emitters is a time consuming process in single-molecule based super-resolution microscopy. We demonstrate a functional method for real-time reconstruction with automatic feedback control, without compromising the localization accuracy. Compatible with high frame rates of EM-CCD cameras, it relies on a wavelet segmentation algorithm, together with a mix of CPU/GPU implementation. A combination with Gaussian fitting allows direct ac...

  3. Real-Time Analysis and Visualization for Single-Molecule Based Super-Resolution Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kechkar, Adel; Nair, Deepak; Heilemann, Mike; Choquet, Daniel; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Accurate multidimensional localization of isolated fluorescent emitters is a time consuming process in single-molecule based super-resolution microscopy. We demonstrate a functional method for real-time reconstruction with automatic feedback control, without compromising the localization accuracy. Compatible with high frame rates of EM-CCD cameras, it relies on a wavelet segmentation algorithm, together with a mix of CPU/GPU implementation. A combination with Gaussian fitting allows direct ac...

  4. Time multiplexing super resolution using a 2D Barker-based array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Ilovitsh, Tali; Preter, Eyal; Levanon, Nadav; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-03-01

    We propose the use of a two dimensional Barker-based array in order to improve the performance of the standard time multiplexing super resolution system. The Barker-based array is a 2D generalization of the standard 1D Barker code. It enables achieving a two dimensional super resolution image using only one dimensional scan, by exploiting its unique auto correlation property. A sequence of low resolution images are captured at different lateral positions of the array, and are decoded properly using the same array. In addition, we present the use of a mismatched array for the decoding process. The cross correlation between the Barker-based array and the mismatched array has a perfect peak to sidelobes ratio, making it ideal for the super resolution process. Also, we propose the projection of this array onto the object using a phase-only spatial light modulator. Projecting the array eliminates the need for printing it, mechanically shifting it, and having a direct contact with the object, which is not feasible in many imaging applications. The proposed method is presented analytically, demonstrated via numerical simulation, and validated by laboratory experiments.

  5. Super(210) Pb based trace element fluxes in the nearshore and estuarine sediments off Bombay, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, P.; Borole, D; Zingde, M.D

    16 dpm/cm super(2), for the core from the southern area, to 187 dpm/cm super(2), for the northernmost core, which was much higher compared to the atmospheric fallout inventory of 40-50 dpm/cm super(2). The inner creek acted as a sink for super(210) Pb...

  6. SMILE Microscopy : fast and single-plane based super-resolution volume imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2016-01-01

    Fast 3D super-resolution imaging is essential for decoding rapidly occurring biological processes. Encoding single molecules to their respective planes enable simultaneous multi-plane super-resolution volume imaging. This saves the data-acquisition time and as a consequence reduce radiation-dose that lead to photobleaching and other undesirable photochemical reactions. Detection and subsequent identification of the locus of individual molecule (both on the focal plane and off-focal planes) holds the key. Experimentally, this is achieved by accurate calibration of system PSF size and its natural spread in off-focal planes using sub-diffraction fluorescent beads. Subsequently the identification and sorting of single molecules that belong to different axial planes is carried out (by setting multiple cut-offs to respective PSFs). Simultaneous Multiplane Imaging based Localization Encoded (SMILE) microscopy technique eliminates the need for multiple z-plane scanning and thereby provides a truly simultaneous multip...

  7. Quantitative Characterization of Super-Resolution Infrared Imaging Based on Time-Varying Focal Plane Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, Y.

    2014-10-01

    High resolution infrared image has been the goal of an infrared imaging system. In this paper, a super-resolution infrared imaging method using time-varying coded mask is proposed based on focal plane coding and compressed sensing theory. The basic idea of this method is to set a coded mask on the focal plane of the optical system, and the same scene could be sampled many times repeatedly by using time-varying control coding strategy, the super-resolution image is further reconstructed by sparse optimization algorithm. The results of simulation are quantitatively evaluated by introducing the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), which illustrate that the effect of compressed measurement coefficient r and coded mask resolution m on the reconstructed image quality. Research results show that the proposed method will promote infrared imaging quality effectively, which will be helpful for the practical design of new type of high resolution ! infrared imaging systems.

  8. Preparation and characterization of novel super-artificial hair fiber based on biomass materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Sen; Gong, Yumei

    2017-06-01

    A novel super-artificial hair fiber basing on sodium alginate (SA) and Antarctic Krill protein (AKP) was prepared by wet spinning successfully. Such SA/AKP fiber did not only have similar crystalline structure with human hair, but also had super flame resistance and mechanical performance. It should be noted that the whole preparation process was green without any incorporation of non-toxic solution. Moreover, comparing with human hair, the SA/AKP fiber had a lot of unique groove upon the fiber surface, which contributed a lot to excellent hygroscopicity. Meanwhile, the dyeing performance could be improved notably due to incorporation of protein into the matrix. Herein, the SA/AKP fiber with superior mechanical and functional performance had practical value for application in the field of synthetic wig. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Dirac Hierarchy and Its Super Hamiltonian Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤福财

    2012-01-01

    We construct nonlinear super integrable couplings of the super integrable Dirac hierarchy based on an enlarged matrix Lie superalgebra. Then its super Hamiltonian structure is furnished by super trace identity. As its reduction, we gain the nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable Dirac hierarchy.

  10. A novel super-resolution image fusion algorithm based on improved PCNN and wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Gao, Kun; Song, Yajun; Ni, Guoqiang

    2009-10-01

    Super-resolution reconstruction technology is to explore new information between the under-sampling image series obtained from the same scene and to achieve the high-resolution picture through image fusion in sub-pixel level. The traditional super-resolution fusion methods for sub-sampling images need motion estimation and motion interpolation and construct multi-resolution pyramid to obtain high-resolution, yet the function of the human beings' visual features are ignored. In this paper, a novel resolution reconstruction for under-sampling images of static scene based on the human vision model is considered by introducing PCNN (Pulse Coupled Neural Network) model, which simplifies and improves the input model, internal behavior and control parameters selection. The proposed super-resolution image fusion algorithm based on PCNN-wavelet is aimed at the down-sampling image series in a static scene. And on the basis of keeping the original features, we introduce Relief Filter(RF) to the control and judge segment to overcome the effect of random factors(such as noise, etc) effectively to achieve the aim that highlighting interested object though the fusion. Numerical simulations show that the new algorithm has the better performance in retaining more details and keeping high resolution.

  11. NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's B377SGT Super Guppy Turbine cargo aircraft touches down at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on June 11, 2000 to deliver the latest version of the X-38 flight test vehicle to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. The B-377SGT Super Guppy Turbine evolved from the 1960s-vintage Pregnant Guppy, Mini Guppy and Super Guppy, used for transporting sections of the Saturn rocket used for the Apollo program moon launches and other outsized cargo. The various Guppies were modified from 1940's and 50's-vintage Boeing Model 377 and C-97 Stratocruiser airframes by Aero Spacelines, Inc., which operated the aircraft for NASA. NASA's Flight Research Center assisted in certification testing of the first Pregnant Guppy in 1962. One of the turboprop-powered Super Guppies, built up from a YC-97J airframe, last appeared at Dryden in May, 1976 when it was used to transport the HL-10 and X-24B lifting bodies from Dryden to the Air Force Museum at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. NASA's present Super Guppy Turbine, the fourth and last example of the final version, first flew in its outsized form in 1980. It and its three sister ships were built in the 1970s for Europe's Airbus Industrie to ferry outsized structures for Airbus jetliners to the final assembly plant in Toulouse, France. It later was acquired by the European Space Agency, and then acquired by NASA in late 1997 for transport of large structures for the International Space Station to the launch site. It replaced the earlier-model Super Guppy, which has been retired and is used for spare parts. NASA's Super Guppy Turbine carries NASA registration number N941NA, and is based at Ellington Field near the Johnson Space Center. For more information on NASA's Super Guppy Turbine, log onto the Johnson Space Center Super Guppy web page at http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/assembly/superguppy/

  12. Super-resolution imaging based on virtual Airy spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Guo, Cheng; Cui, Junning; Wu, Qun

    2015-02-01

    Based on the theoretical model of Airy spot, a method is proposed for improving the imaging speed from confocal microscopy. The virtual Airy spot is designed for obtaining the pattern on CCD at detecting plane. Here the size of the spot is determined by the parameters of imaging system and intensity data from point detector, which can receive data quicker than CCD. The treatment can improve the speed of imaging comparing with CCD at receiving end. The virtual structured detection is also utilized for generating high-resolution image. Some numerical simulation results are provided for demonstrating the validity of the proposed method.

  13. Algorithmic Enhancement of Spectral Resolution of a LiNbO3 Waveguide-Based Miniature Fourier Transform Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-Feng; Qi, Zhi-Mei

    2016-07-08

    In a recent report we demonstrated a miniature static Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) that was implemented with a LiNbO3 (LN) waveguide electro-optic modulator (EOM) combined with the dispersion relation between its half-wave voltage and wavelength. The FTS was verified to be able to measure laser wavelength and for low-resolution spectroscopy. In this report, we successfully applied the resolution enhancement algorithm to the FTS, resulting in at least a three-fold increase in its spectral resolution without causing obvious distortion of the measured spectra. The algorithm method used is based on an autoregressive (AR) model, singular value decomposition (SVD), and forward-backward linear prediction (FBLP). The combination of these methods allows the FTS to remain a small size but to possess good spectral resolution, effectively mitigating the conflict between the small size and high resolution of the device. This study opens the way to development of high-resolution miniature FTS. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Liquid Marbles Based on Magnetic Upconversion Nanoparticles as Magnetically and Optically Responsive Miniature Reactors for Photocatalysis and Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhu, Lin; Chen, Jian-Feng; Dai, Liming

    2016-08-26

    Magnetic liquid marbles have recently attracted extensive attention for various potential applications. However, conventional liquid marbles based on iron oxide nanoparticles are opaque and inadequate for photo-related applications. Herein, we report the first development of liquid marbles coated with magnetic lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can convert near-infrared light into visible light. Apart from their excellent magnetic and mechanical properties, which are attractive for repeatable tip opening and magnetically directed movements, the resultant UCNP-based liquid marbles can act as ideal miniature reactors for photodynamic therapy of cancer cells. This work opens new ways for the development of liquid marbles, and shows great promise for liquid marbles based on UCNPs to be used in a large variety of potential applications, such as photodynamic therapy for accelerated drug screening, magnetically guided controlled drug delivery and release, and multifunctional actuation.

  15. A miniature frequency-stabilized VCSEL system emitting at 795 nm based on LTCC modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Florian; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Affolderbach, Christoph; Pétremand, Yves; de Rooij, Nico F.; Maeder, Thomas; Mileti, Gaetano

    2013-08-01

    We present a compact frequency-stabilized laser system locked to the Rubidium absorption line of a micro-fabricated reference cell. A printed circuit board (PCB) is used to carry all the components and part of the electronics, and low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) modules are used to temperature-stabilize the laser diode and the miniature Rubidium cell (cell inner dimensions: 5 mm diameter and 2 mm height). The measured frequency stability of the laser, in terms of Allan deviation, is ≤8×10-10 for integration times of 103-105s. The current overall dimensions of the system are 70×40×50 mm3, with good potential for realization of a frequency-stabilized laser module with few cm3 volume.

  16. Miniature refractive index fiber sensor based on silica micro-tube and Au micro-sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Riqing; Li, Jin; Hu, Haifeng; Yao, Chengbao

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrated the refractive index sensing characteristics of a miniature fiber sensor composited by silica-hollow-tube (SHT) and Au-micro-sphere (AmS). The high sensitivity is obtained due to the evanescent field effect existing in the SHT with the inner diameter of ∼2.3 μm and the surface plasmon resonance effect excited on the surface of AmS with the diameter of ∼2 μm. Experimental results indicate that this sensor can continuously measure the glucose concentration in range of 0-60% with a good linearity. The high detection sensitivity up to 8.33 μmol/L (47.33 mW/RIU) enables its ability in determining the glucose concentration in either blood or body fluids. Furthermore, the tiny structure is promise to be integrated into the microchip or other injectable structures, and monitor the glucose concentration in real-time.

  17. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  18. Calcium Ion Detection Using Miniaturized InN-based Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Wei Kao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An Ultrathin (~10 nm InN ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET with gate regions functionalized with phosphotyrosine (p-Tyr is proposed to detect calcium ions (Ca2+ in aqueous solution. The ISFET was miniaturized to a chip size of 1.1 mm by 1.5 mm and integrated at the tip of a hypodermic injection needle (18 G for real-time and continuous monitoring. The sensor shows a current variation ratio of 1.11% with per decade change of Ca2+ and a detection limit of 10-6 M. The response time of 5 sec. reveals its great potential for accomplishing fast detection in chemical and physiological sensing applications. The sensor would be applied in medical diagnosis and used to monitor continuous and real-time variations of Ca2+ levels in human blood in the near future.

  19. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff

    2015-06-19

    A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics.

  20. An Example-Based Super-Resolution Algorithm for Selfie Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Jino Hans; Venkateswaran, N; Narayanan, Srinath; Ramachandran, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    A selfie is typically a self-portrait captured using the front camera of a smartphone. Most state-of-the-art smartphones are equipped with a high-resolution (HR) rear camera and a low-resolution (LR) front camera. As selfies are captured by front camera with limited pixel resolution, the fine details in it are explicitly missed. This paper aims to improve the resolution of selfies by exploiting the fine details in HR images captured by rear camera using an example-based super-resolution (SR) algorithm. HR images captured by rear camera carry significant fine details and are used as an exemplar to train an optimal matrix-value regression (MVR) operator. The MVR operator serves as an image-pair priori which learns the correspondence between the LR-HR patch-pairs and is effectively used to super-resolve LR selfie images. The proposed MVR algorithm avoids vectorization of image patch-pairs and preserves image-level information during both learning and recovering process. The proposed algorithm is evaluated for its efficiency and effectiveness both qualitatively and quantitatively with other state-of-the-art SR algorithms. The results validate that the proposed algorithm is efficient as it requires less than 3 seconds to super-resolve LR selfie and is effective as it preserves sharp details without introducing any counterfeit fine details.

  1. Dictionary learning based noisy image super-resolution via distance penalty weight model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yulan; Zhao, Yongping; Wang, Qisong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we address the problem of noisy image super-resolution. Noisy low resolution (LR) image is always obtained in applications, while most of the existing algorithms assume that the LR image is noise-free. As to this situation, we present an algorithm for noisy image super-resolution which can achieve simultaneously image super-resolution and denoising. And in the training stage of our method, LR example images are noise-free. For different input LR images, even if the noise variance varies, the dictionary pair does not need to be retrained. For the input LR image patch, the corresponding high resolution (HR) image patch is reconstructed through weighted average of similar HR example patches. To reduce computational cost, we use the atoms of learned sparse dictionary as the examples instead of original example patches. We proposed a distance penalty model for calculating the weight, which can complete a second selection on similar atoms at the same time. Moreover, LR example patches removed mean pixel value are also used to learn dictionary rather than just their gradient features. Based on this, we can reconstruct initial estimated HR image and denoised LR image. Combined with iterative back projection, the two reconstructed images are applied to obtain final estimated HR image. We validate our algorithm on natural images and compared with the previously reported algorithms. Experimental results show that our proposed method performs better noise robustness.

  2. Image super resolution using deep convolutional network based on topology aggregation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Xu, Wei; Tian, Yapeng

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new architecture of the deep convolutional network for single-image super-resolution (SR). Our convolutional network is inspired by GoogLeNet and Res Ne Xt, improved on VDSR which is a representative state-of-the-art method for deep learning-based SR approach. In the field of image super-resolution, we pioneer using the topology aggregation method to improve the network structure. Our network is constructed by repeating the same blocks and each block has the same uniform topology aggregation structure. This design results in reducing the amount of network parameters, so as to increase the depth of the network, thereby enhancing the image super-resolution performance. The design of the network is to take into account both computing performance and practicality. In addition to the performance, the size of model is also important. Experiments show that if the depth of our network is 20 layers, as same as VDSR, our model size is smaller than VDSR 1/3 and the performance is as good as VDSR. Moreover, if we set our model size is as same as VDSR's model size, the depth of our network can be increased to 32 layers, and the performance is better than VDSR.

  3. An Example-Based Super-Resolution Algorithm for Selfie Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jino Hans William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A selfie is typically a self-portrait captured using the front camera of a smartphone. Most state-of-the-art smartphones are equipped with a high-resolution (HR rear camera and a low-resolution (LR front camera. As selfies are captured by front camera with limited pixel resolution, the fine details in it are explicitly missed. This paper aims to improve the resolution of selfies by exploiting the fine details in HR images captured by rear camera using an example-based super-resolution (SR algorithm. HR images captured by rear camera carry significant fine details and are used as an exemplar to train an optimal matrix-value regression (MVR operator. The MVR operator serves as an image-pair priori which learns the correspondence between the LR-HR patch-pairs and is effectively used to super-resolve LR selfie images. The proposed MVR algorithm avoids vectorization of image patch-pairs and preserves image-level information during both learning and recovering process. The proposed algorithm is evaluated for its efficiency and effectiveness both qualitatively and quantitatively with other state-of-the-art SR algorithms. The results validate that the proposed algorithm is efficient as it requires less than 3 seconds to super-resolve LR selfie and is effective as it preserves sharp details without introducing any counterfeit fine details.

  4. Super-resolution infrared time measurement method based on target dynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Hu, Qiuping; Tang, Zili; Zhang, Sanxi; Zhang, Hua; Yue, Peng; Liu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    High precision time control in the use of weapons and equipment is an important part of product design and development. In order to satisfy the data acquisition requirement of high accuracy and reliability in the rapid flight process, the super-resolution time measurement method based on target dynamic characteristics was put forward and proved by the cabin opening time measurement experiment. First, the changes of explosion pressure wave and image in the cabin opening process were analyzed in detail. The change regulation of explosion flame shape was analyzed by the characteristics of typical pressure wave, and then the high frequency images of the explosion process were shot by high speed camera. The change regulation of the infrared image was obtained through the comparison of visible and infrared image mechanism. Then, combined with the target motion features, and the observed station parameters, the observation model of movement process was built. On the basis of the above research, the infrared characteristic and the movement characteristic were transformed, and the super resolution model was established. For test method, combined with the actual class time measuring process in experimental design, to obtain the special radar for measuring high precision open class time as the true value of the precision appraisal. Experimental results show that the infrared feature and motion feature can realize open class time super resolution measurement, can effectively improve the accuracy and reliability of the data, to achieve specific action of high accuracy measurement that plays an important role by making use of the target dynamic characteristics.

  5. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  6. Design and Analysis of Miniaturized Microstrip Patch Antenna with Metamaterials Based on Modified Split-Ring Resonator for UWB Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedrouche, D.; Bougoutaia, T.; Hocini, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a miniaturized microstrip patch antenna using a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) unit cells is proposed for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The new design of metamaterial based microstrip patch antenna has been optimized to provide an improved bandwidth and multiple frequency operations. All the antenna performance parameters are presented in response-graphs. Also it is mentioned that the physical dimensions of the metamaterial based patch antenna are very small, which is convenient to modern communication. A 130 % bandwidth, covering the frequency band of 2.9-13.5 GHz, (for return loss less than or equal -10 dB) is achieved, which allow the antenna to operate in the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) band. In addition, the antenna has a good radiation pattern in the ultra-wide band spectrum, and it is nearly omnidirectional.

  7. Drag-based composite super-twisting sliding mode control law design for Mars entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenhua; Yang, Jun; Li, Shihua; Guo, Lei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the drag-based trajectory tracking guidance problem is investigated for Mars entry vehicle subject to uncertainties. A composite super twisting sliding mode control method based on finite-time disturbance observer is proposed for guidance law design. The proposed controller not only eliminates the effects of matched and mismatched disturbances due to uncertainties of atmospheric models and vehicle aerodynamics but also guarantees the continuity of control action. Numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of Mars Science Laboratory mission, where the results show that the proposed methods can improve the Mars entry guidance precision as compared with some existing guidance methods including PID and ADRC.

  8. A fast learning-based super-resolution method for copper strip defect image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Fan, Xinnan; Zhang, Xuewu

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a fast pre-classified-based super-resolution model has been proposed to overcome the problems of degraded imaging in weak-target real-time detection system, specialized to copper defect detection. To accurately characterize the defected image, textural features based on the statistical function of gray-gradient are presented. Furthermore, to improve the effectiveness and practicality of the online detection, a concept of pre-classified learning is introduced and an edge smoothness rule is designed. Some experiments are carried out on defect images in different environments and the experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  9. Study on Super-Twisting synchronization control of chaotic system based on U model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A U model based Super-Twisting synchronization control method for chaotic systems is proposed. The chaos control of chaotic systems is prescribed, then, based on the current research status of chaotic systems and some useful research results in nonlinear system design, some new methods for chaos control and synchronization are provided, and the controller is designed to achieve the finite time chaos synchronization. The numerical simulations are carried out for Lorenz system and Chen system, and the result proves the effectiveness of the method.

  10. Super-resolution image restoration algorithms based on orthogonal discrete wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-yang; Jin, Wei-qi

    2005-02-01

    Several new super-resolution image restoration algorithms based on orthogonal discrete wavelet transform are proposed, by using orthogonal discrete wavelet transform and generalized cross validation ,and combining with Luck-Richardson super-resolution image restoration algorithm (LR) and Luck-Richardson algorithm based on Poisson-Markov model (MPML). Orthogonal discrete wavelet transform analyzed in both space and frequency domain has the capability of indicating local features of a signal, and concentrating the signal power to a few coefficients in wavelet transform domain. After an original image is "Symlets" orthogonal discrete wavelet transformed, an asymptotically optimal threshold is determined by minimizing generalized cross validation, and high frequency subbands in each decomposition level are denoised with soft threshold processes to converge respectively to those with maximum signal-noise-ratio, when the method is incorporated with existed super-resolution image algorithms, details of original image, especially of those with low signal-noise-ratio, could be well recovered. Single operation wavelet LR algorithm(SWLR),single operation wavelet MPML algorithm(SW-MPML) and MPML algorithm based on single operation and wavelet transform (MPML- SW) are some operative algorithms proposed based on the method. According to the processing results to simulating and practical images , because of the only one operation, under the guarantee of rapid and effective restoration processing, in comparison with LR and MPML, all the proposed algorithms could retain image details better, and be more suitable to low signal-noise-ratio images, They could also reduce operation time for up to hundreds times of iteratives, as well as, avoid the iterative operation of self-adaptive parameters in MPML, improve operating speed and precision. They are practical and instantaneous to some extent in the field of low signal-noise-ratio image restoration.

  11. Thermo-mechanical actuator-based miniature tagging module for localization in capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappan, Jayakrishnan; Ruiqi, Lim; Su, Nandar; Yen Yi, Germaine Hoe; Vaidyanathan, Kripesh

    2011-04-01

    Capsule endoscopy is a frontline medical diagnostic tool for the gastro intestinal tract disorders. During diagnosis, efficient localization techniques are essential to specify a pathological area that may require further diagnosis or treatment. This paper presents the development of a miniature tagging module that relies on a novel concept to label the region of interest and has the potential to integrate with a capsule endoscope. The tagging module is a compact thermo-mechanical actuator loaded with a biocompatible micro tag. A low power microheater attached to the module serves as the thermal igniter for the mechanical actuator. At optimum temperature, the actuator releases the micro tag instantly and penetrates the mucosa layer of a GI tract, region of interest. Ex vivo animal trials are conducted to verify the feasibility of the tagging module concept. X-ray imaging is used to detect the location of the micro tag embedded in the GI tract wall. The method is successful, and radiopaque micro tags can provide valuable pre-operative position information on the infected area to facilitate further clinical procedures.

  12. Emulsion culture: a miniaturized library screening system based on micro-droplets in an emulsified medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takaaki; Nagao, Nobuhito; Ando, Daisuke; Ojima, Teruyo; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Nakano, Hideo

    2011-09-01

    A typical library screen in directed evolution primarily requires physical separation of the clones on agar plates followed by detection of clones with improved properties; using this method only limited numbers of clones relative to the number of potential variations can be assessed. In particular, screening for a secretory enzyme is difficult to perform at high clone density, because of diffusion of the signal or unfavorable utilization of the reaction product by neighboring clones. In this study, we have developed a novel method of enrichment culture: "Emulsion Culture", i.e., segregated replication of clones in an emulsified culture medium. Clones expressing enzyme-variants are separately distributed to small (up to 50 μm in diameter), segregated compartments composed of a droplet of medium to form several tens of millions of microcolonies in a milliliter of medium, which allows a miniaturized, in-bulk screening of clones. We applied this culture method to yeast clones expressing secretory beta-galactosidase to analyze the enrichment factor achieved. A high-density screen for a signal peptide sequence that maximizes extracellular production of the enzyme was also performed to demonstrate the practicability of this culture method. In addition, micro-channel emulsification was tested as a method of forming uniformly-sized compartments in the emulsion.

  13. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of <20kV to perform definitive mineralogy on planetary surfaces; mass ionizers that offer two orders of magnitude power savings, and S/N ratio better by a factor of five over conventional ionizers. JPL has also developed a new class of programmable logic gates using CNT vacuum electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  14. Carbon Nanotube-Based Digital Vacuum Electronics and Miniature Instrumentation for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, H.; Toda, R.; Lin, R. H.; Liao, A.; Mojarradi, M.

    2010-01-01

    JPL has developed high performance cold cathodes using arrays of carbon nanotube bundles that produce > 15 A/sq cm at applied fields of 5 to 8 V/micron without any beam focusing. They have exhibited robust operation in poor vacuums of 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -4) Torr- a typically achievable range inside hermetically sealed microcavities. Using these CNT cathodes JPL has developed miniature X-ray tubes capable of delivering sufficient photon flux at acceleration voltages of <20kV to perform definitive mineralogy on planetary surfaces; mass ionizers that offer two orders of magnitude power savings, and S/N ratio better by a factor of five over conventional ionizers. JPL has also developed a new class of programmable logic gates using CNT vacuum electronics potentially for Venus in situ missions and defense applications. These digital vacuum electronic devices are inherently high-temperature tolerant and radiation insensitive. Device design, fabrication and DC switching operation at temperatures up to 700 C are presented in this paper.

  15. Polarization sensitive localization based super-resolution microscopy with a birefringent wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkó, József; Gajdos, Tamás; Czvik, Elvira; Szabó, Gábor; Erdélyi, Miklós

    2017-03-01

    A practical method has been presented for polarization sensitive localization based super-resolution microscopy using a birefringent dual wedge. The measurement of the polarization degree at the single molecule level can reveal the chemical and physical properties of the local environment of the fluorescent dye molecule and can hence provide information about the sub-diffraction sized structure of biological samples. Polarization sensitive STORM imaging of the F-Actins proved correlation between the orientation of fluorescent dipoles and the axis of the fibril.

  16. Laser-Aided Direct Writing of Nickel-Based Single-Crystal Super Alloy (N5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yichen; Choi, Jeongyoung; Mazumder, Jyoti

    2016-12-01

    This communication reports direct writing of René N5 nickel-based Super alloy. N5 powder was deposited on (100) single-crystal substrate of René N5, for epitaxial growth, using laser and induction heating with a specially designed closed-loop thermal control system. A thin wall (1 mm width) of René N5 single crystal of 22.1 mm (including 3 mm SX substrate) in height was successfully deposited within 100 layers. SEM and EBSD characterized the single-crystal nature of the deposit.

  17. Design of the annular binary filters with super-resolution based on the genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qi-lei; LE Zi-chun; ZHU Hong-ying

    2006-01-01

    To improve the density of information storage,this paper introduces a kind of annular binary filters with super-resolution,Several of these filters have been designed based on the genetic algorithm,the simulations demonstrate that the transverse gain of the filters can reach the value of 1.37.Thus they can remarkably decrease the recording spot size,which is helpful to improve the density of information storage and to make the depth of focus longer,and therefore they can avoid the mistake caused by the small undulation of the optical disk in the process of recording/reading the information.

  18. Receiver deghosting in the t-x domain based on super-Gaussianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenkai; Xu, Ziqiang; Fang, Zhongyu; Wang, Ruiliang; Yan, Chengzhi

    2017-01-01

    Deghosting methods in the time-space (t-x) domain have attracted a lot of attention because of their flexibility for various source/receiver configurations. Based on the well-known knowledge that the seismic signal has a super-Gaussian distribution, we present a Super-Gaussianity based Receiver Deghosting (SRD) method in the t-x domain. In our method, we denote the upgoing wave and its ghost (downgoing wave) as a single seismic signal, and express the relationship between the upgoing wave and its ghost using two ghost parameters: the sea surface reflection coefficient and the time-shift between the upgoing wave and its ghost. For a single seismic signal, we estimate these two parameters by maximizing the super-Gaussianity of the deghosted output, which is achieved by a 2D grid search method using an adaptively predefined discrete solution space. Since usually a large number of seismic signals are mixed together in a seismic trace, in the proposed method we divide the seismic trace into overlapping frames using a sliding time window with a step of one time sample, and consider each frame as a replacement for a single seismic signal. For a 2D seismic gather, we obtain two 2D maps of the ghost parameters. By assuming that these two parameters vary slowly in the t-x domain, we apply a 2D average filter to these maps, to improve their reliability further. Finally, these deghosted outputs are merged to form the final deghosted result. To demonstrate the flexibility of the proposed method for arbitrary variable depths of the receivers, we apply it to several synthetic and field seismic datasets acquired by variable depth streamer.

  19. A micro-optical system for endoscopy based on mechanical compensation paradigm using miniature piezo-actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveri, Pietro; Zazzarini, Cynthia Corinna; Patete, Paolo; Baroni, Guido

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate the feasibility of a novel miniaturized optical system for endoscopy. Fostering the mechanical compensation paradigm, the modeled optical system, composed by 14 lenses, separated in 4 different sets, had a total length of 15.55mm, an effective focal length ranging from 1.5 to 4.5mm with a zoom factor of about 2.8×, and an angular field of view up to 56°. Predicted maximum lens travel was less than 3.5mm. The consistency of the image plane height across the magnification range testified the zoom capability. The maximum predicted achromatic astigmatism, transverse spherical aberration, longitudinal spherical aberration and relative distortion were less than or equal to 25μm, 15μm, 35μm and 12%, respectively. Tests on tolerances showed that the manufacturing and opto-mechanics mounting are critical as little deviations from design dramatically decrease the optical performances. However, recent micro-fabrication technology can guarantee tolerances close to nominal design. A closed-loop actuation unit, devoted to move the zoom and the focus lens sets, was implemented adopting miniaturized squiggle piezo-motors and magnetic position encoders based on Hall effect. Performance results, using a prototypical test board, showed a positioning accuracy of less than 5μm along a lens travel path of 4.0mm, which was in agreement with the lens set motion features predicted by the analysis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the feasibility of the optical design and the viability of the actuation approach while tolerances must be carefully taken into account.

  20. Design and Implementation of NAREGI SuperScheduler Based on the OGSA Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satoshi Matsuoka; Masayuki Hatanaka; Yasumasa Nakano; Yuji Iguchi; Toshio Ohno; Kazushige Saga; Hidemoto Nakada

    2006-01-01

    NAREGI is a 5-year Japanese National Grid Project during 2003-2007, whose chief aim is to develop a set of grid middleware to serve as a basis for future e-Science. NAREGI also aims to lead the way in standardization of grid middleware, based on the OGSA architecture. Its super-scheduler is based on the proposed OGSA-EMS Architecture, in that it becomes the first working implementation that implements the documented component relationships within the OGSA-EMS architecture document v.1.0. Through the efforts and experience in the design and implementation, it has been confirmed that the documented OGSA-EMS architecture is quite feasible, but will require significant amount of refinement and speed improvements to finalize its detailed specifications. The super-scheduler also supports co-allocation across multiple sites to support automated execution of grid-based MPIs that execute across machines. Such a resource allocation requires sophisticated interactions between the OGSA-EMS components not covered in the current OGSA-EMS architecture, some of which are non-trivial. Overall, job scheduling with OGSA-EMS has proven to not only work, but also that its job allocation and execution time is within reasonable bounds.

  1. Carbon Nanotube-based Super Nanotube: Tailorable Thermal Conductivity at Three-dimensional

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Haifei; Gu, Yuantong

    2015-01-01

    The advancements of nanomaterials or nanostructures have enabled the possibility of fabricating multifunctional materials that hold great promises in engineering applications. The carbon nanotube (CNT)-based nanostructure is one representative building block for such multifunctional materials. Based on a series of in silico studies, we report the tailorability of the thermal conductivity of a three-dimensional CNT-based nanostructure, i.e., the single wall CNT (SWNT)-based super nanotube (ST). It is shown that the thermal conductivity of STs varies with different connecting carbon rings, and the ST with longer constituent SWNTs and larger diameter yield to a smaller thermal conductivity. Further results reveal that the inverse of the ST thermal conductivity exhibits a good linear relationship with the inverse of its length. Particularly, it is found that the thermal conductivity exhibits an approximately proportional relationship with the inverse of the temperature, but appears insensitive to the axial strain...

  2. A Review of Image Fusion Algorithms Based on the Super-Resolution Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Garzelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis of remote sensing image fusion methods based on the super-resolution (SR paradigm is presented in this paper. Very recent algorithms have been selected among the pioneering studies adopting a new methodology and the most promising solutions. After introducing the concept of super-resolution and modeling the approach as a constrained optimization problem, different SR solutions for spatio-temporal fusion and pan-sharpening are reviewed and critically discussed. Concerning pan-sharpening, the well-known, simple, yet effective, proportional additive wavelet in the luminance component (AWLP is adopted as a benchmark to assess the performance of the new SR-based pan-sharpening methods. The widespread quality indexes computed at degraded resolution, with the original multispectral image used as the reference, i.e., SAM (Spectral Angle Mapper and ERGAS (Erreur Relative Globale Adimensionnelle de Synthèse, are finally presented. Considering these results, sparse representation and Bayesian approaches seem far from being mature to be adopted in operational pan-sharpening scenarios.

  3. GROUND-BASED TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mooij, E. J. W. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); López-Morales, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Karjalainen, R.; Hrudkova, M. [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, La Palma (Spain); Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-12-20

    We report the first ground-based detections of the shallow transit of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e using a 2 m class telescope. Using differential spectrophotometry, we observed one transit in 2013 and another in 2014, with average spectral resolutions of ∼700 and ∼250, spanning the Johnson BVR photometric bands. We find a white light planet-to-star radius ratio of 0.0190{sub −0.0027}{sup +0.0023} from the 2013 observations and 0.0200{sub −0.0018}{sup +0.0017} from the 2014 observations. The two data sets combined result in a radius ratio of 0.0198{sub −0.0014}{sup +0.0013}. These values are all in agreement with previous space-based results. Scintillation noise in the data prevents us from placing strong constraints on the presence of an extended hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Nevertheless, our detections of 55 Cnc e in transit demonstrate that moderate-sized telescopes on the ground will be capable of routine follow-up observations of super-Earth candidates discovered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite around bright stars. We expect it also will be possible to place constraints on the atmospheric characteristics of those planets by devising observational strategies to minimize scintillation noise.

  4. Advances in SVM-Based System Using GMM Super Vectors for Text-Independent Speaker Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jian; DONG Yuan; ZHAO Xianyu; YANG Hao; LU Liang; WANG Haila

    2008-01-01

    For text-independent speaker verification,the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) using a universal background model strategy and the GMM using support vector machines are the two most commonly used methodologies.Recently,a new SVM-based speaker verification method using GMM super vectors has been proposed.This paper describes the construction of a new speaker verification system and investigates the use of nuisance attribute projection and test normalization to further enhance performance.Experiments were conducted on the core test of the 2006 NIST speaker recognition evaluation corpus.The experimental results indicate that an SVM-based speaker verification system using GMM super vectors can achieve ap-pealing performance.With the use of nuisance attribute projection and test normalization,the system per-formance can be significantly improved,with improvements in the equal error rate from 7.78% to 4.92% and detection cost function from 0.0376 to 0.0251.

  5. Single-molecule analysis of fluorescent carbon dots towards localization-based super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Navneet C.; Khan, Syamantak; Nandi, Chayan K.

    2016-12-01

    The advancement of high-resolution bioimaging has always been dependent on the discovery of bright and easily available fluorescent probes. Fluorescent carbon nanodots, an interesting class of relatively new nanomaterials, have emerged as a versatile alternative due to their superior optical properties, non-toxicity, cell penetrability and easy routes to synthesis. Although a plethora of reports is available on bioimaging using carbon dots, single-molecule-based super-resolution imaging is rare in the literature. In this study, we have systematically characterized the single-molecule fluorescence of three carbon dots and compared them with a standard fluorescent probe. Each of these carbon dots showed a long-lived dark state in the presence of an electron acceptor. The electron transfer mechanism was investigated in single-molecule as well as in ensemble experiments. The average on-off rate between the fluorescent bright and dark states, which is one of the important parameters for single-molecule localization-based super-resolution microscopy, was measured by changing the laser power. We report that the photon budget and on-off rate of these carbon dots were good enough to achieve single-molecule localization with a precision of ~35 nm.

  6. Ground-Based Transit Observations of the Super-Earth 55 Cnc e

    CERN Document Server

    de Mooij, E J W; Karjalainen, R; Hrudkova, M; Jayawardhana, R

    2014-01-01

    We report the first ground-based detections of the shallow transit of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e using a 2-meter-class telescope. Using differential spectrophotometry, we observed one transit in 2013 and another in 2014, with average spectral resolutions of ~700 and ~250, spanning the Johnson BVR photometric bands. We find a white-light planet-to-star radius ratio of 0.0190 -0.0027+0.0023 from the 2013 observations and 0.0200 -0.0018+0.0017 from the 2014 observations. The two datasets combined results in a radius ratio of 0.0198 -0.0014+0.0013. These values are all in agreement with previous space-based results. Scintillation noise in the data prevents us from placing strong constraints on the presence of an extended hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Nevertheless, our detections of 55 Cnc e in transit demonstrate that moderate-size telescopes on the ground will be capable of routine follow-up observations of super-Earth candidates discovered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) around bright st...

  7. Multivariable Super Twisting Based Robust Trajectory Tracking Control for Small Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a highly robust trajectory tracking controller for small unmanned helicopter with model uncertainties and external disturbances. First, a simplified dynamic model is developed, where the model uncertainties and external disturbances are treated as compounded disturbances. Then the system is divided into three interconnected subsystems: altitude subsystem, yaw subsystem, and horizontal subsystem. Second, a disturbance observer based controller (DOBC is designed based upon backstepping and multivariable super twisting control algorithm to obtain robust trajectory tracking property. A sliding mode observer works as an estimator of the compounded disturbances. In order to lessen calculative burden, a first-order exact differentiator is employed to estimate the time derivative of the virtual control. Moreover, proof of the stability of the closed-loop system based on Lyapunov method is given. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed flight control scheme.

  8. DMD-based LED-illumination super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Dan; Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli; Wang, Wen; Winterhalder, Martin; Zumbusch, Andreas; Qi, Yujiao; Xia, Liang; Yan, Shaohui; Yang, Yanlong; Gao, Peng; Ye, Tong; Zhao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Super-resolution three-dimensional (3D) optical microscopy has incomparable advantages over other high-resolution microscopic technologies, such as electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, in the study of biological molecules, pathways and events in live cells and tissues. We present a novel approach of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) by using a digital micromirror device (DMD) for fringe projection and a low-coherence LED light for illumination. The lateral resolution of 90 nm and the optical sectioning depth of 120 μm were achieved. The maximum acquisition speed for 3D imaging in the optical sectioning mode was 1.6×10(7) pixels/second, which was mainly limited by the sensitivity and speed of the CCD camera. In contrast to other SIM techniques, the DMD-based LED-illumination SIM is cost-effective, ease of multi-wavelength switchable and speckle-noise-free. The 2D super-resolution and 3D optical sectioning modalities can be easily switched and applied to either fluorescent or non-fluorescent specimens.

