WorldWideScience

Sample records for based solid state

  1. Solid-State Nanopore-Based DNA Sequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing technology is becoming more and more attractive for its brand new future in gene detection field. The challenges that need to be addressed are diverse: the effective methods to detect base-specific signatures, the control of the nanopore’s size and surface properties, and the modulation of translocation velocity and behavior of the DNA molecules. Among these challenges, the realization of the high-quality nanopores with the help of modern micro/nanofabrication technologies is a crucial one. In this paper, typical technologies applied in the field of solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing have been reviewed.

  2. Zirconia-based solid state chemical gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuiykov, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of chemical gas sensors, based on solid state technology, that are sensitive to environmental gases, such as O sub 2 , SO sub x , NO sub x , CO sub 2 and hydrocarbons. The paper is focussed on performance of electrochemical gas sensors that are based on zirconia as a solid electrolyte. The paper considers sensor structures and selection of electrode materials. Impact of interfaces on sensor performance is discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of electrochemical properties of zirconia and their effect on sensor performance. Impact of auxiliary materials on sensors performance characteristics, such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time and recovery time, is also discussed. Dual gas sensors that can be applied for simultaneous monitoring of the concentration of both oxygen and other gas phase components, are briefly considered

  3. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Marcisz, Honorata; Michalska, Agata; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof

    2005-12-01

    A novel construction of solution free (pseudo)reference electrodes, compatible with all-solid-state potentiometric indicator electrodes, has been proposed. These electrodes use conducting polymers (CP): polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Two different arrangements have been tested: solely based on CP and those where the CP phase is covered with a poly(vinyl chloride) based outer membrane of tailored composition. The former arrangement was designed to suppress or compensate cation- and anion-exchange, using mobile perchlorate ions and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) or dodecylbenzenesulfonate anions as immobilized dopants. The following systems were used: (i) polypyrrole layers doped simultaneously by two kinds of anions, both mobile and immobilized in the polymer layer; (ii) bilayers of polypyrrole with anion exchanging inner layer and cation-exchanging outer layer; (iii) polypyrrole doped by surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonate ions, which inhibit ion exchange on the polymer/solution interface. For the above systems, recorded potentials have been found to be practically independent of electrolyte concentration. The best results, profound stability of potentials, have been obtained for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or polypyrrole doped by poly(4-styrenesulfonate) anions covered by a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, containing both anion- and cation-exchangers as well as solid potassium chloride and silver chloride with metallic silver. Differently to the cases (i)-(iii) these electrodes are much less sensitive to the influence of redox and pH interferences. This arrangement has been also characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry.

  4. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  5. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  6. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  7. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  8. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  9. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  10. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  11. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  12. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  13. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  14. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  15. Solid State Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-15

    15, 324 (1993). 3. L . Wallman , J. Drott, J. Nilsson, and T. Laurell, 8th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and...unlimited. BTIG QUA1ETY IHSESCTBH) l This report is based on studies performed at Lincoln Laboratory, a center for research operated by Massachusetts...analyzer. 34 7-1 Fully depleted transistor results for 50-nm silicon-on-insulator thickness and W/ L = 7/0.25 fjm: (a) n-channel characteristic curves, (b

  16. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  17. Solid-state titania-based gas sensor for liquefied petroleum gas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Solid-state titania-based gas sensor for liquefied petroleum gas detection at room temperature. B C YADAV*, ANURADHA YADAV, TRIPTI SHUKLA and SATYENDRA SINGH. Nanomaterials and Sensors Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow,. Lucknow 226 007, India. MS received 27 May ...

  18. Solid-state titania-based gas sensor for liquefied petroleum gas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid-state titania-based gas sensor for liquefied petroleum gas detection at room temperature. B C Yadav ... This paper reports the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sensing of titanium dioxide (Qualigens, India). Scanning electron ... Variations in resistance with exposure of LPG to the sensing element were observed.

  19. Encapsulation and solid state sequestration of gases by calix[6]arene-based molecular containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavendomme, Roy; Ajami, Daniela; Moerkerke, Steven; Wouters, Johan; Rissanen, Kari; Luhmer, Michel; Jabin, Ivan

    2017-06-13

    Two calix[6]arene-based molecular containers were synthesized in high yields. These containers can encapsulate small guests through a unique "rotating door" complexation process. The sequestration of greenhouse gases is clearly demonstrated. They can be stored in the solid state for long periods and released via dissolution of the inclusion complex.

  20. Flexible, low-temperature, solution processed ZnO-based perovskite solid state solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mulmudi Hemant; Yantara, Natalia; Dharani, Sabba; Graetzel, Michael; Mhaisalkar, Subodh; Boix, Pablo P; Mathews, Nripan

    2013-12-07

    A ZnO compact layer formed by electrodeposition and ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) allow the processing of low-temperature, solution based and flexible solid state perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. Conversion efficiencies of 8.90% were achieved on rigid substrates while the flexible ones yielded 2.62%.

  1. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  2. Solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Doolen, G. D.; Hammel, P. C.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). It is shown that an MRFM single-electron spin measurement provides three essential requirements for quantum computation in solids: (a) preparation of the ground state, (b) one- and two-qubit quantum logic gates, and (c) a measurement of the final state. The proposed quantum computer can operate at temperatures up to 1 K. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R

    1972-01-01

    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  4. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  5. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  6. Solid State Air Purification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The solid state air purification project will explore feasibility of a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide...

  7. Solid State Grid Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    This program was for the design, construction and test of two Solid State Grid Modulators to provide enhanced performance and improved reliability in existing S-band radar transmitters at the Rome Research Site...

  8. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Modulation of a solid-state reversible fluorescent photoswitching based on a controllable photochromic pyrazolones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hu; Guo, Jixi [Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Clean Energy, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Jia, Dianzeng, E-mail: jdz@xju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Clean Energy, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Guo, Mingxi; Le, Fuhe; Liu, Lang; Wu, Dongling [Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Clean Energy, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Autonomous Region, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang (China); Li, Feng [State Laboratory of Surface and Interface Science and Technology, School of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002, Henan (China); University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77002 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    A novel solid-state reversible fluorescence photoswitching system (FPS) based on photochromism of photochromic pyrazolones has been developed by employing phosphor Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} co-doped with europium ion and chlorine ion (Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}–EC) and 1,3-diphenyl-4-(3-chlorobenzal)-5-hydroxypyrazole-4-phenylsemicarbazone (1a) as the fluorescence dye and the photochromic compound, respectively. With carefully selected components, the absorption band of the keto-form photochromic pyrazolones well overlaps with the emission peak of Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}–EC. The fluorescence emission intensity of Sr{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}–EC is efficiently modulated by the photoisomerization of 1a with controlling the exposure time in the solid state. The fluorescence photoswitching system displayed high fluorescence quenching efficiency and remarkable fatigue resistance. It can be repeated 7 cycles without observable the changes of emission intensity. A fluorescence quenching efficiency can be achieved with a reversible colour change from white to yellow. - Graphical abstract: A novel fluorescence photoswitching system based on doping inorganic fluorescence dye into photochromic pyrazolones was constructed successfully. Its fluorescence emission could be efficiently modulated by the photoisomerization of pyrazolones. - Highlights: • A solid-state fluorescence photoswitching material was prepared. • Photoswitching is due to energy transfer between pyrazolone and fluorescence dye. • It exhibits excellent fluorescence contrast and fatigue resistance in the solid state.

  10. Probing Li-ion transport in Sulfide-based solid-state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.

    2017-01-01

    The presented thesis aims at understanding the relationship between the synthesis procedure of argyrodite Li6PS5X (X=Br, Cl) solid electrolytes and the resulting structure, morphology, and solid-state battery performance. Specifically, argyrodite solid electrolytes in combination with Li2S positive

  11. Iron based superconductors and related compounds synthesized by solid state metathesis and high temperature reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovsky, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The results of this thesis can be divided into three major topics, which can also be seen as different approaches of solid state chemistry to reveal interesting features of known and unknown compounds and to develop alternative synthesis routes. Firstly, known compounds with related structural motifs to the superconducting iron-arsenides were investigated regarding their structural and physical properties. In case of La 3 Pd 4 Ge 4 the influence of Fe doping on the properties was studied, whereas in the series ZrMAs (M=Ti,V) the physical properties have not yet been reported at all and were investigated for the first time. Secondly, an alternative synthesis route has been developed for the synthesis of superconducting LaFeAsO 1-x F x . This solid state metathesis reaction distinctly increased the quality of the samples compared to conventionally prepared products. Furthermore, the reaction pathway was investigated and clarified, which helps to understand the processes during high temperature solid state metathesis reactions in general. Thirdly, this alternative synthesis route was expanded to other systems and new compounds like co-substituted LaFe 1-x Mn x AsO 1-y F y were prepared and thoroughly investigated. This led to a complex study of the interplay of magnetism, electronic and structural conditions and the occurrence of superconducting properties. The investigation and understanding of such complex coherences will probably be decisive for the further understanding of the superconducting mechanism in iron based superconductors.

  12. Color-Tunable Solid-State Fluorescence Emission from Carbazole-Based BODIPYs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Chihiro; Todaka, Takumi; Ueda, Tomomi; Ema, Tadashi

    2016-05-23

    Several carbazole-based boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes were synthesized by organometallic approaches. Thiazole, benzothiazole, imidazole, benzimidazole, triazole, and indolone substituents were introduced at the 1-position of the carbazole moiety, and boron complexation of each dipyrrin generated the corresponding compounds 1, 2 a, and 3-6. The properties of these products were investigated by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, X-ray crystallography, and DFT calculations. These compounds exhibited large Stokes shifts, and compounds 1, 2 a, and 3-5 fluoresced both in solution and in the solid state. Complex 2 a showed the highest fluorescence quantum yield (ΦF ) in the solid state, therefore boron complexes of the carbazole-benzothiazole hybrids 2 b-f, which had several different substituents, were prepared and the effects of the substituents on the photophysical properties of the compounds were examined. The fluorescence properties showed good correlation with the results of crystal-packing analyses, and the dyes exhibited color-tunable solid-state fluorescence. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  14. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  15. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  16. New Class of LAGP-Based Solid Polymer Composite Electrolyte for Efficient and Safe Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingpeng; Han, Yu; Wang, Hui; Xiong, Shizhao; Li, Yujie; Liu, Shuangke; Xie, Kai

    2017-12-06

    Inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) possess substantial safety and electrochemical stability, which make them as key components of safe rechargeable solid-state Li batteries with high energy density. However, complicated integrally molding process and poor wettability between SEs and active materials are the most challenging barriers for the application of SEs. In this regard, we explore composite SEs of the active ceramic Li 1+x Al x Ge 2-x (PO 4 ) 3 (LAGP) as the main medium for ion conduction and the polymer P(VDF-HFP) as a matrix. Meanwhile, for the first time, we choice high chemical, thermal, and electrochemical stability of ionic liquid swelled in polymer, which significantly ameliorate the interface in the cell. In addition, a reduced crystallinity degree of the polymer in the electrolyte can also be achieved. All of these lead to good ionic conductivity of the composite electrolyte (LPELCE), at the same time, good compatibility with the lithium electrode. Especially, high mechanical strength and stable solid electrolyte interphase which suppressed the growth of lithium dendrites and high thermal safety stability can also be observed. For further illustration, the solid-state lithium battery of LiFePO 4 /LPELCE/Li shows relatively satisfactory performance, indicating the promising potentials of using this type of electrolyte to develop high safety and high energy density solid-state lithium batteries.

  17. Fiber-based all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors for self-powered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Li, Tianqi; Yang, Peihua; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Huanyu; Ni, Weijian; Zhan, Wenhui; Zhang, Xianghui; Cao, Yuanzhi; Zhong, Junwen; Gong, Li; Yen, Wen-Chun; Mai, Wenjie; Chen, Jian; Huo, Kaifu; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhou, Jun

    2012-10-23

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on a carbon/MnO(2) (C/M) core-shell fiber structure were fabricated with high electrochemical performance such as high rate capability with a scan rate up to 20 V s(-1), high volume capacitance of 2.5 F cm(-3), and an energy density of 2.2 × 10(-4) Wh cm(-3). By integrating with a triboelectric generator, supercapacitors could be charged and power commercial electronic devices, such as a liquid crystal display or a light-emitting-diode, demonstrating feasibility as an efficient storage component and self-powered micro/nanosystems.

  18. Structural modeling of Vpu from HIV-1 based on solid-state NMR observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, SeonJoo; Lim, GyuTae; Nam, Seungyoon; Lee, Jinhyuk

    2014-04-01

    Vpu is one of the accessory proteins of HIV-1, and is involved in viral particle release. Viral particle release is enhanced by two proposed functions of Vpu: (i) tetherin interaction and (ii) membrane polarization. Two Vpu functions in viral particle release are still controversial. Here, we investigated the proposed functions by extensive structural modeling of Vpu based on solid-state NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) observables. We found that Vpu can co-exist in two structural forms: left-handed and right-handed conformation. The co-existence of the two conformations provides a clue to reconcile the controversial issue of its two functions in virus particle release.

  19. All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH 4 Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs; de Jongh, P.E.; Blanchard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport

  20. Reconfigurable Yagi-Uda antenna based on a silicon reflector with a solid-state plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Jin; Park, Jang-Soon; Kim, Cheol Ho; Hur, Jae; Kim, Choong-Ki; Cho, Young-Kyun; Ko, Jun-Bong; Park, Bonghyuk; Kim, Dongho; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2017-12-08

    This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of a reconfigurable Yagi-Uda antenna based on a silicon reflector with a solid-state plasma. The silicon reflector, composed of serially connected p-i-n diodes, forms a highly dense solid-state plasma by injecting electrons and holes into the intrinsic region. When this plasma silicon reflector is turned on, the front-realized gain of the antenna increases by more than 2 dBi beyond 5.3 GHz. To achieve the large gain increment, the structure of the antenna is carefully designed with the aid of semiconductor device simulation and antenna simulation. By using an aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate with high thermal conductivity, self-heating effects from the high forward current in the p-i-n diode are efficiently suppressed. By comparing the antenna simulation data and the measurement data, we estimated the conductivity of the plasma silicon reflector in the on-state to be between 10 4 and 10 5  S/m. With these figures, silicon material with its technology is an attractive tunable material for a reconfigurable antenna, which has attracted substantial interest from many areas, such as internet of things (IoT) applications, wireless network security, cognitive radio, and mobile and satellite communications as well as from multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

  1. Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Based Solid State Smart Circuit Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced solid state power component technology is necessary for future hybrid aircraft systems with increased power demands. There is a need for adequate circuit...

  2. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  3. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  4. Flexible Asymmetrical Solid-State Supercapacitors Based on Laboratory Filter Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leicong; Zhu, Pengli; Zhou, Fengrui; Zeng, Wenjin; Su, Haibo; Li, Gang; Gao, Jihua; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-01-26

    In this study, a flexible asymmetrical all-solid-state supercapacitor with high electrochemical performance was fabricated with Ni/MnO2-filter paper (FP) as the positive electrode and Ni/active carbon (AC)-filter paper as negative electrode, separated with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-Na2SO4 electrolyte. A simple procedure, such as electroless plating, was introduced to prepare the Ni/MnO2-FP electrode on the conventional laboratory FP, combined with the subsequent step of electrodeposition. Electrochemical results show that the as-prepared electrodes display outstanding areal specific capacitance (1900 mF/cm(2) at 5 mV/s) and excellent cycling performance (85.1% retention after 1000 cycles at 20 mA/cm(2)). Such a flexible supercapacitor assembled asymmetrically in the solid state exhibits a large volume energy density (0.78 mWh/cm(3)) and superior flexibility under different bending conditions. It has been demonstrated that the supercapacitors could be used as a power source to drive a 3 V light-emitting diode indicator. This study may provide an available method for designing and fabricating flexible supercapacitors with high performance in the application of wearable and portable electronics based on easily available materials.

  5. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  6. Few-layer black phosphorus based saturable absorber mirror for pulsed solid-state lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Lu, Shunbin; Guo, Zhinan; Xu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Han; Tang, Dingyuan; Fan, Dianyuan

    2015-08-24

    We experimentally demonstrated that few-layer black phosphorus (BP) could be used as an optical modulator for solid-state lasers to generate short laser pulses. The BP flakes were fabricated by the liquid phase exfoliation method and drop-casted on a high-reflection mirror to form a BP-based saturable absorber mirror (BP-SAM). Stable Q-switched pulses with a pulse width of 620 ns at the wavelength of 1046 nm were obtained in a Yb:CaYAlO(4) (Yb:CYA) laser with the BP-SAM. The generated pulse train has a repetition rate of 113.6 kHz and an average output power of 37 mW. Our results show that the BP-SAMs could have excellent prospective for ultrafast photonics applications.

  7. All-solid-state micro-supercapacitors based on inkjet printed graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantong; Mishukova, Viktoriia; Östling, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors are fabricated simply through reliable inkjet printing of pristine graphene in interdigitated structure on silicon wafers to serve as both electrodes and current collectors, and a following drop casting of polymer electrolytes (polyvinyl alcohol/H3PO4). Benefiting from the printing processing, an attractive porous electrode microstructure with a large number of vertically orientated graphene flakes is observed. The devices exhibit commendable areal capacitance over 0.1 mF/cm2 and a long cycle life of over 1000 times. The simple and scalable fabrication technique for efficient micro-supercapacitors is promising for on-chip energy storage applications in emerging electronics.

  8. Solid-state-based laser system as a replacement for Ar+ lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Tobias; Rein, Benjamin; Sörensen, Fabian; Walther, Thomas

    2016-09-15

    We report on a solid-state-based laser system at 1028 nm. The light is generated by a diode laser seeded ytterbium fiber amplifier. In two build-up cavities, its frequency is doubled and quadrupled to 514 nm and 257 nm, respectively. At 514 nm, the system delivers up to 4.7 W of optical power. In the fourth harmonic, up to 173 mW are available limited by the nonlinear crystal. The frequency of the laser is mode-hop-free tunable by 16 GHz in 10 ms in the UV. Therefore, the system is suitable as a low maintenance, efficient, and tunable narrowband replacement for frequency doubled Ar+ laser systems.

  9. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  10. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  11. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  12. Australian - US initiative to construct a silicon-based solid state quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The ability of a quantum computer to carry out calculations at the atomic level by manipulation of superpositions of quantum states is expected to provide massive parallel processing leading to unprecedented computing power in applications of commercial and national significance. An overview will be given of the Australian-US initiative to construct a (nuclear spin) solid state quantum computer (SSQC) based on a precise array of 31 P dopants (nuclear spin I = 1/2) embedded in isotopically-pure 28 Si (I=0). The main goals with respect to the engineering of a SSQC prototype are the construction and characterisation of a 2-qubit device that will form the fundamental building block of a scalable, silicon-based QC and development of an 'industrial' fabrication method which constitutes a blueprint for a practical large-scale QC. Fabrication of the SSQC prototype, and its readout and control, is being approached through proving experiments on a series of test structures achievable in the near-term. I will also outline the research programs of the Special Research Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, which involves some 50 researchers at the Universities of New South Wales, Queensland and Melbourne, and how these programs link in to the projects conducted by our partner investigators at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In the first six months of research at the Centre, we are close to achieving our three year objectives

  13. Reversible Luminescence Modulation upon an Electric Field on a Full Solid-State Device Based on Lanthanide Dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaohui; Shang, Jie; Pan, Liang; Tan, Hongwei; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gang; Huang, Gang; Bernot, Kevin; Guillou, Olivier; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-06-22

    Switching luminescence of lanthanide-based molecules through an external electric field is considered as a promising approach toward novel functional molecule-based devices. Classic routes use casted films and liquid electrolyte as media for redox reactions. Such protocol, even if efficient, is relatively hard to turn into an effective solid-state device. In this work, we explicitly synthesize lanthanide-based dimers whose luminescent behavior is affected by the presence of Cu(2+) ions. Excellent evaporability of the dimers and utilization of Cu(2+)-based solid-state electrolyte makes it possible to reproduce solution behavior at the solid state. Reversible modulation of Cu(2+) ions transport can be achieved by an electric field in a solid-state device, where lanthanide-related luminescence is driven by an electric field. These findings provide a proof-of-concept alternative approach for electrically driven modulation of solid-state luminescence and show promising potential for information storage media in the future.

  14. Absolute efficiency calibration of 6LiF-based solid state thermal neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Paolo; Cosentino, Luigi; Lo Meo, Sergio; Nolte, Ralf; Radeck, Desiree

    2018-03-01

    The demand for new thermal neutron detectors as an alternative to 3He tubes in research, industrial, safety and homeland security applications, is growing. These needs have triggered research and development activities about new generations of thermal neutron detectors, characterized by reasonable efficiency and gamma rejection comparable to 3He tubes. In this paper we show the state of the art of a promising low-cost technique, based on commercial solid state silicon detectors coupled with thin neutron converter layers of 6LiF deposited onto carbon fiber substrates. A few configurations were studied with the GEANT4 simulation code, and the intrinsic efficiency of the corresponding detectors was calibrated at the PTB Thermal Neutron Calibration Facility. The results show that the measured intrinsic detection efficiency is well reproduced by the simulations, therefore validating the simulation tool in view of new designs. These neutron detectors have also been tested at neutron beam facilities like ISIS (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK) and n_TOF (CERN) where a few samples are already in operation for beam flux and 2D profile measurements. Forthcoming applications are foreseen for the online monitoring of spent nuclear fuel casks in interim storage sites.

  15. Equation of state for inert gas solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Keywords. Equation of state; inert gas solids; thermal expansion; bulk modulus. PACS Nos 64.10.+h; 64.30.+t. 1. Introduction. Much of the physical world around us and a large part of modern technology are based on solid materials. So it is interesting to study the behavior and thermophys- ical properties of different solids.

  16. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  17. Solid-state (49/47)Ti NMR of titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ruth; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel; Force, Carmen; del Hierro, Isabel

    2009-11-03

    Titanium solid-state NMR spectroscopy data for a series of organic-inorganic titanium MCM-41 based materials have been collected. These materials have been synthesized by first modifying the mesoporous silica MCM-41 in one step with a mixture of silanes: a triazine propyl triethoxysilane acting as functional linker and methyltrimethoxysilane or hexamethyldisilizane as capped agents to mask the remaining silanol groups. Second, the appropiate titanium precursor Ti(OPr(i))(4), [{Ti(OPr(i))(3)(OMent)}(2)] (OMent = 1R,2S,5R-(-)-menthoxo), Ti(OPr(i))(4), or [Ti(eta(5)-C(5)HMe(4))Cl(3)], has been immobilized by reaction with the modified MCM-41. Finally, after Ti(OPr(i))(4) immobilization onto the organomodified support the reaction with the chiral (+)-diethyl-l-tartrate was accomplished. The materials without functional linker have been also prepared by reaction in one step of the capped agent and the titanium precursor with the mesoporous silica. Relevant correlations of titanium NMR resonance chemical shifts and line widths can be inferred depending on different factors. The immobilization procedure used to prepare titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials and the choice of the silylating reagents employed to mask the silanol groups present on the silica surfaces produce significant differences in the Ti NMR spectra. Furthermore, depending on the electronic and sterical influence of the substituents directly attached to the titanium center, chemical shifts and line widths are modified providing novel information about titanium structure.

  18. Cyclic Voltammetry Based Solid State Gas Sensor for Methane and Other VOCs Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Pierre-Alexandre; Jaramillo, Thomas F; Pruitt, Beth L

    2018-04-12

    We present the fabrication, characterization, and testing of an electrochemical Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) sensor operating in gaseous condition at room temperature. It is designed to be microfabricated to prove the sensing principle based on Cyclic Voltammetry (CVs). It is composed of a Working Electrode (WE), a Counter Electrode (CE), a Reference Electrode (RE) and a Nafion solid-state electrolyte. Nafion is a polymer that conducts protons (H + ) generated from redox reactions from the WE to the CE. The sensor needs to be activated prior to exposure to gases, which consists of hydrating the Nafion layer to enable its ion conduction properties. During testing, we have shown that our sensor is not only capable of detecting methane, but it can also quantify its concentration in the gas flow as well as differentiate its signal from carbon monoxide (CO). These results have been confirmed by exposing the sensor to two different concentrations of methane (50% and 10% of methane diluted in N 2 ), as well as pure CO. Although the signal is positioned in the H ads region of Pt, because of thermodynamic reasons it cannot be directly attributed to methane oxidation into CO 2 . However, its consistency suggests the presence of a methane related oxidation process that can be used for detection, identification, and quantification purposes.

  19. Enzymatic logic calculation systems based on solid-state electrochemiluminescence and molecularly imprinted polymer film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wenjing; Liang, Jiying; Shen, Li; Jin, Yue; Liu, Hongyun

    2018-02-15

    The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films were electropolymerized on the surface of Au electrodes with luminol and pyrrole (PY) as the two monomers and ampicillin (AM) as the template molecule. The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity peak of polyluminol (PL) of the AM-free MIP films at 0.7V vs Ag/AgCl could be greatly enhanced by AM rebinding. In addition, the ECL signals of the MIP films could also be enhanced by the addition of glucose oxidase (GOD)/glucose and/or ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH) 2 ) in the testing solution. Moreover, Fc(COOH) 2 exhibited cyclic voltammetric (CV) response at the AM-free MIP film electrodes. Based on these results, a binary 3-input/6-output biomolecular logic gate system was established with AM, GOD and Fc(COOH) 2 as inputs and the ECL responses at different levels and CV signal as outputs. Some functional non-Boolean logic devices such as an encoder, a decoder and a demultiplexer were also constructed on the same platform. Particularly, on the basis of the same system, a ternary AND logic gate was established. The present work combined MIP film electrodes, the solid-state ECL, and the enzymatic reaction together, and various types of biomolecular logic circuits and devices were developed, which opened a novel avenue to construct more complicated bio-logic gate systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New thermal neutron solid-state electronic detector based on HgI2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamud, M.; Burshtein, Z.

    1983-07-01

    We describe the development of a new solid-state electronic neutron detector, based on HgI 2 single crystals. Incident neutrons are absorbed in high neutron absorbing foils, such as cadmium or gadolinium, which are placed in front of a HgI 2 detector. Gamma rays, emitted as a result of the neutron absorbtion, are then absorbed in the HgI 2 , generating free charge carriers, which are collected by the electric field. The advantage of this system lies in it's manufacturing simplicity, low weight and small physical dimensions, compared to gas-filled conventional neutron detectors. The disadvantage is that the system does not discriminate between gamma rays and neutrons. A method to minimize this disadvantage is pointed out. It is as well possible to count neutrons by direct exposure of the HgI 2 to neutrons. The neutron-to-gamma transformation in that case takes place by the material nuclei themselves. This method, however, is impractical due to the interference of delayed radioactivity whose origin are 129 I nuclei. They are generated from 128 I by absorbing a neutron, and decay with a 25 min half lifetime involving gamma emissions. (author)

  1. All-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on screen-printed carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guang; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhan; Rong, Yuanzhen; Hu, Ruifen; Wang, You; Luo, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    A novel disposable all-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode using poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (POT) as an ion-to-electron transducer has been developed. The POT was dropped onto the reaction area of the carbon paste electrode covered by the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, which contains N,N-Dioctyl-3 α ,12 α -bis(4-trifluoroacetylbenzoyloxy)-5 β -cholan-24-amide as a carbonate ionophore. The electrode showed a near-Nernstian slope of  −27.5 mV/decade with a detection limit of 3.6 * 10 −5 mol l −1 . Generally, the detection time was 30 s. Because these electrodes are fast, convenient and low in cost, they have the potential to be mass produced and used in on-site testing as disposable sensors. Furthermore, the repeatability, reproducibility and stability have been studied to evaluate the properties of the electrodes. Measurement of the carbonate was also conducted in a human blood solution and achieved good performance. (paper)

  2. Development of Advanced LED Phosphors by Spray-based Processes for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot Corporation

    2007-09-30

    The overarching goal of the project was to develop luminescent materials using aerosol processes for making improved LED devices for solid state lighting. In essence this means improving white light emitting phosphor based LEDs by improvement of the phosphor and phosphor layer. The structure of these types of light sources, displayed in Figure 1, comprises of a blue or UV LED under a phosphor layer that converts the blue or UV light to a broad visible (white) light. Traditionally, this is done with a blue emitting diode combined with a blue absorbing, broadly yellow emitting phosphor such as Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}:Ce (YAG). A similar result may be achieved by combining a UV emitting diode and at least three different UV absorbing phosphors: red, green, and blue emitting. These emitted colors mix to make white light. The efficiency of these LEDs is based on the combined efficiency of the LED, phosphor, and the interaction between the two. The Cabot SSL project attempted to improve the over all efficiency of the LED light source be improving the efficiency of the phosphor and the interaction between the LED light and the phosphor. Cabot's spray based process for producing phosphor powders is able to improve the brightness of the powder itself by increasing the activator (the species that emits the light) concentration without adverse quenching effects compared to conventional synthesis. This will allow less phosphor powder to be used, and will decrease the cost of the light source; thus lowering the barrier of entry to the lighting market. Cabot's process also allows for chemical flexibility of the phosphor particles, which may result in tunable emission spectra and so light sources with improved color rendering. Another benefit of Cabot's process is the resulting spherical morphology of the particles. Less light scattering results when spherical particles are used in the phosphor layer (Figure 1) compared to when conventional, irregular shaped

  3. New AIE-active pyrimidine-based boronfluoride complexes with high solid-state emission and reversible mechanochromism luminescence behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fen; Lin, Jianjian; Wang, Xiaoqing; Cui, Peng; Yan, Hui; Gong, Shuwen; Ma, Chunlin; Liu, Zhipeng; Huang, Wei

    2016-04-25

    A new family of pyrimidine-based BF2 complexes () with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and mechanochromic luminescence properties were developed. These compounds exhibit intense fluorescence in their aggregation/solid-state resulting from their large Stokes shift and AIE. X-ray crystallographic analysis shows that the weak intermolecular interactions by fixing the molecular conformations of are responsible for the intense fluorescence in solid-state. In addition to their pronounced AIE behaviour, also exhibits a reversible chromic response to grinding, and a distinct red-shift of emission is observed. The high solid-state luminescence and grinding-stimuli response properties of these compounds make them potential candidates for smart materials.

  4. Applications of solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in studies of Portland cements-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Andersen, Morten Daugaard; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy represents an important research tool in the characterization of a range of structural properties for cement-based materials. Different approaches of the technique can be used to obtain information on hydration kinetics, mobile and bound water, porosity, and local...

  5. Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing Based on Inner Surfaces Modification of Solid-State Nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libo; Gu, Dejian; Liu, Quanjun

    2017-12-01

    There are many techniques for the detection of molecules. But detection of molecules through solid-state nanopore in a solution is one of the promising, high-throughput, and low-cost technology used these days. In the present investigation, a solid-state nanopore platform was fabricated for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), which is not only a label free product but also a significant participant in the redox reaction. We have successfully fabricated silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) nanopores with diameters of ~50 nm by using a focused Ga ion beam, the inner surface of the nanopore has been modified with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by employing carbodiimide coupling chemistry. The immobilized HRP enzymes have ability to induce redox reactions in a single nanopore channel. Moreover, a real-time single aggregated ABTS •+ molecular translocation events were monitored and investigated. The designed solid-state nanopore biosensor is reversible and can be applied to detect H 2 O 2 multiple times.

  6. Characterization of All Solid State Hydrogen Ion Selective Electrode Based on PVC-SR Hybrid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bo Shim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen ion selective membranes formulated with 3140 RTV silicone rubber (SR in PVC were studied to extend the life time of solid state ion sensors through improved membrane adhesion. All solid state hydrogen ion selective electrodes were prepared by incorporation of tridodecyl amine (TDDA as an ionophore, potassium tetrakis[3.5-bis(p-chlorophenylborate (KTpClPB as a lipophilic additive, bis(2-ethylhexyladipate (DOA as a plasticizer. Their linear dynamic range was pH 2.0-11.0 and showed the near Nernstian slope of 55.1±0.2 mV/pH (r=0.999. The ifluences from alkali and alkaline earth metal ions were studied for the response of the final ISE membrane composition. Impedance spectroscopic data showed that the resistance was increased by increasing SR content in PVC. Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM image showed clear differences according to the SR compositions in PVC. Life time of the all solid state membrane electrode was extended to about 2 months by preparing the membrane with PVC and SR. The standard reference material from NIST (2181 HEPES Free acid and 2182 NaHEPESate was tested for the ISE and it gave good result.

  7. Synthesis, Structure and Solid State Properties of Cyclohexanemethylamine Substituted Phenalenyl Based Molecular Conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Haddon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the preparation, crystallization and solid state characterization of a cyclohexanemethylamine substituted spirobiphenalenyl radical; in the solid state the compound is iso-structural with its dehydro-analog (benzylamine-substitued compound, and the molecules packed in a one-dimensional fashion that we refer to as a π-step stack. Neighboring molecules in the stack interact via the overlap of one pair of active (spin bearing carbon atoms per phenalenyl unit. The magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates that in the solid state the radical remains paramagnetic and the fraction of Curie spins is 0.75 per molecule. We use the analytical form of the Bonner-Fisher model for the S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain of isotropically interacting spins with intrachain spin coupling constant J = 6.3 cm−1, to fit the experimentally observed paramagnetism [χp (T] in the temperature range 4–330 K. The measured room temperature conductivity (σRT = 2.4 × 10–3 S/cm is comparable with that of the iso-structural benzyl radical, even though the calculated band dispersions are smaller than that of the unsaturated analog.