  9. A ground-based transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jacob L; Kempton, Eliza Miller-Ricci; Homeier, Derek

    2010-12-02

    In contrast to planets with masses similar to that of Jupiter and higher, the bulk compositions of planets in the so-called super-Earth regime (masses 2-10 times that of the Earth) cannot be uniquely determined from a measurement of mass and radius alone. For these planets, there is a degeneracy between the mass and composition of both the interior and a possible atmosphere in theoretical models. The recently discovered transiting super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b is one example of this problem. Three distinct models for the planet that are consistent with its mass and radius have been suggested. Breaking the degeneracy between these models requires obtaining constraints on the planet's atmospheric composition. Here we report a ground-based measurement of the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b between wavelengths of 780 and 1,000 nm. The lack of features in this spectrum rules out (at 4.9σ confidence) cloud-free atmospheres composed primarily of hydrogen. If the planet's atmosphere is hydrogen-dominated, then it must contain clouds or hazes that are optically thick at the observed wavelengths at pressures less than 200 mbar. Alternatively, the featureless transmission spectrum is also consistent with the presence of a dense, water vapour atmosphere.

  10. DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Dan; Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli; Wang, Wen; Winterhalder, Martin; Zumbusch, Andreas; Qi, Yujiao; Xia, Liang; Yan, Shaohui; Yang, Yanlong; Gao, Peng; Ye, Tong; Zhao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Super-resolution three-dimensional (3D) optical microscopy has incomparable advantages over other high-resolution microscopic technologies, such as electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, in the study of biological molecules, pathways and events in live cells and tissues. We present a novel approach of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) by using a digital micromirror device (DMD) for fringe projection and a low-coherence LED light for illumination. The lateral resolution of 90 nm and the optical sectioning depth of 120 μm were achieved. The maximum acquisition speed for 3D imaging in the optical sectioning mode was 1.6×107 pixels/second, which was mainly limited by the sensitivity and speed of the CCD camera. In contrast to other SIM techniques, the DMD-based LED-illumination SIM is cost-effective, ease of multi-wavelength switchable and speckle-noise-free. The 2D super-resolution and 3D optical sectioning modalities can be easily switched and applied to either fluorescent or non-fluorescent specimens.

  11. A ground-based transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ1214b

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, Jacob L; Homeier, Derek

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to planets with masses similar to that of Jupiter and higher, the bulk compositions of planets in the so-called super-Earth regime cannot be uniquely determined from a mass and radius measurement alone. For these planets, there is a degeneracy between the mass and composition of the interior and a possible atmosphere in theoretical models. The recently discovered transiting super-Earth GJ1214b is one example of this problem. Three distinct models for the planet that are consistent with its mass and radius have been suggested, and breaking the degeneracy between these models requires obtaining constraints on the planet's atmospheric composition. Here we report a ground-based measurement of the transmission spectrum of GJ1214b between 780 and 1000 nm. The lack of features in this spectrum rules out cloud-free atmospheres composed primarily of hydrogen at 4.9 sigma confidence. If the planet's atmosphere is hydrogen-dominated, then it must contain clouds or hazes that are optically thick at the observ...

  12. Arrayed Waveguide Gratings and Their Application Using Super-High-Δ Silica-Based Planar Lightwave Circuit Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Koichi; Uetsuka, Hisato

    This paper reviews our recent progress on arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) using super-high-Δ silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology and their application to integrated optical devices. Factors affecting the chip size of AWGs and the impact of increasing relative index difference Δ on the chip size are investigated, and the fabrication result of a compact athermal AWG using 2.5%-Δ silica-based waveguides is presented. As an application of super-high-Δ AWGs to integrated devices, a flat-passband multi/demultiplexer consisting of an AWG and cascaded MZIs is presented.

  13. Single Image Super-Resolution Using Global Regression Based on Multiple Local Linear Mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Seok; Kim, Munchurl

    2017-03-01

    Super-resolution (SR) has become more vital, because of its capability to generate high-quality ultra-high definition (UHD) high-resolution (HR) images from low-resolution (LR) input images. Conventional SR methods entail high computational complexity, which makes them difficult to be implemented for up-scaling of full-high-definition input images into UHD-resolution images. Nevertheless, our previous super-interpolation (SI) method showed a good compromise between Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) performances and computational complexity. However, since SI only utilizes simple linear mappings, it may fail to precisely reconstruct HR patches with complex texture. In this paper, we present a novel SR method, which inherits the large-to-small patch conversion scheme from SI but uses global regression based on local linear mappings (GLM). Thus, our new SR method is called GLM-SI. In GLM-SI, each LR input patch is divided into 25 overlapped subpatches. Next, based on the local properties of these subpatches, 25 different local linear mappings are applied to the current LR input patch to generate 25 HR patch candidates, which are then regressed into one final HR patch using a global regressor. The local linear mappings are learned cluster-wise in our off-line training phase. The main contribution of this paper is as follows: Previously, linear-mapping-based conventional SR methods, including SI only used one simple yet coarse linear mapping to each patch to reconstruct its HR version. On the contrary, for each LR input patch, our GLM-SI is the first to apply a combination of multiple local linear mappings, where each local linear mapping is found according to local properties of the current LR patch. Therefore, it can better approximate nonlinear LR-to-HR mappings for HR patches with complex texture. Experiment results show that the proposed GLM-SI method outperforms most of the state-of-the-art methods, and shows comparable PSNR performance with much lower

  14. A Total Variation Regularization Based Super-Resolution Reconstruction Algorithm for Digital Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liangpei

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution (SR reconstruction technique is capable of producing a high-resolution image from a sequence of low-resolution images. In this paper, we study an efficient SR algorithm for digital video. To effectively deal with the intractable problems in SR video reconstruction, such as inevitable motion estimation errors, noise, blurring, missing regions, and compression artifacts, the total variation (TV regularization is employed in the reconstruction model. We use the fixed-point iteration method and preconditioning techniques to efficiently solve the associated nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equations of the corresponding variational problem in SR. The proposed algorithm has been tested in several cases of motion and degradation. It is also compared with the Laplacian regularization-based SR algorithm and other TV-based SR algorithms. Experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Super-resolution image restoration algorithm based on orthogonal discrete wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangyang Liu(刘扬阳); Weiqi Jin(金伟其); Binghua Su(苏秉华)

    2004-01-01

    By using orthogonal discrete wavelet transform(ODWT)and generalized cross validation(GCV),and combining with Luck-Richardson algorithm based on Poisson-Markovmodel (MPML),several new superresolution image restoration algorithms are proposed.According to simulation experiments for practical images,all the proposed algor ithms could retain image details better than MPML,and be more suitable to low signal-to-noise ratio(SNR)images.The single operation wavelet MPML(SW-MPML)algorithm and MPML algorithm based on single operation wavelet transform(MPML-SW)avoid the iterative operation of self-adaptive parameter in MPML particularly,and improve operating speed and precision.They are instantaneous to super-resolution image restoration process and have extensive application foreground.

  16. Deep Learning- and Transfer Learning-Based Super Resolution Reconstruction from Single Medical Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YiNan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical images play an important role in medical diagnosis and research. In this paper, a transfer learning- and deep learning-based super resolution reconstruction method is introduced. The proposed method contains one bicubic interpolation template layer and two convolutional layers. The bicubic interpolation template layer is prefixed by mathematics deduction, and two convolutional layers learn from training samples. For saving training medical images, a SIFT feature-based transfer learning method is proposed. Not only can medical images be used to train the proposed method, but also other types of images can be added into training dataset selectively. In empirical experiments, results of eight distinctive medical images show improvement of image quality and time reduction. Further, the proposed method also produces slightly sharper edges than other deep learning approaches in less time and it is projected that the hybrid architecture of prefixed template layer and unfixed hidden layers has potentials in other applications.

  17. Novel organic dyes for multicolor localization-based super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Martin; Lichtner, Gregor; Klenz, Haider; Schmoranzer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Precise multicolor single molecule localization-based microscopy (SMLM) requires bright probes with compatible photo-chemical and spectral properties to resolve distinct molecular species at the nanoscale. The accuracy of multicolor SMLM is further challenged by color channel crosstalk and chromatic alignment errors. These constrains limit the applicability of known reversibly switchable organic dyes for optimized multicolor SMLM. Here, we tested 28 commercially available dyes for their suitability to super-resolve a known cellular nanostructure. We identified eight novel dyes in different spectral regimes that enable high quality dSTORM imaging. Among those, the spectrally close dyes CF647 and CF680 comprise an optimal dye pair for spectral demixing-based, registration free multicolor dSTORM with low crosstalk. Combining this dye pair with the separately excited CF568 we performed 3-color dSTORM to image the relative nanoscale distribution of components of the endocytic machinery and the cytoskeleton.

  18. An infrared image super-resolution reconstruction method based on compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuxing; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jintao; Jia, Haiwei

    2016-05-01

    Limited by the properties of infrared detector and camera lens, infrared images are often detail missing and indistinct in vision. The spatial resolution needs to be improved to satisfy the requirements of practical application. Based on compressive sensing (CS) theory, this thesis presents a single image super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) method. With synthetically adopting image degradation model, difference operation-based sparse transformation method and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm, the image SRR problem is transformed into a sparse signal reconstruction issue in CS theory. In our work, the sparse transformation matrix is obtained through difference operation to image, and, the measurement matrix is achieved analytically from the imaging principle of infrared camera. Therefore, the time consumption can be decreased compared with the redundant dictionary obtained by sample training such as K-SVD. The experimental results show that our method can achieve favorable performance and good stability with low algorithm complexity.

  19. A novel algorithm of super-resolution image reconstruction based on multi-class dictionaries for natural scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhao, Dewei; Zhang, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Super-resolution image reconstruction is an effective method to improve the image quality. It has important research significance in the field of image processing. However, the choice of the dictionary directly affects the efficiency of image reconstruction. A sparse representation theory is introduced into the problem of the nearest neighbor selection. Based on the sparse representation of super-resolution image reconstruction method, a super-resolution image reconstruction algorithm based on multi-class dictionary is analyzed. This method avoids the redundancy problem of only training a hyper complete dictionary, and makes the sub-dictionary more representatives, and then replaces the traditional Euclidean distance computing method to improve the quality of the whole image reconstruction. In addition, the ill-posed problem is introduced into non-local self-similarity regularization. Experimental results show that the algorithm is much better results than state-of-the-art algorithm in terms of both PSNR and visual perception.

  20. A Novel Method for Brain MRI Super-resolution by Wavelet-based POCS and Adaptive Edge Zoom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hema Rajini,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make the super-resolution of a high-resolution image from a sequence of low-resolution frames containing non-stationary objects. The challenges of making super-resolution image, like unavoidable smoothing effects, introduction of artifacts, computational efficiency in time and computational efficiency in memory requirements, are considered and a novel method is proposed to solve these problems. The proposed method handles the super-resolution process by using wavelet based projection-onto-convex-set with adaptive edge zoom algorithm. Adaptive edge zoom algorithm address the problem of producing enlarged picture from the given digital image. Wavelet based projection-onto-convex-set method is usedto enhance spatial resolution of MRI brain images from a temporal sequence. This method produces more clarity with high peak signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Identification and compensation of the temperature influences in a miniature three-axial accelerometer based on the least squares method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorie, Teodor Lucian; Corcau, Ileana Jenica; Tudosie, Alexandru Nicolae

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a way to obtain an intelligent miniaturized three-axial accelerometric sensor, based on the on-line estimation and compensation of the sensor errors generated by the environmental temperature variation. Taking into account that this error's value is a strongly nonlinear complex function of the values of environmental temperature and of the acceleration exciting the sensor, its correction may not be done off-line and it requires the presence of an additional temperature sensor. The proposed identification methodology for the error model is based on the least square method which process off-line the numerical values obtained from the accelerometer experimental testing for different values of acceleration applied to its axes of sensitivity and for different values of operating temperature. A final analysis of the error level after the compensation highlights the best variant for the matrix in the error model. In the sections of the paper are shown the results of the experimental testing of the accelerometer on all the three sensitivity axes, the identification of the error models on each axis by using the least square method, and the validation of the obtained models with experimental values. For all of the three detection channels was obtained a reduction by almost two orders of magnitude of the acceleration absolute maximum error due to environmental temperature variation.

  2. Adaptive sliding mode controller based on super-twist observer for tethered satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar, Sajjad; Poznyak, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the sliding mode control based on the super-twist observer is presented. The parameters of the controller as well as the observer are admitted to be time-varying and depending on available current measurements. In view of that, the considered controller is referred to as an adaptive one. It is shown that the deviations of the generated state estimates from real state values together with a distance of the closed-loop system trajectories to a desired sliding surface reach a μ-zone around the origin in finite time. The application of the suggested controller is illustrated for the orientation of a tethered satellite system in a required position.

  3. Design of Super Narrowband DWDM Filters Based on the Effect of Spectral Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C Q; Chen, M [College of Physics and Electronics, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Liu, J; Wan, Z M; Luo, Z M [College of Information and Communication Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006 (China); Tian, P, E-mail: namecqh@yahoo.com.cn [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A novel approach is proposed to design super narrowband DWDM Filters consisting of multiple quantum wells (MQWs) by employing photonic crystals. Numerical investigations prove that the closed-cavity MQWs are more suitable for DWDM systems compared with the open-cavity MQWs. It is shown that different confined states could emerge from photonic band gap, which can be used as high-frequency carriers one-to-one. It is also found that these proposed MQWs could split the single spectral lines into multiples based on the effect of spectral splitting, and the number of the splitting is just equal to the number of the wells. In this way, the density of carriers can be increased multiplicatively in the same wave band, and thus the spectral efficiency can be improved multiplicatively. These results provide the prospects of channel density maximization and effective bandwidth optimization for optical communication.

  4. A Super High Resolution Distance Measurement Method Based on Phase Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-Qi; ZHOU Wei; MIAO Miao; ZHOU Hui; ZHENG Sheng-Feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Phase comparison method can enhance the measurement resolution to 10-13/τ in time domain. This method can also be used in distance measurement in the navigation and positioning. We propose a super high-resolution distance measurement based on linear phase comparison method. A high resolution scheme is put forward on the basis of the research of major factors concerning the phase comparison in the distance measurement. Conversion of a high-linearity phase difference to voltage and high-resolution voltage meter make it possible to obtain a very high phase measurement resolution. When the purpose is to measure distance, the phase noise of frequency source used in the measurement can be reduced partly. Thus this method is favourable for high resolution distance measurement. The precision of the distance measurement can reach 0.1c ps with c being the velocity of light in vacuum.

  5. Translation of Japanese Noun Compounds at Super-Function Based MT System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing (NLP), consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation (MT) due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation (SFBMT), we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system, we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.

  6. Super-resolution reconstruction algorithm based on adaptive convolution kernel size selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hang; Chen, Qian; Sui, Xiubao; Zeng, Junjie; Zhao, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Restricted by the detector technology and optical diffraction limit, the spatial resolution of infrared imaging system is difficult to achieve significant improvement. Super-Resolution (SR) reconstruction algorithm is an effective way to solve this problem. Among them, the SR algorithm based on multichannel blind deconvolution (MBD) estimates the convolution kernel only by low resolution observation images, according to the appropriate regularization constraints introduced by a priori assumption, to realize the high resolution image restoration. The algorithm has been shown effective when each channel is prime. In this paper, we use the significant edges to estimate the convolution kernel and introduce an adaptive convolution kernel size selection mechanism, according to the uncertainty of the convolution kernel size in MBD processing. To reduce the interference of noise, we amend the convolution kernel in an iterative process, and finally restore a clear image. Experimental results show that the algorithm can meet the convergence requirement of the convolution kernel estimation.

  7. Miniaturized ionophore-based potentiometric sensors for the flow-injection determination of metformin in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Elmorsy; Kamel, Manal S; Hassan, Hassan N; Abd El-Alim, Sameh H; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2012-12-01

    Miniaturized potentiometric sensors based on β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs) are described for determination of metformin (Mf) in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids. Electrode matrix compositions are optimized on the basis of the nature and content of sensing ionophore, ionic sites and plasticizers. Coated wire electrodes (CWEs) modified with heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-CD, sodium tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl)borate (NaTFPB) and 2-fluorophenyl 2-nitrophenyl ether (f-NPE), work satisfactorily in the concentration range from 10(-6) to 10(-1) mol L(-1) with Nernstian compliance (55.7 ± 0.4 mV per decade activity) and a detection limit of 8 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). Incorporation of β-CD as a molecular recognition element improved the electrode sensitivity and selectivity due to encapsulation of Mf into the β-CD cavity (host-guest interaction). The developed electrodes have been successfully applied for the potentiometric determination of Mf under batch and flow injection analysis (FIA). FIA allows analysis of 90 samples per h offering the advantages of simplicity, accuracy and automation feasibility. The dissolution profile for metformin pharmaceutical samples (Cidophage®) was monitored using the proposed electrode in comparison with the official spectrophotometric methods. Characterization of the formed Mf-β-CD inclusion complexes is discussed in detail.

  8. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2016-01-01

    An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively. PMID:27792131

  9. Miniaturized graphene-based pipette tip extraction coupled with liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfonamide residues in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongyuan; Sun, Ning; Liu, Shijia; Row, Kyung Ho; Song, Yanxue

    2014-09-01

    A miniaturized graphene-based pipette tip extraction (M-G-PTE) method coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was developed for rapid screening of sulfadimidine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, and sulfachloropyrazine residues in bovine milk. Because of the large surface area and unique chemical structure of graphene, an M-G-PTE device packed with 3.0mg graphene could handle 2.0mL of milk samples at one time. This M-G-PTE device showed better adsorption performance for sulfonamides (SAs) than those packed with other adsorbents such as C18, HLB, SCX, PCX, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.05-6.0 μg g(-1), with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of ⩾0.9991. The recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 90.1% to 113.5% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of ⩽3.9%. The proposed M-G-PTE method was simple, economical, sensitive, and produced less organic pollution. Thus, it could be applied to the rapid screening of SAs in complicated bovine milk samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chun Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (E-Nose is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  11. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2016-10-25

    An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm². The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  12. Miniaturized MMIC-Based Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizers for Space Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MMIC technology provides the technology base to reduce the size and weight of microwave and millimeter wave (MMW) equipment on board airborne and space-based...

  13. Research on electromagnetic propagation visualization based on SuperMap%基于SuperMap的电磁传播可视化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明涵; 张旭; 熊辉

    2012-01-01

    In order to assist commanders understand. Grasp the electromagnetic environment of battlefield, and provide decision-making to battle command, using the visual software of Visual C++. NET and SuperMap Objects, the electromagnetic propagation visualization system is developed and researched. This system has realized the computing of the electromagnetic propagation and the display of electromagnetic coverage based on the theory of electromagnetic propagation prediction. The e-lectromagnetic propagation simulation result of battlefield shows that the system can reflect the battlefield electromagnetic propagation objectively and vividly. The basic idea, function design and achieving approaches of developing electromagnetic propagation and display system based on GIS technique are discussed.%为了协助作战指挥员了解、掌握战场电磁环境,为实施战斗决心提供辅助决策,利用Visual C++.NET和Super-Map Objects等可视化软件研究开发了电磁传播可视化系统.系统以电磁传播预测理论为基础,实现了电磁传播模型的仿真计算和结果显示.从仿真的结果可以看出本系统能够比较客观、形象地反映战场电磁传播状况.论述了应用GIS技术开发电磁传播显示系统的基本思路、功能设计和实现方法.

  14. Integrated optical readout for miniaturization of cantilever-based sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    The authors present the fabrication and characterization of an integrated optical readout scheme based on single-mode waveguides for cantilever-based sensors. The cantilever bending is read out by monitoring changes in the optical intensity of light transmitted through the cantilever that also acts...

  15. Miniaturized MEMS-based spectrometric sensor for process control and analysis of carbonated beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenda, A.; Kraft, M.; Tortschanoff, A.; Wagner, Ch.; Lendl, B.; Sandner, T.; Schenk, H.

    2010-02-01

    With MEMS, it became possible to build pocket-sized spectrometers for various spectral ranges, including the near-IR or mid-IR. These systems are highly rugged and can measure spectral changes at ms time resolution or co-add several hundreds of scans to one spectrum achieving adequate signal-to-noise ratios. Two spectrometer systems a scanning grating based spectrometer and a FT-IR spectrometer both based on a micromechanical scanning mirror technology are presented. Furthermore, the focus of this work is on the development of an analyzer for dissolved CO2 showing the methodology and also first implementation steps towards a sensor solution. CO2(aq) calibration samples were prepared by different NaHCO3 concentrations in solution. Spectra and calibration data acquired with both MEMS based spectrometer prototypes are presented.

  16. Miniature wideband filter based on coupled-line sections and quasi-lumped element resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A new design of a wideband bandpass filter is proposed, based on coupled-line sections and quasi-lumped element resonator, taking advantage of the last one to introduce two transmission zeros and suppress a spurious response. The proposed filter demonstrates significantly improved characteristics...

  17. Leadership Training Program for Shared Leadership Based on Super Leadership at Cheo-Eum Korean Presbyterian Church: A Study of Christian Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Houng Jin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to launch a leadership training program for shared leadership based on "super leadership." The constructs of the study were designed to study Bible leaders in shared leadership, leadership paradigm and types, transformational leadership, and, super leadership and shared leadership theory that are all…

  18. Leadership Training Program for Shared Leadership Based on Super Leadership at Cheo-Eum Korean Presbyterian Church: A Study of Christian Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Houng Jin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to launch a leadership training program for shared leadership based on "super leadership." The constructs of the study were designed to study Bible leaders in shared leadership, leadership paradigm and types, transformational leadership, and, super leadership and shared leadership theory that are all…

  19. Calibration of miniature prism-based stereoscopic imagers for precise spatial measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machikhin, Alexander S.; Gorevoy, Alexey V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper is targeted to find the optimal mathematical model and the calibration algorithm for the industrial endoscope equipped with the prism-based attachable stereo adapter, which allows imaging from two different points by a single sensor. We consider the conventional calibration methods for the pinhole camera model with polynomial distortion approximation and compared them with the ray tracing model based on the vector form of Snell's law. In order to evaluate each of the proposed models we have developed the software for the imitation of various calibration procedures using different types of calibration targets. We use the computer simulation to prove that the pinhole camera models, widely used in machine vision, are very limited for describing prism-based endoscopic measurement systems. Our analysis identified the main problems for these models, such as entrance pupil shift, non-homocentric beams and required number of coefficients for polynomial models and the iterative forward ray aiming for the ray-tracing model. The proposed technique is flexible and can also be used to test stability and convergence of the parameter estimation procedures and to compare calibration targets and strategies.

  20. Flat super-continuum generation based on normal dispersion nonlinear photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, K.K.; Takushima, Y.; Lin, C.

    2006-01-01

    Flat super-continuum generation spanning over the whole telecommunication band using a passively modelocked fibre laser source at 1550 nm together with a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photoinc crystal fibre is demonstrated. Since the pulses propagate in the normal dispersion regime of the fibre...... only, linear frequency chirp is induced by self-phase modulation which leads to a flat super-continuum. By launching the compressed 170 fs modelocked pulses with an average power of 10 mW into the fibre, super-continuum over 185 nm with less than 5 dB fluctuation is obtained from the all...

  1. Fabrication of applicator system of miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for a skin cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Han Beom; Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Ha, Jun Mok; Cho, Sung Oh [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A miniature X-ray tube is a small X-ray generation device generally with a diameter of less than 10 mm. Because of the feasible installation in a spatially constrained area and the possibility of electrical on/off control, miniature X-ray tubes can be widely used for nondestructive X-ray radiography, hand held X-ray spectrometers, electric brachytherapy, and interstitial or intracavitary radiation therapy or imaging with the substitution of radioactive isotopes. Miniature X-ray tubes have been developed mostly using thermionic electron sources or secondary X-ray emission. The X-ray tube show excellent field emission properties and good X-ray spectrum. Also, the flattening filter was made to irradiate uniformly. The X-ray dose radial uniformities between installed flattening filter and non-installed flattening filter were measured. When flattening filter is equipped, X-ray uniformity was improved from higher than 20% to lower than 10%. As a result, the fabricated applicator system of the miniature X-ray tube using optimized flattening filter exhibited fairly excellent properties.

  2. Miniaturized concentration cells for small-scale energy harvesting based on reverse electrodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banan Sadeghian, Ramin; Pantchenko, Oxana; Tate, Daniel; Shakouri, Ali

    2011-10-01

    We describe experimental and theoretical results that demonstrate the feasibility of power generation using concentration cells based on ionic concentration gradients and reverse electrodialysis. A peak power density of 0.2 (0.7) μW cm-2 and a maximum energy density of 0.4 (0.4) mJ cm-3 delivered in 3 h to a 2 (5) kΩ resistor were recorded using a microfiltration (anion exchange) membrane, respectively. A comprehensive model is developed to predict the evolution of the output voltage with time in relation to the solute concentration in each cell and derive the power density and efficiency limits.

  3. A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Heiko; Greiner-Bär, Michael; Pavlov, Sergey; Semenov, Alexei D.; Wienold, Martin; Schrottke, Lutz; Giehler, M.; Hey, R.; Grahn, H.T.; Huebers, H. -W.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a compact, easy-to-use terahertz radiation source, which combines a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) with a compact, low-input-power Stirling cooler. The QCL, which is based on a two-miniband design, has been developed for high output and low electrical pump power. Special care has been taken to achieve a good thermal coupling between the QCL and the cold finger of the cooler. The whole system weighs less than 15 kg including the cooler and power supplies. The maxim...

  4. A Miniature Magnetic-Force-Based Three-Axis AC Magnetic Sensor with Piezoelectric/Vibrational Energy-Harvesting Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chiao-Fang; Yeh, Po-Chen; Chung, Tien-Kan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a miniature magnetic-force-based, three-axis, AC magnetic sensor with piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. For magnetic sensing, the sensor employs a magnetic–mechanical–piezoelectric configuration (which uses magnetic force and torque, a compact, single, mechanical mechanism, and the piezoelectric effect) to convert x-axis and y-axis in-plane and z-axis magnetic fields into piezoelectric voltage outputs. Under the x-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 0.2–3.2 gauss) and the z-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 0.2–3.2 gauss), the voltage output with the sensitivity of the sensor are 1.13–26.15 mV with 8.79 mV/gauss and 1.31–8.92 mV with 2.63 mV/gauss, respectively. In addition, through this configuration, the sensor can harness ambient vibrational energy, i.e., possessing piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. Under x-axis vibration (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 3.5 g) and z-axis vibration (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 3.8 g), the root-mean-square voltage output with power output of the sensor is 439 mV with 0.333 μW and 138 mV with 0.051 μW, respectively. These results show that the sensor, using this configuration, successfully achieves three-axis magnetic field sensing and three-axis vibration energy-harvesting. Due to these features, the three-axis AC magnetic sensor could be an important design reference in order to develop future three-axis AC magnetic sensors, which possess energy-harvesting functions, for practical industrial applications, such as intelligent vehicle/traffic monitoring, processes monitoring, security systems, and so on. PMID:28208693

  5. A Miniature Magnetic-Force-Based Three-Axis AC Magnetic Sensor with Piezoelectric/Vibrational Energy-Harvesting Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chiao-Fang; Yeh, Po-Chen; Chung, Tien-Kan

    2017-02-08

    In this paper, we demonstrate a miniature magnetic-force-based, three-axis, AC magnetic sensor with piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. For magnetic sensing, the sensor employs a magnetic-mechanical-piezoelectric configuration (which uses magnetic force and torque, a compact, single, mechanical mechanism, and the piezoelectric effect) to convert x-axis and y-axis in-plane and z-axis magnetic fields into piezoelectric voltage outputs. Under the x-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 0.2-3.2 gauss) and the z-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 0.2-3.2 gauss), the voltage output with the sensitivity of the sensor are 1.13-26.15 mV with 8.79 mV/gauss and 1.31-8.92 mV with 2.63 mV/gauss, respectively. In addition, through this configuration, the sensor can harness ambient vibrational energy, i.e., possessing piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. Under x-axis vibration (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 3.5 g) and z-axis vibration (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 3.8 g), the root-mean-square voltage output with power output of the sensor is 439 mV with 0.333 μW and 138 mV with 0.051 μW, respectively. These results show that the sensor, using this configuration, successfully achieves three-axis magnetic field sensing and three-axis vibration energy-harvesting. Due to these features, the three-axis AC magnetic sensor could be an important design reference in order to develop future three-axis AC magnetic sensors, which possess energy-harvesting functions, for practical industrial applications, such as intelligent vehicle/traffic monitoring, processes monitoring, security systems, and so on.

  6. Spatiotemporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on Robust Optical Flow and Zernike Moment for Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyu Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the spatiotemporal resolution of the video sequences, a novel spatiotemporal super-resolution reconstruction model (STSR based on robust optical flow and Zernike moment is proposed in this paper, which integrates the spatial resolution reconstruction and temporal resolution reconstruction into a unified framework. The model does not rely on accurate estimation of subpixel motion and is robust to noise and rotation. Moreover, it can effectively overcome the problems of hole and block artifacts. First we propose an efficient robust optical flow motion estimation model based on motion details preserving, then we introduce the biweighted fusion strategy to implement the spatiotemporal motion compensation. Next, combining the self-adaptive region correlation judgment strategy, we construct a fast fuzzy registration scheme based on Zernike moment for better STSR with higher efficiency, and then the final video sequences with high spatiotemporal resolution can be obtained by fusion of the complementary and redundant information with nonlocal self-similarity between the adjacent video frames. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in terms of both subjective visual and objective quantitative evaluations.

  7. A new miniaturized engine based on thermomagnetic effect of magnetic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lujun ZHOU; Yimin XUAN; Qiang LI; Wenlei LIAN

    2009-01-01

    A new engine system, essentially consisting of a permanent NdFeB magnet, a kerosene-based magnetic fluid and a rotor, is proposed based on the thermomagnetic effect of a temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid. The rotor was driven by the thermal convection of the magnetic fluid in the presence of a homogeneous external magnetic field. A digital camera was used to record the rotation speed of the rotor to investigate the performance of the engine system under varying conditions such as heat load, heat sink temperature, and magnetic field distribution. The peak angle velocity obtained for the rotor was about 2.1 rad/min. The results illustrate that the rotation speed of the rotor increases as the input heat load increases, or as the heat sink temperature decreases. The performance of the motor is considerably influenced by the magnetic field imposed. Therefore, the performance of such an engine can be controlled conveniently by changing the external magnetic field and/or the temperature distribution in the fluid.

  8. Wireless, low-cost, FPGA-based miniature gamma ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, E. M.; Farsoni, A. T.

    2014-10-01

    A compact, low-cost, wireless gamma-ray spectrometer is a tool sought by a number of different organizations in the field of radiation detection. Such a device has applications in emergency response, battlefield assessment, and personal dosimetry. A prototype device fitting this description has been constructed in the Advanced Radiation Instrumentation Laboratory at Oregon State University. The prototype uses a CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a solid-state photomultiplier and a 40 MHz, 12-bit, FPGA-based digital pulse processor to measure gamma radiation, and is able to be accessed wirelessly by mobile phone. The prototype device consumes roughly 420 mW, weighs about 28 g (not including battery), and measures 2.54×3.81 cm2. The prototype device is able to achieve 5.9% FWHM energy resolution at 662 keV.

  9. A miniaturized NQR spectrometer for a multi-channel NQR-based detection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguš, Samo; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko

    2014-10-01

    A low frequency (0.5-5 MHz) battery operated sensitive pulsed NQR spectrometer with a transmitter power up to 5 W and a total mass of about 3 kg aimed at detecting (14)N NQR signals, predominantly of illicit materials, was designed and assembled. This spectrometer uses a standard software defined radio (SDR) platform for the data acquisition unit. Signal processing is done with the LabView Virtual instrument on a personal computer. We successfully tested the spectrometer by measuring (14)N NQR signals from aminotetrazole monohydrate (ATMH), potassium nitrate (PN), paracetamol (PCM) and trinitrotoluene (TNT). Such a spectrometer is a feasible component of a portable single or multichannel (14)N NQR based detection device.

  10. Wireless, low-cost, FPGA-based miniature gamma ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, E.M., E-mail: beckere@engr.orst.edu; Farsoni, A.T.

    2014-10-11

    A compact, low-cost, wireless gamma-ray spectrometer is a tool sought by a number of different organizations in the field of radiation detection. Such a device has applications in emergency response, battlefield assessment, and personal dosimetry. A prototype device fitting this description has been constructed in the Advanced Radiation Instrumentation Laboratory at Oregon State University. The prototype uses a CsI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a solid-state photomultiplier and a 40 MHz, 12-bit, FPGA-based digital pulse processor to measure gamma radiation, and is able to be accessed wirelessly by mobile phone. The prototype device consumes roughly 420 mW, weighs about 28 g (not including battery), and measures 2.54×3.81 cm{sup 2}. The prototype device is able to achieve 5.9% FWHM energy resolution at 662 keV.

  11. A miniaturized NQR spectrometer for a multi-channel NQR-based detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguš, Samo; Jazbinšek, Vojko; Pirnat, Janez; Trontelj, Zvonko

    2014-10-01

    A low frequency (0.5-5 MHz) battery operated sensitive pulsed NQR spectrometer with a transmitter power up to 5 W and a total mass of about 3 kg aimed at detecting 14N NQR signals, predominantly of illicit materials, was designed and assembled. This spectrometer uses a standard software defined radio (SDR) platform for the data acquisition unit. Signal processing is done with the LabView Virtual instrument on a personal computer. We successfully tested the spectrometer by measuring 14N NQR signals from aminotetrazole monohydrate (ATMH), potassium nitrate (PN), paracetamol (PCM) and trinitrotoluene (TNT). Such a spectrometer is a feasible component of a portable single or multichannel 14N NQR based detection device.

  12. A novel miniaturized biofilter based on silicon micropillars for nucleic acid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Salvatore; Sciuto, Emanuele Luigi; Conoci, Sabrina

    2016-12-19

    New miniaturised microfluidic biofilter (BF) devices based on silicon micropillars have been developed and tested regarding their ability to extract HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) bacterial DNA from biological sample solutions. The device is composed of a silicon microchannel in which the pillars are distributed at the bottom surface. The extracted DNA solutions were analysed by real time PCR amplification and the biofilter performance was evaluated. The results obtained show that the DNA binding to the biofilters and the elution efficiency strictly depend on the pillars' geometrical dimensions and increase proportionally with the surface/volume ratio. The device exhibiting the best extraction efficiency was then tested in combination with a silicon integrated real time PCR amplification chip as a preliminary step towards the development of genetic point-of-care devices.

  13. Miniaturized HTS linear phase filter based on neighboring CQ units sharing resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianliang; Yang, Kai; Zhu, Hai; Zhou, Liguo; Jiang, Mingyan; Dang, Wei; Ren, Xiangyang; Hou, Fangyan

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a method for using neighboring cascaded quadruplet (CQ) units sharing resonators to decrease the order of filter so as to reduce the size of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear phase filter. The main advantage is that it will not reduce the number of the filter’s transmission zeros, and will not increase the difficulty of circuit design and tuning. Based on this method, this paper presents a 10-order HTS linear phase filter with two pairs of transmission zeros on double-sided YBCO/LaAlO3/YBCO films with a size of 20.3 mm × 20.92 mm, a thickness of 0.5 mm and a dielectric constant of 24.04. At 77 K, the filter’s measured center frequency is 830.03 MHz with a bandwidth of 10 MHz, an edge out-of-band rejection greater than 30 dB MHz-1, and a group delay variation of less than ±10 ns over 60% of the filter bandwidth.

  14. Miniaturized Low-power Electro-optic Modulator Based on Silicon Integrated Nanophotonics and Organic Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K -Y; Chen, Ray T

    2014-01-01

    We design and demonstrate a compact, low-power, low-dispersion and broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic (EO) polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW). The EO polymer is engineered for large EO activity and near-infrared transparency. The half-wave switching-voltage is measured to be V{\\pi}=0.97V over optical spectrum range of 8nm, corresponding to a record-high effective in-device r33 of 1190pm/V and V{\\pi} L of 0.291Vmm in a push-pull configuration. Excluding the slow-light effect, we estimate the EO polymer is poled with an ultra-high efficiency of 89pm/V in the slot. In addition, to achieve high-speed modulation, silicon PCW is selectively doped to reduce RC time delay. The 3-dB RF bandwidth of the modulator is measured to be 11GHz, and a modulation response up to 40GHz is observed.

  15. Powering autonomous sensors with miniaturized piezoelectric based energy harvesting devices operating at very low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferin, G.; Bantignies, C.; Le Khanh, H.; Flesch, E.; Nguyen-Dinh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient mechanical vibrations is a smart and efficient way to power autonomous sensors and support innovative developments in IoT (Internet of Things), WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) and even implantable medical devices. Beyond the environmental operating conditions, efficiency of such devices is mainly related to energy source properties like the amplitude of vibrations and its spectral contain and some of these applications exhibit a quite low frequency spectrum where harvesting surrounding mechanical energy make sense, typically 5-50Hz for implantable medical devices or 50Hz-150Hz for industrial machines. Harvesting such low frequency vibrations is a challenge since it leads to adapt the resonator geometries to the targeted frequency or to use out-off band indirect harvesting strategies. In this paper we present a piezoelectric based vibrational energy harvesting device (PEH) which could be integrated into a biocompatible package to power implantable sensor or therapeutic medical devices. The presented architecture is a serial bimorph laminated with ultra-thinned (ranging from 15μm to 100μm) outer PZT “skins” that could operate at a “very low frequency”, below 25Hz typically. The core process flow is disclosed and performances highlighted with regards to other low frequency demonstrations.

  16. A low power miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge based atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya Deepak, G.; Joshi, N. K.; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Prakash, Ram

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a dielectric barrier discharge plasma based atmospheric pressure plasma jet has been generated in a floating helix and floating end ring electrode configuration using argon and helium gases. This configuration is subjected to a range of supply frequencies (10-25 kHz) and supply voltages (2-6 kV) at a fixed rate of gas flow rate (i.e., 1 l/min). The electrical characterization of the plasma jet has been carried out using a high voltage probe and current transformer. The current-voltage characteristics have been analyzed, and the consumed power has been estimated at different applied combinations for optimum power consumption at maximum jet length. The obtained optimum power and jet length for argon and helium gases are 12 mW and 32 mm, and 7.7 mW and 42 mm, respectively. It is inferred that besides the electrode configurations, the discharge gas is also playing a significant role in the low power operation of the cold plasma jet at maximum jet length. The obtained results are interpreted on the basis of penning processes.