  8. Evaluation of Productivity of Zymotis Solid-State Bioreactor Based on Total Reactor Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. von Meien

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a method of analyzing the performance of solid-state fermentation bioreactors is described. The method is used to investigate the optimal value for the spacing between the cooling plates of the Zymotis bioreactor, using simulated fermentation data supplied by a mathematical model. The Zymotis bioreactor has good potential for those solid-state fermentation processes in which the substrate bed must remain static. The current work addresses two design parameters introduced by the presence of the internal heat transfer plates: the width of the heat transfer plate, which is governed by the amount of heat to be removed and the pressure drop of the cooling water, and the spacing between these heat transfer plates. In order to analyze the performance of the bioreactor a productivity term is introduced that takes into account the volume occupied within the bioreactor by the heat transfer plates. As part of this analysis, it is shown that, for logistic growth kinetics, the time at which the biomass reaches 90 % of its maximum possible value is a good estimate of the optimum harvesting time for maximizing productivity. Application of the productivity analysis to the simulated fermentation results suggests that, with typical fast growing fungi ( = 0.324 h–1, the optimal spacing between heat transfer plates is of the order of 6 cm. The general applicability of this approach to evaluate the productivity of solid-state bioreactors is demonstrated.

  9. Efficient all solid-state UV source for satellite-based lidar applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Smith, Arlee Virgil

    2003-07-01

    A satellite-based UV-DIAL measurement system would allow continuous global monitoring of ozone concentration in the upper atmosphere. However such systems remain difficult to implement because aerosol-scattering return signals for satellite-based lidars are very weak. A suitable system must produce high-energy UV pulses at multiple wavelengths with very high efficiency. For example, a nanosecond system operating at 10 Hz must generate approximately 1 J per pulse at 308-320 nm. An efficient space-qualified wavelength-agile system based on a single UV source that can meet this requirement is probably not available using current laser technology. As an alternative, we're pursuing a multi-source approach employing all-solid-state modules that individually generate 300-320 nm light with pulse energies in the range of 50-200 mJ, with transform-limited bandwidths and good beam quality. Pulses from the individual sources can be incoherently summed to obtain the required single-pulse energy. These sources use sum-frequency mixing of the 532 nm second harmonic of an Nd:YAG pump laser with 731-803 nm light derived from a recently-developed, state-of-the-art, nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. Two source configurations are under development, one using extra-cavity sum-frequency mixing, and the other intra-cavity sum-frequency mixing. In either configuration, we hope to obtain sum-frequency mixing efficiency approaching 60% by carefully matching the spatial and temporal properties of the laser and OPO pulses. This ideal balance of green and near-IR photons requires an injection-seeded Nd:YAG pump-laser with very high beam quality, and an OPO exhibiting unusually high conversion efficiency and exceptional signal beam quality. The OPO employs a singly-resonant high-Fresnel-number image-rotating self-injection-seeded nonplanar-ring cavity that achieves pump depletion > 65% and produces signal beams with M{sup 2} {approx} 3 at pulse energies exceeding 50 mJ. Pump beam

  10. Experimental Adiabatic Quantum Factorization under Ambient Conditions Based on a Solid-State Single Spin System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng

    2017-03-31

    The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian S_{z}I_{z} on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.

  11. All solid-state V2O5-based flexible hybrid fiber supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; He, Jin; Cao, Xin; Kang, Liping; He, Xuexia; Xu, Hua; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Ruibin; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium pentoxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (V2O5-SWCNT) hybrid fibers with good electrochemical performance and flexibility are firstly prepared by using wet-spinning method. V2O5 nanobelt suspension is obtained by mixing V2O5 bulk, 30% H2O2, H2O and followed by hydrothermally treating at 190 °C for 15 h. SWCNT suspension is suspended into V2O5 nanobelt suspension under vigorous stirring, the V2O5-SWCNT homogenous suspension is obtained. It is injected into a coagulation bath composed of 5 wt % CaCl2 ethanol-water solution using syringe pump, V2O5-SWCNT hybrid fibers are prepared by washing with deionized water and drying at room temperature. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SWCNT hybrid fibers are also prepared by the similar wet-spinning approach and followed by reducing GO-SWCNT hybrid fibers in an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid. All solid-state asymmetric V2O5/SWCNT//RGO/SWCNT fiber supercapacitors are assembled with V2O5-SWCNT fiber as positive electrode and RGO-SWCNT fiber as negative electrode by using PVA-H3PO4 as gel electrolyte. The assembled device not only shows maximum volumetric energy density of 1.95 mW h cm-3 at a volumetric power density of 7.5 mW cm-3, superior rate performance and cycling stability, but also exhibits remarkable flexibility to tolerate long-term and repeated bending. This work will open a new application filed of V2O5-based fibers in wearable energy storage devices.

  12. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  13. The application of state machine based on labview for solid target transfer control system at BATAN’s cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heranudin; Rajiman; Parwanto; Edy Slamet R

    2015-01-01

    Software programming for the new solid target transfer control system referred to the working principle of the whole each sub system. System modeling with state machine diagram was chosen because this simplified a complex design of the control system. State machine implementation of this system was performed by creating basic state drawn from the working system of each sub system. All states with their described inputs, outputs and algorithms were compiled in the sequential state machine diagram. In order to ease the operation, three modes namely automatic, major states and micro states were created. Testing of the system has been conducted and as a result, the system worked properly. The implementation of State machine based on LabView has several advantages such as faster, easier programming and the capability for further developments. (author)

  14. All-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH4 electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4 in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4 has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport...... number (t+ = 0.96), close to unity, demonstrates a purely cationic conductor. The electrolyte has an excellent stability against lithium metal. The behavior of the batteries is studied by cyclic voltammetry and repeated charge/discharge cycles in galvanostatic conditions. The batteries show very good...

  15. Spectroscopic studies of solid-state forms of donepezil free base and salt forms with various salicylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G.

    2014-12-01

    The polymorphic forms of donepezil free base have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. None of the free base crystal forms was observed to exhibit detectable fluorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions. Crystalline salt products were obtained by the reaction of donepezil with salicylic and methyl-substituted salicylic acids, with the salicylate and 4-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as non-solvated products, and the 3-methylsalicylate and 5-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as methanol solvated products. The intensity of solid-state fluorescence from donepezil salicylate and donepezil 4-methylsalicylate was found to be reduced relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids, while the solid-state fluorescence intensity of donepezil 3-methylsalicylate methanolate and donepezil 5-methylsalicylate methanolate was greatly increased relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids. Desolvation of the solvated salt products led to formation of glassy solids that exhibited strong green fluorescence.

  16. Unified phonon-based approach to the thermodynamics of solid, liquid and gas states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmatov, Dima; Zav'yalov, Dmitry; Zhernenkov, Mikhail; Musaev, Edvard T.; Cai, Yong Q.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a unified approach to states of matter (solid, liquid and gas) and describe the thermodynamics of the pressure-temperature phase diagram in terms of phonon excitations. We derive the effective Hamiltonian with low-energy cutoff in two transverse phonon polarizations (phononic band gaps) by breaking the symmetry in phonon interactions. Further, we construct the statistical mechanics of states of aggregation employing the Debye approximation. The introduced formalism covers the Debye theory of solids, the phonon theory of liquids, and thermodynamic limits such as the Dulong-Petit thermodynamic limit (cV = 3kB), the ideal gas limit (cV =3/2 kB) and the new thermodynamic limit (cV = 2kB), dubbed here the Frenkel line thermodynamic limit. We discuss the phonon propagation and localization effects in liquids above and below the Frenkel line, and explain the "fast sound" phenomenon. As a test for our theory we calculate velocity-velocity autocorrelation and pair distribution functions within the Green-Kubo formalism. We show the consistency between dynamics of phonons and pair correlations in the framework of the unified approach. New directions towards advancements in phononic band gaps engineering, hypersound manipulation technologies and exploration of exotic behaviour of fluids relevant to geo- and planetary sciences are discussed. The presented results are equally important both for practical implications and for fundamental research.

  17. Nanocarbon-Based Materials for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tian; Liu, Mingxian; Zhu, Dazhang; Gan, Lihua; Chen, Tao

    2018-02-26

    Because of the rapid development of flexible electronics, it is important to develop high-performance flexible energy-storage devices, such as supercapacitors and metal-ion batteries. Compared with metal-ion batteries, supercapacitors exhibit higher power density, longer cycling life, and excellent safety, and they can be easily fabricated into all-solid-state devices by using polymer gel electrolytes. All-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have the advantages of being lightweight and flexible, thus showing great potential to be used as power sources for flexible portable electronics. Because of their high specific surface area and excellent electrical and mechanical properties, nanocarbon materials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanofibers, and so on) have been widely used as efficient electrode materials for flexible ASSSCs, and great achievements have been obtained. Here, the recent advances in flexible ASSSCs are summarized, from design strategies to fabrication techniques for nanocarbon electrodes and devices. Current challenges and future perspectives are also discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The electrochemical characteristics and applicability of an amorphous sulfide based solid ion conductor for the next generation solid-state lithium secondary batteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi eAihara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfide based solid electrolytes are of considerable practical interest for all solid-state batteries due to their high ionic conductivity and softness at room temperature. In particular, iodine containing lithium thiophosphate is known to exhibit high ionic conductivity but its applicability in solid-state battery remains to be examined. To demonstrate the possibility of the iodine doped solid electrolyte (SE, LiI-Li3PS4 was used to construct two different types of test cells were prepared, Li/SE/S and Li/SE/LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05 cells. The solid electrolyte, LiI-Li3PS4 showed a high ionic conductivity approximately 1.2 mScm-1 at 25 ℃. Within 100 cycles, the capacity retention was better in Li/SE/S cell, and the red-ox shuttle was not observed due to physical blockage of SE layer. The capacity fade was approximately 4% from the maximum capacity observed at 10th cycle, after 100 cycles in Li/SE/S cell. On the contrary, the capacity fade was much larger in Li/SE/LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05 cell, probably due to the decomposition of the electrolyte at the operating potential range. Nevertheless, both the Li/SE/LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05 and Li/SE/S cells exhibited the high coulombic efficiencies above 99.6% and 99.9% during charge-discharge cycle test, respectively. This fact indicates that a high energy density can be possible without an excess lithium metal anode. In addition, it was particularly interesting that the SE showed a reversible capacity about 260 mAhg-1-SE. This electrolyte may have not only as a role of the ion conduction, but also as a catholite.

  19. Development of bipolar all-solid-state lithium battery based on quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing tetraglyme-LiTFSA equimolar complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2015-03-09

    The development of high energy-density lithium-ion secondary batteries as storage batteries in vehicles is attracting increasing attention. In this study, high-voltage bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex were prepared, and the performance of the device was evaluated. Via the successful production of double-layered and triple-layered high-voltage devices, it was confirmed that these stacked batteries operated properly without any internal short-circuits of a single cell within the package: Their plateau potentials (6.7 and 10.0 V, respectively) were two and three times that (3.4 V) of the single-layered device, respectively. Further, the double-layered device showed a capacity retention of 99% on the 200th cycle at 0.5 C, which is an indication of good cycling properties. These results suggest that bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex could readily produce a high voltage of 10 V.

  20. One-step synthesis of solid state luminescent carbon-based silica nanohybrids for imaging of latent fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Hongren; Cui, Tianfang

    2017-11-01

    Fluorescent carbon-based nanomaterials(CNs) with tunable visible emission are biocompatible, environment friendly and most suitable for various biomedical applications. Despite the successes in preparing strongly fluorescent CNs, preserving the luminescence in solid materials is still challenging because of the serious emission quenching of CNs in solid state materials. In this work, fluorescent carbon and silica nanohybrids (SiCNHs) were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal approach by carbonizing sodium citrate and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane(APTES), and hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate(TEOS). The resultant SiCNs were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The SiCNs exhibited strong fluorescence in both aqueous and solid states. The luminescent solid state SiCNs power were successfully used as a fluorescent labeling material for enhanced imaging of latent fingerprints(LFPs) on single background colour and multi-coloured surfaces substrates in forensic science for individual identification.

  1. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  2. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  3. All-solid state flexible supercapacitors based on graphene/polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Won; Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: bgchoi@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic equipment has led to advancements in the development of sufficiently compact and flexible energy storage. A challenge remains to integrate the storage elements as closely as possible within a fully flexible device. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of all-solid state flexible supercapacitors with the integration of two electrodes that consist of graphene/polymer composites. Robust conductive free-standing thin graphene/polymer composite electrodes were prepared through a simple “physical grinding” process. As-prepared composite electrodes store energy up to a reversible gravimetric capacitance of 90.6 F/g, at a constant current density of 0.5 A/g while also delivering long-term durability (90% retention) for excess of five-thousands of cycles. Notably, the enhancement of mechanical properties of supercapacitors enables them to maintain their electrochemical performance even when twisted or folded. This straightforward approach to the fabrication of fully flexible supercapacitors provides new design opportunities within wearable electronics and electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • All solid-sate supercapacitors were fabricated using graphene/polymer composite electrodes. • Supercapacitor devices show an excellent mechanical flexibility. • High electrochemical performances were demonstrated.

  4. Immobilizing Organic-Based Molecular Switches into Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Promising Strategy for Switching in Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Bo; Meng, Yi; Xie, Yang; Du, Ke; Sue, Andrew C-H; Wang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Organic-based molecular switches (OMS) are essential components for the ultimate miniaturization of nanoscale electronics and devices. For practical applications, it is often necessary for OMS to be incorporated into functional solid-state materials. However, the switching characteristics of OMS in solution are usually not transferrable to the solid state, presumably because of spatial confinement or inefficient conversion in densely packed solid phase. A promising way to circumvent this issue is harboring the functional OMS within the robust and porous environment of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as their organic components. In this feature article, recent research progress of OMS-based MOFs is briefly summarized. The switching behaviors of OMS under different stimuli (e.g., light, redox, pH, etc.) in the MOF state are first introduced. After that, the technological applications of these OMS-based MOFs in different areas, including CO 2 adsorption, gas separation, drug delivery, photodynamic therapy, and sensing, are outlined. Finally, perspectives and future challenges are discussed in the conclusion. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering is written from an industrial perspective and discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction and practical problems of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations, with a phenomenological treatment using modelsbeing preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has been updated and revised to include important developments, concepts and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first edition.

  6. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting. Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-01-01

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 (micro)m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of ∼ 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light

  7. Development of neutron personnel monitoring system based on CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massand, O.P.; Kundu, H.K.; Marathe, P.K.; Supe, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Personnel neutron monitoring aims at providing a method to evaluate the magnitude of the detrimental effects on the personnel exposed to neutrons. Neutron monitoring is done for a small though growing number of personnel working with neutrons in a wide range of situations. Over the years, many solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) have been tried for neutron personnel monitoring. CR-39 SSNTD is a proton sensitive polymer and offers a lot of promise for neutron personnel monitoring due to its high sensitivity and lower energy threshold for neutron detection. This report presents the mechanism of track formation in this polymer, the development of this neutron personnel monitoring system in our laboratory, its various characteristics and its promise as a routine personnel neutron monitor. (author). 1 tab., 7 figs

  8. A data base of ASAS digital imagery. [Advanced Solid-state Array Spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, James R.; Meeson, Blanche W.; Dabney, Philip W.; Kovalick, William M.; Graham, David W.; Hahn, Daniel S.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Solid-State Array Spectroradiometer (ASAS) is an airborne, off-nadir tilting, imaging spectroradiometer that acquires digital image data for 29 spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared. The sensor is used principally for studies of the bidirectional distribution of solar radiation scattered by terrestial surfaces. ASAS has acquired data for a number of terrestial ecosystem field experiments and investigators have received over 170 radiometrically corrected, multiangle, digital image data sets. A database of ASAS digital imagery has been established in the Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to provide access to these data by the scientific community. ASAS, its processed data, and the PLDS are described, together with recent improvements to the sensor system.

  9. Detection of a single enzyme molecule based on a solid-state nanopore sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, ShengWei; Gu, DeJian; Liu, Hang; Liu, QuanJun

    2016-04-15

    The nanopore sensor as a high-throughput and low-cost technology can detect a single molecule in a solution. In the present study, relatively large silicon nitride (Si3N4) nanopores with diameters of ∼28 and ∼88 nm were fabricated successfully using a focused Ga ion beam. We have used solid-state nanopores with various sizes to detect the single horseradish peroxidase (HRP) molecule and for the first time analyzed single HRP molecular translocation events. In addition, a real-time monitored single enzyme molecular biochemical reaction and a translocation of the product of enzyme catalysis substrates were investigated by using a Si3N4 nanopore. Our nanopore system showed a high sensitivity in detecting single enzyme molecules and a real-time monitored single enzyme molecular biochemical reaction. This method could also be significant for studying gene expression or enzyme dynamics at the single-molecule level.

  10. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  11. Micro-fabricated solid state dye lasers based on a photo-definable polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Balslev, Søren; Gregersen, Misha Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present a solid polymer dye laser based on a single-mode planar waveguide. The all-polymer device is self-contained in the photodefinable polymer SU-8 and may therefore easily be placed on any substrate and be integrated with polymer-based systems. We use as the active medium for the laser...... the commercially available laser dye Rhodamine 6G, which is incorporated into the SU-8 polymer matrix. The single-mode slab waveguide is formed by three-step spin-coating deposition: a buffer layer of undoped SU-8, a core layer of SU-8 doped with Rhodamine, and a cladding layer of undoped SU-8. (c) 2005 Optical...

  12. Progress on High-Energy 2-micron Solid State Laser for NASA Space-Based Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained research efforts at NASA Langley Research Center during last fifteen years have resulted in significant advancement of a 2-micron diode-pumped, solid-state laser transmitter for wind and carbon dioxide measurements from ground, air and space-borne platforms. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center have developed a compact, flight capable, high energy, injection seeded, 2-micron laser transmitter for ground and airborne wind and carbon dioxide measurements. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser transmitter was integrated into a mobile trailer based coherent Doppler wind and CO2 DIAL system and was deployed during field measurement campaigns. This paper will give an overview of 2-micron solid-state laser technology development and discuss results from recent ground-based field measurements.

  13. Transport and solid state battery characteristic studies of silver based super ion conducting glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaseelan, S.; Muralidharan, P.; Venkateswarlu, M.; Satyanarayana, N.

    2005-01-01

    Silverarsenotellurite (SAT), silverphosphotellurite (SPT) and silvervanadotellurite (SVT) quaternary glass systems were prepared with various formers compositions by a melt quenching method. Glass nature, glass transition temperature (T g ) and structure of the prepared glasses were identified respectively by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique. Electrical conductivity studies were carried out by impedance measurement in the frequency range 40 Hz to 100 KHz at different temperatures for all three sets of AgI-Ag 2 O-[TeO 2 -M 2 O 5 ] (M 2 O 5 = As 2 O 5 , P 2 O 5 , V 2 O 5 ) glasses. The high conducting compositions of SAT, SPT and SVT glass samples were fixed from the results of total conductivity (σ t ). Electronic conductivity (σ e ) studies were made on high conducting composition of each glass system by Wagner's polarization method. Total current (i t ) is due to ion and electron. Electronic current (i e ) due to electron were estimated through mobility studies. Ionic conductivity (σ i ) and ionic current (i i ) were calculated respectively using the conductivity (σ t and σ e ) and current (i t and i e ) results for the SAT, SPT and SVT glasses. Transport numbers due to ion (t i ) and electron (t e ) were calculated using the conductivity and mobility results for each glass system. The high conducting composition of the SAT, SPT and SVT glasses were used as solid electrolytes with silver metal as an anode and iodine:graphite (I:C) as a cathode for the fabrication of solid state batteries (SSBs). All the fabricated batteries were characterized by measuring the open circuit voltage (OCV) and polarization properties and estimated the batteries performances

  14. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  15. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  16. Dextran based highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte for efficient quasi-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lin, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Yun; Qiu, Kang-Qiang; Lü, Xian-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dextran based hydrogel is first used to prepare quasi-solid-state polysulfide electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells. ► The ion conductivity of hydrogel electrolyte shows almost the same value as the liquid electrolyte. ► The liquid state at elevated temperature of hydrogel electrolyte allows for a good contact between electrolyte and CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. ► The hydrogel electrolyte based cell exhibits slightly lower power conversion efficiency than that of liquid electrolyte based cell. ► The dynamic electron transfer mechanism in hydrogel electrolyte based cell is examined in detail by EIS and CIMPS/IMVS. -- Abstract: Highly conductive hydrogel polysulfide electrolyte is first fabricated using dextran as gelator and used as quasi-solid-state electrolyte for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The hydrogel electrolyte with gelator concentration of 15 wt% shows almost the same conductivity as the liquid one. Moreover, its liquid state at elevated temperature allow for the well penetration into the pores in electrodeposited CdS/CdSe co-sensitized TiO 2 photoanode. This gel electrolyte based QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.23% under AG 1.5 G one sun (100 mW cm −2 ) illumination, slightly lower than that of liquid electrolyte based cell (3.69%). The dynamic electron transfer mechanism of the gel and liquid electrolyte based QDSSC are examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and controlled intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (CIMPS/IMVS). It is found that the electron transport in gel electrolyte based cell is much faster than the liquid electrolyte based cell but it tends to recombine more easily than the latter. However, these differences fade away with increasing the light intensity, showing declining electron collection efficiency at higher light intensity illumination. As a result, a conversion efficiency of 4.58% is obtained for the gel

  17. Solid-state transformer-based new traction drive system and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Zhixue; Liu, Huadong; Huang, Zihao

    2017-11-01

    A new type of traction drive system consisting of solid-state traction transformer (SSTT), inverter unit, auxiliary inverter, traction motor and other key components is built in order to suit the demand of developing the next-generation electric traction system which will be efficient and lightweight, with high power density. For the purpose of reducing system volume and weight and improving efficiency and grid-side power quality, an efficient SSTT optimized topology combining high-voltage cascaded rectifiers with high-power high-frequency LLC resonant converter is proposed. On this basis, an integrated control strategy built upon synchronous rotating reference frame is presented to achieve unified control over fundamental active, reactive and harmonic components. The carrier-interleaving phase shift modulation strategy is proposed to improve the harmonic performance of cascaded rectifiers. In view of the secondary pulsating existing in a single-phase system, the mathematical model of secondary power transfer is built, and the mechanism of pulsating voltage resulting in beat frequency of LLC resonant converter is revealed, so as to design optimum matching of system parameters. Simulation and experimental results have verified that the traction system and control scheme mentioned in this paper are reasonable and superior and that they meet the future application requirements for rail transit.

  18. An all-solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor based on a plastic crystal electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eaabouimrane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C4H94NPF6, (10 molar % with succinonitrile, SCN, (N C−CH2−CH2−C N, [SCN-10%TBA-PF6]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extend from -36 °C up to its melting at 23 °C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10−5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15 °C and ~ 3 × 10−3 S/cm in the molten state (25 °C. These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC. The EDLC was assembled and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4-7 F/g. (of electrode active material were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15 °C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  19. Solid state cathodoluminescence based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum and its quenching mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lianbin; Guan, Yunxia

    2010-05-01

    A novel solid state cathodoluminescence (SSCL) device (the device has a structure of ITO/SiO2/Alq3/SiO2/Al) is fabricated using organic materials as the fluorescent film sandwiched between two SiO2 layers. When alternating current (AC) voltage is applied to this device, uniform emissions are observed. When the voltage is 50 V, a longer wavelength emission (522 nm) is obtained, but the shorter wavelength emission (465 nm) is dominant when the voltage is 76 V. The origins of these emissions are discussed. The interface formed between SiO2 and tris-(8-hydroquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) of SSCL device was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Analyses of the XPS spectra reveal a deep diffusion of the indium into the interface. On the other hand, the interaction between indium and Alq3 occurs at the interface and results in the formation of a carbon-oxygen-metal (In or Al) complex in the contact region. This effect causes a luminescence quenching in the SSCL device.

  20. A high performance quasi-solid-state supercapacitor based on CuMnO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Arif, Muhammad; Duan, Guorong; Chen, Shenming; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-07-01

    Mixed metal or transition metal oxides hold an unveiled potential as one of the most promising energy storage material because of their excellent stability, reliable conductivity, and convenient use. In this work, CuMnO2 nanoparticles are successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal process with the help of dispersing agent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). CuMnO2 nanoparticles possess a uniform quadrilateral shape, small size (approximately 25 × 25 nm-35 × 35 nm), excellent dispersity, and large specific surface specific (56.9 m2 g-1) with an interparticle mesoporous structure. All these characteristics can bring benefit for their application in supercapacitor. A quasi-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device is assembled by using CuMnO2 nanoparticles as both positive electrode and negative electrode. The device exhibits good supercapacitive performance with a high specific capacitance (272 F g-1), a maximum power density of 7.56 kW kg-1 and a superior cycling stability of 18,000 continuous cycles, indicating an excellent potential to be used in energy storage device.

  1. Microfluidic multiplexing of solid-state nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tarun; Rasera, Benjamin C.; Guerrero, Ricardo Jose S.; Lim, Jong-Min; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-12-01

    Although solid-state nanopores enable electronic analysis of many clinically and biologically relevant molecular structures, there are few existing device architectures that enable high-throughput measurement of solid-state nanopores. Herein, we report a method for microfluidic integration of multiple solid-state nanopores at a high density of one nanopore per (35 µm2). By configuring microfluidic devices with microfluidic valves, the nanopores can be rinsed from a single fluid input while retaining compatibility for multichannel electrical measurements. The microfluidic valves serve the dual purpose of fluidic switching and electric switching, enabling serial multiplexing of the eight nanopores with a single pair of electrodes. Furthermore, the device architecture exhibits low noise and is compatible with electroporation-based in situ nanopore fabrication, providing a scalable platform for automated electronic measurement of a large number of integrated solid-state nanopores.

  2. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  3. Solid-State Laser Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Written from an industrial perspective, Solid-State Laser Engineering discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. Since its first edition almost 30 years ago this book has become the standard in the field of solid-state lasers for scientists,engineers and graduate students. This new edition has been extensively revised and updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials and nonlinear crystals. Completely new sections have been added dealing with frequency control, the theory of mode-locking, femto second lasers, high efficiency harmonic generation, passive and acousto-optic Q-switching, semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM) and peridically poled nonlinear crystals.

  4. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  5. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Hu, Nantao, E-mail: hunantao@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Yanyan, E-mail: yywang@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006 (China); Zhang, Yafei, E-mail: yfzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The addition of methyl orange can affect the size of polypyrrole nanoparticles. • The flexible hybrid paper has a highly-interconnected sandwich framework. • The hybrid paper shows a high areal and volumetric specific capacitance. • Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibits excellent capacitive performances. - Abstract: Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It’s a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm{sup 2} and 94.9 F/cm{sup 3} at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm{sup 2} and 26.4 mWh/cm{sup 3} are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  6. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  7. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  8. Solid State Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    SUBMICROMETER TECHNOLOGY 25 3.1 Laser-Induced Microchemical Etching of Silicon for Terahertz -Based Waveguide Components 25 3.2 Optical Sampling...developed to machine waveguide structures for the terahertz operating regime. This technique uses a thermally activated chemical reaction to etch three...fabricated using a new doubly planarized all-refractory technology for superconductors (DPARTS) process. 7. ADVANCED SILICON TECHNOLOGY A self-aligned

  9. Evaluation of apple pomace based reconstituted feed in rats after solid state fermentation and ethanol recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devrajan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available To utilize apple pomace in an economical and effective way, a feed was developed by solid state fermentation (SSF using sequential interactive co-culture of Candida utilis and Kloeckera. Removal of ethanol and drying of the left - over residue. Feeding trial was conducted in white albino rats before and after reconstitution of apple pomace feed in the choice and no choice study. Feeding of apple pomace feed in the rats before reconstitution indicated that neither in fermented nor in unfermented form it was acceptable. In the no choice study both in 100% fermented and unfermented apple pomace group feed intake decreased continuously resulting in death of rats apparently due to decreased digestibility owing to high fibre content. Further, fermented or unfermented apple pomace based feed had lower digestibility and efficiency of conversion than the standard rat feed. Compared to the standard feed group, growth rates in all the feed groups were negative. The results of choice study of different feeds corroborated with the no-choice study mentioned earlier. Incorporation of fermented apple pomace into standard rat feed in the ratio of 1:1 gave better acceptability and digestibility. Reconstituted feed with 10% jaggery, 2% groundnut oil, 0.01% mixed flavour and 1% salt was the most acceptable. The post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial revealed generalized oedema, probably due to some hepatotoxin in the feed. The blood glucose level in the apple pomace feed group except that was reconstituted with jaggery, showed a general hypoglycemia, though falling in the range. The increased ALT and AST levels in the serum also suggest damage to the liver. The mortality rate, post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial and blood biochemical analysis of rat serum suggest a more elaborative study for extended period of time.Para utilizar bagaço de maçã de uma maneira econômica e eficaz, foi desenvolvido

  10. Analysis of structural and thermal stability in the positive electrode for sulfide-based all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Otoyama, Misae; Mori, Yota; Mori, Shigeo; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Sulfide-based all-solid-state batteries using a non-flammable inorganic solid electrolyte are promising candidates as a next-generation power source owing to their safety and excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristics. In this study, we thus focus on the positive electrode and investigated structural stabilities of the interface between the positive electrode active material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) and the 75Li2S·25P2S5 (LPS) glass electrolyte after charge-discharge cycles via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To evaluate the thermal stability of the fabricated all-solid-state cell, in-situ TEM observations for the positive electrode during heating are conducted. As a result, structural and morphological changes are detected in the LPS glasses. Thus, exothermal reaction present in the NMC-LPS composite positive electrode after the initial charging is attributable to the crystallization of LPS glasses. On the basis of a comparison with crystallization behavior in single LPS glasses, the origin of exothermal reaction in the NMC-LPS composites is discussed.

  11. A Metal-Organic-Framework-Based Electrolyte with Nanowetted Interfaces for High-Energy-Density Solid-State Lithium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziqi; Tan, Rui; Wang, Hongbin; Yang, Luyi; Hu, Jiangtao; Chen, Haibiao; Pan, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Solid-state batteries (SSBs) are promising for safer energy storage, but their active loading and energy density have been limited by large interfacial impedance caused by the poor Li + transport kinetics between the solid-state electrolyte and the electrode materials. To address the interfacial issue and achieve higher energy density, herein, a novel solid-like electrolyte (SLE) based on ionic-liquid-impregnated metal-organic framework nanocrystals (Li-IL@MOF) is reported, which demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties, including a high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.0 × 10 -4 S cm -1 , an improved Li + transference number of 0.36, and good compatibilities against both Li metal and active electrodes with low interfacial resistances. The Li-IL@MOF SLE is further integrated into a rechargeable Li|LiFePO 4 SSB with an unprecedented active loading of 25 mg cm -2 , and the battery exhibits remarkable performance over a wide temperature range from -20 up to 150 °C. Besides the intrinsically high ionic conductivity of Li-IL@MOF, the unique interfacial contact between the SLE and the active electrodes owing to an interfacial wettability effect of the nanoconfined Li-IL guests, which creates an effective 3D Li + conductive network throughout the whole battery, is considered to be the key factor for the excellent performance of the SSB. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices introduces readers to theories and concepts such as semi-classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of electron transport, methods for calculations of band structures in solids with applications in calculation of optical constants, and other advanced concepts.  The information presented here will equip readers with the necessary tools to carry out cutting edge research in modern solid state nanodevices. This book also: Covers sophisticated models of charge transport including the drift-diffusion model, Boltzmann transport model and various quantum transport models Discusses the essential elements of quantum mechanics necessary for an understanding of nanostructured solid state devices Presents band structure calculation methods based on time-independent perturbation theory Discusses theory of optical transitions and optical devices employing quantum-confined structures such as quantum wells,wires and dots Elucidates quantum mechanics of electrons in a magneti...

  13. Solid State and Materials Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    It gives us immense pleasure to present this Special Issue of the Proceedings of the Indian. Academy of Sciences (Chemical Sciences) to mark the Silver Jubilee of the Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit (SSCU), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. This Unit was created by Professor C N R Rao, FRS, at the Institute ...

  14. Solid State and Materials Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and Structural Chemistry Unit (SSCU), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. This Unit was created by Professor C N R Rao, FRS, at the Institute in 1976, to give a major thrust to the then emerging discipline of solid state and structural chemistry. Over the years, the Unit has grown from strength to strength under the dynamic.

  15. An all-solid-state screen-printed carbon paste reference electrode based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as solid contact transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hui; Pan, Yiwen; Chen, Ying; Ye, Ying; Wang, You; Li, Guang

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an all-solid-state portable reference electrode based on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode suitable for rapid human serum testing. The electrode was covered by electropolymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as an internal solid contact layer and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane containing lipophilic anion and cation additives. The electrochemical properties of PEDOT(PSS) and PEDOT(PSS)/PVC film on a carbon paste electrode were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods. The reference electrode exhibited good potential stability (for H + , Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Cl − and CO 2− 3 /HCO − 3 ), good reproducibility and long-term stability. The structure is applied as reference electrodes in human serum pH analysis with pH ion selective planar electrodes, forming a serum pH sensor. The response time of such a pH sensor was 15 s and the sensitivity was −52.2 ± 1.0 mV per decade. Other properties, such as repeatability, reproducibility and stability, were also evaluated. Clinical trials were carried out and compared with the results obtained from the routine hospital electrolyte analyzer, which demonstrated that their analytical performance was closely matched. (paper)

  16. Obviating the requirement for oxygen in SnO2-based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Pablo; Snaith, Henry J.

    2011-06-01

    Organic semiconductors employed in solar cells are perfectly stable to solar irradiation provided oxygen content can be kept below 1 ppm. Paradoxically, the state-of-the-art molecular hole-transporter-based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells only operate efficiently if measured in an atmosphere containing oxygen. Without oxygen, these devices rapidly lose photovoltage and photocurrent and are rendered useless. Clearly this peculiar requirement has detrimental implications to the long term stability of these devices. Through characterizing the solar cells in air and in oxygen-free atmospheres, and considering the device architecture, we identify that direct contact between the metallic cathode and the mesoporous metal oxide photo-anode is responsible for a shunting path through the device. This metal-metal oxide contact forms a Schottky barrier under ambient conditions and the barrier is suitably high so as to prevent significant shunting of the solar cells. However, under light absorption in an anaerobic atmosphere the barrier reduces significantly, opening a low resistance shunting path which dominates the current-voltage characteristics in the solar cell. By incorporating an extra interlayer of insulating mesoporous aluminum oxide, on top of the mesoporous semiconducting metal oxide electrode, we successfully block this shunting path and subsequently the devices operate efficiently in an oxygen-free atmosphere, enabling the possibility of long term stability of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

  17. Carbon-Based Flexible and All-Solid-State Micro-supercapacitors Fabricated by Inkjet Printing with Enhanced Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhibin; Hu, Haibo; Liang, Guojin; Ye, Changhui

    2017-04-01

    By means of inkjet printing technique, flexible and all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) were fabricated with carbon-based hybrid ink composed of graphene oxide (GO, 98.0 vol.%) ink and commercial pen ink (2.0 vol.%). A small amount of commercial pen ink was added to effectively reduce the agglomeration of the GO sheets during solvent evaporation and the following reduction processes in which the presence of graphite carbon nanoparticles served as nano-spacer to separate GO sheets. The printed device fabricated using the hybrid ink, combined with the binder-free microelectrodes and interdigital microelectrode configuration, exhibits nearly 780% enhancement in areal capacitance compared with that of pure GO ink. It also shows excellent flexibility and cycling stability with nearly 100% retention of the areal capacitance after 10,000 cycles. The all-solid-state device can be optionally connected in series or in parallel to meet the voltage and capacity requirements for a given application. This work demonstrates a promising future of the carbon-based hybrid ink for directly large-scale inkjet printing MSCs for disposable energy storage devices.

  18. High Performance All-Solid-State Flexible Micro-Pseudocapacitor Based on Hierarchically Nanostructured Tungsten Trioxide Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuezhen; Liu, Hewei; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-12-23

    Microsupercapacitors (MSCs) are promising energy storage devices to power miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. With the increasing attention on all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors, new strategies for high-performance flexible MSCs are highly desired. Here, we demonstrate all-solid-state, flexible micropseudocapacitors via direct laser patterning on crack-free, flexible WO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites containing high levels of porous hierarchically structured WO3 nanomaterials (up to 50 wt %) and limited binder (PVDF, <25 wt %). The work leads to an areal capacitance of 62.4 mF·cm(-2) and a volumetric capacitance of 10.4 F·cm(-3), exceeding that of graphene based flexible MSCs by a factor of 26 and 3, respectively. As a noncarbon based flexible MSC, hierarchically nanostructured WO3 in the narrow finger electrode is essential to such enhancement in energy density due to its pseudocapacitive property. The effects of WO3/PVDF/MWCNTs composite composition and the dimensions of interdigital structure on the performance of the flexible MSCs are investigated.

  19. Present status of solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells and dye sensitized solar cells using PEO-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Nagarale, R K; Pandey, S P; Rhee, H W

    2011-01-01

    Due to energy crises in the future, much effort is being directed towards alternate sources. Solar energy is accepted as a novel substitute for conventional sources of energy. Out of the long list of various types of solar cells available on the market, solid state photoelectrochemical solar cells (SSPECs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are proposed as an alternative to costly crystalline solar cell. This review provides a common platform for SSPECs and DSSCs using polymer electrolyte, particularly on polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based polymer electrolytes. Due to numerous advantageous properties of PEO, it is frequently used as an electrolyte in both SSPECs as well as DSSCs. In DSSCs, so far high efficiency (more than 11%) has been obtained only by using volatile liquid electrolyte, which suffers many disadvantages, such as corrosion, leakage and evaporation. The PEO-based solid polymer proves its importance and could be used to solve the problems stated above. The recent developments in SSPECs and DSSCs using modified PEO electrolytes by adding nano size inorganic fillers, blending with low molecular weight polymers and ionic liquid (IL) are discussed in detail. The role of ionic liquid in modifying the electrical, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of PEO polymer electrolytes is also described. (review)

  20. Development of a high current high temperature SiC MOSFET based solid-state power controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanbo

    Solid-State Power Controllers (SSPCs) are critical components in the development of electric aircraft and must be small in size, fast in response, and have high reliability. They are also proposed for use in microgrids to improve the power quality and system reliability. The development of Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor switches provides a series of improvements for the SSPCs in both electrical and thermal performances. In the proposed SSPC design investigation, SiC MOSFETs die are mounted on cast-aluminum traces, under which are an aluminum nitride (AlN) layer and an aluminum composite base plate. The concept of i2t and its application in solid state protection is discussed in detail. Transient thermal characterizations of SiC MOSFETs are provided for a nearly-all-aluminum package by Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The SSPC is targeted for 120A nominal, 1200A fault current, 270V DC system, and working at 105°C environment with a maximum 350°C transient junction temperature capability.

  1. Solid-state voltammetry-based electrochemical immunosensor for Escherichia coli using graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticle composites as labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaochun; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jing; Shao, Kang; Fu, Tao; Shao, Feng; Lu, Donglian; Liang, Jiangong; Foda, M Frahat; Han, Heyou

    2013-06-21

    A new electrochemical immunosensor based on solid-state voltammetry was fabricated for the detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) by using graphene oxide-Ag nanoparticle composites (P-GO-Ag) as labels. To construct the platform, Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) were first self-assembled on an Au electrode surface through cysteamine and served as an effective matrix for antibody (Ab) attachment. Under a sandwich-type immunoassay format, the analyte and the probe (P-GO-Ag-Ab) were successively captured onto the immunosensor. Finally, the bonded AgNPs were detected through a solid-state redox process in 0.2 M of KCl solution. Combining the advantages of the high-loading capability of graphene oxide with promoted electron-transfer rate of AuNPs, this immunosensor produced a 26.92-fold signal enhancement compared with the unamplified protocol. Under the optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited a wide linear dependence on the logarithm of the concentration of E. coli ranging from 50 to 1.0 × 10(6) cfu mL(-1) with a detection limit of 10 cfu mL(-1). Moreover, as a practical application, the proposed immunosensor was used to monitor E. coli in lake water with satisfactory results.

  2. Importance of "weak-base" poplar wastes to process performance and methane yield in solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiqing; Chen, Shulin; Kafle, Gopi Krishna

    2017-05-15

    Failure of methane yield is common for anaerobic digestion (AD) of "weak-acid/acid" wastes alone. In order to verify the importance of pH of materials on the process performance and the methane yield, the "weak-base" wastes-poplar wastes (PW) were used as substrate of solid-state AD (SS-AD). The results show that PW could be used for efficient methane yield after NaOH treatment, the total methane yield was 81.1 L/kg volatile solids (VS). PW also could be used for anaerobic co-digestion with high-pH cattle slurry (CM). For the group with NaOH pretreatment, time used for reaching stable state was 2 days earlier than that of the group without NaOH pretreatment. The maximal methane yield of 98.2 L/kg VS was obtained on conditions of 1:1 of PW-to-CM (P/C) ratio and NaOH pretreatment, which was 21.1% (p methane yield. The results indicate that PW could be alone used for efficient SS-AD for methane yield after NaOH treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  4. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  5. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  6. Bacillus coagulans tolerance to 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in aqueous and solid-state thermophilic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Christopher W; Reddy, Amitha P; Vandergheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    The use of ionic liquids (ILs) to disrupt the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose and make polysaccharides accessible to hydrolytic enzymes is an emerging technology for biomass pretreatment in lignocellulosic biofuel production. Despite efforts to reclaim and recycle IL from pretreated biomass, residual IL can be inhibitory to microorganisms used for downstream fermentation. As a result, pathways for IL tolerance are needed to improve the activity of fermentative organisms in the presence of IL. In this study, microbial communities from compost were cultured under high-solids and thermophilic conditions in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ILs to enrich for IL-tolerant microorganisms. A strain of Bacillus coagulans isolated from an IL-tolerant community was grown in liquid and solid-state culture in the presence of the ILs 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim][Cl]) to gauge IL tolerance. Viability and respiration varied with the concentration of IL applied and the type of IL used. B. coagulans maintained growth and respiration in the presence of 4 wt% IL, a concentration similar to that present on IL-pretreated biomass. In the presence of both [C2mim][OAc] and [C2mim][Cl] in liquid culture, B. coagulans grew at a rate approximately half that observed in the absence of IL. However, in solid-state culture, the bacteria were significantly more tolerant to [C2mim][Cl] compared with [C2mim][OAc]. B. coagulans tolerance to IL under industrially relevant conditions makes it a promising bacterium for understanding mechanisms of IL tolerance and discovering IL tolerance pathways for use in other microorganisms, particularly those used in bioconversion of IL-pretreated plant biomass. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  8. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  9. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  10. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  11. Spin-echo based diagonal peak suppression in solid-state MAS NMR homonuclear chemical shift correlation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ding, Xiaoyan; Tian, Fang; Huang, Yuqing; Chen, Zhong; Fu, Riqiang

    2018-02-01

    The feasibility of using the spin-echo based diagonal peak suppression method in solid-state MAS NMR homonuclear chemical shift correlation experiments is demonstrated. A complete phase cycling is designed in such a way that in the indirect dimension only the spin diffused signals are evolved, while all signals not involved in polarization transfer are refocused for cancellation. A data processing procedure is further introduced to reconstruct this acquired spectrum into a conventional two-dimensional homonuclear chemical shift correlation spectrum. A uniformly 13C, 15N labeled Fmoc-valine sample and the transmembrane domain of a human protein, LR11 (sorLA), in native Escherichia coli membranes have been used to illustrate the capability of the proposed method in comparison with standard 13C-13C chemical shift correlation experiments.

  12. Non-equilibrium theory employing enthalpy-based equation of state for binary solid and porous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B.; Menon, S. V. G.

    2018-03-01

    A generalized enthalpy-based equation of state, which includes thermal electron excitations and non-equilibrium thermal energies, is formulated for binary solid and porous mixtures. Our approach gives rise to an extra contribution to mixture volume, in addition to those corresponding to average mixture parameters. This excess term involves the difference of thermal enthalpies of the two components, which depend on their individual temperatures. We propose to use the Hugoniot of the components to compute non-equilibrium temperatures in the mixture. These are then compared with the average temperature obtained from the mixture Hugoniot, thereby giving an estimate of non-equilibrium effects. The Birch-Murnaghan model for the zero-temperature isotherm and a linear thermal model are then used for applying the method to several mixtures, including one porous case. Comparison with experimental data on the pressure-volume Hugoniot and shock speed versus particle speed shows good agreement.

  13. Scattering-layer-induced energy storage function in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-03-09

    Photo-self-charging cells (PSCs) are compact devices with dual functions of photoelectric conversion and energy storage. By introducing a scattering layer in polymer-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, two-electrode PSCs with highly compact structure were obtained. The charge storage function stems from the formed ion channel network in the scattering layer/polymer electrolyte system. Both the photoelectric conversion and the energy storage functions are integrated in only the photoelectrode of such PSCs. This design of PSC could continuously output power as a solar cell with considerable efficiency after being photo-charged. Such PSCs could be applied in highly-compact mini power devices.

  14. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  15. Solid-state electrochromic devices based on poly(trimethylene carbonate) and lithium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, P.C.; Silva, M.M.; Smith, M.J.; Goncalves, A.; Fortunato, E.

    2008-01-01

    The application of solid polymer electrolytes as dual-function electrolyte/adhesive components in electrochromic devices and the preliminary characterization of the resulting prototype displays is described in this paper. An asymmetric device configuration, represented schematically as glass/ZnO:Ga 2 O 3 /WO 3 /polymer electrolyte/ZnO:Ga 2 O 3 /glass, was chosen. Electrolytes with compositions of n between 3 and 10, where n represents the molar ratio of poly(trimethylene carbonate), p(TMC), ((C=O)OCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 O), units per guest lithium ion, were prepared by solvent casting. The electrochromic switching performance was characterized as a function of salt type and salt concentration. The average transmittance in the visible region of the spectrum was above 63% for all the bleached samples characterized. After coloration the structures assembled with both p(TMC) n LiClO 4 and p(TMC) n LiBF 4 presented an average transmittance in the visible wavelength region above 39%

  16. Extreme compression behaviour of higher derivative properties of solids based on the generalized Rydberg equation of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shanker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have derived formulations for the pressure derivatives of bulk modulus up to the third order and for higher order Grüneisen parameters using the generalized free volume theory, and the generalized Rydberg equation of state. The properties derived in the present study are directly related to the understanding of thermoelastic properties of solids. The third order Grüneisen parameter (lambda λ in the limit of infinite pressure has been found to approach a positive finite value for lambda infinity (λ∞ equal to 1/3. This is a result shown to be independent of the value of K-prime infinity, i. e., the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus at infinite pressure. The results based on other equations of state have also been reported and discussed. We find a relationship between λ∞ and pressure derivatives of bulk modulus at infinite pressure which is satisfied by different types of equations of state.

  17. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  18. Solid-state, polymer-based fiber solar cells with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dianyi; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Yan; Bian, Zuqiang; Zhang, Luhui; Shang, Yuanyuan; Xia, Xinyuan; Zhang, Sen; Yun, Daqin; Liu, Zhiwei; Cao, Anyuan; Huang, Chunhui

    2012-12-21

    Most previous fiber-shaped solar cells were based on photoelectrochemical systems involving liquid electrolytes, which had issues such as device encapsulation and stability. Here, we deposited classical semiconducting polymer-based bulk heterojunction layers onto stainless steel wires to form primary electrodes and adopted carbon nanotube thin films or densified yarns to replace conventional metal counter electrodes. The polymer-based fiber cells with nanotube film or yarn electrodes showed power conversion efficiencies in the range 1.4% to 2.3%, with stable performance upon rotation and large-angle bending and during long-time storage without further encapsulation. Our fiber solar cells consisting of a polymeric active layer sandwiched between steel and carbon electrodes have potential in the manufacturing of low-cost, liquid-free, and flexible fiber-based photovoltaics.

  19. Novel Solid State Lasers for Space-Based Water Vapor DIAL, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program will develop novel laser transmitters needed for planned airborne and space-based active remote sensing missions. This program will build on...

  20. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  1. Solid-state NMR Reveals the Carbon-based Molecular Architecture of Cryptococcus neoformans Fungal Eumelanins in the Cell Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Itin, Boris; Casadevall, Arturo; Stark, Ruth E

    2015-05-29

    Melanin pigments protect against both ionizing radiation and free radicals and have potential soil remediation capabilities. Eumelanins produced by pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans fungi are virulence factors that render the fungal cells resistant to host defenses and certain antifungal drugs. Because of their insoluble and amorphous characteristics, neither the pigment bonding framework nor the cellular interactions underlying melanization of C. neoformans have yielded to comprehensive molecular-scale investigation. This study used the C. neoformans requirement of exogenous obligatory catecholamine precursors for melanization to produce isotopically enriched pigment "ghosts" and applied 2D (13)C-(13)C correlation solid-state NMR to reveal the carbon-based architecture of intact natural eumelanin assemblies in fungal cells. We demonstrated that the aliphatic moieties of solid C. neoformans melanin ghosts include cell-wall components derived from polysaccharides and/or chitin that are associated proximally with lipid membrane constituents. Prior to development of the mature aromatic fungal pigment, these aliphatic moieties form a chemically resistant framework that could serve as the scaffold for melanin synthesis. The indole-based core aromatic moieties show interconnections that are consistent with proposed melanin structures consisting of stacked planar assemblies, which are associated spatially with the aliphatic scaffold. The pyrrole aromatic carbons of the pigments bind covalently to the aliphatic framework via glycoside or glyceride functional groups. These findings establish that the structure of the pigment assembly changes with time and provide the first biophysical information on the mechanism by which melanin is assembled in the fungal cell wall, offering vital insights that can advance the design of bioinspired conductive nanomaterials and novel therapeutics. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  3. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  4. L70 life prediction for solid state lighting using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, Lynn

    2013-08-08

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. The measured state variable has been related to the underlying damage using physics-based models. Life

  5. A Novel Solid-State Thermal Rectifier Based On Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Peng, Ping-Gang; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Li-Tian

    2012-07-01

    Recently, manipulating heat transport by phononic devices has received significant attention, in which phonon - a heat pulse through lattice, is used to carry energy. In addition to heat control, the thermal devices might also have broad applications in the renewable energy engineering, such as thermoelectric energy harvesting. Elementary phononic devices such as diode, transistor and logic devices have been theoretically proposed. In this work, we experimentally create a macroscopic scale thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide. Obvious thermal rectification ratio up to 1.21 under 12 K temperature bias has been observed. Moreover, this ratio can be enhanced further by increasing the asymmetric ratio. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic phononic device with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in thermal circuits and thermal management.

  6. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  7. Semipolar InGaN-based superluminescent diodes for solid-state lighting and visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-02-16

    III-nitride light emitters, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs), have been demonstrated and studied for solid-state lighting (SSL) and visible-light communication (VLC) applications. However, for III-nitride LEDbased SSL-VLC system, its efficiency is limited by the

  8. A quasi-solid-state rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery based on a gel polymer electrolyte with an ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyu-Nam; Lee, Ji-In; Jung, Jong-Hyuk; Shin, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Won

    2014-05-28

    A quasi-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery constructed using a gel polymer electrolyte with an ionic liquid is proposed. The battery architecture incorporates a design feature that can be easily scaled up in size for use in large systems. The feasibility study demonstrates that the battery operates successfully for repeated discharge-charge cycles.

  9. Transparent, flexible, and solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, graphene-based supercapacitors with optical transparency and mechanical flexibility have been achieved using a combination of poly(vinyl alcohol/phosphoric acid gel electrolyte and graphene electrodes. An optical transmittance of ∼67% in a wavelength range of 500-800 nm and a 92.4% remnant capacitance under a bending angle of 80° have been achieved for the supercapacitors. The decrease in capacitance under bending is ascribed to the buckling of the graphene electrode in compression. The supercapacitors with high optical transparency, electrochemical stability, and mechanical flexibility hold promises for transparent and flexible electronics.

  10. Investigating the all-solid-state batteries based on lithium garnets and a high potential cathode - LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Christian; Afyon, Semih; Rupp, Jennifer L M

    2016-11-03

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on lithium garnets give new prospects for safer battery operations avoiding liquids, and could enable the integration of high energy density electrode materials. Herein, we critically investigate the structural and chemical stability of the high voltage cathode material, LiMn 1.5 Ni 0.5 O 4 , based on the solid lithium garnet electrolyte LLZO (c-Li 6.4 Ga 0.2 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 ) for all-solid Li-ion batteries. We manufacture battery cells based on nano-grained synthesized LLZO and composite cathodes (LiMn 1.5 Ni 0.5 O 4 /LLZO/C) fabricated via direct slurry casting of the cathode material and additives on sintered LLZO pellets against metallic Li anodes. The galvanostatic tests of such all-solid-state batteries up to 4.9 V at 95 °C reveal the incompatibility of the solid electrolyte and the cathode material under given conditions. Post-mortem analyses of the all-solid-state batteries demonstrate the formation of new inactive phases at the LLZO/LiMn 1.5 Ni 0.5 O 4 interfacial region through an irreversible reaction starting at ∼3.8 V during charging. The discovered limited chemical stability under the investigated conditions raises the question if LLZO could be a promising solid-electrolyte for future all-solid-state Li-ion batteries especially at higher operation potentials and demanding operation conditions.

  11. The Detrimental Effects of Carbon Additives in Li10GeP2S12-Based Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Culver, Sean P; Koerver, Raimund; Das, Dyuman; Weber, Dominik A; Zeier, Wolfgang G; Janek, Jürgen

    2017-10-18

    All-solid-state batteries (SSBs) have recently attracted much attention due to their potential application in electric vehicles. One key issue that is central to improve the function of SSBs is to gain a better understanding of the interfaces between the material components toward enhancing the electrochemical performance. In this work, the interfacial properties of a carbon-containing cathode composite, employing Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 as the solid electrolyte, are investigated. A large interfacial charge-transfer resistance builds up upon the inclusion of carbon in the composite, which is detrimental to the resulting cycle life. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that carbon facilitates faster electrochemical decomposition of the thiophosphate solid electrolyte at the cathode/solid electrolyte interface-by transferring the low chemical potential of lithium in the charged state deeper into the solid electrolyte and extending the decomposition region. The occurring accumulation of highly oxidized sulfur species at the interface is likely responsible for the large interfacial resistances and aggravated capacity fading observed.

  12. Speed scanning system based on solid-state microchip laser for architectural planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redka, Dmitriy; Grishkanich, Alexsandr S.; Kolmakov, Egor; Tsvetkov, Konstantin

    2017-10-01

    According to the current great interest concerning Large-Scale Metrology applications in many different fields of manufacturing industry, technologies and techniques for dimensional measurement have recently shown a substantial improvement. Ease-of-use, logistic and economic issues, as well as metrological performance, are assuming a more and more important role among system requirements. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The system consists of a distributed network-based layout, whose modularity allows to fit differently sized and shaped working volumes by adequately increasing the number of sensing units. Differently from existing spatially distributed metrological instruments, the remote sensor devices are intended to provide embedded data elaboration capabilities, in order to share the overall computational load.

  13. Next Generation Print-based Manufacturing for Photovoltaics and Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sue A. Carter

    2012-09-07

    For the grand challenge of reducing our energy and carbon footprint, the development of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies offer a potential solution. Energy technologies can reduce our dependence on foreign oil as well as the energy consumed by the petroleum industry, the leading consumer of energy by a U.S. industry sector. Nonetheless, the manufacturing processes utilized to manufacture equipment for alternative energy technologies often involve energy-intensive processes. This undermines some of the advantages to moving to 'green' technologies in the first place. Our answer to the Industrial Technology Program's (ITP) Grand Challenge FOA was to develop a transformational low cost manufacturing process for plastic-based photovoltaics that will lower by over 50% both energy consumption and greenhouse emissions and offer a return-of-investment of over 20%. We demonstrated a Luminescent Solar Concentrator fabricated on a plastic acrylic substrate (i.e. no glass) that increases the power output of the PV cell by 2.2x with a 2% power efficiency as well as an LSC with a 7% power efficiency that increased the power output from the PV cells by 35%. S large area 20-inch x 60-inch building-integrated photovoltaic window was fabricated using contract manufacturing with a 4% power efficiency which improved the power output of the PV cell by over 50%. In addition, accelerated lifetimes of the luminescent material demonstrate lifetimes of 20-years.

  14. Design and Fabrication of an All-Solid-State Polymer Supercapacitor with Highly Mechanical Flexibility Based on Polypyrrole Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Limin; Liu, Qifan; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Wei, Chun; Liu, Chanjuan; Lao, Li

    2017-10-04

    A conducting polymer-based hydrogel (PPy/CPH) with a polypyrrole-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating network was prepared by utilization of a chemical cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)-H 2 SO 4 hydrogel (CPH) film as flexible substrate followed by vapor-phase polymerization of pyrrole. Then an all-solid-state polymer supercapacitor (ASSPS) was fabricated by sandwiching the CPH film between two pieces of the PPy/CPH film. The ASSPS is mechanically robust and flexible with a tensile strength of 20.83 MPa and a break elongation of 377% which is superior to other flexible conducting polymer hydrogel-based supercapacitors owing to the strong hydrogen bonding interactions among the layers and the high mechanical properties of the PPy/CPH. It exhibits maximum volumetric specific capacitance of 13.06 F/cm 3 and energy density of 1160.9 μWh/cm 3 . The specific capacitance maintains 97.9% and 86.3% of its initial value after 10 000 folding cycles and 10 000 charge-discharge cycles, respectively. The remarkable electrochemical and mechanical performance indicates this novel ASSPS device is promising for flexible electronics.

  15. Solid-State Examination of Conformationally Diverse Sulfonamide Receptors Based on Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine, -Bipyridine, and -Thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B.; Johnson, Charles A.; Vonnegut, Chris L.; Fajardo, Kevin A.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Johnson, Darren W.; Haley, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing an induced-fit model and taking advantage of rotatable acetylenic C(sp)–C(sp2) bonds, we disclose the synthesis and solid-state structures of a series of conformationally diverse bis-sulfonamide arylethynyl receptors using either pyridine, 2,2′-bipyridine, or thiophene as the core aryl group. Whereas the bipyridine and thiophene structures do not appear to bind guests in the solid state, the pyridine receptors form 2 + 2 dimers with water molecules, two halides, or one of each, depending on the protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen atom. Isolation of a related bis-sulfonimide derivative demonstrates the importance of the sulfonamide N–H hydrogen bonds in dimer formation. The pyridine receptors form monomeric structures with larger guests such as BF4− or HSO4−, where the sulfonamide arms rotate to the side opposite the pyridine N atom. PMID:26405435

  16. Solid-State Examination of Conformationally Diverse Sulfonamide Receptors Based on Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine, -Bipyridine, and -Thiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Orion B; Johnson, Charles A; Vonnegut, Chris L; Fajardo, Kevin A; Zakharov, Lev N; Johnson, Darren W; Haley, Michael M

    2015-03-04

    Utilizing an induced-fit model and taking advantage of rotatable acetylenic C(sp)-C(sp 2 ) bonds, we disclose the synthesis and solid-state structures of a series of conformationally diverse bis-sulfonamide arylethynyl receptors using either pyridine, 2,2'-bipyridine, or thiophene as the core aryl group. Whereas the bipyridine and thiophene structures do not appear to bind guests in the solid state, the pyridine receptors form 2 + 2 dimers with water molecules, two halides, or one of each, depending on the protonation state of the pyridine nitrogen atom. Isolation of a related bis-sulfonimide derivative demonstrates the importance of the sulfonamide N-H hydrogen bonds in dimer formation. The pyridine receptors form monomeric structures with larger guests such as BF 4 - or HSO 4 - , where the sulfonamide arms rotate to the side opposite the pyridine N atom.

  17. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  18. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  19. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams.

  20. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  1. Modeling solid-state boron carbide low energy neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.; Harken, A.; Day, E.; Robertson, B.W.; Adenwalla, S.

    2006-01-01

    Two independent techniques for modeling boron-based solid-state neutron detectors are presented-one using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit and the other one an analytical approach using a simplified physical model. Results of these techniques are compared for three different types of solid-state boron carbide detector. These results provide the basis for distinguishing between conversion layer and other solid-state detectors

  2. Endo-Fullerene and Doped Diamond Nanocrystallite Based Models of Qubits for Solid-State Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjun; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Models of encapsulated 1/2 nuclear spin H-1 and P-31 atoms in fullerene and diamond nanocrystallite, respectively, are proposed and examined with ab-initio local density functional method for possible applications as single quantum bits (qubits) in solid-state quantum computers. A H-1 atom encapsulated in a fully deuterated fullerene, C(sub 20)D(sub 20), forms the first model system and ab-initio calculation shows that H-1 atom is stable in atomic state at the center of the fullerene with a barrier of about 1 eV to escape. A P-31 atom positioned at the center of a diamond nanocrystallite is the second model system, and 3 1P atom is found to be stable at the substitutional site relative to interstitial sites by 15 eV, Vacancy formation energy is 6 eV in diamond so that substitutional P-31 atom will be stable against diffusion during the formation mechanisms within the nanocrystallite. The coupling between the nuclear spin and weakly bound (valance) donor electron coupling in both systems is found to be suitable for single qubit applications, where as the spatial distributions of (valance) donor electron wave functions are found to be preferentially spread along certain lattice directions facilitating two or more qubit applications. The feasibility of the fabrication pathways for both model solid-state qubit systems within practical quantum computers is discussed with in the context of our proposed solid-state qubits.

  3. Integrated on-chip solid state capacitor based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers, grown using a CMOS temperature compatible process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Amin M.; Andersson, Rickard; Desmaris, Vincent; Enoksson, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Complete miniaturized on-chip integrated solid-state capacitors have been fabricated based on conformal coating of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs), using a CMOS temperature compatible microfabrication processes. The 5 μm long VACNFs, operating as electrode, are grown on a silicon substrate and conformally coated by aluminum oxide dielectric using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The areal (footprint) capacitance density value of 11-15 nF/mm2 is realized with high reproducibility. The CMOS temperature compatible microfabrication, ultra-low profile (less than 7 μm thickness) and high capacitance density would enables direct integration of micro energy storage devices on the active CMOS chip, multi-chip package and passives on silicon or glass interposer. A model is developed to calculate the surface area of VACNFs and the effective capacitance from the devices. It is thereby shown that 71% of surface area of the VACNFs has contributed to the measured capacitance, and by using the entire area the capacitance can potentially be increased.

  4. Impact of the atomic layer deposition precursors diffusion on solid-state carbon nanotube based supercapacitors performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Vollebregt, Sten; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Sarro, Pasqualina M; Tichelaar, F D

    2015-01-01

    A study on the impact of atomic layer deposition (ALD) precursors diffusion on the performance of solid-state miniaturized nanostructure capacitor array is presented. Three-dimensional nanostructured capacitor array based on double conformal coating of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) bundles is realized using ALD to deposit Al 2 O 3 as dielectric layer and TiN as high aspect-ratio conformal counter-electrode on 2 μm long MWCNT bundles. The devices have a small footprint (from 100 μm 2 to 2500 μm 2 ) and are realized using an IC wafer-scale manufacturing process with high reproducibility (≤0.3E-12F deviation). To evaluate the enhancement of the electrode surface, the measured capacitance values are compared to a lumped circuital model. The observed discrepancies are explained with a partial coating of the CNT, that determine a limited use of the available electrode surface area. To analyze the CNT coating effectiveness, the ALD precursors diffusions inside the CNT bundle is studied using a Knudsen diffusion mechanism. (paper)

  5. Impact of the atomic layer deposition precursors diffusion on solid-state carbon nanotube based supercapacitors performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuseppe; Vollebregt, Sten; Tichelaar, F. D.; Ishihara, Ryoichi; Sarro, Pasqualina M.

    2015-02-01

    A study on the impact of atomic layer deposition (ALD) precursors diffusion on the performance of solid-state miniaturized nanostructure capacitor array is presented. Three-dimensional nanostructured capacitor array based on double conformal coating of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) bundles is realized using ALD to deposit Al2O3 as dielectric layer and TiN as high aspect-ratio conformal counter-electrode on 2 μm long MWCNT bundles. The devices have a small footprint (from 100 μm2 to 2500 μm2) and are realized using an IC wafer-scale manufacturing process with high reproducibility (≤0.3E-12F deviation). To evaluate the enhancement of the electrode surface, the measured capacitance values are compared to a lumped circuital model. The observed discrepancies are explained with a partial coating of the CNT, that determine a limited use of the available electrode surface area. To analyze the CNT coating effectiveness, the ALD precursors diffusions inside the CNT bundle is studied using a Knudsen diffusion mechanism.

  6. Enriched Boron-Doped Amorphous Selenium Based Position-Sensitive Solid-State Thermal Neutron Detector for MPACT Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Krishna [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2017-09-29

    High-efficiency thermal neutron detectors with compact size, low power-rating and high spatial, temporal and energy resolution are essential to execute non-proliferation and safeguard protocols. The demands of such detector are not fully covered by the current detection system such as gas proportional counters or scintillator-photomultiplier tube combinations, which are limited by their detection efficiency, stability of response, speed of operation, and physical size. Furthermore, world-wide shortage of 3He gas, required for widely used gas detection method, has further prompted to design an alternative system. Therefore, a solid-state neutron detection system without the requirement of 3He will be very desirable. To address the above technology gap, we had proposed to develop new room temperature solidstate thermal neutron detectors based on enriched boron (10B) and enriched lithium (6Li) doped amorphous Se (As- 0.52%, Cl 5 ppm) semiconductor for MPACT applications. The proposed alloy materials have been identified for its many favorable characteristics - a wide bandgap (~2.2 eV at 300 K) for room temperature operation, high glass transition temperature (tg ~ 85°C), a high thermal neutron cross-section (for boron ~ 3840 barns, for lithium ~ 940 barns, 1 barn = 10-24 cm2), low effective atomic number of Se for small gamma ray sensitivity, and high radiation tolerance due to its amorphous structure.

  7. Carbazole-based BODIPYs with ethynyl substituents at the boron center: solid-state excimer fluorescence in the VIS/NIR region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Chihiro; Nagahata, Keiji; Ema, Tadashi

    2017-09-26

    Carbazole-based BODIPYs 1-6 with several different substituents at the boron atom site were synthesized. These dyes fluoresced in the solid state, and 3a with phenylethynyl groups exhibited a red-shifted and broad fluorescence spectrum, which suggested an excimer emission. Its derivatives 3b-n were synthesized, and the relationship between the solid-state emission and crystal packing was investigated. The X-ray crystal structures revealed cofacial dimers that might form excimers. From the structural optimization results, we found that the introduction of mesityl groups hindered intermolecular access and led to reduced interactions between the dimers. In addition, the red-shifted excimer fluorescence suppressed self-absorption, and dyes with ethynyl groups showed solid-state fluorescence in the vis/NIR region.