  17. Miniaturization Design for 8 × 8 Butler Matrix Based on Back-to-Back Bilayer Microstrip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost, compact 8 × 8 Butler matrix based on a novel bilayer microstrip configuration is presented and implemented for 4.3 GHz telecommunication application. A back-to-back placed bilayer microstrip structure has been proposed to avoid using crossover. To expand operational bandwidth of the Butler matrix, a three-branch line directional coupler has been employed as 3 dB/90° bridge, and a kind of improved two-order Schiffman phase shifter has been adopted as fixed phase shifter. For application of indoor wireless communication, a compact broadband 8 × 8 Butler matrix has been designed and fabricated. The measured results show that the return loss of the matrix is lower than −10 dB, the isolation is better than 17 dB, the power distribution error is less than ±2.0 dB, the phase error is less than ±15°, and the relative bandwidth is more than 23%.

  18. A Novel Super Resolution Reconstruction of Low Reoslution Images Progressively Using DCT and Zonal Filter Based Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyakathunisa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the factors like processing power limitations and channel capabilities images are often down sampled and transmitted at low bit rates resulting in a low resolution compressed image. High resolutionimages can be reconstructed from several blurred, noisy and down sampled low resolution images using a computational process know as super resolution reconstruction. Super-resolution is the process ofcombining multiple aliased low-quality images to produce a high resolution, high-quality image. The problem of recovering a high resolution image progressively from a sequence of low resolutioncompressed images is considered. In this paper we propose a novel DCT based progressive image display algorithm by stressing on the encoding and decoding process. At the encoder we consider a set of lowresolution images which are corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise and motion blur. The low resolution images are compressed using 8 by 8 blocks DCT and noise is filtered using our proposed novelzonal filter. Multiframe fusion is performed in order to obtain a single noise free image. At the decoder the image is reconstructed progressively by transmitting the coarser image first followed by the detail image. And finally a super resolution image is reconstructed by applying our proposed novel adaptive interpolation technique. We have performed both objective and subjective analysis of the reconstructed image, and the resultant image has better super resolution factor, and a higher ISNR and PSNR. A comparative study done with Iterative Back Projection (IBP and Projection on to Convex Sets (POCS,Papoulis Grechberg, FFT based Super resolution Reconstruction shows that our method has out performed the previous contributions.

  19. Segmentation Based Classification of 3D Urban Point Clouds: A Super-Voxel Based Approach with Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Trassoudaine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation and classification of urban range data into different object classes have several challenges due to certain properties of the data, such as density variation, inconsistencies due to missing data and the large data size that require heavy computation and large memory. A method to classify urban scenes based on a super-voxel segmentation of sparse 3D data obtained from LiDAR sensors is presented. The 3D point cloud is first segmented into voxels, which are then characterized by several attributes transforming them into super-voxels. These are joined together by using a link-chain method rather than the usual region growing algorithm to create objects. These objects are then classified using geometrical models and local descriptors. In order to evaluate the results, a new metric that combines both segmentation and classification results simultaneously is presented. The effects of voxel size and incorporation of RGB color and laser reflectance intensity on the classification results are also discussed. The method is evaluated on standard data sets using different metrics to demonstrate its efficacy.

  20. Phonon-Based Position Determination in SuperCDMS iZIP Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, A J

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is currently operating a 10-kg array of cryogenic germanium detectors in the Soudan underground laboratory to search for weakly interacting massive particles, a leading dark matter candidate. These detectors, known as iZIPs, measure ionization and athermal phonons from particle interactions with sensors on both sides of a Ge crystal. The ionization signal can be used to efficiently tag events at high radius and near the top and bottoms surfaces, where diminished charge collection can cause events to mimic WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Using calibration data taken with a 210Pb source underground at Soudan, we demonstrate rejection of surface events of (4.5 +/- 0.9) x 10^-4 with 46% acceptance of nuclear recoils using the phonon signal only. We also show with 133Ba calibration data underground that the phonon channels can efficiently identify events near the sidewall. This phonon-based approach can also be extended to lower energies than the ionization-based position reconstruction.

  1. Brown Coal Dewatering Using Poly (Acrylamide-Co-Potassium Acrylic Based Super Absorbent Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devasahayam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising cost of energy and fuel oils, clean coal technologies will continue to play an important role during the transition to a clean energy future. Victorian brown coals have high oxygen and moisture contents and hence low calorific value. This paper presents an alternative non evaporative drying technology for high moisture brown coals based on osmotic dewatering. This involves contacting and mixing brown coal with anionic super absorbent polymers (SAP which are highly crossed linked synthetic co-polymers based on a cross-linked copolymer of acryl amide and potassium acrylate. The paper focuses on evaluating the water absorption potential of SAP in contact with 61% moisture Loy Yang brown coal, under varying SAP dosages for different contact times and conditions. The amount of water present in Loy Yang coal was reduced by approximately 57% during four hours of SAP contact. The extent of SAP brown coal drying is directly proportional to the SAP/coal weight ratio. It is observed that moisture content of fine brown coal can readily be reduced from about 59% to 38% in four hours at a 20% SAP/coal ratio.

  2. Optimization of EDM Process Parameters on Titanium Super Alloys Based on the Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laxman, Dr. K. Guru Raj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge machining (EDM is a unconventional machining process for the machining of complex shapes and hard materials that are difficult of machining by conventional machining process. In this paper deals with the optimization of EDM process parameters using the grey relational analysis (GRA based on an orthogonal array for the multi response process. The experiments are conducted on Titanium super alloys with copper electrode based on the Taguchi design of experiments L27 orthogonal array by choosing various parameters such as peak current, pulse on time, pulse off time and tool lift time for EDM process to obtain multiple process responses namely Metal removal rate (MRR and Tool Wear Rate (TWR. The combination of Taguchi method with GRA enables to determine the optimal parameters for multiple response process. Gray relational analysis is used to obtain a performance index called gray relational grade to optimize the EDM process with higher MRR and lower TWR and it is clearly found that the performance of the EDM has greatly increased by optimizing the responses the influence of individual machining parameters also investigated by using analysis of variance for the grey relational grade.

  3. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or "tophat" beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  4. Extracting Date/Time Expressions in Super-Function Based Japanese-English Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Manabu; Kuroiwa, Shingo; Ren, Fuji

    Super-Function Based Machine Translation(SFBMT) which is a type of Example-Based Machine Translation has a feature which makes it possible to expand the coverage of examples by changing nouns into variables, however, there were problems extracting entire date/time expressions containing parts-of-speech other than nouns, because only nouns/numbers were changed into variables. We describe a method for extracting date/time expressions for SFBMT. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages. In this method, we add a rule to extract date/time expressions and then extract date/time expressions from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is 96.7%, with a recall of 98.2% and the precision for English sentences is 94.7%, with a recall of 92.7%.

  5. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  6. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  7. Expansion of SuperFormula in 3D Based on OpenGL%基于OpenGL的SuperFormula 3D扩展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付娟

    2009-01-01

    SuperFormula首次由Johan Gielis提出,它可以描述许多复杂形状和曲线,从简单的三角和五边形到星、螺旋和瓣,以至产生一切.它是描述自然一种新方式.本文在研究国内外文献的基础上,基于OpenGL对SuperFormula进行了扩展.

  8. Super-resolution algorithm based on sparse representation and wavelet preprocessing for remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ruizhi; Gu, Lingjia; Fu, Haoyang; Sun, Chenglin

    2017-04-01

    An effective super-resolution (SR) algorithm is proposed for actual spectral remote sensing images based on sparse representation and wavelet preprocessing. The proposed SR algorithm mainly consists of dictionary training and image reconstruction. Wavelet preprocessing is used to establish four subbands, i.e., low frequency, horizontal, vertical, and diagonal high frequency, for an input image. As compared to the traditional approaches involving the direct training of image patches, the proposed approach focuses on the training of features derived from these four subbands. The proposed algorithm is verified using different spectral remote sensing images, e.g., moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images with different bands, and the latest Chinese Jilin-1 satellite images with high spatial resolution. According to the visual experimental results obtained from the MODIS remote sensing data, the SR images using the proposed SR algorithm are superior to those using a conventional bicubic interpolation algorithm or traditional SR algorithms without preprocessing. Fusion algorithms, e.g., standard intensity-hue-saturation, principal component analysis, wavelet transform, and the proposed SR algorithms are utilized to merge the multispectral and panchromatic images acquired by the Jilin-1 satellite. The effectiveness of the proposed SR algorithm is assessed by parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity index, correlation coefficient, root-mean-square error, relative dimensionless global error in synthesis, relative average spectral error, spectral angle mapper, and the quality index Q4, and its performance is better than that of the standard image fusion algorithms.

  9. Uniform step-by-step observer for aerobic bioreactor based on super-twisting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fonseca, N; Chairez, I; Poznyak, A

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes a fixed-time convergent step-by-step high order sliding mode observer for a certain type of aerobic bioreactor system. The observer was developed using a hierarchical structure based on a modified super-twisting algorithm. The modification included nonlinear gains of the output error that were used to prove uniform convergence of the estimation error. An energetic function similar to a Lyapunov one was used for proving the convergence between the observer and the bioreactor variables. A nonsmooth analysis was proposed to prove the fixed-time convergence of the observer states to the bioreactor variables. The observer was tested to solve the state estimation problem of an aerobic bioreactor described by the time evolution of biomass, substrate and dissolved oxygen. This last variable was used as the output information because it is feasible to measure it online by regular sensors. Numerical simulations showed the superior behavior of this observer compared to the one having linear output error injection terms (high-gain type) and one having an output injection obtaining first-order sliding mode structure. A set of numerical simulations was developed to demonstrate how the proposed observer served to estimate real information obtained from a real aerobic process with substrate inhibition.

  10. Next-generation biomarkers based on 100-parameter functional super-resolution microscopy TIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Walter; Gieseler, Anne; Krusche, Andreas; Serocka, Peter; Hillert, Reyk

    2012-06-15

    Functional super-resolution (fSR) microscopy is based on the automated toponome imaging system (TIS). fSR-TIS provides insight into the myriad of different cellular functionalities by direct imaging of large subcellular protein networks in morphologically intact cells and tissues, referred to as the toponome. By cyclical fluorescence imaging of at least 100 molecular cell components, fSR-TIS overcomes the spectral limitations of fluorescence microscopy, which is the essential condition for the detection of protein network structures in situ/in vivo. The resulting data sets precisely discriminate between cell types, subcellular structures, cell states and diseases (fSR). With up to 16 bits per protein, the power of combinatorial molecular discrimination (PCMD) is at least 2(100) per subcellular data point. It provides the dimensionality necessary to uncover thousands of distinct protein clusters including their subcellular hierarchies controlling protein network topology and function in the one cell or tissue section. Here we review the technology and findings showing that functional protein networks of the cell surface in different cancers encompass the same hierarchical and spatial coding principle, but express cancer-specific toponome codes within that scheme (referred to as TIS codes). Findings suggest that TIS codes, extracted from large-scale toponome data, have the potential to be next-generation biomarkers because of their cell type and disease specificity. This is functionally substantiated by the observation that blocking toponome-specific lead proteins results in disassembly of molecular networks and loss of function.

  11. Super-paramagnetic loaded nanoparticles based on biological macromolecules for in vivo targeted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjai, Chutimon; Kothan, Suchart; Gonil, Pattarapond; Saesoo, Somsak; Sajomsang, Warayuth

    2016-05-01

    Target-specific MRI contrast agent based on super-paramagnetic iron oxide-chitosan-folic acid (SPIONP-CS-FA) nanoparticles was fabricated by using an ionotropic gelation method, which involved the loading of SPIONPs at various concentrations into CS-FA nanoparticles by electrostatic interaction. The SPIONP-CS-FA nanoparticles were characterized by ATR-FTIR, XRD, TEM, and VSM techniques. This study revealed that the advantages of this system would be green fabrication, low cytotoxicity at iron concentrations ranging from 0.52 mg/L to 4.16 mg/L, and high water stability (pH 6) at 4°C over long periods. Average particle size and positive zeta-potential of the SPIONP-CS-FA nanoparticles was found to be 130 nm with narrow size distribution and 42 mV, respectively. In comparison to SPIONP-0.5-CS nanoparticles, SPIONP-0.5-CS-FA nanoparticles showed higher and specific cellular uptake levels into human cervical adenocarcinoma cells due to the presence of folate receptors, while in vivo results (Wistar rat) indicated that only liver tissue showed significant decreases in MR image intensity on T2 weighted images and T2* weighted images after post-injection, in comparison with other organs. Our results demonstrated that SPIONP-CS-FA nanoparticles can be applied as an either tumor or organ specific MRI contrast agents.

  12. Color image super-resolution reconstruction based on POCS with edge preserving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Liang, Ying; Liang, Yu

    2015-10-01

    A color image super-resolution (SR) reconstruction based on an improved Projection onto Convex Sets (POCS) in YCbCr space is proposed. Compared with other methods, the POCS method is more intuitive and generally simple to implement. However, conventional POCS algorithm is strict to the accuracy of movement estimation and it is not conducive to the resumption of the edge and details of images. Addressed to these two problems, we on one hand improve the LOG operator to detect edges with the directions of +/-0°, +/-45°, +/-90°, +/-135° in order to inhibit the edge degradation. Then, by using the edge information, we proposed a self-adaptive edge-directed interpolation and a modified adaptive direction PSF to construct a reference image as well as to reduce the edge oscillation when revising the reference respectively. On the other hand, instead of block-matching, the Speeded up Robust Feature (SURF) matching algorithm, which can accurately extract the feature points with invariant to affine transform, rotation, scale, illumination changes, are utilized to improve the robustness and real-time in motion estimation. The performance of the proposed approach has been tested on several images and the obtained results demonstrate that it is competitive or rather better in quality and efficiency in comparison with the traditional POCS.

  13. IMPROVING MARKOV RANDOM FIELD BASED SUPER RESOLUTION MAPPING THROUGH FUZZY PARAMETER INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R . Welikanna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to improve the Markov Random Field (MRF based Super Resolution Mapping (SRM technique to account for the vague land-cover interpretations (class mixture and the intermediate conditions in an urban area. The algorithm has been improved to integrate the fuzzy mean and fuzzy covariance measurements, to a MRF based SRM scheme to optimize the classification results. The technique was tested on a WORLDVIEW-2 data set, acquired over a highway construction area, in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Based on the visual interpretation of the image, three major land-cover types of this area were identified for the study; those were vegetation, soil and exposed grass and impervious surface with low medium and high albedo. The membership values for each pixel were determined from training samples through Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM technique. The compulsory fuzzy mean and the covariance measurements were derived using these membership grades, and subsequently was applied in MRF based SRM technique. The primary reference data was generated using Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC performed on the same data which was resampled to 1m resolution. The scale factor was set to be (S = 2, to generate SRM of 1m resolution. The smoothening parameter (λ which balances the prior and likelihood energy terms were tested in the range from 0.3 to 0.9. SRM were generated using fuzzy MRF and the conventional MRF models respectively. Results suggest that the fuzzy integrated model has improved the results with an overall accuracy of 85.60% and kappa value of 0.78 between the optimal results and the reference data, while in the conventional case it was 77.81% of overall accuracy with kappa being 0.65. Among the two MRF models, fuzzy parameter integrated model shows the highest agreement with class fractions from the reference image with a smallest average _MAE (MAE, Mean Absolute Error of 0.03.

  14. Miniaturized preconcentration methods based on liquid-liquid extraction and their application in inorganic ultratrace analysis and speciation: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is widely used as a pre-treatment technique for separation and preconcentration of both organic and inorganic analytes from aqueous samples. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks, such as emulsion formation or the use of large volumes of solvents, which makes LLE expensive and labour intensive. Therefore, miniaturization of conventional liquid-liquid extraction is needed. The search for alternatives to the conventional LLE using negligible volumes of extractant and the minimum number of steps has driven the development of three new miniaturized methodologies, i.e. single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of these novel preconcentration approaches and their potential use in analytical labs involved in inorganic (ultra)trace analysis and speciation. Relevant applications to the determination of metal ions, metalloids, organometals and non-metals are included.

  15. Miniaturized preconcentration methods based on liquid-liquid extraction and their application in inorganic ultratrace analysis and speciation: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, Carlos [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Vigo, Campus As Lagoas-Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

    2009-01-15

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is widely used as a pre-treatment technique for separation and preconcentration of both organic and inorganic analytes from aqueous samples. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks, such as emulsion formation or the use of large volumes of solvents, which makes LLE expensive and labour intensive. Therefore, miniaturization of conventional liquid-liquid extraction is needed. The search for alternatives to the conventional LLE using negligible volumes of extractant and the minimum number of steps has driven the development of three new miniaturized methodologies, i.e. single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of these novel preconcentration approaches and their potential use in analytical labs involved in inorganic (ultra)trace analysis and speciation. Relevant applications to the determination of metal ions, metalloids, organometals and non-metals are included.

  16. Development of an autonomous sensing device - detector based on miniature, solid-state ion-selective sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Simple construction, good detection limit, very low power demand, and simple experimental setup coupled with miniaturization opportunities arising from solid-state format makes ISEs an excellent prospect for integration in autonomous sensing devices and ultimately their integration in large wireless chemo-sensing networks.1, 2 The goal of our work is connected with preparation of ion-sensor prototypes suitable for this future application. We are focused on the fabrication of all-solid-state ...

  17. A Fully Integrated and Miniaturized Heavy-metal-detection Sensor Based on Micro-patterned Reduced Graphene Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    For this paper, a fully integrated and highly miniaturized electrochemical sensor was designed and fabricated on a silicon substrate. A solvothermal-assisted reduced graphene oxide named “TRGO” was then successfully micro-patterned using a lithography technique, followed by the electrodeposition of bismuth (Bi) on the surface of the micro-patterned TRGO for the electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. The fully integrated electrochemical micro-sensor was then measured and evaluated for ...

  18. Antipodally Invariant Metrics for Fast Regression-Based Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Pellitero, Eduardo; Salvador, Jordi; Ruiz-Hidalgo, Javier; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    Dictionary-based super-resolution (SR) algorithms usually select dictionary atoms based on the distance or similarity metrics. Although the optimal selection of the nearest neighbors is of central importance for such methods, the impact of using proper metrics for SR has been overlooked in literature, mainly due to the vast usage of Euclidean distance. In this paper, we present a very fast regression-based algorithm, which builds on the densely populated anchored neighborhoods and sublinear search structures. We perform a study of the nature of the features commonly used for SR, observing that those features usually lie in the unitary hypersphere, where every point has a diametrically opposite one, i.e., its antipode, with same module and angle, but the opposite direction. Even though, we validate the benefits of using antipodally invariant metrics, most of the binary splits use Euclidean distance, which does not handle antipodes optimally. In order to benefit from both the worlds, we propose a simple yet effective antipodally invariant transform that can be easily included in the Euclidean distance calculation. We modify the original spherical hashing algorithm with this metric in our antipodally invariant spherical hashing scheme, obtaining the same performance as a pure antipodally invariant metric. We round up our contributions with a novel feature transform that obtains a better coarse approximation of the input image thanks to iterative backprojection. The performance of our method, which we named antipodally invariant SR, improves quality (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) and it is faster than any other state-of-the-art method.

  19. A Novel Fuzzy Logic Based Adaptive Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control Algorithm for Dynamic Uncertain Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Kareem; Mohammad Fazle Azeem

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel fuzzy logic based Adaptive Super-twisting Sliding Mode Controller for the control of dynamic uncertain systems. The proposed controller combines the advantages of Second order Sliding Mode Control, Fuzzy Logic Control and Adaptive Control. The reaching conditions, stability and robustness of the system with the proposed controller are guaranteed. In addition, the proposed controller is well suited for simple design and implementation. The effectiveness ...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a novel super-absorbent based on wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zuohao; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing; Zhong, Qianqian

    2011-02-01

    In order to develop an eco-friendly polymer, a novel super-absorbent polymer was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acrylic amide (AM) and dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC) onto the pretreatment wheat straw (PTWS). The molecular structure of the super-absorbent was confirmed by FTIR. The factors that can influence absorbencies of the super-absorbent resin (SAR) were investigated, such as weight ratio between the monomers, the ratio of PTWS to monomers, the amount of initiator and cross-linker, temperature reaction time and neutralization degree of AA. The SAR has the water absorbency of 133.76 g/g in distilled water and 33.83 g/g in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution.

  1. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  2. Super-resolution optical microscopy based on scannable cantilever-combined microsphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuying; Zhang, Dongxian; Zhang, Haijun; Han, Xu; Xu, Rui

    2015-12-01

    We report an ingenious method of super-resolution optical microscopy utilizing scannable cantilever-combined microsphere. By scanning the microsphere over the sample surface in a cantilever-combined microsphere-sample contact state, super-resolution images can be acquired at arbitrary sample regions through near-field information collection by the microsphere. In addition, such a state can effectively reduce the possibility of breaking the cantilever and damaging the microsphere or sample surface. This work has developed a new method and technique of sub-diffraction-limit optical microscopy, and can be practically applied in various fields of micro/nanoscopy.

  3. Miniature Release Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to design, build and functionally test a miniature release mechanism for CubeSats and other small satellites. The WFF 6U satellite structure will be...

  4. A novel super resolution reconstruction of low reoslution images progressively using dct and zonal filter based denoising

    CERN Document Server

    Liyakathunisa,

    2011-01-01

    Due to the factors like processing power limitations and channel capabilities images are often down sampled and transmitted at low bit rates resulting in a low resolution compressed image. High resolution images can be reconstructed from several blurred, noisy and down sampled low resolution images using a computational process know as super resolution reconstruction. Super-resolution is the process of combining multiple aliased low-quality images to produce a high resolution, high-quality image. The problem of recovering a high resolution image progressively from a sequence of low resolution compressed images is considered. In this paper we propose a novel DCT based progressive image display algorithm by stressing on the encoding and decoding process. At the encoder we consider a set of low resolution images which are corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise and motion blur. The low resolution images are compressed using 8 by 8 blocks DCT and noise is filtered using our proposed novel zonal filter. Multifr...

  5. Imaging and Intracellular Tracking of Cancer-Derived Exosomes Using Single-Molecule Localization-Based Super-Resolution Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Lu, Ju; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Yizhi; Cui, Yiping

    2016-10-05

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by cells and enriched with plenty of proteins. Considering their significant roles in different physical activities and potential value for diagnostic drug delivery, researchers have put great efforts in in vitro tracking and content analysis of exosomes. Recently, the emergence of different kinds of super-resolution microscopy provides powerful tools for exosome study. Here, we demonstrate the application of single-molecule localization based super-resolution imaging technique in the imaging and tracking of cancer-derived exosomes. In the experiment, first, cancer-derived exosomes are extracted from the culture media of tumor cells. Then the exosome membrane receptors are labeled with photoswitchable probes, which allow super-resolution imaging of these membrane receptors via photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) or stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). By using human breast cancer cell-derived exosomes, we demonstrated simultaneous dual-color PALM/STORM imaging of two kinds of membrane receptors on the exosome membrane. Moreover, the successful labeling and imaging of exosomes make it possible to observe the interaction between cancer-derived exosomes and normal cells. Meanwhile, we realized the colocalization of cancer-derived exosomes and lysosomes in recipient cells with PALM/STORM imaging. Since exosomes play a vital role in intercellular communications, we anticipate that the presented PALM/STORM-based imaging and tracking of exosomes holds a great potential in the investigation of the mechanism of exosome-mediated cancer metastasis.

  6. Design and implementation of a Cooke triplet based wave-front coded super-resolution imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Jingxuan

    2015-09-01

    Wave-front coding is a powerful technique that could be used to extend the DOF (depth of focus) of incoherent imaging system. It is the suitably designed phase mask that makes the system defocus invariant and it is the de-convolution algorithm that generates the clear image with large DOF. Compared with the traditional imaging system, the point spread function (PSF) in wave-front coded imaging system has quite a large support size and this characteristic makes wave-front coding be capable of realizing super-resolution imaging without replacing the current sensor with one of smaller pitch size. An amplification based single image super-resolution reconstruction procedure has been specifically designed for wave-front coded imaging system and its effectiveness has been demonstrated experimentally. A Cooke Triplet based wave-front coded imaging system is established. For a focal length of 50 mm and f-number 4.5, objects within the range [5 m, ∞] could be clearly imaged, which indicates a DOF extension ratio of approximately 20. At the same time, the proposed processing procedure could produce at least 3× resolution improvement, with the quality of the reconstructed super-resolution image approaching the diffraction limit.

  7. Development of Miniature Spectrometers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-guo

    2007-01-01

    Spectrometer is an essential and necessary optical element used for measuring the chemical components and content of the matter.The development of miniature spectrometers can be traced back to 1980s.The development state and different manufacturing methods of micro-spectrometers are presented.Finally,we analyze the miniaturization trend of spectrometers.Some groundwork for the scientific research is offered by introducing micro-spectrometers development.

  8. Miniaturized DNA aptamer-based monolithic sorbent for selective extraction of a target analyte coupled on-line to nanoLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothier, Fabien; Pichon, Valérie

    2014-12-01

    A complete characterization of a novel target-specific DNA aptamer-based miniaturized solid phase extraction (SPE)-sorbent coupled on-line to nanoLC is presented. A miniaturized oligosorbent (mOS) was prepared via the in situ sol-gel synthesis of a hybrid organic-inorganic monolith in 100 μm i.d. capillary columns using tetraethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as precursors, followed by covalent binding of a 5'-amino-modified DNA aptamer with a C12 spacer arm specific for a molecule of small molecular weight. Ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the most abundant naturally occurring mycotoxins, was chosen as model analyte to demonstrate the principle of such an approach. The mOS was coupled on-line to RP-nanoLC-LIF. Selective extraction of OTA on several mOSs was demonstrated with an average extraction recovery above 80 % when percolating spiked binding buffer and a low recovery on control monoliths grafted with a non-specific aptamer. Reproducibility of mOSs preparation was highlighted by comparing extraction yields. Otherwise, the mOSs demonstrated no cross-reactivity towards an OTA structural analogue, i.e., ochratoxin B. Due to the high specific surface area of the hybrid silica-based monolith, the coverage density of DNA aptamers covalently immobilized in the capillaries was very high and reached 6.27 nmol μL(-1), thus leading to a capacity above 5 ng of OTA. This miniaturized device was then applied to the selective extraction of OTA from beer samples. It revealed to be effective in isolating OTA from this complex matrix, thus improving the reliability of its analysis at the trace level.

  9. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  10. High blocking temperature in SnO{sub 2} based super-paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mounkachi, O., E-mail: o.mounkachi@mascir.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Salmani, E. [LMPHE, associé au CNRST (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); El Moussaoui, H. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Safi (Morocco); Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Ez-Zahraouy, H. [LMPHE, associé au CNRST (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); LMPHE, associé au CNRST (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco)

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • Simple doping, (Sn,Fe)O{sub 2} exhibits a soft ferromagnetism at low temperature. • High blocking temperature was observed for Cu doped (Sn,Fe)O{sub 2} nanocrystalline. • Experimental results are confirmed by ab initio calculations. - Abstract: (Fe,Cu)-doped SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals was synthesized using the co-precipitation method. Magnetic Properties Measurement System (MPMS) revealed that for simple doping, Fe-doped SnO{sub 2} soft ferromagnetism at low temperature appears, while the ferromagnetic phase is stable at temperature higher than room temperature for Cu co-doping element. The ferromagnetism is significantly enhanced by the Cu addition to Fe-doped SnO{sub 2}, according to the ZFC and FC magnetizations and the hysteresis loops. The evidences for the existence of superparamagnetism are characterized and high blocking temperature super-paramagnetism in (Fe,Cu)-doped SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals was observed. Based on first-principles calculations, we have investigated electronic structures and magnetic properties of Fe-doped SnO{sub 2} and (Fe,Cu)-doped SnO{sub 2} with and without defect with LDA and LDA-SIC approximations. The results suggest that the oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) play a critical role in the activation of ferromagnetism in Fe doped SnO{sub 2}. For (Fe,Cu)-doped SnO{sub 2} the results exhibit that Cu strongly influences on the magnetic properties of these doped systems which are in good agreement with the experimental observations. Electronic structure show that the presence of Cu promote the ferromagnetic bound magnetic polaron interaction through the carriers introduce by d (Cu)

  11. Single NMR image super-resolution based on extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiong; Xin, Junchang; Wang, Zhongyang; Tian, Shuo; Qiu, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    The performance limitation of MRI equipment and higher resolution demand of NMR images from radiologists have formed a strong contrast. Therefore, it is important to study the super resolution algorithm suitable for NMR images, using low costs software to replace the expensive equipment-updating. Firstly, a series of NMR images are obtained from original NMR images with original noise to the lowest resolution images with the highest noise. Then, based on extreme learning machine, the mapping relation model is constructed from lower resolution NMR images with higher noise to higher resolution NMR images with lower noise in each pair of adjacent images in the obtained image sequence. Finally, the optimal mapping model is established by the ensemble way to reconstruct the higher resolution NMR images with lower noise on the basis of original resolution NMR images with original noise. Experiments are carried out by 990111 NMR brain images in datasets NITRC, REMBRANDT, RIDER NEURO MRI, TCGA-GBM and TCGA-LGG. The performance of proposed method is compared with three approaches through 7 indexes, and the experimental results show that our proposed method has a significant improvement. Since our method considers the influence of the noise, it has 20% higher in Peak-Signal-to-Noise-Ratio comparison. As our method is sensitive to details, and has a better characteristic retention, it has higher image quality upgrade of 15% in the additional evaluation. Finally, since extreme learning machine has a celerity learning speed, our method is 46.1% faster. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal Super Resolution Enhancement of Echocardiographic Images Based on Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifani, Parisa; Behnam, Hamid; Haddadi, Farzan; Sani, Zahra Alizadeh; Shojaeifard, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    A challenging issue for echocardiographic image interpretation is the accurate analysis of small transient motions of myocardium and valves during real-time visualization. A higher frame rate video may reduce this difficulty, and temporal super resolution (TSR) is useful for illustrating the fast-moving structures. In this paper, we introduce a novel framework that optimizes TSR enhancement of echocardiographic images by utilizing temporal information and sparse representation. The goal of this method is to increase the frame rate of echocardiographic videos, and therefore enable more accurate analyses of moving structures. For the proposed method, we first derived temporal information by extracting intensity variation time curves (IVTCs) assessed for each pixel. We then designed both low-resolution and high-resolution overcomplete dictionaries based on prior knowledge of the temporal signals and a set of prespecified known functions. The IVTCs can then be described as linear combinations of a few prototype atoms in the low-resolution dictionary. We used the Bayesian compressive sensing (BCS) sparse recovery algorithm to find the sparse coefficients of the signals. We extracted the sparse coefficients and the corresponding active atoms in the low-resolution dictionary to construct new sparse coefficients corresponding to the high-resolution dictionary. Using the estimated atoms and the high-resolution dictionary, a new IVTC with more samples was constructed. Finally, by placing the new IVTC signals in the original IVTC positions, we were able to reconstruct the original echocardiography video with more frames. The proposed method does not require training of low-resolution and high-resolution dictionaries, nor does it require motion estimation; it does not blur fast-moving objects, and does not have blocking artifacts.

  13. 基于XML的数据转换系统SuperETL%Data Exchange System SuperETL Based on XML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴胜; 周云轩; 黄永平; 王洪媛; 王云霄

    2006-01-01

    针对政府机构和企事业单位对数据资源整合的需求,提出一个数据转换系统SuperETL,主要介绍其设计目标、体系结构,并给出了系统中任务的XML定义标准.测试结果表明,SuperETL能够高效、智能地完成数据抽取(Extract)、清洗(Cleaning)、转换(Transformation)、装载(Loading)及ETL任务.

  14. Super Special Codes using Super Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha; Ilanthenral, K

    2010-01-01

    The new classes of super special codes are constructed in this book using the specially constructed super special vector spaces. These codes mainly use the super matrices. These codes can be realized as a special type of concatenated codes. This book has four chapters. In chapter one basic properties of codes and super matrices are given. A new type of super special vector space is constructed in chapter two of this book. Three new classes of super special codes namely, super special row code, super special column code and super special codes are introduced in chapter three. Applications of these codes are given in the final chapter.

  15. Spectral demixing avoids registration errors and reduces noise in multicolor localization-based super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, André; Tadeus, Georgi; Schmoranzer, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Multicolor single molecule localization-based super-resolution microscopy (SMLM) approaches are challenged by channel crosstalk and errors in multi-channel registration. We recently introduced a spectral demixing-based variant of direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (SD-dSTORM) to perform multicolor SMLM with minimal color crosstalk. Here, we demonstrate that the spectral demixing procedure is inherently free of errors in multicolor registration and therefore does not require multicolor channel alignment. Furthermore, spectral demixing significantly reduces single molecule noise and is applicable to astigmatism-based 3D multicolor imaging achieving 25 nm lateral and 66 nm axial resolution on cellular nanostructures.

  16. Electrospun novel super-absorbent based on polysaccharide-polyvinyl alcohol-montmorillonite clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Rahaman, Md Saifur; Yeum, Jeong Hyun

    2015-01-22

    A novel super-absorbent material was fabricated by electrospinning the natural polysaccharide pullulan (PULL) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and montmorillonite (MMT) clay to form nonwoven webs, which were then heat treated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of the novel super-absorbent nanofibers suggest the coexistence of PULL, PVA, and MMT through the exfoliation of MMT layers in the super-absorbent nanofiber composite. The heat-treated PULL/PVA/MMT webs loaded with 5 wt% MMT electrospun nanofibers exhibited a water absorbency of 143.42 g g(-1) in distilled water and a water absorbency of 39.75 g g(-1) in a 0.9 wt% NaCl solution. Under extremely dry conditions, the PULL/PVA/MMT webs exhibited the ability to retain 43% distilled water and 38% saline water after being exposed to the atmosphere for one week. The heat treatment improved the crystallinity of the electrospun PULL/PVA/MMT super-absorbent webs and thus made the webs highly stable in aqueous environments. Overall, the addition of MMT resulted in improved thermal stability and mechanical properties and increased the water absorbency of the PULL/PVA/MMT composite.

  17. Super-smooth processing x-ray telescope application research based on the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianyun; Hou, Xi; Yang, Jinshan

    2016-09-01

    Nickel is the unique material in the X-ray telescopes. And it has the typical soft material characteristics with low hardness high surface damage and low stability of thermal. The traditional fabrication techniques are exposed to lots of problems, including great surface scratches, high sub-surface damage and poor surface roughness and so on. The current fabrication technology for the nickel aspheric mainly adopt the single point diamond turning(SPDT), which has lots of advantages such as high efficiency, ultra-precision surface figure, low sub-surface damage and so on. But the residual surface texture of SPDT will cause great scattering losses and fall far short from the requirement in the X-ray applications. This paper mainly investigates the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques for the super-smooth processing on the nickel optics. Through the study of the MRF polishing techniques, we obtained the ideal super-smooth polishing technique based on the self-controlled MRF-fluid NS-1, and finished the high-precision surface figure lower than RMS λ/80 (λ=632.8nm) and super-smooth roughness lower than Ra 0.3nm on the plane reflector and roughness lower than Ra 0.4nm on the convex cone. The studying of the MRF techniques makes a great effort to the state-of-the-art nickel material processing level for the X-ray optical systems applications.

  18. Preparation of molecular imprinted microspheres based on inorganic-organic co-functional monomer for miniaturized solid-phase extraction of fluoroquinolones in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Ruiling; Han, Yehong

    2014-02-15

    An inorganic-organic co-functional monomer, methacrylic acid-vinyltriethoxysilan (MAA-VTES) was designed for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs). By virtue of the aqueous suspension polymerization and dummy template (pazufloxacin), the obtained MAA-VTES based MIMs exhibited good recognition and selectivity to fluoroquinolones (FQs), and were successfully applied as selective sorbents of a miniaturized home-made solid phase extraction device for the determination of ofloxacin (OFL), lomefloxacin (LOM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in milk samples. Under the optimum conditions of the miniaturized molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (mini-MISPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (LC-UV), good linearities were obtained for three FQs in a range of 0.2-20.0μgmL(-1) and the average recoveries at three spiked levels were ranged from 87.2% to 106.1% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 5.4%. The presented co-functional monomer based mini-MISPE-LC-UV protocol introduced the rigidity and flexibility of inorganic silicon materials, exhibited excellent extraction performance towards targets, and could be potentially applied to the determination of FQs in milk samples.

  19. A microfluidic platform for correlative live-cell and super-resolution microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Tam

    Full Text Available Recently, super-resolution microscopy methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM have enabled visualization of subcellular structures below the optical resolution limit. Due to the poor temporal resolution, however, these methods have mostly been used to image fixed cells or dynamic processes that evolve on slow time-scales. In particular, fast dynamic processes and their relationship to the underlying ultrastructure or nanoscale protein organization cannot be discerned. To overcome this limitation, we have recently developed a correlative and sequential imaging method that combines live-cell and super-resolution microscopy. This approach adds dynamic background to ultrastructural images providing a new dimension to the interpretation of super-resolution data. However, currently, it suffers from the need to carry out tedious steps of sample preparation manually. To alleviate this problem, we implemented a simple and versatile microfluidic platform that streamlines the sample preparation steps in between live-cell and super-resolution imaging. The platform is based on a microfluidic chip with parallel, miniaturized imaging chambers and an automated fluid-injection device, which delivers a precise amount of a specified reagent to the selected imaging chamber at a specific time within the experiment. We demonstrate that this system can be used for live-cell imaging, automated fixation, and immunostaining of adherent mammalian cells in situ followed by STORM imaging. We further demonstrate an application by correlating mitochondrial dynamics, morphology, and nanoscale mitochondrial protein distribution in live and super-resolution images.

  20. A microfluidic platform for correlative live-cell and super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Johnny; Cordier, Guillaume Alan; Bálint, Štefan; Sandoval Álvarez, Ángel; Borbely, Joseph Steven; Lakadamyali, Melike

    2014-01-01

    Recently, super-resolution microscopy methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) have enabled visualization of subcellular structures below the optical resolution limit. Due to the poor temporal resolution, however, these methods have mostly been used to image fixed cells or dynamic processes that evolve on slow time-scales. In particular, fast dynamic processes and their relationship to the underlying ultrastructure or nanoscale protein organization cannot be discerned. To overcome this limitation, we have recently developed a correlative and sequential imaging method that combines live-cell and super-resolution microscopy. This approach adds dynamic background to ultrastructural images providing a new dimension to the interpretation of super-resolution data. However, currently, it suffers from the need to carry out tedious steps of sample preparation manually. To alleviate this problem, we implemented a simple and versatile microfluidic platform that streamlines the sample preparation steps in between live-cell and super-resolution imaging. The platform is based on a microfluidic chip with parallel, miniaturized imaging chambers and an automated fluid-injection device, which delivers a precise amount of a specified reagent to the selected imaging chamber at a specific time within the experiment. We demonstrate that this system can be used for live-cell imaging, automated fixation, and immunostaining of adherent mammalian cells in situ followed by STORM imaging. We further demonstrate an application by correlating mitochondrial dynamics, morphology, and nanoscale mitochondrial protein distribution in live and super-resolution images.

  1. Miniature Chemical Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew C. R. Pipino

    2004-12-13

    A new chemical detection technology has been realized that addresses DOE environmental management needs. The new technology is based on a variant of the sensitive optical absorption technique, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). Termed evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS), the technology employs a miniature solid-state optical resonator having an extremely high Q-factor as the sensing element, where the high-Q is achieved by using ultra-low-attenuation optical materials, ultra-smooth surfaces, and ultra-high reflectivity coatings, as well as low-diffraction-loss designs. At least one total-internal reflection (TIR) mirror is integral to the resonator permitting the concomitant evanescent wave to probe the ambient environment. Several prototypes have been designed, fabricated, characterized, and applied to chemical detection. Moreover, extensions of the sensing concept have been explored to enhance selectivity, sensitivity, and range of application. Operating primarily in the visible and near IR regions, the technology inherently enables remote detection by optical fiber. Producing 11 archival publications, 5 patents, 19 invited talks, 4 conference proceedings, a CRADA, and a patent-license agreement, the project has realized a new chemical detection technology providing >100 times more sensitivity than comparable technologies, while also providing practical advantages.