  8. Solid-state deep blue and UV fluorescent dyes based on para-bis(2-thienyl)phenylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajčovič, Jozef; Kovalenko, Alexander, E-mail: kovalenko.alx@gmail.com; Heinrichová, Patricie; Vala, Martin; Weiter, Martin

    2015-11-15

    Despite the general rule of strong acceptor substituents having a tendency to quench fluorescence due to molecular stacking, it is shown how tetra-fluorination of the central phenylene unit of para-bis(2-thienyl)phenylene can augment the quantum yields of solid state fluorescent dyes. Another significant part of the present research was the study of the influence of the position of the solubilization alkyl chains position on the fluorescent properties of the abovementioned non- and tetra-fluorinated materials. Tenfold augmentation of quantum yields, depending on the position of the alkyl chains is reported. - Highlights: • Solid state luminescence was observed in para-bis(2-thienyl)phenylene molecules. • Quantum yields was augmented by polyfluorination of the central phenylene unit. • Tenfold augmentation of luminescence was observed by changing alkyls position. • Possibilities of steric hindrance and charge transfer were studied.

  9. High Performance All-Solid-State Flexible Micro-Pseudocapacitor Based on Hierarchically Nanostructured Tungsten Trioxide Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Microsupercapacitors (MSCs) are promising energy storage devices to power miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. With the increasing attention on all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors, new strategies for high-performance flexible MSCs are highly desired. Here, we demonstrate all-solid-state, flexible micropseudocapacitors via direct laser patterning on crack-free, flexible WO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites containing high levels of porous hierarchically structured WO3 nanomaterials (up to 50 wt %) and limited binder (PVDF, nanostructured WO3 in the narrow finger electrode is essential to such enhancement in energy density due to its pseudocapacitive property. The effects of WO3/PVDF/MWCNTs composite composition and the dimensions of interdigital structure on the performance of the flexible MSCs are investigated. PMID:26618406

  10. Solid state nanofibers based on self-assemblies : from cleaving from self-assemblies to multilevel hierarchical constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H. A.; Houbenov, Nikolay; Ruokolainen, Janne; Paakko, Marjo; Laine, Janne; Leskela, Markku; Berglund, Lars A.; Lindstrom, Tom; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Iatrou, Hermis; Hadjichristidis, Nikos; Faul, Charl F. J.; Pääkkö, Marjo; Leskelä, Markku; Lindström, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Self-assemblies and their hierarchies are useful to construct soft materials with structures at different length scales and to tune the materials properties for various functions. Here we address routes for solid nanofibers based on different forms of self-assemblies. On the other hand, we discuss

  11. The Solid-State X-Ray Image Intensifier (SSXII): An EMCCD-Based X-Ray Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew; Yadava, Girijesh; Patel, Vikas; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The solid-state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII) is an EMCCD-based x-ray detector designed to satisfy an increasing need for high-resolution real-time images, while offering significant improvements over current flat panel detectors (FPDs) and x-ray image intensifiers (XIIs). FPDs are replacing XIIs because they reduce/eliminate veiling glare, pincushion or s-shaped distortions and are physically flat. However, FPDs suffer from excessive lag and ghosting and their performance has been disappointing for low-exposure-per-frame procedures due to excessive instrumentation-noise. XIIs and FPDs both have limited resolution capabilities of ~3 cycles/mm. To overcome these limitations a prototype SSXII module has been developed, consisting of a 1k x 1k, 8 mum pixel EMCCD with a fiber-optic input window, which views a 350 mum thick CsI(Tl) phosphor via a 4:1 magnifying fiber-optic-taper (FOT). Arrays of such modules will provide a larger field-of-view. Detector MTF, DQE, and instrumentation-noise equivalent exposure (INEE) were measured to evaluate the SSXIIs performance using a standard x-ray spectrum (IEC RQA5), allowing for comparison with current state-of-the-art detectors. The MTF was 0.20 at 3 cycles/mm, comparable to standard detectors, and better than 0.05 up to 7 cycles/mm, well beyond current capabilities. DQE curves indicate no degradation from high-angiographic to low-fluoroscopic exposures (INEE of < 0.2 muR was measured for the highest-resolution mode (32 mum effective pixel size). Comparison images between detector technologies qualitatively demonstrate these improved imaging capabilities provided by the SSXII.

  12. The solid state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII): an EMCCD-based x-ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew; Yadava, Girijesh; Patel, Vikas; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2008-03-01

    The solid-state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII) is an EMCCD-based x-ray detector designed to satisfy an increasing need for high-resolution real-time images, while offering significant improvements over current flat panel detectors (FPDs) and x-ray image intensifiers (XIIs). FPDs are replacing XIIs because they reduce/eliminate veiling glare, pincushion or s-shaped distortions and are physically flat. However, FPDs suffer from excessive lag and ghosting and their performance has been disappointing for low-exposure-per-frame procedures due to excessive instrumentation-noise. XIIs and FPDs both have limited resolution capabilities of ~3 cycles/mm. To overcome these limitations a prototype SSXII module has been developed, consisting of a 1k x 1k, 8 μm pixel EMCCD with a fiber-optic input window, which views a 350 μm thick CsI(Tl) phosphor via a 4:1 magnifying fiber-optic-taper (FOT). Arrays of such modules will provide a larger field-of- view. Detector MTF, DQE, and instrumentation-noise equivalent exposure (INEE) were measured to evaluate the SSXIIs performance using a standard x-ray spectrum (IEC RQA5), allowing for comparison with current state-of-the-art detectors. The MTF was 0.20 at 3 cycles/mm, comparable to standard detectors, and better than 0.05 up to 7 cycles/mm, well beyond current capabilities. DQE curves indicate no degradation from high-angiographic to low-fluoroscopic exposures (INEE of < 0.2 μR was measured for the highest-resolution mode (32 μm effective pixel size). Comparison images between detector technologies qualitatively demonstrate these improved imaging capabilities provided by the SSXII.

  13. DFT calculations of quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties: Some examples in solid-state inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Jerome; Messaoudi, Sabri; Alonzo, Veronique; Furet, Eric; Halet, Jean-François; Le Fur, Eric; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Pickard, Chris J; Gautier, Regis; Le Polles, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    This article presents results of first-principles calculations of quadrupolar parameters measured by solid-state nuclear magnetic measurement (NMR) spectroscopy. Different computational methods based on density functional theory were used to calculate the quadrupolar parameters. Through a series of illustrations from different areas of solid state inorganic chemistry, it is shown how quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties can be tackled by a theoretical approach and can yield structural information. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  15. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  16. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  17. All-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitors based on reduced graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiling; Xu, Jianhua; He, Xin; Yang, Wenyao; Yang, Yajie; Xu, Lu; Zhao, Yuetao; Zhou, Yujiu

    2018-03-01

    All-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitors have been intensely investigated in order to meet the rapidly growing demands for portable microelectronic devices. Herein, we demonstrate a facile, readily scalable and cost-effective laser induction process for preparing reduced graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite, which can be used as the interdigital electrodes in microsupercapacitors. The obtained composite exhibits high volumetric capacitance about 49.35 F cm-3, which is nearly 5 times higher than that of the pristine reduced graphene oxide film in aqueous 1.0 M H2SO4 solution (measured at a current density of 5 A cm-3 in a three-electrode testing). Additionally, an all-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitor employing these composite electrodes with PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte delivers high volumetric energy density of 6.47 mWh cm-3 at 10 mW cm-3 under the current density of 20 mA cm-3 as well as achieve excellent cycling stability retaining 88.6% of its initial value and outstanding coulombic efficiency after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, the microsupercapacitors array connected in series/parallel can be easily adjusted to achieve the demands in practical applications. Therefore, this work brings a promising new candidate of prepare technologies for all-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitors as miniaturized power sources used in the portable and wearable electronics.

  18. Thermal Design and Flight Validation for Solid-state Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state transmitter with large power and high heat flux is a key equipment of an HJ-1-C satellite; therefore, it has a great influence on satellite thermal design. Thermal design ensures that the solid-state transmitter works well within the allowable temperature limits of the equipment. The solid-state transmitter thermal design and solved key problems are provided in accordance with the HJ-1-C characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of satellites on orbit was performed. Based on the telemetry data, the thermal control design is shown to satisfy the temperature requirements of the solid-state transmitter.

  19. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  20. Present status of fast neutron personnel dosimetry system based on CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Sathian, Deepa; Jayalakshmi, V.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Kumar, Valli; Babu, Rajesh; Kar, S.; Joshi, V.M.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron sources are of different types depending upon the method of production such as nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and laboratory sources. Neutron sources depending upon their energy, flux, size etc. are used for variety of applications in basic and applied sciences, neutron scattering experiments and in industry such as oil well - digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing etc. Personnel working in nuclear installations such as reactors, accelerators, spent fuel processing plants, nuclear fuel cycle operations and those working in various industries such as oil refining, oil well-digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing, etc. need to be monitored for neutron exposures, if any. Neutron monitoring is especially necessary in view of the fact that the radiation weighting factor for neutron is much higher than gamma rays and also it varies with energy. Radiological Physics and Advisory Division is involved in monitoring of personnel working in neutron fields. Around 2100 workers from 70 institutions (DAE and Non-DAE) are monitored on a quarterly basis. Neutron personnel monitoring, carried out in the country is based on Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) technique. In this technique, neutrons interact with hydrogen in CR-39 polymer to produce recoil protons. These protons create damages in the polymer, which are enlarged and appear as tracks when subjected to electrochemical etching (ECE). These tracks are counted in an optical system to evaluate the neutron dose. The neutron dosimetry system based on SSNTD has undergone a significant development, since it was started in 1990. The development includes upgradation of image analysis system for counting tracks, introduction of chemical etching (CE) at elevated temperatures for evaluation of dose equivalents above 10 mSv and use of carbon laser for cutting of CR-39 detectors. The entire dose evaluation process has been standardized, which includes calibration and performance tests

  1. High temperature solid state storage cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  2. Complexability of o-bisguanidinobenzenes with arsenic and phosphoric acids in solution and solid states, and the potential use of their immobilized derivatives as solid base ligands for metal salts and arsenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoya; Suda, Koji; Kumamoto, Takuya; Nakanishi, Waka; Watanabe, Toshiko; Ishikawa, Tsutomu; Seki, Hiroko; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Ogura, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T

    2010-02-01

    The role of o-bisguanidinobenzenes (BGBs) as new Brønsted base ligands for arsenic and phosphoric acids was examined. In solution state, complexation was evaluated by Job's plot in (1)H NMR experiment, indicating a 1:1 complex formation, whereas in solid state crystalline structures of complexes obtained were addressed by X-ray crystallographic analysis and/or solid state (13)C NMR experiment, in which 1:2 complexes between the BGB and the acid components were normally formed. Based on these results, Merrifield and Hypogel resin-anchored BGBs were designed and prepared as the corresponding polymer-supported host ligands. Evaluation of their coordination ability with metal salts (ZnCl(2) and CoCl(2)) and arsenic acid in aqueous media by ICP-MS showed that the latter Hypogel resin-anchored BGBs acted as effective immobilized base ligands.

  3. Optofluidic devices with integrated solid-state nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Aaron R.; Schmidt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    This review (with 90 refs.) covers the state of the art in optofluidic devices with integrated solid-state nanopores for use in detection and sensing. Following an introduction into principles of optofluidics and solid-state nanopore technology, we discuss features of solid-state nanopore based assays using optofluidics. This includes the incorporation of solid-state nanopores into optofluidic platforms based on liquid-core anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs), methods for their fabrication, aspects of single particle detection and particle manipulation. We then describe the new functionalities provided by solid-state nanopores integrated into optofluidic chips, in particular acting as smart gates for correlated electro-optical detection and discrimination of nanoparticles. This enables the identification of viruses and λ-DNA, particle trajectory simulations, enhancing sensitivity by tuning the shape of nanopores. The review concludes with a summary and an outlook. PMID:27046940

  4. Toward garnet electrolyte–based Li metal batteries: An ultrathin, highly effective, artificial solid-state electrolyte/metallic Li interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun (Kelvin); Gong, Yunhui; Liu, Boyang; Zhu, Yizhou; Xu, Shaomao; Yao, Yonggang; Luo, Wei; Wang, Chengwei; Lacey, Steven D.; Dai, Jiaqi; Chen, Yanan; Mo, Yifei; Wachsman, Eric; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state batteries are a promising option toward high energy and power densities due to the use of lithium (Li) metal as an anode. Among all solid electrolyte materials ranging from sulfides to oxides and oxynitrides, cubic garnet–type Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) ceramic electrolytes are superior candidates because of their high ionic conductivity (10−3 to 10−4 S/cm) and good stability against Li metal. However, garnet solid electrolytes generally have poor contact with Li metal, which causes high resistance and uneven current distribution at the interface. To address this challenge, we demonstrate a strategy to engineer the garnet solid electrolyte and the Li metal interface by forming an intermediary Li-metal alloy, which changes the wettability of the garnet surface (lithiophobic to lithiophilic) and reduces the interface resistance by more than an order of magnitude: 950 ohm·cm2 for the pristine garnet/Li and 75 ohm·cm2 for the surface-engineered garnet/Li. Li7La2.75Ca0.25Zr1.75Nb0.25O12 (LLCZN) was selected as the solid-state electrolyte (SSE) in this work because of its low sintering temperature, stabilized cubic garnet phase, and high ionic conductivity. This low area-specific resistance enables a solid-state garnet SSE/Li metal configuration and promotes the development of a hybrid electrolyte system. The hybrid system uses the improved solid-state garnet SSE Li metal anode and a thin liquid electrolyte cathode interfacial layer. This work provides new ways to address the garnet SSE wetting issue against Li and get more stable cell performances based on the hybrid electrolyte system for Li-ion, Li-sulfur, and Li-oxygen batteries toward the next generation of Li metal batteries. PMID:28435874

  5. Solid state characterization and crystal structure from X-ray powder diffraction of two polymorphic forms of ranitidine base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Héctor Novoa; Peeters, Oswald M; Blaton, Norbert; Van Gyseghem, Elke; Martens, Johan; Van Haele, Gerrit; Van Den Mooter, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN-HCl), a known anti-ulcer drug, is the product of reaction between HCl and ranitidine base (RAN-B). RAN-HCl has been extensively studied; however this is not the case of the RAN-B. The solid state characterization of RAN-B polymorphs has been carried out using different analytical techniques (microscopy, thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry in the attenuated total reflection mode, (13)C-CPMAS-NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction). The crystal structures of RAN-B form I and form II have been determined using conventional X-ray powder diffraction in combination with simulated annealing and whole profile pattern matching, and refined using rigid-body Rietveld refinement. RAN-B form I is a monoclinic polymorph with cell parameters: a = 7.317(2), b = 9.021(2), c = 25.098(6) A, beta = 95.690(1) degrees and space group P2(1)/c. The form II is orthorhombic: a = 31.252(4), b = 13.052(2), c = 8.0892(11) A with space group Pbca. In RAN-B polymorphs, the nitro group is involved in a strong intramolecular hydrogen bond responsible for the existence of a Z configuration in the enamine portion of the molecules. A tail to tail packing motif can be denoted via intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The crystal structures of RAN-B forms are compared to those of RAN-HCl polymorphs. RAN-B polymorphs are monotropic polymorphic pairs. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  6. Ab initio investigation of ground-states and ionic motion in particular in zirconia-based solid-oxide electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, Julian Arndt

    2012-01-01

    Electrolytes with high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures are the prerequisite for the success of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). One candidate is doped zirconia. In the past, the electrical resistance of zirconia based SOFC electrolytes has mainly been decreased by reducing its thickness. But there are limits to reducing the thickness and one can say that nowadays the normal ways are basically exhausted to further enhance the conductivity of well-known electrolyte materials. Hence, new approaches need to be found to discover windows of enhanced ionic conductivity. This can be achieved by understanding the quantum-mechanical oxygen transport in unconventional configurations of doped zirconia. Therefore, such an understanding is of fundamental importance. In this thesis two approaches are pursued, the investigation of the strain dependent ionic migration in zirconia based electrolytes and the designing of an electrolyte material structure with enhanced and strongly anisotropic ionic conductivity. The first approach expands the elementary understanding of oxygen migration in oxide lattices. The migration barrier of the oxygen ion jumps in zirconia is determined by applying the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in connection with the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method. These computations show an unexpected window of decreased migration barriers at high compressive strains. Similar to other publications a decrease in the migration barrier for expansive strain is observed. But, in addition, a migration barrier decrease under high compressive strains is found beyond a maximal height of the migration barrier. A simple analytic model offers an explanation. The drop of the migration barrier at high compressions originates from the elevation of the ground-state energy. This means: Increasing ground state energies becomes an interesting alternative to facilitate ionic mobility. The second approach is based on the idea, that actually, only in the direction of ion

  7. Ab initio investigation of ground-states and ionic motion in particular in zirconia-based solid-oxide electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschfeld, Julian Arndt

    2012-12-11

    Electrolytes with high ionic conductivity at lower temperatures are the prerequisite for the success of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). One candidate is doped zirconia. In the past, the electrical resistance of zirconia based SOFC electrolytes has mainly been decreased by reducing its thickness. But there are limits to reducing the thickness and one can say that nowadays the normal ways are basically exhausted to further enhance the conductivity of well-known electrolyte materials. Hence, new approaches need to be found to discover windows of enhanced ionic conductivity. This can be achieved by understanding the quantum-mechanical oxygen transport in unconventional configurations of doped zirconia. Therefore, such an understanding is of fundamental importance. In this thesis two approaches are pursued, the investigation of the strain dependent ionic migration in zirconia based electrolytes and the designing of an electrolyte material structure with enhanced and strongly anisotropic ionic conductivity. The first approach expands the elementary understanding of oxygen migration in oxide lattices. The migration barrier of the oxygen ion jumps in zirconia is determined by applying the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations in connection with the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method. These computations show an unexpected window of decreased migration barriers at high compressive strains. Similar to other publications a decrease in the migration barrier for expansive strain is observed. But, in addition, a migration barrier decrease under high compressive strains is found beyond a maximal height of the migration barrier. A simple analytic model offers an explanation. The drop of the migration barrier at high compressions originates from the elevation of the ground-state energy. This means: Increasing ground state energies becomes an interesting alternative to facilitate ionic mobility. The second approach is based on the idea, that actually, only in the direction of ion

  8. All-solid-state thin film battery based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Miyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghwan [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Daehee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joosun, E-mail: joosun@kist.re.kr [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jooho, E-mail: jmoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Graphical abstract: We successfully fabricated well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires as a one-dimensional nanostructured cathode by glancing angle deposition to enhance the electrochemical performance of all-solid-state thin film batteries. - Highlights: • Well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires are fabricated by glancing angle deposition. • One-dimensional nanostructured LiCoO{sub 2} cathode enlarges the contact area. • All-solid-state thin film battery exhibits enhances rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: We fabricated all-solid-state thin film batteries based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires by glancing angle deposition, as a facile template-free method in order to increase the electrochemically active site, i.e., the contact area between the solid electrolyte and the electrode. A highly porous thin film composed of well-separated slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires not only facilitates the penetration of solid electrolyte phase into the cathode, but also alleviates the thermally and mechanically induced stresses during post-annealing and electrochemical cycling. The all-solid-state thin film battery based on the well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires, whose contact area between electrolyte and electrode was three times as high as that of a dense thin film, could provide additional migration pathways for lithium ion diffusion due to the enlarged reaction sites. This resulted in enhanced electrochemical kinetics, thereby leading to better rate capability and long-term cyclic stability as compared to the dense LiCoO{sub 2} thin film.

  9. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  10. Nylon 6 polymerization in the solid state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Amirtharaj, John; Kamp, Henk

    1982-01-01

    The postcondensation of nylon 6 in the solid state was studied. The reactions were carried out on fine powder in a fluidized bed reactor in a stream of dry nitrogen in the temperature range 110-205°C and during 1-24 h. The solid-state polymerization (SSP) did not follow melt kinetics, but was found

  11. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  12. Studies of solid-state electrochromic devices based on Peo/siliceous hybrids doped with lithium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, P.C.; Silva, M.M.; Smith, M.J.; Goncalves, A.; Fortunato, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic networks, doped with a lithium salt, have been used as electrolytes in prototype smart windows. The work described in this presentation is focused on the application of these networks as dual-function electrolyte/adhesive components in solid-state electrochromic devices. The performance of multi-layer electrochromic devices was characterized as a function of the choice of precursor used to prepare the polymer electrolyte component and the guest salt concentration. The prototype devices exhibited good open-circuit memory, coloration efficiency, optical contrast and stability

  13. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  14. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  15. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  16. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  17. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  18. Imidazolium-based Block Copolymers as Solid-State Separators for Alkaline Fuel Cells and Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykaza, Jacob Richard

    In this study, polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) diblock copolymers were explored as solid-state polymer separators as an anion exchange membrane (AEM) for alkaline fuel cells AFCs and as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) for lithium-ion batteries. Polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) block copolymers are a distinct set of block copolymers that combine the properties of both ionic liquids (e.g., high conductivity, high electrochemical stability) and block copolymers (e.g., self-assembly into various nanostructures), which provides the opportunity to design highly conductive robust solid-state electrolytes that can be tuned for various applications including AFCs and lithium-ion batteries via simple anion exchange. A series of bromide conducting PIL diblock copolymers with an undecyl alkyl side chain between the polymer backbone and the imidazolium moiety were first synthesized at various compositions comprising of a PIL component and a non-ionic component. Synthesis was achieved by post-functionalization from its non-ionic precursor PIL diblock copolymer, which was synthesized via the reverse addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique. This PIL diblock copolymer with long alkyl side chains resulted in flexible, transparent films with high mechanical strength and high bromide ion conductivity. The conductivity of the PIL diblock copolymer was three times higher than its analogous PIL homopolymer and an order of magnitude higher than a similar PIL diblock copolymer with shorter alkyl side chain length, which was due to the microphase separated morphology, more specifically, water/ion clusters within the PIL microdomains in the hydrated state. Due to the high conductivity and mechanical robustness of this novel PIL block copolymer, its application as both the ionomer and AEM in an AFC was investigated via anion exchange to hydroxide (OH-), where a maximum power density of 29.3 mW cm-1 (60 °C with H2/O2 at 25 psig (172 kPa) backpressure) was achieved. Rotating disk

  19. All-solid-state thin film battery based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO2 nanowires fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Miyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Lee, Daehee; Kim, Joosun; Moon, Jooho

    2017-08-01

    We fabricated all-solid-state thin film batteries based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO2 nanowires by glancing angle deposition, as a facile template-free method in order to increase the electrochemically active site, i.e., the contact area between the solid electrolyte and the electrode. A highly porous thin film composed of well-separated slanted LiCoO2 nanowires not only facilitates the penetration of solid electrolyte phase into the cathode, but also alleviates the thermally and mechanically induced stresses during post-annealing and electrochemical cycling. The all-solid-state thin film battery based on the well-aligned slanted LiCoO2 nanowires, whose contact area between electrolyte and electrode was three times as high as that of a dense thin film, could provide additional migration pathways for lithium ion diffusion due to the enlarged reaction sites. This resulted in enhanced electrochemical kinetics, thereby leading to better rate capability and long-term cyclic stability as compared to the dense LiCoO2 thin film.

  20. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  1. High-performance solid-state on-chip supercapacitors based on Si nanowires coated with ruthenium oxide via atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Cheng, Qingmei; Wang, Dunwei; Thompson, Carl V.

    2017-02-01

    Solid-state on-chip supercapacitors based on ruthenium oxide coated silicon nanowires were fabricated using a process that is compatible with silicon integrated circuit processing. Ordered arrays of silicon nanowires were fabricated using metal-assisted anodic etching (MAAE). Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to form a uniform coating of ruthenium oxide on high-aspect-ratio silicon nanowires at a moderate temperature of 290 °C. Coated nanowire electrodes were studied using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests in a neutral Na2SO4 electrolyte, and a specific capacitance of 19 mFcm-2 was achieved at 5 mVs-1. Solid state nanowire capacitors were then fabricated with symmetric face to face nanowire arrays separated by a polymer-based electrolyte. This device exhibited a specific capacitance as high as 6.5 mFcm-2 at 2 mVs-1. The full device was tested over 10000 cycles under galvanostatic charge-discharge at 0.4 mAcm-2, and showed a retention of 92% of the specific capacitance. The specific capacitance was found to scale with the total nanowire surface area, as controlled by controlling the aspect ratios of the wires. The solid state nanowire-based device also achieved high specific energies without sacrificing power performance.

  2. Programmable solid state atom sources for nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; Del Corro, Pablo G.; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian A.; Lally, Richard W.; Bishop, David J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques.In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A document containing further information about device characterization

  3. W-band Solid State Transceiver for Cloud Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed effort seeks to develop a solid state power amplifier (SSPA)-based W-band cloud radar transceiver and demonstrate it on the GSFC airborne Cloud Radar...

  4. Equation of state for inert gas solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Abstract. The equation of state is a fundamental relation to analyse the thermophysical properties of different class of solids and it plays a key role in basic and applied condensed matter physics research. A lot of work has been done in the field of ionic solids, minerals and metals but a very little work is done in the field of ...

  5. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ionic conduction; solid state; atomistic computer simulations; NASICON structure. 1. Introduction. There exist many solids with .... The other skeleton structures examined in- cludes that of the high-pressure-stabilized cubic Im3 ..... volves solution of the coupled differential equations. (11) and (12). This gives the time evolution ...

  6. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid state ionic conductors are important from an industrial viewpoint. A variety of such conductors have been found. In order to understand the reasons for high ionic conductivity in these solids, there have been a number of experimental, theoretical and computational studies in the literature. We provide here a survey of ...

  7. Equation of state for inert gas solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The equation of state is a fundamental relation to analyse the thermophysical properties of different class of solids and it plays a key role in basic and applied condensed matter physics research. A lot of work has been done in the field of ionic solids, minerals and metals but a very little work is done in the field of inert gas ...

  8. Fungal mats in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Since over 2000 years man has cultivated fungi on grains, beans or other (by)products from agriculture or agro-industries, in order to produce tastier and healthier foods. Nowadays, cultivation on solid substrates (solid-state fermentation, SSF) is also used to produce industrial enzymes, drugs and

  9. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. A. Fattah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene [P(VdF-HFP] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC. The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g−1, which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  10. Flexible all-solid-state high-performance supercapacitor based on electrochemically synthesized carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Xuan; Yang, Hui-min; Li, Jia-gang; Zhang, Er-hui; Cao, Le-le; Liang, Zhen-hai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous nanostructure carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite film was successfully synthesized by direct electrochemical method. • A flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor device was fabricated using the carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite electrode. • The flexible supercapacitor exhibits high specific capacitance, excellent reliability and long cycling life. - Abstract: Recently, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as a new zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterial have become a focus in electrochemical energy storage. In this paper, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSs) were electrochemically synthesized by on-step co-deposition of appropriate amounts of pyrrole monomer and CQDs in aqueous solution. The different electrodeposition time plays an important role in controlling morphologies of stainless steel wire meshes (SSWM)-supported CQDs/PPy composite film. The morphologies and compositions of the obtained CQDs/PPy composite electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, a novel flexible ASSS device was fabricated using CQDs/PPy composite as the electrode and separated by polyvinyl alcohol/LiCl gel electrolyte. Benefiting from superior electrochemical properties of CQDs and PPy, the as-prepared CQDs/PPy composite ASSSs exhibit outstanding electrochemical performance with the areal capacitance 315 mF cm −2 (corresponding to specific capacitance of 308 F g −1 ) at a current density of 0.2 mA cm −2 and long cycle life with 85.7% capacitance retention after 2 000 cycles.

  11. Solid state and materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Surface and sub-surface regions of solids are modified by rapid melting and quenching, using a high-powered, pulsed (30 ns) ruby laser. The main emphasis of this work is on laser annealing, epitaxy and doping of silicon. Computer programs have been developed to calculate the heat-flow which takes place during pulsed laser irradiation. From such calculations, information can be obtained about temperature profiles, melt depths, recrystallization velocities and quench rates. 13 figs., 9 refs., 1 tab

  12. Development of White-Light Emitting Active Layers in Nitride Based Heterostructures for Phosphorless Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan Talbot; Kailash Mishra

    2007-12-31

    This report provides a summary of research activities carried out at the University of California, San Diego and Central Research of OSRAM SYLVANIA in Beverly, MA partially supported by a research contract from US Department of Energy, DE-FC26-04NT422274. The main objective of this project was to develop III-V nitrides activated by rare earth ions, RE{sup 3+}, which could eliminate the need for phosphors in nitride-based solid state light sources. The main idea was to convert electron-hole pairs injected into the active layer in a LED die to white light directly through transitions within the energy levels of the 4f{sup n}-manifold of RE{sup 3+}. We focused on the following materials: Eu{sup 3+}(red), Tb{sup 3+}(green), Er{sup 3+}(green), Dy{sup 3+}(yellow) and Tm{sup 3+}(blue) in AlN, GaN and alloys of AlN and GaN. Our strategy was to explore candidate materials in powder form first, and then study their behavior in thin films. Thin films of these materials were to be deposited on sapphire substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The photo- and cathode-luminescence measurements of these materials were used to investigate their suitability for white light generation. The project proceeded along this route with minor modifications needed to produce better materials and to expedite our progress towards the final goal. The project made the following accomplishments: (1) red emission from Eu{sup 3+}, green from Tb{sup 3+}, yellow from Dy{sup 3+} and blue from Tm{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (2) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN powder; (3) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} in alloys of GaN and AlN; (4) green emission from Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films by PLD; (5) red emission from Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} in GaN thin films deposited by MOVPE; (6) energy transfer from host to RE{sup 3+}; (7) energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} in AlN powders; (8) emission from AlN powder samples

  13. Bending crystals. Solid state photomechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    semiquinonate ligand, form as long thin needles that are observed to bend reversibly upon irradiation with NIR light. Crystallographic characterization reveals a stacked solid state lattice with planar molecules aligned with metal atoms atop one another.

  14. Developments in Solid-State NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reso/020/11/1040-1052. Keywords. NMR; solid state; anisotropy; magic angle spinning dipolar coupling; quadrupolar coupling; chemical shift. Author Affiliations. K V Ramanathan1. NMR Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru ...

  15. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zarkadoula, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6138 (United States); Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 1EP (United Kingdom); Geisler, T. [Steinmann-Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Brazhkin, V. V. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, 142190 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  16. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms.  Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System...

  17. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  18. Development of Solid-State Electrochemiluminescence (ECL Sensor Based on Ru(bpy32+-Encapsulated Silica Nanoparticles for the Detection of Biogenic Polyamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Spehar-Délèze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A solid state electrochemiluminescence (ECL sensor based on Ru(bpy32+-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (RuNP covalently immobilised on a screen printed carbon electrode has been developed and characterised. RuNPs were synthesised using water-in-oil microemulsion method, amino groups were introduced on their surface, and they were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. Aminated RuNPs were covalently immobilised on activate screen-printed carbon electrodes to form a solid state ECL biosensor. The biosensor surfaces were characterised using electrochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, which showed that aminated nanoparticles formed dense 3D layers on the electrode surface thus allowing immobilisation of high amount of Ru(bpy32+. The developed sensor was used for ECL detection of biogenic polyamines, namely spermine, spermidine, cadaverine and putrescine. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability.

  19. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Written by the 2011 Gaede Award Winner Filling a gap in the literature for a brief course in solid sate physics, this is a clear and concise introduction that not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also discusses such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. This textbook assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems with solutions as well as further supplementary material available for free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website. From the Contents:Chemical Bonding in So

  20. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  1. Cellulase and xylanase productions by isolated Amazon Bacillus strains using soybean industrial residue based solid-state cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Júlio X.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, a large amount of a fibrous residue is generated as result of soybean (Glycine max protein production. This material, which is rich in hemicellulose and cellulose, can be used in solid state cultivations for the production of valuable metabolites and enzymes. In this work, we studied the bioconversion of this residue by bacteria strains isolated from water and soil collected in the Amazon region. Five strains among 87 isolated bacteria selected for their ability to produce either celullases or xylanases were cultivated on the aforementioned residue. From strain BL62, identified as Bacillus subtilis, it was obtained a preparation showing the highest specific cellulase activity, 1.08 UI/mg protein within 24 hours of growth. Concerning xylanase, the isolate BL53, also identified as Bacillus subtilis, showed the highest specific activity for this enzyme, 5.19 UI/mg protein within 72 hours of cultivation. It has also been observed the production of proteases that were associated with the loss of cellulase and xylanase activities. These results indicated that the selected microorganisms, and the cultivation process, have great biotechnological potential.

  2. Polysaccarides-based gels and solid-state electronic devices with memresistive properties: Synergy between polyaniline electrochemistry and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Cifarelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new architecture of organic memristive device is proposed with a double-layered polyelectrolyte, one of which is a biological system that alone drives the memristive behavior. In the device the Physarum polycephalum was used as living organism, the polyaniline as conducting polymer for the source-drain channel. The key choice for the device functioning was the interposition of a biocompatible solid layer between polyaniline and living organism, that must result both electrochemically inert and able to preserve a good electrical conductivity of the polyaniline, notwithstanding the alkaline pH environment required for the surviving of living being, by avoiding strong acids. Pectin with a high degree of methylation and chitosan were tested as interlayer, but only the first one satisfied the essential requirements. It was demonstrated that only when the living organism was integrated in the device, the current-voltage characteristics showed the hysteretic rectifying trends typical of the memristive devices, which however disappeared if the Physarum polycephalum switched to its sclerotic state. The mould resulted to survive a series of at least three cycles of voltage-current measurements carried out in sequence.