  2. Miniaturized isothermal nucleic acid amplification, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiello, Peter J; Baeumner, Antje J

    2011-04-21

    Micro-Total Analysis Systems (µTAS) for use in on-site rapid detection of DNA or RNA are increasingly being developed. Here, amplification of the target sequence is key to increasing sensitivity, enabling single-cell and few-copy nucleic acid detection. The several advantages to miniaturizing amplification reactions and coupling them with sample preparation and detection on the same chip are well known and include fewer manual steps, preventing contamination, and significantly reducing the volume of expensive reagents. To-date, the majority of miniaturized systems for nucleic acid analysis have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification and those systems are covered in previous reviews. This review provides a thorough overview of miniaturized analysis systems using alternatives to PCR, specifically isothermal amplification reactions. With no need for thermal cycling, isothermal microsystems can be designed to be simple and low-energy consuming and therefore may outperform PCR in portable, battery-operated detection systems in the future. The main isothermal methods as miniaturized systems reviewed here include nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), and strand displacement amplification (SDA). Also, important design criteria for the miniaturized devices are discussed. Finally, the potential of miniaturization of some new isothermal methods such as the exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR), isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICANs), signal-mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART) and others is presented.

  3. Super-capacitor based energy storage system for improved load frequency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mufti, Mairaj ud din; Lone, Shameem Ahmad; Iqbal, Shiekh Javed; Ahmad, Muzzafar; Ismail, Mudasir [Electrical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Hazratbal, Srinagar 190006, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2009-01-15

    A fuzzy-logic controlled super-capacitor bank (SCB) for improved load frequency control (LFC) of an interconnected power system is proposed, in this paper. The super-capacitor bank in each control area is interfaced with the area control bus through a power conversion system (PCS) comprising of a voltage source converter (VSC) and a buck-boost chopper. The fuzzy controller for SCB is designed in such a way that the effects of load disturbances are rejected on a continuous basis. Necessary models are developed and control and implementation aspects are presented in a detailed manner. Time domain simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The performance of the resulting power system under realistic situation is investigated by including the effects of generation rate constraint (GRC) and governor dead band (DB) in the simulation studies. (author)

  4. Design and preparation of film for microsphere based optical super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Du, Chunlei; Qiu, Qi; Yin, Shaoyun; Zhang, Man; Deng, Qiling

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a novel thin film was proposed for optical super-resolution imaging, which contains a layer of closely-arranged barium titanate glass microsphere with diameter about 30-100μm embedded in a transparent polydimethylsiloxane soft mold. Then the imaging mechanism was analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and spectrum analysis method. Finally, the thin film was prepared and used to image the sample with sub-wavelength feature to confirm the capability of super-resolution imaging. The experimental result shows that an irresolvable Blu-ray DVD disk with feature size of 300nm can be resolved by placing a thin-film on its surface and then look through it with a conventional microscope. The thin film presented here is flexible, lightweight, easy to carry and can be used in the nanophotonics, nanoplasmonics, and biomedical imaging areas.

  5. Fabrication of semi-transparent super-hydrophobic surface based on silica hierarchical structures

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ping-Hei

    2011-01-01

    This study successfully develops a versatile method of producing superhydrophobic surfaces with micro/nano-silica hierarchical structures on glass surfaces. Optically transparent super hydrophobic silica thin films were prepared by spin-coating silica particles suspended in a precursor solution of silane, ethanol, and H2O with molar ratio of 1:4:4. The resulting super hydrophobic films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical transmission, and contact angle measurements. The glass substrates in this study were modified with different particles: micro-silica particles, nano-silica particles, and hierarchical structures. This study includes SEM micrographs of the modified glass surfaces with hierarchical structures at different magnifications. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopy of Super-Earth Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Diana; Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Lothringer, Joshua; Knutson, Heather

    2017-01-01

    The Kepler mission has revealed that super-Earths (planets with radii between 1 and 4 R_Earth) are the most common class of planets in the Galaxy, though none are known in our own Solar System. These planets can theoretically have a wide range of compositions which we are just beginning to explore observationally. While studies based on Kepler data have revolutionized many areas of exoplanet research, the relative faintness of most of the host stars in the Kepler field means that atmospheric characterization of these super-Earths with currently available instruments is extremely challenging. However, a handful of transiting super-Earths are within reach of existing facilities. We have pointed both the HST and Spitzer toward these systems in an effort to paint a thorough picture of their atmospheres. Our transmission spectroscopy observations explore the transition region between terrestrial planets and miniature gas giants, and contribute to distinguishing between low-density hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and compact high-metallicity atmospheres. Transmission spectroscopy over a wide wavelength range is also essential to understanding the properties and effects of clouds in these atmospheres. The results of this program will inform the direction to be taken by future multi-wavelength studies of these worlds, in particular those enabled when the HST joins forces with the upcoming JWST.

  7. DMD-based LED-illumination Super-resolution and optical sectioning microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dan, Dan; Ming LEI; Yao, Baoli; Wang, Wen; Winterhalder, Martin; Zumbusch, Andreas; Qi, Yujiao; Xia, Liang; Yan, Shaohui; Yang, Yanlong; Gao, Peng; Ye, Tong; Zhao,Wei

    2013-01-01

    Super-resolution three-dimensional (3D) optical microscopy has incomparable advantages over other high-resolution microscopic technologies, such as electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, in the study of biological molecules, pathways and events in live cells and tissues. We present a novel approach of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) by using a digital micromirror device (DMD) for fringe projection and a low-coherence LED light for illumination. The lateral resolution of 90 ...

  8. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Jungwoo; Shin, Jennifer H.; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-02-01

    Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  9. Super Factories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D G Hitlin

    2006-11-01

    Heavy-flavor physics, in particular and physics results from the factories, currently provides strong constraints on models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A new generation of colliders, Super Factories, with 50 to 100 times the luminosity of existing colliders, can, in a dialog with LHC and ILC, provide unique clarification of new physics phenomena seen at those machines.

  10. Use of an ultra-miniaturized IMU-based motion capture system for objective evaluation and assessment of walking skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecca, M; Saito, K; Sessa, S; Bartolomeo, L; Lin, Z; Cosentino, S; Ishii, H; Ikai, T; Takanishi, A

    2013-01-01

    The increasing age of the world population is posing new challenges to our society, such as how to keep this aging population healthy and active despite of the age. In recent years, there has been a lot of interest for gait analysis for rehabilitation purposes as well as for performance assessment of this aging population. While current systems work well, they still have several limitations. Cost, need for specialized personnel, need to be used in a research center, and sporadic measurement prevent these systems from being widely used. The authors propose the use of extremely miniaturized, portable measurement systems, which can be worn by the users during their everyday life, and can monitor their gait over a long timespan. This paper presents the preliminary experiments with such a system.

  11. Miniaturized video-microscopy system for near real-time water quality biomonitoring using microfluidic chip-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Nigam, Abhimanyu; Campana, Olivia; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    Biomonitoring studies apply biological responses of sensitive biomonitor organisms to rapidly detect adverse environmental changes such as presence of physic-chemical stressors and toxins. Behavioral responses such as changes in swimming patterns of small aquatic invertebrates are emerging as sensitive endpoints to monitor aquatic pollution. Although behavioral responses do not deliver information on an exact type or the intensity of toxicants present in water samples, they could provide orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than lethal endpoints such as mortality. Despite the advantages of behavioral biotests performed on sentinel organisms, their wider application in real-time and near realtime biomonitoring of water quality is limited by the lack of dedicated and automated video-microscopy systems. Current behavioral analysis systems rely mostly on static test conditions and manual procedures that are time-consuming and labor intensive. Tracking and precise quantification of locomotory activities of multiple small aquatic organisms requires high-resolution optical data recording. This is often problematic due to small size of fast moving animals and limitations of culture vessels that are not specially designed for video data recording. In this work, we capitalized on recent advances in miniaturized CMOS cameras, high resolution optics and biomicrofluidic technologies to develop near real-time water quality sensing using locomotory activities of small marine invertebrates. We present proof-of-concept integration of high-resolution time-resolved video recording system and high-throughput miniaturized perfusion biomicrofluidic platform for optical tracking of nauplii of marine crustacean Artemia franciscana. Preliminary data demonstrate that Artemia sp. exhibits rapid alterations of swimming patterns in response to toxicant exposure. The combination of video-microscopy and biomicrofluidic platform facilitated straightforward recording of fast moving objects. We

  12. Super-resolution quantum sensing using NV centers based on rotating linear polarized light and Monte-Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hua-Yu; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond has been widely applied for quantum information and sensing in last decade. Based on the laser polarization dependent excitation of fluorescence emission, we propose a super-resolution microscopy of NV center. A series of wide field images of NV centers are taken with different polarizations of the linear polarized excitation laser. The fluorescence intensity of NV center is changed with the relative angle between excitation laser polarization and the orientation of NV center dipole. The images pumped by different excitation laser polarizations are analyzed with Monte Carlo method. Then the symmetry axis and position of NV center are obtained with sub-diffraction resolution.

  13. NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS OF CO-EXISTING SUPER-CRITICAL AND SUB-CRITICAL FLOWS BASED UPON CRD SCHEMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Katsuya; Okamura, Seiji; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hyodo, Makoto; Hida, Yoshihisa; Nishimoto, Naoshi; Mori, Akio

    Stream flows in steep gradient bed form complicating flow configurations, where co-exist super-critical and sub-critical flows. Computing numerically such flows are the key to successful river management. This study applied CRD schemes to 1D and 2D stream flow computations and proposed genuine ways to eliminate expansion shock waves. Through various cases of computing stream flows conducted, CRD schemes showed that i) conservativeness of discharge and accuracy of four significant figures are ensured, ii) artificial viscosity is not explicitly used for computational stabilization, and thus iii) 1D and 2D computations based upon CRD schemes are applicable to evaluating complicating stream flows for river management.

  14. Ion pair-based liquid-phase microextraction combined with cuvetteless UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry as a miniaturized assay for monitoring ammonia in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra-Ferreiro, Sonia; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Costas-Mora, Isabel; Romero, Vanesa; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2011-09-15

    A miniaturized method based on liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) in combination with microvolume UV-vis spectrophotometry for monitoring ammonia in waters is proposed. The methodology is based on the extraction of the ion pair formed between the blue indophenol obtained according to the Berthelot reaction and a quaternary ammonium salt into a microvolume of organic solvent. Experimental parameters affecting the LPME performance such as type and concentration of the quaternary ammonium ion salt required to form the ion pair, type and volume of extractant solvent, effect of disperser solvent, ionic strength and extraction time, were optimized. A detection limit of 5.0 μg L(-1) ammonia and an enrichment factor of 30 can be attained after a microextraction time of 4 min. The repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 7.6% (n=7). The proposed method can be successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of ammonia in several environmental water samples.

  15. An integrable generalization of the super AKNS hierarchy and its bi-Hamiltonian formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Han, Jingwei; Chen, Shouting

    2017-02-01

    Based on a Lie super-algebra B(0, 1), an integrable generalization of the super AKNS iso-spectral problem is introduced and its corresponding generalized super AKNS hierarchy is generated. By making use of the super-trace identity (or the super variational identity), the resulting super soliton hierarchy can be put into a super bi-Hamiltonian form. A generalized super AKNS soliton hierarchy with self-consistent sources is also presented.

  16. Raspberry Pi super cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a step-by-step, tutorial-based approach which will teach you how to develop your own super cluster using Raspberry Pi computers quickly and efficiently.Raspberry Pi Super Cluster is an introductory guide for those interested in experimenting with parallel computing at home. Aimed at Raspberry Pi enthusiasts, this book is a primer for getting your first cluster up and running.Basic knowledge of C or Java would be helpful but no prior knowledge of parallel computing is necessary.

  17. SuperQuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Vladimir; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    SuperQuant is a quantitative proteomics data processing approach that uses complementary fragment ions to identify multiple co-isolated peptides in tandem mass spectra allowing for their quantification. This approach can be applied to any shotgun proteomics data set acquired with high mass accura...... of the same proteins were close to the values typical for other precursor ion-based quantification methods. The raw data is deposited to ProteomeXchange (PXD001907). The developed node is available for testing at https://github.com/caetera/SuperQuantNode....

  18. A Miniature Robotic Plane Meteorological Sounding System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马舒庆; 陈洪滨; 汪改; 潘毅; 李强

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system RPMSS), which consists of three major subsystems: a miniature robotic plane, an air-borne meteorological sounding and flight control system, and a ground-based system. Take-off and landing of the miniature aircraft are guided by radio control, and the flight of the robotic plane along a pre-designed trajectory is automatically piloted by an onboard navigation system. The observed meteorological data as well as all flight information are sent back in real time to the ground, then displayed and recorded by the ground-based computer. The ground-based subsystem can also transmit instructions to the air-borne control subsystem. Good system performance has been demonstrated by more than 300 hours of flight for atmospheric sounding.

  19. Miniature Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Miniature turbocompressor designed for reliability and long life. Cryogenic system includes compressor, turboexpander, and heat exchanger provides 5 W of refrigeration at 70 K from 150 W input power. Design speed of machine 510,000 rpm. Compressor has gas-lubricated journal bearings and magnetic thrust bearing. When compressor runs no bearing contact and no wear.

  20. Miniature UAVs : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.; Kerkkamp, J.S.F.; Wiel, R.A.N.; Meiller, P.P.; Bos, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    With this book TNO provides an overview of topics related to Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs). Both novices and experts may find this publication valuable. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO conducts research on UAVs and MUAVs, see for example [1], on the basi

  1. A Miniature Recording Cardiotachometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsombor-Murray, Paul J; Vroomen, Louis J.; Hendriksen, Nils Thedin

    1981-01-01

    The design of a miniature, recording cardiotachometer is described. It is simple and can store digital data. Bench and field tests, using a hand-held display, are presented. Construction and principles of operation are discussed. Applications, with performing athlete subjects, are outlined....

  2. Design of super-efficient mixer based on induced charge electroosmotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The super-efficient sample mixing induced by the induced-charge electrokinetic flow around conducting/Janus cylinder was numerically studied in a confined |U-shaped microchannel with suddenly applied DC weak electric filed. It’s found that there are four large circulations around the conducting cylinder and two smaller circulations around the Janus cylinder. The results show that samples can still be well mixed with high flux due to the induced electroosmosis. It is demonstrated that the local flow circulations provide effective means to enhance the flow mixing between different solutions. The dependence of the degree of mixing enhancement on the electric field is also predicted.

  3. Miniature 100-kV Explosively Driven Prime Power Sources Based on Transverse Shock-Wave Depolarization of Pb(Zr0.95Ti0.05)O3 Ferroelectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    MINIATURE 100-kV EXPLOSIVELY DRIVEN PRIME POWER SOURCES BASED ON TRANSVERSE SHOCK-WAVE DEPOLARIZATION OF Pb(Zr0.95Ti0.05)O3 FERROELECTRIC CERAMICS...1,8,9]. Earlier [2-5] we reported on the development of compact prime power sources utilizing quasi-planar-shock-wave depolarization of Pb...engineering projects it is important to develop miniature prime power sources that reliably generate ultrahigh (up to 100 kV) output voltages. We work on

  4. A robust cluster-based dynamic-super-node scheme for hybrid peer-to-peer network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid peer-to-peer (P2P) system can improve the performance of the entire system using super-peer. But it is difficult to measure a peer's capability exactly and ensure high reliability of the network. This paper proposes a scheme to solve these problems. Firstly, we present a hybrid P2P network in which the upper layer is Chord network and the lower layer is cluster. Then we provide a strategy to measure a peer's capability so that a cluster can be organized to be a sorting network in which peers are classified into three types: dynamic-super-node (DSN), backup-node (BN) and ordinary-node (ON). In a cluster, DSN and BNs are strongly connected. And based on this, we present an algorithm DSN flood min (DSNFM) to select DSN BN and maintain consensus of the cluster. Furthermore, we do a reliability analysis of the cluster based on churn rate of the network and gathered three rules of thumb from our simulations.

  5. Miniaturization of metal-biomolecule frameworks based on stereoselective self-assembly and potential application in water treatment and as antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Liu, Xia; Xu, Bailu; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2012-04-02

    Miniaturization of metal-biomolecule frameworks (MBioFs) to the nanometer scale represents a novel strategy for fabricating materials with tunable physical and chemical properties. Herein, we demonstrate a simple, low-cost, and completely organic solvent-free strategy for constructing a dl-glutamic acid-copper ion-based three-dimensional nanofibrous network structure. The building blocks used are available in large quantities and do not require any laborious synthesis or modification. Importantly, we demonstrate with an intriguing example, that the self-assembly ability of supramolecular nanofibers could be finely tuned with the ligands' chirality. This offers opportunities for obtaining one-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures and expands the investigation scope of stereoselective self-assembly. Furthermore, the material displays good ability in removing anionic dyes from water and inhibits the growth of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, possibly through the contact-killing mechanism; this indicates potential applications in environmental issues and antimicrobial nanotherapeutics.

  6. THE AGS-BASED SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM FACILITY CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WENG,W.T.; DIWAN,M.; RAPARIA,D.

    2004-10-08

    After more than 40 years of operation, the AGS is still at the heart of the Brookhaven hadron accelerator complex. This system of accelerators presently comprises a 200 MeV linac for the pre-acceleration of high intensity and polarized protons, two Tandem Van der Graaffs for the pre-acceleration of heavy ion beams, a versatile Booster that allows for efficient injection of all three types of beams into the AGS and, most recently, the two RHIC collider rings that produce high luminosity heavy ion and polarized proton collisions. For several years now, the AGS has held the world intensity record with more than 7 x 10{sup 13} protons accelerated in a single pulse. The requirements for the proton beam for the super neutrino beam are summarized and a schematic of the upgraded AGS is shown. Since the present number of protons per fill is already close to the required number, the upgrade is based on increasing the repetition rate and reducing beam losses (to avoid excessive shielding requirements and to maintain activation of the machine components at workable level). It is also important to preserve all the present capabilities of the AGS, in particular its role as injector to RHIC. The AGS Booster was built not only to allow the injection of any species of heavy ion into the AGS but to allow a fourfold increase of the AGS intensity. It is one-quarter the circumference of the AGS with the same aperture. However, the accumulation of four Booster loads in the AGS takes about 0.6 s, and is therefore not well suited for high average beam power operation. To minimize the injection time to about 1 ms, a 1.2 GeV linac will be used instead. This linac consists of the existing warm linac of 200 MeV and a new superconducting linac of 1.0 GeV. The multi-turn H{sup -} injection from a source of 30 mA and 720 {micro}s pulse width is sufficient to accumulate 9 x 10{sup 13} particle per pulse in the AGS[10]. The minimum ramp time of the AGS to full energy is presently 0.5 s; this must

  7. 基于SuperMap Objects的等值线绘制方法研究与实现%The Research and Implementation of the Method of Plotting Isoline Based on SuperMap Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔伟; 刘小勇

    2012-01-01

    Using component based secondary development of SuperMap Objects, this paper acquires grid data through spatial interpo- lation method IDW using GIS analysis function, thus generates isoline according to given value range, and elaborates the principle and method of generating isoline in maps.%利用SuperMap Objects组件式二次开发,运用GIS分析功能通过空间内插法IDW(距离反比权值插值)插值获取栅格数据,在此基础上根据指定的取值范围生成等值线,阐述在地图中生成等值线的原理与方法。

  8. POCS Based Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction Using an Adaptive Regularization Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, S S; Jena, G

    2011-01-01

    Crucial information barely visible to the human eye is often embedded in a series of low-resolution images taken of the same scene. Super-resolution enables the extraction of this information by reconstructing a single image, at a high resolution than is present in any of the individual images. This is particularly useful in forensic imaging, where the extraction of minute details in an image can help to solve a crime. Super-resolution image restoration has been one of the most important research areas in recent years which goals to obtain a high resolution (HR) image from several low resolutions (LR) blurred, noisy, under sampled and displaced images. Relation of the HR image and LR images can be modeled by a linear system using a transformation matrix and additive noise. However, a unique solution may not be available because of the singularity of transformation matrix. To overcome this problem, POCS method has been used. However, their performance is not good because the effect of noise energy has been ign...

  9. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH metamaterial (MTM unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  10. A novel method of creating a surface micromachined 3D optical assembly for MEMS-based miniaturized FTIR spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D.; Schildkraut, E. R.; Kim, J.; Connors, R. F.; Kotidis, P.; Cavicchio, D. J.

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes design, fabrication, and characterization of a miniaturized, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer for the detection and identification of toxic or flammable gases. By measuring the absorption by the target material of IR radiation, unambiguous detection and identification can be achieved. The key component of the device is a micromachined Michelson interferometer capable of modulating light in the 2 - 14 μm spectral region. Two major technical achievements associated with developing a MEMS interferometer module are discussed: development of a micromirror assembly having an order of magnitude larger modulation stroke to approach laboratory instrument-grade spectral resolutions; and assembly of monolithic, millimeter-scale optical components using multi-layer surface micromachining techniques to produce an extremely low cost MEMS interferometer, which has an unprecedented optical throughput. We have manufactured and tested the device. Reported optical characterization results include a precisely aligned, static interferogram acquired from an assembled Michelson interferometer using visible light wavelengths, which promises a high sensitivity FTIR spectrometer for its size.

  11. A Fully Integrated and Miniaturized Heavy-metal-detection Sensor Based on Micro-patterned Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xing; Hossain, Md. Faruk; Park, Jae Yeong

    2016-09-01

    For this paper, a fully integrated and highly miniaturized electrochemical sensor was designed and fabricated on a silicon substrate. A solvothermal-assisted reduced graphene oxide named “TRGO” was then successfully micro-patterned using a lithography technique, followed by the electrodeposition of bismuth (Bi) on the surface of the micro-patterned TRGO for the electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. The fully integrated electrochemical micro-sensor was then measured and evaluated for the detection of cadmium and lead-heavy metal ions in an acetic-acid buffered solution using the square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) technique. The fabricated micro-sensor exhibited a linear detection range of 1.0 μg L-1 to 120.0 μg L-1 for both of the metal ions, and detection limits of 0.4 μg L-1 and 1.0 μg L-1 were recorded for the lead and cadmium (S/N = 3), respectively. Drinking-water samples were used for the practical assessment of the fabricated micro-sensor, and it showed an acceptable detection performance regarding the metal ions.

  12. Fast Determination of Clenbuterol and Salbutamol in Feed and Meat Products Based on Miniaturized Capillary Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Qing-Cui; GENG Cheng-Huai; ZHOU Hui; YE Jian-Nong

    2007-01-01

    The fast separation capability of a novel miniaturized capillary electrophoresis with an amperometric detection (μCE-AD) system was demonstrated by determining clenbuterol and salbutamol in real samples.The effects of several factors such as the acidity and concentration of the running buffer,the separation voltage,the applied potential and the injection time on CE-AD were examined and optimized.Under the optimum conditions,the two β-agonists could be baseline separated within 60 s at a separation voltage of 2 kV in a 90 mmol/L H3BO3-Na2B4O7 running buffer (pH 7.4),which was not interfered by ascorbic acid and uric acid.Highly linear response was obtained for above compounds over three orders of magnitude with detection limits ranging from 1.20 × 10-7 to 6.50× 10-8 mol/L (S/N=3).This method was successfully used in the analysis of feed and meat products with relatively simple extraction procedures.

  13. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Moinul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Samsuzzaman, Md; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Misran, Norbahiah; Mansor, Mohd Fais

    2015-01-23

    A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB) microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH) metamaterial (MTM) unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR) with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm³, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4-12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  14. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Moinul; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Samsuzzaman, Md.; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Misran, Norbahiah; Mansor, Mohd Fais

    2015-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR) and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB) microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH) metamaterial (MTM) unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR) with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS) to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications. PMID:28787945

  15. Miniature fiber-optic force sensor for vitreoretinal microsurgery based on low-coherence Fabry-Pérot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Iordachita, Iulian I.; He, Xingchi; Taylor, Russell H.; Kang, Jin U.

    2012-01-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery requires delicate manipulation of retinal tissue. However, tool-to-tissue interaction forces in the order of sub-millinewton are usually below the human sensory threshold. A surgical force sensor (FS) compatible with conventional surgical tools may significantly improve the surgery outcome by preventing tissue damage. We have designed and built a miniature FS for vitreoretinal surgery using a fiber-optic common-path phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system where the distal end of the fiber probe forms a low-finesse Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity between the cleaved tip of the lead-in single mode fiber and the polished back surface of a stainless steel surgical tool tip. To accurately measure the change of the FP cavity length, the cavity is interrogated by the fiber-optic common-path phase-sensitive OCT. The FP cavity was illuminated with a broadband light source, and the interferometric signal was detected using a broadband spectrometer. The phase of the interferometric signal, which is proportional to the cavity length change as well as the exerted force, was extracted. We have conducted calibration experiments to characterize our one dimensional FS. Our result shows that the FS responses linearly to force in axial direction with force sensitivity better than 0.25 millinewton.

  16. A Novel Fuzzy Logic Based Adaptive Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control Algorithm for Dynamic Uncertain Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy logic based Adaptive Super-twisting Sliding Mode Controller for the control of dynamic uncertain systems. The proposed controller combines the advantages of Second order Sliding Mode Control, Fuzzy Logic Control and Adaptive Control. The reaching conditions, stability and robustness of the system with the proposed controller are guaranteed. In addition, the proposed controller is well suited for simple design and implementation. The effectiveness of the proposed controller over the first order Sliding Mode Fuzzy Logic controller is illustrated by Matlab based simulations performed on a DC-DC Buck converter. Based on this comparison, the proposed controller is shown to obtain the desired transient response without causing chattering and error under steady-state conditions. The proposed controller is able to give robust performance in terms of rejection to input voltage variations and load variations.

  17. A Novel Fuzzy Logic Based Adaptive Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control Algorithm for Dynamic Uncertain Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kareem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel fuzzy logic based Adaptive Super-twisting Sliding Mode Controller for thecontrol of dynamic uncertain systems. The proposed controller combines the advantages of Second orderSliding Mode Control, Fuzzy Logic Control and Adaptive Control. The reaching conditions, stability androbustness of the system with the proposed controller are guaranteed. In addition, the proposed controlleris well suited for simple design and implementation. The effectiveness of the proposed controller over thefirst order Sliding Mode Fuzzy Logic controller is illustrated by Matlab based simulations performed on aDC-DC Buck converter. Based on this comparison, the proposed controller is shown to obtain the desiredtransient response without causing chattering and error under steady-state conditions. The proposedcontroller is able to give robust performance in terms of rejection to input voltage variations and loadvariations

  18. Hybrid-Thresholding based Image Super-Resolution Technique by the use of Triplet Half-Band Wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopade, Pravin B.; Rahulkar, Amol D.; Patil, Pradeep M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a modified image super-resolution scheme based on the wavelet coefficients hybrid-thresholding by the use of triplet half-band wavelets (THW) derived from the generalized half-band polynomial. At first, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is obtained from triplet half-band kernels and it applied on the low-resolution image to obtain the high frequency sub-bands. These high frequency sub-bands and the original low-resolution image are interpolated to enhance the resolution. Second, stationary wavelet transform is obtained by using THW, which is employed to minimize the loss due to the use of DWT. In addition, hybrid thresholding scheme on wavelet coefficients scheme is proposed on these estimated high-frequency sub-bands in order to reduce the spatial domain noise. These sub-bands are combined together by inverse discrete wavelet transform obtained from THW to generate a high-resolution image. The proposed approach is validated by comparing the quality metrics with existing filter banks and well-known super-resolution scheme.

  19. MCNP Super Lattice Method for VHTR ORIGEN2.2 Nuclear Library Improvement Based on ENDF/B-VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. S. Chang; J. R. Parry

    2010-10-01

    The advanced Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) achieves simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the VHTRs innovative features is the reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products under extreme accident conditions. The effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel prismatic block creates a double-heterogeneous lattice, which needs to be addressed through the use of the newly developed prismatic super Kernel-by-Kernel Fuel (KbKF) lattice model method. Based on the new ENDF/B-VII nuclear cross section evaluated data, the developed KbKF super lattice model was then used with MCNP to calculate the material isotopes neutron reaction rates, such as, (n,?); (n,n’); (n,2n’); (n,f); (n,p); (n,?). Then, the MCNP-calculated results are rearranged to generate a set of new libraries “VHTRXS.lib,” for the ORIGEN2.2 isotopes depletion and build-up analysis code. The libraries contain one group cross section data for the structural light elements, actinides, and fission products that can be applied in the VHTR related fuel burnup and material transmutation analysis codes. The efficiency and ease of use of the MCNP method to generate and update the ORIGEN2.2 one-group spectrum weighed cross section library for VHTR was demonstrated.

  20. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  1. An FPGA-based bolometer for the MAST-U Super-X divertor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jack; Naylor, Graham; Field, Anthony; Drewelow, Peter; Sharples, Ray

    2016-11-01

    A new resistive bolometer system has been developed for MAST-Upgrade. It will measure radiated power in the new Super-X divertor, with millisecond time resolution, along 16 vertical and 16 horizontal lines of sight. The system uses a Xilinx Zynq-7000 series Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in the D-TACQ ACQ2106 carrier to perform real time data acquisition and signal processing. The FPGA enables AC-synchronous detection using high performance digital filtering to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio and will be able to output processed data in real time with millisecond latency. The system has been installed on 8 previously unused channels of the JET vertical bolometer system. Initial results suggest good agreement with data from existing vertical channels but with higher bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Super-Twisting-Algorithm-Based Terminal Sliding Mode Control for a Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sendren Sheng-Dong Xu

    2014-01-01

    control (TSMC for a bioreactor system with second-order type dynamics. TSMC not only can retain the advantages of conventional sliding mode control (CSMC, including easy implementation, robustness to disturbances, and fast response, but also can make the system states converge to the equivalent point in a finite amount of time after the system states intersect the sliding surface. The chattering phenomena in TSMC will originally exist on the sliding surface after the system states achieve the sliding surface and before the system states reach the equivalent point. However, by using the super twisting algorithm (STA, the chattering phenomena can be obviously reduced. The proposed method is also compared with two other methods: (1 CSMC without STA and (2 TSMC without STA. Finally, the control schemes are applied to the control of a bioreactor system to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability. Simulation results show that it can achieve better performance by using the proposed method.

  3. An FPGA-based bolometer for the MAST-U Super-X divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jack; Naylor, Graham; Field, Anthony; Drewelow, Peter; Sharples, Ray

    2016-11-01

    A new resistive bolometer system has been developed for MAST-Upgrade. It will measure radiated power in the new Super-X divertor, with millisecond time resolution, along 16 vertical and 16 horizontal lines of sight. The system uses a Xilinx Zynq-7000 series Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in the D-TACQ ACQ2106 carrier to perform real time data acquisition and signal processing. The FPGA enables AC-synchronous detection using high performance digital filtering to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio and will be able to output processed data in real time with millisecond latency. The system has been installed on 8 previously unused channels of the JET vertical bolometer system. Initial results suggest good agreement with data from existing vertical channels but with higher bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.

  4. Control of discrete time systems based on recurrent Super-Twisting-like algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, I; Kamal, S; Bandyopadhyay, B; Chairez, I; Fridman, L

    2016-09-01

    Most of the research in sliding mode theory has been carried out to in continuous time to solve the estimation and control problems. However, in discrete time, the results in high order sliding modes have been less developed. In this paper, a discrete time super-twisting-like algorithm (DSTA) was proposed to solve the problems of control and state estimation. The stability proof was developed in terms of the discrete time Lyapunov approach and the linear matrix inequalities theory. The system trajectories were ultimately bounded inside a small region dependent on the sampling period. Simulation results tested the DSTA. The DSTA was applied as a controller for a Furuta pendulum and for a DC motor supplied by a DSTA signal differentiator.

  5. Miniaturization in Biocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of biocatalysts for the production of both consumer goods and building blocks for chemical synthesis is consistently gaining relevance. A significant contribution for recent advances towards further implementation of enzymes and whole cells is related to the developments in miniature reactor technology and insights into flow behavior. Due to the high level of parallelization and reduced requirements of chemicals, intensive screening of biocatalysts and process variables has become more feasible and reproducibility of the bioconversion processes has been substantially improved. The present work aims to provide an overview of the applications of miniaturized reactors in bioconversion processes, considering multi-well plates and microfluidic devices, update information on the engineering characterization of the hardware used, and present perspective developments in this area of research.

  6. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  7. Method and system for assembling miniaturized devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Klingmann, Jeffrey L.; Seugling, Richard M.

    2013-03-12

    An apparatus for assembling a miniaturized device includes a manipulator system including six manipulators operable to position and orient components of the miniaturized device with submicron precision and micron-level accuracy. The manipulator system includes a first plurality of motorized axes, a second plurality of manual axes, and force and torque and sensors. Each of the six manipulators includes at least one translation stage, at least one rotation stage, tooling attached to the at least one translation stage or the at least one rotation stage, and an attachment mechanism disposed at a distal end of the tooling and operable to attach at least a portion of the miniaturized device to the tooling. The apparatus also includes an optical coordinate-measuring machine (OCMM) including a machine-vision system, a laser-based distance-measuring probe, and a touch probe. The apparatus also includes an operator control system coupled to the manipulator system and the OCMM.

  8. A non-perturbative formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory based on the large-N reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiki, Goro; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2011-01-01

    We study a non-perturbative formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory (SYM) on RxS^3 proposed in arXiv:0807.2352. This formulation is based on the large-N reduction, and the theory can be described as a particular large-N limit of the plane wave matrix model (PWMM), which is obtained by dimensionally reducing the original theory over S^3. In this paper, we perform some tests for this proposal. We construct an operator in the PWMM that corresponds to the Wilson loop in SYM in the continuum limit and calculate the vacuum expectation value of the operator for the case of the circular contour. We find that our result indeed agrees with the well-known result first obtained by Erickson, Semenoff and Zarembo. We also compute the beta function at the 1-loop level based on this formulation and see that it is indeed vanishing.

  9. Super-resolution reconstruction and higher-degree function deformation model based matching for Chang’E-1 lunar images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This article intends to solve the matching problem of 2C level lunar images by Chang’E-1(CE-1)lunar probe satellite.A line-scanner image matching method is proposed which represents deformation by the quadric function along the camera motion direction and bases on the deformation model for a relief terrain’s imaging on sensors of the satellite borne three-line scanner camera.A precise matching is carried out for the normal view,the frontward view,and the backward view images of the CE-1 by combining the proposed method with the standard correlation method.A super-resolution(SR)reconstruction algorithm based on the wavelet interpolation of non-uniformly sampled data is also adopted to realize SR reconstruction of CE-1 lunar images,which adds the recognizable targets and explores CE-1 lunar images to the full.

  10. Super-resolution reconstruction and higher-degree function deformation model based matching for Chang'E-1 lunar images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LiChun; YU QiFeng; YUAN Yun; SHANG Yang; LU HongWei; SUN XiangYi

    2009-01-01

    This article intends to solve the matching problem of 2C level lunar images by Chang'E-1(CE-1)lunar probe satellite.A line-scanner image matching method is proposed which represents deformation by the quadric function along the camera motion direction and bases on the deformation model for a relief terrain's imaging on sensors of the satellite borne three-line scanner camera.A precise matching is carried out for the normal view,the frontward view,and the backward view images of the CE-1 by combining the proposed method with the standard correlation method.A super-resolution(SR)reconatruction algorithm based on the wavelet interpolation of non-uniformly sampled data is also adopted to realize SR reconstruction of CE-1 lunar images,which adds the recognizable targets and explores CE-1 lunar images to the full.

  11. Miniaturized photoacoustic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Robinson, Alex; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul J.

    2016-08-09

    A low-power miniaturized photoacoustic sensor uses an optical microphone made by semiconductor fabrication techniques, and optionally allows for all-optical communication to and from the sensor. This allows integration of the photoacoustic sensor into systems with special requirements, such as those that would be reactive in an electrical discharge condition. The photoacoustic sensor can also be operated in various other modes with wide application flexibility.

  12. Miniaturized photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Robinson, Alex; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul J.

    2016-08-09

    A low-power miniaturized photoacoustic sensor uses an optical microphone made by semiconductor fabrication techniques, and optionally allows for all-optical communication to and from the sensor. This allows integration of the photoacoustic sensor into systems with special requirements, such as those that would be reactive in an electrical discharge condition. The photoacoustic sensor can also be operated in various other modes with wide application flexibility.

  13. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, K.; Ducommun, G.

    1976-01-20

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a ..beta..-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case.

  14. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  15. Miniaturizing RFID for magnamosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Chen, Shijie; Kish, Shad; Loh, Lokkee; Zhang, Junmin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kwiat, Dillon; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Anastomosis is a common surgical procedure using staples or sutures in an open or laparoscopic surgery. A more effective and much less invasive alternative is to apply the mechanical pressure on the tissue over a few days [1]. Since the pressure is produced by the attractive force between two permanent magnets, the procedure is called magnamosis[1]. To ensure the two magnets are perfectly aligned during the surgery, a miniaturized batteryless Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag is developed to wirelessly telemeter the status of a pressure sensitive mechanical switch. Using the multi-layer circular spiral coil design, the diameter of the RFID tag is shrunk to 10, 15, 19 and 27 mm to support the magnamosis for children as well as adults. With the impedance matching network, the operating distance of these four RFID tags are longer than 10 cm in a 20 × 22 cm(2) area, even when the tag's normal direction is 45° off the antenna's normal direction. Measurement results also indicate that there is no noticeable degradation on the operating distance when the tag is immersed in saline or placed next to the rare-earth magnet. The miniaturized RFID tag presented in this paper is able to support the magnamosis and other medical applications that require the miniaturized RFID tag.

  16. What can be done differently with a super turbo? 2013 Formula 1 engine modeling of a super turbocharged engine in two configurations vs. a base turbocharged F1 engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanDyne, Ed; Schumacher, Volker; Brown, Jared [VanDyne SuperTurbo, Inc., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-07-01

    A 10% increase in power for the same fuel flow is huge in a Formula 1 engine. But an 18% increase in power for the same fuel flow, that is out of this world. Yes, 90 horsepower on top of 500 for the base already turbocharged engine, is the potential for the Bypass configuration of a super Turbocharger. Especially, given the rumored fuel flow limitation rule for a Formula 1 in the future. This result is better than we even expected when we started this modeling exercise. This is the value of using a catalytic converter on a racing car??? Who would have thought that a catalytic converter would be a horsepower device? With a SuperTurbocharger it is. The turbocompounding potential in a SuperTurbocharged F1 engine is great because of the high in cylinder pressures. Running the engine rich makes the most power in the engines cylinders. Burning the extra fuel in a catalyst provides added thermal energy to the turbine. The ability to burn that extra fuel in a catalyst in the exhaust comes from adding more mass flow across the turbine. More mass flow across the turbine provides more turbocompound power. Air is a lousy coolant therefore it adds more mass to the mass flow across the turbine. More mass flow at a given temperature equals more power from the turbine. If you have an unlimited temperature turbine material the plain SuperTurbocharger would make the best choice for its simplicity. If there were not limit to instantaneous fuel flow the results would show a higher output for all three cases at 12,000 rpm, but the bypass approach might require a bigger turbine and compressor to achieve its optimum output. In any case, with the proper turbine design, a SuperTurbocharger can add a great deal of extra power to any engine without any added stress to the base engine. This extra power from exhaust waste heat energy recovery is essentially for free. (orig.)

  17. Miniaturized neural interfaces and implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Thomas; Boretius, Tim; Ordonez, Juan; Hassler, Christina; Henle, Christian; Meier, Wolfgang; Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Schuettler, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Neural prostheses are technical systems that interface nerves to treat the symptoms of neurological diseases and to restore sensory of motor functions of the body. Success stories have been written with the cochlear implant to restore hearing, with spinal cord stimulators to treat chronic pain as well as urge incontinence, and with deep brain stimulators in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Highly complex neural implants for novel medical applications can be miniaturized either by means of precision mechanics technologies using known and established materials for electrodes, cables, and hermetic packages or by applying microsystems technologies. Examples for both approaches will be introduced and discussed. Electrode arrays for recording of electrocorticograms during presurgical epilepsy diagnosis have been manufactured using approved materials and a marking laser to achieve an integration density that is adequate in the context of brain machine interfaces, e.g. on the motor cortex. Microtechnologies have to be used for further miniaturization to develop polymer-based flexible and light weighted electrode arrays to interface the peripheral and central nervous system. Polyimide as substrate and insulation material will be discussed as well as several application examples for nerve interfaces like cuffs, filament like electrodes and large arrays for subdural implantation.

  18. Miniature multimode monolithic flextensional transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine; Uzgur, A Erman; Markley, Douglas C; Safari, Ahmad; Cochran, Joe K; Newnham, Robert E

    2007-10-01

    Traditional flextensional transducers classified in seven groups based on their designs have been used extensively in 1-100 kHz range for mine hunting, fish finding, oil explorations, and biomedical applications. In this study, a new family of small, low cost underwater, and biomedical transducers has been developed. After the fabrication of transducers, finite-elements analysis (FEA) was used extensively in order to optimize these miniature versions of high-power, low-frequency flextensional transducer designs to achieve broad bandwidth for both transmitting and receiving, engineered vibration modes, and optimized acoustic directivity patterns. Transducer topologies with various shapes, cross sections, and symmetries can be fabricated through high-volume, low-cost ceramic and metal extrusion processes. Miniaturized transducers posses resonance frequencies in the range of above 1 MHz to below 10 kHz. Symmetry and design of the transducer, polling patterns, driving and receiving electrode geometries, and driving conditions have a strong effect on the vibration modes, resonance frequencies, and radiation patterns. This paper is devoted to small, multimode flextensional transducers with active shells, which combine the advantages of small size and low-cost manufacturing with control of the shape of the acoustic radiation/receive pattern. The performance of the transducers is emphasized.

  19. Free vibration of super-graphene carbon nanotube networks via a beam element based coarse-grained method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruifeng; Wang, Lifeng; He, Xiaoqiao

    2017-08-01

    A new beam element based coarse-grained model is developed to investigate efficiently the mechanical behavior of a large system of super-graphene carbon nanotube (SGCNT) networks with all boundaries clamped supported. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the SGCNT networks made of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different diameters and lengths are obtained via the proposed coarse-grained model. The applicability of the coarse-grained model for the SGCNT networks is verified by comparison with the molecular structural mechanics model. The natural frequencies and associated mode shapes obtained via the coarse-grained model agree well with the results obtained from the molecular structural mechanics method, indicating that the coarse-grained model developed in this study can be applied for the dynamic prediction of the SGCNT networks.

  20. Radon emanation based material measurement and selection for the SuperNEMO double beta experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerna, Cédric, E-mail: cerna@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Soulé, Benjamin; Perrot, Frédéric [Centre d’Études Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2015-08-17

    The SuperNEMO Demonstrator experiment aims to study the neutrinoless double beta decay of 7 kg of {sup 82}Se in order to reach a limit on the light Majorana neutrino mass mechanism T{sub 1/2} (ββ0ν) > 6.5 10{sup 24} years (90%CL) equivalent to a mass sensitivity mβ{sub β} < 0.20 - 0.40 eV (90%CL) in two years of data taking. The detector construction started in 2014 and its installation in the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM) is expected during the course of 2015. The remaining level of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U chain) in the detector components can lead to the emanation of {sup 222}Rn gas. This isotope should be controlled and reduced down to the level of a 150 µBq/m{sup 3} in the tracker chamber of the detector to achieve the physics goals. Besides the HPGe selection of the detector materials for their radiopurity, the most critical materials have been tested and selected in a dedicated setup facility able to measure their {sup 222}Rn emanation level. The operating principle relies on a large emanation tank (0.7m{sup 3}) that allows measuring large material surfaces or large number of construction pieces. The emanation tank is coupled to an electrostatic detector equipped with a silicon diode to perform the alpha spectroscopy of the gas it contains and extract the {sup 222}Rn daughters. The transfer efficiency and the detector efficiency have been carefully calibrated through different methods. The intrinsic background of the system allows one to measure 222Rn activities down to 3 mBq, leading to a typical emanation sensitivity of 20 µBq/m{sup 2}/day for a 30 m{sup 2} surface sample. Several construction materials have been measured and selected, such as nylon and aluminized Mylar films, photomultipliers and tracking of the SuperNEMO Demonstrator.

  1. New Aspects of Structure of Earth Crust (Based on Data of Super Deep Wells Kola and Saatly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, Yuri

    2013-04-01

    In order to ensure the sustainability of Planet Earth the latest information regarding the structure of the Earth is necessary. It common accepted that Earth Crust consists of 2 layers: granite and basalt. Unique depth 12 600 meter have been reached by unique drills Kola located on the Arhenian Baltic plate. But haven't passed/reached border of Conrad that expected to be on the 4 000 meters. In additions corroborate this fact Saatly super deep well haven't come out from basalt in spite of unique depth 8 600 meter in Kura rift Alpine geosynclinals belts. These facts from conversely different tectonic regions let to build new model structure of Earth Crust. Based on the seismic interpretations and the geological data analysis obtained from super deep drills Kola (12 600meters) and Saatly (8 280 meters), the comprehensive 1 layer geologic -geotectonic-geochemical model interruption-blocks structure of the Earth Crust has been created. Such model is leading to following reasoning. Geologic aspect: 1) Earth Crust on lateral. consists of separated blocks/domain of Granite and separated blocks/domain Basalt, lies directly on mantle.Tectonical aspects: 2) There is no subduction, 3) There is thrust 4) Earth Crust has separated into granite and basalts domains/blocks. Geochemical aspect: 5) Distribution of acid components in Earth Crust n prevailing on base components. 6) Power intensity degassation the depth increasing on old structure. Paleo- aspect: 7) Forming Earth crust began from forming the granites. Societal aspect: 8) Let us to build a new model of forming and development of atmosphere, hydrosphere and mineral fields.

  2. Miniature Fourier transform spectrometer based on wavelength dependence of half-wave voltage of a LiNbO₃ waveguide interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2014-07-01

    A simple and reliable spectrum-retrieval method was proposed for the development of miniature stationary Fourier transform (FT) spectrometers based on a LiNbO₃ (LN) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulator. The method takes into account the wavelength dependence of the optical pathlength difference (OPD) and allows us to use a nonlinear voltage ramp to modulate the OPD. The method is based on the dispersion of the half-wave voltage, which was measured to be a monotonous polynomial function of the wavelength for the LN waveguide MZI used. With the measured dispersion of the half-wave voltage, the OPD, as a linear function of the modulating voltage, can be accurately determined at each wavelength in the near-infrared region in which the MZI used is a single-mode device. A prototype FT spectrometer was prepared using a LN waveguide MZI modulator based on the above method. The experimental results demonstrated that the spectrometer can be used for accurate determination of the laser wavelength and for liquid absorptiometry.

  3. Dielectric Properties of Polyether Sulfone/Bismaleimide Resin Composite Based on Nanolumina Modified by Super-Critical Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufei; Li, Zhichao; Teng, Chengjun; Li, Fangliang; Han, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Nano-alumina was chemically modified with super-critical ethanol enabling a surface active coating. Modified nano-alumina was incorporated in polymer blends based on thermoplastic polyether sulfone and thermosetting bismaleimide resin to produce novel nanocomposites designated as SCE-Al2O3/PES-MBAE. In the SCE-Al2O3/PES-MBAE nano-composites, the matrix was originally formed from 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane bismaleimide (MBMI) using the diluents of 3,3'-diallyl bisphenol A (BBA) and bisphenol-A diallyl ether (BBE), while polyether sulfone (PES) was used as toughening agent along with super-critically modified nano-alumina (SCE-Al2O3) as filler material. The content of SCE-Al2O3 was varied from 0 wt.% to 6 wt.%. The nano-composites were characterized for their morphological, spectroscopic and dielectric properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that ethanol molecules had adhered to the surface of the nano-Al2O3 in super-critical state. A reaction between MBMI and allyl compound occurred and SCE-Al2O3 was doped into the polymer matrix. Volume resistivity of the composite initially increased and then decreased. The modification due to SCE-Al2O3 could overcome the undesirable impact of PES by using a bare minimum level of SCE-Al2O3. The dielectric constant ( ɛ) and dielectric loss (tan δ) as in the case of volume resistivity were initially increased and then decreased with the content of SCE-Al2O3 in the composite. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and dielectric strength of SCE-Al2O3 (4 wt.%)/PES (5 wt.%)-MBAE nano-composite were 3.53 (100 Hz), 1.52 × 10-3 (100 Hz) and 15.66 kV/mm, respectively, which indicated that the dielectric properties of the composite fulfilled the basic requirements of electrical and insulating material. It was evident from the morphological analysis that the SCE-Al2O3 was evenly dispersed at the nanoscale; for example, the size of SCE-Al2O3 in SCE-Al2O3 (4 wt.%)/PES (5 wt.%)-MBAE measured less than 50 nm.

  4. Ground-based transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, Claudio; Hoyer, Sergio; Ivanov, Valentin D; Rojo, Patricio; Girard, Julien H; Kempton, Eliza Miller-Ricci; Fortney, Jonathan J; Minniti, Dante

    2014-01-01

    GJ 1214b is one of the few known transiting super-Earth-sized exoplanets with a measured mass and radius. It orbits an M-dwarf, only 14.55 pc away, making it a favorable candidate for follow-up studies. However, the composition of GJ 1214b's mysterious atmosphere has yet to be fully unveiled. Our goal is to distinguish between the various proposed atmospheric models to explain the properties of GJ 1214b: hydrogen-rich or hydrogen-He mix, or a heavy molecular weight atmosphere with reflecting high clouds, as latest studies have suggested. Wavelength-dependent planetary radii measurements from the transit depths in the optical/NIR are the best tool to investigate the atmosphere of GJ 1214b. We present here (i) photometric transit observations with a narrow-band filter centered on 2.14 microns and a broad-band I-Bessel filter centered on 0.8665 microns, and (ii) transmission spectroscopy in the H and K atmospheric windows that cover three transits. The obtained photometric and spectrophotometric time series were...

  5. Miniature Ground Mapping LADAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a miniature solid state surface imaging LADAR, for imaging the landing areas providing precision...

  6. Miniature Laser Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Robert; Brown, Andy

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a miniature laser magnetometer (MLM) that will measure the scalar magnitude and vector components of near-Earth magnetic fields. The MLM incorporates a number of technical innovations to achieve high-accuracy and high-resolution performance while significantly reducing the size of the laser-pumped helium magnetometer for use on small satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). and electronics sections that has the capability of measuring both the scalar magnetic field magnitude and the vector magnetic field components. Further more, the high-accuracy scalar measurements are used to calibrate and correct the vector component measurements in order to achieve superior vector accuracy and stability. The correction algorithm applied to the vector components for calibration and the same cell for vector and scalar measurements are major innovations. The separate sensor and electronics section of the MLM instrument allow the sensor to be installed on a boom or otherwise located away from electronics and other noisy magnetic components. The MLM s miniaturization will be accomplished through the use of advanced miniaturized components and packaging methods for the MLM sensor and electronics. The MLM conceptual design includes three key innovations. The first is a new non-magnetic laser package that will allow the placement of the laser pump source near the helium cell sensing elements. The second innovation is the design of compact, nested, triaxial Braunbek coils used in the vector measurements that reduce the coil size by a factor of two compared to existing Helmholtz coils with similar field-generation performance. The third innovation is a compact sensor design that reduces the sensor volume by a factor of eight compared to MLM s predecessor.

  7. Transceiver Design for CMUT-Based Super-Resolution Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnamfar, Parisa; Molavi, Reza; Mirabbasi, Shahriar

    2016-04-01

    A recently introduced structure for the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) has focused on the applications of the asymmetric mode of vibration and has shown promising results in construction of super-resolution ultrasound images. This paper presents the first implementation and experimental results of a transceiver circuit to interface such CMUT structures. The multiple input/multiple output receiver in this work supports both fundamental and asymmetric modes of operation and includes transimpedance amplifiers and low-power variable-gain stages. These circuit blocks are designed considering the trade-offs between gain, input impedance, noise, linearity and power consumption. The high-voltage transmitter can generate pulse voltages up to 60 V while occupying a considerably small area. The overall circuit is designed and laid out in a 0.35 μm CMOS process and a four-channel transceiver occupies 0.86 × 0.38 mm(2). The prototype chip is characterized in both electrical and mechanical domains. Measurement results show that each receiver channel has a nominal gain of 110 dBΩ with a 3 dB bandwidth of 9 MHz while consuming 1.02 mW from a 3.3 V supply. The receiver is also highly linear, with 1 dB compression point of minimum 1.05 V which is considerably higher than the previously reported designs. The transmitter consumes 98.1 mW from a 30 V supply while generating 1.38 MHz, 30 V pulses. The CMOS-CMUT system is tested in the transmit mode and shows full functionality in air medium.

  8. A near-infrared acetylene detection system based on a 1.534 μm tunable diode laser and a miniature gas chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qixin; Zheng, Chuantao; Liu, Huifang; Li, Bin; Wang, Yiding; Tittel, Frank K.

    2016-03-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) dual-channel differential acetylene (C2H2) detection system was experimentally demonstrated based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser modulated by a self-developed driver around 1.534 μm is used as light source. A miniature gas chamber with 15 cm path length is adopted as absorption pool, and an orthogonal lock-in amplifier is developed to extract the second harmonic (2f) signal. Sufficient standard C2H2 samples with different concentrations were prepared, and detailed measurements were carried out to study the detection performance. A good linear relationship is observed between the amplitude of the 2f signal and C2H2 concentration within the range of 200-10,000 ppm, and the relative measurement error is less than 5% within the whole range. A long-term monitoring lasting for 20 h on a 1000 ppm C2H2 sample was carried out, and the maximum concentration fluctuation is less than 2%. Due to the capability of using long-distance and low-loss optical fiber, the gas-cell can be placed in the filed for remote monitoring, which enables the system to have good prospects in industrial field.

  9. Miniaturization of self-assembled solid phase extraction based on graphene oxide/chitosan coupled with liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfonamide residues in egg and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yazhen; Li, Zhaoqian; Wang, Weiping; Zhong, Shuxian; Chen, Jianrong; Wang, Ai-Jun

    2016-05-20

    The miniaturization of self-assembled solid phase extraction (m-SASPE) based on graphene oxide/chitosan (GO/CS) coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was developed for rapid screening of five sulfonamide residues in egg and honey. GO/CS was synthesized by solution blending method and characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Parameters that affected extraction efficiency including sample pH, amount of the GO/CS, elution solvent and rotation speed were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, good linear relationships between the peak area and the concentrations of the analytes were obtained. The linear ranges were 0.01-10.00μgg(-1) with correlation coefficients (r)≧0.9989. The method detection limits (MDLs) were in the range of 0.71-0.98ngg(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day analysis were less than 3.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of sulfonamide residues in egg and honey. The average recoveries for two samples spiked at levels from 0.02 to 2.0μgg(-1) were in the range of 75.3-105.2% with RSDs less than 13.5%.

  10. Miniaturization of a biomedical gas sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtaheri, Peyman; Omtveit, Tore; Klotzbuecher, Thomas; Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Orjan G; Tønnessen, Tor Inge

    2004-12-01

    In a previous study, we concluded that a conductivity based PCO2 sensor is an attractive solution for early detection of ischemia and presented two design geometries. For organ surface measurements, the planar design was suitable but it was difficult to insert the sensor into the tissue. A cylindrical design solution was favored for insertion due to the large membrane contact area and easy placement in a medical catheter. Since the previous cylindrical prototype was large and could damage the tissue, a more miniaturized sensor was needed. In the current paper, we present a miniaturized sensor with an outer diameter of 1 mm. The applied technology for manufacturing the sensor was a combination of mechanical turning, excimer laser drilling and conventional molding technique. The materials applied were PEEK (polyetherether ketone), PI (polyimide) with gold layers and polysiloxane. The membrane had to be gas permeable while acting as a barrier for ion transport, and was made of polysiloxane and had a thickness of 100-150 microm. The miniaturized sensor was tested for calibration, response time, drifting and pressure sensitivity. The results show that the miniaturized PCO2 sensor is capable of rapid and stable measurements both in vitro and ex vivo. The result from this study will be applied for the industrial manufacturing of such a biomedical sensor as a clinical product.

  11. SuperSegger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianidou, Stella; Brennan, Connor; Nissen, Silas B

    2016-01-01

    -colonies with many cells, facilitating the analysis of cell-cycle dynamics in bacteria as well as cell-contact mediated phenomena. This package has a range of built-in capabilities for characterizing bacterial cells, including the identification of cell division events, mother, daughter, and neighboring cells......Many quantitative cell biology questions require fast yet reliable automated image segmentation to identify and link cells from frame-to-frame, and characterize the cell morphology and fluorescence. We present SuperSegger, an automated MATLAB-based image processing package well......-suited to quantitative analysis of high-throughput live-cell fluorescence microscopy of bacterial cells. SuperSegger incorporates machine-learning algorithms to optimize cellular boundaries and automated error resolution to reliably link cells from frame-to-frame. Unlike existing packages, it can reliably segment micro...

  12. Example-based super-resolution for single-image analysis from the Chang'e-1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan-Lu; Wang, Xiang-Jun

    2016-11-01

    Due to the low spatial resolution of images taken from the Chang'e-1 (CE-1) orbiter, the details of the lunar surface are blurred and lost. Considering the limited spatial resolution of image data obtained by a CCD camera on CE-1, an example-based super-resolution (SR) algorithm is employed to obtain high-resolution (HR) images. SR reconstruction is important for the application of image data to increase the resolution of images. In this article, a novel example-based algorithm is proposed to implement SR reconstruction by single-image analysis, and the computational cost is reduced compared to other example-based SR methods. The results show that this method can enhance the resolution of images using SR and recover detailed information about the lunar surface. Thus it can be used for surveying HR terrain and geological features. Moreover, the algorithm is significant for the HR processing of remotely sensed images obtained by other imaging systems.

  13. A Miniature Pointing and Tracking Isolation Platform Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature, MEMS IMU based, accurate isolation and stabilization system for beam pointing of a...

  14. Effect of a Home-Based Virtual Reality Intervention for Children with Cerebral Palsy Using Super Pop VR Evaluation Metrics: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuping; Garcia-Vergara, Sergio; Howard, Ayanna M

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether Super Pop VR, a low-cost virtual reality (VR) system, was a feasible system for documenting improvement in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and whether a home-based VR intervention was effective. Methods. Three children with CP participated in this study and received an 8-week VR intervention (30 minutes × 5 sessions/week) using the commercial EyeToy Play VR system. Reaching kinematics measured by Super Pop VR and two fine motor tools (Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency second edition, BOT-2, and Pediatric Motor Activity Log, PMAL) were tested before, mid, and after intervention. Results. All children successfully completed the evaluations using the Super Pop VR system at home where 85% of the reaches collected were used to compute reaching kinematics, which is compatible with literature using expensive motion analysis systems. Only the child with hemiplegic CP and more impaired arm function improved the reaching kinematics and functional use of the affected hand after intervention. Conclusion. Super Pop VR proved to be a feasible evaluation tool in children with CP.

  15. Self-adaptive strategy for one-dimensional finite element method based on EEP method with optimal super-convergence order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Si; XING Qin-yan; WANG Xu; YE Kang-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on the newly-developed element energy projection (EEP) method with optimal super-convergence order for computation of super-convergent results, an improved self-adaptive strategy for one-dimensional finite element method (FEM) is proposed. In the strategy, a posteriori errors are estimated by comparing FEM solutions to EEP super-convergent solutions with optimal order of super-convergence, meshes are refined by using the error-averaging method. Quasi-FEM solutions are used to replace the true FEM solutions in the adaptive process. This strategy has been found to be simple, clear, efficient and reliable. For most problems, only one adaptive step is needed to produce the required FEM solutions which point wise satisfy the user specified error tolerances in the max-norm. Taking the elliptical ordinary differential equation of the second order as the model problem, this paper describes the fundamental idea, implementation strategy and computational algorithm and representative numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed approach.

  16. A Miniature Large Displacement Linear Nanopositioning Piezoelectric Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qiuhong(卢秋红); Yan Guozheng

    2004-01-01

    A miniature linear piezoelectric actuator which moves based on inertia friction theory is described in this paper. The authors discuss its driving principle, dynamic model and experimental results.The piezoelectric actuator includes two piezoelectric elements.Through the sequentially deformations of the two piezo elements, the moving mass slides a miniature displacement. Many strokes will be added to be a large displacement.This type of piezoactuator has advantages in its dimension and motion type,so it can be miniaturized to do micro manipulation or micropositioning in microspace.

  17. Designing a Miniature Wheel Arrangement for Mobile Robot Platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Kayani, Saheeb Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    In this research report details of design of a miniature wheel arrangement are presented. This miniature wheel arrangement is essentially a direction control mechanism intended for use on a mobile robot platform or base. The design is a specific one employing a stepper motor as actuator and as described can only be used on a certain type of wheeled robots. However as a basic steering control element, more than one of these miniature wheel arrangements can be grouped together to implement more elaborate and intelligent direction control schemes on varying configurations of wheeled mobile robot platforms.

  18. Miniature, ruggedized data collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Scott; Calcutt, Wade; Knobler, Ron; Jones, Barry; Klug, Robert

    2009-05-01

    McQ has developed a miniaturized, programmable, ruggedized data collector intended for use in weapon testing or data collection exercises that impose severe stresses on devices under test. The recorder is designed to survive these stresses which include acceleration and shock levels up to 100,000 G. The collector acquires and stores up to four channels of signal data to nonvolatile memory for later retrieval by a user. It is small (< 7 in3), light weight (< 1 lb), and can operate from various battery chemistries. A built-in menuing system, accessible via a USB interface, allows the user to configure parameters of the recorder operation, such as channel gain, filtering, and signal offsets, and also to retrieve recorded data for analysis. An overview of the collector, its features, performance, and potential uses, is presented.

  19. A miniature turbocompressor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwyssig, C.; Kraehenbuehl, D.; Kolar, J. W. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Weser, H. [High Speed Turbomaschinen GmbH, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The trend in compressors for fuel cells, heat pumps, aerospace and automotive air pressurization, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, is towards ultra-compact size and high efficiency. This can be achieved by increasing the rotational speed and employing new electrical drive system technology and materials. This paper presents a miniature, electrically driven turbocompressor system running at a speed of 500,000 rpm. The design includes the thermodynamics, the electric motor, the inverter, the control and the system integration with rotor dynamics and thermal considerations. In the experimental setup, the specified pressure ratio of 1.6 is achieved at a speed of 550,000 rpm, which is slightly higher than the design speed. (author)

  20. "Miniature Cold War?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: Relations between America and Russia are one of the most important bilateral ties that could affect the trend of world situation.What's the matter with U. S. -Russia ties? What's wrong with their bilateral relations? People tend to ask these days. Some observers on both sides suggest that post 9/11 honeymoon has turned sour when joint effort against challenges from nontraditional security issues failed to remove original bilateral contradictions over traditional security concerns.Japanese Jiji News Agency saw "a miniature Cold War" evolving and the British Guardian even bluntly pronounced "a new Cold War" on January 3, asserting that disintegration of the former Soviet Union did not terminate bilateral contention, which has only been performed on an international stage more complicated than ever before, with covert scheming against each other replacing overt, direct confrontation. How about starting our discussion with those comments?

  1. Design and Application of Fundamental Geographic Information Database System Based on SuperMap in Bengbu%基于SuperMap的蚌埠市基础地理信息数据库系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虎

    2012-01-01

    首先阐述了蚌埠市基础地理信息数据库系统建设的必要性和条件,然后结合数据生产入库过程,从原始数据整理、CASS数据到SuperMap格式数据的转换、入库数据的质量检查、数据库设计以及空间数据的管理与维护等方面对数据库系统的总体设计及功能模块进行了分析和探讨,其中重点介绍了入库数据质量检查和空间数据管理子系统两大功能模块。%This article introduces the necessity and conditions of the Bengbu fundamental geographic information database system at first,and then combined with data production and storage process,this article introduces the overall design and function modules of the database system based on raw data sorting,CASS data to SuperMap format data conversion,data quality checks,database design,management and maintenance of spatial data,which focuses on the storage of data quality checks and the subsystem of spatial data management.

  2. Mathematical modeling and analysis of WEDM machining parameters of nickel-based super alloy using response surface methodology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P GARG; ANISH KUMAR; C K SAHU

    2017-06-01

    Inconel 625 is one of the most versatile nickel-based super alloy used in the aerospace, automobile, chemical processing, oil refining, marine, waste treatment, pulp and paper, and power industries. Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is the process considered in the present text for machining of Inconel 625 as it can provide an effective solution for machining ultra-hard, high-strength and temperature-resistant materials and alloys, overcoming the constraints of the conventional processes. The present work is mainly focused on the analysis and optimization of the WEDM process parameters of Inconel 625. The four machining parameters, that is, pulse on time, pulse off time, spark gap voltage and wire feed have been varied to investigate their effects onthree output responses, such as cutting speed, gap current, and surface roughness. Response surface methodology was used to develop the experimental models. The parametric analysis-based results revealed that pulse on time and pulse off time were significant, spark gap voltage is the least significant, and wire feed as a single factor is insignificant. Multi-objective optimization technique was employed using desirability approach to obtain theoptimal parameters setting. Furthermore, surface topography in terms of machining parameters revealed that pulse on time and pulse off time significantly deteriorate the surface of the machined samples, which produce thedeeper, wider overlapping craters and globules of debris.

  3. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  4. 基于多级微反射镜的微型傅里叶变换光谱仪%The Micro Fourier Transform Spectrometer Based on Multi-Level Miniature Micro Mirrors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明立

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description on the miniature development trend of the spectrometer,and introduces a kind of miniature Fourier transform spectrometer based on multi-level micro mirror whose modulation mode is space modulation.It introduces its structure design and operation theory,and introduces respectively the photosource and multi-level micro mirror and other related components.%简述了光谱仪的微型化发展趋势。介绍了一种基于多级微反射镜的微型傅里叶变换光谱仪,其调制方式为空间调制。介绍了其结构设计及工作原理,并分别介绍了光源、多级微反射镜等相关元器件。

  5. Super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light by ultra-long focal length planar lens based on binary amplitude-phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Li, Yuyan; Yu, Anping; Wen, Zhongquan; Dai, Luru; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhihai; Jiang, Senlin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xianyou; Lin, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In traditional optics, the focal spot size of a conventional lens is restricted to the diffraction limit 0.5λ/NA, where λ is the wavelength in vacuum and NA is the numerical aperture of the lens. Recently, various sub-diffraction focusing optical devices have been demonstrated, but they usually have short focal length and high numerical aperture. Moreover, they always suffer the problem of huge sidelobes near the focal spot and small field of view, especially when the focal spot size is less than the super-oscillation criteria 0.38λ/NA. To address the problem, here, we reported a far-field sub-diffraction point-focusing lens based on binary phase and amplitude modulation with ultra-long focal length 252.8 μm (399.5λ) and small numerical aperture 0.78, and experimentally demonstrated a super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light with spot size 287 nm (0.454λ), smaller than the diffraction limit 0.64λ and the super-oscillation criterion 0.487λ. What’s more, on the focal plane, in the measured area within the radius of 142λ, the largest sidelobe intensity is less than 26% of the central lobe intensity. Such ultra-long distance super-oscillatory focusing with small sidelobes and large field of view has great potential applications in far-field super-resolution microscopy, ultra-high-density optical storage and nano-fabrication.

  6. Super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light by ultra-long focal length planar lens based on binary amplitude-phase modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Li, Yuyan; Yu, Anping; Wen, Zhongquan; Dai, Luru; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhihai; Jiang, Senlin; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Xianyou; Lin, Feng

    2016-06-29

    In traditional optics, the focal spot size of a conventional lens is restricted to the diffraction limit 0.5λ/NA, where λ is the wavelength in vacuum and NA is the numerical aperture of the lens. Recently, various sub-diffraction focusing optical devices have been demonstrated, but they usually have short focal length and high numerical aperture. Moreover, they always suffer the problem of huge sidelobes near the focal spot and small field of view, especially when the focal spot size is less than the super-oscillation criteria 0.38λ/NA. To address the problem, here, we reported a far-field sub-diffraction point-focusing lens based on binary phase and amplitude modulation with ultra-long focal length 252.8 μm (399.5λ) and small numerical aperture 0.78, and experimentally demonstrated a super-oscillatory focusing of circularly polarized light with spot size 287 nm (0.454λ), smaller than the diffraction limit 0.64λ and the super-oscillation criterion 0.487λ. What's more, on the focal plane, in the measured area within the radius of 142λ, the largest sidelobe intensity is less than 26% of the central lobe intensity. Such ultra-long distance super-oscillatory focusing with small sidelobes and large field of view has great potential applications in far-field super-resolution microscopy, ultra-high-density optical storage and nano-fabrication.

  7. Numerical analysis of GRIN lens based miniature probes for optical coherence tomography%基于GRIN镜头的小型OCT探头的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王驰; 毛幼馨; 唐智; 方臣; 于瀛洁; 齐博

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation technology was investigated by using the optical software GLAD to design Gradient Index(GRIN)lens based miniature probes for imaging of Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT).Firstly,the basic features of the GRIN lens were overviewed,and design methods for GRIN lens based optical probes were discussed.Then,the probe model consisting of a single mode fiber,a glass rod spacer and a GRIN lens were simulated.The simulating results show that the numerical simulation technique using GLAD can provide an intuitive and effective method for design of miniaturized probes and verification of their optical performance.In addition,the spacer can improve the optical properties of the GRIN lens based optical probes for there exists a suitable range of the spacer lengths in the glass rod.It shows that the working distance of the probe will be greater than 1.0 mm and the focus spot size less than 40 μm when the constant length of GRIN lens is to be 0.1 mm and the spacer length range from 0.8 to 1.1 mm.%利用光学软件GLAD的数值仿真技术设计了用于光学相干层析技术成像的基于梯度折射率(GRIN)镜头的小型化探头.首先,简述了梯度折射率镜头的基本特性,讨论了基于梯度折射率镜头的光学探头的设计方法;然后,对由单模光纤、玻璃棒隔片和梯度折射率镜头构成的探头模型进行了仿真.结果显示,利用GLAD的数值仿真技术为小型化探头的设计及其光学性能的验证提供了一种直观而有效的方法.另外,玻璃棒隔片存在一个适当的长度范围,可以改善设计的光学探头的传光性能.在所给仿真条件下,如设定梯度折射率镜头长0.1 mm、玻璃棒隔片长度为0.8~1.1 mm,则探头的工作距离将超过1.0 mm,而聚焦光斑的尺寸<40 μm.

  8. Producing miniature threads. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.; Robb, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    Miniature precision actuators, timers, and switches typically utilize miniature threads to provide convenient assembly, disassembly and adjustment. Thread rolling provides high-quality external threads with greater strength and lower cost than other thread-producing techniques. Tap breakage is a significant problem when 0.5 and 0.6 Unified National Miniature (UNM) threads must be produced in hard materials such as SAE K95100 high-permeability magnetic steel. Aluminum parts can be tapped with no difficulty in these sizes. Stainless steel 0.5 UNM screws break at loads of 21 lb (53 N). Thread failure occurs at thread heights of 62% full thread or lower.

  9. Super-resolved image acquisition with full-field localization-based microscopy: theoretical analysis and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taehwang; Lee, Wonju; Kim, Donghyun

    2016-02-01

    We analyze and evaluate super-resolved image acquisition with full-field localization microscopy in which an individual signal sampled by localization may or may not be switched. For the analysis, Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem based on ideal delta function was extended to sampling with unit pulse comb and surface-enhanced localized near-field that was numerically calculated with finite difference time domain. Sampling with unit pulse was investigated in Fourier domain where magnitude of baseband becomes larger than that of adjacent subband, i.e. aliasing effect is reduced owing to pulse width. Standard Lena image was employed as imaging target and a diffraction-limited optical system is assumed. A peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) was introduced to evaluate the efficiency of image reconstruction quantitatively. When the target was sampled without switching by unit pulse as the sampling width and period are varied, PSNR increased eventually to 18.1 dB, which is the PSNR of a conventional diffraction-limited image. PSNR was found to increase with a longer pulse width due to reduced aliasing effect. When switching of individual sampling pulses was applied, blurry artifact outside the excited field is removed for each pulse and PSNR soars to 25.6 dB with a shortened pulse period, i.e. effective resolution of 72 nm is obtained, which can further be decreased.

  10. Detection of Bacillus anthracis spores by super-paramagnetic lateral-flow immunoassays based on "Road Closure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dian-Bing; Tian, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Xu-Ying; Fleming, Joy; Bi, Li-Jun; Yang, Rui-Fu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2015-05-15

    Detection of Bacillus anthracis in the field, whether as a natural infection or as a biothreat remains challenging. Here we have developed a new lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) for B. anthracis spore detection based on the fact that conjugates of B. anthracis spores and super-paramagnetic particles labeled with antibodies will block the pores of chromatographic strips and form retention lines on the strips, instead of the conventionally reported test lines and control lines in classic LFIA. As a result, this new LFIA can simultaneously realize optical, magnetic and naked-eye detection by analyzing signals from the retention lines. As few as 500-700 pure B. anthracis spores can be recognized with CV values less than 8.31% within 5 min of chromatography and a total time of 20 min. For powdery sample tests, this LFIA can endure interference from 25% (w/v) milk, 10% (w/v) baking soda and 10% (w/v) starch without any sample pre-treatment, and has a corresponding detection limit of 6×10(4) spores/g milk powder, 2×10(5) spores/g starch and 5×10(5) spores/g baking soda. Compared with existing methods, this new approach is very competitive in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost and ease of operation. This proof-of-concept study can also be extended for detection of many other large-sized analytes.

  11. Damper placement for seismic control of super-long-span suspension bridges based on the first-order optimization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Billie; F; SPENCER

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the anti-earthquake performances of super-long-span suspension bridges, effective devices should be employed to control the seismic response of key sections. In this paper, four kinds of assessment functions for seismic response control effect are formulated based on the mechanism of seismic response control with dampers and the seismic response characteristics of long-span suspension bridges. A new optimal placement method of dampers using penalty function and first-order optimization theory is then proposed. Runyang suspension bridge (RSB) with a main span of 1490 m is then taken as an example. After seismic response time-history analyses on RSB using different placements of dampers, the analysis results are optimized by employing the optimal placement method and the optimal placements of dampers with the four assessment functions are then achieved respectively. Comparison of the four optimal control effects show that different assessment functions can lead to different optimal placements when the number of dampers is certain, but all placements of dampers can reduce the seismic response of RSB significantly. The selection of assessment functions and damper optimal placement should be determined by the structural characteristics and by what is considered in the structures. Results also show that the first-order optimization is an effective method on determining the optimal placement of dampers.

  12. Looking for Super-Earths in the HD 189733 System: A Search for Transits in Most Space-Based Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Croll, Bryce; Rowe, Jason F; Gladman, Brett; Miller-Ricci, Eliza; Sasselov, Dimitar; Walker, Gordon A H; Kuschnig, Rainer; Lin, Douglas N C; Guenther, David B; Moffat, Anthony F J; Rucinski, Slavek M; Weiss, Werner W

    2007-01-01

    We have made a comprehensive transit search for exoplanets down to ~1.5 - 2 Earth radii in the HD 189733 system, based on 21-days of nearly uninterrupted broadband optical photometry obtained with the MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) satellite in 2006. We have searched these data for realistic limb-darkened transits from exoplanets other than the known hot Jupiter, HD 189733b, with periods ranging from about 0.4 days to one week. Monte Carlo statistical tests of the data with synthetic transits inserted into the data-set allow us to rule out additional close-in exoplanets with sizes ranging from about 0.15 - 0.31 RJ (Jupiter radii), or 1.7 - 3.5 RE (Earth radii) on orbits whose planes are near that of HD 189733b. These null results constrain theories that invoke lower-mass hot Super-Earth and hot Neptune planets in orbits similar to HD 189733b due to the inward migration of this hot Jupiter. This work also illustrates the feasibility of discovering smaller transiting planets around chromosp...

  13. Breast cancer detection and classification in digital mammography based on Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) and Super Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Fatemeh; Kanan, Hamidreza Rashidy; Alikhassi, Afsaneh

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most perilous diseases among women. Breast screening is a method of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage which can reduce the mortality rate. Mammography is a standard method for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for breast cancer detection and classification in digital mammography based on Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) and Super Resolution (SR). The presented algorithm includes three main parts including pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. In the pre-processing stage, after determining the region of interest (ROI) by an automatic technique, the quality of image is improved using NSCT and SR algorithm. In the feature extraction part, several features of the image components are extracted and skewness of each feature is calculated. Finally, AdaBoost algorithm is used to classify and determine the probability of benign and malign disease. The obtained results on Mammographic Image Analysis Society (MIAS) database indicate the significant performance and superiority of the proposed method in comparison with the state of the art approaches. According to the obtained results, the proposed technique achieves 91.43% and 6.42% as a mean accuracy and FPR, respectively.

  14. A High Efficiency, Miniaturized Ka Band Traveling Wave Tube Based on a Novel Finned Ladder RF Circuit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Wilson, J. D.; Vaden, K. R.; Force, D. A.; Freeman, J. C.; Lesny, G. G.; Kory, C. L.; Chevalier, C. T.; Ebihara, B.; Dayton, J. A.; Williams, W. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Space communications architectures are being planned to meet the high rate data distribution requirements of future NASA Enterprise missions. These will require the use of traveling wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs) to provide the high frequency, RF (radio frequency) power and efficiency needed for many of the communications links. A program addressing these requirements is currently underway at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the development of a high efficiency, 20 watt, 32 GHz TWT of reduced size and weight that is based on a novel high gain n circuit design, termed the 'finned ladder'.

  15. A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Heiko; Greiner-Bär, Michael; Pavlov, Sergey; Semenov, Alexei D.; Wienold, Martin; Schrottke, Lutz; Giehler, M.; Hey, R.; Grahn, H.T.; Huebers, H. -W.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a compact, easy-to-use terahertz radiation source, which combines a quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating at 3.1 THz with a compact, low input-power Stirling cooler. The QCL, which is based on a two miniband design, has been developed for high output and low electrical pump power. The amount of generated heat complies with the nominal cooling capacity of the Stirling cooler of 7 W at 65 K with 240 W of electrical input power. Special care has been taken to achi...