  3. Development of complex hydride-based all-solid-state lithium ion battery applying low melting point electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shohei; Kawaji, Jun; Yoshida, Koji; Unemoto, Atsushi; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2017-08-01

    A thermally durable all-solid-state lithium ion battery composed of a complex hydride, oxide electrolytes, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 active material is developed. This battery exhibits a discharge capacity of 56 mAh g-1, and the tenth capacity retention ratio is 29% at 150 °C owing to the large contact resistance between the electrolyte layer and the composite positive electrode layer. This large contact resistance is reduced by introducing an adhesive layer comprised of a mixture of LiBH4 and LiNH2 that is easily melted by thermal treatment and fills the voids and pores at the interface between the two layers. As a result, repeated charge-discharge cycles are successfully demonstrated at 150 °C with a high discharge capacity and discharge capacity retention ratio. The first discharge capacity is enhanced to 114 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention ratio at the tenth cycle is improved to 71%. These results demonstrate that using an adhesive layer is an effective measure to reduce the contact resistance and thereby enhance the performance of the battery.

  4. Nanographite Films for Solid State Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Lebedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of nanographite films useful for applications in solid state devices are described. The possibility to use low conducting state of nanographite film for detecting radiation in the segmented solid state detectors is considered. Other interesting phenomena include the field effect conductivity switching which can be used in contactless current limiters and circuit breakers, the rf-to-dc conversion which can be utilized in microwave and photo detectors, and light emitting subsequent to the conductivity switching with possible application as light sources. The possible underlying gears of the mentioned effects are discussed.

  5. Solid state detectors for neutron radiation monitoring in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize the main solid state based detectors proposed for neutron diagnostic in fusion applications and their applicability under the required harsh conditions in terms of intense radiation, high temperature and available space restrictions. Activation systems, semiconductor based detectors, luminescent materials and Cerenkov fibre optics sensors (C-FOS) are the main devices that are described. - Highlights: • A state-of-the-art summary of solid state based detectors are described. • Conditions and restrictions for their applicability are described. • A list of the 38 more relevant references has been included

  6. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  7. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  8. Solid-state NMR of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirau, P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as one of the most important methods for the solid-state characterisation of polymers. The popularity of NMR is due to the fact that many molecular level features can be measured from the NMR spectra, including the polymer chain conformation, the morphology and the dynamics. The spectral features and relaxation times are affected by local interactions, so they provide information about the structure of polymers on a length scale (2-200 A) that is difficult to measure by other methods. In favourable cases, the NMR experiments provide a molecular-level explanation for the transitions observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and other methods, and the NMR properties can often be related to the bulk properties. Solid-state NMR has long been of interest in polymer science, and the first solid-state NMR studies of polymers were reported approximately a year after the discovery of nuclear resonance in bulk matter. It was reported in this initial study that the proton line width for natural rubber at room temperature is more like that of a mobile liquid than of a solid, but that the resonance broadens near the glass transition temperature (T g ). This was recognised as being related to a change in chain dynamics above and below the T g . NMR methods developed rapidly after these initial observations, first for polymers in solution and, more recently, for polymers in the solid-state. Solid-state NMR studies of polymers were developed more slowly than their solution-state counterparts because solid-state NMR requires more specialised equipment. Solid-state NMR is now such an important tool that most modern spectrometers are capable of performing these studies. The interest in the NMR of solid polymers is due in part to the fact that most polymers are used in the solid state, and in many cases the NMR properties can be directly related to the macroscopic properties. Polymers have restricted mobility in

  9. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  10. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  11. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  12. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  13. Solid-state dynamics of uranyl polyoxometalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Todd M.; Liao, Zuolei; Zakharov, Lev N.; Nyman, May

    2014-01-01

    Understanding fundamental uranyl polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry in solution and the solid state is the first step to defining its future role in the development of new actinide materials and separation processes that are vital to every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Many solid-state geometries of uranyl POMs have been described, but we are only beginning to understand their chemical behavior, which thus far includes the role of templates in their self-assembly, and the dynamics of encapsulated species in solution. This study provides unprecedented detail into the exchange dynamics of the encapsulated species in the solid state through Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy. Although it was previously recognized that capsule-like molybdate and uranyl POMs exchange encapsulated species when dissolved in water, analogous exchange in the solid state has not been documented, or even considered. Here, we observe the extremely high rate of transport of Li + and aqua species across the uranyl shell in the solid state, a process that is affected by both temperature and pore blocking by larger species. These results highlight the untapped potential of emergent f-block element materials and vesicle-like POMs. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. A Newly Designed Composite Gel Polymer Electrolyte Based on Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-Hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) for Enhanced Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Wang, Xiuli; Xia, Xinhui; Xu, Ruochen; Zhang, Shengzhao; Wu, Jianbo; Liang, Yanfei; Gu, Changdong; Tu, Jiangping

    2017-10-26

    Developing high-performance solid-state electrolytes is crucial for the innovation of next-generation lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein, a facile method for preparation of a novel gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) is reported. Furthermore, Li 1.5 Al 0.5 Ti 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 (LATP) nanoparticles as the active fillers are uniformly embedded into the GPE to form the final PVDF-HFP/LATP composite gel polymer electrolyte (CPE). Impressively, the obtained CPE demonstrates a high lithium ion transference number of 0.51 and improved electrochemical stability as compared to commercial liquid electrolyte. In addition, the assembled solid-sate Li-S battery with the composite gel polymer electrolyte membrane presents a high initial capacity of 918 mAh g -1 at 0.05 C, and better cycle performance than the counterparts with liquid electrolyte. Our designed PVDF-HFP/LATP composite can be a promising electrolyte for next-generation solid-state batteries with high cycling stability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Elastic Constants of Solids and Fluids with Initial Pressure via a Unified Approach Based on Equations-of-State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The second and third-order Brugger elastic constants are obtained for liquids and ideal gases having an initial hydrostatic pressure p(sub 1). For liquids the second-order elastic constants are C(sub 11) = A + p(sub 1), C(sub 12) = A -- p(sub 1), and the third-order constants are C(sub 111) = --(B + 5A + 3p(sub 1)), C(sub 112) = --(B + A -- p(sub 1)), and C(sub 123) = A -- B -- p1, where A and B are the Beyer expansion coefficients in the liquid equation of state. For ideal gases the second order constants are C(sub 11) = p(sub 1)gamma + p9sub 1), C(sub 12) = p(sub 1)gamma -- p(sub 1), and the third-order constants are C(sub 111) = p(sub 1)(gamma(2) + 4gamma + 3), C(sub 112) = --p(sub 1)(gamma(2) -- 1), and C(sub 123) = --p(sub 1) (gamma(2) -- 2gamma + 1), where gamma is the ratio of specific heats. The inequality of C(sub 11) and C(sub 12) results in a nonzero shear constant C(sub 44) = (1/2)(C(sub 11) C(sub 12)) = p(sub 1) for both liquids and gases. For water at standard temperature and pressure the ratio of terms p1/A contributing to the second-order constants is approximately 4.3 x 10(-5). For atmospheric gases the ratio of corresponding terms is approximately 0.7. Analytical expressions that include initial stresses are derived for the material 'nonlinearity parameters' associated with harmonic generation and acoustoelasticity for fluids and solids of arbitrary crystal symmetry. The expressions are used to validate the relationships for the elastic constants of fluids.

  16. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  17. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  18. Estimation of DNA DSB radiation damage using a solid state nanodosimeters based on glow peak 5a in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, L.; Haddad, J.; Horowitz, Y.S.; Biderman, S.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the viability of the concept of using existing molecular nano structures in TL solid-state nanodosimeters. The concept is based on mimicking radiobiology (specifically the ionization density dependence of double strand breaks in DNA) by using the similar ionization density dependence of simultaneous electron-hole capture in spatially correlated TC/LC pairs in the thermoluminescence of LiF:Mg, Ti. This simultaneous electron-hole capture has been shown to lead to ionization density dependence in the relative intensity of peak 5a to peak 5 similar to the ratio of DSBs to SSBs for low energy He ions. (authors)

  19. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  20. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  1. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  2. International Summer School on Solid State Microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the courses taught at the school are listed: Optical Characterization of Semiconductor Materials and Structures; High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Defects in Silicon; Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Heavy Doping Effects and Their Influence on Silicon Bipolar Transistors; Silicon Molecular Beam Epitaxy (Status, Devices, Trends); Rechargeable Solid State Cells; Thin Film Technology and Characterization (Their Use In Microionic Devices); Modeling, Fabrication, and Development of Miniature Sensors; Simulation of Silicon Processing-I; 4M Technology; Theory of Defects in Crystalline Silicon; Amorphous Room Temperature Polymer Solid Electrolytes; Advanced Silicon on Insulator Materials (Processing, Characterization and Devices); Diamond Lattice, Structure and Possible Applications for Porfluorinated Ionomers in Solution; Theory and Applications of Amorphous Solid for Electrochemical Cells; The Physical Formation Processes of Thin Films; Their Characterization by XPS, AES and SIMS and Their Applications in Micro batteries; Chemistry, Physics and Applications of Polymeric Solid Electrolytes to Micro batteries; Space Radiation Effects in MOS Devices; and Fundamentals of Low Temperature Silicon Epitaxy.

  3. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-03-25

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Mechanochemically assisted room temperature solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    also known to induce nucleation leading to new products. (Stojanovic et al 2005). However, solid state reactions occurring under mechanochemical influence taking place at room temperature are rare (Xian et al 1991). In this communication, we report the formation of divalent molyb- dates through mechanochemically ...

  5. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  6. Solid state aspects of oxidation catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellings, P.J.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The main subject of this review is the consideration of catalytic oxidation reactions, which are greatly influenced by solid state effects in the catalyst material. Emphasis is laid upon the correlation between the presence of mobile ionic defects, together with the associated ionic conductivity,

  7. Electrochemical investigations related to solid state magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Investigations leading to the understanding and development of solid state magnesium batteries are considered important, as Mg is free from hazards and is also highly stable and abundant. A gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of about 100 mm thickness is investigated for electrochemical reversibility of the Mg/Mg2+ couple and ...

  8. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  9. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for the synthesis of orthovanadates, M3V2O8 (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba). The structural, vibrational, thermal, optical and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning ...

  10. Bending crystals. Solid state photomechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    properties of quinone complexes in the solid state. 2. Photomechanical property of Rh(CO)2(3,6-DBSQ). Many of the important features of quinone complexes are derived from a similarity in energy between metal-valence and quinone π* orbitals. This property is responsible for intense, low-energy charge transfer transitions ...

  11. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  12. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  13. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  14. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  15. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  16. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  17. Oligothiophene-based colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence dual-channel cyanide chemosensor: Sensing ability, TD-DFT calculations and its application as an efficient solid state sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Linxin; Li, Tianduo; Wei, Tao; Pang, He; Sun, Tao; Wang, Enhua; Liu, Haixia; Niu, Qingfen

    2018-03-01

    An oligothiophene-based colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescence dual-channel cyanide chemosensor 3 T-2CN was reported. Sensor 3 T-2CN showed both naked-eye recognition and ratiometric fluorescence response for CN- with an excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. The sensing mechanism based on the nucleophilic attack of CN- on the vinyl Cdbnd C bond has been successfully confirmed by the optical measurements, 1H NMR titration, FT-IR spectra as well as the DFT/TD-DFT calculations. Moreover, the detection limit was calculated to be 0.19 μM, which is much lower than the maximum permission concentration in drinking water (1.9 μM). Importantly, test strips (filter paper and TLC plates) containing 3 T-2CN were fabricated, which could act as a practical and efficient solid state optical sensor for CN- in field measurements.

  18. Facile solid-state synthesis of highly dispersed Cu nanospheres anchored on coal-based activated carbons as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Gao, Shasha; Tang, Yakun; Wang, Lei; Jia, Dianzeng; Liu, Lang

    2018-04-01

    Coal-based activated carbons (AC) were acted as the support, Cu/AC catalysts were synthesized by a facile solid-state reaction combined with subsequent heat treatment. In Cu/AC composites, highly dispersed Cu nanospheres were anchored on AC. The catalytic activity for 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) was investigated, the effects of activation temperature and copper loading on the catalytic performance were studied. The catalysts exhibited very high catalytic activity and moderate chemical stability due to the unique characteristics of the particle-assembled nanostructures, the high surface area and the porous structure of coal-based AC and the good dispersion of metal particles. Design and preparation of non-noble metal composite catalysts provide a new direction for improving the added value of coal.

  19. Ionic Borate-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks: Lightweight Porous Materials for Lithium-Stable Solid State Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Hayden T; Harrison, Katharine Lee

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the first polyelectrolyte of intrinsic microporosity (PEIM) is described. The novel material was synthesized via reaction between the nitrile group in the polymer backbone and n-butyl lithium, effectively anchoring an imine anion to the porous framework while introducing a mobile lithium counterion. The PEIM was characterized by 13C, 1H, and 7Li NMR experiments, revealing quantitative conversion of the nitrile functionality to the anionic imine. Variable temperature 7Li NMR analysis of the dry PEIM and the electrolyteswollen PEIM revealed that lithium ion transport within the dry PEIM was largely due to interchain hopping of the Li+ ions, and that the mobility of polymer associated Li+ was reduced after swelling in electrolyte solution. Meanwhile, the swollen PEIM supported efficient transport of dissolved Li+ within the expanded pores. These results are discussed in the context of developing novel solid or solid-like lithium ion electrolytes using the new PEIM material.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of dumbbell-like BTD-based derivatives to engineer organic building blocks in solid-state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Urias, Ana; Lugo-Aranda, Alejandra Zaavik; Miranda-Olvera, Montserrat; Farfán, Norberto; Santillan, Rosa; Arcos-Ramos, Rafael; Carreón-Castro, María del Pilar

    2018-02-01

    Four BTD-derivatives 4, 5, 7 and 8 were synthesized and characterized by using solution NMR, FTIR and HRMS. In this study, BTD-central cores were supported on trityl type fragments in order to evaluate the influence of these groups prone to aggregation through interdigitation in the consolidation of ordered solids. Structural variation, between compounds 4-5 and 7-8, was selected by introducing aromatic phenyl rings at positions C-4 and C-7 of the BTD central core in order to increase the stackable surface. Crystals of compounds 4 and 5 were obtained and solved in the C2/c and P21/c space groups, respectively. Both crystalline arrays are dominated by Csbnd H⋯π and π-stacking interactions, desirable features for the bottom-up construction of highly polarizable organic crystals. The featured compounds with a dumbbell-like structure could be useful as scaffolds for self-assembled crystalline materials such as solid organic semiconductors.

  1. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  2. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  3. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  4. Rechargeable Sodium All-Solid-State Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B

    2017-01-25

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. All-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  5. Solid radiation curable polyene compositions containing liquid polythiols and solid styrene-allyl copolymer based polyenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Novel styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer based solid polyene compositions which when mixed with liquid polythiols can form solid curable polyene-polythiol systems are claimed. These solid polyenes, containing at least two reactive carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, are urethane or ester derivatives of styrene-allyl alcohol copolymers. The solid polyenes are prepared by treating the hydroxyl groups of a styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer with a reactive unsaturated isocyanate, e.g., allyl isocyanate or a reactive unsaturated carboxylic acid, e.g., acrylic acid. Upon exposure to a free radical generator, e.g., actinic radiation, the solid polyene-polythiol compositions cure to solid, insoluble, chemically resistant, cross-linked polythioether products. Since the solid polyene-liquid polythiol composition can be cured in a solid state, such a curable system finds particular use in preparation of coatings, imaged surfaces such as photoresists, particularly solder-resistant photoresists, printing plates, etc

  6. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  7. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...... and a C1 component which is a flash-based memory device. Methods comprise: writing the data page d at a physical storage page having physical storage page address P in the storage device in response to receiving a write request to store the data page d at a logical storage page having a logical storage...

  8. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  9. Revealing the relation between the structure, Li-ion conductivity and solid state battery performance for the argyrodite Li6PS5Br solid electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Ganapathy, S.; van Eck, Ernst R H; van Eijck, L.; Basak, S.; Liu, Yanyan; Zhang, Long; Zandbergen, H.W.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on its high Li-ion conductivity, argyrodite Li6PS5Br is a promising solid electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries. However, more understanding is required on the relation between the solid electrolyte conductivity and the solid-state battery performance with the argyrodite structure,

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  11. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  12. A new solid-state passive switch for neodymium lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziul'Kov, V. A.; Kazachenko, A. E.; Kotov, S. G.; Kovalev, D. V.; Stavrov, A. A.

    1992-07-01

    A new passive modulator based on CuInS2(1-x)Se2x-doped glass is proposed for Q-switching in neodymium lasers. It is noted that these solid-state passive switches can operate in a wide spectral range and do not require the use of semiconductor compounds of high optical quality.

  13. Structural color-tunable mesoporous bragg stack layers based on graft copolymer self-assembly for high-efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-08-01

    We present a facile fabrication route for structural color-tunable mesoporous Bragg stack (BS) layers based on the self-assembly of a cost-effective graft copolymer. The mesoporous BS layers are prepared through the alternating deposition of organized mesoporous-TiO2 (OM-TiO2) and -SiO2 (OM-SiO2) films on the non-conducting side of the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The OM layers with controlled porosity, pore size, and refractive index are templated with amphiphilic graft copolymers consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) backbones and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) side chains, i.e., PVC-g-POEM. The morphology and properties of the structural color-tunable mesoporous BS-functionalized electrodes are characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), spectroscopic ellipsometry, and reflectance spectroscopy. The solid-state DSSCs (ssDSSCs) based on a structural color-tunable mesoporous BS counter electrode with a single-component solid electrolyte show an energy conversion efficiency (η) of 7.1%, which is much greater than that of conventional nanocrystalline TiO2-based cells and one of the highest values for N719 dye-based ssDSSCs. The enhancement of η is due to the enhancement of current density (Jsc), attributed to the improved light harvesting properties without considerable decrease in fill factor (FF) or open-circuit voltage (Voc), as confirmed by incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  14. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method developed for estimating the stoichiometric ratio of solid-state {alpha}-cyclodextrin-based inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Wang, Jinpeng; Bashari, Mohanad; Hu, Xiuting [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Feng, Tao [School of Perfume and Aroma Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Xu, Xueming [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Jin, Zhengyu, E-mail: jinlab2008@yahoo.com [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Tian, Yaoqi, E-mail: yqtian@jiangnan.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a TGA method for the measurement of the stoichiometric ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A series of formulas are deduced to calculate the stoichiometric ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed method is applicable. - Abstract: An approach mainly based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was developed to evaluate the stoichiometric ratio (SR, guest to host) of the guest-{alpha}-cyclodextrin (Guest-{alpha}-CD) inclusion complexes (4-cresol-{alpha}-CD, benzyl alcohol-{alpha}-CD, ferrocene-{alpha}-CD and decanoic acid-{alpha}-CD). The present data obtained from Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed that all the {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes were successfully prepared in a solid-state form. The stoichiometric ratios of {alpha}-CD to the relative guests (4-cresol, benzyl alcohol, ferrocene and decanoic acid) determined by the developed method were 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 1:2, respectively. These SR data were well demonstrated by the previously reported X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the NMR confirmatory experiments, except the SR of decanoic acid with a larger size and longer chain was not consistent. It is, therefore, suggested that the TGA-based method is applicable to follow the stoichiometric ratio of the polycrystalline {alpha}-CD-based inclusion complexes with smaller and shorter chain guests.

  15. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  16. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  17. A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor for detection of cytochrome c based on ceria nanoparticles decorated with reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pur, Mohammad Reza Karimi; Hosseini, Morteza; Faridbod, Farnoush; Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    A novel ultrasensitive sensing system for the rapid detection of cytochrome c (Cyt C) was developed on the basis of an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) method. A nanocomposite biosensor was made of reduced graphene oxide decorated with cerium oxide/tris(2,2-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/chitosan (CeO2NPs-RGO/ Ru(bpy)3 (2+)/CHIT) and used for this purpose. The ECL signal was produced by an electrochemical interaction between Ru(bpy)3 (2+) and tripropyl amine (TPA) on the surface of the electrode. Addition of Cyt C to the solution decreases the ECL signal due to its affinity for TPA and inhibition of its reaction with Ru(bpy)3 (2+). The effects of the amount of CeO2NPs-RGO, Ru(bpy)3 (2+), TPA concentration as a co-reactant, and the pH of the electrolyte solution on the ECL signal intensity were studied and optimized. The results showed that the method was fast, reproducible, sensitive, and stable for the detection of Cyt C. The method has a linear range from 2.5 nM to 2 μM (R (2) = 0.995) with a detection limit of 0.7 nM. Finally, the proposed biosensor was used for the determination of Cyt C in human serum samples with RSDs of 1.8-3.6 %. The results demonstrate that this solid-state ECL quenching biosensor has high sensitivity, selectivity, and good stability. Graphical Abstract A novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence sensor for detection of cytochrome C based on Ceria Nanoparticles Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite.

  18. The solid-state structures of organic salts formed by calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with nucleic bases cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium

    KAUST Repository

    Shkurenko, Aleksander

    2018-02-19

    Calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid has been demonstrated to possess an interesting range of biological properties, including atypical anti-cancer activity. The robustness of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid and its ubiquitous dimeric motif offers perspectives for pre-defined solid state complexation with small molecules. In the current article we describe co-crystals (organic salts) of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with four nucleic base cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium. A number of characteristic interactions between the components in the four co-crystals are pointed out also using the Hirshfeld surface analysis. All the four co-crystals are based on layers of calix[4]arene dimers, alternating with layers of nucleic acid molecules. Two of the reported crystal structures (cytosinium and guaninium) are 1D channel-type structures, while the two others (adeninium and uracilium) represent 2D channel-type structures. In three out of four reported structures, interactions between the cations of nucleic bases are present generating 1D chains of cations. A constant motif is that the nucleic base is present in a type of cavity formed by one aromatic ring and a phosphonic acid moiety.

  19. Pulsed, all solid-state light source in the visible spectral region based on non-linear cavity dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Andersen, Martin; Johansson, Sandra

    We propose a novel generic approach for generation of pulsed light in the visible spectrum, based on SFG between the high circulating intra-cavity power of a high finesse CW laser and a single-passed pulsed laser....

  20. Proton transfer and hydrogen bonding in the organic solid state: a combined XRD/XPS/ssNMR study of 17 organic acid-base complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joanna S; Byard, Stephen J; Seaton, Colin C; Sadiq, Ghazala; Davey, Roger J; Schroeder, Sven L M

    2014-01-21

    The properties of nitrogen centres acting either as hydrogen-bond or Brønsted acceptors in solid molecular acid-base complexes have been probed by N 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy and are interpreted with reference to local crystallographic structure information provided by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We have previously shown that the strong chemical shift of the N 1s binding energy associated with the protonation of nitrogen centres unequivocally distinguishes protonated (salt) from hydrogen-bonded (co-crystal) nitrogen species. This result is further supported by significant ssNMR shifts to low frequency, which occur with proton transfer from the acid to the base component. Generally, only minor chemical shifts occur upon co-crystal formation, unless a strong hydrogen bond is formed. CASTEP density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (15)N ssNMR isotropic chemical shifts correlate well with the experimental data, confirming that computational predictions of H-bond strengths and associated ssNMR chemical shifts allow the identification of salt and co-crystal structures (NMR crystallography). The excellent agreement between the conclusions drawn by XPS and the combined CASTEP/ssNMR investigations opens up a reliable avenue for local structure characterization in molecular systems even in the absence of crystal structure information, for example for non-crystalline or amorphous matter. The range of 17 different systems investigated in this study demonstrates the generic nature of this approach, which will be applicable to many other molecular materials in organic, physical, and materials chemistry.

  1. Observations on the reliability of COTS-device-based solid state data recorders operating in low-earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, C.I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Surrey Space Centre's experience in using different coding schemes and hardware configurations to protect data and protect data and software stored in COTS-device (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) based memories on-board operational spacecraft in low Earth orbit. (author)

  2. Solid-State Properties of One-Dimensional Metals Based on bis(oxalato)platinate Anions with Divalent Cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braude, A.; Carneiro, K.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde

    1987-01-01

    The crystal structures, superstructures, dc conductivity, optical properties, and thermopower of six linear-chain conductors of the type M0.8[Pt(C2O4)2]⋅(M=Ni,Co,Zn,Fe,Mg,Mn), where M is a divalent metal (M=Ni,Co,Zn,Fe,Mg,Mn), have been studied. At high temperatures they form a common orthorhombic...... metallic phase (I) with conductivities of 30–200 (Ω cm)-1 and thermopowers of 5–10 μV/K, with the lattice weakly modulated by the one-dimensional Peierls distortion. Below T1, three compounds (Ni,Co,Zn) form a semiconducting phase (A-II) due to the ordering of the [M(H2O)6]+2 cations. As the cation......-ion lattice and the three-dimensional Peierls distortion, and therefore no charge-density-wave state is formed. The influence of competing interactions is briefly discussed....

  3. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300 0 C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO 4 :Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot-pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150 0 C prior to first use dosimeters

  4. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  5. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  6. Fast solid state high voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Jens; Frank, Klaus; Hartmann, Werner

    1987-05-01

    A fast solid state pulse generator is described which is used to trigger high voltage, high current switches. It consists of a 7-stage marx generator bank switched by avalanche transistors and delivers a negative pulse with a rise time of less than 2 ns and an amplitude of 2.4 kV into a load of 200 ω. The delay between the trigger pulse of TTL level and the output pulse is 16 ns. The jitter is well below 100 ps.

  7. Modular solid-state detector cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.M.; Ehlert, R.C.; Loomis, N.W.; Shelley, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    A modular solid-state detector cell is disclosed which intimately associates a scintillator body with a pair of photoresponsive semiconductors so as to present on a single collimator plate all of the elements necessary for transforming incident X-radiation into a measurable electrical signal. The detector is provided with a precision slotted mounting arrangement for receiving the unit cells, and the cells when positioned within the detector assembly have the photoresponsive semiconductors enclosed within the light tight cell. The unit is adaptable to off-line testing of the separate cells for screening before assembly

  8. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  9. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Bak, M. S.; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Kim, T.

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO 3 ) 4 ⋅ 5H 2 O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories

  10. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A.; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Bak, M. S.; Kim, T.

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO3)4 ṡ 5H2O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  11. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Bak, M. S., E-mail: tkim@skku.edu, E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, S. [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V. [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T., E-mail: tkim@skku.edu, E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} ⋅ 5H{sub 2}O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  12. Color Rendering Index Thermal Stability Improvement of Glass-Based Phosphor-Converted White Light-Emitting Diodes for Solid-State Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chin Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High color rendering index performance has been required for phosphor-converted warm-white light-emitting diodes (PC-WWLEDs in lighting industry. The characteristics of low-temperature fabricated phosphor (yellow: Ce3+:YAG, green: Tb3+:YAG, and red: CaAlClSiN3:Eu2+ doped glass were presented for applications to high color rendering index warm-white-light-emitting diodes. Color coordinates (x, y = (0.36, 0.29, quantum yield (QY = 55.6%, color rending index (CRI = 85.3, and correlated color temperature (CCT = 3923 K were characterized. Glass-based PC-WWLEDs was found able to maintain good thermal stability for long-time high-temperature operation. QY decay, CRI remenance, and chromaticity shift were also analyzed for glass- and silicone-based high-power PC-WLEDs by thermal aging at 150°C and 250°C for industrial test standard’s aging time 1008 hours. Better than the silicone’s, thermal stability of glass-based PC-WLEDs has been improved. The resulted high color rendering index (CRI glass phosphor potentially can be used as a phosphor layer for high-performance and low-cost PC-WLEDs used in next-generation indoor solid-state lighting applications.

  13. Study of charge transfer processes in porphyrins- and phthalocyanins-based materials: from the liquid phase to the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Thierry

    1994-01-01

    In order to efficiently conceive and build supramolecular materials for molecular electronics and optoelectronics, one need to have access to a large data base on the interactions between the elementary pieces of the material. Such a data base can be established only through the study of model Systems and model media. Oligomers of porphyrins and phthalocyanines constitute models of choice: due to the chemical versatility of the compounds, their physical and photophysical properties can be adjusted to produce a targeted function. The first part of this thesis is concerned with double- and triple-Decker mixed porphyrin and Phthalocyanines sandwich compounds of cerium. Then we study the photophysical properties of complexes formed by pairing in solution porphyrins and phthalocyanines bearing oppositely charged substituents. The charge transfer reactions and geminated recombinations are investigated by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy (from the femto- to millisecond time scales) for excited complexes either in solution, or confined in sol-gel matrices or in Langmuir-Blodgett films. The results obtained in the various media are compared and analysed by the Marcus theory. They allow to show that, for strongly coupled complexes, the solvent does not play any key role in the forward and backward electron transfer. We conclude this work by introducing a few targeted projects based on of the photophysical properties of these complexes, namely photodynamic therapy of cancers, nonlinear optics and the generation of photovoltage. (author) [fr

  14. Synthesis, solid state and DFT structure and olefin polymerization capability of a unique base-free dimeric methyl titanium dication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpeij, E. G.; Coussens, B.; Zuideveld, M.A.; Van Doremaele, G. H. J.; Mountford, P.; Lutz, M.; Spek, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction of Cp*Ti{NC(ArF2)NiPr2}Me2 (1, ArF2 = 2,6-C6H3F2) with [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4] gave the base-free structurally authenticated dication [Cp*2Ti2{NC(ArF2)NiPr2}2(μ-Me)2][B(C6F5)4]2 (3-[BF20]2) containing two doubly α-agostic bridging methyl groups. 3-[BF20]2 is a highly effective ethylene–propylene

  15. Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations

  16. Solid state reactions and diffusion processes during rapid thermal processing of Cu-In-S based semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enzenhofer, T.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis thin layers of the system Cu-In-S were studied for the photovoltaic application by means of structural and electro-optical procedures. The effect of small quantities of group II elements on the absorber and component properties could be explained by a widely appointed study. The motivation to insert extraneous elements into CuInS 2 absorber layers results from the too low zero-current voltage of CuInS 2 based solar cells. It could be shown that by addition of small quantities of Zn and/or Mg ( 2 solar cells aimed efficiencies, which were also determined for the reference system. As limiting factor in the doped system the zero-current has been proved. The intensive analysis of the absorber properties showed the the extraneous atoms effect in the bulk and on the surface different modifications

  17. Topological Surface States in Dense Solid Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I; Hemley, Russell J

    2016-11-11

    Metallization of dense hydrogen and associated possible high-temperature superconductivity represents one of the key problems of physics. Recent theoretical studies indicate that before becoming a good metal, compressed solid hydrogen passes through a semimetallic stage. We show that such semimetallic phases predicted to be the most stable at multimegabar (∼300  GPa) pressures are not conventional semimetals: they exhibit topological metallic surface states inside the bulk "direct" gap in the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone; that is, metallic surfaces may appear even when the bulk of the material remains insulating. Examples include hydrogen in the Cmca-12 and Cmca-4 structures; Pbcn hydrogen also has metallic surface states but they are of a nontopological nature. The results provide predictions for future measurements, including probes of possible surface superconductivity in dense hydrogen.

  18. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose S.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13 C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T 1 H ρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13 C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13 C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T 1 H ρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  19. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  20. Study of the pore filling fraction of carbazole-based hole-transporting materials in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Ben Manaa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbazole-based molecular glasses have emerged as a promising alternative to the widely used hole-transporting materials (HTM spiro-OMeTAD in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The pore filling fraction (PFF of the mesoporous TiO2 layer by the HTM appears as a key parameter determining the final efficiency of a DSSC. In this work, the pore-filling properties of a family of carbazole-based HTMs are investigated for the first time and the photovoltaic behavior of DSSC devices (fabricated using the D102 dye is discussed in light of the present findings. It is found that N-aryl substituted 3,6-bis(diphenylaminyl-carbazole derivatives exhibit relatively low PFF of ca. 60%. Methoxy groups on the diphenylamine moieties have little influence on the PFF, indicating that the strong enhancement in power conversion efficiency (PCE is not related to an improved filling of the pores by the HTM. N-alkylated HTMs lead to higher PFF, increasing with the alkyl chain length, up to 78%.

  1. Novel Solid-State Solar Cell Based on Hole-Conducting MOF-Sensitizer Demonstrating Power Conversion Efficiency of 2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Do Young; Lee, Deok Yeon; Shin, Chan Yong; Bui, Hoa Thi; Shrestha, Nabeen K; Giebeler, Lars; Noh, Yong-Young; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2017-04-19

    This work reports on designing of first successful MOF-sensitizer based solid-state photovoltaic device, perticularly with a meaningful output power conversion efficiency. In this study, an intrinsically conductive cobalt-based MOFs (Co-DAPV) formed by the coordination between Co (II) ions and a redox active di(3-diaminopropyl)-viologen (i.e., DAPV) ligand is investigated as sensitizer. Hall-effect measurement shows p-type conductivity of the Co-DAPV film with hole mobility of 0.017 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , suggesting its potential application as hole transporting sensitizer. Further, the energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of Co-DAPV are well-matched to be suitably employed for sensitizing TiO 2 . Thus, by layer-by-layer deposition of hole conducting MOF-sensitizer onto mesoporous TiO 2 film, a power conversion efficiency of as high as 2.1% is achieved, which exceeds the highest efficiency values of MOF-sensitized liquid-junction solar cells reported so far.