  16. Quasi-static Tensile and Compressive Behavior of Nanocrystalline Tantalum Based on Miniature Specimen Testing—Part II: Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligda, J.; D'Antuono, D. Scotto; Taheri, M. L.; Schuster, B. E.; Wei, Q.

    2016-11-01

    In Part I of this work (this issue), we presented the microstructure of tantalum processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT). In this part, we will present results based on site-specific micro-mechanical testing. The experimental techniques were used due to the intrinsic microstructure gradient associated with HPT processing. The primary objective is to explore the grain size effect on the quasi-static mechanical properties of HPT processed tantalum with ultrafine grained (UFG, grain size d 100 nm) and nanocrystalline (NC, d body-centered cubic metals with UFG/NC microstructure tend to have localized shear band even under quasi-static uniaxial compression.

  17. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scanner. The opto-electronic sensing system design was minimized to fit inside an MRI-compatible robot controller enclosure. A flexure mechanism was designed that integrates the FPI sensor fiber for measuring needle insertion force, and finite element analysis was performed for optimizing the correct force-deformation relationship. The compact, low-cost FPI sensing system was integrated into the robot and calibration was conducted. The root mean square (RMS) error of the calibration among the range of 0-10 Newton was 0.318 Newton comparing to the theoretical model which has been proven sufficient for robot control and teleoperation.

  18. Miniaturized metalloproteins: Application to iron–sulfur proteins

    OpenAIRE

    LOMBARDI, ANGELA; Marasco, Daniela; Maglio, Ornella; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Nastri, Flavia; Pavone, Vincenzo

    2000-01-01

    The miniaturization process applied to rubredoxins generated a class of peptide-based metalloprotein models, named METP (miniaturized electron transfer protein). The crystal structure of Desulfovibrio vulgaris rubredoxin was selected as a template for the construction of a tetrahedral (Sγ-Cys)4 iron-binding site. Analysis of the structure showed that a sphere of 17 Å in diameter, centered on the metal, circumscribes two unconnected approximately C2 symmetry...

  19. Multi-scale cellulose based new bio-aerogel composites with thermal super-insulating and tunable mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seantier, Bastien; Bendahou, Dounia; Bendahou, Abdelkader; Grohens, Yves; Kaddami, Hamid

    2016-03-15

    Bio-composite aerogels based on bleached cellulose fibers (BCF) and cellulose nanoparticles having various morphological and physico-chemical characteristics are prepared by a freeze-drying technique and characterized. The various composite aerogels obtained were compared to a BCF aerogel used as the reference. Severe changes in the material morphology were observed by SEM and AFM due to a variation of the cellulose nanoparticle properties such as the aspect ratio, the crystalline index and the surface charge density. BCF fibers form a 3D network and they are surrounded by the cellulose nanoparticle thin films inducing a significant reduction of the size of the pores in comparison with a neat BCF based aerogel. BET analyses confirm the appearance of a new organization structure with pores of nanometric sizes. As a consequence, a decrease of the thermal conductivities is observed from 28mWm(-1)K(-1) (BCF aerogel) to 23mWm(-1)K(-1) (bio-composite aerogel), which is below the air conductivity (25mWm(-1)K(-1)). This improvement of the insulation properties for composite materials is more pronounced for aerogels based on cellulose nanoparticles having a low crystalline index and high surface charge (NFC-2h). The significant improvement of their insulation properties allows the bio-composite aerogels to enter the super-insulating materials family. The characteristics of cellulose nanoparticles also influence the mechanical properties of the bio-composite aerogels. A significant improvement of the mechanical properties under compression is obtained by self-organization, yielding a multi-scale architecture of the cellulose nanoparticles in the bio-composite aerogels. In this case, the mechanical property is more dependent on the morphology of the composite aerogel rather than the intrinsic characteristics of the cellulose nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quasi-static Tensile and Compressive Behavior of Nanocrystalline Tantalum Based on Miniature Specimen Testing—Part II: Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligda, J.; D'Antuono, D. Scotto; Taheri, M. L.; Schuster, B. E.; Wei, Q.

    2016-09-01

    In Part I of this work (this issue), we presented the microstructure of tantalum processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT). In this part, we will present results based on site-specific micro-mechanical testing. The experimental techniques were used due to the intrinsic microstructure gradient associated with HPT processing. The primary objective is to explore the grain size effect on the quasi-static mechanical properties of HPT processed tantalum with ultrafine grained (UFG, grain size d 100 nm) and nanocrystalline (NC, d imaging microscopy (OIM) show that the shear bands form by grain rotation. Comparing d in these two regions to the mechanism proposed in the literature shows that reduced d in the shear banding region is more susceptible to localized shearing via grain rotation. This work unifies, or at least further substantiates, the notion that body-centered cubic metals with UFG/NC microstructure tend to have localized shear band even under quasi-static uniaxial compression.

  1. Lithium-niobate-based integrated optic chip utilizing digital electrode layout for use in a miniature fiber optic rate sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ner, Manjeet S.; Groellmann, Peter; Mutter, Gerhard

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes to the best of our knowledge the first implementation of a lithium niobate based 8 bit electroded integrated optic waveguide fiber optic gyro chip referred here as 'Digi- MIOC' (digital-electroded multifunction integrated optic chip, which has been used in a Sagnac effect exploiting microfiber optic rate sensor ((mu) -FORS) developed by LITEF. The paper highlights various features of a Digi-MIOC, such as design philosophy, fabrication aspects, and test procedures to evaluate static and dynamic characteristics of the electro-optic parameters. When used in closed loop operation, the Digi-MIOC forms the key optical component of a (mu) -FORS to aid the required optical-to-electrical signal processing to give linear output for input rates of rotation. Various test results and features of LITEF's (mu) - FORS, such as small size, large rotation rate measurement potential, low drive power, and high reliabliity are also highlighted.

  2. Single Image Super-Resolution with Dilated Convolution based Multi-Scale Information Learning Inception Module

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Wuzhen; Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Debin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional works have shown that patches in a natural image tend to redundantly recur many times inside the image, both within the same scale, as well as across different scales. Make full use of these multi-scale information can improve the image restoration performance. However, the current proposed deep learning based restoration methods do not take the multi-scale information into account. In this paper, we propose a dilated convolution based inception module to learn multi-scale informa...

  3. Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This 2009 NASA SBIR Phase 1 proposal for an innovative Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM) is a response to subtopic S1.06 Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument...

  4. Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This 2009 NASA SBIR Phase 2 proposal for an innovative Miniature Laser Magnetometer (MLM) is a response to subtopic S1.06 Particles and Field Sensors and Instrument...

  5. Lithium niobate-based integrated optic chip utilizing digital electrode layout for use in a miniature fiber optic rate sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ner, Manjeet S.; Kemmler, Manfred W.; Spahlinger, Guenter

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes to the best of our knowledge the first implementation of a Lithium Niobate based 8 bit electroded integrated optic waveguide fiber optic gyro chip referred here to as 'Digi-MIOC', which has been used in a Sagnac effect exploiting micro fiber optic rate sensor ((mu) -FORS) developed by LITEF. The paper highlights various features of a Digi-MIOC, such as design philosophy, fabrication aspects, and test procedures to evaluate static and dynamic characteristics of the electro-optic parameters. As a consequence of this work, it has been possible for LITEF to cost effectively mass produce Digi-MIOCs. When used in closed loop operation, the Digi-MIOC forms the key optical component of a (mu) -FORS to aid the required optical-to- electrical signal processing to give linear output for input rates of rotation. Various test results and features of LITEF's (mu) -FORS, such as small size, large rotation rate measurement potential, low drive power and high reliability are also highlighted.

  6. Process monitoring and control with CHEMIN, a miniaturized CCD-based instrument for simultaneous XRD/XRF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, David T.; Bish, D.; Guthrie, G.; Chipera, S.; Blake, David E.; Collins, S. Andy; Elliott, S. T.; Sarrazin, P.

    1999-10-01

    There is a large variety of mining and manufacturing operations where process monitoring and control can benefit from on-site analysis of both chemical and mineralogic constituents. CHEMIN is a CCD-based instrument capable of both X-ray fluorescence (XRF; chemical) and X-ray diffraction (XRD; mineralogic) analysis. Monitoring and control with an instrument like CHEMIN can be applied to feedstocks, intermediate materials, and final products to optimize production. Examples include control of cement feedstock, of ore for smelting, and of minerals that pose inhalation hazards in the workplace. The combined XRD/XRF capability of CHEMIN can be used wherever a desired commodity is associated with unwanted constituents that may be similar in chemistry or structure but not both (e.g., Ca in both gypsum and feldspar, where only the gypsum is desired to make wallboard). In the mining industry, CHEMIN can determine mineral abundances on the spot and enable more economical mining by providing the means to assay when is being mined, quickly and frequently, at minimal cost. In manufacturing, CHEMIN could be used to spot-check the chemical composition and crystalline makeup of a product at any stage of production. Analysis by CHEMIN can be used as feedback in manufacturing processes where rates of heating, process temperature, mixture of feedstocks, and other variables must be adjusted in real time to correct structure and/or chemistry of the product (e.g., prevention of periclase and alkali sulfate coproduction in cement manufacture).

  7. A compact, continuous-wave terahertz source based on a quantum-cascade laser and a miniature cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H; Greiner-Bär, M; Pavlov, S G; Semenov, A D; Wienold, M; Schrottke, L; Giehler, M; Hey, R; Grahn, H T; Hübers, H-W

    2010-05-10

    We report on the development of a compact, easy-to-use terahertz radiation source, which combines a quantum-cascade laser (QCL) operating at 3.1 THz with a compact, low-input-power Stirling cooler. The QCL, which is based on a two-miniband design, has been developed for high output and low electrical pump power. The amount of generated heat complies with the nominal cooling capacity of the Stirling cooler of 7 W at 65 K with 240 W of electrical input power. Special care has been taken to achieve a good thermal coupling between the QCL and the cold finger of the cooler. The whole system weighs less than 15 kg including the cooler and power supplies. The maximum output power is 8 mW at 3.1 THz. With an appropriate optical beam shaping, the emission profile of the laser is fundamental Gaussian. The applicability of the system is demonstrated by imaging and molecular-spectroscopy experiments.

  8. Estimation of attitudes from a low-cost miniaturized inertial platform using Kalman Filter-based sensor fusion algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Shantha Kumar; T Jann

    2004-04-01

    Due to costs, size and mass, commercially available inertial navigation systems are not suitable for small, autonomous flying vehicles like ALEX and other UAVs. In contrast, by using modern MEMS (or of similar class) sensors, hardware costs, size and mass can be reduced substantially. However, low-cost sensors often suffer from inaccuracy and are influenced greatly by temperature variation. In this work, such inaccuracies and dependence on temperature variations have been studied, modelled and compensated in order to reach an adequate quality of measurements for the estimation of attitudes. This has been done applying a Kalman Filter-based sensor fusion algorithm that combines sensor models, error parameters and estimation scheme. Attitude estimation from low-cost sensors is first realized in a Matlab/Simulink platform and then implemented on hardware by programming the micro controller and validated. The accuracies of the estimated roll and pitch attitudes are well within the stipulated accuracy level of ±5° for the ALEX. However, the estimation of heading, which is mainly derived from the magnetometer readings, seems to be influenced greatly by the variation in local magnetic field.

  9. Origin and compensation of imaging artefacts in localization-based super-resolution microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi, M; Sinkó, J; Kákonyi, R; Kelemen, A; Rees, E; Varga, D; Szabó, G

    2015-10-15

    Interpretation of high resolution images provided by localization-based microscopy techniques is a challenge due to imaging artefacts that can be categorized by their origin. They can be introduced by the optical system, by the studied sample or by the applied algorithms. Some artefacts can be eliminated via precise calibration procedures, others can be reduced only below a certain value. Images studied both theoretically and experimentally are qualified either by pattern specific metrics or by a more general metric based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

  10. Miniature spectrally selective dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.R.; Macconochie, I.O.; Poole, B.D.

    1983-02-08

    The present invention discloses a miniature spectrally selective dosimeter capable of measuring selected bandwidths of radiation exposure on small mobile areas. This is achieved by the combination of photovoltaic detectors, electrochemical integrators (e-cells) and filters in a small compact case which can be easily attached in close proximity to and substantially parallel to the surface being measured. In one embodiment two photovoltaic detectors, two e-cells and three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a safety pin. In another embodiment, two detectors, one e-cell and three filters are packaged in a small case with attaching means consisting of a clip to clip over a side piece of an eye glass frame in a further embodiment, the electro-optic elements a packaged in a wristwatch case with attaching means being a watchband. The filters in all embodiments allow only selected wavelengths of radiation to be detected by the photovoltaic detectors and then integrated by the e-cells.

  11. Costs, length of stay, and mortality of super-refractory status epilepticus: A population-based study from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelczyk, Adam; Ansorge, Sonja; Hapfelmeier, Jana; Bonthapally, Vijayveer; Erder, M Haim; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-09-01

    Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) is a severe condition in which a patient in status epilepticus (SE) for ≥24 h does not respond to first-, second-, or third-line therapy. The economic impact of SRSE treatment remains unclear. A health insurance research database was used for a population-based estimation of SRSE-associated inpatient costs, length of stay, and mortality in Germany. An algorithm using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition coding and treatment parameters identified and classified patients in a German statutory health insurance database covering admissions from 2008 to 2013 as having refractory SE (RSE) or SRSE. Admissions data in our study refer to these classifications. Associated patient data included costs, procedures, and demographics. The algorithm identified 2,585 (all type) SE admissions, classified as 1,655 nonrefractory SE (64%), 592 (22.9%) RSE, and 338 (13.1%) SRSE, producing database incidence rates of 15.0 in 100,000, 5.2 in 100,000, and 3.0 in 100,000 per year, respectively. Median cost per admission was €4,063 for nonrefractory SE, €4,581 (p RSE, and €32,706 (p RSE, and up to 37 days in SRSE. Discharge mortality increased from 9.6% in nonrefractory SE to 15.0% (p RSE and 39.9% (p < 0.001) in SRSE. This study evaluated the hospital treatment costs associated with admissions classified by the algorithm as SRSE in Germany. SRSE represented 13% of all SE admissions, but resulted in 56% of all SE-related costs. The lack of approved treatments and limited number of evidence-based treatment guidelines highlight the need for further evaluations of the SRSE burden of illness and the potential for further optimization of treatments for SRSE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Super insulating aerogel glazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application results of a previous and current EU-project on super insulating glazing based on monolithic silica aerogel. Prototypes measuring approx. 55´55 cm2 have been made with 15 mm evacuated aerogel between two layers of low-iron glass. Anti-reflective treatment...... of the glass and a heat-treatment of the aerogel increases the visible quality and the solar energy transmittance. A low-conductive rim seal solution with the required vacuum barrier properties has been developed along with a reliable assembly and evacuation process. The prototypes have a centre heat loss...

  13. Program evaluation and its application to equipment based on super-efficiency DEA and gray relation projection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbing Tang; Dong Guo; Jie Wu; Qingmei Tan

    2014-01-01

    For the gray attributes of the equipment program and its difficulty to carry out the quantitative assessment of the equip-ment program information, the gray relation projection method is simply reviewed. Combining the super-data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and the gray system theory, a new super-DEA for measuring the weight is proposed, and a gray relation projection model is established to rank the equipment programs. Final y, this approach is used to evaluate the equipment program. The results are verified valid and can provide a new way for evaluating the equipment program.

  14. Enhanced Singular Value Decomposition based Fusion for Super Resolution Image Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Joseph Abraham Sundar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The singular value decomposition (SVD plays a very important role in the field of image processing for applications such as feature extraction, image compression, etc. The main objective is to enhance the resolution of the image based on Singular Value Decomposition. The original image and the subsequent sub-pixel shifted image, subjected to image registration is transferred to SVD domain. An enhanced method of choosing the singular values from the SVD domain images to reconstruct a high resolution image using fusion techniques is proposesed. This technique is called as enhanced SVD based fusion. Significant improvement in the performance is observed by applying enhanced SVD method preceding the various interpolation methods which are incorporated. The technique has high advantage and computationally fast which is most needed for satellite imaging, high definition television broadcasting, medical imaging diagnosis, military surveillance, remote sensing etc.

  15. Characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) polymorphism by sequence-based and PCR-SSP methods in Chinese Bama miniature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caixia; Jiang, Qian; Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Jiasen; Han, Lingxia; Qu, Liandong

    2014-07-01

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes have been repeatedly shown to influence swine immune traits, disease resistance, vaccine responsiveness and tumour penetrance. Analysis of the SLA diversity in as many pig breeds as possible is important to clarify the relationships between SLA genes and diseases or traits, and develop these pigs as valuable animal models for biomedical research. The Chinese Bama miniature pig breed is an economically significant breed that is available at several research institutions in China. In this study, we identified a total of 32 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing nine class I and seven class II haplotypes using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequence-based typing (SBT) method. The possible functional sites of the SLA genes were predicted and analyzed by comparison with those of the human and mouse. Based on the sequence information, we subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the progeny. In the studied cohort (2n = 562), the most prevalent Haplotype Hp-35.6 (SLA-1(∗)1201, SLA-1(∗)1301-SLA-3(∗)0502-SLA-2(∗)1001-DRB1(∗)0501-DQB1(∗)0801) was identified in 182 Bama pigs with a frequency of 32.38%. The presence of the duplicated SLA-1 locus was confirmed in five of the class I haplotypes. Moreover, we identified two crossovers within the class I region and one between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.36% and 0.18%, respectively. The information of this study is essential for an understanding of the SLA allelic architecture and diversity, and it will be helpful for studying the adaptive immune response and further developing the more effective vaccines in the context of SLA specificities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical analysis of turbulent super-streamwise vortices based on observations of streaky structures near the free surface in the smooth open channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiang; Chen, Qigang; Wang, Hao; Li, Danxun; Wang, Xingkui

    2016-05-01

    Long streamwise-elongated high- and low-speed streaks are repeatedly observed near the free surface in open channel flows in natural rivers and lab experiments. Super-streamwise vortex model has been proposed to explain this widespread phenomenon for quite some time. However, statistical evidence of the existence of the super-streamwise vortices as one type of coherent structures is still insufficient. Correlation and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis based on PIV experimental data in the streamwise-spanwise plane near the free surface in a smooth open channel flow are employed to investigate this topic. Correlation analysis revealed that the streaky structures appear frequently near the free surface and their occurrence probability at any spanwise position is equal. The spanwise velocity fluctuation usually flows from low-speed streaks toward high-speed streaks. The average spanwise width and spacing between neighboring low (or high) speed streaks are approximately h and 2h respectively. POD analysis reveals that there are streaks with different spanwise width in the instantaneous flow fields. Typical streamwise rotational movement can be sketched out directly based on the results from statistical analyses. Point-by-point analysis indicates that this pattern is consistent everywhere in the measurement window and is without any inhomogeneity in the spanwise direction, which reveals the essential difference between coherent structures and secondary flow cells. The pattern found by statistical analysis is consistent with the notion that the super-streamwise vortices exist universally as one type of coherent structure in open channel flows.

  17. Super strong nanoindentors for biomedical applications based on bamboo-like nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Kolesnikova, A. S.; Kossovich, E. L.; Zhnichkov, R. Y.

    2012-03-01

    The results of quantum-chemical analysis of elastic and strength properties of the bamboo-like tube are presented in this paper. For the first time the configuration of the thinnest stable bamboo-like tube was established. The bamboo-like nanotube breaking point is established to be under compression of 11GPa. Configuration of the nanoindentor based on symmetric and streamlined tip of the tube (15,15), presented in this work, provides perfect interaction between the nanoindentor tip and the tissue because tip has no sharp protruding pieces.

  18. Investigation of Phosphate Cement-based Binder with Super High Early Strength for Repair of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Magnesium phosphate cement-based binder (MPB) for repair of concrete was prepared by proportionally mixing over burned MgO powder (M) with NHH2PO4 powder (P) and set modifying admixtures. It is characteristic by excellent properties such as rapid setting,high strength and high bond strength to old concrete.. The study is focused on the key factors influencing the setting time and strength of MPB, the bond property of MPB to old concrete and the kinetic feature of the hydration of MPB.

  19. Ground-based aerosol optical depth inter-comparison campaigns at European EUSAAR super-sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeki, S.; Gröbner, J.; Wehrli, C.

    2013-05-01

    This work summarizes eight aerosol optical depth (AOD) inter-comparison campaigns conducted during the 2008-2011 period. A PFR (precision filter radiometer) travelling standard from the GAW-PFR network (based at PMOD/WRC, Switzerland) was run alongside existing CIMEL sun-photometers from the PHOTONS/AERONET network located at European stations. Basic statistical analysis of coincident measurements at λ = 500 and 862 nm illustrated good agreement. However, when WMO criteria for traceability were applied only one wavelength at three stations was traceable. Other stations were close to being traceable but had slight issues with window cleanliness and calibration.

  20. A super intramolecular self-enhanced electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on polymer chains grafted on palladium nanocages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijun; He, Ying; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-08-01

    An intramolecular self-enhanced electrochemiluminescent derivative is prepared by grafting polystyrene (PS)-based polymer chains with pendant Ru(ii) luminophore from poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) on the surface of palladium nanocages (PdNCs). In this way, the Ru(ii) luminophore and its co-reactive group (amine groups in PEI) exist in the same polymer molecule, which shortens the electronic transmission distance between them and enhances the luminous stability. Meanwhile, through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), the loading amount of Ru(ii) luminophore is greatly increased. Therefore, the obtained electrochemiluminescent derivative (PdNC-PEI-PSRu) has high luminous efficiency and stability. Furthermore, due to their special nanostructures of porous walls and hollow interiors, PdNCs have great advantages in high specific surface areas and good electrocatalytic ability, which make them act as an excellent immobilized platform for PEI and detection antibody. Based on the sandwiched immunoreactions, a sensitive ``signal on'' electrochemiluminescence immunosensor is constructed for the detection of carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3). As a result, a wide linear range from 0.01 U mL-1 to 120 U mL-1 is acquired with a relatively low detection limit of 0.003 U mL-1.

  1. Spectral-spatial hyperspectral image classification using super-pixel-based spatial pyramid representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiayuan; Tan, Hui Li; Toomik, Maria; Lu, Shijian

    2016-10-01

    Spatial pyramid matching has demonstrated its power for image recognition task by pooling features from spatially increasingly fine sub-regions. Motivated by the concept of feature pooling at multiple pyramid levels, we propose a novel spectral-spatial hyperspectral image classification approach using superpixel-based spatial pyramid representation. This technique first generates multiple superpixel maps by decreasing the superpixel number gradually along with the increased spatial regions for labelled samples. By using every superpixel map, sparse representation of pixels within every spatial region is then computed through local max pooling. Finally, features learned from training samples are aggregated and trained by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The proposed spectral-spatial hyperspectral image classification technique has been evaluated on two public hyperspectral datasets, including the Indian Pines image containing 16 different agricultural scene categories with a 20m resolution acquired by AVIRIS and the University of Pavia image containing 9 land-use categories with a 1.3m spatial resolution acquired by the ROSIS-03 sensor. Experimental results show significantly improved performance compared with the state-of-the-art works. The major contributions of this proposed technique include (1) a new spectral-spatial classification approach to generate feature representation for hyperspectral image, (2) a complementary yet effective feature pooling approach, i.e. the superpixel-based spatial pyramid representation that is used for the spatial correlation study, (3) evaluation on two public hyperspectral image datasets with superior image classification performance.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Pain Recognition in CNN-based Super-Resolved Facial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellantonio, Marco; Haque, Mohammad Ahsanul; Rodriguez, Pau

    2017-01-01

    to pain in each of the facial video frames, temporal axis information regarding to pain expression pattern in a subject video sequence, and variation of face resolution. We employed a combination of convolutional neural network and recurrent neural network to setup a deep hybrid pain detection framework......Automatic pain detection is a long expected solution to a prevalent medical problem of pain management. This is more relevant when the subject of pain is young children or patients with limited ability to communicate about their pain experience. Computer vision-based analysis of facial pain...... expression provides a way of efficient pain detection. When deep machine learning methods came into the scene, automatic pain detection exhibited even better performance. In this paper, we figured out three important factors to exploit in automatic pain detection: spatial information available regarding...

  3. Super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence emission difference of cylindrical vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zihao; Kuang, Cuifang; Fang, Yue; Zhao, Guangyuan; Xu, Yingke; Liu, Xu

    2015-11-01

    We propose a novel fluorescence emission difference microscopy (FED) system based on focusing cylindrical vector beams. In conventional FED, a Gaussian beam and a 0-2π vortex phase plate are used to generate solid and hollow spots. We focus radially polarized and azimuthally polarized cylindrical vector beams to obtain an expanded solid spot and a shrunken hollow spot, taking advantage of the optical properties of cylindrical vector beams to improve the conventional FED performance. Our novel method enhances FED performance because the hollow spot size determines the FED resolution and an expanded solid spot effectively reduces negative side-lobe emergence during image processing. We demonstrate improved performance theoretically and experimentally using an in-house built FED. Our FED achieved resolution of less than λ/4 in test images of 100 nm nanoparticles, better than the confocal image resolution by a factor of approximately 1/3. We also discuss detailed simulation analyses and FED imaging of biological cells.

  4. Ultra lightweight PMMA-based composite plates with robust super-hydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareo, Paola; De Gregorio, Gian Luca; Manca, Michele; Pianesi, Maria Savina; De Marco, Luisa; Cavallaro, Francesco; Mari, Margherita; Pappadà, Silvio; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2011-11-15

    Extremely lightweight plates made of an engineered PMMA-based composite material loaded with hollow glass micro-sized spheres, nano-sized silica particles and aluminum hydroxide prismatic micro-flakes were realized by cast molding. Their interesting bulk mechanical properties were combined to properly tailored surface topography compatible with the achievement of a superhydrophobic behavior after the deposition of a specifically designed hydrophobic coating. With this aim, we synthesized two different species of fluoromethacrylic polymers functionalized with methoxysilane anchoring groups to be covalently grafted onto the surface protruding inorganic fillers. By modulating the feed composition of the reacting monomers, it was possible to combine the hydrophobic character of the polymer with an high adhesion strength to the substrate and hence to maximize both the water contact angle (up to 157°) and the durability of the easy-to-clean effect (up to 2000 h long outdoor exposure).

  5. Online monitoring of thermo-cycles and its correlation with microstructure in laser cladding of nickel based super alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvvala, Gopinath; Patra Karmakar, Debapriya; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Laser cladding, basically a weld deposition technique, is finding applications in many areas including surface coatings, refurbishment of worn out components and generation of functionally graded components owing to its various advantages over conventional methods like TIG, PTA etc. One of the essential requirements to adopt this technique in industrial manufacturing is to fulfil the increasing demand on product quality which could be controlled through online process monitoring and correlating the signals with the mechanical and metallurgical properties. Rapid thermo-cycle i.e. the fast heating and cooling rates involved in this process affect above properties of the deposited layer to a great extent. Therefore, the current study aims to monitor the thermo-cycles online, understand its variation with process parameters and its effect on different quality aspects of the clad layer, like microstructure, elemental segregations and mechanical properties. The effect of process parameters on clad track geometry is also studied which helps in their judicious selection to deposit a predefined thickness of coating. In this study Inconel 718, a nickel based super alloy is used as a clad material and AISI 304 austenitic steel as a substrate material. The thermo-cycles during the cladding process were recorded using a single spot monochromatic pyrometer. The heating and cooling rates were estimated from the recorded thermo-cycles and its effects on microstructures were characterised using SEM and XRD analyses. Slow thermo-cycles resulted in severe elemental segregations favouring Laves phase formation and increased γ matrix size which is found to be detrimental to the mechanical properties. Slow cooling also resulted in termination of epitaxial growth, forming equiaxed grains near the surface, which is not preferred for single crystal growth. Heat treatment is carried out and the effect of slow cooling and the increased γ matrix size on dissolution of segregated elements in

  6. Enstrophy-based proper orthogonal decomposition of flow past rotating cylinder at super-critical rotating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Tapan K.; Gullapalli, Atchyut

    2016-11-01

    Spinning cylinder rotating about its axis experiences a transverse force/lift, an account of this basic aerodynamic phenomenon is known as the Robins-Magnus effect in text books. Prandtl studied this flow by an inviscid irrotational model and postulated an upper limit of the lift experienced by the cylinder for a critical rotation rate. This non-dimensional rate is the ratio of oncoming free stream speed and the surface speed due to rotation. Prandtl predicted a maximum lift coefficient as CLmax = 4π for the critical rotation rate of two. In recent times, evidences show the violation of this upper limit, as in the experiments of Tokumaru and Dimotakis ["The lift of a cylinder executing rotary motions in a uniform flow," J. Fluid Mech. 255, 1-10 (1993)] and in the computed solution in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)]. In the latter reference, this was explained as the temporal instability affecting the flow at higher Reynolds number and rotation rates (>2). Here, we analyze the flow past a rotating cylinder at a super-critical rotation rate (=2.5) by the enstrophy-based proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of direct simulation results. POD identifies the most energetic modes and helps flow field reconstruction by reduced number of modes. One of the motivations for the present study is to explain the shedding of puffs of vortices at low Reynolds number (Re = 60), for the high rotation rate, due to an instability originating in the vicinity of the cylinder, using the computed Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) from t = 0 to t = 300 following an impulsive start. This instability is also explained through the disturbance mechanical energy equation, which has been established earlier in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)].

  7. Carbogenic molecular sieves for reaction and separation by design: A novel approach to shape selective super base, super acid and catalytic membranes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Henry C.

    2002-03-18

    This report details the findings of three years of research plus one year of a no-cost extension. Primary results are the work with supported nanoporous carbon membranes for separation and reaction as well as with cesium-nanoporous carbon catalysts. The work resulted in 17 plus 2 papers (2 are in progress) and partial or full support for five Ph.D. students. Two patents were filed based on this research.

  8. PLASMA LENS FOR US BASED SUPER NEUTRINO BEAM AT EITHER FNAL OR BNL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERSHCOVITCH,A.; WENG, W.; DIWAN, M.; GALLARDO, J.; KIRK, H.; JOHNSON, B.; KAHN, S.; GARATE, E.; VAN DRIE, A.; ROSTOKER, N.

    2007-06-25

    The plasma lens concept is examined as an alternative to focusing horns and solenoids for a neutrino beam facility. The concept is based on a combined high-current lens/target configuration. Current is fed at an electrode located downstream from the beginning of the target where pion capturing is needed. The current is carried by plasma outside the target. A second plasma lens section, with an additional current feed, follows the target. The plasma is immersed in a relatively small solenoidal magnetic field to facilitate its current profile shaping to optimize pion capture. Simulations of the not yet fully optimized configuration yielded a 25% higher neutrino flux at a detector situated at 3 km from the target than the horn system for the entire energy spectrum and a factor of 2.47 higher flux for neutrinos with energy larger than 3 GeV. A major advantage of plasma lenses is in background reduction. In anti-neutrino operation, neutrino background is reduced by a factor of close to 3 for the whole spectrum, and for and for energy larger than 3 GeV, neutrino background is reduced by a factor of 3.6. Plasma lenses have additional advantages: larger axial currents, high signal purity: minimal neutrino background in anti-neutrino runs. The lens medium consists of plasma, consequently, particle absorption and scattering is negligible. Withstanding high mechanical and thermal stresses in a plasma is not an issue.

  9. Improvement of AODV Routing Protocol Based on Super Node%基于超级节点的AODV路由协议改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浪; 曾碧卿

    2011-01-01

    在移动Ad Hoc网络中,针对AODV路由协议在路由建立过程中通过广播发现路由的缺点,本文提出一种基于超级节点的分簇思想的AODV路由改进协议.新的协议在网络中设置若干个超级节点,根据超级节点的位置将整个网络分成若干簇区,每个超级节点维护本簇区内完整的路由信息.仿真实验表明,通过该方法可以避免采用广播的方式,缩短路由建立的时间,提高数据包发送的成功率.%In mobile Ad Hoc networks, aiming at the disadvantage of the AODV routing protocol, which establishes the route with broadcast, this paper proposes a cluster to improve AODV routing protocol based on super node.In the new protocol some super nodes are set in the network, then the whole network is divided into a number of cluster regions according to the position of super nodes, each super node maintains the integrity of routing information in the own cluster region.Simulation results show that the method can be avoided by using the broadcast, shorten the route setup time, and improve the success rate of packet.

  10. Interactive Super Mario Bros Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Patrikk D.; Olsen, Jeppeh M.; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    to encourage the evolution of desired behaviors. In this paper, we show how casual users can create controllers for \\emph{Super Mario Bros} through an interactive evolutionary computation (IEC) approach, without prior domain or programming knowledge. By iteratively selecting Super Mario behaviors from a set...... of candidates, users are able to guide evolution towards a variety of different behaviors, which would be difficult with an automated approach. Additionally, the user-evolved controllers perform similarly well as controllers evolved with a traditional fitness-based approach when comparing distance traveled...

  11. N=2 Super - $W_{3}$ Algebra and N=2 Super Boussinesq Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, E; Malik, R P

    1995-01-01

    We study classical $N=2$ super-$W_3$ algebra and its interplay with $N=2$ supersymmetric extensions of the Boussinesq equation in the framework of the nonlinear realization method and the inverse Higgs - covariant reduction approach. These techniques have been previously applied by us in the bosonic $W_3$ case to give a new geometric interpretation of the Boussinesq hierarchy. Here we deduce the most general $N=2$ super Boussinesq equation and two kinds of the modified $N=2$ super Boussinesq equations, as well as the super Miura maps relating these systems to each other, by applying the covariant reduction to certain coset manifolds of linear $N=2$ super-$W_3^{\\infty}$ symmetry associated with $N=2$ super-$W_3$. We discuss the integrability properties of the equations obtained and their correspondence with the formulation based on the notion of the second hamiltonian structure.

  12. Study of Super-Twisting sliding mode control for U model based nonlinear system%基于U模型的非线性系统Super-Twisting滑模控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 李杨; 吴学礼; 霍佳楠; 庄沈阳

    2016-01-01

    为了对基于U模型的非线性控制系统进行研究,利用Super-Twisting控制算法,解决非仿射非线性系统的控制问题,对非线性函数进行神经网络逼近,运用Super-Twisting控制算法进行控制.选取恰当的Lyapunov函数,对Super-Twisting算法的收敛性进行了证明.为了验证该方法的可行性和有效性,利用Matlab软件进行仿真,结果表明在神经网络自适应Super-Twisting控制器的作用下,被控系统具有快速的跟踪性能和输出的有界性.

  13. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  14. Super-Twisting Differentiator-Based High Order Sliding Mode Voltage Control Design for DC-DC Buck Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigeng Huangfu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to focus on the smooth output of DC-DC buck converters in wireless power transfer systems under input perturbations and load disturbances using the high-order sliding mode controller (HOSM and HOSM with super-twisting differentiator (HOSM + STD. The proposed control approach needs only measurement of converter output voltage. Theoretical analysis and design procedures, as well as the super-twisting differentiator of the proposed controller are presented in detail with the prescribed convergence law of high-order sliding modes. Comparisons of both simulation and experimental results among conventional proportional-integral (PI control, traditional sliding mode control (SMC, HOSM and HOSM + STD under various test conditions such as steady state, input voltage perturbations and output load disturbances, are presented and discussed. The results demonstrate and validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control method.

  15. A New Rational-based Optimal Design Strategy of Ship Structure Based on Multi-level Analysis and Super-element Modeling Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Sun; Deyu Wang

    2011-01-01

    A new multi-level analysis method of introducing the super-element modeling method,derived from the multi-level analysis method first proposed by O.F.Hughes,has been proposed in this paper to solve the problem of high time cost in adopting a rational-based optimal design method for ship structural design.Furthermore,the method was verified by its effective application in optimization of the mid-ship section of a container ship.A full 3-D FEM model of a ship,suffering static and quasi-static loads,was used as the analyzing object for evaluating the structural performance of the mid-ship module,including static strength and buckling performance.Research results reveal that this new method could substantially reduce the computational cost of the rational-based optimization problem without decreasing its accuracy,which increases the feasibility and economic efficiency of using a rational-based optimal design method in ship structural design.

  16. Calculus super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Calculus I Super Review includes a review of functions, limits, basic derivatives, the definite integral, combinations, and permutations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much you've learned - and where you need more study. Makes an excellent study aid and textbook companion. Great for self-study!DETAILS- From cover to cover, each in-depth topic review is easy-to-follow and easy-to-grasp - Perfect when preparing for

  17. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  18. AlPO4-C Composite Coating on Ni-based Super Alloy Substrates for High Emissivity Applications : Experimentation on Dip Coating and Spray Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Roy; S. Rangaswamy Reddy; Sindhuja, P; Dipak Das; V.V. Bhauprasad

    2016-01-01

    High emissivity coating was developed on Ni-based super alloy substrates by dip coating and spray coating technique using a chemical precursor sol. The coating material was characterised thoroughly by XRD, SEM, TEM and XPS analyses. Characterisation results showed the presence of nano carbon in the AlPO4 matrix which imparted high emissivity to the coating. Emissivity of the coating varied from 0.6 to 0.9 in the wave length range : 2 µm - 25 µm depending on the thickness of the multilayered c...

  19. DESIGN OF DYADIC-INTEGER-COEFFICIENTS BASED BI-ORTHOGONAL WAVELET FILTERS FOR IMAGE SUPER-RESOLUTION USING SUB-PIXEL IMAGE REGISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Chopade

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents image super-resolution scheme based on sub-pixel image registration by the design of a specific class of dyadic-integer-coefficient based wavelet filters derived from the construction of a half-band polynomial. First, the integer-coefficient based half-band polynomial is designed by the splitting approach. Next, this designed half-band polynomial is factorized and assigned specific number of vanishing moments and roots to obtain the dyadic-integer coefficients low-pass analysis and synthesis filters. The possibility of these dyadic-integer coefficients based wavelet filters is explored in the field of image super-resolution using sub-pixel image registration. The two-resolution frames are registered at a specific shift from one another to restore the resolution lost by CCD array of camera. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT obtained from the designed coefficients is applied on these two low-resolution images to obtain the high resolution image. The developed approach is validated by comparing the quality metrics with existing filter banks.

  20. Characteristics and experimental evaluation of super-heat-resisting Nb-based and Mo-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinaga, Masahiko; Furui, Mitsuaki; Noda, Kenji; Oda, Masaaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Nb-based and Mo-based alloys have been investigated in order to develop the frontiers of materials technique which will be utilized in the environment of high-temperature liquid alkali metals. In this study, both mechanical properties and corrosion resistance to liquid Li were evaluated for two designed Mo-based alloys, Mo-15Re-0.1Zr and Mo-15Re-0.1Zr-0.1Ti. In addition, a series of corrosion test was performed with provisionally designed Nb-based alloys, Nb-(1-4)Hf. High-temperature tensile properties: The designed Mo-based alloys were found to have more excellent high-temperature tensile properties, compared to the commercial TZM alloy. High-temperature creep properties: The designed Mo-based alloys were superior in the high-temperature creep properties to other solid solution hardening Mo-based alloys. Workability: The designed Mo-based alloys exhibited an excellent workability, irrespective of the Ti addition. Corrosion resistance to liquid Li: The Nb-1Hf alloy was chosen as a promising alloy of having the highest corrosion resistance among the Nb-based alloys. Also, the Mo-15Re-0.1Zr-0.1Ti alloy was superior to Mo-15Re-0.1Zr alloy, in view of the corrosion resistance to liquid Li. (J.P.N.)