  2. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  3. Promises and challenges in solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Fred

    2010-03-01

    Lighting technologies based on semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer unprecedented promises that include three major benefits: (i) Gigantic energy savings enabled by efficient conversion of electrical energy to optical energy; (ii) Substantial positive contributions to sustainability through reduced emissions of global-warming gases, acid-rain gases, and toxic substances such as mercury; and (iii) The creation of new paradigms in lighting driven by the unique controllability of solid-state lighting sources. Due to the powerful nature of these benefits, the transition from conventional lighting sources to solid-state lighting is virtually assured. This presentation will illustrate the new world of lighting and illustrate the pervasive changes to be expected in lighting, displays, communications, and biotechnology. The presentation will also address the formidable challenges that must be addressed to continue the further advancement of solid-state lighting technology. These challenges offer opportunities for research and innovation. Specific challenges include light management, carrier transport, and optical design. We will present some innovative approaches in order to solve known technical challenges faced by solid-state lighting. These approaches include the demonstration and use of new optical thin-film materials with a continuously tunable refractive index. These approaches also include the use of polarization-matched structures that reduce the polarization fields in GaInN LEDs and the hotly debated efficiency droop, that is, the decreasing LED efficiency at high currents.

  4. Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.

    2001-01-01

    We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)

  5. Novel fabrication of solid-state NaBH 4/Ru-based catalyst composites for hydrogen evolution using a high-energy ball-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hong; Chen, Bing-Hung; Hsueh, Chan-Li; Ku, Jie-Ren; Tsau, Fanghei

    Solid-state NaBH 4/Ru-based catalyst composites have been fabricated for hydrogen generation through a high-energy ball-milling process, providing uniform dispersion of resin-supported Ru 3+ catalysts among pulverized NaBH 4 (SBH) particles, so as to increase the contacts of SBH with active catalytic sites. Consequently, the gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity as high as 7.3 wt% could be achieved by utilizing water as a limiting reagent to overcome the issue of deactivated catalysts whose active sites are often blocked by precipitates caused by limited NaBO 2 solubility occurring in conventional aqueous SBH systems for hydrogen productions. Products of hydrolyzed SBH that greatly influence the gravimetric H 2 storage capacity are found to be most likely NaBO 2·2H 2O and NaBO 2·4H 2O from SBH/H 2O reacting systems with initial weight ratios, SBH/H 2O = 1/2 and 1/10, respectively, according to the TGA and XRD analyses.

  6. All-solid state symmetric supercapacitors based on compressible and flexible free-standing 3D carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) sponge electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Yang, Wenyao; Mao, Xiling; Xu, Lu; Zhou, Yujiu; Chen, Yan; Zhao, Yuetao; Yang, Yajie; Xu, Jianhua

    2018-02-01

    Flexible supercapacitors that maintain electrochemical performance under deformation have attracted much attention for the potential application in the flexible electronics market. A compressible and flexible free-standing electrodes sponge and all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on as-prepared electrodes are presented. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) framework is synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and then composited with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT by the electrodeposition. This CNTs/PEDOT sponge electrode shows highest mass-specific capacitance of 147 Fg-1 at 0.5 A g-1, tuned by the PEDOT mass loading, and exhibits good cyclic stability with the evidence that more than 95% of capacitance is remained after 3000 cycles. Furthermore, the symmetric supercapacitor shows the highest energy density of 12.6 Wh kg-1 under the power density of 1 kW kg-1 and highest power density of 10.2 kW kg-1 with energy density of 8 Wh kg-1, which exhibits both high energy density and power density. The electrochemical performance of composite electrode also indicates that the operate voltage of device could be extend to 1.4 V by the n-doping and p-doping process in different potential of PEDOT component. This flexible supercapacitor maintains stable electrochemical performance working on different bending condition, which shows promising prospect for wearable energy storage applications.

  7. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  8. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  9. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L.; Swinehart, P.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, we are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive to the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. The performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented.

  10. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L. (Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., Watertown, MA (United States)); Swinehart, P. (Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., Westerville, OH (United States))

    1992-08-01

    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, the authors are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive t the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. the performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented. in this paper.

  11. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  12. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  13. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  14. Peakr: simulating solid-state NMR spectra of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Robert; Odronitz, Florian; Hammesfahr, Bjorn; Hellkamp, Marcel; Kollmar, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When analyzing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins, assignment of resonances to nuclei and derivation of restraints for 3D structure calculations are challenging and time-consuming processes. Simulated spectra that have been calculated based on, for example, chemical shift predictions and structural models can be of considerable help. Existing solutions are typically limited in the type of experiment they can consider and difficult to adapt to different settings. Here, we present Peakr, a software to simulate solid-state NMR spectra of proteins. It can generate simulated spectra based on numerous common types of internuclear correlations relevant for assignment and structure elucidation, can compare simulated and experimental spectra and produces lists and visualizations useful for analyzing measured spectra. Compared with other solutions, it is fast, versatile and user friendly. (authors)

  15. Solid-state NMR studies of supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Grey, Clare P

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or 'supercapacitors' are attracting increasing attention as high-power energy storage devices for a wide range of technological applications. These devices store charge through electrostatic interactions between liquid electrolyte ions and the surfaces of porous carbon electrodes. However, many aspects of the fundamental mechanism of supercapacitance are still not well understood, and there is a lack of experimental techniques which are capable of studying working devices. Recently, solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool for studying the local environments and behaviour of electrolyte ions in supercapacitor electrodes. In this Trends article, we review these recent developments and applications. We first discuss the basic principles underlying the mechanism of supercapacitance, as well as the key NMR observables that are relevant to the study of supercapacitor electrodes. We then review some practical aspects of the study of working devices using ex situ and in situ methodologies and explain the key advances that these techniques have allowed on the study of supercapacitor charging mechanisms. NMR experiments have revealed that the pores of the carbon electrodes contain a significant number of electrolyte ions in the absence of any charging potential. This has important implications for the molecular mechanisms of supercapacitance, as charge can be stored by different ion adsorption/desorption processes. Crucially, we show how in situ NMR experiments can be used to quantitatively study and characterise the charging mechanism, with the experiments providing the most detailed picture of charge storage to date, offering the opportunity to design enhanced devices. Finally, an outlook for future directions for solid-state NMR in supercapacitor research is offered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A supramolecular gel electrolyte formed from amide based co-gelator for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell with boosted electron kinetic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Zhipeng; Wang, Lu; Tao, Li; Ding, Yong; Yi, Jinxin; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Dai, Songyuan

    2017-08-01

    A supramolecular gel electrolyte (Tgel > 100 °C) is formed from N,N‧-1,8-octanediylbis-dodecanamide and iodoacetamide as two-component co-gelator, and introduced into the quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (QS-DSSCs). The different morphologies of microscopic network between two-component and single-component gel electrolytes have influence on the diffusion of redox couple in gel electrolytes and further affect the electron kinetic processes in QS-DSSCs. Compared with the single-component gel electrolyte, the two-component gel electrolyte has less compact gel network and weaker steric hindrance effect, which provides more effective charge transport channel for the diffusion of I3/I- redox couple. Meanwhile, the sbnd NH2 groups of iodoacetamide molecules interact with Li+ and I3-, which also accelerate the transport of I3-/I- and decrease in the I3- concentration in the TiO2/electrolyte interface. As a result, nearly a 12% improvement in short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and much higher open circuit potential (Voc) are found in the two-component gel electrolyte based QS-DSSC. Consequently, the QS-DSSC based on the supramolecular gel electrolyte obtains a 17% enhancement in the photoelectric conversion efficiency (7.32%) in comparison with the QS-DSSC based on the single-component gel electrolyte (6.24%). Furthermore, the degradations of these QS-DSSCs are negligible after one sun light soaking with UV cutoff filter at 50 °C for 1000 h.

  17. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  18. In Situ Lipolysis and Synchrotron Small-Angle X-ray Scattering for the Direct Determination of the Precipitation and Solid-State Form of a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug During Digestion of a Lipid-Based Formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Jamal; Hawley, Adrian; Rades, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In situ lipolysis and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were used to directly detect and elucidate the solid-state form of precipitated fenofibrate from the digestion of a model lipid-based formulation (LBF). This method was developed in light of recent findings that indicate...

  19. Study of the optical properties and the carbonaceous clusters in thermally-annealed CR-39 and Makrofol-E polymer-based solid-state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazaly, M.

    2012-01-01

    The induced modifications in the optical properties of CR-39 and Makrofol-E polymer-based solid state nuclear track detectors were investigated after thermal annealing at a temperature of 200 .deg. C for different durations. The optical properties were studied using an UV-visible spectrophotometer. From the UV-visible spectra, the direct and the indirect optical band gaps, Urbach's energies, and the number of carbon atoms in a cluster were determined. The absorbance of CR-39 plastic detector was found to decrease with increasing annealing time while the absorbance of Makrofol-E decreased with increasing annealing time. The width of the tail of localized states in the band gap ΔE was evaluated with the Urbach method. The optical energy band gaps were obtained from the direct and the indirect allowed transitions in K-space. Both of the direct and the indirect band gaps of the annealed CR-39 detector decrease with increasing annealing time while in Makrofol-E, they decreased after an annealing time of 15 minute and then showed no remarkable changes for a prolonged annealing times. Urbach's energy decreased significantly for both CR-39 and Makrofol-E with increasing annealing time. The number of carbon atoms in a cluster increased in the CR-39 detector with increasing annealing time while it decreased with increasing annealing time for Makrofol-E. We may conclude that the CR-39 detector undergoes greater modifications than the Makrofol-E detector upon thermal annealing at 200 .deg. C. In conclusion, the induced modifications in the optical properties of CR-39 and Makrofol-E are correlated with the temperature and the duration of annealing.

  20. Manganese dioxide decoration of macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers: From high-performance liquid-based to all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendashteh, Afshin; Senokos, Evgeny; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Vilatela, Juan J.; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors capable of providing high voltage, energy and power density but yet light, low volume occupying, flexible and mechanically robust are highly interesting and demanded for portable applications. Herein, freestanding flexible hybrid electrodes based on MnO2 nanoparticles grown on macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers (CNTf-MnO2) were fabricated, without the need of any metallic current collector. The CNTf, a support with excellent electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and appropriate pore structure, was homogeneously decorated with porous akhtenskite ɛ-MnO2 nanoparticles produced via electrodeposition in an optimized organic-aqueous mixture. Electrochemical properties of these decorated fibers were evaluated in different electrolytes including a neutral aqueous solution and a pure 1-butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (PYR14TFSI). This comparison helps discriminate the various contributions to the total capacitance: (surface) Faradaic and non-Faradaic processes, improved wetting by aqueous electrolytes. Accordingly, symmetric supercapacitors with PYR14TFSI led to a high specific energy of 36 Wh· kgMnO2-1 (16 Wh·kg-1 including the weight of CNTf) and real specific power of 17 kW· kgMnO2-1 (7.5 kW kg-1) at 3.0 V with excellent cycling stability. Moreover, flexible all solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated using PYR14TFSI-based polymer electrolyte, exhibiting maximum energy density of 21 Wh·kg-1 and maximum power density of 8 kW kg-1 normalized by total active material.

  1. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  2. Construction of All-Solid-State Batteries based on a Sulfur-Graphene Composite and Li9.54Si1.74P1.44S11.7Cl0.3Solid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruochen; Wu, Zhang; Zhang, Shenzhao; Wang, Xiuli; Xia, Yan; Xia, Xinhui; Huang, Xiaohua; Tu, Jiangping

    2017-10-09

    Herein an effective way for construction of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) with sulfur/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and Li 9.54 Si 1.74 P 1.44 S 11.7 Cl 0.3 solid electrolyte is reported. In the composite cathode, the Li 9.54 Si 1.74 P 1.44 S 11.7 Cl 0.3 powder is homogeneously mixed with the S/rGO composite to enhance the ionic conductivity. Coupled with a metallic Li anode and solid electrolyte, the designed S/rGO-Li 9.54 Si 1.74 P 1.44 S 11.7 Cl 0.3 composite cathode exhibits a high specific capacity and good cycling stability. A high initial discharge capacity of 969 mAh g -1 is achieved at a current density of 80 mA g -1 at room temperature and the cell retains a reversible capacity of over 827 mAh g -1 after 60 cycles. The enhanced performance is attributed to the intimate contact between the S/rGO and Li 9.54 Si 1.74 P 1.44 S 11.7 Cl 0.3 electrolyte, and high electrical conductivity of rGO and high ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Acid-base interactions and secondary structures of poly-L-lysine probed by 15N and 13C solid state NMR and Ab initio model calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos, Alexandra; Schimming, Volkmar; Tosoni, Sergio; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2008-12-11

    The interactions of the 15N-labeled amino groups of dry solid poly-L-lysine (PLL) with various halogen and oxygen acids HX and the relation to the secondary structure have been studied using solid-state 15N and 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy (CP = cross polarization and MAS = magic angle spinning). For comparison, 15N NMR spectra of an aqueous solution of PLL were measured as a function of pH. In order to understand the effects of protonation and hydration on the 15N chemical shifts of the amino groups, DFT and chemical shielding calculations were performed on isolated methylamine-acid complexes and on periodic halide clusters of the type (CH3NH3(+)X(-))n. The combined experimental and computational results reveal low-field shifts of the amino nitrogens upon interaction with the oxygen acids HX = HF, H2SO4, CH3COOH, (CH3)2POOH, H3PO4, HNO3, and internal carbamic acid formed by reaction of the amino groups with gaseous CO2. Evidence is obtained that only hydrogen-bonded species of the type (Lys-NH2***H-X)n are formed in the absence of water. 15N chemical shifts are maximum when H is located in the hydrogen bond center and then decrease again upon full protonation, as found for aqueous solution at low pH. By contrast, halogen acids interact in a different way. They form internal salts of the type (Lys-NH3(+)X(-))n via the interaction of many acid-base pairs. This salt formation is possible only in the beta-sheet conformation. By contrast, the formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes can occur both in beta-sheet domains as well as in alpha-helical domains. The 15N chemical shifts of the protonated ammonium groups increase when the size of the interacting halogen anions is increased from chloride to iodide and when the number of the interacting anions is increased. Thus, the observed high-field 15N shift of ammonium groups upon hydration is the consequence of replacing interacting halogen atoms by oxygen atoms.

  4. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  5. Characterization of protein unfolding with solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiali; Fologea, Daniel; Rollings, Ryan; Ledden, Brad

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we review the process of protein unfolding characterized by a solid-state nanopore based device. The occupied or excluded volume of a protein molecule in a nanopore depends on the protein's conformation or shape. A folded protein has a larger excluded volume in a nanopore thus it blocks more ionic current flow than its unfolded form and produces a greater current blockage amplitude. The time duration a protein stays in a pore also depends on the protein's folding state. We use Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a model protein to discuss this current blockage amplitude and the time duration associated with the protein unfolding process. BSA molecules were measured in folded, partially unfolded, and completely unfolded conformations in solid-state nanopores. We discuss experimental results, data analysis, and theoretical considerations of BSA protein unfolding measured with silicon nitride nanopores. We show this nanopore method is capable of characterizing a protein's unfolding process at single molecule level. Problems and future studies in characterization of protein unfolding using a solid-state nanopore device will also be discussed.

  6. SDS-assisted protein transport through solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Pérez, Laura; John, Shalini; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Joo, Chirlmin; Dekker, Cees

    2017-08-17

    Using nanopores for single-molecule sequencing of proteins - similar to nanopore-based sequencing of DNA - faces multiple challenges, including unfolding of the complex tertiary structure of the proteins and enforcing their unidirectional translocation through nanopores. Here, we combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-molecule experiments to investigate the utility of SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) to unfold proteins for solid-state nanopore translocation, while simultaneously endowing them with a stronger electrical charge. Our simulations and experiments prove that SDS-treated proteins show a considerable loss of the protein structure during the nanopore translocation. Moreover, SDS-treated proteins translocate through the nanopore in the direction prescribed by the electrophoretic force due to the negative charge impaired by SDS. In summary, our results suggest that SDS causes protein unfolding while facilitating protein translocation in the direction of the electrophoretic force; both characteristics being advantageous for future protein sequencing applications using solid-state nanopores.

  7. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...... lighting is that the high efficiency can be obtained at high light lumen levels in a single element emitter and thus less light sources are required to achieve a desired light level. Furthermore, the high directionality of the generated light from laser diodes increases the energy savings in many...

  8. Modeling of efficient solid-state cooler on layered multiferroics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Ivan; Starkov, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We have developed theoretical foundations for the design and optimization of a solid-state cooler working through caloric and multicaloric effects. This approach is based on the careful consideration of the thermodynamics of a layered multiferroic system. The main section of the paper is devoted to the derivation and solution of the heat conduction equation for multiferroic materials. On the basis of the obtained results, we have performed the evaluation of the temperature distribution in the refrigerator under periodic external fields. A few practical examples are considered to illustrate the model. It is demonstrated that a 40-mm structure made of 20 ferroic layers is able to create a temperature difference of 25K. The presented work tries to address the whole hierarchy of physical phenomena to capture all of the essential aspects of solid-state cooling.

  9. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  10. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  11. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  12. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  13. Effect of Ionic Conductivity on Response Speed of SrTiO3-Based All-Solid-State Electric-Double-Layer Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Ochi, Masanori; Higuchi, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya; Aono, Masakazu

    2015-06-10

    An all-solid-state electric-double-layer transistor (EDLT) with a Y-stabilized ZrO₂ (YSZ) proton conductor/SrTiO₃ (STO) single crystal has been fabricated to investigate ionic conductivity effect on the response speed, which should be a key parameter for development of next-generation EDLTs. The drain current exhibited a 4-order-of-magnitude increment by electrostatic carrier doping at the YSZ/STO interface due to ion migration, and the behavior strongly depended on the operation temperature. An Arrhenius-type plot of the ionic conductivity (σ(i)) in the YSZ and t(c)⁻¹, which is a current-rise time needed for charge accumulation at the YSZ/STO interface, shows a synchronized variation, indicating a proportional relationship between the two parameters. Analysis of the σ(i)-t(c) diagram shows that, in contrast to conventional EDLTs, the response speed should reach picosecond order at room temperature by using extreme miniaturization and superionic conductors. Furthermore, the diagram indicates that plenty of solid electrolytes, which have not been used due to the lack of criteria for evaluation, can be a candidate for all-solid-state EDLTs exceeding the carrier density of conventional EDLTs, even though the response speed becomes comparably lower than those of FETs.

  14. On the impedance and phase transition of thin film all-solid-state batteries based on the Li4Ti5O12 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schichtel, Patrick; Geiß, Matthias; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Sann, Joachim; Weber, Dominik A.; Janek, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Model-type thin film all-solid-state batteries (ASSB) of the type Li/;LiPON;/Li4Ti5O12 are characterized by impedance spectroscopy as function of the state of charge. Both the contact of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) to the substrate and current collector as well as the Li ion transport through the LTO thin film prove to be important factors for the rate limitation of the cell. The ionic charge transfer resistance between Li4Ti5O12 and ;LiPON; is proven to not be a rate limiting factor. The impedance measurements are interpreted in terms of the mechanism of phase change in the Li4Ti5O12 thin film and the data indicate a solid solution mechanism of phase change. The resulting data are compared to recent results for the Li/;LiPON;/LiCoO2 system, and several key similarities and differences are highlighted mostly involving the solid electrolyte/Li interface and the degradation thereof. The results are meant to improve the understanding of interfaces in ASSB in general rather than to advance high performance batteries.

  15. A solid-state sensor based on ruthenium (II) complex immobilized on polytyramine film for the simultaneous determination of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khudaish, Emad A., E-mail: ejoudi@squ.edu.om [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Chemistry Department, PO Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman); Al-Ajmi, Khawla Y. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Chemistry Department, PO Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman); Al-Harthi, Salim H. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science, Department of Physics, PO Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman)

    2014-08-01

    A solid-state sensor based on a polytyramine (Pty) film deposited on a glassy carbon electrode doped with a tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)Ru(II) complex (Ru/Pty/GCE) was constructed electrochemically. The surface morphology of the film modified electrode was characterized using electrochemical and surface scanning techniques. A redox property represented by a [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 3+/2+} couple immobilized at the Pty moiety was characterized using typical voltammetric techniques. A distinct Ru 3d peak obtained at 280.9 eV confirms doping of the Ru species onto the Pty moiety characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images demonstrate that incorporation of Ru decreases the surface roughness of the native Pty film modified electrode. The Ru/Pty/GCE exhibits efficient electrochemical sensing toward the oxidation of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) in their mixture. Three well-defined peaks were resolved with a large peak to peak separation and the detection limits of AA, DA and UA are brought down to 0.31, 0.08 and 0.58 μM, respectively. Interference studies and application for DA determination in real samples were conducted with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • XPS data confirm doping of ruthenium onto the polytyramine moiety. • The voltammetric signals of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid are well defined. • The sensor is stable and offers a large adsorption facility for all species. • The sensor is highly sensitive to dopamine oxidation. • The sensor is applied to a real sample with a satisfactory recovery percentage.

  16. A solid-state sensor based on ruthenium (II) complex immobilized on polytyramine film for the simultaneous determination of dopamine, ascorbic acid and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudaish, Emad A.; Al-Ajmi, Khawla Y.; Al-Harthi, Salim H.

    2014-01-01

    A solid-state sensor based on a polytyramine (Pty) film deposited on a glassy carbon electrode doped with a tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)Ru(II) complex (Ru/Pty/GCE) was constructed electrochemically. The surface morphology of the film modified electrode was characterized using electrochemical and surface scanning techniques. A redox property represented by a [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 3+/2+ couple immobilized at the Pty moiety was characterized using typical voltammetric techniques. A distinct Ru 3d peak obtained at 280.9 eV confirms doping of the Ru species onto the Pty moiety characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images demonstrate that incorporation of Ru decreases the surface roughness of the native Pty film modified electrode. The Ru/Pty/GCE exhibits efficient electrochemical sensing toward the oxidation of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) in their mixture. Three well-defined peaks were resolved with a large peak to peak separation and the detection limits of AA, DA and UA are brought down to 0.31, 0.08 and 0.58 μM, respectively. Interference studies and application for DA determination in real samples were conducted with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • XPS data confirm doping of ruthenium onto the polytyramine moiety. • The voltammetric signals of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid are well defined. • The sensor is stable and offers a large adsorption facility for all species. • The sensor is highly sensitive to dopamine oxidation. • The sensor is applied to a real sample with a satisfactory recovery percentage

  17. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  18. Solid-state physics for electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moliton, André

    2009-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2. Quantum mechanics: some basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1. The wave equation in solids: from Maxwell's to Schrödinger's equation via...

  19. Solid-state physics for electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moliton, André

    2009-01-01

    ...) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3. Important properties of linear operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3. Bonds in solids: a free electron as the zero order approximation for a weak...

  20. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  1. Towards composite solid state laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzel, F.

    1998-01-01

    The largest recent advance in the field of solid state materials is the exponential development of the erbium doped fibre amplifiers, the so-called EDFAs, which are already implemented in many telecommunication systems. One is already interested in the evolution of such amplifiers towards more compact devices which could be obtained through erbium doped wave guide amplifiers. The conditions for wave guide amplifiers are first discussed showing that it will be difficult to limit the active length to less than a few tenths of a centimetre in usual glasses without having to increase the active ion concentration up to the point where self-quenching reduces prohibitively the quantum efficiency of the amplifying transition. This leads us to consider new glassy materials where the inhomogeneous linewidth of the active ions shall be reduced in order to correlatively increase the gain cross-sections. An historical review of such an approach will be presented. Then we show that composite materials of the vitroceramic type where the active rare earth ion stays only in the microcrystalline phase, provide materials with reduced inhomogeneous broadening and with crystal type optical spectra though obtained by glass technics. Evaluations of the gain cross-sections indicate increases of at least 100%. Such composite materials may so pave the way for wave guide amplifiers. (orig.)

  2. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  3. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, E A

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(beta-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 sub 1 2 sub 1 2 sub 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20...

  4. Composite Polymer-Garnet Solid State Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Andres; Oduncu, Muhammed R.; Scofield, Gregory D.; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Forbey, Scott

    Solid-state electrolytes provide a potential solution to the safety and reliability issues of Li-ion batteries. We have synthesized cubic-phase Li7-xLa3Zr2-xBixO12 compounds utilizing inexpensive, scalable Sol-gel synthesis and obtained ionic conductivities 1.2 x 10-4 S/cm at RT in not-fully densified pellets. In this work we report on the fabrication of composite polymer-garnet ceramic particle electrolytes to produce flexible membranes that can be integrated with standard battery electrodes without the need for a separator. As a first step we incorporated the ceramic particles into polyethylene oxide polymers (PEO) to form flexible membranes. Early results are encouraging yielding ionic conductivity values 1.0 x 10-5 S/cm at RT. To increment the conductivity in the membranes, we are optimizing amongst other: the ceramic particle size distribution and weight load, the polymer molecular weight and chemical composition and the solvated Li-salt composition and content. Unhindered ion transport across interfaces between the composites and the battery electrode materials is paramount for battery performance. To this end, we are investigating the effect of interface morphology, its atomic composition and exploring novel electrode structures that facilitate ionic transport.

  5. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  6. SOLID-STATE CERAMIC LIGHTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Brown

    2003-06-01

    Meadow River Enterprises, Inc. (MRE) and the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University (NYSCC) received a DOE cooperative agreement award in September 1999 to develop an energy-efficient Solid-State Ceramic Lamp (SSCL). The program spanned a nominal two(2) year period ending in February of 2002. The federal contribution to the program totaled $1.6 million supporting approximately 78% of the program costs. The SSCL is a rugged electroluminescent lamp designed for outdoor applications. MRE has filed a provisional patent for this ''second generation'' technology and currently produces and markets blue-green phosphor SSCL devices. White phosphor SSCL devices are also available in prototype quantities. In addition to reducing energy consumption, the ceramic EL lamp offers several economic and societal advantages including lower lifecycle costs and reduced ''light pollution''. Significant further performance improvements are possible but will require a dramatic change in device physical construction related to the use of micro-powder materials and processes. The subject ''second-generation'' program spans a 27 month period and combines the materials and processing expertise of NYSCC, the manufacturing expertise of Meadow River Enterprises, and the phosphor development expertise of OSRAM Sylvania to develop an improved SSCL system. The development plan also includes important contributions by Marshall University (a part of the West Virginia University system). All primary development objectives have been achieved with the exception of improved phosphor powders. The performance characteristics of the first generation SSCL devices were carefully analyzed in year 1 and a second generation lamp was defined and optimized in year 2. The provisional patent was ''perfected'' through a comprehensive patent application filed in November 2002. Lamp efficiency was improved more than 2:1.

  7. Solid-state autocatalysis and oscillatory reactions in silicate glass systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Kristensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of autocatalysis and oscillatory behaviour in the solid-state where no decomposition process is involved. Our material system is solid-state silica glass impregnated with hydrogen. It is at the heart of photosensitivity in glass-based optical waveguides and devic...

  8. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of Polymer Backbone Dynamics in Poly(Ethylene Oxide) Based Lithium and Sodium Polyether-ester-sulfonate Ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Polymer backbone dynamics of single ion conducting poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based ionomer samples with low glass transition temperatures (Tg) have been investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Experiments detecting 13C with 1H decoupling under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions identified the different components of the polymer backbone (PEO spacer and isophthalate groups) and their relative mobilities for a suite of lithium- and sodium-containing ionomer samples with varying cation contents. Variable temperature (203-373 K) 1H-13C cross-polarization MAS (CP-MAS) experiments also provided qualitative assessment of the differences in the motions of the polymer backbone components as a function of cation content and identity. Each of the main backbone components exhibit distinct motions, following the trends expected for motional characteristics based on earlier Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering and 1H spin-lattice relaxation rate measurements. Previous 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation measurements focused on both the polymer backbone and cation motion on the nanosecond timescale. The studies presented here assess the slower timescale motion of the polymer backbone allowing for a more comprehensive understanding of the polymer dynamics. The temperature dependences of 13C linewidths were used to both qualitatively and quantitatively examine the effects of cation content and identity on PEO spacer mobility. Variable contact time 1H-13C CP-MAS experiments were used to further assess the motions of the polymer backbone on the microsecond timescale. The motion of the PEO spacer, reported via the rate of magnetization transfer from 1H to 13C nuclei, becomes similar for T ≳ 1.1 Tg in all ionic samples, indicating that at similar elevated reduced temperatures the motions of the polymer backbones on the microsecond timescale become insensitive to ion interactions. These results present an improved picture, beyond those of previous findings, for

  9. Raman spectra of selected transuranium trihalides in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Begun, G.M.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectral data have been obtained from a number of transuranium trihalides in the solid state. The Raman spectra of these actinide compounds are reported and compared to the published Raman spectra of isostructural compounds. Tentative symmetry assignments have been made for the observed Raman-active lattice vibrations based on nuclear site symmetry analysis of their respective crystal structures and comparisons to the symmetry assignments made for isostructural lanthanide compounds. The Raman spectral data obtained in this study represent a partial data base for the use of Raman spectroscopy for identifying the crystal structures exhibited by these and isostructural compounds

  10. Solid-State NMR Study of New Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of comb-like polymers by solid-state NMR. The polymers were previously evaluated as solid-polymer-electrolytes (SPE for lithium-polymer-metal batteries that have suitable ionic conductivity at 60 °C. We propose to develop a correlation between 13C solid-state NMR measurements and phase segregation. 13C solid-state NMR is a perfect tool for differentiating polymer phases with fast or slow motions. 7Li was used to monitor the motion of lithium ions in the polymer, and activation energies were calculated.

  11. A Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Capacitor Based on Porous TiO2Hollow Microspheres Wrapped with Graphene Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faxing; Wang, Chun; Zhao, Yujuan; Liu, Zaichun; Chang, Zheng; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Wu, Yuping; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2016-12-01

    The quasi-solid-state Li-ion capacitor is demonstrated with graphene nanosheets prepared by an electrochemical exfoliation as the positive electrode and the porous TiO 2 hollow microspheres wrapped with the same graphene nanosheets as the negative electrode, using a Li-ion conducting gel polymer electrolyte. This device may be the key to bridging the gap between conventional lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors, meanwhile meeting the safety demands of electronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Nickel-Zinc Battery with High Energy and Power Densities Based on 3D Electrode Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinping; Guan, Cao; Zhou, Cheng; Fan, Zhen; Ke, Qingqing; Zhang, Guozhen; Liu, Chang; Wang, John

    2016-10-01

    A flexible quasi-solid-state Ni-Zn battery is developed by using tiny ZnO nanoparticles and porous ultrathin NiO nanoflakes conformally deposited on hierar chical carbon-cloth-carbon-fiber (CC-CF) as the anode (CC-CF@ZnO) and cathode (CC-CF@NiO), respectively. The device is able to deliver high performance (absence of Zn dendrite), superior to previous reports on aqueous Ni-Zn batteries and other flexible electrochemical energy-storage devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  14. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  15. Long chain branching on linear polypropylene by solid state reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsig, E.; Gotsis, A. D.; Picchioni, F.

    A method was developed for the long chain branching (LCB) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) via modification in the solid state. PP long chains have been linked as branches to the original linear iPP chains using solid state reactions in the presence of a free radical initiator and a multifunctional

  16. Solid-State 2-Micron Laser Transmitter Advancement for Wind and Carbon Dioxide Measurements From Ground, Airborne, and Space-Based Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Ismail, Syed

    2008-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has been developing 2-micron lidar technologies over a decade for wind measurements, utilizing coherent Doppler wind lidar technique and carbon dioxide measurements, utilizing Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique. Significant advancements have been made towards developing state-of-the-art technologies towards laser transmitters, detectors, and receiver systems. These efforts have led to the development of solid-state lasers with high pulse energy, tunablility, wavelength-stability, and double-pulsed operation. This paper will present a review of these technological developments along with examples of high resolution wind and high precision CO2 DIAL measurements in the atmosphere. Plans for the development of compact high power lasers for applications in airborne and future space platforms for wind and regional to global scale measurement of atmospheric CO2 will also be discussed.

  17. A high-capacitance flexible solid-state supercapacitor based on polyaniline and Metal-Organic Framework (UiO-66) composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liang; Wang, Qian; Ma, Zhonglei; Ji, Zhanyou; Wang, Xiaoying; Song, Doudou; Liu, Yuguo; Wang, Ni

    2018-03-01

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) attract increasing attention in the field of energy storage, however, poor conductivity in most MOFs largely hinders their electrical properties. In this work, an effective strategy is developed to make the polyaniline (PANI) molecular chains grow in the pores of UiO-66 as one of the MOFs (labeled as PANI/UiO-66) to form a fixed interpenetrating network structure by using the highly stable porous MOFs, through a variety of synergistic effects to enhance the conductivity and electrochemical properties. Moreover, the design and analysis about PANI/UiO-66 is reported for the first time to our knowledge. In addition, PANI/UiO-66 exhibits an extraordinary capacitance of 1015 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 by electrochemical test. At the same time, the symmetric flexible solid-state supercapacitors is also assembled and tested. The resultant supercapacitor shows a favorable specific capacitance of 647 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and a high cycling stability (91% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles). The bending test indicates that the obtained supercapacitor is flexible and its performance is only decreased 10% after 800 bending cycles with a bending angle of 180. This flexible solid-state supercapacitor shows great potential in energy storage device.