  1. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the p

  2. Retroreflecting polarization spectroscopy enabling miniaturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groswasser, D; Waxman, A; Givon, M; Aviv, G; Japha, Y; Keil, M; Folman, R

    2009-09-01

    We describe and characterize alternative configurations for Doppler-free polarization spectroscopy. The suggested apparatus enables complete pump/probe beam overlap and allows substantial miniaturization. Its utility and performance for narrow linewidth, high-stability frequency locking is discussed for the /5S(1/2)F=2>-->/5P(3/2)F(')>D(2) transition in (87)Rb.

  3. A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Gang [Cryogenics Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li, Qing; Li, Zheng Yu.; Li, Qiang [Cryogenics Laboratory, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-06-15

    A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine was simulated and designed, having overall size of length 0.65 m and height of 0.22 m. The acoustic field generated in this miniature system has been described and analyzed. Some efforts had been paid to coupling and matching, and a miniature thermoacoustic engine and some extra experimental components have been constructed. Analysis and experimental results showed that to obtain better performance of the engine, the diameter of the resonance tube must be chosen appropriately according to the looped tube dimension and the input heating power. It provided an effective way to miniaturize the thermoacoustic stirling heat engine. The experimental results showed that the engine had low onset temperature and high pressure amplitude and ratio. With the filling helium gas of 2 MPa and heating power of 637 W, the maximal peak to peak pressure amplitude and pressure ratio reached 2.2 bar and 1.116, respectively, which was able to drive a refrigerator, a heat pump or a linear electrical generator. The operating frequency of the engine was steady at 282 Hz. (author)

  4. A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Gang [Cryogenics Laboratory, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Li Qing [Cryogenics Laboratory, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: liqing@cl.cryo.ac.cn; Li Zhengyu; Li Qiang [Cryogenics Laboratory, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2711, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2008-06-15

    A miniature thermoacoustic stirling engine was simulated and designed, having overall size of length 0.65 m and height of 0.22 m. The acoustic field generated in this miniature system has been described and analyzed. Some efforts had been paid to coupling and matching, and a miniature thermoacoustic engine and some extra experimental components have been constructed. Analysis and experimental results showed that to obtain better performance of the engine, the diameter of the resonance tube must be chosen appropriately according to the looped tube dimension and the input heating power. It provided an effective way to miniaturize the thermoacoustic stirling heat engine. The experimental results showed that the engine had low onset temperature and high pressure amplitude and ratio. With the filling helium gas of 2 MPa and heating power of 637 W, the maximal peak to peak pressure amplitude and pressure ratio reached 2.2 bar and 1.116, respectively, which was able to drive a refrigerator, a heat pump or a linear electrical generator. The operating frequency of the engine was steady at 282 Hz.

  5. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  6. High torque miniature rotary actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes the design and the development of a miniature rotary actuator (36 mm diameter by 100 mm length) used in spacecraft mechanisms requiring high torques and/or ultra-fine step resolution. This actuator lends itself to applications requiring high torque but with strict volume limitations which challenge the use of conventional rotary actuators. The design challenge was to develop a lightweight (less than 500 grams), very compact, high bandwidth, low power, thermally stable rotary actuator capable of producing torques in excess of 50 N.m and step resolutions as fine as 0.003 degrees. To achieve a relatively high torsional stiffness in excess of 1000 Nm/radian, the design utilizes a combination of harmonic drive and multistage planetary gearing. The unique design feature of this actuator that contributes to its light weight and extremely precise motion capability is a redundant stepper motor driving the output through a multistage reducing gearbox. The rotary actuator is powered by a high reliability space-rated stepper motor designed and constructed by Moog, Inc. The motor is a three-phase stepper motor of 15 degree step angle, producing twenty-four full steps per revolution. Since micro-stepping is not used in the design, and un-powered holding torque is exhibited at every commanded step, the rotary actuator is capable of reacting to torques as high as 35 Nm by holding position with the power off. The output is driven through a gear transmission having a total train ratio of 5120:1, resulting in a resolution of 0.003 degrees output rotation per motor step. The modular design of the multi-stage output transmission makes possible the addition of designs having different output parameters, such as lower torque and higher output speed capability. Some examples of an actuator family based on this growth capability will be presented in the paper.

  7. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  8. 基于超网络视角的产业集群升级研究%Industrial Cluster Upgrading Based on Super-network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梅; 王文平

    2012-01-01

    依据创新能力对集群升级内涵进行了诠释.根据知识和社会关系水平将集群升级转化为由社会网络、显性知识网络和隐性知识网络互动的超网络.运用变分不等式理论和最优化问题的关系,求得网络的洽合流和超网络的均衡状态.探究了集群规模、数量等变动所导致的网络中流和超网络均衡状态的变化,直至最终实现集群升级.最后结合案例分析网络互动的现实意义及今后研究方向.%In this paper, the industrial cluster upgrading is interpreted based on innovation ability. According to knowledge and social relations level, cluster upgrading is converted into the super-network interacted with social, explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge network. By using the relationship between variational inequality theory and optimization problem, the flows hij*, q* eij q*tij a-mong explicit knowledge network, tacit knowledge network and social network are obtained, and the equilibrium of cluster super-network is also achieved. The change of flows in network and equilibrium of cluster super-network caused by alteration of cluster size, number etc are approached. The cluster upgrade is realized in unceasing variation of equilibrium. Finally, practical significance of interaction among network is illustrated based on case and further research direction is pointed out.

  9. Study on Reliability Test System for Miniature Circuit Breaker Based on Virtual Instrument Technology%基于虚拟仪器技术的小型断路器可靠性试验系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾学礼; 李笑来; 鲁修军; 张利; 李文华

    2012-01-01

      Introduction was made to the main functions and working principle of a reliability test system for the miniature circuit breaker based on virtual instrument technology. Description was made to the software design flow and some sub functional modules of the test system. The reliability test system for the miniature circuit breaker designed with LabVIEW can realize automatic control for test, carrying out data collection and treatment in real time, parameters amending and correcting, storing and inquiring of related test data etc functions. The operation reliability test and impulse reliability test were carried out for the miniature circuit breaker ac-cording to GB/Z 22203—2008 “Reliability test method for over current protection circuit breaker for home and similar place use”. Practice shows that the miniature circuit breaker reliability test system using virtual instrument technology is stable in performance, simple and convenient in operation, rich in functions with very good prospect in application popularization.%  介绍了基于虚拟仪器技术开发的小型断路器可靠性试验系统的主要功能、工作原理,阐述了试验系统的软件设计流程及部分子功能模块。利用 LabVIEW 软件设计的小型断路器可靠性试验系统可以实现试验的自动控制,完成对数据的实时采集处理、参数修改与校正、相关试验数据的保存与查询等功能。可依照 GB/Z 22203—2008《家用及类似场所用过电流保护断路器的可靠性试验方法》对小型断路器进行操作可靠性试验和瞬动可靠性试验。实践证明,采用虚拟仪器技术开发的小型断路器可靠性试验系统性能稳定、操作简便、功能丰富,有很好的推广应用前景

  10. Collaborating miniature drones for surveillance and reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürkle, Axel

    2009-09-01

    The use of miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), e.g. quadrocopters, has gained great popularity over the last years. Some complex application scenarios for micro UAVs call for the formation of swarms of multiple drones. In this paper a platform for the creation of such swarms is presented. It consists of commercial quadrocopters enhanced with on-board processing and communication units enabling autonomy of individual drones. Furthermore, a generic ground control station has been realized. Different co-operation strategies for teams of UAVs are currently evaluated with an agent based simulation tool. Finally, complex application scenarios for multiple micro UAVs are presented.

  11. Biocatalytic process development using microfluidic miniaturized systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in biocatalytic processes means there is a clear need for a new systematic development paradigm which encompasses both protein engineering and process engineering. This paper argues that through the use of a new microfluidic platform, data can be collected more rapidly...... and integrated with process modeling, can provide the basis for validating a reduced number of potential processes. The miniaturized platform should use a smaller reagent inventory and make better use of precious biocatalysts. The EC funded BIOINTENSE project will use ω-transaminase based synthesis of chiral...

  12. A miniature high repetition rate shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, R S; Lynch, P T

    2013-09-01

    A miniature high repetition rate shock tube with excellent reproducibility has been constructed to facilitate high temperature, high pressure, gas phase experiments at facilities such as synchrotron light sources where space is limited and many experiments need to be averaged to obtain adequate signal levels. The shock tube is designed to generate reaction conditions of T > 600 K, P shock waves with predictable characteristics are created, repeatably. Two synchrotron-based experiments using this apparatus are also briefly described here, demonstrating the potential of the shock tube for research at synchrotron light sources.

  13. Research on Miniature Hexapod Bio-robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper described the structure and control of a new kind of miniature hexapod bio-robot, analyzed the moving principle of the robot. The robot is based on the principle of bionics, its structure is simple, design novel, unique. It can move forwards and backwards. The external dimensions of bio-robot is: length 30 mm,width 40 mm, height 20 mm, weight 6.3 g. Some tests about the model robot were made. The experimental results show that the robot has good mobility.

  14. Assessment of the nanostructure of acid-base resistant zone by the application of all-in-one adhesive systems: Super dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Toru; Weerasinghe, Dinesh D S; Waidyasekera, Kanchana; Inoue, Go; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2009-01-01

    An acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) has been shown to be created under a hybrid layer in a self-etching adhesive system at the adhesive/dentin interface. The purpose of this study was to assess the nanostructure of the ABRZ by applying all-in-one adhesive systems. Human premolar dentin was treated with one of two all-in-one adhesive systems; Clearfil Tri-S Bond and G-Bond according to the manufacturers' instructions. After placement of a resin composite, the bonded interface was vertically sectioned and subjected to an acid-base challenge. Following this, the nanostructure of the ABRZ was examined by SEM and TEM. The SEM observations of the adhesive-dentin interface after the acid-base challenge indicated that a hybrid layer less than 1 mum thick was created, and a ABRZ was formed beneath the hybrid layer for each adhesive system. The TEM observations indicated that the ABRZ contained mineral components in both adhesive systems, however, the thickness of the ABRZ was material dependent. The application of the all-in-one adhesive systems created an ABRZ at the underlying dentin, which reinforced normal dentin against dental caries. Therefore, this zone was named 'Super Dentin'. Formation of 'Super Dentin' is a new approach in caries prevention.

  15. The Solution Construction of Heterotic Super-Liouville Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhan-Ying; ZHEN Yi

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the heterotic super-Liouville model on the base of the basic Lie super-algebra Osp(1|2).Using the super extension of Leznov-Saveliev analysis and Drinfeld Sokolov linear system, we construct the explicit solution of the heterotic super-Liouville system in component form. We also show that the solutions are local and periodic by calculating the exchange relation of the solution. Finally starting from the action of heterotic super-Liou ville model, we obtain the conserved current and conserved charge which possessed the BR ST properties.

  16. Super Tomboy Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sparked by Super Girl, the androgynous look is in among Chinese youth On September 8, this year's top six contestants on the Super Girl television show, a singing contest for young women, stepped into the spotlight. Nearly none of them had long black hair or wore evening gowns, traditionally associated with beauty in China. Rather, they

  17. 纤维素基高吸水材料研究进展%Research progress in cellulose-based super absorbent material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马东卓; 祝宝东; 王鉴; 张帅; 潘宇亭; 何乾坤

    2014-01-01

    Super absorbent material is a new type of functional polymer material with important application value. This article reviews the pretreatment,the graft modification and the compound modification of natural cellulose in recent years,and also introduces fungi cellulose. Pretreatment methods are emphasized,including alkalization,etherification,ionic liquids dispose and organic solvent dispose,the graft modification of cellulose and cellulose derivatives,and the preparation of super absorbent material by cellulose/silicate complex,cellulose/metal nanoparticles complex and cellulose/highpolymer complex. The cellulose-based super absorbent materials have a wide applied perspective in agriculture,pharmacy and environmental protection.%纤维素基高吸水材料是一种新型的功能高分子材料,具有重要的应用价值。本文综述了近年来天然纤维素的预处理、接枝改性和复合改性,并介绍了菌类纤维素,主要阐述了碱化、醚化、离子液体和有机溶剂对纤维素的预处理,纤维素、纤维素衍生物接枝改性以及纤维素与硅酸盐矿物,金属纳米粒子和高聚物复合制备高吸水材料,指出纤维素基高吸水材料在农业、制药、环保等领域应用前景广阔。

  18. Effect of super dosing of phytase on growth performance, ileal digestibility and bone characteristics in broilers fed corn-soya-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobhavan, M; Elangovan, A V; Sridhar, M; Shet, D; Ajith, S; Pal, D T; Gowda, N K S

    2016-02-01

    A feeding trial was designed to assess the effect of super dosing of phytase in corn-soya-based diets of broiler chicken. One hundred and sixty-eight day-old broilers were selected and randomly allocated to four dietary treatment groups, with 6 replicates having 7 chicks per treatment group. Two-phased diets were used. The starter and finisher diet was fed from 0 to 3 weeks and 4 to 5 weeks of age respectively. The dietary treatments were consisted of normal phosphorus (NP) group without any phytase enzyme (4.5 g/kg available/non-phytin phosphorus (P) during starter and 4.0 g/kg during finisher phase), three low-phosphorus (LP) groups (3.2 g/kg available/non-phytin P during starter and 2.8 g/kg during finisher phase) supplemented with phytase at 500, 2500, 5000 FTU/kg diet, respectively, to full fill their phosphorus requirements. The results showed that super doses of phytase (at 2500 FTU and 5000 FTU/kg) on low-phosphorus diet improved feed intake, body weight gain, ileal digestibility (serine, aspartic acid, calcium, phosphorus), blood P levels and bone minerals such as calcium (Ca), P, magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) content. It could be concluded that super doses of phytase in low-phosphorus diet were beneficial than the normal standard dose (at 500 FTU/kg) of phytase in diet of broiler chicken. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Simulation of Ni-Based Super-Alloy and Optimizing of Its Mechanical Properties in a Near-Shaped Turbine Blade Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammd Reza Alizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of a Ni-based super-alloy during filling of a near-shaped turbine blade part to optimize its mechanical properties. Since geometrical shape of the airfoil is so complicated, a simple near-shaped part was made by plexiglass to water modeling. Condition and parameters of water modeling were obtained from the Procast software simulation. The flow pattern of the transparent systems, recorded by a high speed video camera, was analyzed. Air bubble amounts were quantitatively measured by an image analysis software. Quantified results were used to compare two systems in terms of ability to prevent bubble formation and entrainment. Both water modeling and computer simulating methods indicated that highest turbulences in bottom- and top-poured systems form in first initially pouring times. According to the water modeling results amount of bubble values was 40 and 18 percent for top-poured and bottom-poured systems, respectively. Then the Ni-base super-alloy IN939 is poured by investment casting in bottom- and top-poured systems and compared with each other. The results stated that bottom-poured system had higher mechanical properties compared to top-poured one. Ultimate tensile strength for the former was 820 MPa while for the part which was cast by bottom-poured system it was 850 MPa.

  20. 基于超像素的人工神经网络图像分类%Artificial Neural Network Image Classification Based on Super-pixel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶倩; 文红; 喻文; 毛祺琦; 苏伟伟

    2013-01-01

    基于人工神经网络对图像标签分类,为简化后续数据处理,先用Normalized Cut将图像分割为超像素,提取特征向量,通过输入训练样本集,对网络进行训练,在最小均方误差意义下得到网络参数,最后在Matlab的仿真实验中基于不同隐藏层节点,使用BP神经网络模型对图像超像素进行分类。%This paper describes the classification of image labeling based on artificial neural network .For simplifying the data processing , obtaining the super-pixel as a result of image segmentation , we took the extracted feature vectors as input for network , obtained the parameters of network in the sense of minimum mean square error after training the network with training samples .At last, in the simulation experiments of Matlab , we classified the super-pixel of image based on BP neural network model for all hidden neurons .

  1. The mechanism of lead catalysis of double-base rocket propellant combustion: Super-rate burning and the plateau/mesa phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, W.H.; Neidert, J.B. (Thiokol Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Although double-base propellants contain a fairly complex mixture of ingredients, the most unstable compounds present are the nitrate esters, nitrocellulose and nitrate ester plasticizers, which represent the majority of most formulations; usually the ballistic additives, a lead compound and often carbon, represent from 1% to 5% of the total propellant. Energetic additives such as RDX and HMX are often present, but these nitramines are less responsive to lead catalysis which is characterized by a region of super-rate burning at lower pressures followed by a plateau region at higher pressure as the catalytic effectiveness appears to decrease and often a mesa region as the burn rate actually decreases with pressure. To explain both the super-rate burning and the plateau/mesa phenomena, one should logically examine the chemistry of decomposition of the nitrate esters to explain both lead catalysis and the apparent loss of catalysis; fortunately, examination of the reported chemistry of nitrate esters and several more recent investigations, which used sophisticated experimental techniques to examine double-base propellant combustion, provide support for a comprehensive mechanism to explain both.

  2. Sparse coded image super-resolution using K-SVD trained dictionary based on regularized orthogonal matching pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Mehmood, Irfan; Baik, Sung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Image super-resolution (SR) plays a vital role in medical imaging that allows a more efficient and effective diagnosis process. Usually, diagnosing is difficult and inaccurate from low-resolution (LR) and noisy images. Resolution enhancement through conventional interpolation methods strongly affects the precision of consequent processing steps, such as segmentation and registration. Therefore, we propose an efficient sparse coded image SR reconstruction technique using a trained dictionary. We apply a simple and efficient regularized version of orthogonal matching pursuit (ROMP) to seek the coefficients of sparse representation. ROMP has the transparency and greediness of OMP and the robustness of the L1-minization that enhance the dictionary learning process to capture feature descriptors such as oriented edges and contours from complex images like brain MRIs. The sparse coding part of the K-SVD dictionary training procedure is modified by substituting OMP with ROMP. The dictionary update stage allows simultaneously updating an arbitrary number of atoms and vectors of sparse coefficients. In SR reconstruction, ROMP is used to determine the vector of sparse coefficients for the underlying patch. The recovered representations are then applied to the trained dictionary, and finally, an optimization leads to high-resolution output of high-quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the super-resolution reconstruction quality of the proposed scheme is comparatively better than other state-of-the-art schemes.

  3. New method based on combining ultrasonic assisted miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion and homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of some organochlorinated pesticides in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Farahnaz [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammad-Reza Milani, E-mail: drmilani@iust.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ultrasonic assisted miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with HLLE was developed as a new method for the extraction of OCPs in fish. {yields} The goal of this combination was to enhance the selectivity of HLLE procedure and to extend its application in biological samples. {yields} This method proposed the advantages of good detection limits, lower consumption of reagents, and does not need any special instrumentation. - Abstract: In this study, ultrasonic assisted miniaturized matrix solid-phase dispersion (US-MMSPD) combined with homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HLLE) has been developed as a new method for the extraction of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in fish prior to gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). In the proposed method, OCPs (heptachlor, aldrin, DDE, DDD, lindane and endrin) were first extracted from fish sample into acetonitrile by US-MMSPD procedure, and the extract was then used as consolute solvent in HLLE process. Optimal condition for US-MMSPD step was as follows: volume of acetonitrile, 1.5 mL; temperature of ultrasound, 40 deg. C; time of ultrasound, 10 min. For HLLE step, optimal results were obtained at the following conditions: volume of chloroform, 35 {mu}L; volume of aqueous phase, 1.5 mL; volume of double distilled water, 0.5 mL; time of centrifuge, 10 min. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors for the studied compounds were obtained in the range of 185-240, and the overall recoveries were ranged from 39.1% to 81.5%. The limits of detection were 0.4-1.2 ng g{sup -1} and the relative standard deviations for 20 ng g{sup -1} of the OCPs, varied from 3.2% to 8% (n = 4). Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of the OCPs in real fish sample, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  4. A portable miniature anechoic chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorthioir, Jack; Gavin, Paul

    The portable miniature anechoic chamber (PMAC), a low-cost alternative to a full-size anechoic chamber, is presented. The PMAC is a miniature, enclosed, RF-tight microwave antenna range, which approximates the performance of an indoor range over the C through Ku (G through J)-band frequencies. The small footprint, four by six feet, allows for ease of movement by one person to a test site, indoors or outdoors. The PMAC can be used at I (intermediate)-level to support the operational readiness (OR) requirements of the U.S. Army, Navy or Air Force. In conjunction with the antenna test equipment (ATE), and under TPS control, it can be used for performance verification, fault detection and fault isolation. A typical application using the PMAC in this operating mode is described.

  5. Miniaturization of Spherical Magnetodielectric Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle

    The fundamental limitations in performance of electrically small antennas (ESAs) - and how far these may be approached - have been of great interest for over a century. Particularly over the past few decades, it has become increasingly relevant and important, to approach these limits in view...... to the important antenna parameters of radiation efficiency e and impedance bandwidth. For single-mode antennas the fundamental minimum Q is the Chu lower bound. In this Ph.D. dissertation, the topic is miniaturization of spherical antennas loaded by an internal magnetodielectric core. The goal is to determine......, quantify, and assess the effects of an internal material loading upon antenna performance, including its potentials towards miniaturization. Emphasis have been upon performing an exhaustive and exact analysis of rigorous validity covering a large class of spherical antennas. In the context of this study...

  6. "Stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework: Design, synthesis and selective sorption towards uranium at high acidic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Bo; Bai, Chiyao; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Rui; Zhang, Meicheng; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2016-08-15

    So far, only five primary elements (C, H, O, N and B) and two types of spatial configuration (C2-C4, C6 and Td) are reported to build the monomers for synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which have partially limited the route selection for accessing COFs with new topological structure and novel properties. Here, we reported the design and synthesis of a new "stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework (MPCOF) by using hexachorocyclotriphosphazene (a P-containing monomer in a C3-like spatial configuration) and p-phenylenediamine (a linker). The as-synthesized MPCOF shows high crystallinity, relatively high heat and acid stability and distinctive super-microporous structure with narrow pore-size distributions ranging from 1.0-2.1nm. The results of batch sorption experiments with a multi-ion solution containing 12 co-existing cations show that in the pH range of 1-2.5, MPCOF exhibits excellent separation efficiency for uranium with adsorption capacity more than 71mg/g and selectivity up to record-breaking 92%, and furthermore, an unreported sorption capacity (>50mg/g) and selectivity (>60%) were obtained under strong acidic condition (1M HNO3). Studies on sorption mechanism indicate that the uranium separation by MPCOF in acidic solution is realized mainly through both intra-particle diffusion and size-sieving effect.

  7. 一种基于全局复合评价算法的Super Peer选择机制%Selection mechanism of Super Peers based on global complex evaluation algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小龙; 王汝传

    2009-01-01

    提出一种基于全局复合评价算法的Super Peer选择机制,该机制以主客观相结合的科学依据从多方面自动选择P2P网络中稳定可靠、长期在线且积极提供服务的大量高性能Peer担当Super Peer职责,从而可以极大地扩充Super Peer的数量,使得全分布式结构化拓扑和半分布式拓扑结构可以在同一个P2P网络中有效地互补并存.全局复合评价算法综合采用在线活跃情况、任务完成能力和平均通信速率这3个指标来作为Super Peer的选择标准.构建了P2P仿真实验系统环境,验证所提出的算法和相应机制的可行性和实用价值.

  8. Miniaturization Techniques for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.

    2003-05-27

    The possibility of laser driven accelerators [1] suggests the need for new structures based on micromachining and integrated circuit technology because of the comparable scales. Thus, we are exploring fully integrated structures including sources, optics (for both light and particle) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip (AOC). Tests suggest a number of preferred materials and techniques but no technical or fundamental roadblocks at scales of order 1 {micro}m or larger.

  9. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  10. Super-microporous solid base MgO-ZrO2 composite and their application in biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiaojiao; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Huigang; Yan, Xiaoliang; Pan, Dahai; Fan, Binbin; Li, Ruifeng

    2016-10-01

    The super-microporous microcrystalline MgO-ZrO2 nanomaterials (pore size 1-2 nm) was prepared successfully via a facile one-pot evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method and employed in the transesterification of soybean oil and methanol. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, temperature programmed desorption of CO2, and N2 adsorption porosimetry were employed to characterize the nanocomposites. Nitrogen sorption isotherms revealed that these materials had large surface areas of more than 200 m2/g. Moreover, the sample with a Mg/Zr molar ratio of 0.5 and calcined at 400 °C showed high biodiesel yield (around 99% at 150 °C).

  11. 稀疏字典编码的超分辨率重建%Super-Resolution Based on Sparse Dictionary Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李民; 程建; 乐翔; 罗环敏

    2012-01-01

    Learning-Based super-resolution methods usually select several objects with similar features from some examples according to the low-resolution image, then estimate super-resolution result using optimization algorithm. But the result is usually limited by the quality of matching objects and only geometric construction of the images is selected as matching feature, so matching accuracy is relatively low. This paper presents a sparse dictionary model for image super-resolution, which unifies the feature patches of high-resolution (HR) and low-resolution (LR) images for sparse coding. To break through the aforementioned limitations, this method builds a sparse association between HR and LR images, and realized simultaneous matching and optimization methods. The study uses a MCA method to improve the accuracy for feature extraction and carry out super-resolution reconstruction and denoise simultaneously. Sparse K-SVD algorithm is adopted as optimization method to reduce the computation time of sparse coding. Some experiments with real images show that this method outperforms other learning-based super-resolution algorithms.%基于学习的超分辨率方法通常根据低分辨率图像从样本库中选取若干特征相似的匹配对象,再使用优化算法进行超分辨率估计,但其结果受匹配对象的质量限制,并且匹配特征一般只选择图像的几何结构信息,匹配准确性较低.提出了稀疏字典编码的超分辨率模型,将高、低分辨率图像特征块统一进行稀疏编码,建立高、低分辨率图像的稀疏关联,同步实现匹配搜索和优化估计,突破了上述方法的限制.应用形态分量分析法提取图像的特征数据,提高了特征匹配的准确性,并同步实现超分辨率重建和降噪功能.优化方法采用稀疏K-SVD算法以提高稀疏字典编码的计算速度.采用自然图像进行实验与其他基于学习的超分辨率算法相比,重建所得到的图像质量更优.

  12. Super-Resolution Based on Sparse Dictionary Coding%稀疏字典编码的超分辨率重建∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李民; 程建; 乐翔; 罗环敏

    2013-01-01

    Learning-Based super-resolution methods usually select several objects with similar features from some examples according to the low-resolution image, then estimate super-resolution result using optimization algorithm. But the result is usually limited by the quality of matching objects and only geometric construction of the images is selected as matching feature, so matching accuracy is relatively low. This paper presents a sparse dictionary model for image super-resolution, which unifies the feature patches of high-resolution (HR) and low-resolution (LR) images for sparse coding. To break through the aforementioned limitations, this method builds a sparse association between HR and LR images, and realized simultaneous matching and optimization methods. The study uses a MCA method to improve the accuracy for feature extraction and carry out super-resolution reconstruction and denoise simultaneously. Sparse K-SVD algorithm is adopted as optimization method to reduce the computation time of sparse coding. Some experiments with real images show that this method outperforms other learning-based super-resolution algorithms.%  基于学习的超分辨率方法通常根据低分辨率图像从样本库中选取若干特征相似的匹配对象,再使用优化算法进行超分辨率估计,但其结果受匹配对象的质量限制,并且匹配特征一般只选择图像的几何结构信息,匹配准确性较低。提出了稀疏字典编码的超分辨率模型,将高、低分辨率图像特征块统一进行稀疏编码,建立高、低分辨率图像的稀疏关联,同步实现匹配搜索和优化估计,突破了上述方法的限制。应用形态分量分析法提取图像的特征数据,提高了特征匹配的准确性,并同步实现超分辨率重建和降噪功能。优化方法采用稀疏K-SVD算法以提高稀疏字典编码的计算速度。采用自然图像进行实验,与其他基于学习的超分辨率算法相比,重建所得到的图像质量更优。

  13. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  14. Experiments on a Miniature Hypervelocity Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Douglas; Johnson, Carl; Murphy, Michael; Lieber, Mark; MIMS Team

    2013-06-01

    A miniature explosively-driven shock tube, based on the Voitenko compressor design, has been designed to produce shock speeds in light gases in excess of 80 km/s. Voitenko compressors over 1 meter in diameter have been reported but here experiments on miniature shock tubes with ~1-mm bore diameters are described. In this design a 12-mm diameter explosive pellet drives a metal plate into a hemispherical gas compression chamber. Downstream from the piston a mica diaphragm separates the gas from an evacuated shock tube which is confined by a massive polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) block. The diaphragm eventually ruptures under the applied pressure loading and the compressed gases escape into the evacuated shock tube at hyper velocities. The progress of gas shocks in the tube and bow shocks in the PMMA are monitored with an ultra-high-speed imaging system, the Shock Wave Image Framing Technique (SWIFT). The resulting time-resolved images yield two-dimensional visualizations of shock geometry and progression. By measuring both the gas and bow shocks, accurate and unequivocal measurements of shock position history are obtained. The experimental results were compared with those of hydrocode modeling to optimize the design. The first experiments were suboptimum in that the velocities were ~16 km/s. Progress with these experiments will be reported.

  15. Miniaturized low-cost digital holographic interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalkiewicz, Aneta; Kujawinska, Małgorzata; Marc, Paweł; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.

    2006-04-01

    Digital holography (DH) and digital holographic interferometry (DHI) are very useful, robust, full-field visualization and measurement techniques applied for small objects, especially in the field of bioengineering and microelements system testing. Nowadays CCD/CMOS detectors and microlasers allow to build miniaturized and compact digital holographic head. Various approaches to develop DH/DHI systems including a variety of optical and mechanical solutions have been made. The main recent requirements for holocamera design include compactness, insensitivity to vibrations environmental changes and with good quality of output data. Other requirement is the ability to build a low-cost and robust system for sensing applications. In our paper, we propose a design of miniaturized holo-camera head with fibre optics light delivery system and remote data read-out. The opto-mechanical architecture allows out-of-plane and shape measurements of diffuse and reflective surfaces. The possible data capture schemes and software for enhanced quality numerical reconstruction of complex objects are discussed and the optimized methodology is determined. Also real-time optoelectronic hologram reconstruction is demonstrated on the base of remote data delivery to liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator. The performance of the system is tested on the resolution amplitude test and master sphere, while engineering objects in the experiments are static and dynamic microelements.

  16. Axial Super-resolution Evanescent Wave Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Pendharker, Sarang; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axi...

  17. Miniature Biometric Sensor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Hanson, Andrea; Cooper, Tommy; Downs, Meghan; Flint, Stephanie; Reyna, Baraquiel; Simon, Cory; Wilt, Grier

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring (HRM) is a critical need during exploration missions. Unlike the four separate systems used on ISS today, the single HRM system should perform as a diagnostic tool, perform well during exercise or high level activity, and be suitable for use during EVA. Currently available HRM technologies are dependent on uninterrupted contact with the skin and are prone to data drop-out and motion artifact when worn in the spacesuit or during exercise. Here, we seek an alternative to the chest strap and electrode based sensors currently in use on ISS today. This project aims to develop a single, high performance, robust biosensor with focused efforts on improved heart rate data quality collection during high intensity activity such as exercise or EVA.

  18. Characterization of oxygen transfer in miniature and lab-scale bubble column bioreactors and comparison of microbial growth performance based on constant k(L)a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Steven D; Ortiz-Ochoa, Kenny; Ward, John M; Baganz, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the engineering characterization of miniature (2 mL) and laboratory-scale (100 mL) bubble column bioreactors useful for the cultivation of microbial cells. These bioreactors were constructed of glass and used a range of sintered glass gas diffusers with differently sized pores to disperse humidified air within the liquid biomedium. The effect of the pressure of this supplied air on the breakthrough point for gas diffusers with different pore sizes was examined and could be predicted using the Laplace-Young equation. The influence of the superficial gas velocity (u(g)) on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) was determined, and values of up to 0.09 s(-1) were observed in this work. Two modeling approaches were considered in order to predict and provide comparison criteria. The first related the volumetric power consumption (P/V) to the k(L)a and a good correlation was obtained for differently sized reactors with a given pore size, but this correlation was not satisfactory for bubble columns with different gas diffusers. Values for P/V ranged from about 10 to 400 W.m(-3). Second, a model was developed predicting bubble size (d(b)), bubble rising velocity (u(b)), gas hold-up (phi), liquid side mass transfer coefficient (k(L)), and thus the k(L)a using established theory and empirical correlations. Good agreement was found with our experimental data at different scales and pore sizes. Values for d(b) varied from 0.1 to 0.6 mm, and k(L) values between 1.7 and 9.8 x 10(-4) m.s(-1) were determined. Several E. coli cultivations were performed in the miniature bubble column at low and high k(L)a values, and the results were compared to those from a conventional stirred tank operated under identical k(L)a values. Results from the two systems were similar in terms of biomass growth rate and carbon source utilization.

  19. NETL Super Computer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NETL Super Computer was designed for performing engineering calculations that apply to fossil energy research. It is one of the world’s larger supercomputers,...

  20. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    and aerial imaging to medical image processing, to facial image analysis, text image analysis, sign and number plates reading, and biometrics recognition, to name a few. This has resulted in many research papers, each developing a new super-resolution algorithm for a specific purpose. The current......Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  1. Super-Kamiokande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Lluís Martí

    2016-06-01

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment performs a large variety of studies, many of them in the neutrino sector. The archetypes are atmospheric neutrino (recently awarded with the Nobel prize for Mr. T. Kajita) and the solar neutrinos analyses. In these proceedings we report our latest results and present updates to indirect dark matter searches, our solar neutrino analysis and discuss the future upgrade of Super-Kamiokande by loading gadolinium into our ultra-pure water.

  2. The Super Girl Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ In recent years, Changsha,the capital city of Hunan Province, has become famous across China for its innovative TV channel, in particular the cultural phenomenon of the Super Girl talent show. And as far as culture goes, Hunan TV is merely a reflection of a renaissance happening in the city. Animation, music halls, drama festivals and a famous book market are just some of the city's cultural sectors that are benefiting from the fame and notoriety of the Super Girl show.

  3. Development and experimental investigation of a miniature-scale refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuting, E-mail: wuyuting@bjut.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Municipality, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Ma Chongfang; Zhong Xiaohui [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation, Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Heat Transfer and Energy Conversion, Beijing Municipality, College of Environmental and Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Two generation miniature Wankel compressors with the cooling capacity of 300 W were developed. The weight of first generation compressor is 700 g and that of second generation is 400 g. A miniature spiral-tube type evaporator is developed which weighs 0.26 kg and a brazed aluminum multi-channel parallel type condenser is also developed which weighs 0.3 kg. Based on the development of above components, a miniature refrigeration system prototype with a cooling capacity of 300 W was integrated and the system weighs about 2.85 kg. An experimental system for miniature refrigeration system was set up. The tests of the performance of miniature refrigeration system were done. The experimental results indicated that the compression ratio of the compressor is above 3.0, the refrigerating output of the system is above 300 W and the coefficient of performance of the developed micro climate cooling system was about 2.3.

  4. The formation of super-rings

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G

    1980-01-01

    The author has calculated the collision of a small neutral cloud (surface density approximately 10/sup 19/ cm/sup -2/) with a constant density galactic disk. Through the collision, a large amount of energy is deposited in a small volume of the galaxy, resulting in a supersonic expansion of very hot (10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/K) gas into the Galaxy and out of the galactic disk. The expansion generates a large cavity (a super-ring) with physical characteristics (diameter, velocity of expansion, etc.) in agreement with the observations, and a large volume of hot low-density gas with properties similar to those of the observed coronal gas. (31 refs).

  5. Microscale chemistry-based design of eco-friendly, reagent-saving and efficient pharmaceutical analysis: a miniaturized Volhard's titration for the assay of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sumran, Krissadecha; Nateetaweewat, Paksupang; Winotapun, Weerapath; Sukpisit, Sirarat; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

    2011-09-15

    This work demonstrates the extended application of microscale chemistry which has been used in the educational discipline to the real analytical purposes. Using Volhard's titration for the determination of sodium chloride as a paradigm, the reaction was downscaled to less than 2 mL conducted in commercially available microcentrifuge tubes and using micropipettes for the measurement and transfer of reagents. The equivalence point was determined spectrophotometrically on the microplates which quickened the multi-sample measurements. After the validation and evaluation with bulk and dosage forms, the downsized method showed good accuracy comparable to the British Pharmacopeial macroscale method and gave satisfactory precision (intra-day, inter-day, inter-analyst and inter-equipment) with the relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. Interestingly, the amount of nitric acid, silver nitrate, ferric alum and ammonium thiocyanate consumed in the miniaturized titration was reduced by the factors of 25, 50, 50 and 215 times, respectively. The use of environmentally dangerous dibutyl phthalate was absolutely eliminated in the proposed method. Furthermore, the release of solid waste silver chloride was drastically reduced by about 25 folds. Therefore, microscale chemistry is an attractive, facile and powerful green strategy for the development of eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective analytical methods suitable for a sustainable environment.

  6. Self-folding miniature elastic electric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Meeker, Laura; Tolley, Michael T.; Wood, Robert J.; Rus, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Printing functional materials represents a considerable impact on the access to manufacturing technology. In this paper we present a methodology and validation of print-and-self-fold miniature electric devices. Polyvinyl chloride laminated sheets based on metalized polyester film show reliable self-folding processes under a heat application, and it configures 3D electric devices. We exemplify this technique by fabricating fundamental electric devices, namely a resistor, capacitor, and inductor. Namely, we show the development of a self-folded stretchable resistor, variable resistor, capacitive strain sensor, and an actuation mechanism consisting of a folded contractible solenoid coil. Because of their pre-defined kinematic design, these devices feature elasticity, making them suitable as sensors and actuators in flexible circuits. Finally, an RLC circuit obtained from the integration of developed devices is demonstrated, in which the coil based actuator is controlled by reading a capacitive strain sensor.

  7. Miniature Autonomous Robotic Vehicle (MARV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Kwok, K.S.; Driessen, B.J.; Spletzer, B.L.; Weber, T.M.

    1996-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has recently developed a 16 cm{sup 3} (1 in{sup 3}) autonomous robotic vehicle which is capable of tracking a single conducting wire carrying a 96 kHz signal. This vehicle was developed to assess the limiting factors in using commercial technology to build miniature autonomous vehicles. Particular attention was paid to the design of the control system to search out the wire, track it, and recover if the wire was lost. This paper describes the test vehicle and the control analysis. Presented in the paper are the vehicle model, control laws, a stability analysis, simulation studies and experimental results.

  8. Super-Altro 16: a Front-End System on Chip for DSP Based Readout of Gaseous Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P.; Franca, H.; Garcia Garcia, E.; Musa, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the architecture, design and test results of an ASIC specifically designed for the readout of gaseous detectors. The primary application is the readout of the Linear Collider Time Projection Chamber. The small area available (4mm2/channel) requires an innovative design, where sensitive analog components and massive digital functionalities are integrated on the same chip. Moreover, shut down (power pulsing) features are necessary in order to reduce the power consumption. The Super-Altro is a 16-channel demonstrator ASIC involving analog and digital signal processing. Each channel contains a low noise Pre-Amplifier and Shaping Amplifier (PASA), a pipeline ADC, and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The PASA is programmable in terms of gain and shaping time and can operate with both positive and negative polarities of input charge. The 10-bit ADC samples the output of the PASA at a frequency up to 40MHz before providing the digitized signal to the DSP which performs baseline subtraction, signa...

  9. Estimates of Climate Change Impact on River Discharge in Japan Based on a Super-High-Resolution Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Sato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on river discharge was assessed by hydrological simulations for several major river basins in Japan using the latest version of a super-high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM with a horizontal resolution of about 20 km. Projections were made using two different datasets, one representing the present climate (1980 - 1999 and the other representing the end of the 21st century (2080 - 2099 assuming the SRES A1B scenario. River discharge was estimated by a distributed hydrological model calibrated against observed river discharge in advance. The results showed that even if the amount of precipitation does not change much in the future, river discharge will change significantly because of the increase in rainfall, decrease in snowmelt, and increase in evapotranspiration with higher air temperature. The impact of climate change on river discharge will be more significant in the northern part of Japan, especially in the Tohoku and Hokuriku regions. In these regions, the monthly average river discharge at the end of the 21st century was projected to be more than 200% higher in February and approximately 50 - 60% lower in May compared with the present flow. These results imply that the increase in air temperature has important consequences for the hydrological cycle, particularly in regions where the water supply is currently dominated by snowmelt.

  10. Oil and gas reservoir exploration based on hyperspectral remote sensing and super-low-frequency electromagnetic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiming; Zhang, Zili; Chen, Li; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Chengye

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a method that combined hyperspectral remote sensing with super-low-frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection to extract oil and gas reservoir characteristics from surface to underground, for the purpose of determining oil and gas exploration target regions. The study area in Xinjiang Karamay oil-gas field, China, was investigated. First, a Hyperion dataset was used to extract altered minerals (montmorillonite, chlorite, and siderite), which were comparatively verified by field survey and spectral measurement. Second, the SLF electromagnetic datasets were then acquired where the altered minerals were distributed. An inverse distance weighting method was utilized to acquire two-dimensional profiles of the electrical feature distribution of different formations on the subsurface. Finally, existing geological data, field work, and the results derived from Hyperion images and SLF electromagnetic datasets were comprehensively analyzed to confirm the oil and gas exploration target region. The results of both hyperspectral remote sensing and SLF electromagnetic detection had a good consistency with the geological materials in this study. This paper demonstrates that the combination of hyperspectral remote sensing and SLF electromagnetic detection is suitable for the early exploration of oil and gas reservoirs, which is characterized by low exploration costs, large exploration areas, and a high working efficiency.

  11. A theoretical prediction of super high-performance thermoelectric materials based on MoS2/WS2 hybrid nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Yuee; Peng, Qing; Chen, Yuanping

    2016-02-17

    Modern society is hungry for electrical power. To improve the efficiency of energy harvesting from heat, extensive efforts seek high-performance thermoelectric materials that possess large differences between electronic and thermal conductance. Here we report a super high-performance material of consisting of MoS2/WS2 hybrid nanoribbons discovered from a theoretical investigation using nonequilibrium Green's function methods combined with first-principles calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The hybrid nanoribbons show higher efficiency of energy conversion than the MoS2 and WS2 nanoribbons due to the fact that the MoS2/WS2 interface reduces lattice thermal conductivity more than the electron transport. By tuning the number of the MoS2/WS2 interfaces, a figure of merit ZT as high as 5.5 is achieved at a temperature of 600 K. Our results imply that the MoS2/WS2 hybrid nanoribbons have promising applications in thermal energy harvesting.

  12. Deforming super Riemann surfaces with gravitinos and super Schottky groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Playle, Sam [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-12-12

    The (super) Schottky uniformization of compact (super) Riemann surfaces is briefly reviewed. Deformations of super Riemann surface by gravitinos and Beltrami parameters are recast in terms of super Schottky group cohomology. It is checked that the super Schottky group formula for the period matrix of a non-split surface matches its expression in terms of a gravitino and Beltrami parameter on a split surface. The relationship between (super) Schottky groups and the construction of surfaces by gluing pairs of punctures is discussed in an appendix.

  13. One-day-ahead streamflow forecasting via super-ensembles of several neural network architectures based on the Multi-Level Diversity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochero, Darwin; Hajji, Islem; Pina, Jasson; Plana, Queralt; Sylvain, Jean-Daniel; Vergeynst, Jenna; Anctil, Francois

    2015-04-01

    Theories about generalization error with ensembles are mainly based on the diversity concept, which promotes resorting to many members of different properties to support mutually agreeable decisions. Kuncheva (2004) proposed the Multi Level Diversity Model (MLDM) to promote diversity in model ensembles, combining different data subsets, input subsets, models, parameters, and including a combiner level in order to optimize the final ensemble. This work tests the hypothesis about the minimisation of the generalization error with ensembles of Neural Network (NN) structures. We used the MLDM to evaluate two different scenarios: (i) ensembles from a same NN architecture, and (ii) a super-ensemble built by a combination of sub-ensembles of many NN architectures. The time series used correspond to the 12 basins of the MOdel Parameter Estimation eXperiment (MOPEX) project that were used by Duan et al. (2006) and Vos (2013) as benchmark. Six architectures are evaluated: FeedForward NN (FFNN) trained with the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm (Hagan et al., 1996), FFNN trained with SCE (Duan et al., 1993), Recurrent NN trained with a complex method (Weins et al., 2008), Dynamic NARX NN (Leontaritis and Billings, 1985), Echo State Network (ESN), and leak integrator neuron (L-ESN) (Lukosevicius and Jaeger, 2009). Each architecture performs separately an Input Variable Selection (IVS) according to a forward stepwise selection (Anctil et al., 2009) using mean square error as objective function. Post-processing by Predictor Stepwise Selection (PSS) of the super-ensemble has been done following the method proposed by Brochero et al. (2011). IVS results showed that the lagged stream flow, lagged precipitation, and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) (McKee et al., 1993) were the most relevant variables. They were respectively selected as one of the firsts three selected variables in 66, 45, and 28 of the 72 scenarios. A relationship between aridity index (Arora, 2002) and NN

  14. 基于DynamipsGUI的小型局域网仿真%Simulation of miniature local area network based on DynamipsGUI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 马杰良; 夏景明

    2011-01-01

    应用DynamipsGUI软件开展小型局域网络的仿真,简化了网络的分析和设计.通过配置虚拟局域网中继协议和生成树协议,详细介绍了仿真实验的过程.在虚拟环境下,应用多类网络协议进行数据通信不仅有益于网络配置技术的学习,而且符合真实的网络.%Currently local area network is one of the most prevalent networks. There are multiple virtual local networks and many switches in real local area network, thus it is necessary to implement uniform virtual local area network management and redundant link setting. Trunking protocol is applied to realize the consistency of virtual local area network configuration in view of uniform management. Setting redundant links will bring about loops and broadcast storm, so spanning tree protocol is applied to avoid loops for smooth communication. Simulation can be used for configurating network protocol and realizing communication under lack of experiment funds. DynamipsGUI was applied to simulate miniature local area network, which simplified the network analysis and design. The simulation process was detailed through the configuration of virtual local area network trunking protocol and spanning tree protocol. In virtual environment, application of multiple network protocols is helpful to network configuration learning, and accords with the real network environment as well.

  15. Power Electronics for a Miniaturized Arcjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bowers, Glen E.

    1997-01-01

    A 0.3 kW Power Processing Unit (PPU) was designed, tested on resistive loads, and then integrated with a miniaturized arcjet. The main goal of the design was to minimize size and mass while maintaining reasonable efficiency. In order to obtain the desired reductions in mass, simple topologies and control methods were considered. The PPU design incorporates a 50 kHz, current-mode-control, pulse-width-modulated (PWM), push-pull topology. An input voltage of 28 +/- 4V was chosen for compatibility with typical unregulated low voltage busses anticipated for smallsats. An efficiency of 0.90 under nominal operating conditions was obtained. The component mass of the PPU was 0.475 kg and could be improved by optimization of the output filter design. The estimated mass for a flight PPU based on this design is less than a kilogram.

  16. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...... a essentially determined by the SRR, while by varying the dipole arm length the input resistance is changed in a wide range, thus matching the antenna to a feed line and compensating for simulation and manufacturing inaccuracies. No additional matching network is required. Theoretically, there is no limit...... on how small this antenna can be. In practice, the lower bound is set by losses in utilized materials and manufacturing inaccuracies. As an example, an antenna of ka=0.09 was designed, fabricated and tested. Although the initially fabricated antenna prototype had the input impedance of 43 ohms...

  17. Miniaturized high-performance MEMS accelerometer detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonseth, Stephan; Rudolf, Felix; Eichenberger, Christoph; Durrant, Dick; Airey, Phil

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of the demonstration of European capabilities for future space exploration mission, a high-performance miniaturized MEMS accelerometer detector is developed by Colibrys for incorporation into a compact inertial measurement unit (IMU). The envisaged missions where a miniaturized IMU is under development by SEA should cover: Aerobraking;

  18. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  19. NormaCurve: a SuperCurve-based method that simultaneously quantifies and normalizes reverse phase protein array data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Troncale

    Full Text Available MOTIVATION: Reverse phase protein array (RPPA is a powerful dot-blot technology that allows studying protein expression levels as well as post-translational modifications in a large number of samples simultaneously. Yet, correct interpretation of RPPA data has remained a major challenge for its broad-scale application and its translation into clinical research. Satisfying quantification tools are available to assess a relative protein expression level from a serial dilution curve. However, appropriate tools allowing the normalization of the data for external sources of variation are currently missing. RESULTS: Here we propose a new method, called NormaCurve, that allows simultaneous quantification and normalization of RPPA data. For this, we modified the quantification method SuperCurve in order to include normalization for (i background fluorescence, (ii variation in the total amount of spotted protein and (iii spatial bias on the arrays. Using a spike-in design with a purified protein, we test the capacity of different models to properly estimate normalized relative expression levels. The best performing model, NormaCurve, takes into account a negative control array without primary antibody, an array stained with a total protein stain and spatial covariates. We show that this normalization is reproducible and we discuss the number of serial dilutions and the number of replicates that are required to obtain robust data. We thus provide a ready-to-use method for reliable and reproducible normalization of RPPA data, which should facilitate the interpretation and the development of this promising technology. AVAILABILITY: The raw data, the scripts and the normacurve package are available at the following web site: http://microarrays.curie.fr.

  20. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  1. Miniaturized spectral imager for Aalto-1 nanosatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Rami; Näsilä, Antti; Praks, Jaan; Saari, Heikki; Antila, Jarkko

    2011-11-01

    The Aalto-1 is a 3U-cubesat project coordinated by Aalto University. The satellite, Aalto-1, will be mainly built by students as project assignments and thesis works. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland will develop the main Earth observation payload, a miniaturized spectral imager, for the satellite. It is a novel highly miniaturized tunable filter type spectral imager. Mass of the spectral imager will be less than 400 grams, and dimensions will be approximately 80 mm x 80 mm x 45 mm. The spectral imager is based on a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) accompanied by an RGB CMOS image sensor. The FPI consists of two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap and it is based either on a microelectromechanical (MEMS) or piezo-actuated structure. The MEMS FPI is a monolithic device, i.e. it is made entirely on one substrate in a batch process, without assembling separate pieces together. The gap is adjusted by moving the upper mirror with electrostatic force. Benefits of the MEMS FPI are low mass and small size. However, large aperture (2-10 mm) MEMS FPIs are currently under development, thus it is not yet known if their performance is adequate. The piezo-actuated FPI uses three piezo-actuators and is controlled in a closed capacitive feedback loop. The drawback of the piezo-actuated FPI is its higher mass. However, it has a large aperture which enables a shorter exposure times. Selection of the FPI type will be done after thorough evaluation. Depending on the selected FPI type, the spectral resolution of the imager will be 5 - 10 nm at full width at half maximum and it will operate in the visible and/or near infrared range.

  2. Miniaturized Sensors for Monitoring of Atmospheric Trace Gases using Multiple Deployment Platforms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daylight Solutions proposes a miniaturized sensor package based on ECqcLTM and QEPAS technology that were independently developed by Daylight Solutions (San Diego,...

  3. Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm proposes to design and develop a fully autonomous Lunar Navigator based on our MicroMak miniature star sensor and a gravity gradiometer similar to one on a...

  4. Combined self-learning based single-image super-resolution and dual-tree complex wavelet transform denoising for medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Ye, Xujiong; Slabaugh, Greg; Keegan, Jennifer; Mohiaddin, Raad; Firmin, David

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning based single-image super-resolution (SR) method, which is coupled with dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) based denoising to better recover high-resolution (HR) medical images. Unlike previous methods, this self-learning based SR approach enables us to reconstruct HR medical images from a single low-resolution (LR) image without extra training on HR image datasets in advance. The relationships between the given image and its scaled down versions are modeled using support vector regression with sparse coding and dictionary learning, without explicitly assuming reoccurrence or self-similarity across image scales. In addition, we perform DTCWT based denoising to initialize the HR images at each scale instead of simple bicubic interpolation. We evaluate our method on a variety of medical images. Both quantitative and qualitative results show that the proposed approach outperforms bicubic interpolation and state-of-the-art single-image SR methods while effectively removing noise.

  5. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Philip; Watterson, Carl

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  6. Miniaturization of planar horn motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-04-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of a stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2×2×2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of 3 × 3 × 0.2 cm.

  7. 基于类二次型Lyapunov函数的Super-twisting算法收敛性分析%Convergence of Super-twisting algorithm based on quadratic-like Lyapunov function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 郑志强

    2011-01-01

    基于非光滑的类二次型Lyapunov函数,对二阶滑模Supevtwisfing算法的有限时间收敛性进行了分析.当系统受常值干扰时,通过Lyapunov方程证明了该算法有限时间收敛,并给出了收敛时间的最优估计;当系统受时变干扰时,通过求解代数Riccati方程得出了一组保证该算法有限时间收敛的参数取值范围,并给出了收敛时间的估计值.仿真算例表明了理论分析的正确性.%The finite time convergence of the second order sliding Super-twisting algorithm is analyzed by using a non- smooth quadratic-like Lyapunov function. For the constant disturbance, the finite time convergence is proved through Lyapunov equation, and the optimal estimation of the convergence time is presented. For the time varying disturbance, the finite time convergence of Super-twisting is guaranteed when the parameters satisfy the algebraic Riccati equation, and the estimation of the convergence time is provided. Finally, simulation results show the correction of the theoretical analysis.

  8. Second Phases in Fe-25Cr-35Ni Based Super Alloy%Fe-25Cr-35Ni系合金中的第二相,

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭景锋; 徐仁根; 晁代义; 邵文柱; 崔约贤

    2012-01-01

    采用光学显微镜和扫描电子显微镜以及能谱仪研究了Fe-25Cr-35Ni系合金中的第二相种类和分布。结果表明:Fe-25Cr-35Ni系合金中的第二相主要有3种,即富铌相、氮化物相和碳化物相;其中,富铌相主要沿晶界分布,并且富铌相之间存在成分差异;氮化物相主要为TiN,一般与富铌相共生,其分布主要与氮化物偏析有关;碳化物相数量较多,分布较广泛,晶内、晶界、孪晶界和孪晶内均有分布,经高温固溶处理后可固溶到奥氏体基体中。%The second phases and their distribution in Fe-25Cr-35Ni based super alloy were investigated through optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy diffraction spectrum. The results show that there are mainly three kinds of second phases in Fe-25Cr-35Ni based super alloy and they are Nb-rich phase, nitride phase and carbide phase. The Nb-rich phases mainly distribute along the grain ground, and there is chemical compositions difference between the Nb-rich phases. The nitride phases mainly are TiN and generally intergrow with the Nb-rich phases, and their distributing relates to the segregation of nitride. The carbide phases amount is more and they distribute in the grains, grain boundaries, twins and twin boundaries. And the carbide phases could be dissolved into the base metal after high temperature solution treatment.

  9. 基于DSP系统的超分辨率图像重建技术研究%Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction Technology Based on DSP System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建青; 刘晶红; 刘铁军

    2012-01-01

    Because of the limitations of cost and size of the navigation photo-electricity equipments, it is necessary to get images or videos as clear as possible without changing the structure of navigation photo-electricity equipments. This paper introduces a method based on DSP image processing system to realize super-resolution reconstruction which realizes motion estimation by the united optimized algorithm of Fourier-Mellin and Keren firstly, and achieves super-resolution image reconstruction based on projection onto convex sets,lastly, realizes the method on DSP by optimizes the method based on the feature of DM642 without reducing the accuracy . This method improves the resolving power of the image system without increasing the size of the system structure as well as enhance the identify ability of the system. This paper has proposed to realize super-resolution reconstruction on the embedded image processing platform which the core is DM642, the resolution of camera is 720×576, and the reconstruction time decreases to 20 s from several minutes or even several ten minutes. Experiment results indicate that the detail of reconstruction image is clearer than that of the single frame interpolation image, and the average gradient and the information entropy also get improved.%由于航空光电设备造价与体积等的限制,需要在不改变航空光电设备硬件结构的前提下,获取尽可能清晰的图像或视频.文章提出了基于DSP图像处理系统的超分辨率重建方法,首先利用Fourier-Mellin变换法和Keren算法的联合优化算法进行运动估计;然后利用基于边缘保持的凸集投影简化方法进行超分辨率重建;最终结合DM642的特征,在不降低精度的前提下,对算法进行优化实现.该方法在不增加系统结构体积和成本的前提下,有效地提高了成像系统的分辨力,进而提高系统的目标识别能力.在以DM642为核心嵌入式图像处理平台中实现超分辨率重建实

  10. I. Synthesis, characterization, and base catalysis of novel zeolite supported super-basic materials II. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over reduced heteropolyanion catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galownia, Jonathan M.

    This thesis is composed of two separate and unrelated projects. The first part of this thesis outlines an investigation into the synthesis and characterization of a novel zeolite supported super-base capable of carbon-carbon olefin addition to alkyl aromatics. A zeolite supported basic material capable of such reactions would benefit many fine chemical syntheses, as well as vastly improve the economics associated with production of the high performance thermoplastic polyester polyethylene naphthalate. The thermal decomposition of alkali---metal azides impregnated in zeolite X is investigated as a novel route to the synthesis of a zeolite supported super-base. Impregnation of the alkali---metal azide precursor is shown to result in azide species occluded within the pores of the zeolite support by using high speed, solid-state 23Na MAS and 2D MQMAS NMR, FTIR, and TGA characterization methods. Addition of alkali---metal azides to the zeolite results in redistribution of the extra-lattice cations in the zeolite framework. Thermal decomposition of impregnated azide species produces further cation redistribution, but no neutral metallic clusters are detected by high speed, solid-state 23Na MAS NMR following thermal activation of the materials. Instead, it is possible that inactive ionic clusters are formed. The thermally activated materials do not promote base catalysis for the isomerization of 1-butene, the ethylation of toluene and o-xylene, and the alkenylation of o-xylene with 1,3-butadiene to produce 5-ortho-tolyl-pent-2-ene (5-OTP). The lack of catalytic activity in the materials is attributed to failure of the materials to form neutral metallic clusters during thermal treatment, possibly due to preferential formation of NMR silent ionic clusters. The formation of neutral metallic clusters is found to be insensitive to synthesis technique and activation procedure. It is concluded that the impregnation of alkali---metal azides in zeolite X does not provide a

  11. "Super Roman Pots"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that will be installed in each downstream arm of intersection I-8. Detectors for a coming physics experiment, placed inside these "Super Roman Pots", can be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams.

  12. A Super Roman Pot

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Remotely controlled re-entrant vacuum vessels, with very thin (0.17 mm) central windows, that were installed in each downstream arm of the ISR intersection I-8. Detectors placed inside these Super Roman Pots could be moved very close to the circulating ISR beams. (See Annual Report 1974 p. 110.)

  13. Characteristics of miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources based on TG-43U1 formalism using Monte Carlo simulation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, Habib; Faghihi, Reza; Jashni, Somaye Karimi; Meigooni, Ali S. [Faculty of Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, 73481-13111, Persepolis (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Research Center, Shiraz University, 71936-16548, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 71348-14336, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Radiation therapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, 3730 South Eastern Avenue, Las Vegas, Nevada 89169 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine a method for Monte Carlo (MC) characterization of the miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources (MEBXS) and to set dosimetric parameters according to TG-43U1 formalism. TG-43U1 parameters were used to get optimal designs of MEBXS. Parameters that affect the dose distribution such as anode shapes, target thickness, target angles, and electron beam source characteristics were evaluated. Optimized MEBXS designs were obtained and used to determine radial dose functions and 2D anisotropy functions in the electron energy range of 25-80 keV. Methods: Tungsten anode material was considered in two different geometries, hemispherical and conical-hemisphere. These configurations were analyzed by the 4C MC code with several different optimization techniques. The first optimization compared target thickness layers versus electron energy. These optimized thicknesses were compared with published results by Ihsan et al.[Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264, 371-377 (2007)]. The second optimization evaluated electron source characteristics by changing the cathode shapes and electron energies. Electron sources studied included; (1) point sources, (2) uniform cylinders, and (3) nonuniform cylindrical shell geometries. The third optimization was used to assess the apex angle of the conical-hemisphere target. The goal of these optimizations was to produce 2D-dose anisotropy functions closer to unity. An overall optimized MEBXS was developed from this analysis. The results obtained from this model were compared to known characteristics of HDR {sup 125}I, LDR {sup 103}Pd, and Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy source (XAEBS) [Med. Phys. 33, 4020-4032 (2006)]. Results: The optimized anode thicknesses as a function of electron energy is fitted by the linear equation Y ({mu}m) = 0.0459X (keV)-0.7342. The optimized electron source geometry is obtained for a disk-shaped parallel beam (uniform cylinder) with 0.9 mm radius. The TG-43

  14. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Spectroscopy of Anticipated TESS Planets and Selected Super-Earths Discovered from K2 and Ground-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana; Albert, Loic; Deming, Drake

    2017-01-01

    The 2018 launch of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), coupled with the 2017 launch of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), heralds a new era in Exoplanet Science, with TESS projected to detect over one thousand transiting sub-Neptune-sized planets (Ricker et al, 2014), and JWST offering unprecedented spectroscopic capabilities. Sullivan et al (2015) used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the properties of the planets that TESS is likely to detect, and published a catalog of 962 simulated TESS planets. Prior to TESS launch, the re-scoped Kepler K2 mission and ground-based surveys such as MEarth continue to seek nearby Earth-like exoplanets orbiting M-dwarf host stars. The exoplanet community will undoubtedly employ JWST for atmospheric characterization follow-up studies of promising exoplanets, but the targeted planets for these studies must be chosen wisely to maximize JWST science return. The goal of this project is to estimate the capabilities of JWST’s Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS)—operating with the GR700XD grism in Single Object Slitless Spectrography (SOSS) mode—during observations of exoplanets transiting their host stars. We compare results obtained for the simulated TESS planets, confirmed K2-discovered super-Earths, and exoplanets discovered using ground-based surveys. By determining the target planet characteristics that result in the most favorable JWST observing conditions, we can optimize the choice of target planets in future JWST follow-on atmospheric characterization studies.

  15. Design of A Miniaturized V-band Millimeter Wave Microstrip Antenna Based on LTCC Metamaterials Substrate%基于LTCC超材料基板的小型化V波段毫米波微带天线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振哲; 汪澎

    2012-01-01

    A miniaturized V-band millimeter wave microstrip antenna is designed based on low temperature co-fired ceramic(LTCC) metamaterials substrate.S parameters of the LTCC metamaterials substrate is obtained through simulation by using of HFSS software;equivalent permittivity and permeability of the materials are obtained by way of improved S parameter extraction method.A millimeter wave microstrip antenna is developed by replacing common dielectric substrate with LTCC metamaterials substrate,and comparison result between performance of this antenna and that of antenna based on common dielectric substrate are given.%本文介绍了一种基于LTCC超材料(metamaterials)基板的小型化V波段毫米波微带天线设计。通过HFSS仿真软件获得LTCC超材料基板的S参数,使用改进的S参数提取方法获得材料的等效介电常数和磁导率。利用LTCC超材料替代普通介质基板,实现了毫米波微带天线的小型化,并与常规介质基板天线的性能进行了对比。

  16. A novel multimodal CARS miniaturized microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brett; Naji, Majid; Murugkar, Sangeeta; Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter; Anis, Hanan

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a novel portable, fibre delivery miniaturized multimodal microscope (exoscope) for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-photon excitation fluorescence imaging using a single Ti:sapphire femtosecond pulsed laser. This microscope features a large mode area photonic crystal fibre for light delivery, as well as biaxial scanning microelectromechanical system mirrors and custom miniaturized optics corrected for chromatic aberration. We demonstrate imaging of polystyrene beads, two photon excitation fluorescence beads in both forward and backward (epi) directions. This miniaturized exoscope will enable in-vivo imaging of rat spinal cord.

  17. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope beyond surface imaging and achieve a tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of 3D fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by one-dimensional (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of ∼130  nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  18. Axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Shende, Swapnali; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-12-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axial resolution of $\\sim$130 nm. Our method does not require any additional optical components or sample preparation. The proposed method can be combined with focal plane super-resolution techniques like STORM and can also be adapted for THz and microwave near-field tomography.

  19. Implementation of Rapid Linear-Object Area Subtraction Algorithm Based on SuperMap Objects%基于SuperMap Objects线状地物面积快速扣除算法实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆耀栋; 毕如田; 周淑琴

    2014-01-01

    线状地物调查是土地资源调查中的一项重要内容。在分类统计汇总土地面积时,计算、扣除线状地物面积时显得尤为重要。本文在分析线状地物与地类图斑空间关系的基础上,设计了线状地物面积快速扣除算法。利用SuperMap Objects作为开发平台,VC++6.0为开发工具实现了该算法。经验证,该算法能够快速实现线状地物面积扣除,可达到相关建库工作的精度要求。%The investigation of linear features is an important element of the land resources survey .Calculation and subtraction of line-ar features area are particularly important in the classification statistics of the land area .On the basis of analyzing the spatial relation-ship of linear features with Polygons , we design fast area subtraction algorithm of the linear features .Applying SuperMap Objects as a development platform, VC ++6.0 as the development tools, the algorithm is realized.The algorithm can quickly achieve the linear features area subtraction and the requirements of building the database of land use .

  20. Image super resolution based on couple dictionary learning%基于对偶字典学习的图像超分辨技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾俊国

    2013-01-01

    A novel coupled dictionary training method for single image super resolution based on patch-wise sparse recovery is proposed,where the learned couple dictionaries relate the low and high-resolution image patch spaces via sparse representation.The learning process enforces that the sparse representation of a low-resolution image patch in terms of the low-resolution dictionary can well reconstruct its underlying high-resolution image patch with the dictionary in the high-resolution image patch space.The learning problem is modeled as a bilevel optimization problem,where the optimization includes an l1 norm minimization problem in its constraints.Implicit differentiation is employed to calculate the desired gradient for stochastic gradient descent.Coupled dictionary learning method can outperform the existing joint dictionary training method both quantitatively and qualitatively.Extensive experimental comparisons with state-of-the-art super-resolution algorithms validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.%提出一种基于对偶字典学习的图像超分辨方法,通过稀疏重建的方法得到重建的图像,对偶字典通过稀疏表示将低分辨图像和高分辨图像联系起来.在稀疏表示过程中,低分辨图像在低分辨字典上的稀疏表示能够很好地提高对应的高分辨图像在高分辨字典上的稀疏表示效果.将字典的学习建模为包含l1范数优化问题的双层最优化问题,采用隐微分法计算随机梯度下降的期望梯度.仿真实验结果表明,该方法能够达到和联合字典学习方法相同的速度和质量,同时,在实际应用中可以通过神经网络模型学习方法提高算法的速度.与现有的算法比较,表明了该算法的有效性.

  1. Miniaturized tools and devices for bioanalytical applications: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudy, M.; Grabowska, I.; Ciosek, P.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various miniaturized devices and technologies developed by our group. Innovative, fast and cheap procedures for the fabrication of laboratory microsystems based on commercially available materials are reported and compared with well-established microfabricatio...... optic detectors, potentiometric sensors platforms, microreactors and capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchips as well as integrated microsystems e. g. double detection microanalytical systems, devices for studying enzymatic reactions and a microsystem for cell culture and lysis....

  2. Architectural Engineering to Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas

    with architectural engineering as a starting point. The thesis is based on a two stringed hypothesis: Architectural engineering gives rise to better architecture and Super-Light Structures support and enables a static, challenging architecture. The aim of the thesis is to clarify architectural engineering's impact...... on the work process between architects and engineers in the design development. Using architectural engineering, Super-Light Structures are examined in an architectural context, and it is explained how digital tools can support architectural engineering and design of Super-Light Structures. The experiences...... to be subjects of examination for this thesis. The research results show that architectural engineering has a significant impact on a design process. The projects illustrate that simple explanations, underpinned by visualisations of the challenges between shape versus structure, often creates a shared...

  3. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  4. Super resolution of images and video

    CERN Document Server

    Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2007-01-01

    This book focuses on the super resolution of images and video. The authors' use of the term super resolution (SR) is used to describe the process of obtaining a high resolution (HR) image, or a sequence of HR images, from a set of low resolution (LR) observations. This process has also been referred to in the literature as resolution enhancement (RE). SR has been applied primarily to spatial and temporal RE, but also to hyperspectral image enhancement. This book concentrates on motion based spatial RE, although the authors also describe motion free and hyperspectral image SR problems. Also exa

  5. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  6. Super-resolved imaging with ultimate time resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ashida, Yuto

    2015-01-01

    Precisely and accurately locating point objects is a long-standing common thread in science. Super-resolved imaging of single molecules has revolutionized our view of quasi-static nanostructures $\\it{in-vivo}$. A wide-field approach based on localizing individual fluorophores has emerged as a versatile method to surpass the standard resolution limit. In those techniques, the super-resolution is realized by sparse photoactivation and localization together with the statistical analysis based on point spread functions. Nevertheless, the slow temporal resolution of super-resolved imaging severely restricts the utility to the study of live-cell phenomena. Clearly, a major breakthrough to observe fast, nanoscale dynamics needs to be made. Here we present a super-resolved imaging method that achieves the theoretical-limit time resolution. By invoking information theory, we can achieve the robust localization of overlapped light emitters at an order of magnitude faster speed than the conventional super-resolution mic...

  7. Weapons and armament on the miniatures of Tabriz miniature school of the XV - XVI centuries

    OpenAIRE

    AHMADOV SABUHI AHMAD OGLU

    2015-01-01

    Tabriz miniature school is an important part of the art of the Middle East. The article discusses battle miniatures in which medieval artists reliably and historical accuracy depicted various weapons and armament. These miniatures can serve as an important historical source for the study of weapons of the XV XVI centuries. The main purpose of this article is to give the proof of these miniatures of art school which can be considered as a source for the study of arms and armament of the XV XVI...

  8. Miniaturized High Performance Optical Gyroscope Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new approach for to the design and fabrication of miniaturized Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscope (FOG) that enables the production of smaller IRU...

  9. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  10. Miniature Sensor for Aerosol Mass Measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project seeks to develop a miniature sensor for mass measurement of size-classified aerosols. A cascade impactor will be used to classify aerosol sample...

  11. High Performance Miniature Bandpass Filters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is submitted for developing low impedance, miniature bandpass RF frequency filter via MEMS technique, in applications of SMAP, Aquarius follow-on,...

  12. A Miniaturized and Robust FTS Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vescent Photonics details a miniaturized and robust Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS) for in-situ chemical and spectral analysis. Phase I research will focus on...

  13. A Miniaturized and Robust FTS Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vescent Photonics determined the feasibility of a miniaturized, robust, Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for either in-situ or remote chemical and spectral...

  14. Habitability of Super-Earth Planets around Main-Sequence Stars including Red Giant Branch Evolution: Models based on the Integrated System Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cuntz, M; Schroeder, K -P; Bounama, C; Franck, S

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study published in Astrobiology, we focused on the evolution of habitability of a 10 M_E super-Earth planet orbiting a star akin to the Sun. This study was based on a concept of planetary habitability in accordance to the integrated system approach that describes the photosynthetic biomass production taking into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. In the present study, we pursue a significant augmentation of our previous work by considering stars with zero-age main sequence masses between 0.5 and 2.0 M_sun with special emphasis on models of 0.8, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5 M_sun. Our models of habitability consider again geodynamical processes during the main-sequence stage of these stars as well as during their red giant branch evolution. Pertaining to the different types of stars, we identify so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zones (pHZ) determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. We obtain various sets of solution...

  15. Analyzing the Competing Teams’ Match Results in 2012 - 2013 Season in Turki sh Spor Toto Super League Based on Different Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep İMAMOĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the wins, draws, and defeats in the matches in Turkish Spor Toto Super League in 2012 - 2013 season based on different parameters that can influence the result. The data as a resource to the study has been obtained from the website tr.matchstudy.com which presents mat ch analyses by using Mathball software with 1,5% error margin rate. The data has been examined statistically by using SPSS 21.0 program and the significance level has been determined as p0.05 when the match scores of the teams such as w ins, draws, and defeats are compared with the percentage of ball possession in the attacking field. When the teams’ number of passes are viewed, it has been found out that losing teams accomplished more passes than the winning teams. Yet, these passes were negative ones which create a significant difference (p<0.05. As a result, it has been observed that the scores of the matches played between the teams are effected by the passes accomplished, the ball sent to the penalty area, and the shots to the goal. It has been revealed that losing teams have higher rates in some parameters such as passes and balls sent to the penalty area, but their attempts usually fail. It can be stated that the important point to win the game is not ball possession but to use the ball in a more effective and result - oriented way.

  16. [The design and implementation of the web typical surface object spectral information system in arid areas based on .NET and SuperMap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Zhang, Fei; Ji, Hong-jiang

    2011-07-01

    The characteristic of object spectrum is not only the base of the quantification analysis of remote sensing, but also the main content of the basic research of remote sensing. The typical surface object spectral database in arid areas oasis is of great significance for applied research on remote sensing in soil salinization. In the present paper, the authors took the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis as an example, unified .NET and the SuperMap platform with SQL Server database stored data, used the B/S pattern and the C# language to design and develop the typical surface object spectral information system, and established the typical surface object spectral database according to the characteristics of arid areas oasis. The system implemented the classified storage and the management of typical surface object spectral information and the related attribute data of the study areas; this system also implemented visualized two-way query between the maps and attribute data, the drawings of the surface object spectral response curves and the processing of the derivative spectral data and its drawings. In addition, the system initially possessed a simple spectral data mining and analysis capabilities, and this advantage provided an efficient, reliable and convenient data management and application platform for the Ugan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis's follow-up study in soil salinization. Finally, It's easy to maintain, convinient for secondary development and practically operating in good condition.

  17. Spectral responsivity calibration of the reference radiation thermometer at KRISS by using a super-continuum laser-based high-accuracy monochromatic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Gun Jung; Park, Seongchong; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Hak

    2016-12-01

    We report on the calibration of the relative spectral responsivity of the reference radiation thermometer, model LP4, which is used for the experimental realisation of the international temperature scale of 1990 above 960 °C at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. The relative spectral responsivity of LP4 is measured by using a monochromatic source consisting of a super-continuum laser and a double-grating monochromator. By monitoring the wavelength of the output beam directly with a calibrated wavelength-meter, we achieved a high-accuracy measurement of spectral responsivity with a maximum wavelength error of less than 3 pm, a narrow spectral bandwidth of less than 0.4 nm, and a high dynamic range over 8 decades. We evaluated the contributions of various uncertainty components of the spectral responsivity measurement to the uncertainty of the temperature scale based on a practical estimation approach, which numerically calculates the maximal effects of the variations of each component. As a result, we evaluate the uncertainty contribution from the spectral responsivity measurement to the temperature scale to be less than 64 mK (k  =  1) in a range from 660 °C to 2749 °C for the LP4 with a filter at 650 nm.

  18. Projections onto Convex Sets Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on Point Spread Function Estimation of Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chong; Wu, Chaoyun; Li, Grand; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problem on inaccuracy when estimating the point spread function (PSF) of the ideal original image in traditional projection onto convex set (POCS) super-resolution (SR) reconstruction, this paper presents an improved POCS SR algorithm based on PSF estimation of low-resolution (LR) remote sensing images. The proposed algorithm can improve the spatial resolution of the image and benefit agricultural crop visual interpolation. The PSF of the high-resolution (HR) image is unknown in reality. Therefore, analysis of the relationship between the PSF of the HR image and the PSF of the LR image is important to estimate the PSF of the HR image by using multiple LR images. In this study, the linear relationship between the PSFs of the HR and LR images can be proven. In addition, the novel slant knife-edge method is employed, which can improve the accuracy of the PSF estimation of LR images. Finally, the proposed method is applied to reconstruct airborne digital sensor 40 (ADS40) three-line array images and the overlapped areas of two adjacent GF-2 images by embedding the estimated PSF of the HR image to the original POCS SR algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method yields higher quality of reconstructed images than that produced by the blind SR method and the bicubic interpolation method. PMID:28208837

  19. Projections onto Convex Sets Super-Resolution Reconstruction Based on Point Spread Function Estimation of Low-Resolution Remote Sensing Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chong; Wu, Chaoyun; Li, Grand; Ma, Jun

    2017-02-13

    To solve the problem on inaccuracy when estimating the point spread function (PSF) of the ideal original image in traditional projection onto convex set (POCS) super-resolution (SR) reconstruction, this paper presents an improved POCS SR algorithm based on PSF estimation of low-resolution (LR) remote sensing images. The proposed algorithm can improve the spatial resolution of the image and benefit agricultural crop visual interpolation. The PSF of the highresolution (HR) image is unknown in reality. Therefore, analysis of the relationship between the PSF of the HR image and the PSF of the LR image is important to estimate the PSF of the HR image by using multiple LR images. In this study, the linear relationship between the PSFs of the HR and LR images can be proven. In addition, the novel slant knife-edge method is employed, which can improve the accuracy of the PSF estimation of LR images. Finally, the proposed method is applied to reconstruct airborne digital sensor 40 (ADS40) three-line array images and the overlapped areas of two adjacent GF-2 images by embedding the estimated PSF of the HR image to the original POCS SR algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed method yields higher quality of reconstructed images than that produced by the blind SR method and the bicubic interpolation method.

  20. Super-Nyquist asteroseismology of solar-like oscillators with Kepler and K2 - expanding the asteroseismic cohort at the base of the red-giant branch

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplin, W J; Davies, G R; Campante, T L; Handberg, R; Miglio, A; Basu, S

    2014-01-01

    We consider the prospects for detecting solar-like oscillations in the "super-Nyquist" regime of long-cadence (LC) Kepler photometry, i.e., above the associated Nyquist frequency of approximately 283 {\\mu}Hz. Targets of interest are cool, evolved subgiants and stars lying at the base of the red-giant branch. These stars would ordinarily be studied using the short-cadence (SC) data, since the associated SC Nyquist frequency lies well above the frequencies of the detectable oscillations. However, the number of available SC target slots is quite limited. This imposes a severe restriction on the size of the ensemble available for SC asteroseismic study.We find that archival Kepler LC data from the nominal Mission may be utilized for asteroseismic studies of targets whose dominant oscillation frequencies lie as high as approximately 500 {\\mu}Hz, i.e., about 1.75- times the LC Nyquist frequency. The frequency detection threshold for the shorter-duration science campaigns of the re-purposed Kepler Mission, K2, is lo...