  18. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  19. The 3rd International Conference on Solid State Chemistry. Preface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3 rd International Conference on Solid State Chemistry took place on 6-12 July 1996 in Bratislava, Slovakia, under the auspices of the Presidium of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. In the conference participated 158 scientists from many countries of the world. The conference covered all aspects of modern solid state chemistry and the presentation of papers was divided into eight sections consisting of invited lectures and oral as well as poster presentations. The individual sections were devoted to the high-temperature ceramic superconductors, the layered compounds, clathrates and intercalates, the oxide and non-oxide glasses, the structure and properties of solids, the electron structure and chemical bonding in solids, the surface chemistry of solids, the solid state superionic, and to the local structure and bonding cementitious binding materials. (authors)

  20. Exciton dynamics in solid-state green fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christof P.; Siegert, Marie; Betzold, Simon; Ohmer, Jürgen; Fischer, Utz; Höfling, Sven

    2017-01-01

    We study the decay characteristics of Frenkel excitons in solid-state enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) dried from solution. We further monitor the changes of the radiative exciton decay over time by crossing the phase transition from the solved to the solid state. Complex interactions between protonated and deprotonated states in solid-state eGFP can be identified from temperature-dependent and time-resolved fluorescence experiments that further allow the determination of activation energies for each identified process.

  1. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  2. Solid state silicon based condenser microphone for hearing aid, has transducer chip and IC chip between intermediate chip and openings on both sides of intermediate chip, to allow sound towards diaphragm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    towards diaphragm. Surface of the chip (2) has electrical conductors (14) to connect chip with IC chip (3). USE - For use in miniature electroacoustic devices such as hearing aid. ADVANTAGE - Since sound inlet is covered by filter, dust, moisture and other impurities do not obstruct interior and sound...... inlet of microphone. External electrical connection can be made economically reliable and the thermal stress is avoided with the small size solid state silicon based condenser microphone....

  3. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary...... with a cubic crystal structure. Its formation has an effect on the measured conductivity of the samples and increases the risk of an internal short-circuit. This reveals a more general issue that must receive attention in further research on solid electrolytes.......The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...

  4. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  5. A new polarimeter scheme based on solid state semiconductors Un nuevo esquema para polarímetros basado en semiconductor de estado sólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Castro Gutierrez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of polarimeter scheme is suggested using solid state semiconductors. The new approach is based on the modulation over the intensities of the diffracted beams through a two-dimensional chiral grating, reported recently. It will be demonstrated that at least four intensity measurements of no equivalent diffracted beams are needed in order to estimate the polarization state of the incident beam. The incident beam azimuth was varied by routing a linear polarizer lens mounting in a stepped motor. The intensities of four diffracted beams were measured using a screen, a CCD camera and some algorithms running in a computer. The LabVIEW development environment software was used for controlling the hardware and for presenting the results. MATLAB© was used for calculating the intensities of the diffracted beams and computing the azimuth of the incident beam. Although both the azimuth and ellipticity should be estimated, the experiments show that only the azimuth estimation yields accurate results. The ellipticity cannot be estimated with precision. The error on the azimuth estimation depends on the variation in the power of the incident beam. It was found that the azimuth estimation is accurate between [0,140 and (150,180] degrees. The cause of huge errors in the azimuth found between 140 and 150 degrees are kept unknown.Un nuevo esquema de polarímetro es sugerido usando semiconductores de estado sólido. La nueva aproximación está basada en la modulación sobre las intensidades de los rayos difractados a través de una rejilla quiral de dos dimensiones reportado recientemente. Será demostrado que al menos cuatro mediciones de intensidades de rayos difractados no equivalentes son necesarios para estimar el estado de polarización del rayo incidente. El azimut del rayo incidente es variado, rotando un lente polarizador lineal montado en un motor paso a paso. La intensidad de cuatro rayos difractados es medida por medio de una peque

  6. Estimation of the average aromatic cluster size based on solid-state NMR; Sekitan no kotai NMR sokutei ni yoru hokozoku kurasuta heikin saizu no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidena, K.; Murata, S.; Nomura, M. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan) Department of Molecular Chemistry; Artok, L. [Izmir Inst. of Tech., Imzir (Turkey)

    1999-11-20

    Measurements of solid-state NMR of eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples were conducted to estimate the average aromatic cluster size in these coals. Firstly, the carbon distribution was obtained from SPE/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR. Secondary, {sup 1}H-CRAMPS NMR spectra gave the hydrogen aromaticity of coal. Combination use of the hydrogen aromaticity and elemental analysis data could afford the amount of tertiary aromatic carbon. The parameter of X{sub b}, the mole fraction of aromatic bridgehead carbons in all aromatic carbons, could be derived from above NMR data and elemental analysis of coal. X{sub b} is directly correlated to the number of aromatic carbon atoms per aromatic cluster, C. In this study, the value of C varied from 10 (corresponding to the size of naphthalene) for Beulah-Zap and Wyodak coals to 23 (corresponding to the size of coronene) for Pocahontas No.3 coal. (author)

  7. All solid-state polymer electrolytes prepared from a graft copolymer consisting of a polyimide main chain and poly(ethylene oxide) based side chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Mitsuru, E-mail: mhiga@yamaguchi-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube City, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Yaguchi, Kazuaki; Kitani, Ryousuke [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube City, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan)

    2010-01-25

    We prepare an all solid-state, liquid-free, polymer electrolyte (ASPE) from a lithium salt and a graft copolymer consisting of a polyimide main chain and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate side chains using atom transfer radical polymerization method. The ionic conductivity of ASPEs increases with increasing the side chain length. The ionic conductivity of the ASPE whose POEM content = 60 wt% shows 6.5 x 10{sup -6} S/cm at 25 deg. C. The ASPEs having shorter average distance between side chains and/or shorter side chain length show higher mechanical strength. The tensile strength of the ASPEs is more than 10 MPa and about 20 times higher than that of the ASPEs in the previous study [Electrochim. Acta, 50 (1998) 3832]; hence, the ASPEs have sufficiently high mechanical strength for a polymer electrolyte of lithium secondary batteries.

  8. Crystal Structure Analysis of the First Discovered Stability-Enhanced Solid State of Tenofovir Disoproxil Free Base Using Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Hun; Kiyonga, Alice Nguvoko; Yoon, Woojin; Ryu, Hyung Chul; Kim, Jae-Sun; Kang, Chaeri; Park, Minho; Yun, Hoseop; Jung, Kiwon

    2017-07-14

    Tenofovir disoproxil (TD), an anti-virus drug, is currently marketed under its most stable form, Form-I of Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). However, studies regarding the properties of TD free base crystal as a promising drug as well as its crystal structure have not yet been reported. This assumption was made because TD free base is not directly produced in a solid form during the manufacturing process. TD free base is first obtained in an oil form, and is then synthesized into TDF crystal. In this regard, the present study was conducted to investigate both the potentiality of TD free base to be an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and its crystal structure. Here, TD free base solid was produced by means of drowning-out crystallization. Next, single crystal X-ray diffraction (SXD) was employed to determine the crystal structure. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis were performed to evaluate the crystal's properties. Furthermore, experiments were carried out at 15%, 35%, 55%, 75%, and 95% relative humidity (RH) for 12 h using a hygroscopic tester to determine and to compare the hygroscopicity and stability of TD free base with TDF crystal. Additionally, experiments were conducted under accelerated (40 °C, RH 75%) and stress storage (60 °C, RH 75%) conditions for 30 days to investigate the changes in purity and the formation of dimer. In this work, we report that TD free base possesses lower hygroscopicity, and thus does not generate dimer impurity from hydrolysis. Primarily, this is attributed to the fact that TD free base is not an easily ionized salt but comprises neutral hydrophobic molecules. According to the structural properties, the improved hygroscopic property of the TD free base crystal was due to the decrease of crystal polarity owing to the intermolecular H-bonds present in TD free base rings. In addition, the solubility investigation study carried out in aqueous solution and at

  9. Diazole-based powdered cocrystal featuring a helical hydrogen-bonded network: structure determination from PXRD, solid-state NMR and computer modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Mariana; Santos, Sérgio M; Babaryk, Artem A; López, Concepción; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Claramunt, Rosa M; Mafra, Luís

    2015-02-01

    We present the structure of a new equimolar 1:1 cocrystal formed by 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole (dmpz) and 4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole (dmim), determined by means of powder X-ray diffraction data combined with solid-state NMR that provided insight into topological details of hydrogen bonding connectivities and weak interactions such as CH···π contacts. The use of various 1D/2D (13)C, (15)N and (1)H high-resolution solid-state NMR techniques provided structural insight on local length scales revealing internuclear proximities and relative orientations between the dmim and dmpz molecular building blocks of the studied cocrystal. Molecular modeling and DFT calculations were also employed to generate meaningful structures. DFT refinement was able to decrease the figure of merit R(F(2)) from ~11% (PXRD only) to 5.4%. An attempt was made to rationalize the role of NH···N and CH···π contacts in stabilizing the reported cocrystal. For this purpose four imidazole derivatives with distinct placement of methyl substituents were reacted with dmpz to understand the effect of methylation in blocking or enabling certain intermolecular contacts. Only one imidazole derivative (dmim) was able to incorporate into the dmpz trimeric motif thus resulting in a cocrystal, which contains both hydrophobic (methyl groups) and hydrophilic components that self-assemble to form an atypical 1D network of helicoidal hydrogen bonded pattern, featuring structural similarities with alpha-helix arrangements in proteins. The 1:1 dmpz···dmim compound I is the first example of a cocrystal formed by two different azoles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Two Photoelectrode Solid-State Photoelectrochemical Cell,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-14

    unique approach for the PEC conversion and storage of selected redox species incorporated within the proximity of the semiconductor /solid electrolyte... semiconductor and solid electrolyte materials are present at the junction. As a consequence, PEC cells fabricated to contain such interfaces...consequence of the high resistivity of the SPE material used. PEn had earlier been used in the solid-state PEC cell n-Si/PEO,KI, 2 / SnO 2 glass, whicre the n

  11. All-solid state lithium carbon monofluoride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan

    2017-10-10

    A solid state lithium carbon monofluoride battery includes an anode comprising Li, a solid electrolyte, and a cathode including CF.sub.x and LPS. The cathode can also include a carbon compound. The solid electrolyte can include LPS. The LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. The cathode LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. A method of making a battery is also disclosed.

  12. Reflections A Conversation About Solid State Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equations of physics, and Schrodinger fitted right in. So we all were asked to take one section of Schrodinger and give a seminar on it. So that's how I learned some of. Schrodinger's perturbation theory, because that was the section I was to give in the seminar. MERMIN: But then, when he came to applying it to solids, .

  13. Picosecond Pulse Spectroscopy in Solid State Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duppen, Koos; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that picosecond coherence experiments can be used to study optical dynamics in doped semiconductors and molecular solids. In the system GaP:N, picosecond photon echoes are used to study exciton relaxation and detrapping into the free exciton band. In the molecolar mixed crystal of

  14. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 5-chlorocytosine: Solid state simulation and tautomerism. Effect of the chlorine substitution in the Watson-Crick base pair 5-chlorodeoxycytidine-deoxyguanosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcolea Palafox, M.; Rastogi, V. K.; Singh, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    The laser Raman and IR spectra of 5-chlorocytosine have been recorded and accurately assigned in the solid state using Density functional calculations (DFT) together with the linear scaling equation procedure (LSE) and the solid state simulation of the crystal unit cell through a tetramer form. These results remarkably improve those reported previously by other authors. Several new scaling equations were proposed to be used in related molecules. The six main tautomers of the biomolecule 5-chlorocytosine were determined and optimized at the MP2 and CCSD levels, using different basis sets. The relative stabilities were compared with those obtained in cytosine and their 5-halo derivatives. Several relationships between energies, geometric parameters and NBO atomic charges were established. The effect of the chlorine substitution in the fifth position was evaluated through the stability of the Watson-Crick (WC) base pair of 5-chlorodeoxycytidine with deoxyguanosine, and through their vibrational spectra.

  15. Miniature Solid-State Sulfur Oxide Sensor for Emissions Measurement, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering Incorporated (MEI) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) propose to develop a MEMS based, minature solid state sulfur oxide sensor for use in...

  16. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  17. Genomic Pathogen Typing Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison H Squires

    Full Text Available In clinical settings, rapid and accurate characterization of pathogens is essential for effective treatment of patients; however, subtle genetic changes in pathogens which elude traditional phenotypic typing may confer dangerous pathogenic properties such as toxicity, antibiotic resistance, or virulence. Existing options for molecular typing techniques characterize the critical genomic changes that distinguish harmful and benign strains, yet the well-established approaches, in particular those that rely on electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid fragments on a gel, have room for only incremental future improvements in speed, cost, and complexity. Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single-molecule sensors that can electrophoretically characterize charged biopolymers, and which offer significant advantages in terms of sample and reagent requirements, readout speed, parallelization, and automation. We present here the first application of nanopores for single-molecule molecular typing using length based "fingerprints" of critical sites in bacterial genomes. This technique is highly adaptable for detection of different types of genetic variation; as we illustrate using prototypical examples including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus, the solid-state nanopore diagnostic platform may be used to detect large insertions or deletions, small insertions or deletions, and even single-nucleotide variations in bacterial DNA. We further show that Bayesian classification of test samples can provide highly confident pathogen typing results based on only a few tens of independent single-molecule events, making this method extremely sensitive and statistically robust.

  18. Solid-State Fermentation as a Novel Paradigm for Organic Waste Valorization : a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Yazid, Noraziah

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of organic solid waste throughout the world has become a common issue that needs complete management at every level. Also, the scarcity of fuel and the competition between food and substance as an alternative to a petroleum-based product has become a major problem that needs to be properly handled. An urge to find renewable substances for sustainable development results in a strategy to valorize organic solid waste using solid state fermentation (SSF) and to manage the issue of ...

  19. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  20. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  1. Solid State Oxygen Concentrator and Compressor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sustainable Innovations has developed a novel solid state technology for gas separation and will be applying it for the first time to meet a critical life support...

  2. A Low Power, Solid State, Method of Oxygen Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of the work prior to the start of this project is the planar monolith - allowing for solid state oxygen production at pressures up to 300 psig....

  3. Nanorod Array Solid State Neutron Detectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR project, Synkera proposes to develop and commercialize solid-state neutron detectors of a unique architecture that will enable sensor modules...

  4. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in...

  5. Solid-state Bonding of Superplastic Aluminum Alloy 7475 Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, T. D. S.; Vastava, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental works were carried out to study the feasibility of solid state bonding of superplastic aluminum 7475 sheet. Amount of deformation, bonding time, surface cleaning method and intermediate layer were the process parameters investigated. Other parameters, held constant by the superplastic forming condition which is required to obtain a concurrent solid state bonding, are bonding temperature, bonding pressure and atmosphere. Bond integrity was evaluated through metallographic examination, X-ray line scan analysis, SEM fractographic analysis and lap shear tests. The early results of the development program indicated that sound solid state bonding was accomplished for this high strength 7475 alloy with significant amounts of deformation. A thin intermediate layer of the soft 5052 aluminum alloy aided in achieving a solid state bonding by reducing the required amount of plastic deformation at the interface. Bond strength was substantially increased by a post bond heat treatment.

  6. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  7. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed

  8. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  9. Friction regimes in the lubricants solid-state regime

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Dirk J.; Maathuis, O.; Dowson, D.; Taylor, C.M.; Childs, T.H.C.; Dalmaz, G.

    1995-01-01

    Friction measurements were performed in the lubricant's solid-state regime to study the transition from full-film lubrication, in which the separation is maintained by a solidified lubricant, to mixed lubrication. Special attention is paid to the influence of temperature (inlet viscosity) and roughness on this transition. The friction measurements showed that in the lubricants solid-state region three lubrication modes can be distinguished: A) full-film lubrication; separation is maintained b...

  10. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  11. Development and evaluation of a new radiographic and fluoroscopic imager based on electron-multiplying CCDs: The solid state x-ray image intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew Thomas

    A new dual detector system was developed which utilizes a low resolution, large field-of-view x-ray image intensifier (II) and a high resolution, region-of-interest microangiographic (MA) detector on the same c-arm gantry. With this new MA-II system, the larger field-of-view (FOV) II can be operated when the demands of the task are not as high, and a larger imaging area is desired. However, when a higher-resolution image with greater image quality is desired at a targeted region-of-interest (ROI), the MA can be deployed to take on these greater demands. To quantitatively and qualitatively assess the imaging performance of each detector under realistic conditions, angiographic images of simulated vessels and rabbit neurovasculature were acquired with both detectors under nearly identical conditions. With the MA detector deployed, vessels as small as 95 mum were visible, whereas the II could not detect vessels smaller than 235 mum. The ROI MA mode was also shown to provide sharper images with higher contrast-to-noise ratios and was four times as likely to successfully detect overlapping vessels as compared to the II. More accurate three-dimensional center lines of vasculature using multi-view reconstruction techniques were also obtained with the MA. The solid state x-ray image intensifier (SSXII) was developed to provide similar high-resolution imaging capabilities as the MA and a built in adjustable gain to provide high-sensitivity imaging capabilities for operation at all exposures used in medical x-ray imaging procedures. The imaging components used in construction of the prototype SSXII were selected based on a theoretical performance evaluation, using a Fourier-based linear-systems model analysis. The performance of the prototype SSXII was then extensively evaluated. Images of various objects and image comparisons with current state-of-the-art detectors qualitatively demonstrated that the SSXII is capable of providing substantial improvements. A quantitative

  12. Solid state exchange reactions and thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarran, G.; Archundia, C.; Maddock, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    A further study of exchange of the cobalt atoms in solid Co(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6/(Co EDTA)/sub 2/ x 4H/sub 2/O has been made. The exchange is more easily measured when the compound has been ..gamma.. irradiated before heating. Without irradiation the exchange is complicated by substantial concurrent thermal decomposition. Vacuum dehydration to the tetrahydrate can be effected at 366 K without appreciable exchange. A relation between exchange, annealing of radiolytic decomposition and thermal decomposition in such compounds is suggested.

  13. High Capacity, Superior Cyclic Performances in All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on 78Li2S-22P2S5Glass-Ceramic Electrolytes Prepared via Simple Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Chen, Rujun; Liu, Ting; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2017-08-30

    Highly Li-ion conductive 78Li 2 S-22P 2 S 5 glass-ceramic electrolytes were prepared by simple heat treatment of the glass phase obtained via mechanical ball milling. A high ionic conductivity of ∼1.78 × 10 -3 S cm -1 is achieved at room temperature and is attributed to the formation of a crystalline phase of high lithium-ion conduction. All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on these glass-ceramic electrolytes are assembled by using Li 2 S nanoparticles or low-cost commercially available FeS 2 as active cathode materials and Li-In alloys as anode. A high discharge capacity of 535 mAh g -1 is achieved after at least 50 cycles for the all-solid-state cells with Li 2 S as cathode materials, suggesting a rather high capacity retention of 97.4%. Even for the cells using low-cost FeS 2 as cathode materials, same high discharge capacity of 560 mAh g -1 is also achieved after at least 50 cycles. Moreover, the Coulombic efficiency remain at ∼99% for these all-solid-state cells during the charge-discharge cycles.

  14. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  15. Utilization of shrimp shellfish waste as a substrate for solid-state cultivation of Aspergillus sp. S1-13: evaluation of a culture based on chitinase formation which is necessary for chitin-assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanakit, Nopakarn; Plikomol, Abhinya; Yano, Shigekazu; Wakayama, Mamoru; Tachiki, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of shrimp shellfish waste as a substrate for solid-state cultivation of a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus sp. S1-13, was investigated. The organism was selected from among 220 isolates based on the productivity of its chitinolytic enzyme (chitinase), which might reflect microbial growth. The enzyme was produced only when the organism was grown on medium containing the shellfish waste. The addition of 58-65% water (w/w) to the medium was effective in enhancing production, and a certain amount of enzyme was observed in media of higher water content (up to about 75%). The initial pH and nitrogen source (ammonium sulfate) of the solid-state medium also affected the amount of enzyme. The amount of enzyme increased 2-fold in an optimum solid-state medium: 5 g of shrimp shellfish waste and 3 ml of basal medium (pH 5) containing 0.1% (NH4)2SO4 was inoculated with 4 ml of spore suspension; static cultivation at room temperature. The amount increased further (1.5-fold) when the cultivation was carried out at 37 degrees C, with 1.85 units of the enzyme formed from 1 g of shrimp shellfish waste. An analysis by ion-exchange column chromatography suggested the presence of at least two colloidal chitin-hydrolyzing enzymes and one p-nitrophenyl beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminide-hydrolyzing enzyme in an extract of the solid-state culture. The elution profile was similar to that obtained with a liquid culture filtrate.

  16. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  17. DNA translocations through solid-state plasmonic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Francesca; Verschueren, Daniel; Klein, Misha; Dekker, Cees; Jonsson, Magnus P

    2014-12-10

    Nanopores enable label-free detection and analysis of single biomolecules. Here, we investigate DNA translocations through a novel type of plasmonic nanopore based on a gold bowtie nanoantenna with a solid-state nanopore at the plasmonic hot spot. Plasmonic excitation of the nanopore is found to influence both the sensor signal (nanopore ionic conductance blockade during DNA translocation) and the process that captures DNA into the nanopore, without affecting the duration time of the translocations. Most striking is a strong plasmon-induced enhancement of the rate of DNA translocation events in lithium chloride (LiCl, already 10-fold enhancement at a few mW of laser power). This provides a means to utilize the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of DNA interrogations with nanopores in LiCl buffers, which is known to suffer from low event rates. We propose a mechanism based on plasmon-induced local heating and thermophoresis as explanation of our observations.

  18. Learning through ferroelectric domain dynamics in solid-state synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyn, Sören; Grollier, Julie; Lecerf, Gwendal; Xu, Bin; Locatelli, Nicolas; Fusil, Stéphane; Girod, Stéphanie; Carrétéro, Cécile; Garcia, Karin; Xavier, Stéphane; Tomas, Jean; Bellaiche, Laurent; Bibes, Manuel; Barthélémy, Agnès; Saïghi, Sylvain; Garcia, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity. Here we report on synapses based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions and show that STDP can be harnessed from inhomogeneous polarization switching. Through combined scanning probe imaging, electrical transport and atomic-scale molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that conductance variations can be modelled by the nucleation-dominated reversal of domains. Based on this physical model, our simulations show that arrays of ferroelectric nanosynapses can autonomously learn to recognize patterns in a predictable way, opening the path towards unsupervised learning in spiking neural networks.

  19. Interim report on the state-of-the-art of solid-state motor controllers. Part 4. Failure-rate and failure-mode data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaross, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    An assessment of the reliability of solid-state motor controllers for nuclear power plants is made. Available data on failure-rate and failure-mode data for solid-state motor controllers based on industrial operating experience is meager; the data are augmented by data on other solid-state power electronic devices that are shown to have components similar to those found in solid-state motor controllers. In addition to large nonnuclear solid-state adjustable-speed motor drives, the reliability of nuclear plant inverter systems and high-voltage solid-state dc transmission-line converters is assessed. Licensee Event Report analyses from several sources, the open literature, and personal communications are used to determine the realiability of solid-state devices typical of those expected to be used in nuclear power plants in terms of failures per hour

  20. A parallel model for SQL astronomical databases based on solid state storage. Application to the Gaia Archive PostgreSQL database

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Núñez, J.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Salgado, J.; Segovia, J. C.; Merín, B.; Aguado-Agelet, F.

    2017-07-01

    Query planning and optimisation algorithms in most popular relational databases were developed at the times hard disk drives were the only storage technology available. The advent of higher parallel random access capacity devices, such as solid state disks, opens up the way for intra-machine parallel computing over large datasets. We describe a two phase parallel model for the implementation of heavy analytical processes in single instance PostgreSQL astronomical databases. This model is particularised to fulfil two frequent astronomical problems, density maps and crossmatch computation with Quad Tree Cube (Q3C) indexes. They are implemented as part of the relational databases infrastructure for the Gaia Archive and performance is assessed. Improvement of a factor 28.40 in comparison to sequential execution is observed in the reference implementation for a histogram computation. Speedup ratios of 3.7 and 4.0 are attained for the reference positional crossmatches considered. We observe large performance enhancements over sequential execution for both CPU and disk access intensive computations, suggesting these methods might be useful with the growing data volumes in Astronomy.

  1. Calibration of the Politrack® system based on CR39 solid-state nuclear track detectors for passive indoor radon concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, G; Baechler, S; Bailat, C; Barazza, F; Bochud, F; Damet, J; Meyer, N; Palacios Gruson, M; Butterweck, G

    2015-11-01

    Swiss national requirements for measuring radon gas exposures demand a lower detection limit of 50 kBq h m(-3), representing the Swiss concentration average of 70 Bq m(-3) over a 1-month period. A solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) system (Politrack, Mi.am s.r.l., Italy) has been acquired to fulfil these requirements. This work was aimed at the calibration of the Politrack system with traceability to international standards and the development of a procedure to check the stability of the system. A total of 275 SSNTDs was exposed to 11 different radon exposures in the radon chamber of the Secondary Calibration Laboratory at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. The exposures ranged from 50 to 15000 kBq h m(-3). For each exposure of 20 detectors, 5 SSNTDs were used to monitor possible background exposures during transport and storage. The response curve and the calibration factor of the whole system were determined using a Monte Carlo fitting procedure. A device to produce CR39 samples with a reference number of tracks using a (241)Am source was developed for checking the long-term stability of the Politrack system. The characteristic limits for the detection of a possible system drift were determined following ISO Standard 11929. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Enhancement of electrochemical properties of hot-pressed poly(ethylene oxide)-based nanocomposite polymer electrolyte films for all-solid-state lithium polymer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lishi; Li Xingwang [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Yang Wensheng, E-mail: yangws@mail.buct.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-02-15

    PEO{sub 16}-LiClO{sub 4}-ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite polymer electrolyte (NCPE) films prepared by hot-pressing method have been investigated. In order to compare with the hot-pressed NCPEs, the NCPE films have also been prepared using the conventional solution-casting method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), conductivity (sigma) and interface property studies have been carried out on above two kinds of films. The results show that the NCPE film prepared by hot-pressing method has smoother surface, higher interface stability, lower crystallization and melting temperature values than that prepared by solution-casting method. An all-solid-state lithium polymer battery using the hot-pressed NCPE film as electrolyte, lithium metal and LiFePO{sub 4} as anode and cathode respectively, shows high discharge specific capacity, good rate capacity, high coulombic efficiency, and excellent cycling stability as revealed by galvanostatical charge/discharge cycling tests.

  3. A multicomponent system based on a blend of agroindustrial wastes for the simultaneous production of industrially applicable enzymes by solid-state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre OHARA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the use of statistical mixture design as a tool for the simultaneous production of lipase, CMCase, α-amylase, and β-glucosidase by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. Wheat bran, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and orange peel were used as substrates, either individually or combined in different formulations, to study their synergistic or antagonistic effects on production of the enzymes. The highest lipase (323 U g-1 and CMCase (10 U g-1 activities were detected after 48 h, while the maximum activities of α-amylase (18 U g-1 and β-glucosidase (15 U g-1 occurred at 72 and 96 h, respectively. Considering the substrate formulation, the ternary mixture of wheat bran (1/3, soybean meal (1/3, and cottonseed meal (1/3 was the most versatile, showing production of CMCase (>5 U g-1 and α-amylase (>8 U g-1 at 24 h, lipase (>320 U g-1 at 72 h, and β-glucosidase (>10 U g-1 at 48 h.

  4. Note: All solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator based on bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Fan, Yajun; Liu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    An all solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator featuring low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switches and a step-type transmission line is presented. The step-type transmission line with two stages is charged to a potential of 5.0 kV also biasing at the switches. The bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch closes within sub-nanosecond range when illuminated with approximately 87 nJ of laser energy at 905 nm in a single pulse. An asymmetric dipolar pulse with peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.6 kV and risetime of 0.65 ns is produced on a resistive load of 50 Ω. A technique that allows for repetition-rate multiplication of pulse trains experimentally demonstrated that the parallel-connected bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switches are triggered in sequence. The highest repetition rate is decided by recovery time of the bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch, and the operating result of 100 kHz of the generator is discussed.

  5. Exploration of solids based on representation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Publio Suárez Sotomonte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article refers to some of the findings of a research project implemented as a teaching strategy to generate environments for the learning of platonic and archimedean solids, with a group of eighth grade students. This strategy was based on the meaningful learning approach and on the use of representation systems using the ontosemiotic approach in mathematical education, as a framework for the construction of mathematical concepts. This geometry teaching strategy adopts the stages of exploration, representation-modeling, formal construction and study of applications. It uses concrete, physical and tangible materials for origami, die making, and structures for the construction of threedimensional solids considered external tangible solid representation systems, as well as computer based educational tools to design dynamic geometry environments as intangible external representation systems.These strategies support both the imagination and internal systems of representation, fundamental to the comprehension of geometry concepts.

  6. Investigating albendazole desmotropes by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattah, Ana K; Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H; Pfund, Laura Y; Longhi, Marcela R; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Garnero, Claudia

    2015-03-02

    Characterization of the molecular structure and physicochemical solid-state properties of the solid forms of pharmaceutical compounds is a key requirement for successful commercialization as potential active ingredients in drug products. These properties can ultimately have a critical effect on the solubility and bioavailability of the final drug product. Here, the desmotropy of Albendazole forms I and II was investigated at the atomic level. Ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, together with powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, were performed on polycrystalline samples of the two solids in order to fully characterize and distinguish the two forms. High-resolution one-dimensional (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N together with two-dimensional (1)H/(1)H single quantum-single quantum, (1)H/(1)H single quantum-double quantum, and (1)H/(13)C chemical shift correlation solid-state NMR experiments under MAS conditions were extensively used to decipher the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions present in both solid forms. These experiments enabled the unequivocal identification of the tautomers of each desmotrope. Our results also revealed that both solid forms may be described as dimeric structures, with different intermolecular hydrogen bonds connecting the tautomers in each dimer.

  7. Promises, Challenges, and Recent Progress of Inorganic Solid-State Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonghui; Sun, Huabin; Fu, Lin; Ye, Fangliang; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Wei; Huang, Yunhui

    2018-02-22

    All-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) have the potential to revolutionize battery systems for electric vehicles due to their benefits in safety, energy density, packaging, and operable temperature range. As the key component in ASSLBs, inorganic lithium-ion-based solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) have attracted great interest, and advances in SSEs are vital to deliver the promise of ASSLBs. Herein, a survey of emerging SSEs is presented, and ion-transport mechanisms are briefly discussed. Techniques for increasing the ionic conductivity of SSEs, including substitution and mechanical strain treatment, are highlighted. Recent advances in various classes of SSEs enabled by different preparation methods are described. Then, the issues of chemical stabilities, electrochemical compatibility, and the interfaces between electrodes and SSEs are focused on. A variety of research addressing these issues is outlined accordingly. Given their importance for next-generation battery systems and transportation style, a perspective on the current challenges and opportunities is provided, and suggestions for future research directions for SSEs and ASSLBs are suggested. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Realization of reliable solid-state quantum memory for photonic polarization qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zong-Quan; Lin, Wei-Bin; Yang, Ming; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-05-11

    Faithfully storing an unknown quantum light state is essential to advanced quantum communication and distributed quantum computation applications. The required quantum memory must have high fidelity to improve the performance of a quantum network. Here we report the reversible transfer of photonic polarization states into collective atomic excitation in a compact solid-state device. The quantum memory is based on an atomic frequency comb (AFC) in rare-earth ion-doped crystals. We obtain up to 0.999 process fidelity for the storage and retrieval process of single-photon-level coherent pulse. This reliable quantum memory is a crucial step toward quantum networks based on solid-state devices.

  9. Solid-State Cloud Radar System (CRS) Upgrade and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Matt; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Coon, Michael; Venkatesh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The recent decade has brought rapid development in solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) technology. This has enabled the use of solid-state precipitation radar in place of high-power and high-voltage systems such as those that use Klystron or Magnetron transmitters. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has recently completed a comprehensive redesign of the 94 gigahertz Cloud Radar System (CRS) to incorporate a solid-state transmitter. It is the first cloud radar to achieve sensitivity comparable to that of a high-voltage transmitter using solid-state. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Cloud Radar System (CRS) is a 94 gigahertz Doppler radar that flies on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The upgraded CRS system utilizes a state-of-the-art solid-state 94 gigahertz power amplifier with a peak transmit power of 30 watts. The modernized CRS system is detailed here with data results from its deployment during the 2014 Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX).

  10. Ni-Based Solid Oxide Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Holtappels, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of the literature on nickel-based electrodes for application in solid oxide cells at temperature from 500 to 1000 _C. The applications may be fuel cells or electrolyser cells. The reviewed literature is that of experimental results on both model electrodes...... and practical composite cermet electrodes. A substantially longer three-phase boundary (TPB) can be obtained per unit area of cell in such a composite of nickel and electrolyte material, provided that two interwoven solid networks of the two solid and one gaseous phases are obtained to provide a three...... such as milling and sintering. The various electrode properties are deeply related to these parameters, but also much related to the atomic scale structure of the Ni-electrolyte interface, which in turn is affected by segregation of electrolyte components and impurities as well as poisons in the gas phase...

  11. Novel and versatile solid-state chemiluminescence sensor based on TiO2-Ru(bpy)32+ nanoparticles for pharmaceutical drugs detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hetlani, Entesar; Amin, Mohamed O.; Madkour, Metwally

    2018-02-01

    This work describes a novel and versatile solid-state chemiluminescence sensor for analyte detection using TiO2-Ru(bpy)32+-Ce(IV). Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, optimization and application of a new type of hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). Mesoporous TiO2-Ru(bpy)32+ NPs were prepared using a modified sol-gel method by incorporating Ru(bpy)32+ into the initial reaction mixture at various concentrations. The resultant bright orange precipitate was characterized via transmission electron microscopy, N2 sorpometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. The concentration of Ru(bpy)32+ complex in the NPs was quantified using ICP-OES, and its chemiluminescence (CL) response was measured and compared with the same concentration in the liquid phase using oxalate as model analyte. The results showed that this type of hybrid material exhibited a higher CL signal compared with the liquid phase due to the enlarged surface area of the hybrid NPs ( 149.6 m2/g). The amount of TiO2-Ru(bpy)32+ NPs and the effect of the analyte flow rate were also investigated to optimize the CL signal. The optimized system was further used to detect oxalate and two pharmaceutical drugs, namely, imipramine and promazine. The linear range for both drugs was 1-100 pm with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.1 and 0.5 pm, respectively. This approach is considered to be simple, low cost and facile and can be applied to a wide range of analytes.

  12. Novel and versatile solid-state chemiluminescence sensor based on TiO2-Ru(bpy32+ nanoparticles for pharmaceutical drugs detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hetlani Entesar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a novel and versatile solid-state chemiluminescence sensor for analyte detection using TiO2-Ru(bpy32+-Ce(IV. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, optimization and application of a new type of hybrid nanoparticles (NPs. Mesoporous TiO2-Ru(bpy32+ NPs were prepared using a modified sol-gel method by incorporating Ru(bpy32+ into the initial reaction mixture at various concentrations. The resultant bright orange precipitate was characterized via transmission electron microscopy, N2 sorpometry, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. The concentration of Ru(bpy32+ complex in the NPs was quantified using ICP-OES, and its chemiluminescence (CL response was measured and compared with the same concentration in the liquid phase using oxalate as model analyte. The results showed that this type of hybrid material exhibited a higher CL signal compared with the liquid phase due to the enlarged surface area of the hybrid NPs (~149.6 m2/g. The amount of TiO2-Ru(bpy32+ NPs and the effect of the analyte flow rate were also investigated to optimize the CL signal. The optimized system was further used to detect oxalate and two pharmaceutical drugs, namely, imipramine and promazine. The linear range for both drugs was 1–100 pm with limits of detection (LOD of 0.1 and 0.5 pm, respectively. This approach is considered to be simple, low cost and facile and can be applied to a wide range of analytes.

  13. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials. (DLC)

  14. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials

  15. Reaction diffusion and solid state chemical kinetics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dybkov, V I

    2010-01-01

    This monograph deals with a physico-chemical approach to the problem of the solid-state growth of chemical compound layers and reaction-diffusion in binary heterogeneous systems formed by two solids; as well as a solid with a liquid or a gas. It is explained why the number of compound layers growing at the interface between the original phases is usually much lower than the number of chemical compounds in the phase diagram of a given binary system. For example, of the eight intermetallic compounds which exist in the aluminium-zirconium binary system, only ZrAl3 was found to grow as a separate

  16. Abstracts of the 7. workshop solid state chemistry and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    79 contributions have been presented as titles with abstracts. They deal with preparation, investigation, and properties of ceramic powders, sintered materials, metal oxides, oxide minerals, nitrides, solid electrolytes, glass ceramics, composite materials, and ceramic superconductors of the type Y-Ba-Cu-O. Phase studies of mixed oxide systems and different chemical processes of the solid state are included. 11 of them are in INIS scope and are processed individually

  17. Interfacial nanoarchitectonics for solid-state lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kazunori

    2013-06-18

    Strong demand for solid-state lithium batteries has prompted intensive research for achieving fast ionic conduction in solids. Although the highest conductivity found among sulfides is higher than that of liquid electrolytes, it improves the battery performance only in combination with electrodes via a low-resistance interface. This Article reviews some interfacial structures that lower the interfacial resistance to enable high-power interfaces by controlling the carrier density.

  18. Solid State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Daniel [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States); Sibisan, Rodica [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States); Rasmussen, Mike [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States)

    2011-09-12

    The overall objective is to develop a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of ≥ 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥ 40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥ 30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of ≥ 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of ≤ $400/kW.

  19. Solid State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennessy, Daniel [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States); Sibisan, Rodica [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States); Rasmussen, Mike [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC, Troy, MI (United States)

    2011-09-12

    The overall objective is to develop a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of ≥30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of ≤$400/kW.

  20. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  1. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    . M. Brahmanandhan ... [et al.]. Effect of filler addition on plasticized polymer electrolyte systems / M. Sundar, S. Selladurai. Ionic motion in PEDOT and PPy conducting polymer bilayers / U. L. Zainudeen, S. Skaarup, M. A. Careem. Film formation mechanism and electrochemical characterization of V[symbol]O[symbol] xerogel intercalated by polyaniniline / Q. Zhu ... [et al.]. Effect of NH[symbol]NO[symbol] concentration on the conductivity of PVA based solid polymer electrolyte / M. Hema ... [et al.]. Dielectric and conductivity studies of PVA-KSCN based solid polymer electrolytes / J. Malathi ... [et al.] -- pt. IV. Emerging applications. Invited papers. The use of solid state ionic materials and devices in medical applications / R. Linford. Development of all-solid-state lithium batteries / V. Thangadurai, J. Schwenzei, W. Weppner. Reversible intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells / B.-E. Mellander, I. Albinsson. Nano-size effects in lithium batteries / P. Balaya, Y. Hu, J. Maier. Electrochromics: fundamentals and applications / C. G. Granqvist. Electrochemical CO[symbol] gas sensor / K. Singh. Polypyrrole for artificial muscles: ionic mechanisms / S. Skaarup. Development and characterization of polyfluorene based light emitting diodes and their colour tuning using Forster resonance energy transfer / P. C. Mattur ... [et al.]. Mesoporous and nanoparticulate metal oxides: applications in new photocatalysis / C. Boxall. Proton Conducting (PC) perovskite membranes for hydrogen separation and PC-SOFC electrodes and electrolytes / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Contributed papers. Electroceramic materials for the development of natural gas fuelled SOFC/GT plant in developing country (Trinidad and Tobogo (T&T)) / R. Saunders, H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Thin film SOFC supported on nano-porous substrate / J. Hoon Joo, G. M. Choi. Characterization and fabrication of silver solid state battery Ag/AGI-AgPO[symbol]/I[symbol], C / E. Kartini ... [et al.]. Performance of lithium polymer

  2. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Morse, Jeffrey D [Pleasant Hill, CA

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  3. Rocket Solid Propellant Alternative Based on Ammonium Dinitramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore CICAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous run for a green environment the current article proposes a new type of solid propellant based on the fairly new synthesized oxidizer, ammonium dinitramide (ADN. Apart of having a higher specific impulse than the worldwide renowned oxidizer, ammonium perchlorate, ADN has the advantage, of leaving behind only nitrogen, oxygen and water after decomposing at high temperatures and therefore totally avoiding the formation of hydrogen chloride fumes. Based on the oxidizer to fuel ratios of the current formulations of the major rocket solid booster (e.g. Space Shuttle’s SRB, Ariane 5’s SRB which comprises mass variations of ammonium perchlorate oxidizer (70-75%, atomized aluminum powder (10-18% and polybutadiene binder (12-20% a new solid propellant was formulated. As previously stated, the new propellant formula and its variations use ADN as oxidizer and erythritol tetranitrate as fuel, keeping the same polybutadiene as binder.

  4. Solid-state physics for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Describing the fundamental physical properties of materials used in electronics, the thorough coverage of this book will facilitate an understanding of the technological processes used in the fabrication of electronic and photonic devices. The book opens with an introduction to the basic applied physics of simple electronic states and energy levels. Silicon and copper, the building blocks for many electronic devices, are used as examples. Next, more advanced theories are developed to better account for the electronic and optical behavior of ordered materials, such as diamond, and disordered ma

  5. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskas, A; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M S

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  6. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including Titanium and its alloys. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Various solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature to avoid detrimental changes to the microstructure. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining various titanium alloys using the solid state welding processes of FSW and TSW. Process descriptions and attributes of each weld process will be presented. Weld process set ]up and welding techniques will be discussed leading to the challenges experienced. Mechanical property data will also be presented.

  7. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo Hong; Xi, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  8. Preparing, Characterizing, and Investigating Luminescent Properties of a Series of Long-Lasting Phosphors in a SrO-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] System: An Integrated and Inquiry-Based Experiment in Solid State Chemistry for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Zi; Jia, Li; Ma, Kai-Guo; Wang, Hai-Hong; Jing, Xi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    An integrated and inquiry-based experiment on solid state chemistry is applied to an inorganic chemistry lab course to provide insight into the characteristics of the solid phase reaction. In this experiment, students have the opportunity to synthesize long-lasting phosphors with formula xSrO·yAl[subscript 2]O[subscript 3]:Eu[superscript 2+],…

  9. Advanced dimming strategy for solid state luminaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    2010-01-01

    Increased luminaire gamut as well as increase in luminous efficiency is found when the LED based luminaire is driven by a hybrid PWM/AM dimming technique. This technique is applicable to any n-chromaticity luminaire but it is especially suitable for trichromatic RGB luminaires that do not have in...

  10. Kinetics of accelerated solid-state fermentation of organic-rich municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viéitez, E R; Mosquera, J; Ghosh, S

    2000-01-01

    Biotransformation of landfill solid wastes is a slow process requiring decades for completion. Accelerated anaerobic fermentation in modulated landfill environments may alleviate or eliminate pollution of land, water and air. This research was undertaken to demonstrate the application of biphasic fermentation to a simulated laboratory-scale landfill to effect rapid biomethanation of biodegradable solids. The biphasic process consisted of solid-state, acidogenic fermentation of the organic fraction of MSW followed by biomethanation of acidic hydrolysates in a separate methane fermenter. Solid-state fermentation of the MSW with effluent recirculation resulted in rapid hydrolysis, acidification and denitrification, with soluble COD and VFA concentrations accumulating to inhibitory levels of 60,000 mg/l and 13,000 mg/l, respectively, at a pH of 4.5. The landfill gas methane concentration reached a maximum of 55 mol.%. By comparison, the methanogenic reactor produced high methane-content (70-85 mol.%) gases. The biphasic process effected carbohydrate, lipid, and protein conversion efficiencies of 90%, 49%, and 37%, respectively. Development of a Monod-type product-formation model was undertaken to predict methane formation and to determine kinetic parameters for the methanogenic processes in the simulated landfill and separate methane reactors. A first-order solids hydrolysis rate constant of 0.017 day-1 was evaluated to show that landfill solids hydrolysis was slower than the inhibited methanogenesis rate.

  11. Solid-state lighting life prediction using extended Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Wei, Junchao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-07-16

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understanding and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products to reduce overall energy consumption attributable to lighting. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of SSL Luminaires from LM-80 test data. The TM-21 model uses an Arrhenius Equation with an Activation Energy, Pre-decay factor and Decay Rates. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a luminaire at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Arrhenius Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, a Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filters have been used to develop a 70% Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for a LEDs used in SSL luminaires. This model can be used to calculate acceleration factors, evaluate failure-probability and identify ALT methodologies for reducing test time. Ten-thousand hour LM

  12. Application of Solid State Static Var Compensation and Stability Enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Badruzzaman

    Since the development of large scale electric power system interconnection, power engineering has gone through enormous changes and many new power system dynamic problems have emerged. Among them, the low frequency power oscillations between intersystem have been a major concern and is the issue in this research. In this research an effective and efficient method of controlling reactive power is presented. This research shows that spontaneous introduction of small power oscillations in the interconnected network system can be effectively suppressed by an unique method of solid state reactive power compensation. The capability of power electronics is discussed in reasonable detail to justify the feasibility of solid state reactive power generation. Mathematical formulation is carried out to control the reactive power which in turn controls the dynamics of the interconnected power system by improving the damping of interties in the system. The presently installed power system stabilizers are compared with this approach for a single machine infinite bus system. In this research, the formulation is shown to be effective for centralized multi-mode, multimachine systems. The study of the system for small power oscillations is based upon the analysis of eigenvalues of the electromechanical modes of the system. Transient stability problem is also emphasized in this research. It is shown that the system undergoing a large disturbance or severe fault can be stabilized by utilizing a discrete voltage rise in the system. This is achieved by operating the SSSVC with its maximum capacity leading mode, immediately after the inception of a fault or disturbance in the system. It is demonstrated that using this control scheme, the critical clearing time of the system can be increased significantly, which enables the operator to incorporate various corrective actions to minimize the system power imbalance.

  13. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  14. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and the esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (parahydroxybenzoates or parabens) used for anti-microbial preservation are investigated. The formation of a crystalline 1/1 molecular compound between trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate is demonstrated...... by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  15. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  16. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  17. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  18. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  19. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David

    2009-01-01

    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the mean...... diameter, encapsulation efficiency and FA released from the microspheres were determined. The solid-state and phase separation properties of the microspheres were characterized using DSC, XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, laser confocal and real time recording of single microspheres formation. Above a loading...

  20. Sulfide solid electrolyte with favorable mechanical property for all-solid-state lithium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    All-solid-state secondary batteries that employ inorganic solid electrolytes are desirable because they are potentially safer than conventional batteries. The ionic conductivities of solid electrolytes are currently attracting great attention. In addition to the conductivity, the mechanical properties of solid electrolytes are important for improving the energy density and cycle performance. However, the mechanical properties of sulfide electrolytes have not been clarified in detail. Here, we demonstrate the unique mechanical properties of sulfide electrolytes. Sulfide electrolytes show room temperature pressure sintering. Ionic materials with low bond energies and a highly covalent character, which is promising for achieving a high ionic conductivity, tend to be suitable for room-temperature processing. The Young's moduli of sulfide electrolytes were measured to be about 20 GPa, which is an intermediate value between those of typical oxides and organic polymers.

  1. Fatty acids polymorphism and solid-state miscibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbabode, Gabin [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: ggbabode@ulb.ac.be; Negrier, Philippe; Mondieig, Denise [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Moreno, Evelyn; Calvet, Teresa; Cuevas-Diarte, Miquel Angel [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-02-05

    The pentadecanoic acid-hexadecanoic acid (C{sub 15}H{sub 29}OOH-C{sub 16}H{sub 31}OOH) binary system is dealt with in this article. The polymorphism of 20 mixed materials has been investigated combining calorimetric measurements, isothermal and versus temperature X-ray powder diffraction and also FTIR spectroscopy. In particular, the cell parameters of the stable forms, temperatures and heats of phase changes for the two constituents and a proposal of phase diagram are given in this article. Three solid forms are created by mixing in addition with the four solid forms of the pure components. All these solid forms are stabilized on narrow domains of composition, implying a reduced solid-state miscibility of the pentadecanoic and hexadecanoic acids.

  2. Solid state detectors in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darambara, D G; Todd-Pokropek, A

    2002-03-01

    Since Nuclear Medicine diagnostic applications are growing fast, room temperature semiconductor detectors such CdTe and CdZnTe either in the form of single detectors or as segmented monolithic detectors have been investigated aiming to replace the NaI scintillator. These detectors have inherently better energy resolution that scintillators coupled to photodiodes or photomultiplier tubes leading to compact imaging systems with higher spatial resolution and enhanced contrast. Advantages and disadvantages of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors in imaging systems are discussed and efforts to develop semiconductor-based planar and tomographic cameras as well as nuclear probes are presented.

  3. Prototype solid-state electrochromic window devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, L.H.; Nguyen, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses electrochromic smart windows which are prospective devices for the control of light transmission in response to the variation of brightness of the environment. The fabrication of electrochromic windows based on cathodically coloring transition metal oxides and anodically coloring conducting polymers are described. The device consists of gel or glassy polymer electrolytes sandwiches by a pair of transparent conducting glass coated respectively with a thin film of WO 3 or MoO 3 prepared by electrodeposition, and with a thin film of ploy(aniline) derivatives obtained by electropolymerization or solution casting. The electrochromic properties of the five-layer smart window devices are presented

  4. A facile method to prepare "green" nano-phosphors with a large Stokes-shift and solid-state enhanced photophysical properties based on surface-modified gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C H; Huang, H Y; Talite, M J; Chou, W C; Yeh, J M; Yuan, C T

    2017-12-15

    Colloidal nano-materials, such as quantum dots (QDs) have been applied to light-conversion nano-phosphors due to their unique tunable emission. However, most of the QDs involve toxic elements and are synthesized in a hazardous solvent. In addition, conventional QD nano-phosphors with a small Stokes shift suffered from reabsorption losses and aggregation-induced quenching in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate a facile, matrix-free method to prepare eco-friendly nano-phosphors with a large Stokes shift based on aqueous thiolate-stabilized gold nanoclusters (GSH-AuNCs) with simple surface modifications. Our method is just to drop GSH-AuNCs solution on the aluminum foil and then surface-modified AuNCs (Al-GSH-AuNCs) can be spontaneously precipitated out of the aqueous solution. Compared with pristine GSH-AuNCs in solution, the Al-GSH-AuNCs exhibit enhanced solid-state PL quantum yields, lengthened PL lifetime, and spectral blue shift, which can be attributed to the aggregation-induced emission enhancement facilitated by surface modifications. Such surface-treatment induced aggregation of AuNCs can restrict the surface-ligand motion, leading to the enhancement of PL properties in the solid state. In addition, the Al-GSH-AuNCs nano-phosphors with a large Stokes shift can mitigate the aggregation-induced PL quenching and reabsorption losses, which would be potential candidates for "green" nano-phosphors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Controls for Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis

    2007-06-22

    provide a low-energy standby state when lower light levels are acceptable.

  6. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A

    2002-01-01

    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  7. High sensitivity, solid state neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Branz, Howard M.; Wang, Qi; McHugh, Harold R.

    2013-10-29

    An apparatus (200) for detecting slow or thermal neutrons (160) including an alpha particle-detecting layer (240) that is a hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diode structure. The apparatus includes a bottom metal contact (220) and a top metal contact (250) with the diode structure (240) positioned between the two contacts (220, 250) to facilitate detection of alpha particles (170). The apparatus (200) includes a neutron conversion layer (230) formed of a material containing boron-10 isotopes. The top contact (250) is pixilated with each contact pixel extending to or proximate to an edge of the apparatus to facilitate electrical contacting. The contact pixels have elongated bodies to allow them to extend across the apparatus surface (242) with each pixel having a small surface area to match capacitance based upon a current spike detecting circuit or amplifier connected to each pixel. The neutron conversion layer (860) may be deposited on the contact pixels (830) such as with use of inkjet printing of nanoparticle ink.

  8. Toward 3D Solid-State Batteries via Atomic Layer Deposition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D solid-state batteries are receiving great attentions as on-board power supply systems for small-dimension devices, due to their high power and energy densities. However, the fabrication of 3D solid-state batteries has been a formidable challenge due to the limitation of conventional thin-film techniques. Recently, atomic layer deposition (ALD has emerged as a powerful approach toward 3D solid-state batteries, because of its exclusive advantage of coating uniform, pinhole-free, and conformal functional thin films on high-aspect-ratio substrates. Herein, we review the most recent progress in the utilization of ALD for fabricating 3D solid-state batteries. Specifically, two aspects will be highlighted: the development of glassy solid-state electrolytes (especially lithium phosphorus oxynitride, and the fabrication of 3D solid-state batteries in half-cell and full-cell configurations via ALD approach. Based on this, the perspectives for further research will be discussed.

  9. Self-healing liquid/solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Paul J.; Chung, Brice H.V.; Phadke, Satyajit R.; Ning, Xiaohui; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2018-02-27

    A battery system that exchanges energy with an external device is provided. The battery system includes a positive electrode having a first metal or alloy, a negative electrode having a second metal or alloy, and an electrolyte including a salt of the second metal or alloy. The positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the electrolyte are in a liquid phase at an operating temperature during at least one portion of operation. The positive electrode is entirely in a liquid phase in one charged state and includes a solid phase in another charged state. The solid phase of the positive electrode includes a solid intermetallic formed by the first and the second metals or alloys. Methods of storing electrical energy from an external circuit using such a battery system are also provided.

  10. Heterogeneous Ferroelectric Solid Solutions Phases and Domain States

    CERN Document Server

    Topolov, Vitaly

    2012-01-01

    The book deals with perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions for modern materials science and applications, solving problems of complicated heterophase/domain structures near the morphotropic phase boundary and applications to various systems with morphotropic phases. In this book domain state–interface diagrams are presented for the interpretation of heterophase states in perovskite-type ferroelectric solid solutions. It allows to describe the stress relief in the presence of polydomain phases, the behavior of unit-cell parameters of coexisting phases and the effect of external electric fields. The novelty of the book consists in (i) the first systematization of data about heterophase states and their evolution in ferroelectric solid solutions (ii) the general interpretation of heterophase and domain structures at changing temperature, composition or electric field (iii) the complete analysis of interconnection domain structures, unit-cell parameters changes, heterophase structures and stress relief.

  11. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, George N.; Burns, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2 1 /n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O)·2(H 2 O). α- and β-An(HPO 2 OH) 4 crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2 1 /n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) with a layered structure. - Highlights: • U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) phosphites were synthesized by solution-state

  12. Contingency Base Camp Solid Waste Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    5.7% Post-consumer food waste 51 0.140 23 0.063 0.9% WWTP sludge (dry weight)** 70 0.192 32 0.088 1.2% Sawdust 47 0.129 21 0.058...Reflects 100% drinking water distribution via disposable bottled water ** WWTP sludge weight expressed as 100% solids – multiply by 5 for a cake and...Treat- ment Plant ( WWTP ) sludge production was based on studies at wastewater treatment plants at three base camps. Note that the most sig- nificant

  13. Solid State Synthesis and Characterization of Carbo-Nitride Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khabashesku, Valery

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of stoichiometric sp(sup 2)-bonded amorphous carbon nitride a-C3N4 in gram quantities was successfully achieved by performing a solid-state reaction of cyanuric halides C3N3X3 (X=Cl, F...

  14. Solid State NMR Characterization and Adsorption Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agents and clinoptilolite at 140 °C inDMFunder nitrogen atmosphere. The light in weight and fluffy composites obtained were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM and Solid State NMR. Results depicted possible chemical interactions between the two materials (lignocellulose and clinoptilolite). Used as adsorbents, the ...

  15. Solid-state Photochemical [2+ 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 2. Solid-state Photochemical [2+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Hydrogen-Bonded Zn(II) Metal Complex Containing Several Parallel C=C Bonds. ABDUL MALIK P PEEDIKAKKAL. Regular Article Volume 129 Issue 2 February 2017 pp 239-247 ...

  16. SOLID-STATE CONTROLLED FIRE HAZARD DETECTION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shared data and instmction paths. •. Mostly computer embedded systems use micro controllers. In view of the superior features of microcontroller the fire fighting system is further updated by using microcontroller chip in place of microprocessor chip. Use of solid-state relllY unit: nle electromechanical relay is one of the most.

  17. Radon exhalation studies in building materials using solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Building materials constitute the second most important source of radon in dwellings. The common building materials used in the construction of dwellings are studied for radon exhalation rate. The 'Can' technique using LR-115 type-II solid-state nuclear track detector has been used for these measurements. The radon ...

  18. Characterization and analysis of medical solid waste in Osun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the study of quantum and characterization of medica solid wastes generated by healthcare facilities in Osun State. The work involved administration of a questionnaire and detailed studies conducted on facilities selected on the basis of a combination of purposive and random sampling methods.

  19. Friction regimes in the lubricants solid-state regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Dirk J.; Maathuis, O.; Dowson, D.; Taylor, C.M.; Childs, T.H.C.; Dalmaz, G.

    1995-01-01

    Friction measurements were performed in the lubricant's solid-state regime to study the transition from full-film lubrication, in which the separation is maintained by a solidified lubricant, to mixed lubrication. Special attention is paid to the influence of temperature (inlet viscosity) and

  20. Biodegradation of agro-industrial orange waste under solid state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agro-industrial orange peel and pulp wastes under solid state fermentation and natural environmental condition as a source of enzymes production [α & β amylase, cellulase, pectinase(s), lipase(s), esterase(s) and peroxidase(s)] the physiological enzymes of lysis and total protein. Different microorganisms such as fungi, ...

  1. Study of Optical, Solid State and Structural Properties of Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of Nickel sulphide (NiS) were successfully grown by using the solution growth technique which is cost effective and efficient. Nickel chloride (NiCl2), Sodium sulphate (Na2S2O3) and Ammonia NH3 were used. The optical and solid state properties were obtained from the characterisation done at University of ...

  2. Solid state reactions of monovalent sulphates with UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandakar, R.R.; Krishnan, K.; Singh Mudher, K.D.; Jayadevan, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    Solid state reactions of sulphates of Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + and Tl + with UO 2 in presence of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 lead to the formation of double sulphates at 400degC. The double sulphates decompose at higher temperatures to give metal uranates. Thermogravimetric, x-ray diffraction and chemical analysis have been used to characterise the compounds. (author). 5 refs

  3. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  4. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and the esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (parahydroxybenzoates or parabens) used for anti-microbial preservation are investigated. The formation of a crystalline 1/1 molecular compound between trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate is demonstrated...

  5. Advanced Solid-state Lasers - to Ignition and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.; Bibeau, C.; Orth, C; Meier, W.R.; Payne, S.; Sutton, S.

    1998-01-01

    This brochure concentrates on the diode-pumped solid-state laser. Surrounding it on the cover are some of the primary technological developments that make it a candidate for the means by which inertial confinement fusion will create inertial fusion energy as an inexhaustible source of electric power

  6. Optical, electrical and solid state properties of nano crystalline zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 3.20–3.70eV with a direct band gap transition. These properties make ZnS thin films find useful applications as cover plates for solar energy panels and materials in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. In addition, the films were found to exhibit switching potentials. Keywords: Electrical, Optical, Solid state properties, ...

  7. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  8. An introduction to system reliability for solid-state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Evertz, F.E.; Zaal, J.J.M.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Yuan, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) applications are slowly but gradually pervading into our daily life. An SSL system is composed of an light-emitting diode (LED) engine with a microelectronic driver(s) in a housing that also supplies the optic design. Knowledge of system-level reliability is crucial for

  9. Solid-state Distributed Temperature Control for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon B.; Reagan, Shawn E.; Day, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed solid-state temperature controller will offer greater flexibility in the thermal control of aerospace vehicle structures. A status of the hardware development along with its implementation on the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module will be provided. Numerous advantages of the device will also be discussed with regards to current and future flight vehicle implementations.

  10. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  11. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  12. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  13. Solder joint reliability in solid-state lighting applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, J.; Kregting, R.; Erinc, M.; Driel, W.D. van

    2013-01-01

    Lighting is an advancing phenomenon both on the technology and on the market level due to the rapid development of the solid-state lighting technology. The interest in solder joint reliability has increased by the introduction of the so-called high brightness leadless type of packages. Solder joint

  14. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; Van Driel, W.; Zhnag, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  15. Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 1. Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and modelling of some basic issues. S Raju E ... are enumerated. A simple and general modelling methodology for understanding the kinetics of non-isothermal transformations is outlined.

  16. Bethe's Contributions to Solid State Theory· A Tribute

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. Bethe's Contributions to Solid State Theory: A Tribute. H R Krishnamurthy. General Article Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 55-69. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  18. Solid state fermentation of maize ( Zea mays ) cob by Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein content was markedly elevated and the reduction in cellulose content was negligible. Thus, solid state fermentation by Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 may be an efficient means of transforming maize cob into nutritive animal feed. Keywords: Oyster mushroom, delignification, animal feed, biodegradation, cellulose, ...

  19. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  20. Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum-doped zinc oxide with different alumina contents. YU-HSIEN CHOU. ∗. , J L H CHAU, W L WANG, C S CHEN, S H WANG and C C YANG. Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Centre, ITRI–South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan 70955,.

  1. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  2. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  3. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... degrade starch in random fashion producing various maltooligosaccharide mixtures (Mamo et al., 1999;. Sarikaya and Gurgun, 2000; Kiran and Chandra, 2008). Conclusion. The results in this study indicated that isolate W74 was a potential strain for α-amylase production under solid state fermentation ...

  4. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  5. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  6. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  7. Charge pump DC-DC converter comprising solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter comprises at least one solid-state rechargeable battery (B1, B2) for storing energy for the DC-DC conversion and an output capacitor (C2).

  8. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  9. Realisation of an all solid state lithium battery using solid high temperature plastic crystal electrolytes exhibiting liquid like conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekibi, Youssof; Rüther, Thomas; Huang, Junhua; Hollenkamp, Anthony F

    2012-04-07

    Replacement of volatile and combustible electrolytes in conventional lithium batteries is desirable for two reasons: safety concerns and increase in specific energy. In this work we consider the use of an ionic organic plastic crystal material (IOPC), N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate, [C2mpyr][BF(4)], as a solid-state electrolyte for lithium battery applications. The effect of inclusion of 1 to 33 mol% lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF(4), into [C2mpyr][BF(4)] has been investigated over a wide temperature range by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and cycling of full Li|LiFePO(4) batteries. The increases in ionic conductivity by orders of magnitude observed at higher temperature are most likely associated with an increase in Li ion mobility in the highest plastic phase. At concentrations >5 mol% LiBF(4) the ionic conductivity of these solid-state composites is comparable to the ionic conductivity of room temperature ionic liquids. Galvanostatic cycling of Li|Li symmetrical cells showed that the reversibility of the lithium metal redox reaction at the interface of this plastic crystal electrolyte is sufficient for lithium battery applications. For the first time we demonstrate an all solid state lithium battery incorporating solid electrolytes based on IOPC as opposed to conventional flammable organic solvents.

  10. Structural diversity of solid dispersions of acetylsalicylic acid as seen by solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policianova, Olivia; Brus, Jiri; Hruby, Martin; Urbanova, Martina; Zhigunov, Alexander; Kredatusova, Jana; Kobera, Libor

    2014-02-03

    Solid dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients are of increasing interest due to their versatile use. In the present study polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-metacrylamide] (pHPMA), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOx), and polyethylene glycol (PEG), each in three Mw, were used to demonstrate structural diversity of solid dispersions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as a model drug. Four distinct types of the solid dispersions of ASA were created using a freeze-drying method: (i) crystalline solid dispersions containing nanocrystalline ASA in a crystalline PEG matrix; (ii) amorphous glass suspensions with large ASA crystallites embedded in amorphous pHPMA; (iii) solid solutions with molecularly dispersed ASA in rigid amorphous PVP; and (iv) nanoheterogeneous solid solutions/suspensions containing nanosized ASA clusters dispersed in a semiflexible matrix of PEOx. The obtained structural data confirmed that the type of solid dispersion can be primarily controlled by the chemical constitutions of the applied polymers, while the molecular weight of the polymers had no detectable impact. The molecular structure of the prepared dispersions was characterized using solid-state NMR, wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By applying various (1)H-(13)C and (1)H-(1)H correlation experiments combined with T1((1)H) and T1ρ((1)H) relaxation data, the extent of the molecular mixing was determined over a wide range of distances, from intimate intermolecular contacts (0.1-0.5 nm) up to the phase-separated nanodomains reaching ca. 500 nm. Hydrogen-bond interactions between ASA and polymers were probed by the analysis of (13)C and (15)N CP/MAS NMR spectra combined with the measurements of (1)H-(15)N dipolar profiles. Overall potentialities and limitations of individual experimental techniques were thoroughly evaluated.

  11. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At submerged cultivation of A. terreus 4 and A. terreus 20 on five different glucose and lactose based media the highest titer of lovastatin has been obtained on lactose based media, namely 276 mg/l and 236 mg/l, respectively. Five various types of bran have been tested as solid substrates for production of lovastatin in SSF ...

  12. Lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus in solid state and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    terreus 4 and A. terreus 20 on five different glucose and lactose based media the highest titer of lovastatin has been obtained on lactose based media, namely 276 mg/l and 236 mg/l, respectively. Five various types of bran have been tested as solid substrates for production of lovastatin in SSF - wheat bran, oat bran, maize ...

  13. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature....... This relates to interrelation between NOx/ O2 on cathodes but also to sulfur and carbon exposure at the anode. Past and recent activities on SOFC anodes and cathodes will be presented as well as perspectives and gaps discussed for these systems. Especially interaction between sulfur interactions with solids...

  14. The 1989 progress report: Solid-state Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Solid-state Mechanics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations are focused on the study of strain and failure of solids and structures. The results reported concern the fields of: stability and bifurcation of elastic or inelastic systems, damage and fatigue (resistance improvement, failure risks on pipe systems, crack propagation), the development of a computer code for soil strengthening by using linear inclusions, mechanical behavior of several rocks for the safety of underground works, expert systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  15. Quantum theory of the solid state part B

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed

  16. Na2SO4-based solid electrolytes for SOx sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, N.; Schoonman, J.; Toft Sørensen, O.

    1992-01-01

    Na2SO4-based solid electrolytes with compositions Na2SO4 + x mol% Y2 (SO4)3 (x = 0, 3,5,6,9,12,15) and Na2SO4 + y mol% La2(SO4)3 (y = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8) were synthesized by solid state reaction. The crystal struCture, phaseS, and, electrical conductivity of these solid electrolytes were studied by XRD......, SEM, EDX, DTA, TGA and impedance spectroscopy. Upon doping with La2 (SO4)3 or Y2(SO4)3 the high-temperature fast-ion conducting phase NaSO4-I can be stabilized down to room temperature. Doping increases the ionic conductivity as well. Of these solid electrolytes the Na2SO4 + 5 mol% Y2(SO4)3 and Na2SO......$ + 4 mol% La2(SO4)3 solid solutions exhibit the highest ionic conductivity values (at 400-degrees-C, 1.76 X 10(-2) S cm-1 and 2.95 X 10(-2) S cm-1, respectively) and lowest activation enthalpies (0.38 eV and 0.37 eV, respectively). When x greater-than-or-equal-to 12 or y greater-than-or-equal-to 8...

  17. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials. (JRD)

  18. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials

  19. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  20. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.